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Sample records for central vasopressin release

  1. Vasopressin release induced by water deprivation - Effects of centrally administered saralasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Dundore, R. L.; Wurpel, J. N. D.; Severs, W. B.; Barbella, Y. R.

    1983-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to whether endogenous angiotensin activates brain mechanisms controlling vasopressin (AVP) secretion during dehydration. Various doses of saralasin were injected into a lateral cgrebroventricle (IVT) of conscious, male rats deprived of water for 48 h. The rats were killed at different times. The concentration of AVP in the plasma p(AVP), measured by radioimmunoassay, was unaffected by saralasin. IVT pretreatment with 1-Sar-8-Ile-angiotensin II blocked maximal AVP release by IVT angiotensin, but this pretreatment did not reduce p(AVP) after 24, 48 or 72 hr water deprivation. A 3-hour continuous IVT infusion of CSF or saralasin (10 micrograms/hour) into 48-hour water-deprived rats revealed equivalent p(AVP) concentration and urine volumes. When the infusions were continued for 3 h more with water available, control and saralasin-treated rats: (1) drank at similar rates, (2) excreted similar amounts of urine, and (3) reduced their p(AVP) concentration levels to the same extent. IVT saralasin did not affect p(AVP) concentration of rats dehydrated with hypertonic NaCl. Combined IVT saralasin and atropine reduced p(AVP) concentration of 48-hour water deprived rats about 30 percent (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that redundancy exists for sensing, integrating and releasing vasopressin in dehydrated rats.

  2. Air leaks and vasopressin release.

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, N.; Prakash, P.; Smith, A.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven very low birthweight babies being ventilated for respiratory problems during the first week of life developed air leaks on 22 occasions. On 16 out of 19 occasions the infants showed increases in urinary excretion of vasopressin after these events and on 10 occasions out of 13 there was a rise in the plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. The peripheral signs of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release were seen on only one occasion in response to the sometimes hig...

  3. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C.G. [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E.; Curras-Collazo, M. [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  4. Gene Regulation System of Vasopressin and Corticotoropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurohypophyseal hormones, arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, play a crucial role in the physiological and behavioral response to various kinds of stresses. Both neuropeptides activate the hypophysialpituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is a central mediator of the stress response in the body. Conversely, they receive the negative regulation by glucocorticoid, which is an end product of the HPA axis. Vasopressin and CRH are closely linked to immune response; they also interact with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, as for vasopressin, it has another important role, which is the regulation of water balance through its potent antidiuretic effect. Hence, it is conceivable that vasopressin and CRH mediate the homeostatic responses for survival and protect organisms from the external world. A tight and elaborate regulation system of the vasopressin and CRH gene is required for the rapid and flexible response to the alteration of the surrounding environments. Several important regulatory elements have been identified in the proximal promoter region in the vasopressin and CRH gene. Many transcription factors and intracellular signaling cascades are involved in the complicated gene regulation system. This review focuses on the current status of the basic research of vasopressin and CRH. In addition to the numerous known facts about their divergent physiological roles, the recent topics of promoter analyses will be discussed.

  5. Contents of corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin immunoreativity in the spleen and thymus during a chronic inflammatory stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdrey, H.S.; Lightman, S.L.; Harbuz, M.S.;

    1994-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin......Corticotropin-releasing hormone, spleen, thymus, immune system, stress, arthritis, arginine vasopressin...

  6. Hypothalamic thermal stimulation modulates vasopressin release in hyperosmotically stimulated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, R; Gerstberger, R; Simon, E

    1994-10-01

    Under thermoneutral conditions conscious rabbits received systemic infusions of NaCl as hypertonic solution (90 mueq.min-1.kg body wt-1), which raised their plasma osmolality from 283 to 312 mosmol/kgH2O. Rabbits receiving isotonic saline served as controls. Hypertonic stimulation induced a 60% reduction of both respiratory frequency and evaporative water loss. Rectal temperature rose by 0.4 degrees C despite enhanced peripheral vasodilation as indicated by increased ear skin temperature. Plasma vasopressin (AVP), aldosterone (ALDO), and corticosterone (COR) were significantly elevated from 6 to 16 pg/ml, 90 to 180 pg/ml, and 17 to 40 ng/ml, respectively. To elucidate the importance of central temperature for AVP and adrenal corticosteroid release, hypothalamic thermal stimulations (20 min) were superimposed during established iso- and hyperosmotic steady-state conditions. Different from isosmotic controls, hyperosmotic animals responded to hypothalamic cooling (37 degrees C) with a significant decrease in plasma AVP from 16 to 13 pg/ml and to hypothalamic warming (41 degrees C) with a significant rise from 16 to 19 pg/ml. A weak temperature effect on COR release was also disclosed, especially of hypothalamic cooling, which significantly lowered plasma COR from 42 to 34 ng/ml. These results provide evidence for positive local temperature coefficients of hypothalamic control of AVP release and suggest a similar property also for the control of COR release by the hypothalamo-adenohypophysial axis. PMID:7943420

  7. Involvement of Central Endothelin ETA and Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors and Arginine Vasopressin Release in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation and Puncture in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Avalca, Mariane C G; Lomba, Luis A; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L; Brito, Haissa O; Fraga, Daniel; Zampronio, Aleksander R

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that endothelin-1 (ET-1) reduced the frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents in vasopressinergic magnocellular cells through the activation of endothelin ETA receptors in rat brain slices. This effect was abolished by a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, suggesting the involvement of endocannabinoids. The present study investigated whether the blockade of ETA or CB1 receptors during the phase of increased levels of ET-1 after severe sepsis increases the survival rate of animals concomitantly with an increase in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels. Sepsis was induced in male Wistar rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Treatment with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (Rim; 10 and 20 mg/kg, orally) 4 h after CLP (three punctures) significantly increased the survival rate compared with the CLP per vehicle group. Intracerebroventricular treatment with the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 (100 pmol) or with Rim (2 μg) 4 and 8 h after CLP but not the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 (100 pmol), also significantly improved the survival rate. Sham-operated and CLP animals that were treated with Rim had significantly lower core temperature than CLP animals. However, oral treatment with Rim did not change bacterial count in the peritoneal exudate, neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity, leucopenia or increased plasma interleukin-6 levels induced by CLP. Both Rim and BQ123 also increased AVP levels 12 h after CLP. The blockade of central CB1 and ETA receptors in the late phase of sepsis increased the survival rate, reduced body temperature and increased the circulating AVP levels. PMID:26925810

  8. Role of central and peripheral chemoreceptors in vasopressin secretion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Michele; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Fiore, Giorgio; Licchelli, Brunella; Iovino, Emanuela; Triggiani, Vincenzo

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we analyzed the role played by central and peripheral chemoreceptors (CHRs) in vasopressin (AVP) secretion control. Central neural pathways subserving osmotic and non-osmotic control of AVP secretion are strictly correlated to brain areas participating in chemoreception mechanisms. Among the different brain areas involved in central chemoreception, the most important site has been localized in the retrotrapezoid nucleus of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. These central CHRs are able to detect very small pH/CO2 fluctuations, participating in brain blood flow regulation, acid-base balance and blood pressure control. Decreases in arterial pH and increases in arterial pCO2 stimulate AVP release by the Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. Carotid CHRs transduce low arterial O2 tension into increased action potential activity, leading to bradycardia and coronary vasodilatation via vagal stimulation, and systemic vasoconstriction via catecholaminergic stimulation. Stimulation of carotid CHRs by hypoxia increases neurohypophyseal blood flow and AVP release, an effect inhibited by CHRs denervation. Two renal CHRs have been identified: Type R1 CHRs do not have a resting discharge but are activated by renal ischemia and hypotension; Type R2 CHRs have a resting discharge and respond to backflow of urine into the renal pelvis. Signals arising from renal CHRs modulate the activity of hypothalamic AVPergic neurons: activation of R1 and R2 CHRs, following increased intrapelvic pressure with solutions of mannitol, NaCl and KCl, produces a significant increase of AVP secretion and the same effect has been obtained by the intrarenal infusion of bradykinin, which excites afferent renal nerves, as well as by the electrical stimulation of these nerves.

  9. Combined use of vasopressin and synthetic hypothalamic releasing factors as a new test of anterior pituitary function.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, P. J.; Wiles, P G; Davies, J. A.; Prentice, C R

    1986-01-01

    Nine normal volunteers and 15 patients with pituitary disorders were given a combined test of anterior pituitary function using four hypothalamic releasing factors and arginine vasopressin. Rapid sequential intravenous infusions of human corticotrophin releasing factor 100 micrograms, growth hormone releasing factor 100 micrograms, luteinising hormone releasing hormone 100 micrograms, and thyrotrophin releasing hormone 200 micrograms were administered. Arginine vasopressin (10 pressor units) ...

  10. COX-2 disruption leads to increased central vasopressin stores and impaired urine concentrating ability in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Rikke; Madsen, Kirsten Morill; Hansen, Pernille Bl;

    2011-01-01

    RNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT. Water deprivation resulted in lower urine osmolality, higher plasma......It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP m...... is not necessary for enhanced AVP expression and secretion in response to water deprivation. Renal medullary COX-2 activity negatively regulates AQP2 and -3. The urine concentrating defect in COX-2(-/-) is likely caused by developmental glomerular injury and not dysregulation of AVP or collecting duct aquaporins....

  11. Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B.; Gabrielsen, A.; Christensen, N.J.;

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without or...... plasma AVP decreased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 0.5 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (P < 0.05), and plasma norepinephrine (NE) decreased from 176 +/- 20 to 125 +/- 16 pg/ml (P < 0.05). During Sup + LBNP, there were no changes in LAD, PP, plasma AVP, or NE. In conclusion, vasopressin secretion is suppressed during an...

  12. 中枢精氨酸加压素在大鼠促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素引起发热机制中的作用%The role of central arginine vasopressin in corticotropin releasing hormone-induced fever in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华东; 王彦平; 胡巢凤; 戚仁斌; 严玉霞; 陆大祥; 李楚杰

    2001-01-01

    实验对大鼠进行第三脑室和脑腹中隔区插管, 用数字体温计测量大鼠的结肠温度, 用放射免疫分析法测定脑中隔区精氨酸加压素(arginine vasopressin, AVP)含量, 观察脑中隔区AVP在大鼠促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素(corticotrophin releasing hormone, CRH)性发热机制中的作用.结果发现: 脑室注射CRH (5.0 μg)引起大鼠结肠温度明显升高, 同时明显增高脑中隔区 AVP的含量.脑腹中隔区注射AVP V1受体拮抗剂本身并不导致大鼠结肠温度明显改变, 但能显著增强脑室注射CRH引起的发热反应.而且, 腹中隔区注射AVP显著抑制大鼠CRH性发热.结果提示: 发热时CRH是引起脑腹中隔区AVP释放的因素之一, 脑腹中隔区内源性AVP抑制中枢注射CRH引起的体温升高.%The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of central arginine vasopressin (AVP) in corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-induced fever in the rat. Guide cannulae were inserted into the third ventricle and placed over the ventral septal area (VSA). The content of arginine vasopressin in the VSA of the brain was determined by radioimmunoassay. Colon temperature was monitored in lightly restrained rats by insertion of a catheter-mounted thermistor probe 5 cm in the rectum. The results demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of CRH increased AVP level in the VSA and the colonic temperature of the rats. Microinjection of AVP V1 antagonist into the VSA 10 min before CRH administration significantly enhanced CRH-induced febrile response, while AVP V1 antagonist itself did not have a significant effect on the colonic temperature. Furthermore, injection of AVP into the VSA 5 min before CRH administration (icv) suppressed the fever evoked by CRH. These findings suggest that CRH is an important factor that stimulates the release of AVP in the VSA during fever, and endogenous AVP in the VSA has an antipyretic action on the CRH-induced fever.

  13. A perifusion method for examining arginine vasopressin (AVP release from hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohno,Norihito

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available A perifusion method has been developed using rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS or neural lobe to investigate the control mechanism of arginine vasopressin (AVP release. A specific radioimmunoassay (RIA for AVP was developed to measure AVP in perifusion medium employing anti-AVP serum which was obtained by immunizing rabbits. At a final dilution of 1/12,000, the antiserum showed less than 0.66 and 0.01% cross reactivity with lysine-vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. But it did not cross reacted with other peptide hormones. The lowest detectable level of vasopressin was 0.5 pg/tube. The intra-assay coefficient of variation averaged 10.4%. The dilution curve of perifused medium was well paralled to the standard curve of AVP assay. AVP release from HNS or neural lobe gradually declined to the stable level in 90-120 min after the initiation of perifusion. Good repeatability of the AVP release from neural lobe was recognized by repeated stimulation with 10 min perifusion of 60 mM KCl at every 60 min. HNS released AVP in dose related manner to the osmotic challenge of sodium or glucose, and AVP release was stimulated from HNS by prostaglandin E2, but not by dopamine. These results show that the perifusion methods using AVP-RIA is a useful method to examine the AVP release from HNS or neural lobe.

  14. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.

    1984-12-01

    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero.

  15. Atrial distension, arterial pulsation, and vasopressin release during negative pressure breathing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Damgaard, M; Gabrielsen, A;

    2001-01-01

    During an antiorthostatic posture change, left atrial (LA) diameter and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increase, and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is suppressed. By comparing the effects of a 15-min posture change from seated to supine with those of 15-min seated negative pressure breathing...... in eight healthy males, we tested the hypothesis that with similar increases in LA diameter, suppression of AVP release is dependent on the degree of increase in PP. LA diameter increased similarly during the posture change and negative pressure breathing (-9 to -24 mmHg) from between 30 and 31 +/- 1 to 34...... +/- 1 mm (P pressure breathing from 36 +/- 3 to 42 +/- 3 mmHg (P pressure decreased during the posture change...

  16. Endogenous vasopressin and the central control of heart rate during dynamic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Michelini

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains a brief review on the role of vasopressinergic projections to the nucleus tractus solitarii in the genesis of reflex bradycardia and in the modulation of heart rate control during exercise. The effects of vasopressin on exercise tachycardia are discussed on the basis of both the endogenous peptide content changes and the heart rate response changes observed during running in sedentary and trained rats. Dynamic exercise caused a specific vasopressin content increase in dorsal and ventral brainstem areas. In accordance, rats pretreated with the peptide or the V1 blocker into the nucleus tractus solitarii showed a significant potentiation or a marked blunting of the exercise tachycardia, respectively, without any change in the pressure response to exercise. It is proposed that the long-descending vasopressinergic pathway to the nucleus tractus solitarii serves as one link between the two main neural controllers of circulation, i.e., the central command and feedback control mechanisms driven by the peripheral receptors. Therefore, vasopressinergic input could contribute to the adjustment of heart rate response (and cardiac output to the circulatory demand during exercise.

  17. Central vasopressin infusion prevents hibernation in the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes, M.L.H.J.; Buijs, R M; Masson-Pévet, M.; Woude, T.P. van der; PÉVET, P.; Brenkle, R.; Kirsch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of immunocytochemically detectable vasopressin in the brain of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) shows a seasonal variation; i.e., dense vasopressin immunoreactivity is present in the lateral septum during summer but is absent in autumn and winter [Buijs, R. M., Pévet, P., Masson-Pévet, M., Pool, C. W., De Vries, G. J., Canguilhem, B. & Vivien-Roels, B. (1986) Brain Res. 371, 193-196]. In the winter period the European hamster hibernates. Since vasopressin in the lateral sep...

  18. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Nephew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3 and mid (day 10 lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing. AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress.

  19. Effects of Chronic Central Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) on Maternal Behavior in Chronically Stressed Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Alexander J.; McCarthy, Megan; Bridges, Robert S.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of mothers to chronic stressors during pregnancy or the postpartum period often leads to the development of depression, anxiety, or other related mood disorders. The adverse effects of mood disorders are often mediated through maternal behavior and recent work has identified arginine vasopressin (AVP) as a key neuropeptide hormone in the expression of maternal behavior in both rats and humans. Using an established rodent model that elicits behavioral and physiological responses similar to human mood disorders, this study tested the effectiveness of chronic AVP infusion as a novel treatment for the adverse effects of exposure to chronic social stress during lactation in rats. During early (day 3) and mid (day 10) lactation, AVP treatment significantly decreased the latency to initiate nursing and time spent retrieving pups, and increased pup grooming and total maternal care (sum of pup grooming and nursing). AVP treatment was also effective in decreasing maternal aggression and the average duration of aggressive bouts on day 3 of lactation. Central AVP may be an effective target for the development of treatments for enhancing maternal behavior in individuals exposed to chronic social stress. PMID:24349762

  20. Decrease of extracellular taurine in the rat dorsal hippocampus after central nervous administration of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, P; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular amino acid concentrations in the left and right dorsal hippocampus of male rats were studied before and during application of vasopressin into the right hippocampus. The method of intracerebral microdialysis was used for both arginine vasopressin administration and monitoring of......%. These alterations may be related to cerebral osmoregulation. Also, the levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine increased 15% and 35%, respectively, during administration of vasopressin. No changes of other amino acids were observed.......The extracellular amino acid concentrations in the left and right dorsal hippocampus of male rats were studied before and during application of vasopressin into the right hippocampus. The method of intracerebral microdialysis was used for both arginine vasopressin administration and monitoring...... of the composition of the extracellular fluid. The concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured by HPLC in the perfusate samples. The level of taurine declined 20% in the right hippocampus during perfusion with vasopressin, whereas o-phosphoethanolamine decreased in both sides, the left 20% and the right 24...

  1. Skin Necrosis after a Low-Dose Vasopressin Infusion through a Central Venous Catheter for Treating Septic Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Sae Hwan; Byun, Seung Woon; Kang, Ho Suk; Koo, Dong Hoe; Park, Hyun-Gu; Hong, Sang Bum

    2006-01-01

    This is a report on a case of severe skin necrosis in a vasodilatory septic shock patient after the infusion of low-dose vasopressin through a central venous catheter. An 84-year-old male was hospitalized for edema on both legs at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. On hospital day 8, the patient began to complain of dyspnea and he subsequently developed severe septic shock caused by E. coli. After being transferred to the medical intensive care unit, his hypotension, which was refractory to n...

  2. Vasopressin and Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Yun Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Vasopressin, a neurohypophyseal peptide hormone, is the endogenous agonist at V1a, V1b, and V2 receptors. The most important physiological function of vasopressin is the maintenance of water homeostasis through interaction with V2 receptors in the kidney. Vasopressin binds to V2 receptor and increases the number of aquaporin-2 at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells. That induces high water permeability across the membrane. Several non-peptide vasopressin receptor ant...

  3. Properties of rat anterior pituitary vasopressin receptors: relation to adenylate cyclase and the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, R C; Schoenenberg, P; Favrod-Coune, C A; Muller, A F; Marie, J. (ed.); Bockaert, J.; Jard, S

    1984-01-01

    Crude plasma membrane fractions were prepared from female Wistar rat anterior pituitaries. These fractions contained a single population of specific 3H-labeled [8-lysine]vasopressin [( 3H]vasopressin) binding sites with a dissociation of constant (Kd) of 8 +/- 2 X 10(-9) M and maximal binding capacity of 244 +/- 45 fmol/mg of protein. The Kd values for a series of vasopressin structural analogues with selective vasopressor or antidiuretic activities were determined together with the correspon...

  4. Enkephalin inhibition of angiotensin-stimulated release of oxytocin and vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Chee, O.; Rosella-Dampman, L. M.; Emmert, S.; Summy-Long, J. Y.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) pretreatment with 100 ng/5 microliter leucine(5)-enkephalin (LE) on the increase in plasma oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) caused by ICV injection of 10, 50, or 100 ng/5 microliter of angiotensin II (AII) is investigated experimentally in conscious adult male Sprague-Dawley rats; the effects of water-deprivation dehydration and lactation/suckling (in female rats) are also studied. An OT radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a sensitivity of 800 fg/ml (described in detail) and the VP RIA technique of Keil and Severs (1977) are employed. Administration of AII or dehydration for 48 or 72 h cause a significant increase in OT and VP without affecting the ratio, while lactation and suckling increase OT only. LE pretreatment inhibits significantly but does not suppress the AII-stimulated OT-VP response.

  5. Vasopressin and septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mousavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Septic shock continues to be one of the leading causes of death in the Intensive Care Units. When the shock state persists after adequate fluid resuscitation,  vasopressor therapy is required to improve and maintain adequate tissue/organ  perfusion in an attempt to improve survival and prevent the development of multiple organ dysfunction and failure. Various studies have suggested that exogenous administration of arginine vasopressin  may  be  an  effective  adjunctive  therapy  to  traditional  catecholamines for the management of hypotension during septic shock. Vasopressin is both a vasopressor  and  an  antidiuretic  hormone.  It  also  has  hemostatic,  gastrointestinal and thermoregulatory  effects, and is an adrenocorticotropic  hormone secretagogue. Vasopressin  is released from the axonal terminals of magnocellular  neurons in the hypothalamus. Vasopressin mediates vasoconstriction  via V1-receptor activation on vascular smooth muscle and mediates its antidiuretic effect via V2-receptor activation in the renal collecting duct system. Vasopressin  infusion of 0.01 to 0.04 U/min in patients with septic shock increases plasma vasopressin levels. Current guidelines from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommend arginine vasopressin 0.03 unit/minute may be added to norepinephrine with the anticipation of an effect equal to higher doses of norepinephrine alone. Clinicians must be knowledgeable about the use of vasopressin in septic shock, including controversial areas where guidelines do not always provide solid recommendations.

  6. Amygdala kindling elevates plasma vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R S; Meeker, R B; Hayward, J N

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic effects of epilepsy on endocrine function are known to occur in humans with partial seizures of limbic origin and in animals with limbic kindled seizures. The amygdala, a component of the limbic system, has dense hypothalamic connections and amygdala stimulation in monkeys and cats result in vasopressin release. In the present study we sought to determine if amygdala stimulation in the rats results in an immediate acute release of vasopressin and to determine if acute or chronic changes occur in vasopressin release in the fully kindled animal. Plasma vasopressin, osmolality and hematocrit were measured in blood samples drawn from rats with implanted venous catheters before and after stimulation and at different stages of kindling. Low-frequency (15 Hz) electrical stimulation of the amygdala was followed by an immediate, 3-fold increase in plasma vasopressin concentration. Moreover, although the 60 Hz kindling stimulus did not result in a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin prior to kindling, after kindling to stage 5 seizures the 60 Hz kindling stimulus resulted in seizures and a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin. In addition, we found that kindling was followed by a significant, though modest, rise in the resting plasma vasopressin without an accompanying change in osmolality or hematocrit. We conclude that kindling results in a persistent alteration in the vasopressinergic neuroendocrine system. PMID:2018936

  7. Amygdala kindling elevates plasma vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R S; Meeker, R B; Hayward, J N

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic effects of epilepsy on endocrine function are known to occur in humans with partial seizures of limbic origin and in animals with limbic kindled seizures. The amygdala, a component of the limbic system, has dense hypothalamic connections and amygdala stimulation in monkeys and cats result in vasopressin release. In the present study we sought to determine if amygdala stimulation in the rats results in an immediate acute release of vasopressin and to determine if acute or chronic changes occur in vasopressin release in the fully kindled animal. Plasma vasopressin, osmolality and hematocrit were measured in blood samples drawn from rats with implanted venous catheters before and after stimulation and at different stages of kindling. Low-frequency (15 Hz) electrical stimulation of the amygdala was followed by an immediate, 3-fold increase in plasma vasopressin concentration. Moreover, although the 60 Hz kindling stimulus did not result in a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin prior to kindling, after kindling to stage 5 seizures the 60 Hz kindling stimulus resulted in seizures and a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin. In addition, we found that kindling was followed by a significant, though modest, rise in the resting plasma vasopressin without an accompanying change in osmolality or hematocrit. We conclude that kindling results in a persistent alteration in the vasopressinergic neuroendocrine system.

  8. Experimental approaches for the study of oxytocin and vasopressin gene expression in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordalakes, Elka M.; Yue, Chunmei; Gainer, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Intron-specific probes measure heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA) levels and thus approximate the transcription rates of genes, in part because of the rapid turnover of this intermediate form of RNA in the cell nucleus. Previously, we used oxytocin (Oxt)- and vasopressin (Avp)- intron-specific riboprobes to measure changes in Oxt and Avp hnRNA levels in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) by quantitative in situ hybridization (ISH) after various classical physiological perturbations, including acute and chronic salt loading, and lactation. In the present experiments, we used a novel experimental model to study the neurotransmitter regulation of Oxt and Avp gene expression in the rat SON in vivo. Bilateral cannulae connected via tubing to Alzet osmotic mini-pumps were positioned over the SON. In every experiment, one SON was infused with PBS and served as the control SON in each animal, and the contralateral SON received infusions of various neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists. Using this approach, we found that Avp but not Oxt gene expression increased after acute (2–5 h) combined excitatory amino acid agonist and GABA antagonist treatment, similar to what we found after an acute hyperosmotic stimulus. Since both OXT and AVP are known to be comparably and robustly secreted in response to acute osmotic stimuli in vivo and glutamate agonists in vitro, our results indicate a dissociation between OXT secretion and Oxt gene transcription in vivo. PMID:18655870

  9. Effects of reproductive experience on central expression of progesterone, oestrogen α, oxytocin and vasopressin receptor mRNA in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Perea-Rodriguez, JP; Takahashi, EY; Amador, TM; Hao, RC; Saltzman, W; Trainor, BC

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology. Fatherhood in biparental mammals is accompanied by distinct neuroendocrine changes in males, involving some of the same hormones involved in maternal care. In the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care has been linked to changes in the central and/or peripheral availability of oestrogen, progesterone, vasopressin and oxytocin, although it is not known whether these endocrine fluctuations are associated wi...

  10. Role of neuronal nitric oxide in the regulation of vasopressin expression and release in response to inhibition of cathecholamine synthesis and dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Liubov, Yamova; Dmitriy, Atochin; Margarita, Glazova; Elena, Chernigovskaya; Paul, Huang

    2007-01-01

    We used neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene knockout mice to study the effects of catecholamines and neuronal nitric oxide on vasopressin expression in the hypothalamic neurosecretory centers. nNOS gene deletion did not change the level of vasopressin mRNA in the supraoptic or paraventricular nuclei. In contrast, vasopressin immunoreactivity was lower in nNOS deficient mice than in wild-type animals. Dehydration increased vasopressin mRNA levels and decreased vasopressin immunoreactivi...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cam-Etoz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g female rats (N = 7 in each group the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv injected adrenomedullin (ADM on blood pressure and heart rate (HR, and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP receptors, peripheral V1 receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1 icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (DMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm. 2 Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM22-52 blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3 The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv. 4 The V1 receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl¹, O-me-Tyr²,Arg8]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg, that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V1 receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of the intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin: roles of the peripheral vasopressin and central cholinergic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam-Etoz, B.; Isbil-Buyukcoskun, N.; Ozluk, K. [Department of Physiology, Uludag University Medical Faculty, Gorukle/Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-03-02

    Our objective was to investigate in conscious Sprague-Dawley (6-8 weeks, 250-300 g) female rats (N = 7 in each group) the effects of intracerebroventricularly (icv) injected adrenomedullin (ADM) on blood pressure and heart rate (HR), and to determine if ADM and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, peripheral V{sub 1} receptors or the central cholinergic system play roles in these cardiovascular effects. Blood pressure and HR were observed before and for 30 min following drug injections. The following results were obtained: 1) icv ADM (750 ng/10 µL) caused an increase in both blood pressure and HR (ΔMAP = 11.8 ± 2.3 mmHg and ΔHR = 39.7 ± 4.8 bpm). 2) Pretreatment with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP{sub 8-37}) and ADM receptor antagonist (ADM{sub 22-52}) blocked the effect of central ADM on blood pressure and HR. 3) The nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (25 µg/10 µL, icv) and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv) prevented the stimulating effect of ADM on blood pressure. The effect of ADM on HR was blocked only by atropine (5 µg/10 µL, icv). 4) The V{sub 1} receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β-β-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl{sup 1}, O-me-Tyr{sup 2},Arg{sup 8}]-vasopressin (V2255; 10 µg/kg), that was applied intravenously, prevented the effect of ADM on blood pressure and HR. This is the first study reporting the role of specific ADM and CGRP receptors, especially the role of nicotinic and muscarinic central cholinergic receptors and the role of peripheral V{sub 1} receptors in the increasing effects of icv ADM on blood pressure and HR.

  13. Expression of hippocampal corticosteroid receptors, as well as corticotrophin-releasing hormone and vasopressin in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in fornix transected rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Han; Hong Liu; Yanhui Zhang; Yuxiu Shi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hippocampus regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through negative feedback. The hypothalamic paraventdcular nucleus receives neuronal input from the hippocampus via the fornix.OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the negative feedback effect of the hippocampus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is contributed to the inhibitory effect of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus on the paraventricular nucleus via the fomix.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, animal experiment. The study was performed at the Department of Histology and Embryology, China Medical University between September 2006 and September 2008.MATERIALS: Rabbit anti-rat anti-MR and rabbit anti-rat anti-GR antibodies were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA. Rabbit anti-rat anti-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and rabbit anti-rat anti-arginine vasopressin antibodies were purchased from Wuhan Boster.METHODS: A total of 90 male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into model and sham-surgery groups (n=45). Fornix transection was performed in the model group, while the sham-surgery group underwent surgery, but no fornix transection.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, as well as CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus. Western blot was used to measure alterations in MR, GR, and CRH protein expression following fomix transection.RESULTS: Compared with the sham-surgery group, there were no obvious changes in MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, or CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus within 4 days of fornix transection. However, after 7-10 days, significantly decreased MR and GR expression in the hippocampus, and increased CRH and anti-arginine vasopressin expression in the paraventricular nucleus were observed (P < 0.05-0.01).CONCLUSION: Negative feedback from the

  14. Vasopressin and oxytocin. Their presence in the central nervous system and their functional significance in brain processes related to behaviour and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wimersma Greidanus, T B; Burbach, J P; Veldhuis, H D

    1986-01-01

    Vasopressin and oxytocin exert pronounced effects on behaviour by a direct action on the brain. A single injection of vasopressin results in a long-term inhibition of extinction of a conditioned avoidance response suggesting that vasopressin triggers a long-term effect on the maintenance of a learne

  15. CPPB and vasopressin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, W. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role of vasopressin (or 'antidiuretic hormone') secretory control system in the maintenance of central vascular volume, and critical comments about the latest paper by Barratz et al. (1971) on the interrelation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and fluid balance during continuous positive pressure breathing (CPPB) in dogs. It is felt that, while the increase in plasma ADH levels occurring with CPPB has been more carefully defined in this last paper than previously, still more accurate definitions could be obtained under experimental conditions modified in accordance with presented suggestions.

  16. Centrally injected histamine increases posterior hypothalamic acetylcholine release in hemorrhage-hypotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Savci, Vahide; Jochem, Jerzy; Yalcin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Histamine, acting centrally as a neurotransmitter, evokes a reversal of hemorrhagic hypotension in rats due to the activation of the sympathetic and the renin-angiotensin systems as well as the release of arginine vasopressin and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. We demonstrated previously that central nicotinic cholinergic receptors are involved in the pressor effect of histamine. The aim of the present study was to examine influences of centrally administrated histamine on acetylcholine (ACh) release at the posterior hypothalamus-a region characterized by location of histaminergic and cholinergic neurons involved in the regulation of the sympathetic activity in the cardiovascular system-in hemorrhage-hypotensive anesthetized rats. Hemodynamic and microdialysis studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Hemorrhagic hypotension was induced by withdrawal of a volume of 1.5 ml blood/100 g body weight over a period of 10 min. Acute hemorrhage led to a severe and long-lasting decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and an increase in extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and choline (Ch) levels by 56% and 59%, respectively. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered histamine (50, 100, and 200 nmol) dose- and time-dependently increased MAP and HR and caused an additional rise in extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and Ch levels at the most by 102%, as compared to the control saline-treated group. Histamine H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (50 nmol; i.c.v.) completely blocked histamine-evoked hemodynamic and extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and Ch changes, whereas H2 and H3/H4 receptor blockers ranitidine (50 nmol; i.c.v.) and thioperamide (50 nmol; i.c.v.) had no effect. In conclusion, centrally administered histamine, acting via H1 receptors, increases ACh release at the posterior hypothalamus and causes a pressor and tachycardic response in hemorrhage-hypotensive anesthetized rats.

  17. Vasopressin: Its current role in anesthetic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanta K Mitra; Jayeeta Roy; Saikat Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    Vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone is a potent endogenous hormone, which is responsible for regulating plasma osmolality and volume. In high concentrations, it also raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction. It acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain to control circadian rhythm, thermoregulation and adrenocorticotropic hormone release. The therapeutic use of vasopressin has become increasingly important in the critical care environment in the management of cranial diabetes ...

  18. Effects of reproductive experience on central expression of progesterone, oestrogen α, oxytocin and vasopressin receptor mRNA in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Rodriguez, J P; Takahashi, E Y; Amador, T M; Hao, R C; Saltzman, W; Trainor, B C

    2015-04-01

    Fatherhood in biparental mammals is accompanied by distinct neuroendocrine changes in males, involving some of the same hormones involved in maternal care. In the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care has been linked to changes in the central and/or peripheral availability of oestrogen, progesterone, vasopressin and oxytocin, although it is not known whether these endocrine fluctuations are associated with changes in receptor availability in the brain. Thus, we compared mRNA expression of oestrogen receptor (ER)α, progesterone receptor (PR), vasopressin receptor (V1a) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in brain regions implicated in paternal care [i.e. medial preoptic area (MPOA)], fear [i.e. medial amygdala (MeA)] and anxiety [i.e. bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)] between first-time fathers (n = 8) and age-matched virgin males (n = 7). Males from both reproductive conditions behaved paternally towards unrelated pups, whereas fathers showed significantly shorter latencies to behave paternally and less time investigating pups. Furthermore, fathers showed significantly lower PR, OTR and V1a receptor mRNA expression in the BNST compared to virgins. Fathers also showed a marginally significant (P = 0.07) reduction in progesterone receptor mRNA expression in the MPOA, although fatherhood was not associated with any other changes in receptor mRNA in the MPOA or MeA. The results of the present study indicate that behavioural and endocrine changes associated with the onset of fatherhood, and/or with cohabitation with a (breeding) female, are accompanied by changes in mRNA expression of hormone and neuropeptide receptors in the brain. PMID:25659593

  19. Proopiomelanocortin but not vasopressin or renin-angiotensin system induces resuscitative effects of central 5-HT1A activation in haemorrhagic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, P; Adamczyk-Sowa, M; Zwirska-Korczala, K; Pierzchala, K; Adamczyk, D; Paluch, Z; Misiolek, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectory mechanisms: vasopressin, renin-angiotensin system and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides (POMC), partaking in the effects of serotonin through central serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) receptors in haemorrhagic shock in rats. The study was conducted on male Wistar rats. All experimental procedures were carried out under full anaesthesia. The principal experiment included a 2 hour observation period in haemorrhagic shock. Drugs used - a selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (5 μg/5 μl); V1a receptor antagonist [β-mercapto-β, β-cyclo-pentamethylenepropionyl(1),O-me-Tyr(2),Arg(8)]AVP (10 μg/kg); angiotensin type I receptor antagonist (AT1) ZD7155 (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.); angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor captopril (30 mg/kg, i.v.); melanocortin type 4 (MC4) receptor antagonist HS014 (5 μg, i.c.v.). There was no influence of ZD715, captopril or blocking of the V1a receptors on changes in the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), peripheral blood flow or resistance caused by the central stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors (P≥0.05). However, selective blocking of central MC4 receptors caused a slight, but significant decrease in HR and MAP (Pvasopressin systems do not participate in these actions. PMID:25371525

  20. POLYBROMINATED DEPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) AND ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AS NEUROENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS OF VASOPRESSIN RELEASE: EFFECTS DURING PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVATION IN VITRO AND STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuropeptide, vasopressin (VP) is synthesized in magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) located within the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the mammalian hypothalamus. VP has multiple functions including maintenance of body fluid homeostasis, cardiovasc...

  1. Cerebroventricular calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits rat duodenal bicarbonate secretion by release of norepinephrine and vasopressin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, H. J.; Brown, M R

    1990-01-01

    Proximal duodenal bicarbonate secretion is an important factor in humans and animals protecting the mucosa against acid-peptic damage. This study examined the mechanisms responsible for the central nervous system regulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in unrestrained rats. Cerebroventricular administration of rat CGRP significantly inhibited basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion as well as the stimulatory effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide,...

  2. The regulation of vasopressin secretion in a patient with oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus.

    OpenAIRE

    Spruce, B. A.; Baylis, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    We report a patient who had an oat cell bronchogenic carcinoma in association with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. There was an unusually long interval between the onset of hyponatraemia and clinically evident malignant disease. Dynamic testing of vasopressin secretion showed preservation of baroregulated, but not osmoregulated, vasopressin release. Immunoreactive vasopressin was detected in pleural fluid, which co-eluted with synthetic vasopressin on gel chromatography.

  3. Arginine Vasopressin-Independent Mechanism of Impaired Water Excretion in a Patient with Sarcoidosis Complicated by Central Diabetes Insipidus and Glucocorticoid Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunobu Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of reduced livido and increased fatigability. Four months before admission, he noticed polyuria, which was gradually relieved by admission. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhancing lesion centrally in the pituitary stalk. Biopsy from the skin revealed noncaseating granuloma composed of epithelioid cells, and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made. Although plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP was undetectable after administration of hypertonic saline, urinary output was within normal range (1.5 to 2.2 L/day. The urine osmolality became above plasma levels during the hypertonic saline test. Hormonal provocative tests revealed partial glucocorticoid deficiency. Soon after the glucocorticoid therapy was begun, moderate polyuria (from 3.5–4.0 liters daily occurred. At this time, plasma AVP was undetectable, and urine osmolality was consistently below plasma levels during the hypertonic saline test. In conclusion, we showed in human study that masked diabetes insipidus could be mediated by AVP-independent mechanisms.

  4. Glu-47, which forms a salt bridge between neurophysin-II and arginine vasopressin, is deleted in patients with familial central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka; Saito, Hidehiko (Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)); Miyamoto, S.; Sasaki, N. (Chiba Children' s Hospital, Chiba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene was sequenced in a pedigree with familial central diabetes insipidus (DI). When polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNAs from affected subjects were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, fragments including exon 2 displayed two additional, slower migrating bands. These extra bands represented DNA heteroduplexes, indicating that there was a deletion or insertion mutation in exon 2. As the region with such a mutation was identified by direct sequence analysis, polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments including the region were subcloned and sequenced. A 3-basepair deletion (AGG) out of two consecutive AGG sequences (nucleotides 1824-1829) was identified in one of two alleles. The cosegregation of the mutation with the DI phenotype in the family was confirmed by restriction enzyme analyses. This mutation should yield an abnormal AVP precursor lacking Glu[sup 47] in its neurophysin-II (NP) moiety. Since Glu[sup 47] is essential for NP molecules to form a salt bridge with AVP, it is very likely that the function of NP as a carrier protein for AVP would be impaired. The authors suggest that AVP would undergo accelerated proteolytic degradation, and this mechanism would be involved in the pathogenesis of DI in this pedigree. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Cardiac effects of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Dicken, Bryan; Bigam, David; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2014-07-01

    Vasopressin is an essential hormone involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. It has been in use therapeutically for many decades, with an emphasis on its vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic properties. However, this hormone has a ubiquitous influence and has specific effects on the heart. Although difficult to separate from its powerful vascular effects in the clinical setting, a better understanding of vasopressin's direct cardiac effects could lead to its more effective clinical use for a variety of shock states by maximizing its therapeutic benefit. The cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin are complex and require further elucidation. Complicating our understanding include the various receptors and secondary messengers involved in vasopressin's effects, which may lead to various results based on differing doses and varying environmental conditions. Thus, there have been contradictory reports on vasopressin's action on the coronary vasculature and on its effect on inotropy. However, beneficial results have been found and warrant further study to expand the potential therapeutic role of vasopressin. This review outlines the effect of vasopressin on the coronary vasculature, cardiac contractility, and on hypertrophy and cardioprotection. These cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin represent an interesting area for further study for potentially important therapeutic benefits. PMID:24621650

  6. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntyn, J O; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Schmidt, T B; Erickson, G E; Sieren, S E; Jones, S J; Carroll, J A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers ( = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 1) control (CON), no ZH supplementation, and 2) zilpaterol (ZIL), supplemented with ZH at 8.33 mg/kg (DM basis). The ZIL group was supplemented ZH for 20 d, with a 3-d withdrawal period. On d 24, heifers received an intravenous bolus of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg BW) to activate the stress axis. Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals for serum and 60-min intervals for plasma and whole blood, from -2 to 8 h relative to the challenge at 0 h (1000 h). Samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and complete blood cell counts. Following the challenge, cattle were harvested over a 3-d period. Liver, LM, and biceps femoris (BF) samples were collected and analyzed for glucose, lactate, and glycolytic potential (GP). There was a treatment ( ≤ 0.001) effect for vaginal temperature (VT), with ZIL having a 0.1°C decrease in VT when compared with CON. A treatment × time effect ( = 0.002) was observed for NEFA. A treatment effect was observed for BUN; ZIL had decreased BUN concentrations compared with CON ( < 0.001) prior to the challenge; however, no treatment × time effect was observed. There was also a treatment effect for cortisol ( ≤ 0.01) and epinephrine ( = 0.003); ZIL had decreased cortisol and epinephrine during the CRH/VP challenge when compared with CON. There was a time effect for total white blood cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes; each variable increased ( ≤ 0.01) 2 h postchallenge. Additionally, neutrophil counts decreased ( ≤ 0.01) in response to CRH/VP challenge in both treatment groups. Glucose concentrations within the LM were

  7. Cholinergic regulation of the vasopressin neuroendocrine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the physical and functional relationship between the cholinergic system, and the neurodocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus, a combination of experiments on receptor binding, localization and function were carried out. The putative nicotinic receptor probe (/sup 125/I)alpha bungarotoxin ((/sup 125/I)alpha BTX) bound with high affinity and specificity to the vasopressin and oxytocin magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus, nucleus circularis, and paraventricular nucleus. Binding of (/sup 125/I)alpha BTX within the neural lobe was very low. In contrast, the muscarinic cholinergic receptor probe (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) did not bind to magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin cell groups. The median eminence, which contains the neurosecretory axons, and the neural lobe of the pituitary contain low levels of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding. The physiological significance of these cholinergic receptors in regulation of vasopressin release was tested using an in vitro preparation of the supraoptic - neural lobe system.

  8. Vasopressin: Its current role in anesthetic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta K Mitra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone is a potent endogenous hormone, which is responsible for regulating plasma osmolality and volume. In high concentrations, it also raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction. It acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain to control circadian rhythm, thermoregulation and adrenocorticotropic hormone release. The therapeutic use of vasopressin has become increasingly important in the critical care environment in the management of cranial diabetes insipidus, bleeding abnormalities, esophageal variceal hemorrhage, asystolic cardiac arrest and septic shock. After 10 years of ongoing research, vasopressin has grown to a potential component as a vasopressor agent of the anesthesiologist′s armamentarium in the treatment of cardiac arrest and severe shock states.

  9. Vasopressin: its role in antipyresis and febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, W L; Cooper, K E; Ruwe, W D

    1984-02-01

    When pyrogenic substances are injected intravenously into experimental animals, a sequence of events is set in motion which involves the hypothalamus and perhaps other portions of the diencephalon to produce a febrile response. We now present evidence that the brain produces its own endogenous antipyretic which may serve as a means of controlling the extent of the fever. When arginine vasopressin is perfused through the lateral septal area of the hypothalamus of the sheep, fever is suppressed. Vasopressin alone does not lower normal body temperature when perfused through this region of the brain. In addition, evidence is provided to indicate that vasopressin is released within the lateral septal area during the febrile response. It is concluded that, in fever, arginine vasopressin may be released in the lateral septal area of the brain and serve as an endogenous antipyretic. Results indicate that, following an initial application of vasopressin into the brain itself, a subsequent similar administration of vasopressin produces seizure-like activity. Therefore, it is suggested that this release of arginine vasopressin may contribute to the production of febrile convulsion. PMID:6722595

  10. The increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood during vagal afferents stimulation or after angiotensin II infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraca, A.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    It has previously been demonstrated that the cardiodepressant activity is present in the bovine hypothalamic extract and in the fluid incubating the posterior pituitary lobe {sup i}n situ{sup .} The present study was an attempt to reveal if the cardiodepressant factor and vasopressin were simultaneously released from the pituitary into blood. The samples of venous blood flowing from the sella turcica and, for comparison, from the posterior paw were collected in anesthetized rats. Blood from the sella turcica was collected with a fine cannula inserted into the internal maxillary vein. The concentration of vasopressin in blood plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay and cardiodepressant activity-using a biological test on a spontaneously discharged pacemaker tissue of the right auricle of the right heart atrium. Stimulation of the central ends of the cut vagus nerves or intra-arterial infusion of angiotensin II simultaneously caused an increase in the cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration in the sella turcica venous blood. The cardiodepressant activity and vasopressin concentration was also enhanced to some degree in blood outflowing from the posterior paw. Present results indicate that both vasopressin and the cardiodepressant factor are released into blood from the posterior pituitary lobe. (author). 37 refs, 4 figs.

  11. Short stressor induced long-lasting increases of vasopressin stores in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E D; Binnekade, R; Janszen, A W; Tilders, F J

    1996-09-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that single administration of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) to adult rats induces a long-lasting (weeks) increase of vasopressin (AVP) stores in terminals of CRH neurons in the external zone of the median eminence (ZEME). This is accompanied by hypersecretion of AVP into the pituitary portal circulation and long-lasting hyperresponsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stressors. Here, we determine whether this form of plasticity of hypothalamic CRH neurons is specific for IL-1 or represents a general response to a stressor. Single exposure of rats to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-1, brain surgery or electric footshocks increases the AVP stores in the ZEME 7 and 11 days later. Exposure to insulin or ether does not affect the AVP stores. The stressors have little or no effect on the CRH stores in the ZEME. The amplitude of the increase in AVP as measured 7-11 days after stimulation correlates with the overall ACTH response to the stressor (area under curve, r = 0.89, P NWO grant: 900-543-101.) PMID:8877819

  12. Neurohormonal effects of oxytocin and vasopressin receptor agonists on spinal pain processing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juif, Pierre-Eric; Poisbeau, Pierrick

    2013-08-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are 2 neuropeptides that display well-known effects on the reproductive system. Although still controversial, oxytocin and vasopressin were demonstrated to exert potent effects on the nociceptive system when administered directly in various central nervous structures. On the other hand, little is known about their peripheral (hormonal) actions on nociception and pain responses. The aim of the present work was to characterize the effects of physiological blood concentrations of OT and AVP on spinal nociception and on pain responses. To do so, growing doses of OT or AVP were administered intravenously and the nociceptive processing by spinal cord neurons was analyzed in anesthetized male rats in vivo. We observed that the action potentials mediated by C-type nociceptive fibers was strongly reduced (antinociception) after intravenous injections of low doses of OT (effects were fully abolished in the presence of the OT receptor antagonist and the AVP receptor antagonist type 1A (V1A), respectively. We confirmed this result with a behavioral model of forced swim stress-induced analgesia associated with plasmatic release of OT (and not vasopressin). Stress-induced analgesia was transiently lost after i.v. administration of OTR antagonist. Together, the present work provides straightforward evidence that blood levels of OT and AVP modulate nociception, windup plasticity and pain responses. The final target structures explaining these effects remains to be identified but are likely to be C-type nociceptors.

  13. Lack of effect of vasopressin replacement on renin hypersecretion in Brattleboro rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golin, Raffaello M. A.; Gotoh, Eiji; Keil, Lanny C.; Shackelford, Roy L.; Ganong, William F.

    1989-01-01

    The congenital vasopressin deficiency in homozygous Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus is associated with elevated plasma renin activity at rest and supernormal responses to stimuli that increase renin secretion. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon was investigated by infusing homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with a dose of arginine vasopressin that restored plasma vasopressin to normal in the homozygous animals. The resulting data indicate that increased renin secretion in homozygous rats results from increased sympathetic activity. Because circulating vasopressin does not cross the blood-brain barrier, it seems likely that the increased sympathetic activity is central in origin.

  14. Reduced cooperativeness and reward-dependence in depression with above-normal plasma vasopressin concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, J. G.; de Winter, R. F. P.; Wolterbeek, R.; Spinhoven, P.; Zitman, F. G.; Wiegant, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is centrally involved in the regulation of social behaviour and response to stress. We previously found support for a subcategory of depression defined by above-normal plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration. This subcategory is validated by a positive family history of d

  15. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  16. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kotwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS.

  17. Vasopressin and septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Septic shock continues to be one of the leading causes of death in the Intensive Care Units. When the shock state persists after adequate fluid resuscitation,  vasopressor therapy is required to improve and maintain adequate tissue/organ  perfusion in an attempt to improve survival and prevent the development of multiple organ dysfunction and failure. Various studies have suggested that exogenous administration of arginine vasopressin  may  be  an  effective  adjunctive  therapy  to  traditio...

  18. [Role of vasopressin in septic shock : critical evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradwohl-Matis, I; Brunauer, A; Dankl, D; Dünser, M

    2014-06-01

    Restoration of adequate tissue perfusion is the goal of resuscitation in septic shock. A growing understanding of microcirculatory dysfunction in sepsis led to a change in resuscitation practice away from targeting arterial and central venous pressures and towards tissue perfusion-guided protocols. This change in the approach to resuscitation was accompanied by a change in the role of vasoconstrictors. This review summarizes the pathophysiological and therapeutic mainstays of septic shock resuscitation and attempts to critically evaluate the scientific evidence on the use of vasopressin as a non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor in septic shock. Based on the published study results vasopressin appears to be of potential benefit in adult patients with moderate septic shock (norepinephrine requirements vasopressin infusion with the sole target to increase arterial blood pressure despite the presence of systemic hypoperfusion is dangerous and can result in a critical deterioration of tissue perfusion. PMID:24838480

  19. Herbicide Hardwood Crop Trees Release in Central West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Kochenderfer, Jeffrey Davis

    1999-01-01

    Repeated partial cutting in the Appalachian hardwood region has often favored the development of tolerant species like American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and stands with a high proportion of cull trees. Crop tree release is a widely recommended practice to improve species composition and growth rates in these unevenaged structured stands. Chemical control offers some distinct advantages from the standpoint of safety and residual stand damage, over mechani...

  20. Vasopressin function in familial cranial diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baylis, P. H.; Robertson, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    A family suffering from cranial diabetes insipidus, that extends over 4 generations, is described. Inheritance of polyuria was autosomal dominant. Vasopressin function was studied in members of the last 2 generations, 4 of whom had polyuria. Osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion was assessed by infusion of hypertonic saline. Plasma vasopressin remained undetectable in one patient, while 2 others had very blunted vasopressin responses to osmotic stimulation. Three non-osmotic stimuli were ap...

  1. Ethanol and corticotropin releasing factor receptor modulation of central amygdala neurocircuitry: An update and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2015-05-01

    The central amygdala is a critical brain region for many aspects of alcohol dependence. Much of the work examining the mechanisms by which the central amygdala mediates the development of alcohol dependence has focused on the interaction of acute and chronic ethanol with central amygdala corticotropin releasing factor signaling. This work has led to a great deal of success in furthering the general understanding of central amygdala neurocircuitry and its role in alcohol dependence. Much of this work has primarily focused on the hypothesis that ethanol utilizes endogenous corticotropin releasing factor signaling to upregulate inhibitory GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala. Work that is more recent suggests that corticotropin releasing factor also plays an important role in mediating anxiety-like behaviors via the enhancement of central amygdala glutamatergic transmission, implying that ethanol/corticotropin releasing factor interactions may modulate excitatory neurotransmission in this brain region. In addition, a number of studies utilizing optogenetic strategies or transgenic mouse lines have begun to examine specific central amygdala neurocircuit dynamics and neuronal subpopulations to better understand overall central amygdala neurocircuitry and the role of neuronal subtypes in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. This review will provide a brief update on this literature and describe some potential future directions that may be important for the development of better treatments for alcohol addiction.

  2. Vasopressin: Behavioral Roles of an “Original” Neuropeptide

    OpenAIRE

    Heather K Caldwell; Lee, Heon-Jin; Macbeth, Abbe H.; Young, W. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Vasopressin (Avp) is mainly synthesized in the magnocellular cells of the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) whose axons project to the posterior pituitary. Avp is then released into the blood stream upon appropriate stimulation (e.g., hemorrhage or dehydration) to act at the kidneys and blood vessels. The brain also contains several populations of smaller, parvocellular neurons whose projections remain within the brain. These populations are located within the PVN...

  3. Dear vasopressin, where is your place in septic shock?

    OpenAIRE

    Duenser, Martin W; Hasibeder, Walter R

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular failure is one of the central therapeutic problems in patients with severe infection. Although norepinephrine is a potent and, in most cases, highly effective vasopressor agent, very high dosages leading to significant side effects can be necessary to stabilize advanced shock. As a supplementary vasopressor, arginine vasopressin can reverse hemodynamic failure and significantly decrease norepinephrine dosages. Whether the promising possibility of 'bridging' advanced septic shoc...

  4. Hyponatremia in rats induces downregulation of vasopressin synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A G; Roberts, M. M.; Evron, W A; Verbalis, J G; Sherman, T G

    1990-01-01

    Hyponatremia due to inappropriate secretion of vasopressin is a common disorder in human pathophysiology, but vasopressin synthesis during hypoosmolality has not been investigated. We used a new method to quantitate synthesis of vasopressin in rats after 3, 7, and 14 d of hyponatremia induced by administering dDAVP (a vasopressin agonist) and a liquid diet. Vasopressin synthesis was completely turned off by 7 d. Vasopressin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus paralleled the reduction in synthesis...

  5. Increased complexity of vasopressin's vascular actions

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Donald W.; Oliver, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Vasopressin is becoming a widely used pressor in conditions with severe hypotension. Like several other hormones important in cardiovascular and extracellular fluid control, however, vasopressin can activate several receptors that when pharmacologically or pathologically stimulated may result in conflicting effects. In the present issue of Critical Care, Rehberg and colleagues examined the hypothesis that blockade of vasopressin V2 receptor during septic shock may be beneficial. Their tantali...

  6. Vasopressin decreases neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chi; Zhu, Zhe; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Xiaoliang; Li, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council recently recommended that vasopressin can be used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, instead of epinephrine. However, the guidelines do not discuss the effects of vasopressin during cerebral resuscitation. In this study, we intraperitoneally injected epinephrine and/or vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. The results demonstrated that, compared with epinephrine alone, ...

  7. Vasopressin content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles in rats after the afferent vagus nerve fibres stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    Experiments were carried out on male rats in urethane anaesthesia. Cerebroventricular system was perfused with McIlwain-Rodniht`s solution from lateral ventricles to cerebellomedullary cistern. Both vagus nerves were cut and the central ends of the nerves were electrically stimulated during the collection of the third 30-min portion of perfusing fluid. Vasopressin (AVP) was determined by radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (the first portion) and in five successive samples of the perfusing fluid. AVP concentration in the CSF was several times greater than in the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Alternate electrical stimulation of both vagus nerves did not change considerably the release of AVP into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rat, although a certain upward tendency could be observed. It seems that only AVP raised in circulating blood and not in CSF, after vagus nerves stimulation may act on the central nervous structures. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Complement selectively elicits glutamate release from nerve endings in different regions of mammal central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Severi, Paolo; Pittaluga, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Our study was aimed at investigating whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could, in addition to its well-documented post-synaptic activity, also pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in central nervous system (CNS). Complement (dilution 1 : 10 to 1 : 10000) elicited the release of preloaded [(3) H]-d-aspartate ([(3) H]d-ASP) and endogenous glutamate from mouse cortical synaptosomes in a dilution-dependent manner. It also evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse hippocampal, cerebellar, and spinal cord synaptosomes, as well as from rat and human cortical nerve endings, but left unaltered the release of GABA, [(3) H]noradrenaline or [(3) H]acetylcholine. Lowering external Na(+) (from 140 to 40 mM) or Ca(2+) (from 1.2 to 0.1 mM) ions prevented the 1 : 300 complement-evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse cortical synaptosomes. Complement-induced releasing effect was unaltered in synaptosomes entrapped with the Ca(2+) ions chelator 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N', tetra-acetic acid or with pertussis toxin. Nifedipine,/ω-conotoxin GVIA/ω-conotoxin MVIIC mixture as well as the vesicular ATPase blocker bafilomycin A1 were also inefficacious. The excitatory amino acid transporter blocker DL-threo-ß-benzyloxyaspartic acid, on the contrary, reduced the complement-evoked releasing effect in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations afford new insights into the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. We investigated whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our data provide evidence that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings

  9. Central release of nitric oxide mediates antinociception induced by aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, G S; Duarte, I D; Perez, A C

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a soluble gas that participates in important functions of the central nervous system, such as cognitive function, maintenance of synaptic plasticity for the control of sleep, appetite, body temperature, neurosecretion, and antinociception. Furthermore, during exercise large amounts of NO are released that contribute to maintaining body homeostasis. Besides NO production, physical exercise has been shown to induce antinociception. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the central involvement of NO in exercise-induced antinociception. In both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests, central [intrathecal (it) and intracerebroventricular (icv)] pretreatment with inhibitors of the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway (L-NOArg, ODQ, and glybenclamide) prevented the antinociceptive effect induced by aerobic exercise (AE). Furthermore, pretreatment (it, icv) with specific NO synthase inhibitors (L-NIO, aminoguanidine, and L-NPA) also prevented this effect. Supporting the hypothesis of the central involvement of NO in exercise-induced antinociception, nitrite levels in the cerebrospinal fluid increased immediately after AE. Therefore, the present study suggests that, during exercise, the NO released centrally induced antinociception. PMID:25517916

  10. Central release of nitric oxide mediates antinociception induced by aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Galdino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a soluble gas that participates in important functions of the central nervous system, such as cognitive function, maintenance of synaptic plasticity for the control of sleep, appetite, body temperature, neurosecretion, and antinociception. Furthermore, during exercise large amounts of NO are released that contribute to maintaining body homeostasis. Besides NO production, physical exercise has been shown to induce antinociception. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the central involvement of NO in exercise-induced antinociception. In both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests, central [intrathecal (it and intracerebroventricular (icv] pretreatment with inhibitors of the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway (L-NOArg, ODQ, and glybenclamide prevented the antinociceptive effect induced by aerobic exercise (AE. Furthermore, pretreatment (it, icv with specific NO synthase inhibitors (L-NIO, aminoguanidine, and L-NPA also prevented this effect. Supporting the hypothesis of the central involvement of NO in exercise-induced antinociception, nitrite levels in the cerebrospinal fluid increased immediately after AE. Therefore, the present study suggests that, during exercise, the NO released centrally induced antinociception.

  11. Central release of nitric oxide mediates antinociception induced by aerobic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Galdino, G.S.; Duarte, I D; Perez, A C

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a soluble gas that participates in important functions of the central nervous system, such as cognitive function, maintenance of synaptic plasticity for the control of sleep, appetite, body temperature, neurosecretion, and antinociception. Furthermore, during exercise large amounts of NO are released that contribute to maintaining body homeostasis. Besides NO production, physical exercise has been shown to induce antinociception. Thus, the present study aimed to investiga...

  12. Vasopressin V1 receptors contribute to hemodynamic and sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by stimulation of adenosine A2a receptors in NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2006-05-01

    Activation of adenosine A2a receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) decreases mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), whereas increases in preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA) occur, a pattern similar to that observed during hypotensive hemorrhage. Central vasopressin V1 receptors may contribute to posthemorrhagic hypotension and bradycardia. Both V1 and A2a receptors are densely expressed in the NTS, and both of these receptors are involved in cardiovascular control; thus they may interact. The responses elicited by NTS A2a receptors are mediated mostly via nonglutamatergic mechanisms, possibly via release of vasopressin. Therefore, we investigated whether blockade of NTS V1 receptors alters the autonomic response patterns evoked by stimulation of NTS A2a receptors (CGS-21680, 20 pmol/50 nl) in alpha-chloralose-urethane anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, we compared the regional sympathetic responses to microinjections of vasopressin (0.1-100 ng/50 nl) into the NTS. Blockade of V1 receptors reversed the normal decreases in MAP into increases (-95.6 +/- 28.3 vs. 51.4 +/- 15.7 integralDelta%), virtually abolished the decreases in HR (-258.3 +/- 54.0 vs. 18.9 +/- 57.8 integralDeltabeats/min) and RSNA (-239.3 +/- 47.4 vs. 15.9 +/- 36.1 integralDelta%), and did not affect the increases in pre-ASNA (279.7 +/- 48.3 vs. 233.1 +/- 54.1 integralDelta%) evoked by A2a receptor stimulation. The responses partially returned toward normal values approximately 90 min after the blockade. Microinjections of vasopressin into the NTS evoked dose-dependent decreases in HR and RSNA and variable MAP and pre-ASNA responses with a tendency toward increases. We conclude that the decreases in MAP, HR, and RSNA in response to NTS A2a receptor stimulation may be mediated via release of vasopressin from neural terminals in the NTS. The differential effects of NTS V1 and A2a receptors on

  13. Clock-driven vasopressin neurotransmission mediates anticipatory thirst prior to sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizowski, C; Zaelzer, C; Bourque, C W

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms have evolved to anticipate and adapt animals to the constraints of the earth's 24-hour light cycle. Although the molecular processes that establish periodicity in clock neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are well understood, the mechanisms by which axonal projections from the central clock drive behavioural rhythms are unknown. Here we show that the sleep period in mice (Zeitgeber time, ZT0-12) is preceded by an increase in water intake promoted entirely by the central clock, and not motivated by physiological need. Mice denied this surge experienced significant dehydration near the end of the sleep period, indicating that this water intake contributes to the maintenance of overnight hydromineral balance. Furthermore, this effect relies specifically on the activity of SCN vasopressin (VP) neurons that project to thirst neurons in the OVLT (organum vasculosum lamina terminalis), where VP is released as a neurotransmitter. SCN VP neurons become electrically active during the anticipatory period (ZT21.5-23.5), and depolarize and excite OVLT neurons through the activation of postsynaptic VP V1a receptors and downstream non-selective cation channels. Optogenetic induction of VP release before the anticipatory period (basal period; ZT19.5-21.5) excited OVLT neurons and prompted a surge in water intake. Conversely, optogenetic inhibition of VP release during the anticipatory period inhibited the firing of OVLT neurons and prevented the corresponding increase in water intake. Our findings reveal the existence of anticipatory thirst, and demonstrate this behaviour to be driven by excitatory peptidergic neurotransmission mediated by VP release from central clock neurons. PMID:27680940

  14. Clinical review: Vasopressin and terlipressin in septic shock patients

    OpenAIRE

    Delmas, Anne; Leone, Marc; Rousseau, Sébastien; Albanèse, Jacques; Martin, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) is emerging as a potentially major advance in the treatment of septic shock. Terlipressin (tricyl-lysine-vasopressin) is the synthetic, long-acting analogue of vasopressin, and has comparable pharmacodynamic but different pharmacokinetic properties. Vasopressin mediates vasoconstriction via V1 receptor activation on vascular smooth muscle. Septic shock first causes a transient early increase in blood vasopressin concentrations; these concentrations subsequen...

  15. The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in central nervous system activity and mental disorders [Rola oksytocyny i wazopresyny w czynności ośrodkowego układu nerwowego i w zaburzeniach psychicznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójciak, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin and vasopressin, “peptides of love and fear”, except for their classic role in control of labor and breastfeeding and blood pressure regulation, are also implicated in various processes like sexual behaviours, social recognition and stress response. These hormones seems to be essential for appropriate and beneficial social interactions, play a very important role in maternal care and closeness, promote general trust and cooperation and prolong social memory. They also play a very important role in modulating fear and anxiety response, especially by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and amygdala activity by its projections to the brain stem and hypothalamic structures. Both hormones, particularly oxytocin, appears to be activating sexual behaviour or is responsible for increased sexual arousal. Evidence from clinical trials suggests their potential role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, depression, autism and addiction together with possible therapeutic use in the above conditions. In schizophrenia, patients with higher peripheral oxytocin levels showed less severe positive, general and social symptoms and better prosocial behaviours. Literature suggests that exogenous oxytocin may be effective as an adjunctive therapy for that illness. Some data suggest that naturally occurring autoantibodies reacting with oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in depression, eating disorders and conduct disorder genesis.

  16. Absence of progestin receptors alters distribution of vasopressin fibers but not sexual differentiation of vasopressin system in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rood, B.D.; Murray, E.K.; LaRoche, J.; Yang, M K; Blaustein, J.D.; de Vries, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal estrogens increase the number of vasopressin-expressing cells and the density of vasopressin-immunoreactive fibers observed in adult male rodents. The mechanism of action of estrogens on sexual differentiation of the extra-hypothalamic vasopressin system is unknown. We hypothesized that the sexually dimorphic expression of progestin receptors (PRs) during development would masculinize vasopressin expression in mice. We compared the number of vasopressin-expressing cells in the bed n...

  17. Neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in pigs, CRH and vasopressin in the paraventricular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in coping strategy present at birth as well as housing conditions may influence autonomic and endocrine stress responses.In rodents,corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) signaling in the

  18. The radioimmunological determination of vasopressin in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin, which can be used for the quantitative measurement of the urinary excretion of the hormone in man during physiological and pathological conditions. The final RIA method, using approximately 5 pg 125I-AVP diluted (1 : 50,000) antiserum 121 and charcoal-dextran separation of the antibody-bound and free fractions, is found to be specific for vasopressin and closely related substances; the sensitivity is 9 pg. The validity is demonstrated and the results of measurements of vasopressin excretion in urine from 39 normal subjects, including 4 children are presented. (Auth.)

  19. CSF and plasma vasopressin concentrations in dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, P S; Hammer, M.; Vorstrup, S; Gjerris, F.

    1983-01-01

    In 16 patients with primary degenerative dementia mean CSF vasopressin concentration was lower (0.9 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM)) than in 28 control patients (1.3 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- SEM)) (p less than 0.01). In 18 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and potentially reversible dementia mean CSF vasopressin concentration (1.2 pg/ml +/- 0.1 (mean +/- SEM)) was not different from that found in controls. Several of the demented patients had inappropriate plasma vasopressin concentrations su...

  20. Role of heme-oxygenase pathway on vasopressin deficiency during endotoxemic shock-like conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreto, Viviana; Stabile, Angelita Maria; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Carnio, Evelin Capellari

    2006-11-01

    The septic shock is characterized by decrease in median arterial pressure; many researchers have been related a deficiency in vasopressin release during the septic shock. Lipopolysaccharide administration is used to induce septic shock model in animals. We investigated the heme-oxygenase (HO) inhibition during the endotoxemic shock-like conditions. The LPS administration induced a significant decrease in MAP (-15.4 +/- 1.2 mmHg at second hour, -25.8 +/- 8.7 mmHg at fourth hour, and -22.3 +/- 8.6 mmHg at sixth hour) with a concomitant increase in heart rate (486.3 +/- 55.0, 531.8 +/- 53.8, and 510.0 +/- 55.3 bpm, respectively), a significant decrease in diuresis (from 1.1 +/- 0.7 to 0.4 +/- 0.3/100g body weight at fourth hour), and a transitory decrease in body temperature (from 37.0 +/- 0.5 to 35.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C at second hour). An increase in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentration (from 3.2 +/- 0.9 to 19.0 +/- 5.7 pg/mL at the first hour) occurred in these animals and was present for 2 h after LPS administration, returning close to basal levels thereafter and remaining unchanged until the end of the experiment. When LPS was combined with the i.c.v. administration of HO inhibitor, we observed a sustained increase in plasma AVP concentration, attenuation in the drop of MAP, and increase in antidiuresis induced by LPS treatment. These data suggest that central HO pathway may activate a control mechanism that attenuates AVP secretion during endotoxemia and may consequently regulate the MAP and diuretic output. PMID:17047517

  1. Corticotropin releasing factor and catecholamines enhance glutamatergic neurotransmission in the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2013-07-01

    Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in many behaviors including anxiety, memory consolidation and cardiovascular responses. While these behaviors can be modulated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and catecholamine signaling, the mechanism(s) by which these signals modify CeA glutamatergic neurotransmission remains unclear. Utilizing whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology recordings from neurons in the lateral subdivision of the CeA (CeAL), we show that CRF, dopamine (DA) and the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO) all enhance the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) without altering sEPSC kinetics, suggesting they increase presynaptic glutamate release. The effect of CRF on sEPSCs was mediated by a combination of CRFR1 and CRFR2 receptors. While previous work from our lab suggests that CRFRs mediate the effect of catecholamines on excitatory transmission in other subregions of the extended amygdala, blockade of CRFRs in the CeAL failed to significantly alter effects of DA and ISO on glutamatergic transmission. These findings suggest that catecholamine and CRF enhancement of glutamatergic transmission onto CeAL neurons occurs via distinct mechanisms. While CRF increased spontaneous glutamate release in the CeAL, CRF caused no significant changes to optogenetically evoked glutamate release in this region. The dissociable effects of CRF on different types of glutamatergic neurotransmission suggest that CRF may specifically regulate spontaneous excitatory transmission.

  2. Presynaptic Release-Regulating mGlu1 Receptors in Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaluga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors consists of mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor subtypes. These receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), where they preferentially mediate facilitatory signaling in neurones and glial cells, mainly by favoring phospholipase (PLC) translocation. Based on the literature so far available, group I Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are preferentially expressed at the postsynaptic side of chemical synapsis, where they participate in the progression of the chemical stimulus. Studies, however, have shown the presence of these receptors also at the presynaptic level, where they exert several functions, including the modulation of transmitter exocytosis. Presynaptic Group I mGluRs can be both autoreceptors regulating release of glutamate and heteroreceptors regulating the release of various transmitters, including GABA, dopamine, noradrenaline, and acetylcholine. While the existence of presynaptic release-regulating mGlu5 receptors is largely recognized, the possibility that mGlu1 receptors also are present at this level has been a matter of discussion for a long time. A large body of evidence published in the last decade, however, supports this notion. This review aims at revisiting the data from in vitro studies concerning the existence and the role of release-regulating mGlu1 receptors presynaptically located in nerve terminals isolated from selected regions of the CNS. The functional interaction linking mGlu5 and mGlu1 receptor subtypes at nerve terminals and their relative contributions as modulators of central transmission will also be discussed. We apologize in advance for omission in our coverage of the existing literature. PMID:27630571

  3. Gonadothropin-releasing hormone agonist as a treatment of choice for central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R.L. Batubara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Precocious puberty is defi ned as pubertal development which occurs too early. The age limit in this term is based on the onset of puberty in normal population. Some points have to be taken into account, such as ethnicity, gender, nutritional conditions, and secular trends. In girls, precocious puberty is defi ned by breast development occured before 8 years old. In boys, precocious puberty is defi ned as gonadarche or pubarche before 9 years of age. The clinical course of precocious puberty varies widely, ranging from alternating, slowly progressive, and rapidly progressive    form. The rapidly progressive forms of idiopathic central precocious puberty need to be treated because it may result in early epiphyseal closure and short fi nal height, and also pyschosocial problems in the affected children and the family. The aims of treatment are to arrest physical maturation, prevent early menarche, and also improve adult height combined with normal body proportions. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty. Gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue has suppressive effect on the pituitarygonadal axis, therefore it suppresses LH secretion. This leads to the return of estradiol and testosterone to prepubertal levels. Treatment using gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue is shown to reduce breast size, pubic hair, ovarian and uterine size in girls, and decrease testicular size in boys. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is effective in halting progression of secondary sexual characteristics development, presenting menstrual cycle, slowing bone-age advancement, and also improving fi nal height. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:287-92Keywords: gonadache, GRH analogue, pubarche , precocious puberty

  4. Locus Ceruleus Norepinephrine Release: A Central Regulator of CNS Spatio-Temporal Activation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Marco; Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C; Saderi, Nadia; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Treviño, Mario; Pineda, Juan C; Salgado, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework. Since three main families of NE receptors are represented-in order of decreasing affinity for the catecholamine-by: α2 adrenoceptors (α2Rs, high affinity), α1 adrenoceptors (α1Rs, intermediate affinity), and β adrenoceptors (βRs, low affinity), on a pharmacological basis, and on the ground of recent studies on cellular and systemic central noradrenergic effects, we propose that an increase in LC tonic activity promotes the emergence of four global states covering the whole spectrum of brain activation: (1) sleep: virtual absence of NE, (2) quiet wake: activation of α2Rs, (3) active wake/physiological stress: activation of α2- and α1-Rs, (4) distress: activation of α2-, α1-, and β-Rs. We postulate that excess intensity and/or duration of states (3) and (4) may lead to maladaptive plasticity, causing-in turn-a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression, schizophrenic psychoses, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit. The interplay between tonic and phasic LC activity identified in the LC in relationship with behavioral response is of critical importance in defining the short- and long-term biological mechanisms associated with the basic states postulated for the CNS. While the model has the potential to explain a large

  5. Locus Ceruleus Norepinephrine Release: A Central Regulator of CNS Spatio-Temporal Activation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Marco; Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C.; Saderi, Nadia; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Treviño, Mario; Pineda, Juan C.; Salgado, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework. Since three main families of NE receptors are represented—in order of decreasing affinity for the catecholamine—by: α2 adrenoceptors (α2Rs, high affinity), α1 adrenoceptors (α1Rs, intermediate affinity), and β adrenoceptors (βRs, low affinity), on a pharmacological basis, and on the ground of recent studies on cellular and systemic central noradrenergic effects, we propose that an increase in LC tonic activity promotes the emergence of four global states covering the whole spectrum of brain activation: (1) sleep: virtual absence of NE, (2) quiet wake: activation of α2Rs, (3) active wake/physiological stress: activation of α2- and α1-Rs, (4) distress: activation of α2-, α1-, and β-Rs. We postulate that excess intensity and/or duration of states (3) and (4) may lead to maladaptive plasticity, causing—in turn—a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression, schizophrenic psychoses, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit. The interplay between tonic and phasic LC activity identified in the LC in relationship with behavioral response is of critical importance in defining the short- and long-term biological mechanisms associated with the basic states postulated for the CNS. While the model has the potential to explain a

  6. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly

  7. In vitro desensitization of isolated nephron segments to vasopressin.

    OpenAIRE

    Dublineau, I; Pradelles, P.; de Rouffignac, C.; Elalouf, J M

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that in vivo administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin, an analog of arginine-8-vasopressin, induces homologous desensitization to vasopressin in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Desensitization has been documented by a decreased physiological response to vasopressin in vivo and by a reduced cAMP accumulation in the cortical thick ascending limb (CTAL). By measuring cAMP content in single isolated medullary thick ascending limbs (MTALs...

  8. Multiple sites of vasopressin synthesis in the injured brain

    OpenAIRE

    Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Zink, Brian J.; Chodobski, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the primary targets for vasopressin actions on the injured brain are the cerebrovascular endothelium and astrocytes, and that vasopressin amplifies the posttraumatic production of proinflammatory mediators. Here, the controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury in rats was used to identify the sources of vasopressin in the injured brain. Injury increased vasopressin synthesis in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex adjacent to the posttraumat...

  9. Vasopressin in plasma and CSF of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, H. M.; Ang, V; Jenkins, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin was measured in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 42 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Increased concentrations of vasopressin were present in 10 patients, of whom eight had bled from an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. In three patients high blood vasopressin values were associated with gross hyponatraemia. Five patients were found to have increased CSF vasopressin concentrations in the presence of normal plasma values and in all of these the level ...

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, P S; Gjerris, A; Hammer, M.

    1985-01-01

    Vasopressin was determined in CSF and plasma of 243 patients with different neurological and psychiatric disorders, including control patients. CSF vasopressin was significantly higher in patients with high pressure hydrocephalus, intracranial tumour, benign intracranial hypertension, intracranial haemorrhage, ischaemic stroke, and craniocerebral trauma. In patients with primary degenerative dementia, CSF vasopressin was lower than in control patients. Among patients with psychiatric disorder...

  11. Post-release survival and movements patterns of roosterfish (Nematistius pectoralis off the Central American coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugey A Sepulveda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic telemetry was used to assess immediate post-release survival and track the short-term movement patterns of roosterfish Nematistius pectoralis between 2008 and 2010. Seven roosterfish (85 to 146 cm fork length, FL were continuously tracked along the Central American coastline for periods of up to 28 h following capture on recreational fishing tackle. All seven roosterfish were initially captured and spent the duration of the track period proximal to the coastline in waters <100 m of depth. From depth records and horizontal movements, it was determined that all seven roosterfish survived the acute effects of capture. The greatest depth achieved by any of the tracked individuals was 62 m and collectively roosterfish spent over 90% of the track records between the surface and 12 m. For all tracks, fish size showed no effect on maximum or average dive depth and the average day (7 ± 2 m and night (6 ± 2 m depths were similar among individuals. Mean water temperature for all tracks was 28 ± 1°C, with the lowest temperature experienced at depth being 23°C. Total horizontal movements from the roosterfish in this study ranged from 14.7 to 42.2 km and averaged 1.5 ± 0.4 km h-1. Data on movements in relation to bathymetry, prey presence and habitat structure are discussed. Collectively, these data provide insight into the immediate post-release disposition and short-term movements of this poorly studied species along the coast of Central America.

  12. Examining the role of vasopressin in the modulation of parental and sexual behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josi Maria eZimmermann-Peruzatto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin (VP and VP-like neuropeptides are evolutionarily stable peptides found in all vertebrate species. In non-mammalian vertebrates, vasotocin (VT plays a role similar to mammalian VP, whereas mesotocin and isotocin are functionally similar to mammalian oxytocin (OT. Here, we review the involvement of VP in brain circuits, synaptic plasticity, evolution, and function, highlighting the role of VP in social behavior. In all studied species, VP is encoded on chromosome 20p13, and in mammals, VP is produced in specific hypothalamic nuclei and released by the posterior pituitary. The role of VP is mediated by the stimulation of the V1a, V2, and V1b receptors, as well as the oxytocinergic and purinergic receptors. VT and VP functions are usually related to osmotic and cardiovascular homeostasis when acting peripherally. However, these neuropeptides are also critically involved in the central modulation of social behavior displays, such as pairing recognition, pair-bonding, social memory, sexual behavior, parental care, maternal and aggressive behavior. Evidence suggests that these effects are primarily mediated by V1a receptor in specific brain circuits that provide important information for the onset and control of social behaviors in normal and pathological conditions.

  13. Effects of pituitary beta-endorphin secretagogues on the concentration of beta-endorphin in rat cerebrospinal fluid : evidence for a role of vasopressin in the regulation of brain beta-endorphin release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barna, I; Sweep, C G; Veldhuis, H D; Wiegant, V M; De Wied, D

    1990-01-01

    The concentration of beta-endorphin-immunoreactivity (beta E-IR) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of rats was determined following intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment of conscious animals with substances known to stimulate the release of beta E and other pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derive

  14. Bromine release during Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kutterolf, S.; Appel, K.; Freundt, A.; Perez-Fernandez, W.; Wehrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) have produced at least 72 highly explosive eruptions within the last 200 ka. The eruption columns of all these “Plinian” eruptions reached well into the stratosphere such that their released volatiles may have influenced atmospheric chemistry and climate. While previous research has focussed on the sulfur and chlorine emissions during such large eruptions, we here present measurements of the heavy halogen bromine by means of synchrotron radiation induced micro-XRF microanalysis (SR-XRF) with typical detection limits at 0.3 ppm (in Fe rich standard basalt ML3B glass). Spot analyses of pre-eruptive glass inclusions trapped in minerals formed in magma reservoirs were compared with those in matrix glasses of the tephras, which represent the post-eruptive, degassed concentrations. The concentration difference between inclusions and matrix glasses, multiplied by erupted magma mass determined by extensive field mapping, yields estimates of the degassed mass of bromine. Br is probably hundreds of times more effective in destroying ozone than Cl, and can accumulate in the stratosphere over significant time scales. Melt inclusions representing deposits of 22 large eruptions along the CAVA have Br contents between 0.5 and 13 ppm. Br concentrations in matrix glasses are nearly constant at 0.4 to 1.5 ppm. However, Br concentrations and Cl/Br ratios vary along the CAVA. The highest values of Br contents (>8 ppm) and lowest Cl/Br ratios (170 to 600) in melt inclusions occur across central Nicaragua and southern El Salvador, and correlate with bulk-rock compositions of high Ba/La > 85 as well as low La/Yb discharged 700 kilotons of Br. On average, each of the remaining 21 CAVA eruptions studied have discharged c.100 kilotons of bromine. During the past 200 ka, CAVA volcanoes have emitted a cumulative mass of 3.2 Mt of Br through highly explosive eruptions. There are six periods in the past (c. 2ka, 6ka, 25ka, 40ka, 60ka, 75

  15. Cocaine serves as a peripheral interoceptive conditioned stimulus for central glutamate and dopamine release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy A Wise

    Full Text Available Intravenous injections of cocaine HCl are habit-forming because, among their many actions, they elevate extracellular dopamine levels in the terminal fields of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. This action, thought to be very important for cocaine's strong addiction liability, is believed to have very short latency and is assumed to reflect rapid brain entry and pharmacokinetics of the drug. However, while intravenous cocaine HCl has almost immediate effects on behavior and extracellular dopamine levels, recent evidence suggests that its central pharmacological effects are not evident until 10 or more seconds after IV injection. Thus the immediate effects of a given intravenous cocaine injection on extracellular dopamine concentration and behavior appear to occur before there is sufficient time for cocaine to act centrally as a dopamine uptake inhibitor. To explore the contribution of peripheral effects of cocaine to the early activation of the dopamine system, we used brain microdialysis to measure the effects of cocaine methiodide (MI--a cocaine analogue that does not cross the blood brain barrier--on glutamate (excitatory input to the dopamine cells. IP injections of cocaine MI were ineffective in cocaine-naïve animals but stimulated ventral tegmental glutamate release in rats previously trained to lever-press for cocaine HCl. This peripherally triggered glutamate input was sufficient to reinstate cocaine-seeking in previously trained animals that had undergone extinction of the habit. These findings offer an explanation for short-latency behavioral responses and immediate dopamine elevations seen following cocaine injections in cocaine-experienced but not cocaine-naïve animals.

  16. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  17. Hyponatraemia in imported malaria: the pathophysiological role of vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoorn Ewout J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the pathophysiology of hyponatraemia in malaria, the relative contribution of appropriate and inappropriate arginine vasopressin (AVP release is unknown; the trigger for inappropriate AVP release is also unknown. Methods Serum copeptin, a stable and sensitive marker for AVP release, was analysed in a large cohort of patients with imported malaria (204 patients and in a small prospective substudy (23 patients in which urine sodium and osmolality were also available. Hyponatraemia was classified as mild (serum sodium 131-134 mmol/l and moderate-to-severe ( Results Serum copeptin on admission was higher in patients with moderate-to-severe hyponatraemia (median 18.5 pmol/L compared with normonatraemic patients (12.7 pmol/L, p p s = -0.17, p = 0.017. Stronger correlations were identified between serum C-reactive protein and copeptin (rs = -0.36, p s = 0.33, p Conclusions In hyponatraemic patients with imported malaria, AVP release was uniformly increased and was either appropriate or inappropriate. Although the exact trigger for inappropriate AVP release remains unknown, the higher body temperatures, correlations with C-reactive protein and long normalization times of serum sodium, suggest an important role of the host inflammatory response to the invading malaria parasite.

  18. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Microinfusion in the Central Amygdala Enhances Active Behaviour Responses in the Conditioned Defensive Burying Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is known to be involved in the regulation of autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioural responses in stress situations. The CeA contains large numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) cell bodies, terminals and functional recognition sites. In the pr

  19. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulation of the neural correlates of motivation and emotion: results from functional MRI studies in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Ferris, Craig F

    2014-09-11

    Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate a range of species typical behavioral functions that include social recognition, maternal-infant attachment, and modulation of memory, offensive aggression, defensive fear reactions, and reward seeking. We have employed novel functional magnetic resonance mapping techniques in awake rats to explore the roles of these neuropeptides in the maternal and non-maternal brain. Results from the functional neuroimaging studies that are summarized here have directly and indirectly confirmed and supported previous findings. Oxytocin is released within the lactating rat brain during suckling stimulation and activates specific subcortical networks in the maternal brain. Both vasopressin and oxytocin modulate brain regions involved unconditioned fear, processing of social stimuli and the expression of agonistic behaviors. Across studies there are relatively consistent brain networks associated with internal motivational drives and emotional states that are modulated by oxytocin and vasopressin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.

  20. Substances resembling C-terminal vasopressin fragments are present in the brain but not in the pituitary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, D. de; Burbach, J.P.H.; Wang, X.C.; Haaf, J.A. ten

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the endogenous occurrence of vasopressin fragments that have previously been found to be generated in vitro by brain peptidases and to have highly potent central activity, extracts of hypothalamus, hippocampus and the pituitary gland were fractionated by high pressure liquid

  1. Bench-to-bedside review: Vasopressin in the management of septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This review of vasopressin in septic shock differs from previous reviews by providing more information on the physiology and pathophysiology of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors, particularly because of recent interest in more specific AVPR1a agonists and new information from the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial (VASST), a randomized trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine in septic shock. Relevant literature regarding vasopressin and other AVPR1a agonists was reviewed and synthesize...

  2. Interaction of a vasopressin antagonist with vasopressin receptors in the septum of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsa, D.M.; Brot, M.D.; Shewey, L.M.; Meyers, K.M.; Szot, P.; Miller, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)-arginine-8-vasopressin, an antagonist of peripheral pressoric (V1-type) vasopressin receptors, to label vasopressin binding sites in the septum of the rat brain was evaluated. Using crude membrane preparations from the septum, /sup 3/H-arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) specifically labels a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 2.9 nM and maximum binding site concentration of 19.8 fmole/mg protein. /sup 3/H-Antag also labels a single class of membrane sites but with higher affinity (Kd = 0.47 nM) and lower capacity (10.1 fmole/mg protein) than /sup 3/H-AVP. The rank order of potency of various competitor peptides for /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag binding was similar. Oxytocin was 100-1,000 fold less potent than AVP in competing for binding with both ligands. /sup 3/H-AVP and /sup 3/H-Antag showed similar labeling patterns when incubated with septal tissue slices. Unlabeled Antag also effectively antagonized vasopressin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in septal tissue slices.

  3. Human Neuroimaging of Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Caroline F; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have increasingly been identified as modulators of human social behaviors and associated with neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by social dysfunction, such as autism. Identifying the human brain regions that are impacted by oxytocin and vasopressin in a social context is essential to fully characterize the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in complex human social cognition. Advances in human non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and genetics hav...

  4. Age dependency of vasopressin pulmonary vasodilatory effect in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Masahiro; Pan, Jingyi; Shifrin, Yulia; Belik, Jaques

    2013-01-01

    Background Vasopressin is a systemic vasoconstrictor. Its pulmonary vasodilatory effect is controversial and limited data are available on its use in neonates with pulmonary hypertension. Hypothesizing that the vasopressin-induced pulmonary vasodilation is developmentally regulated, we evaluated its pulmonary and systemic arterial response in newborn and adult rats. Methods Vessels were mounted on a wire myograph and the vasopressin-induced changes in vasomotor tone measured. The vessel- and ...

  5. Nitric oxide inhibition sustains vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction.

    OpenAIRE

    Dworkin, M. J.; Carnochan, P.; Allen-Mersh, T G

    1995-01-01

    Hepatic parenchymal vasoconstriction increases cytotoxic drug uptake into hepatic metastases by increasing the tumour to liver blood flow ratio. Prolonged infusion of the vasoconstrictor vasopressin does not result in sustained vasoconstriction, and this may limit the benefit of vasopressin in infusional chemotherapy. We have assessed whether loss of vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction is mediated by nitric oxide. Hepatic and tumour blood flow were continuously monitored, in an animal hepati...

  6. On sepsis, troponin and vasopressin: the bitter truth

    OpenAIRE

    Gradwohl-Matis, Ilse; Dünser, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    One of the rationales for the use of vasopressin in septic shock has been its potential cardioprotective mechanisms. Lower heart rates, higher arterial pressures, and fewer norepinephrine doses during vasopressin therapy were hypothesized to protect the heart from myocardial ischemia. In a prospective sub-study of the VASST (Vasopressin in Septic Shock Trial) project, Mehta and colleagues specifically evaluated this hypothesis but failed to find lower cardiac biomarkers or fewer ischemic elec...

  7. Importance of amino acids on vasopressin-stimulated water flow.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvounis, C P; Carvounis, G; Wilk, B J

    1985-01-01

    The presence of several naturally occurring amino acids in the serosal bath of toad urinary bladder significantly alters the hydrosmotic response of this tissue to vasopressin. We found that histidine, glutamate, and lysine increase vasopressin-stimulated water flow by 75%, 60%, and 43%, respectively. In contrast, alanine did not alter vasopressin-stimulated water flow, whereas glutamine decreased it by 25%. The effect of each amino acid represents intracellular events because their effects o...

  8. Vasopressin and stress-induced antinociception in the mouse.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, S. L.; Oluyomi, A. O.

    1990-01-01

    1. Arginine vasopressin produced antinociception in the hot-plate test after intracerebroventricular injection (0.5 micrograms) and in the acetic acid abdominal constriction test after intraperitoneal injection (0.1 mg kg-1). 2. The antinociception produced by arginine vasopressin was sensitive to deamino(CH2)5Tyr(Me) arginine vasopressin (0.5 micrograms i.c.v.; 0.1 mg kg-1 i.p.) but not to naloxone (5 micrograms i.c.v.; 2 mg kg-1 i.p.) 3. Arginine vasopressin when administered by the intrace...

  9. Vasopressin decreases neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonar y resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Ma; Zhe Zhu; Xu Wang; Gang Zhao; Xiaoliang Liu; Rui Li

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council recently recommend-ed that vasopressin can be used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, instead of epinephrine. However, the guidelines do not discuss the effects of vasopressin during cerebral resuscitation. In this study, we intraperitoneally injected epinephrine and/or vasopressin during cardiopul-monary resuscitation in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. The results demonstrated that, compared with epinephrine alone, the pathological damage to nerve cells was lessened, and the levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 expression were signiifcantly decreased in the hippo-campus after treatment with vasopressin alone or the vasopressin and epinephrine combination. No signiifcant difference in resuscitation effects was detected between vasopressin alone and the vasopressin and epinephrine combination. These results suggest that vasopressin alone or the vasopressin and epinephrine combination suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways and reduce neuronal apoptosis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  10. Oxytocin and vasopressin: distinct receptors in myometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, G.; Balestre, M.N.; Roberts, J.M.; Bottari, S.P.

    1987-06-01

    The binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)oxytocin (( /sup 3/H)OT) and (/sup 3/H)lysine vasopressin (( /sup 3/H)LVP) to nonpregnant human myometrium were investigated. Binding of both radioligands was saturable, time dependent, and reversible. Whereas (/sup 3/H)OT was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity (Kd, 1.5 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) nM) and low capacity (maximum binding (Bmax), 34 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein), (/sup 3/H)LVP bound to two classes of sites, one with high affinity (Kd, 2.2 +/- 0.1 nM) and low capacity (Bmax, 198 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein) and another with low affinity (Kd, 655 +/- 209 nM) and high capacity (Bmax, 5794 +/- 1616 fmol/mg protein). The binding of the labeled peptides also displayed a marked difference in sensitivity to Mg2+ and guanine nucleotides. These differences in binding characteristics as well as the differences in potency of analogs in competing for (/sup 3/H)OT and (/sup 3/H)LVP binding indicate the presence of distinct receptors for OT and vasopressin in human myometrium. Pharmacological characterization of the high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)LVP indicated that these are of the V1 subtype. Although, as suggested by others, vasopressin and OT can bind to the same sites, the presence of distinct receptors for both peptides provides an explanation for the previously reported difference in myometrial responsiveness to OT and vasopressin.

  11. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase attenuates vasopressin-dependent Ca2+ signaling in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sandip; Gaspers, Lawrence D; Boucherie, Sylviane; Memin, Elisabeth; Stellato, Kerri Anne; Guillon, Gilles; Combettes, Laurent; Thomas, Andrew P

    2002-09-13

    Increases in both Ca(2+) and nitric oxide levels are vital for a variety of cellular processes; however, the interaction between these two crucial messengers is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in hepatocytes, in response to inflammatory mediators, dramatically attenuates Ca(2+) signaling by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-forming hormone, vasopressin. The inhibitory effects of induction were reversed by nitric oxide inhibitors and mimicked by prolonged cyclic GMP elevation. Induction was without effect on Ca(2+) signals in response to AlF(4)(-) or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, indicating that phospholipase C activation and release of Ca(2+) from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca(2+) stores were not targets for nitric oxide inhibition. Vasopressin receptor levels, however, were dramatically reduced in induced cultures. Our data provide a possible mechanism for hepatocyte dysfunction during chronic inflammation. PMID:12097323

  12. Vasopressin and sympathetic system mediate the cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin II in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Ali; Kafami, Marzieh

    2016-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is involved in cardiovascular regulation. The angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor (AT1), and angiotensinogen were found in the BST. In our previous study we found that microinjection of Ang II into the BST produced a pressor response. This study was performed to find the mechanisms mediating this response in anesthetized rats. Ang II was microinjected into the BST and the cardiovascular responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a blocker of autonomic or vasopressin V1 receptor. The ganglionic nicotinic receptor blocker, hexamethonium dichloride, attenuated the pressor response to Ang II, indicating that the cardiovascular sympathetic system is involved in the pressor effect of Ang II. A selective vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist greatly attenuated the pressor effect of Ang II, indicating that the Ang II increases the arterial pressure via stimulation of vasopressin release as well. In conclusion, in the BST, Ang II as a neurotransmitter increases blood pressure by exciting cardiovascular sympathetic system and directly or indirectly causing vasopressin to release into bloodstream by VPN. This is an interesting new finding that not only circulating Ang II but also brain Ang II makes vasopressin release.

  13. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric

  14. Vasopressin and the Output of the Hypothalamic Biological Clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kalsbeek; E. Fliers; M.A. Hofman; D.F. Swaab; R.M. Buijs

    2010-01-01

    The physiological effects of vasopressin as a peripheral hormone were first reported more than 100 years ago. However, it was not until the first immunocytochemical studies were carried out in the early 1970s, using vasopressin antibodies, and the discovery of an extensive distribution of vasopressi

  15. Resuscitation Using Liposomal Vasopressin in an Animal Model of Uncontrolled Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tse Gabriel Lee

    Full Text Available Current research suggests that administration of vasopressin to patients with uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS can avoid the detrimental effects associated with aggressive fluid resuscitation. However, vasopressin has a short half-life of 10~35 minutes in in vivo use and precludes its use in the pre-hospital setting. To increase the half-life of vasopressin, we proposed to synthesize liposome-encapsulated vasopressin and test it in a rat model of UHS.The film hydration method was used to prepare liposomal vasopressin consisting of: Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (20:20:1 mole ratio. 42 rats were subjected to UHS and randomly received 5 different treatments (vasopressin, liposomal vasopressin, lactate ringer (LR, liposome only and sham. Outcome of UHS were measured using 4 common prognostic tests: mean arterial pressure (MAP, serum lactate level, inflammatory profile and pulmonary edema.The dynamic light scattering results confirmed that we had prepared a successful liposomal vasopressin complex. Comparing the serum vasopressin concentration of liposomal vasopressin and vasopressin treated animals by ELISA, we found that the concentration of vasopressin for the liposomal vasopressin treated group is higher at 60 minutes. However, there was no significant difference between the MAP profile of rats treated with vasopressin and liposomal vasopressin in UHS. We also observed that animals treated with liposomal vasopressin performed indifferently to vasopressin treated rats in serum lactate level, inflammatory profile and edema profile. For most of our assays, the liposome only control behaves similarly to LR resuscitation in UHS rats.We have synthesized a liposomal vasopressin complex that can prolong the serum concentration of vasopressin in a rat model of UHS. Although UHS rats treated with either liposomal vasopressin or vasopressin showed no statistical differences, it would be worthwhile

  16. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  17. Effect of the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-hui TANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP, Chinese Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI, and Wan Fang Digital Journal Full-text Database were retrieved to collect clinical randomized controlled trials of hepatic cirrhosis with ascites treated by selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists. Meta analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0. Results Nine randomized controlled trials including 1884 patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that: 1 The selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists were associated with a significant reduction in body weight compared with placebo (WMD=–1.98kg, 95%CI:–3.24-–0.72kg, P=0.002. Treatment with selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists was associated with an improvement of low serum sodium concentration compared to placebo (WMD=3.74mmol/L, 95%CI: 0.91-6.58mmol/L, P=0.01. The percentage of patients with worsening ascites was higher in the group of patients treated with placebo (RR=0.51, 95%CI: 0.34-0.77, P=0.001. 2 The amplitude of increased urine volume was obviously higher in selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group than in placebo group (WMD=1437.65ml, 95%CI: 649.01-2226.30ml, P=0.0004. The difference of serum creatinine in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group was not statistically significant compared with the control group (WMD=–3.49μmol/L, 95%CI: –12.54¬5.56μmol/L, P=0.45. 3 There was no statistical significance between the two groups in the heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and mortality (P>0.05. The rate of other adverse reactions was higher in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group compared with that of placebo group (P=0.003. Conclusion

  18. ARGININE VASOPRESSIN GENE EXPRESSION IN SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS AND PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMOUS FOLLOWING CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Background. Our previous studies indicated that the increased arginine vasopressin(AVP) in ischemic brain regions of gerbils could exacerbate the ischemic brain edema. This experiments is further clarify the relation between AVP and cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. Methods. The contents of AVP, AVP mRNA, AVP immunoreactive(ir) neurons in supraoptic nucleus(SON)and paraventricular nucleus(PVN) after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion were respectively determined by radioim-munoassay(RIA), immunocytochemistry( Ⅱ C), situ hybridization and computed image pattem analysis. Results. The contents of AVP in SON, PVN were increased, and the AVP ir positive neurons in SON and PVN were also significantly increased as compared with the controls after ischemia and reperfusion. And there were very light staining of AVP ir positive neurons in the other brain areas such as suprachiasmatic nucleus (SC) and periven-tricular hypothalamic nucleus (PE), but these have no significant changes as compared with the controls. During dif-ferent periods of cerebral ischemia (30~ 120 min) and reperfusion (30 min), AVP mRNA expression in SON and PVN were more markedly increased than the controls. Condusions. The transcription of AVP gene elevated, then promoting synthesis and release of AVP in SON,PVN. Under the specific condition of cerebral ischemia and repeffusion, the activity and contents of central AVP in-creased abnormally is one of the important factors which causes ischemia brain damage.

  19. Angiotensin II and vasopressin are involved in the defense system against anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mofei; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Kuda, Yuhichi; Sun, Lingling; Tanida, Mamoru; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2014-05-15

    Anaphylactic shock is sometimes life-threatening, but the defense system against this circulatory failure was not fully understood. Ameliorating roles of angiotensin (ANG) II and vasopressin in anaphylactic hypotension were investigated in anesthetized ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. The sensitized rats were randomly allocated to the following pretreatment groups (n=7/group): (1) control (non-pretreatment), (2) ANG II synthesis inhibitor captopril, (3) ANG II receptor antagonist losartan, and (4) V1a vasopressin receptor antagonist. Anaphylactic shock was induced by an intravenous injection of the antigen. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP) and portal venous blood flow (PBF) were measured, and splanchnic vascular resistance (Rspl: (SAP-PVP)/PBF) was determined. In the control group, SAP markedly decreased, followed by a gradual recovery toward baseline. Rspl transiently decreased immediately after antigen, and then increased 1.5-fold at 15 min and thereafter. The pretreatment with either losartan, captopril or V1a receptor antagonist augmented the initial fall of SAP and attenuated the SAP recovery along with augmentation of the late increase in Rspl. The 2-h survival rate was significantly smaller in either pretreatment group than in the control group (100%). Plasma levels of ANG II and vasopressin increased to 3.8- and 9.8-fold, respectively, at 30 min after antigen in the control group, whereas captopril pretreatment inhibited the increase in ANG II. In conclusion, inhibition of ANG II or vasopressin exacerbates anaphylaxis-induced hypotension in anesthetized rats. PMID:24650734

  20. Differential diagnosis of polyuric/polydipsic syndromes with the aid of urinary vasopressin measurement in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Eckmanns, Tim

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A water deprivation test or a hypertonic saline infusion test with the measurement of plasma osmolality and plasma vasopressin are the gold standard tests in the differential diagnosis of polyuric syndromes. Because commercially available vasopressin kits are too insensitive for this approach, and the concentration of vasopressin in urine is much higher than in plasma, urinary vasopressin measurements may be an alternative to the more difficult plasma vasopressin measurement. DESIG...

  1. Final adult height of girls with central precocious puberty or early and fast puberty could be improved by treatment of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and impact factors of treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs(GnRHa) in central precocious puberty(CPP)or early and fast puberty(EFP)girls in a retrospective unicenter study

  2. Cannabinoid- and lysophosphatidylinositol-sensitive receptor GPR55 boosts neurotransmitter release at central synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylantyev, Sergiy; Jensen, Thomas P; Ross, Ruth A; Rusakov, Dmitri A

    2013-03-26

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55 is sensitive to certain cannabinoids, it is expressed in the brain and, in cell cultures, it triggers mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+). However, the adaptive neurobiological significance of GPR55 remains unknown. Here, we use acute hippocampal slices and combine two-photon excitation Ca(2+) imaging in presynaptic axonal boutons with optical quantal analysis in postsynaptic dendritic spines to find that GPR55 activation transiently increases release probability at individual CA3-CA1 synapses. The underlying mechanism involves Ca(2+) release from presynaptic Ca(2+) stores, whereas postsynaptic stores (activated by spot-uncaging of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) remain unaffected by GPR55 agonists. These effects are abolished by genetic deletion of GPR55 or by the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa. GPR55 shows colocalization with synaptic vesicle protein vesicular glutamate transporter 1 in stratum radiatum. Short-term potentiation of CA3-CA1 transmission after a short train of stimuli reveals a presynaptic, Ca(2+) store-dependent component sensitive to cannabidiol. The underlying cascade involves synthesis of phospholipids, likely in the presynaptic cell, but not the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol or anandamide. Our results thus unveil a signaling role for GPR55 in synaptic circuits of the brain.

  3. Vasopressin: Behavioral Roles of an “Original” Neuropeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Heather K.; Lee, Heon-Jin; Macbeth, Abbe H.; Young, W. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Vasopressin (Avp) is mainly synthesized in the magnocellular cells of the hypothalamic supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) whose axons project to the posterior pituitary. Avp is then released into the blood stream upon appropriate stimulation (e.g., hemorrhage or dehydration) to act at the kidneys and blood vessels. The brain also contains several populations of smaller, parvocellular neurons whose projections remain within the brain. These populations are located within the PVN, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), medial amygdala (MeA) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Since the 1950's, research examining the roles of Avp in the brain and periphery has intensified. The development of specific agonists and antagonists for Avp receptors has allowed for a better elucidation of its contributions to physiology and behavior. Anatomical, pharmacological and transgenic, including “knockout,” animal studies, have implicated Avp in the regulation of various social behaviors across species. Avp plays a prominent role in the regulation of aggression, generally of facilitating or promoting it. Affiliation and certain aspects of pair-bonding are also influenced by Avp. Memory, one of the first brain functions of Avp that was investigated, has been implicated especially strongly in social recognition. The roles of Avp in stress, anxiety, and depressive states are areas of active exploration. In this review, we concentrate on the scientific progress that has been made on understanding the role of Avp in regulating of these and other behaviors across species, as well as discuss the implications for human behavior. PMID:18053631

  4. When social preferences and anxiety drive behavior and vasopressin does not – An neuroeconomic analysis of vasopressin and the Hawk-Dove game –

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Brunnlieb; Stephan Schosser; Bodo Vogt

    2015-01-01

    We delineated the causal influence of vasopressin on behavior in an iterated Hawk-Dove game. While subjects treated with vasopressin tend to be more aggressive in response to group members who did not coordinate on equilibrium instantaneously, this effect vanishes as soon as the subjects reach an equilibrium. More than vasopressin, social preferences and trait anxiety of the subjects predict the observed behavior.

  5. Drought-induced sulphate release from a wetland in south-central Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimers, M Catherine; Watmough, Shaun A; Buttle, James M; Dillon, Peter J

    2007-04-01

    Increased sulphate (SO(4)) export from wetlands following summer droughts in central Ontario, Canada has been associated with the delayed chemical recovery of downstream surface waters following decreased sulphur (S) emissions. Prolonged summer droughts result in a decrease or cessation of stream flow, declines in wetland water table level and oxidation of reduced S compounds to SO(4), which is subsequently flushed into drainage streams when stream flow resumes. Sulphate input-output budget calculations (1983-1995 and 1999-2001) at a conifer Sphagnum swamp in the Plastic Lake catchment, indicate that SO(4) is retained in most years but is exported on a net basis following particularly severe summer droughts that result in the cessation of stream flow for more than 54 days (95% CI: 41-72 days). Hindcast calculations using long-term (1916-2000) stream discharge records from a nearby station indicate that while droughts occurred frequently in south-central Ontario over the past 85 years, sufficiently dry conditions to cause net SO(4) export occurred in only 18 of the past 85 years, and indicate a cumulative positive SO(4) balance for the swamp (i.e. net SO(4) retention). Furthermore, the S pool at the Plastic Lake swamp has been estimated to be approximately 1500 kg S/ha in the upper 40 cm peat layer, which is large compared to the amount of net SO(4) export that occurs even in years with particularly dry summers (e.g. -43 kg S/ha in 1987/88). Together, these data suggest that the wetland S pool at Plastic Lake has not been depleted by previous droughts and will continue to sustain episodic drought-related SO(4) export for the foreseeable future.

  6. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  7. Vasopressin vs Terlipressin in Treatment of Refractory Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpati, G; Piazza, O.

    2013-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its synthetic, long-acting analog terlipressin (TP) are potent alternative vasoconstrictors in the treatment of septic patients with catecholamine-refractive vasodilatatory shock. Recent clinical data suggest that early administration of AVP analogues may be advantageous compared to a last resort therapy. However, it is still unknown whether vasopressin and terlipressin are equally effective for hemodynamic support in shock. Despite important pharmacological dif...

  8. Skin microcirculation and vasopressin infusion: a laser Doppler study

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Francis; Vinet, Alain; Verdant, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Use of arginine vasopressin in the management of refractory vasodilatory shock has been associated with development of ischaemic skin lesions. Because of the increasing popularity of arginine vasopressin, it is important to evaluate its effects on microcirculatory blood flow. Such studies are crucial if we are to appreciate the microcirculatory consequences of our various resuscitation strategies. However, methodological issues must always be considered because they can significantly influenc...

  9. Central administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and related peptides inhibits feeding behavior in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Carolyn A; Horan, Tracey L; Schuhler, Sandrine; Bennett, Geoffrey W; Ebling, Francis J P

    2003-04-15

    Centrally acting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), independent of endocrine action, has been shown to regulate several metabolic and behavioral parameters in rats, including food intake and locomotor activity. The present study investigated and compared the effects of central TRH on feeding behavior in Siberian hamsters exposed to long (LP) or short (SP) photoperiods, which induce natural physiological states of obesity and leanness respectively. The effects of two TRH analogues, RX77368 (a metabolically stable TRH analogue) and TRH-Gly (an endogenous precursor to TRH with putative preferential action at the central TRH receptor, TRH-R2), were also investigated. All peptides were infused via the third ventricle (i.c.v.). Food intake was measured, and the proportion of time spent interacting with food, active or resting was scored. TRH (5 microg) significantly reduced food intake without producing associated changes in activity in hamsters maintained in both LP (p hamsters exposed to SP, indicating that there may be an underlying difference in sensitivity to TRH depending on metabolic state. RX77368 (1 microg) produced substantial hypophagia (p < 0.001) and decreased the proportion of time spent interacting with food, but, unlike TRH, may produce this via an increase in locomotor activity. TRH-Gly (5 microg) produced a small decrease in food intake (p < 0.05), lasting for 6 h. We conclude that TRH and TRH analogues possess anorexigenic capacities in this species, with a likely site of action in the hypothalamus. Increased sensitivity to the hypophagic effects of central TRH may contribute to the long-term catabolic state induced by short photoperiods.

  10. Heterologous desensitization of bombesin-induced mitogenesis by prolonged exposure to vasopressin: a post-receptor signal transduction block.

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, J B; Rozengurt, E

    1989-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells to vasopressin prevents mitogenic stimulation on subsequent addition of bombesin. This heterologous desensitization is selective and can be mimicked by vasopressin agonists, including [Lys8]vasopressin and oxytocin but not by the V1-type-specific vasopressin receptor antagonist [Pmp1,O-Me-Tyr2,Arg8]vasopressin [where Pmp is 1-(beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopenthamethylene propionic acid)]. Furthermore, vasopressin-induced loss of responsiveness t...

  11. Seasonal methane accumulation and release from a gas emission site in the central North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Gentz, T.; Körber, J.-H.; Torres, M. E.; Römer, M.; Sahling, H.; Wintersteller, P.; Martinez, R.; Schlüter, M.; Helmke, E.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated dissolved methane distributions along a 6 km transect crossing active seep sites at 40 m water depth in the central North Sea. These investigations were done under conditions of thermal stratification in summer (July 2013) and homogenous water column in winter (January 2014). Dissolved methane accumulated below the seasonal thermocline in summer with a median concentration of 390 nM, whereas during winter, methane concentrations were typically much lower (median concentration of 22 nM). High-resolution methane analysis using an underwater mass-spectrometer confirmed our summer results and was used to document prevailing stratification over the tidal cycle. We contrast estimates of methane oxidation rates (from 0.1 to 4.0 nM day-1) using the traditional approach scaled to methane concentrations with microbial turnover time values and suggest that the scaling to concentration may obscure the ecosystem microbial activity when comparing systems with different methane concentrations. Our measured and averaged rate constants (k') were on the order of 0.01 day-1, equivalent to a turnover time of 100 days, even when summer stratification led to enhanced methane concentrations in the bottom water. Consistent with these observations, we could not detect known methanotrophs and pmoA genes in water samples collected during both seasons. Estimated methane fluxes indicate that horizontal transport is the dominant process dispersing the methane plume. During periods of high wind speed (winter), more methane is lost to the atmosphere than oxidized in the water. Microbial oxidation seems of minor importance throughout the year.

  12. Efficacy of Subcutaneous Administration of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist on Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; WEI Hong; ZHANG Jianling; HOU Ling; LUO Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of subcutaneous administration of Triptorelin with 6-week intervals for the suppression of pituitary-gonadal axis and changes of clinical signs in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP), 46 girls with ICPP were treated with GnRHa.Triptorelin (Decapeptyl, 3.75 mg) was administered subcutaneously (SC) at 6-weeks intervals or intramuscularly (IM) at 4-weeks intervals randomly for more than 12 months consecutively. During GnRHa therapy, clinical parameters and laboratory data, including height, weight, pubertal stage,bone age, uterine volume and ovarian size, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2), were monitored and analyzed. It was found that both treatment regimes led to regression of precocious puberty and reversal of secondary sexual characteristics.Breast developments regressed. Uterine volume was decreased after treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference. Mean ovarian volume did not change significantly during treatment.The height velocity was decreased significantly from 6.3±1.4 cm/year to 5.8±1.2 cm/year in group SC and 6.7±1.3 cm/year to 5.4±1.0 cm/year in group IM, respectively. The rate of bone maturation was reduced significantly during treatment. The ratio of deltaBA/deltaCA was 1.2±0.2 or 1.3±0.3 at the onset of therapy and decreased significantly after the treatment to 0.7±0.2 or 0.9±0.1, respectively.The predicted adult height was increased significantly and progressively during therapy. The levels of serum LH, FSH and E2 returned to the prepubertal condition. No significant side effects of therapy were noted. The most common side effect during SC treatment was that a non-irritating, 1 cm in diameter mass was palpated at the site of subcutaneous injection in the abdominal wall of patients,which disappeared after 6- 12 weeks. Two girls had minimal withdrawal vaginal bleeding episodes after the first injection. It was

  13. Neural circuitry underlying the central hypertensive action of nesfatin-1: melanocortins, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosten, Gina L C; Samson, Willis K

    2014-05-15

    Nesfatin-1 is produced in the periphery and in the brain where it has been demonstrated to regulate appetite, stress hormone secretion, and cardiovascular function. The anorexigenic action of central nesfatin-1 requires recruitment of neurons producing the melanocortins and centrally projecting oxytocin (OT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. We previously have shown that two components of this pathway, the central melanocortin and oxytocin systems, contribute to the hypertensive action of nesfatin-1 as well. We hypothesized that the cardiovascular effect of nesfatin-1 also was dependent on activation of neurons expressing CRH receptors, and that the order of activation of the melanocortin-CRH-oxytocin circuit was preserved for both the anorexigenic and hypertensive actions of the peptide. Pretreatment of male rats with the CRH-2 receptor antagonist astressin2B abrogated nesfatin-1-induced increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Furthermore, the hypertensive action of CRH was blocked by pretreatment with an oxytocin receptor antagonist ornithine vasotocin (OVT), indicating that the hypertensive effect of nesfatin-1 may require activation of oxytocinergic (OTergic) neurons in addition to recruitment of CRH neurons. Interestingly, we found that the hypertensive effect of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) itself was not blocked by either astressin2B or OVT. These data suggest that while α-MSH-producing neurons are part of a core melanocortin-CRH-oxytocin circuit regulating food intake, and a subpopulation of melanocortin neurons activated by nesfatin-1 do mediate the hypertensive action of the peptide, α-MSH can signal independently from this circuit to increase MAP.

  14. Increased arginine vasopressin mRNA expression in the human hypothalamus in depression: A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Meynen; U.A. Unmehopa; J.J. van Heerikhuize; M.A. Hofman; D.F. Swaab; W.J.G. Hoogendijk

    2006-01-01

    Background: Elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) plasma levels have been observed in major depression, particularly in relation to the melancholic subtype. Two hypothalamic structures produce plasma vasopressin: the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The aim of this study

  15. Phasic firing in vasopressin cells: understanding its functional significance through computational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J MacGregor

    Full Text Available Vasopressin neurons, responding to input generated by osmotic pressure, use an intrinsic mechanism to shift from slow irregular firing to a distinct phasic pattern, consisting of long bursts and silences lasting tens of seconds. With increased input, bursts lengthen, eventually shifting to continuous firing. The phasic activity remains asynchronous across the cells and is not reflected in the population output signal. Here we have used a computational vasopressin neuron model to investigate the functional significance of the phasic firing pattern. We generated a concise model of the synaptic input driven spike firing mechanism that gives a close quantitative match to vasopressin neuron spike activity recorded in vivo, tested against endogenous activity and experimental interventions. The integrate-and-fire based model provides a simple physiological explanation of the phasic firing mechanism involving an activity-dependent slow depolarising afterpotential (DAP generated by a calcium-inactivated potassium leak current. This is modulated by the slower, opposing, action of activity-dependent dendritic dynorphin release, which inactivates the DAP, the opposing effects generating successive periods of bursting and silence. Model cells are not spontaneously active, but fire when perturbed by random perturbations mimicking synaptic input. We constructed one population of such phasic neurons, and another population of similar cells but which lacked the ability to fire phasically. We then studied how these two populations differed in the way that they encoded changes in afferent inputs. By comparison with the non-phasic population, the phasic population responds linearly to increases in tonic synaptic input. Non-phasic cells respond to transient elevations in synaptic input in a way that strongly depends on background activity levels, phasic cells in a way that is independent of background levels, and show a similar strong linearization of the response

  16. Vasopressin Modulates Medial Prefrontal Cortex-Amygdala Circuitry During Emotion Processing in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, Caroline F.; Stein, Jason L; Kempf, Lucas; Hakimi, Shabnam; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide, vasopressin, is a modulator of mammalian social behavior and emotion, particularly fear, aggression, and anxiety. In humans, the neural circuitry underlying behavioral effects of vasopressin is unknown. Using a double-blind crossover administration of 40 IU vasopressin or placebo and functional MRI during processing of facial emotions in healthy male volunteers, we show that vasopressin specifically reduces differential activation in the subgenual cingulate cortex. Structura...

  17. Vasopressin induces selective desensitization of its mitogenic response in Swiss 3T3 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, M.K.; Rozengurt, E

    1983-01-01

    Prior incubation of quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells with vasopressin leads to loss of mitogenic stimulation on its subsequent addition in the presence of a synergistic growth factor. This desensitization is selective for vasopressin, requires prolonged incubation (half-maximal desensitization after 12 hr of treatment) for its induction, and is reversed after a 48-hr incubation in the absence of vasopressin. It is elicited by concentrations of vasopressin, and several analogues, similar ...

  18. Facilitated Secretion of Pressor Amounts of Vasopressin in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iriuchijima, Juro

    1984-01-01

    Vasopressin antagonist, which antagonizes pressor effect of vasopressin, was injected to spontaneously hypertensive rats under various conditions to observe whether arterial pressure was decreased to indicate secretion of pressor amounts of vasopressin. Vasopressin was secreted in pressor amounts in spontaneously hypertensive rats after acute spinal transection or sinoaortic denervation. This is in sharp contrast to normal rats in which ganglion blockade with hexamethonium bromide is necessar...

  19. Science Review: Vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 2 – clinical physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Cheryl L; Landry, Donald W.; Granton, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Vasopressin is emerging as a rational therapy for vasodilatory shock states. In part 1 of the review we discussed the structure and function of the various vasopressin receptors. In part 2 we discuss vascular smooth muscle contraction pathways with an emphasis on the effects of vasopressin on ATP-sensitive K+ channels, nitric oxide pathways, and interaction with adrenergic agents. We explore the complex and contradictory studies of vasopressin on cardiac inotropy and coronary vascular tone. F...

  20. Science Review: Vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 1 – receptor physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Cheryl L; Landry, Donald W.; Granton, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Vasopressin is emerging as a rational therapy for vasodilatory shock states. Unlike other vasoconstrictor agents, vasopressin also has vasodilatory properties. The goal of the present review is to explore the vascular actions of vasopressin. In part 1 of the review we discuss structure, signaling pathways, and tissue distributions of the classic vasopressin receptors, namely V1 vascular, V2 renal, V3 pituitary and oxytocin receptors, and the P2 class of purinoreceptors. Knowledge of the funct...

  1. Copeptin, a surrogate marker of vasopressin, is associated with microalbuminuria in a large population cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Esther; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Halbesma, Nynke; de Jong, Paul E.; Struck, Joachim; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a powerful predictor of progressive cardiovascular and renal disease. In rats and humans, administration of a synthetic vasopressin analogue, 1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin, increases urinary albumin excretion; however, it is unknown if endogenous vasopressin levels

  2. Potential Deleterious Effects of Vasopressin in Chronic Kidney Disease and Particularly Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Boertien, W. E.; Zietse, R.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney. Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of vasopre

  3. Traumatic Stress Promotes Hyperalgesia via Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-1 Receptor (CRFR1) Signaling in Central Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoga, Christy A; Roltsch Hellard, Emily A; Whitaker, Annie M; Lu, Yi-Ling; Schreiber, Allyson L; Baynes, Brittni B; Baiamonte, Brandon A; Richardson, Heather N; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-09-01

    Hyperalgesia is an exaggerated response to noxious stimuli produced by peripheral or central plasticity. Stress modifies nociception, and humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit co-morbid chronic pain and amygdala dysregulation. Predator odor stress produces hyperalgesia in rodents. Systemic blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 receptors (CRFR1s) reduces stress-induced thermal hyperalgesia. We hypothesized that CRF-CRFR1 signaling in central amygdala (CeA) mediates stress-induced hyperalgesia in rats with high stress reactivity. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to predator odor stress in a conditioned place avoidance paradigm and indexed for high (Avoiders) and low (Non-Avoiders) avoidance of predator odor-paired context, or were unstressed Controls. Rats were tested for the latency to withdraw hindpaws from thermal stimuli (Hargreaves test). We used pharmacological, molecular, and immunohistochemical techniques to assess the role of CRF-CRFR1 signaling in CeA in stress-induced hyperalgesia. Avoiders exhibited higher CRF peptide levels in CeA that did not appear to be locally synthesized. Intra-CeA CRF infusion mimicked stress-induced hyperalgesia. Avoiders exhibited thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by systemic or intra-CeA injection of a CRFR1 antagonist. Finally, intra-CeA infusion of tetrodotoxin produced thermal hyperalgesia in unstressed rats and blocked the anti-hyperalgesic effect of systemic CRFR1 antagonist in stressed rats. These data suggest that rats with high stress reactivity exhibit hyperalgesia that is mediated by CRF-CRFR1 signaling in CeA.

  4. Efeitos hemodinâmicos e metabólicos da infusão de vasopressina em crianças com choque Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of vasopressin infusion in children with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Baldasso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A vasopressina é um hormônio neuropeptídico utilizado clinicamente há mais de 50 anos, com papel importante na homeostase circulatória e na regulação da osmolalidade sérica. Seu papel no tratamento do choque vem recebendo ênfase recentemente. Foram revisadas a fisiologia deste neuro-hormônio e as evidências disponíveis para sua utilização no contexto de choque com vasodilatação na criança. FONTES DOS DADOS: MEDLINE, usando os termos vasopressin, vasodilation, shock, septic shock, e sinônimos e termos relacionados, além de publicações clássicas referentes ao tema, sendo escolhidas as mais representativas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vasopressina é sintetizada na neuro-hipófise e liberada em resposta à diminuição da volemia ou ao aumento da osmolalidade plasmática. A ação da vasopressina dá-se pela ativação de vários receptores acoplados à proteína G, os quais são classificados, de acordo com sua localização e rotas de transmissão intracelular, em receptores V1 (ou V1b, V2 e V3 (ou V1b e por receptores de ocitocina. A função central da vasopressina é causar vasoconstrição, embora, em determinados órgãos, possa promover vasodilatação seletiva. Diversos estudos clínicos em adultos e crianças apontam efeitos benéficos e seguros da vasopressina no tratamento do choque com vasodilatação por diversas causas. CONCLUSÃO: As evidências são restritas, os estudos na maioria são retrospectivos e com número reduzido de pacientes, mas já há uma experiência bastante significativa no que diz respeito a seu uso em pediatria. A vasopressina possui um efeito clinico benéfico na criança e pode ser indicada no tratamento do choque refratário com vasodilatação, depois de adequada reposição volêmica e quando altas doses de outros vasopressores não foram eficazes.OBJECTIVE:Vasopressin is a neuropeptide hormone which has been used clinically for more than 50 years and plays a major role in

  5. Stimulation tests of human growth hormone secretion by insulin, lysine vasopressin, pyrogen and glucagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa,Norio

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, comparisons have been made of the secretion of human growth hormone (HGH that was induced by insulin, lysine vasopressin and pyrogen injections in order to study whether these substances can be utilized as a rapid test of HGH secretion. In insulin test, a fall of the fasting blood glucose level by 28.6% or more seemed to be sufficient to provoke adequate HGH elevation, and 9.4 ng/ml or higher HGH increment was recognized as being normal, because lysine vasopressin and pyrogen produce varying degrees of side-effects and are less specific and unpredictable in the release of HGH. Secondly, the pharmacologic effects and mechanism of action of exogenous glucagon upon the HGH secretion were studied. In normal subjects after one mg sc glucagon, there was a mean peak blood glucose level of 142. 4±3.l mg/lOO ml at 30 min, HGH levels reached a mean peak level of 22. 6±4. 8 ng/ml at 150 min, and no false negative response was noted. In patients with hypopituitarism, there was no positive response in plasma HGH levels after the sc glucagon. The present study revealed that the rise and subsequent fall of blood glucose are not the sole mechanism responsible for the effct of glucagon on HGH secretion, and that the HGH secretion in response to the sc glucagon was not triggered by cathecholamine via the stimulation of the adrenal medulla.

  6. Further neuroendocrine evidence of enhanced vasopressin V3 receptor responses in melancholic depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, T G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In situations of chronic stress vasopressin plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of anterior pituitary vasopressin V3 receptors in maintaining the hypercortisolism seen in melancholic depression. METHOD: Fourteen patients with major depression and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects were recruited. Desmopressin (ddAVP) 10 microg was given intravenously and ACTH and cortisol release was monitored for 120 min. RESULTS: The mean +\\/- S.E.M. ACTH response in the depressives was 28.4 +\\/- 4.3 ng\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 18.8 +\\/- 4.9 ng\\/l (P = 0.04). The mean +\\/- S.E.M. cortisol response in the depressives was 261.8 +\\/- 46.5 nmol\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 107.3 +\\/- 26.1 nmol\\/l (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with major depression have augmented ACTH and cortisol responses to desmopressin indicating enhanced V3 responsivity.

  7. Vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and different shock states: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krismer, Anette C; Dünser, Martin W; Lindner, Karl H; Stadlbauer, Karl H; Mayr, Viktoria D; Lienhart, Hannes G; Arntz, Richard H; Wenzel, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Vasopressin administration may be a promising therapy in the management of various shock states. In laboratory models of cardiac arrest, vasopressin improved vital organ blood flow, cerebral oxygen delivery, the rate of return of spontaneous circulation, and neurological recovery compared with epinephrine (adrenaline). In a study of 1219 adult patients with cardiac arrest, the effects of vasopressin were similar to those of epinephrine in the management of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity; however, vasopressin was superior to epinephrine in patients with asystole. Furthermore, vasopressin followed by epinephrine resulted in significantly higher rates of survival to hospital admission and hospital discharge. The current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines recommend intravenous vasopressin 40 IU or epinephrine 1mg in adult patients refractory to electrical countershock. Several investigations have demonstrated that vasopressin can successfully stabilize hemodynamic variables in advanced vasodilatory shock. Use of vasopressin in vasodilatory shock should be guided by strict hemodynamic indications, such as hypotension despite norepinephrine (noradrenaline) dosages >0.5 mug/kg/min. Vasopressin must never be used as the sole vasopressor agent. In our institutional routine, a fixed vasopressin dosage of 0.067 IU/min (i.e. 100 IU/50 mL at 2 mL/h) is administered and mean arterial pressure is regulated by adjusting norepinephrine infusion. When norepinephrine dosages decrease to 0.2 microg/kg/min, vasopressin is withdrawn in small steps according to the response in mean arterial pressure. Vasopressin also improved short- and long-term survival in various porcine models of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. In the clinical setting, we observed positive effects of vasopressin in some patients with life-threatening hemorrhagic shock, which had no longer responded to adrenergic catecholamines and fluid resuscitation. Clinical employment of

  8. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were...

  9. Effects of vasopressin on active and passive avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Ader, R.; Wied, D. de

    1972-01-01

    Male rats were trained in an active avoidance and/or a “step-through” type of passive avoidance situation. Lysine vasopressin administration resulted in resistance to extinction of active avoidance behavior if it was injected 1 hr prior to the third and final acquisition session; peptide treatment 6

  10. Exercise training hypotension - Implications for plasma volume, renin, and vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Sciaraffa, D.; Shvartz, E.; Keil, L. C.; Brock, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The relation of changes in plasma volume, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin to changes in resting blood pressure during exercise training is investigated. Resting supine, sitting, and standing systolic and fifth-phase diastolic blood pressures were measured in ten men before and after an eight-day training period on a cycle ergometer in either a hot (39.8 C) or cool (23.8 C) environment, and compared with plasma volume, renin and vasopressin levels, heart rates, maximal oxygen uptakes, rectal temperatures and sweat rates. Following acclimatization, resting supine and sitting diastolic pressures are observed to decrease by 6 and 9 mm Hg, respectively, while no significant changes are found in the diastolic pressures of the control group or the systolic pressures of either group. Resting plasma volume is found to increase by 12.2% in the controls and by 17.6% after acclimatization following the exercise training. Results suggest that the resting hypotension produced is not attributable to changes in resting plasma volume, renin or vasopressin, although heat acclimatization, which leads to large decreases in plasma volume and increases in vasopressin and renin activity, may be useful in the treatment of hypertension.

  11. Vasopressin in cirrhosis and sepsis: physiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, G; Bakker, J

    2015-12-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is an important hormone in the regulation of plasma osmolality and blood volume/pressure. In clinical practice it is frequently used in the treatment of septic shock and decompensated cirrhosis. In this review the physiology of AVP and its analogues is presented. In addition the use of AVP in cirrhosis and sepsis is reviewed. PMID:25384691

  12. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14, co

  13. The vasopressin deficient Brattleboro rats : A natural knockout model used in the search for CNS effects of vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B; de Wied, D

    1998-01-01

    Behavioral neuroscience is using mon and more gene knockout techniques to produce animals with a specific deletion. These studies have their precedent in nature. A mutation may result in a limited genetic defect, as seen in the vasopressin (VP) deficiency in the Brattleboro rat. The mutation is in a

  14. Radioprotective effect of local administration of lysine-vasopressin and triglycyl-lysine-vasopressin on the rectal mucosa in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelkengren, G. [Depts. of Experimental Medicine, Oncology and Pathology, MalmoeUniv. Hospital (Sweden); Aronsen, K.F. [Depts. of Experimental Medicine, Oncology and Pathology, MalmoeUniv. Hospital (Sweden); Augustsson, N.E. [Depts. of Experimental Medicine, Oncology and Pathology, MalmoeUniv. Hospital (Sweden); Borgstroem, S. [Depts. of Experimental Medicine, Oncology and Pathology, MalmoeUniv. Hospital (Sweden); Lindstroem [Depts. of Experimental Medicine, Oncology and Pathology, MalmoeUniv. Hospital (Sweden); Nylander, G. [Depts. of Experimental Medicine, Oncology and Pathology, MalmoeUniv. Hospital (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Reactions from the rectal mucosa often give rise to troublesome side-effects during and after radiotherapy in the pelvic region. Local vasoconsriction in the rectal mucosa will cause an ischemia which will decrease the sensitivity of the mucosal cells to radiation and thereby these side-effects can be reduced. Triglycyl-lysine-vasopressin applied rectally in 1% Blanose solution gave in the present study significant radioprotection of the rectal mucosa in the doses of 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mg. These doses are, however, very high. Triglycyl-lysine-vasopressin in 1.2% Natrosol solution in a dose of 128 {mu}g did not show any certain protective effects. However lysine-vasopressin in 1.2% Natrosol solution in a dose of 16 {mu}g gave significant radioprotection of the rectal mucosa. This dose level has in a previous study not given any significant effects on the systemic circulation. Lysine-vasopressin in Natrosol solution seems to be a suitable combination for further studies. (orig.).

  15. Long-lasting enhancement of synaptic excitability of CA1/subiculum neurons of the rat ventral hippocampus by vasopressin and vasopressin(4-8)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Chepkova, A.N.; French, P.; Wied, D. de; Ontskul, A.H.; Ramakers, G.M.J.; Skrebitski, V.G.; Urban, I.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into

  16. Circadian variation of plasma arginine vasopressin concentration, or arginine vasopressin in enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, T; Kasahara, T; Uchiyama, M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to determine a relationship between primary nocturnal enuresis and arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. The first study compared 24-h AVP secretion profiles of enuretic (n = 9) and non-enuretic children (n = 8). Blood samples were collected at 1-h intervals for 24 h. In the second study, nocturnal AVP secretion in group A (n = 40)--with low urinary osmotic pressure (UOP) and large nocturnal urine output (NUO)--was compared with that in group D (n = 11) with normal UOP and small NUO. Plasma AVP levels were measured at 30-min intervals, immediately after falling asleep until 06.00 the following morning. The results of the first study showed that the plasma AVP level was significantly lower (p < 0.05-0.001) in the enuretic group between 23.00 and 04.00. The second study showed that group A had significantly lower AVP levels (p < 0.05-0.001) than group D throughout the night. The mean AVP level during night sleep was 0.64 +/- 0.23 pg/ml in group A and 1.43 +/- 0.66 pg/ml in group D. The results of the first study suggest that decreased nocturnal AVP secretion is a cause of bedwetting. However, the results of the second study suggest that nocturnal enuresis cannot be explained by a decrease in nocturnal AVP secretion alone.

  17. The involvement of central corticotropin-releasing hormone and its receptors in sleep-wake regulation of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowski, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is widely recognised as the major activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, thereby mediating neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioural responses to stress. Dysregulation of the release of stress hormones, caused by excessive CRH secretion from the hypothalamus, is frequently observed in patients with affective disorders such as depression. One of the cardinal symptoms of major depression is a severe impairment of sleep (e.g....

  18. Biochemical and electrophysiological evidence of functional vasopressin receptors in the rat superior cervical ganglion.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiraly, M; Audigier, S; Tribollet, E; Barberis, C; Dolivo, M; Dreifuss, J J

    1986-01-01

    Binding of radioactive vasopressin--but not of oxytocin--was detected by autoradiography and by labeling of membranes obtained from the rat superior cervical ganglion. In both instances binding could be displaced by V1 (smooth muscle-type) but not by V2 (kidney-type) agonists, indicating that the ganglionic vasopressin receptors are similar to those present on hepatocytes and vascular smooth muscle. In accordance with the V1 character of the receptors, vasopressin activated the turnover of me...

  19. Products of vasopressin gene expression in small-cell carcinoma of the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, A. S.; Malott, K. A.; Memoli, V. A.; PAI, S.I.; Yu, X M; North, W. G.

    1994-01-01

    Small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung is known to express products related to the vasopressin gene, although these products have been reported to sometimes differ from those generated by neurones of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. To further investigate vasopressin gene expression in neuroendocrine carcinomas, we performed immunohistochemistry on 24 histologically classified small-cell carcinomas using antibodies directed against different regions of the vasopressin precurs...

  20. Hyponatraemia in the first week of life in preterm infants. Part I. Arginine vasopressin secretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, L; Brook, C G; Shaw, J C; Forsling, M L

    1984-01-01

    Continuous sequential urinary arginine vasopressin measurements in 14 preterm, ventilated infants suggest that both osmoreceptor and volume receptor systems are able to stimulate the prolonged secretion of arginine vasopressin from 26 weeks' gestation. The kidney is able to respond to arginine vasopressin stimulation from the first day of life and from 26 weeks' gestation. A maximum urine osmolality not exceeding 550 mOsm/kg was reached which varied with hydration of the infant. Excretion of ...

  1. Vasopressin combined with epinephrine during cardiac resuscitation: a solution for the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Volker; Lindner, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    Epinephrine given during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may cause beta-mimetic complications in the postresuscitation phase. Vasopressin may be an alternative vasopressor drug during CPR. A subgroup analysis of a large prospective CPR investigation and of retrospective CPR studies suggests that vasopressin may be especially beneficial when combined with epinephrine. Beneficial effects of adding vasopressin were observed in other catecholamine-refractory shock states as well, such as vaso...

  2. Vasopressin in septic shock: effects on pancreatic, renal, and hepatic blood flow

    OpenAIRE

    Krejci, Vladimir; Hiltebrand, Luzius B; Jakob, Stephan M; Takala, Jukka; Sigurdsson, Gisli H

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vasopressin has been shown to increase blood pressure in catecholamine-resistant septic shock. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of low-dose vasopressin on regional (hepato-splanchnic and renal) and microcirculatory (liver, pancreas, and kidney) blood flow in septic shock. METHODS: Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 8 in each). Group S (sepsis) and group SV (sepsis/vasopressin) were exposed ...

  3. Continuous terlipressin versus vasopressin infusion in septic shock (TERLIVAP): a randomized, controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Andrea; Ertmer, Christian; Rehberg, Sebastian; Lange, Matthias; Orecchioni, Alessandra; Cecchini, Valeria; Bachetoni, Alessandra; D'Alessandro, Mariadomenica; Van Aken, Hugo; Pietropaoli, Paolo; Westphal, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Recent clinical data suggest that early administration of vasopressin analogues may be advantageous compared to a last resort therapy. However, it is still unknown whether vasopressin and terlipressin are equally effective for hemodynamic support in septic shock. The aim of the present prospective, randomized, controlled pilot trial study was, therefore, to compare the impact of continuous infusions of either vasopressin or terlipressin, when given as first-line therapy in septic...

  4. A novel splicing mutation in the V2 vasopressin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Siggaard, C; Herlin, Troels;

    2000-01-01

    of the gene in both the affected male (hemizygous) and his mother (heterozygous). This mutation is likely to cause aberrant splicing of the terminal intron of the gene, leading to a non-functional AVP receptor. The clinical studies were consistent with such a hypothesis, as the affected subject had a severe......In order to elucidate the molecular basis and the clinical characteristics of X-linked recessive nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) in a kindred of Danish descent, we performed direct sequencing of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene in five members of the family, as well...... as clinical investigations comprising a fluid deprivation test and a 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin (dDAVP) infusion test in the study subject and his mother. We found a highly unusual, novel, de novo 1447A-->C point mutation (gDNA), involving the invariable splice acceptor of the second intron...

  5. Dynamics and Conformational Energetics of a Peptide Hormone: Vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, A. T.; Osguthorpe, D. J.; Dauber-Osguthorpe, P.; Hempel, J. C.

    1985-03-01

    A theoretical methodology for use in conjunction with experiment was applied to the neurohypophyseal hormone lysine vasopressin for elucidation of its accessible molecular conformations and associated flexibility, conformational transitions, and dynamics. Molecular dynamics and energy minimization techniques make possible a description of the conformational properties of a peptide in terms of the precise positions of atoms, their fluctuations in time, and the interatomic forces acting on them. Analysis of the dynamic trajectory of lysine vasopressin shows the ability of a flexible peptide hormone to undergo spontaneous conformational transitions. The excursions of an individual phenylalanine residue exemplify the dynamic flexibility and multiple conformational states available to small peptide hormones and their component residues, even within constraints imposed by a cyclic hexapeptide ring.

  6. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based on the fact that the sexually dimorphic neuropeptide vasopressin has its receptors in the part of the brain involved in music and dance performance (the basal ganglia), and its concentrations rise during sexual arousal in men. In addition, music, dance, and courtship phenotypes seem to be in part regulated by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis on the role of music in sexual selection. Further studies are clearly required. PMID:27372870

  7. Oxytocin and vasopressin systems in genetic syndromes and neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, S.M.; Sagar, A.; Levin-Decanini, T.; Liu, W.; Carter, C. S.; Jacob, S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are two small, related neuropeptide hormones found in many mammalian species, including humans. Dysregulation of these neuropeptides have been associated with changes in behavior, especially social interactions. We review how the OT and AVP systems have been investigated in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS), Williams Syndrome (WS) and Fragile X syndrome (FXS). All of these neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are marked by s...

  8. Vasopressin in vasodilatory shock: is the heart in danger?

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Balázs; Asfar, Pierre; Calzia, Enrico; Laporte, Régent; Georgieff, Michael; Radermacher, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In patients with hyperdynamic hemodynamics, infusing arginine vasopressin (AVP) in advanced vasodilatory shock is usually accompanied by a decrease in cardiac output and in visceral organ blood flow. Depending on the infusion rate, this vasoconstriction also reduces coronary blood flow despite an increased coronary perfusion pressure. In a porcine model of transitory myocardial ischemia-induced left ventricular dysfunction, Müller and colleagues now report that the AVP-related coronary vaso-c...

  9. Vasopressin and ischaemic heart disease: more than coronary vasoconstriction?

    OpenAIRE

    Asfar, Pierre; Radermacher, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During advanced vasodilatory shock, arginine vasopressin (AVP) is increasingly used to restore blood pressure and thus to reduce catecholamine requirements. The AVP-related rise in mean arterial pressure is due to systemic vasoconstriction, which, depending on the infusion rate, may also reduce coronary blood flow despite an increased coronary perfusion pressure. In a murine model of myocardial ischaemia, Indrambarya and colleagues now report that a 3-day infusion of AVP decreased the left ve...

  10. Arginine vasopressin in septic shock: supplement or substitute for norepinephrine?

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Daniel L

    2009-01-01

    In the current issue of Critical Care, Simon and coworkers investigated the effects of first-line arginine vasopressin (AVP) on organ function and systemic metabolism compared with norepinephrine in a pig model of fecal peritonitis. AVP was titrated according to the mean arterial pressure suggesting a vasopressor rather than a hormone replacement therapy. The study provides some evidence for the safety of this therapeutic approach. It needs to be determined whether AVP is most beneficial as a...

  11. Sex-specific influences of vasopressin on human social communication

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, R. R.; George, K.; Walton, J.C.; Orr, S. P.; Benson, J.

    2006-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and related peptides affect social behaviors in numerous species, but AVP influences on human social functions have not yet been established. Here, we describe how intranasal AVP administration differentially affects social communication in men and women, and we propose a mechanism through which it may exert those influences. In men, AVP stimulates agonistic facial motor patterns in response to the faces of unfamiliar men and decreases perceptions of the friendlines...

  12. Paradoxical effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on basal prolactin secretion and the estrogen-induced prolactin surge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Leemin (National Yang-Ming Medical College, Taipei (Taiwan)); Pan, Jenntser (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The roles of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on both basal and estrogen-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion were examined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were ovariectomized for 3 weeks and received estrogen treatment for 1 week were used. Intravenous administration of hormones and serial blood sampling were accomplished through indwelling intraatrial catheters which were implanted two days before. Plasma PRL levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Oxytocin at a dose of 20 {mu}g/rat stimulated a moderate PRL release in the morning and lower doses were without effect. Vasopressin was most effective at a dose of 5 {mu}g/rat in stimulating PRL release, while consecutive injections of higher doses were less effective. In contrast, TRH, ranging from 1 to 8 {mu}g/rat, induced a dose-dependent increases in PRL secretion. Using the effective dosages determined from the morning studies, repeated injections of either OT, AVP or their specific antagonists MPOMeOVT were given hourly between 1300 to 1800h and blood samples were obtained hourly from 1100 to 1900h. It was found that either OT or AVP significantly reduced the afternoon PRL surge, while their antagonists were not as effective.

  13. Hemodilution, vasopressin suppression, and diuresis during water immersion in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Shvartz, E.

    1981-01-01

    The possible role of hemodilution in the early stages of water immersion in the suppression of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) and subsequent diuresis in man is investigated. Parameters characterizing hemodilution as well as water balance and intercompartmental fluid levels were measured before, during and after the immersion of ten subjects in a semireclining position in tap water up to their necks at 34.6 C for 8 hr. Results indicate that hemodilution and the suppression of vasopressin and plasma renin activity were present by the second hour of immersion, with the early hemodilution due to a slight increase in plasma volume with no change in plasma sodium or osmotic contents, even though urine volume and osmotic excretion rates increased significantly. Hyponatremia, hyposmotemia and plasma renin activity suppression are observed to continue to the end of immersion, resulting in final decreases of 15.6% in plasma volume, 18.8% in extracellular volume, 19.6% in interstitial volume and 10.7% in red cell volume. Findings suggest the transfer of hypotonic fluid into the vascular system, which contributes to vasopressin suppression observed during immersion.

  14. Enhanced central serotonin release from slices of rat hypothalamus following repeated nialamide administration: evidence supporting the overactive serotonin receptor theory of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers are suggesting unipolar affective disorders may be related to an abnormality in biogenic amine receptor-sensitivity. This abnormality may be a result of a dysfunction in central serotonin (5-HT) release mechanisms. 5-HT neurotransmission is modulated by presynaptic autoreceptors, which are members of the 5-HT1 receptor subtype. The autoreceptor is thought to play an important role in the homeostasis of the central 5-HT synapse and could be a site at which some antidepressants mediate their therapeutic effect. The number of 5-HT1 type receptor binding sites are reduced and behavior mediated by this receptor is abolished following repeated injections of monoamine oxidase inhibitor type antidepressants. These changes did not occur following a single injection. It was hypothesized that repeated treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor would reduce the sensitivity of 5-HT autoreceptors and enhance 5-HT release. Rats were pretreated with single or repeated (twice daily for 7 days) intraperitoneal injections of nialamide (40 mg/kg) or chlorimipramine (10 mg/kg) and the ability of the autoreceptor agonist to inhibit potassium-induced 3H-5-HT release was evaluated using an in vitro superfusion system. These changes in 5-HT autoreceptor activity are consistent with other reports evaluating monoamine oxidase inhibitors on 5-HT1 type receptors. It is hypothesized that the changes in 5-HT neurotransmission are related to the antidepressant mechanism of monoamine oxidase inhibitors

  15. Copeptin, a Surrogate Marker of Vasopressin, Is Associated with Disease Severity in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Esther; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van der Jagt, Eric J.; Navis, Gerjan; de Jong, Paul E.; Struck, Joachim; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives Experimental studies suggest a detrimental role for vasopressin in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, it is unknown whether endogenous vasopressin concentration is associated with disease severity in patients with ADPKD. Desig

  16. Age of menarche and near adult height after long-term gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in girls with central precocious puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Joon-Woo; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Jin, Dahee; Oh, Yeon Joung; Rhie, Young-Jun; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is known for improving final adult height in patients with central precocious puberty (CPP). This study aimed to investigate the age of menarche and near adult height in girls with CPP who had been treated with GnRHa. Methods In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 71 Korean girls with CPP who had started menarche or reached over 13 years of bone age after long-term GnRHa treatment. We estimated near adult height u...

  17. Final height in central precocious puberty after long term treatment with a slow release GnRH agonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, W; Rikken, B; Schreuder, S; Otten, B; Odink, R; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Gerver, WJ; Waelkens, J; Drop, S

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To study the resumption of puberty and the final height achieved in children with central precocious puberty (CPP) treated with the GnRH agonist triptorelin. Patients-31 girls and five boys with CPP who were treated with triptorelin 3.75 mg intramuscularly every four weeks. Girls were trea

  18. Euglycemia restoration by central leptin in type 1 diabetes requires STAT3 signaling but not fast-acting neurotransmitter release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central leptin action is sufficient to restore euglycemia in insulinopenic type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. To examine the role of intracellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways, we used LepRs/s mice with disrupted...

  19. The Role of Central Gastrin-Releasing Peptide and Neuromedin B Receptors in the Modulation of Scratching Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Pin-Yen; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Bombesin is a pruritogenic agent that causes intense itch-scratching activity in rodents. Bombesin has high affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor (GRPr) and the neuromedin B (NMB) receptor (NMBr). The aim of this study was to investigate pharmacologically the ability of GRPr and NMBr to elicit scratching behavior in rats. The intracerebroventricular route was selected for drug delivery because the study focused on supraspinal sites of action. The magnitude and duration of ...

  20. Radioimmunoassay measurement of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in cows during machine milking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R.; Wehowsky, G.; Schulz, J.; Schulze, H.; Bothur, D. (Forschungsinstitut fuer Koerperkultur und Sport, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic); Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin)

    1982-07-01

    The response of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin to machine milking in cows was studied by radioimmunoassay. Depending on the method of machine milking used, plasma oxytocin increased to a greater or lesser degree after teat cup application. Plasma vasopressin was not affected by the milking procedures.

  1. Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ebels, I.

    1987-01-01

    A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was

  2. Vasopressin : site of behavioral action and role in human mental performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wimersma Greidanus, T B; Veldhuis, H D

    1985-01-01

    Diminishment of endogenous vasopressin in various brain areas (dorsal and ventral hippocampus, dorsal septum) by local application of diluted anti-vasopressin serum results in attenuation of passive avoidance behavior of rats. Both post-learning or pre-retention treatment results in impaired behavio

  3. A prospective randomised controlled clinical trial comparing somatostatin and vasopressin in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage.

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Jenkins; Baxter, J. N.; Corbett, W; Devitt, P.; Ware, J; Shields, R

    1985-01-01

    Twenty two patients were entered into a randomised controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy of somatostatin and vasopressin in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage. Somatostatin was significantly more successful in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage than vasopressin (p = 0.003). Furthermore, no complications were observed during treatment with somatostatin.

  4. Plasma vasopressin response to hypertonic saline infusion to assess posterior pituitary function1

    OpenAIRE

    Baylis, P. H.; Robertson, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    Hypertonic saline was infused into 11 volunteers to osmotically stimulate vasopressin secretion. A strong positive correlation between plasma arginine vasopressin (PAVP) and plasma osmolality (Pos) was obtained, defined by the function PAVP=0.63 (Pos–284), r=+0.80, P

  5. Apoptosis of supraoptic AVP neurons is involved in the development of central diabetes insipidus after hypophysectomy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lijin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that various types of axonal injury of hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract can result in degeneration of the magnocellular neurons (MCNs in hypothalamus and development of central diabetes insipidus (CDI. However, the mechanism of the degeneration and death of MCNs after hypophysectomy in vivo is still unclear. This present study was aimed to disclose it and to figure out the dynamic change of central diabetes insipidus after hypophysectomy. Results The analysis on the dynamic change of daily water consumption (DWC, daily urine volume(DUV, specific gravity of urine(USG and plasma vasopressin concentration showed that the change pattern of them was triphasic and neuron counting showed that the degeneration of vasopressin neurons began at 10 d, aggravated at 20 d and then stabilized at 30 d after hypophysectomy. There was marked upregulation of cleaved Caspase-3 expression of vasopressin neurons in hypophysectomy rats. A "ladder" pattern of migration of DNA internucleosomal fragments was detected and apoptotic ultrastructure was found in these neurons. There was time correlation among the occurrence of diabetes insipidus, the changes of plasma vasopressin concentration and the degeneration of vasopressin neurons after hypophysectomy. Conclusion This study firstly demonstrated that apoptosis was involved in degeneration of supraoptic vasopressin neurons after hypophysectomy in vivo and development of CDI. Our study on time course and correlations among water metabolism, degeneration and apoptosis of vasopressin neurons suggested that there should be an efficient therapeutic window in which irreversible CDI might be prevented by anti-apoptosis.

  6. Estimating Groundwater Concentrations from Mass Releases to the Aquifer at Integrated Disposal Facility and Tank Farm Locations Within the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.

    2005-06-09

    This report summarizes groundwater-related numerical calculations that will support groundwater flow and transport analyses associated with the scheduled 2005 performance assessment of the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. The report also provides potential supporting information to other ongoing Hanford Site risk analyses associated with the closure of single-shell tank farms and related actions. The IDF 2005 performance assessment analysis is using well intercept factors (WIFs), as outlined in the 2001 performance assessment of the IDF. The flow and transport analyses applied to these calculations use both a site-wide regional-scale model and a local-scale model of the area near the IDF. The regional-scale model is used to evaluate flow conditions, groundwater transport, and impacts from the IDF in the central part of the Hanford Site, at the core zone boundary around the 200 East and 200 West Areas, and along the Columbia River. The local-scale model is used to evaluate impacts from transport of contaminants to a hypothetical well 100 m downgradient from the IDF boundaries. Analyses similar to the regional-scale analysis of IDF releases are also provided at individual tank farm areas as additional information. To gain insight on how the WIF approach compares with other approaches for estimating groundwater concentrations from mass releases to the unconfined aquifer, groundwater concentrations were estimated with the WIF approach for two hypothetical release scenarios and compared with similar results using a calculational approach (the convolution approach). One release scenario evaluated with both approaches (WIF and convolution) involved a long-term source release from immobilized low-activity waste glass containing 25,550 Ci of technetium-99 near the IDF; another involved a hypothetical shorter-term release of {approx}0.7 Ci of technetium over 600 years from the S-SX tank farm area. In addition, direct simulation results for both release

  7. Vasopressin and angiotensin II in reflex regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoids, and renin: effect of water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, V. L.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) and vasopressin participate in baroreflex regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoid, and renin secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this participation is enhanced in water-deprived dogs, with chronically elevated plasma ANG II and vasopressin levels, compared with water-replete dogs. The baroreflex was assessed by infusing increasing doses of nitroprusside (0.3, 0.6, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) in both groups of animals. To quantitate the participation of ANG II and vasopressin, the dogs were untreated or pretreated with the competitive ANG II antagonist saralasin, a V1-vasopressin antagonist, or combined V1/V2-vasopressin antagonist, either alone or in combination. The findings were as follows. 1) Larger reflex increases in ANG II, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids, but not ACTH, were produced in water-deprived dogs compared with water-replete dogs. 2) ANG II blockade blunted the glucocorticoid and ACTH responses to hypotension in water-deprived dogs, but not water-replete dogs. In contrast, vasopressin blockade reduced the ACTH response only in water-replete dogs. 3) Vasopressin or combined vasopressin and ANG II blockade reduced the plasma level of glucocorticoids related either to the fall in arterial pressure or to the increase in plasma ACTH concentration in water-replete dogs, and this effect was enhanced in water-deprived dogs. 4) In both water-deprived and water-replete animals, saralasin and/or a V1-antagonist increased the renin response to hypotension, but a combined V1/V2-antagonist did not. These results reemphasize the importance of endogenous ANG II and vasopressin in the regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoid, and renin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Vasopressin as a target for antidepressant development: an assessment of the available evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scott, Lucinda V

    2012-02-03

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the key biological abnormalities described in major depressive disorder, occurring in 30-50% of depressed subjects. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) are the main regulators of this stress system, with the two neuropeptides acting synergistically in bringing about adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary and cortisol from the adrenal gland. Based on the demonstration of elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of CRH in depressives, and other evidence, it has been postulated that excess CRH and the resultant increased HPA forward drive form the basis of neuroendocrine dysregulation in depression. However, there is an accumulating body of evidence to support a significant role for AVP in the regulation of pituitary-adrenal activity in health and also in depressive disorder. This review, based on a Medline search from 1980 to 2001, focuses on the functional neuroanatomy, receptor pharmacology, VP synergism with CRH, and the data from clinical and pre-clinical studies that support an important role for AVP in the pathophysiology of major depression. We suggest that future antidepressants may target the vasopressinergic system.

  9. Fast methods for analysis of neurotransmitters from single cell and monitoring their releases in central nervous system by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and luminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziqiang

    1999-12-10

    Fast methods for separation and detection of important neurotransmitters and the releases in central nervous system (CNS) were developed. Enzyme based immunoassay combined with capillary electrophoresis was used to analyze the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters from single neuron cells. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters from neuron cultures was monitored by laser induced fluorescence imaging method. The release and signal transduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CNS was studied with sensitive luminescence imaging method. A new dual-enzyme on-column reaction method combined with capillary electrophoresis has been developed for determining the glutamate content in single cells. Detection was based on monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence of the reaction product NADH, and the measured fluorescence intensity was related to the concentration of glutamate in each cell. The detection limit of glutamate is down to 10{sup {minus}8} M level, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than the previously reported detection limit based on similar detection methods. The mass detection limit of a few attomoles is far superior to that of any other reports. Selectivity for glutamate is excellent over most of amino acids. The glutamate content in single human erythrocyte and baby rat brain neurons were determined with this method and results agreed well with literature values.

  10. Interactions of vasopressin and oxytocin receptors with vasopressin analogues substituted in position 2 with 3,3'-diphenylalanine--a molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusarz, Magdalena J; Sikorska, Emilia; Slusarz, Rafał

    2013-02-01

    Vasopressin and oxytocin receptors belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors and play an important role in many physiological functions. They are also involved in a number of pathological conditions being important drug targets. In this work, four vasopressin analogues substituted at position 2 with 3,3'-diphenylalanine have been docked into partially flexible vasopressin and oxytocin receptors. The bulky residue at position 2 acts as a structural restraint much stronger in the oxytocin receptor (OTR) than in the vasopressin V2 receptor (V2R), resulting in a different location of the analogues in these receptors. This explains the different, either agonistic or antagonistic, activities of the analogues in V2R and OTR, respectively. In all complexes, the conserved polar residues serve as anchor points for the ligand both in OTR and V2R. Strong interactions of the C-terminus of analogue II ([Mpa(1) ,d-Dpa(2) ,Val(4) ,d-Arg(8) ]VP) with extracellular loop 3 may be responsible for its highest activity at V2R. It also appears that V2R adapts more readily to the docking analogues by conformational changes in the aromatic side chains triggering receptor activation. A weak activity at V1a vasopressin receptor appears to be caused by weak receptor-ligand interactions. Results of this study may facilitate a rational design of new analogues with the highest activity/selectivity at vasopressin and OTRs. PMID:23303737

  11. Phorbol ester and vasopressin activate phospholipase D in Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study evidence is provided for the existence of phospholipase D (PLD) activity in rat Leydig cells. Leydig cells were cultured and labelled with [H]myristic acid. In the presence of ethanol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated the formation of [H]phosphatidylethanol ([...... support the notion that activation of PLD by PMA is dependent on PKC. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) caused a rapid stimulation of PLD activity in the cells. This activation was inhibited after downregulation of PKC, indicating that the agonist acts by a mechanism similar to that of PMA....

  12. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like molecule modulates the activity of diverse central neurons in a gastropod mollusk, Aplysia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao eSun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a crucial decapeptide that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis to ensure successful reproduction. Recently, a GnRH-like molecule has been isolated from a gastropod mollusk, Aplysia californica. This GnRH (ap-GnRH is deduced to be an undecapeptide, and its function remains to be explored. Our previous study demonstrated that ap-GnRH did not stimulate a range of reproductive parameters. Instead, it affected acute behavioral and locomotive changes unrelated to reproduction. In this study, we used electrophysiology and retrograde tracing to further explore the central role of ap-GnRH. Sharp electrode intracellular recordings revealed that ap-GnRH had diverse effects on central neurons that ranged from excitatory, inhibitory, to the alteration of membrane potential. Unexpectedly, extracellular recordings revealed that ap-GnRH suppressed the onset of electrical afterdischarge (AD in bag cell neurons, suggesting an inhibitory effect on female reproduction. Lastly, using immunocytochemistry (ICC coupled with nickel-backfill, we demonstrated that some ap-GnRH neurons projected to efferent nerves known to innervate the foot and parapodia, suggesting ap-GnRH may directly modulate the motor output of these peripheral tissues. Overall, our results suggested that in A. californica, ap-GnRH more likely functioned as a central modulator of complex behavior and motor regulation rather than as a conventional reproductive stimulator.

  13. Brain vasopressin is an important regulator of maternal behavior independent of dams' trait anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver J.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2008-01-01

    The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) is arguably among the most potent regulators of social behaviors in mammals identified to date. However, only the related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to promote maternal behavior. Here, we assess the role of AVP in maternal care, in particular in arched back nursing, pup retrieval, and pup contact by using complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches. Also, experiments were performed in rat dams with differences in trait anxiety, i.e., rats bred for either high (HAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior as well as nonselected (NAB) dams. Viral vector-mediated up-regulation of AVP V1a receptors (AVP-Rs) within the medial preoptic area of lactating NAB rats and chronic central AVP treatment of NAB and LAB dams improved, whereas local blockade of AVP-R expression by means of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or central AVP-R antagonism impaired, maternal care in NAB dams. Also, in HAB rats with a genetically determined elevated brain AVP activity, intrinsically high levels of maternal care were reversed by blockade of AVP-R actions. Treatment-induced impairment of AVP-mediated maternal behavior increased adult emotionality and impaired social interactions in male offspring of NAB dams. These findings provide direct evidence for an essential and highly potent role of brain AVP in promoting maternal behavior, which seems to be independent of the dam's trait anxiety. PMID:18955705

  14. Increase in oxytocin and vasopressin concentration in the blood outflowing from sella turcica region after superior cervical ganglion stimulation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska, S.; Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion influences the oxytocin and vasopressin release into the blood in condition of the of the sella turcica integrity. The experiments were performed on male rats under urethane-chloralose anaesthesia. Four 0.7 ml samples of the blood from the sella turcica region flowing through a tube inserted in the maxillary interna vein were collected in the 30, 35, 60 and 90 min of the experiments. The animals were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) after the exposition of superior cervical ganglion. 3) after the collection of the 1-st sample of the blood the superior cervical ganglion was electrically stimulated for 30 min with trains of pulses. Vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXY) were determined in the blood plasma by radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion evoked an significant increase of AVP and OXY release into the blood. The increase of AVP release occurred after 30 min longer latency than the increase of OXY release. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs.

  15. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, B; Burbach, J. P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14, compared to the basal activity of 0.25±0.01 pmol·hour−1 in July and September of 1986. The change with similar percentage occurred in the same period of 1987. The specific activity of the enzyme in t...

  16. In vivo somatostatin, vasopressin, and oxytocin synthesis in diabetic rat hypothalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernstrom, J.D.; Fernstrom, M.H.; Kwok, R.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The in vivo labeling of somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin was studied in rat hypothalamus after third ventricular administration of (35S)cysteine to streptozotocin-diabetic and normal rats. Immunoreactive somatostatin levels in hypothalamus were unaffected by diabetes, as was the incorporation of (35S)cysteine into hypothalamic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. In contrast, immunoreactive vasopressin levels in hypothalamus and posterior pituitary (and oxytocin levels in posterior pituitary) were below normal in diabetic rats. Moreover, (35S)cysteine incorporation into hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin (probably mainly in the paraventricular nucleus because of its proximity to the third ventricular site of label injection) was significantly above normal. The increments in vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were reversed by insulin administration. In vivo cysteine specific activity and the labeling of acid-precipitable protein did not differ between normal and diabetic animals; effects of diabetes on vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were therefore not caused by simple differences in cysteine specific activity. These results suggest that diabetes (1) does not influence the production of somatostatin peptides in hypothalamus but (2) stimulates the synthesis of vasopressin and oxytocin. For vasopressin at least, the increase in synthesis may be a compensatory response to the known increase in its secretion that occurs in uncontrolled diabetes.

  17. In vivo somatostatin, vasopressin, and oxytocin synthesis in diabetic rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo labeling of somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin was studied in rat hypothalamus after third ventricular administration of [35S]cysteine to streptozotocin-diabetic and normal rats. Immunoreactive somatostatin levels in hypothalamus were unaffected by diabetes, as was the incorporation of [35S]cysteine into hypothalamic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. In contrast, immunoreactive vasopressin levels in hypothalamus and posterior pituitary (and oxytocin levels in posterior pituitary) were below normal in diabetic rats. Moreover, [35S]cysteine incorporation into hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin (probably mainly in the paraventricular nucleus because of its proximity to the third ventricular site of label injection) was significantly above normal. The increments in vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were reversed by insulin administration. In vivo cysteine specific activity and the labeling of acid-precipitable protein did not differ between normal and diabetic animals; effects of diabetes on vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were therefore not caused by simple differences in cysteine specific activity. These results suggest that diabetes (1) does not influence the production of somatostatin peptides in hypothalamus but (2) stimulates the synthesis of vasopressin and oxytocin. For vasopressin at least, the increase in synthesis may be a compensatory response to the known increase in its secretion that occurs in uncontrolled diabetes

  18. Analyzing the Release of Copeptin from the Heart in Acute Myocardial Infarction Using a Transcoronary Gradient Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Oppermann, Jana; Anadol, Remzi; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Zeiher, Andreas M; Keller, Till

    2016-01-01

    Copeptin is the C-terminal end of pre-provasopressin released equimolar to vasopressin into circulation and recently discussed as promising cardiovascular biomarker amendatory to established markers such as troponins. Vasopressin is a cytokine synthesized in the hypothalamus. A direct release of copeptin from the heart into the circulation is implied by data from a rat model showing a cardiac origin in hearts put under cardiovascular wall stress. Therefore, evaluation of a potential release of copeptin from the human heart in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been done. PMID:26864512

  19. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction.

  20. Water Input and Water Release from the Subducting Nazca Plate along Southern Central Chile (33°S-46°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, D.; Stipp, M.

    2015-12-01

    The fixation of water in the oceanic crust and upper mantle, the flux of stored water into subduction zones and the partial liberation of those fluids underneath the forearc and arc are mechanisms that impact on almost every aspect of subduction zone processes, e.g. intensity and type of arc volcanism, deposition of ores and seismicity of the subduction fault, but also on global geochemical budgets by recycling material back into the continental crust. Much of that water fixation happens at the outer rise of subduction zones in particular by deep percolation of fluids to the upper mantle along bend faults. Offshore Chile, the age of the subducting Nazca Plate varies between 0 Ma at the Chile Triple Junction (46°S) and ~38 Ma at the latitude of Valparaíso (32°S). Age-related variations in the thermal state of the subducting Nazca Plate impact on the water influx to the subduction zone, as well as the volumes of water that are released under the continental forearc or, alternatively, carried into the deeper mantle. Southern Central Chile is an ideal setting to study this effect, because other factors important for the subduction zone water budget appear constant. We determine the water influx by calculating the crustal water uptake and by modeling the upper mantle serpentinization at the outer rise of the Chile Trench. The water release under forearc and arc is determined by coupling FEM thermal models of the subducting plate with stability fields of water-releasing mineral reactions for upper and lower crust and hydrated mantle. Results show that both the influx and the release of water vary drastically over a length of 1500 km. In particular, the oldest and coldest segments carry roughly twice as much water into the subduction zone as the youngest and hottest segments, but their release flux to the forearc is only about one fourth of the latter. This high variability over a subduction zone of ~1500 km length shows that it is insufficient to consider subduction

  1. Urinary concentration does not exclusively rely on plasma vasopressin. A study between genders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard-Jensen, Charlotte; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen;

    2014-01-01

    AimWe investigated the influence of gender on the diurnal regulation of urine production with special focus on vasopressin, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2. MethodsFifteen young women in mid-follicular phase and 22 young men (20-33years) were included. All participants underwent a 24-h circadian...... inpatient study under standardized conditions for measurements of plasma vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium and osmolality. Urine was fractionally collected for measurements of electrolytes, aquaporin-2 and prostaglandin E2. ResultsPlasma vasopressin expressed a diurnal rhythm with a night-time increase in both...

  2. Vasopressin and angiotensin II stimulate oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colquhoun, E Q; Hettiarachchi, M; Ye, J M;

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin and angiotensin II markedly stimulated oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb. The increase due to each agent approached 70% of the basal rate, and was greater than that produced by a maximal concentration of norepinephrine. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 60 pM vasopressin, 0.......5 nM angiotensin II and 10 nM norepinephrine. Angiotensins I and III were less potent than angiotensin II. For each agent, the dose-dependent increase in oxygen uptake coincided with a dose-dependent increase in perfusion pressure. The effects of both vasopressin and angiotensin to increase oxygen...

  3. Effects of vasopressin administration on diuresis of water immersion in normal humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Denunzio, A. G.; Loutzenhiser, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of vasopressin suppression on the diuresis encountered during water immersion is investigated in studies on normal humans immersed to the neck. Six hydrated male subjects were studied on two occasions while undergoing 6 h of immersion without or during the administration of aqueous vasopressin for the initial 4 h. Neck immersion is found to result in a significant increase in urinary flow rate beginning in the first hour and persisting throughout the immersion. The administration of vasopressin markedly attenuated the diuretic response throughout the period of infusion, while cessation of vasopressin administration during the final 2 h of immersion resulted in a marked offset of the antidiuresis. Results thus support the view that the suppression of antidiuretic hormone contributes to the immersion diuresis of hydrated subjects.

  4. Changes in oxytocin and vasopressin content in posterior pituitary and hypothalamus following pantethine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, G L; Miaskowski, C; Haldar, J

    1990-01-01

    Pantethine, a cysteamine precursor, depletes somatostatin in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus and prolactin in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. This study investigated the effect of pantethine on oxytocin and arginine vasopressin content in the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus. Male Long-Evans rats were injected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of pantethine (i.e., 146.7 mg, 293.4 mg and 586.6 mg/100 gm body weight). Hormone content was determined by radioimmunoassay. Three hours after pantethine treatment, the oxytocin content in the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus was markedly reduced with all doses of the drug. Vasopressin content in the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus was decreased but to a lesser extent than oxytocin and only with the highest dose of pantethine. Pantethine may act to reduce oxytocin and vasopressin content through intracellular conversion to cysteamine. The exact mechanism of action of pantethine on oxytocin and vasopressin remains to be elucidated. PMID:2402177

  5. Androgen manipulation and vasopressin binding in the rat brain and peripheral organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xin; Phillips, P.; Oldfield, B.; Trinder, D.; Risvanis, J.; Stephenson, J.; Johnston, C. (Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia))

    1994-03-01

    It is now widely recognized that there is a sexual dimorphism in the development of arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity in certain parts of the brain, and that changes in brain AVP immunoreactivity change with manipulation of androgen status. The aim of the present experiment was to determine specifically any AVP receptor changes in response to manipulation of androgen levels using a selective V[sub 1] antagonist radioligand. Following castration, plasma testosterone levels fell and AVP immunoreactivity was reduced in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. With testosterone supplementation in castrated animals, the immunoreactivity in these regions was restored to a higher degree than in sham-operated animals. Central and peripheral V[sub 1] AVP receptor binding (as determined using the selective AVP V)[sub 1] antagonist radioligand [[sup 125]I](d(CH[sub 2])[sub 5],sarcosine[sup 7]) AVP was not changed in any of the brain regions studied or in liver or kidney membranes from the three groups. The study demonstrates that there is no change in brain AVP receptor binding despite changes in regional AVP immunoreactivity in the brain, and excludes any confounding interaction with changes in oxytocin receptors. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Monoclonal anti-vasopressin (VP) antibodies penetrate into VP neurons, in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, A J; Leon-Henri, B P; Robert, F R; Arahmani, A; Fernette, B M; Burlet, C R

    1987-01-01

    The fate of monoclonal anti-vasopressin antibodies (VP-MAbs) injected in vivo into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat brain was studied by immunocytochemistry. Depending on the post survival time, VP-MAbs contained in an ascites fluid were stained at different levels of the VP neurons: the cytoplasm of the PVN neurons, the fibres of the median eminence and the granular layer of the Gyrus Dentatus. The identification of endogenous peptides synthesized by PVN neurons showed that the VP-MAbs uptake was specific: it did not appear either in the oxytocinergic neurons or in the non immunoreactive neurons of the Brattleboro rat brain, this rat being genetically incapable of synthesizing central VP. Conversely, VP-MAbs only penetrated into the VP neurons: ascites fluid containing monoclonal antibodies prepared against bovine thyroglobulin (the carrier conjugated to VP in our immunizations) was neither stained in magnocellular neurons nor carried in nerve fibres. The neuronal uptake and transport of VP-MAbs occurred in vivo: they were totally inhibited by heating of the ascites fluid at 56 degrees C for 30 min; this treatment did not alter the VP-MAbs themselves but probably destroyed some thermic sensitive component essential to the macromolecule internalization. The biological effects of antibodies injected in vivo have been reported. The results described here suggest that some specific antibodies passively transferred into the brain could act directly on the peptide synthesis recognized by the antibodies. PMID:3556490

  7. Copeptin in the diagnosis of vasopressin-dependent disorders of fluid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Fenske, Wiebke

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are derived from a common precursor molecule and have equimolar secretion and response to osmotic, haemodynamic and stress-related stimuli. Plasma concentrations of copeptin and AVP in relation to serum osmolality are highly correlated. The physiological functions of AVP with respect to homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus and regulation of the endocrine stress response are well known, but the exact function of copeptin is undetermined. Quantification of AVP can be difficult, but copeptin is stable in plasma and can be easily measured with a sandwich immunoassay. For this reason, copeptin has emerged as a promising marker for the diagnosis of AVP-dependent fluid disorders. Copeptin measurements can enable differentiation between various conditions within the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. In the absence of prior fluid deprivation, baseline copeptin levels >20 pmol/l identify patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Conversely, copeptin levels measured upon osmotic stimulation differentiate primary polydipsia from partial central diabetes insipidus. In patients with hyponatraemia, low levels of copeptin together with low urine osmolality identify patients with primary polydipsia, and the ratio of copeptin to urinary sodium can distinguish the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion from other AVP-dependent forms of hyponatraemia. PMID:26794439

  8. Extra-neurohypophyseal axonal projections from individual vasopressin-containing magnocellular neurons in rat hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Salvador Hernandez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional neuroanatomical, immunohistochemical techniques and electrophysiological recording, as well as in vitro labeling methods may fail to detect long range extra-neurohypophyseal-projecting axons from vasopressin (AVP-containing magnocellular neurons (magnocells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Here, we used in vivo extracellular recording, juxtacellular labeling, post hoc anatomo-immunohistochemical analysis and camera lucida reconstruction to address this question. We demonstrate that all well-labeled AVP immunopositive neurons inside the PVN possess main axons joining the tract of Greving and multi-axon-like processes, as well as axonal collaterals branching very near to the somata, which project to extra-neurohypophyseal regions. The detected regions in this study include the medial and lateral preoptical area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral habenula, medial and central amygdala and the conducting systems, such as stria medullaris, the fornix and the internal capsule. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 was observed in axon-collaterals. These results, in congruency with several previous reports in the literature, provided unequivocal evidence that AVP magnocells have an uncommon feature of possessing multiple axon-like processes emanating from somata or proximal dendrites. Furthermore, the long-range non-neurohypophyseal projections are more common than an occasional phenomenon as previously thought.

  9. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were...... applied after pretreatment with intracerebroventricular infusion of saline or different 5-HT antagonists. RESULTS: Restraint stress (5 min), hypotensive hemorrhage or dehydration for 24 h increased AVP secretion fivefold and OT secretion threefold. Swim stress for 3 min had no effect on AVP secretion......, but increased OT secretion threefold. Ether vapor or hypoglycemia had no effect on AVP or OT secretion. The restraint stress-induced AVP response was inhibited by pretreatment with the 5-HT(2A+2C) antagonists ketanserin (KET) and LY-53857 (LY) and the 5-HT(3+4) antagonist ICS-205930 (ICS), whereas the 5-HT(1A...

  10. Vasopressin modulates social recognition-related activity in the left temporoparietal junction in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, C F; Kempf, L; Hakimi, S; Rainey, C A; Stein, J L; Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is a key molecular mediator of social behavior in animals and humans, implicated in anxiety and autism. Social recognition, the ability to assess the familiarity of others, is essential for appropriate social interactions and enhanced by vasopressin; however, the neural mechanisms mediating this effect in humans are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an implicit social recognition matching task, we employed a double-blinded procedure i...

  11. Structural organization of the rat gene for the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin precursor

    OpenAIRE

    Schmale, H.; Heinsohn, S; Richter, D

    1983-01-01

    The rat arginine vasopressin-neurophysin precursor gene has been isolated from a genomic library cloned in lambda phage Charon 4A. Restriction mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that the gene is 1.85 kilobase pairs long and contains two intervening sequences located in the protein coding region. Exon A encodes a putative signal peptide, the hormone arginine vasopressin and the variable N terminus of the carrier protein neurophysin, exon B encodes the highly conserved middle...

  12. Clinical trials comparing norepinephrine with vasopressin in patients with septic shock: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-hu ZHOU; Song, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of norepinephrine in patients with septic shock remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the mortality rates and benefits of norepinephrine and vasopressin. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database were searched from database inception to December 2013. We selected randomized controlled trials in adults with septic shock and compared norepinephrine with vasopressin. After assessing the heterogeneity of treatment effects across trial...

  13. Effects of Arginine Vasopressin on musical short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Y. Granot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP and musical working memory (WM. The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP – placebo design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo in a second session, one week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile, the interval subtest from the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA, and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP (p < .05 with no main Session effect nor Group * Session interaction. In the Gordon test there was a main Session effect (p < .05 with scores higher in the second as compared to the first session, a marginal main Group effect (p = .093 and a marginal Group X Session interaction (p = 0.88. In addition we found that the group that received AVP in the first session scored higher on scales indicative of happiness, and alertness on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, (PANAS. Only in this group and only in the music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  14. Effects of arginine vasopressin on musical working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Uzefovsky, Florina; Bogopolsky, Helena; Ebstein, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) and musical working memory (WM). The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA) of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP-placebo) design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo) in a second session, 1 week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's "Musical Aptitude Profile," the interval subtest from the "Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA)," and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV) were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP) (p effect nor Group × Session interaction. In the Gordon test there was a main Session effect (p effect (p = 0.093) and a marginal Group × Session interaction (p = 0.88). In addition we found that the group that received AVP in the first session scored higher on scales indicative of happiness, and alertness on the positive and negative affect scale, (PANAS). Only in this group and only in the music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other. PMID:24151474

  15. Dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion in humans: involvement of the histaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, A; Knigge, U; Jørgensen, H; Warberg, J

    2000-12-01

    In rats, the hypothalamic neurotransmitter histamine participates in regulation of vasopressin secretion and seems to be of physiological importance, because blockade of the histaminergic system reduces dehydration-induced vasopressin secretion. We investigated whether histamine is also involved in regulation of vasopressin secretion during dehydration in humans. We found that 40 h of dehydration gradually increased plasma osmolality by 10 mosmol/kg and induced a fourfold increase in vasopressin levels. Pretreatment with the H(2)-receptor antagonists cimetidine or ranitidine significantly reduced the dehydration-induced increase in vasopressin levels approximately 40% after 34 and 37 h of dehydration, whereas this was not the case with the H(1)-receptor antagonist mepyramine. Dehydration reduced aldosterone secretion by approximately 50%. This effect of dehydration was reduced by both H(1)- and H(2)-receptor blockade after 16 and/or 34 h of dehydration. We conclude that vasopressin secretion in response to dehydration in humans is under the regulatory influence of histamine and that the effect seems to be mediated via H(2)-receptors. In addition, the regulation of aldosterone secretion during dehydration also seems to involve the histaminergic system via H(1) and H(2) receptors.

  16. Lack of effect of a selective vasopressin V1A receptor antagonist, SR 49,059, on potentiation by vasopressin of adrenoceptor-mediated pressor responses in the rat mesenteric arterial bed

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Akos; Horina, Gabi; Stauber, Rudolf E.; Pertl, Christof; Holzer, Peter; Peskar, Bernhard A.

    1998-01-01

    The vasopressin receptor subtype involved in the enhancement by vasopressin of adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction was investigated in rat isolated perfused mesenteric arteries.[Arg8]vasopressin (1–10 nM) dose-dependently increased the perfusion pressure and enhanced the pressor response to the adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine (40 nmol) or electrical stimulation of periarterial nerves (16 Hz), at the concentration of 10 nM of [Arg8]vasopressin up to 4 and 3 fold, respectively.During prolon...

  17. Oxytocin and vasopressin are dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.

  18. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of VAsopressin versus Noradrenaline as Initial therapy in Septic sHock (VANISH)

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Anthony C; Mason, Alexina J; Perkins, Gavin D; Ashby, Deborah; Brett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vasopressin is an alternative vasopressor in the management of septic shock. It spares catecholamine use but whether it improves outcome remains uncertain. Current evidence suggests that it may be most effective if used early and possibly in conjunction with corticosteroids. This trial will compare vasopressin to noradrenaline as initial vasopressor in the management of adult septic shock and investigate whether there is an interaction of vasopressin with corticosteroids. Methods...

  19. A Selective V1A Receptor Agonist, Selepressin, Is Superior to Arginine Vasopressin and to Norepinephrine in Ovine Septic Shock*

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xinrong; Su, Fuhong; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Laporte, Régent; Kjølbye, Anne Louise; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Keliang; Moussa, Mouhamed Djahoum; Reinheimer, Torsten Michael; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Selective vasopressin V1A receptor agonists may have advantages over arginine vasopressin in the treatment of septic shock. We compared the effects of selepressin, a selective V1A receptor agonist, arginine vasopressin, and norepinephrine on hemodynamics, organ function, and survival in an ovine septic shock model. Design: Randomized animal study. Setting: University hospital animal research laboratory. Subjects: Forty-six adult female sheep. Interventions: Fecal peritonitis was in...

  20. Intragastric injection of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota suppressed spleen sympathetic activation by central corticotrophin-releasing factor or peripheral 2-deoxy-d-glucose in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Mamoru; Takada, Mai; Kato-Kataoka, Akito; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Kouji; Shibamoto, Toshishige

    2016-04-21

    Intragastric (IG) administration of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) decreases the sympathetic nerve outflow of anesthetized rats in a tissue-specific manner. In the present study, we examined the effects of IG administration of LcS on sympathetic activation induced by an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and an intravenous (IV) injection of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) or interleukin (IL)-1β in urethane-anesthetized rats. The IG administration of LcS differently affected the stimulatory responses of sympathetic nerve outflow to CRF. LcS suppressed the increase in splenic sympathetic nerve activity (Spleen-SNA), induced by central CRF, in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not alter adrenal sympathetic nervous activity (ASNA). In contrast, LcS did not affect spleen-SNA and ASNA following an IV injection of IL-1β. On the other hand, IG administration of LcS suppressed the activation of ASNA following an IV injection of 2DG. These findings suggest that the suppression of central CRF-induced sympathetic activation by LcS is tissue-specific. Moreover, it can suppress the 2DG-induced sympathetic activation. Furthermore, we found that stomach-specific vagotomy attenuates the suppressive effect of LcS on CRF-mediated spleen-SNA activation. Thus, the present study suggests that LcS administered to the stomach may act on the afferent vagal nerve and send afferent signals to the brain to regulate efferent SNA induced by sympathetic stimulators. PMID:26971699

  1. Relaxin-3 stimulates the neuro-endocrine stress axis via corticotrophin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, B M; Minnion, J S; Murphy, K G; Roy, D; Stanley, S A; Dhillo, W S; Gardiner, J V; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R

    2014-05-01

    Relaxin-3 is a member of the insulin superfamily. It is expressed in the nucleus incertus of the brainstem, which has projections to the hypothalamus. Relaxin-3 binds with high affinity to RXFP1 and RXFP3. RXFP3 is expressed within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), an area central to the stress response. The physiological function of relaxin-3 is unknown but previous work suggests a role in appetite control, stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and stress. Central administration of relaxin-3 induces c-fos expression in the PVN and increases plasma ACTH levels in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of central administration of human relaxin-3 (H3) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male rodents in vivo and in vitro. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) administration of H3 (5 nmol) significantly increased plasma corticosterone at 30 min following injection compared with vehicle. Intra-PVN administration of H3 (1.8-1620 pmol) significantly increased plasma ACTH at 1620 pmol H3 and corticosterone at 180-1620 pmol H3 at 30 min following injection compared with vehicle. The stress hormone prolactin was also significantly raised at 15 min post-injection compared with vehicle. Treatment of hypothalamic explants with H3 (10-1000 nM) stimulated the release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), but H3 had no effect on the release of ACTH from in vitro pituitary fragments. These results suggest that relaxin-3 may regulate the HPA axis, via hypothalamic CRH and AVP neurons. Relaxin-3 may act as a central signal linking nutritional status, reproductive function and stress. PMID:24578294

  2. Activation of corticotropin releasing factor-containing neurons in the rat central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis following exposure to two different anxiogenic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ryan K; Oliver, Elisabeth M; Sharko, Amanda C; Parilla-Carrero, Jeffrey; Kaigler, Kris F; Fadel, Jim R; Wilson, Marlene A

    2016-05-01

    Rats exposed to the odor of a predator or to the elevated plus maze (EPM) express unique unconditioned fear behaviors. The extended amygdala has previously been demonstrated to mediate the response to both predator odor and the EPM. We seek to determine if divergent amygdalar microcircuits are associated with the different behavioral responses. The current experiments compared activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-containing neuronal populations in the central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of rats exposed to either the EPM (5 min) versus home cage controls, or predator (ferret) odor versus butyric acid, or no odor (30 min). Sections of the brains were prepared for dual-labeled immunohistochemistry and counts of c-Fos co-localized with CRF were made in the centrolateral and centromedial amygdala (CLA and CMA) as well as the dorsolateral (dl), dorsomedial (dm), and ventral (v) BNST. Ferret odor-exposed rats displayed an increase in duration and a decrease in latency of defensive burying versus control rats. Exposure to both predator stress and EPM induced neuronal activation in the BNST, but not the central amygdala, and similar levels of neuronal activation were seen in both the high and low anxiety groups in the BNST after EPM exposure. Dual-labeled immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in the percentage of CRF/c-Fos co-localization in the vBNST of ferret odor-exposed rats compared to control and butyric acid-exposed groups as well as EPM-exposed rats compared to home cage controls. In addition, an increase in the percentage of CRF-containing neurons co-localized with c-Fos was observed in the dmBNST after EPM exposure. No changes in co-localization of CRF with c-Fos was observed with these treatments in either the CLA or CMA. These results suggest that predator odor and EPM exposure activates CRF neurons in the BNST to a much greater extent than CRF neurons of the central amygdala, and indicates unconditioned

  3. Regional distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like, beta-endorphin-like, and methionine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivities in the central nervous system of the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, A R; Ayres, S; Kumar, M S

    2000-01-01

    Regional distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like-, beta-endorphin (beta-end)-like-, and methionine-enkephalin (met-enk)-like-immunoreactivity was quantified across various regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of male and female goats by using highly specific radioimmunoassays. All the animals were sacrificed during the months of March through June (non-breeding season). Although the distribution of these three neuropeptides was similar to other mammalian species, species-specific gender differences in the levels of neuropeptides were noticed in the goat CNS. Highest levels of GnRH-like immunoreactivities were found in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus of male goats exhibited significantly higher levels of GnRH-like immunoreactivities compared to female goats. Other regions exhibiting GnRH-like immunoreactivities included olfactory bulbs, preoptic and supraoptic regions, and mamillary bodies. Both beta-end- and met-enk immunoreactivities were detected in all selected regions of goat CNS, but highest levels of these opioid peptide-like immunoreactivities were limited to the forebrain regions of the goat. The supraoptic area of the female goats contained significantly higher levels of beta-end-like immunoreactivities than that of the male goats. Met-enk-peptide-like immunoreactivity also exhibited gender-specific differences in its content in some regions of the CNS. The male goats exhibited significantly higher levels of met-enk-like immunoreactivity in both the striatal and hypothalamic regions of the brain.

  4. Demonstration of the functional impact of vasopressin signaling in the thick ascending limb by a targeted transgenic rat approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutig, Kerim; Borowski, Tordis; Boldt, Christin; Borschewski, Aljona; Paliege, Alexander; Popova, Elena; Bader, Michael; Bachmann, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) regulates renal salt and water reabsorption along the distal nephron and collecting duct system. These effects are mediated by vasopressin 2 receptors (V2R) and release of intracellular Gs-mediated cAMP to activate epithelial transport proteins. Inactivating mutations in the V2R gene lead to the X-linked form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which has chiefly been related with impaired aquaporin 2-mediated water reabsorption in the collecting ducts. Previous work also suggested the AVP-V2R-mediated activation of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)-cotransporters (NKCC2) along the thick ascending limb (TAL) in the context of urine concentration, but its individual contribution to NDI or, more generally, to overall renal function was unclear. We hypothesized that V2R-mediated effects in TAL essentially determine its reabsorptive function. To test this, we reevaluated V2R expression. Basolateral membranes of medullary and cortical TAL were clearly stained, whereas cells of the macula densa were unreactive. A dominant-negative, NDI-causing truncated V2R mutant (Ni3-Glu242stop) was then introduced into the rat genome under control of the Tamm-Horsfall protein promoter to cause a tissue-specific AVP-signaling defect exclusively in TAL. Resulting Ni3-V2R transgenic rats revealed decreased basolateral but increased intracellular V2R signal in TAL epithelia, suggesting impaired trafficking of the receptor. Rats displayed significant baseline polyuria, failure to concentrate the urine in response to water deprivation, and hypercalciuria. NKCC2 abundance, phosphorylation, and surface expression were markedly decreased. In summary, these data indicate that suppression of AVP-V2R signaling in TAL causes major impairment in renal fluid and electrolyte handling. Our results may have clinical implications. PMID:27306979

  5. Demonstration of the functional impact of vasopressin signaling in the thick ascending limb by a targeted transgenic rat approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutig, Kerim; Borowski, Tordis; Boldt, Christin; Borschewski, Aljona; Paliege, Alexander; Popova, Elena; Bader, Michael; Bachmann, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) regulates renal salt and water reabsorption along the distal nephron and collecting duct system. These effects are mediated by vasopressin 2 receptors (V2R) and release of intracellular Gs-mediated cAMP to activate epithelial transport proteins. Inactivating mutations in the V2R gene lead to the X-linked form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which has chiefly been related with impaired aquaporin 2-mediated water reabsorption in the collecting ducts. Previous work also suggested the AVP-V2R-mediated activation of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)-cotransporters (NKCC2) along the thick ascending limb (TAL) in the context of urine concentration, but its individual contribution to NDI or, more generally, to overall renal function was unclear. We hypothesized that V2R-mediated effects in TAL essentially determine its reabsorptive function. To test this, we reevaluated V2R expression. Basolateral membranes of medullary and cortical TAL were clearly stained, whereas cells of the macula densa were unreactive. A dominant-negative, NDI-causing truncated V2R mutant (Ni3-Glu242stop) was then introduced into the rat genome under control of the Tamm-Horsfall protein promoter to cause a tissue-specific AVP-signaling defect exclusively in TAL. Resulting Ni3-V2R transgenic rats revealed decreased basolateral but increased intracellular V2R signal in TAL epithelia, suggesting impaired trafficking of the receptor. Rats displayed significant baseline polyuria, failure to concentrate the urine in response to water deprivation, and hypercalciuria. NKCC2 abundance, phosphorylation, and surface expression were markedly decreased. In summary, these data indicate that suppression of AVP-V2R signaling in TAL causes major impairment in renal fluid and electrolyte handling. Our results may have clinical implications.

  6. Vasopressin receptors V1a and V2 are not osmosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Kasper; Assentoft, Mette; Fenton, Robert A; Rosenkilde, Mette M; MacAulay, Nanna

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we investigated whether G protein-coupled signaling via the vasopressin receptors of the V1a and V2 subtypes (V1aR and V2R) could be obtained as a direct response to hyperosmolar challenges and/or whether hyperosmolar challenges could augment classical vasopressin-dependent V1aR signaling. The V1aR-dependent response was monitored indirectly via its effects on aquaporin 4 (AQP4) when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and V1aR and V2R function was directly monitored following heterologous expression in COS-7 cells. A tendency toward an osmotically induced, V1aR-mediated reduction in AQP4-dependent water permeability was observed, although osmotic challenges failed to mimic vasopressin-dependent V1aR-mediated internalization of AQP4. Direct monitoring of inositol phosphate (IP) production of V1aR-expressing COS-7 cells demonstrated an efficient vasopressin-dependent response that was, however, independent of hyperosmotic challenges. Similarly, the cAMP production by the V2R was unaffected by hyperosmotic challenges although, in contrast to the V1aR, the V2R displayed an ability to support alternative signaling (IP production) at higher concentration of vasopressin. V1aR and V2R respond directly to vasopressin exposure, but they do not have an ability to act as osmo- or volume sensors when exposed to an osmotic gradient in the absence or presence of vasopressin. PMID:26311834

  7. Treatment of Parkinson's disease: nanostructured sol–gel silica–dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessy López

    2010-12-01

    -induced rotation behavior in hemiparkisonian rats.Results: The in vitro dopamine delivery profiles indicate two regimes of release, a fast and sustained dopamine delivery was observed up to 24 hours, and after this time the rate of delivery became constant. Histologic analysis of formalin-fixed brains performed 24–32 weeks after reservoir implantation revealed that silica–dopamine implants had a reddish-brown color, suggesting the presence of oxidized dopamine, likely caused by the fixation procedure, while implants without dopamine were always translucent.Conclusion: The major finding of the study was that intrastriatal silica–dopamine implants reversed the rotational asymmetry induced by apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, in hemiparkinsonian rats. No dyskinesias or other motor abnormalities were observed in animals implanted with silica or silica–dopamine.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, silica–dopamine, controlled drug release, central nervous system, reservoirs

  8. Structural characterization of arginine-vasopressin and lysine-vasopressin by Fourier- transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and infrared multiphoton dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Giuliana; Battista, Fabio; Buchicchio, Alessandro; Amarena, Concetta G; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Guerrieri, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and lysine-vasopressin (LVP) were analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) electrospray ionization (ESI) in the positive ion mode. LVP and AVP exhibited the protonated adduct [M+H](+) as the predominant ion at m/z 1056.43965 and at m/z 1084.44561, respectively. Infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), using a CO(2) laser source at a wavelength of 10.6 μm, was applied to protonated vasopressin molecules. The IRMPD mass spectra presented abundant mass fragments essential for a complete structural information. Several fragment ions, shared between two target molecules, are discussed in detail. Some previously unpublished fragments were identified unambiguously utilizing the high resolution and accurate mass information provided by the FT-ICR mass spectrometer. The opening of the disulfide loop and the cleavage of the peptide bonds within the ring were observed even under low-energy fragmentation conditions. Coupling the high-performance FT-ICR mass spectrometer with IRMPD as a contemporary fragmentation technique proved to be very promising for the structural characterization of vasopressin. PMID:26307701

  9. Role of the endogenous kallikrein-kinin system in modulating vasopressin-stimulated water flow and urea permeability in the toad urinary bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvounis, C P; Carvounis, G; Arbeit, L A

    1981-01-01

    This study investigates the endogenous kallikrein-kinin system's role as a modulator of vasopressin action in the toad urinary bladder. Kalli-krein inhibition by aprotinin, which results in decreased kinin production, significantly increased both vasopressin and 8-Br-cyclic (c) AMP-stimulated water flow. Kinin potentiation by the kininase II inhibitor captopril (SQ 14225) significantly decreased vasopressin and 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated water flow. In contrast to water flow, vasopressin-stimulated...

  10. Orally active vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, SRX251, selectively blocks aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Lu, Shi-Fang; Messenger, Tara; Guillon, Christophe D; Heindel, Ned; Miller, Marvin; Koppel, Gary; Robert Bruns, F; Simon, Neal G

    2006-02-01

    Arginine vasopressin functions as a neurochemical signal in the brain to affect social behavior. There is an expanding literature from animal and human studies showing that vasopressin, through the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1A), can stimulate aggressive behavior. Using a novel monocylic beta lactam platform, a series of orally active vasopressin V1a antagonists was developed with high affinity for the human receptor. SRX251 was chosen from this series of V1a antagonists to screen for effects on serenic activity in a resident-intruder model of offensive aggression. Resident, male Syrian golden hamsters were given oral doses of SRX251 or intraperitoneal Manning compound, a selective V1a receptor antagonist with reduced brain penetrance, at doses of 0.2 microg, 20 microg, 2 mg/kg or vehicle. When tested 90-120 min later, SRX251, but not Manning compound, caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in offensive aggression toward intruders as measured by latency to bite and number of bites. The reduction in aggression persisted for over 6 h and was no longer present 12 h post treatment. SRX251 did not alter the amount of time the resident investigated the intruder, olfactory communication, general motor activity, or sexual motivation. These data corroborate previous studies showing a role for vasopressin neurotransmission in aggression and suggest that V1a receptor antagonists may be used to treat interpersonal violence co-occurring with such illness as ADHD, autism, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse. PMID:16504276

  11. Exogenous Vasopressin-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients With Vasodilatory Shock: Two Case Reports and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Miguel; Hu, Bee Bee; Vazquez, Joyce; Wintz, Ruth L; Varon, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Vasopressin has gained wide support as an adjunct vasopressor in patients with septic shock. This agent exerts its vasoconstriction effects through smooth muscle V1 receptors and also has antidiuretic activity via renal V2 receptors. This interaction with the renal V2 receptors results in the integration of aquaporin 2 channels in the apical membrane of the renal collecting duct leading to free water reabsorption. Thus, water intoxication with subsequent hyponatremia, although rare, is a potentially serious side effect of exogenous vasopressin administration. We present 2 patients who developed hyponatremia within hours of initiation of vasopressin infusion. Extensive diuresis followed its discontinuation with subsequent normalization of serum sodium. One of the patients required the use of hypertonic saline for more rapid normalization of serum sodium due to concerns for potential seizure activity. A review of the literature relevant to the incidence of vasopressin-induced hyponatremia is provided as well as discussion on additional factors relevant to septic shock that should be considered when determining the relative risk of hyponatremia in patients receiving vasopressin. PMID:24106070

  12. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  13. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  14. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P<0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P<0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P<0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor. (author)

  15. Vasopressin-stimulated Ca2+ spiking in vascular smooth muscle cells involves phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Shiels, A J; Maszak, G; Byron, K L

    2001-06-01

    Physiological concentrations of [Arg(8)]vasopressin (AVP; 10-500 pM) stimulate oscillations of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spikes) in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. We previously reported that this effect of AVP was blocked by a putative phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor, ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). In the present study, the products of PLA2, arachidonic acid (AA), and lysophospholipids were found to be ineffective in stimulating Ca2+ spiking, and inhibitors of AA metabolism did not prevent AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Thin layer chromatography was used to monitor the release of AA and phosphatidic acid (PA), which are the products of PLA2 and phospholipase D (PLD), respectively. AVP (100 pM) stimulated both AA and PA formation, but only PA formation was inhibited by ONO-RS-082 (5 microM). Exogenous PLD (type VII; 2.5 U/ml) stimulated Ca2+ spiking equivalent to the effect of 100 pM AVP. AVP stimulated transphosphatidylation of 1-butanol (a PLD-catalyzed reaction) but not 2-butanol, and 1-butanol (but not 2-butanol) completely prevented AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition, which completely prevents AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking, did not inhibit AVP-stimulated phosphatidylbutanol formation. These results suggest that AVP-stimulated Ca2+ spiking depends on activation of PLD rather than PLA2 and that PKC activation may be downstream of PLD in the signaling cascade.

  16. Vasopressin in preeclampsia: a novel very early human pregnancy biomarker and clinically relevant mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Mark K; Santillan, Donna A; Scroggins, Sabrina M; Min, James Y; Sandgren, Jeremy A; Pearson, Nicole A; Leslie, Kimberly K; Hunter, Stephen K; Zamba, Gideon K D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Grobe, Justin L

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia, a cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, is characterized as a low-renin hypertensive state relative to normotensive pregnancy. Because other nonpregnant low-renin hypertensive disorders often exhibit and are occasionally dependent on elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we hypothesized a possible use for plasma AVP measurements in the prediction of preeclampsia. Copeptin is an inert prosegment of AVP that is secreted in a 1:1 molar ratio and exhibits a substantially longer biological half-life compared with AVP, rendering it a clinically useful biomarker of AVP secretion. Copeptin was measured throughout pregnancy in maternal plasma from preeclamptic and control women. Maternal plasma copeptin was significantly higher throughout preeclamptic pregnancies versus control pregnancies. While controlling for clinically significant confounders (age, body mass index, chronic essential hypertension, twin gestation, diabetes mellitus, and history of preeclampsia) using multivariate regression, the association of higher copeptin concentration and the development of preeclampsia remained significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses reveal that as early as the sixth week of gestation, elevated maternal plasma copeptin concentration is a highly significant predictor of preeclampsia throughout pregnancy. Finally, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy (24 ng per hour) is sufficient to phenocopy preeclampsia in C57BL/6J mice, causing pregnancy-specific hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. These data implicate AVP release as a novel predictive biomarker for preeclampsia very early in pregnancy, identify chronic AVP infusion as a novel and clinically relevant model of preeclampsia in mice, and are consistent with a potential causative role for AVP in preeclampsia in humans.

  17. ACTHsub(1-24) and lysine vasopressin selectively activate dopamine synthesis in frontal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanoy, R.L.; Kramarcy, N.R.; Dunn, A.J. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Coll. of Medicine)

    1982-01-07

    The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)catecholamines from (/sup 3/H)tyrosine in frontal cortical, septal, striatal and hippocampal slices was examined following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of ACTHsub(1-24), lysine vasopressin (LVP) and saline. Both ACTHsub(1-24) and LVP (1..mu..g) selectively increased the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) in frontal cortical slices, but did not affect that of (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine (NE). LVP but not ACTHsub(1-24) also inhibited the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)DA in striatal slices. ACTHsub(1-24) did not alter the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)NE in hippocampal slices, nor did LVP alter the accumulation of either catecholamine (CA) in septal slices. In vitro incubations with ACTH analogs or LVP failed to alter the rate of accumulation of (/sup 3/H)CAs in striatal, substantia nigral and frontal cortical slices, except for an inhibitory effect at high doses. This effect is believed to be an artifact of precursor dilution caused by release of tyrosine following degradation of the peptides. Neither peptide modified the increased (/sup 3/H)CA accumulation stimulated by 26 mM K/sup +/, nor did ACTHsub(1-24) modify the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)CA accumulation caused by 3 X 10/sup -6/ M Haloperidol or 3 X 10/sup -7/ M apomorphine. Selective activation of the mesocortical DA system has also been reported to occur in response to footshock, suggesting the possibility that endogenous ACTH and/or LVP might mediate the stress-induced activation of mesocortical DA synthesis. Alternatively, i.c.v. injections of these peptides may themselves be stressful and thus indirectly elicit the response.

  18. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T;

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  19. Urine and Plasma Osmolality in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease : Reliable Indicators of Vasopressin Activity and Disease Prognosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Zittema, Debbie; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Boertien, Wendy E.; Gaillard, Carlo A.; Meijer, Esther; Spithoven, Edwin M.; Struck, Joachim; Gansevoort, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vasopressin plays an essential role in osmoregulation, but has deleterious effects in patients with ADPKD. Increased water intake to suppress vasopressin activity has been suggested as a potential renoprotective strategy. This study investigated whether urine and plasma osmolality can be

  20. Proteomic analysis of long-term vasopressin action in the inner medullary collecting duct of the Brattleboro rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkom, B.W.M. van; Hoffert, J.D.; Chou, C.L.; Knepper, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vasopressin regulates water and solute transport in the renal collecting duct. In addition to short-term regulation of aquaporin-2 trafficking, vasopressin also has long-term effects to regulate the abundances of aquaporins-2 and -3 and beta- and gamma-subunits of the epithelial sodium channel in co

  1. Neuronal activity and the expression of hypothalamic oxytocin and vasopressin in social versus cocaine conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaobao; Wang, Jianli; Zhan, Bo; Cheng, Guangchao

    2016-09-01

    Although drug rewards and natural rewards share neural substrates, the neuronal activation patterns and mechanisms behind the interaction between cocaine and social reward are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the conditioned place preference (CPP) in social (conspecific) vs cocaine conditioning, and the expression of central c-Fos, hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in ICR mice. We found that the mice produced CPP when conditioned with unfamiliar conspecific or cocaine alone. However, the mice failed to produce CPP when the two stimuli were concurrently conditioned. Compared to conditioning with conspecific alone, the mice decreased preference for conspecific when conditioning with social vs cocaine. We observed differential expression of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, accumbens (shell and core), medial nucleus of the amygdale and the ventral pallidum when comparing the control (CK), social (SC) or cocaine conditioning (CC) group, and social vs cocaine conditioning (SCC) group. Compared to the CK group, the SC or CC group had higher OT expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lower AVP expression in the PVN and supraoptic nucleus. The SCC group showed lower OT expression compared to the SC group, and higher OT and AVP expression in the PVN compared to the CC group. These results indicate that cocaine impairs social preference through competing with social reward. The differential activations of neurons within specific reward areas, and differential expression of OT and AVP are likely to play an important role in mediating the interaction between social and cocaine rewards. PMID:27163750

  2. Radioimmunoassay of plasma vasopressin. Technique and applicaton to some clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work was to develop a sensitive and reliable radioimmunological determination of plasma vasopressin for routine use. Part one is devoted to an outline of the physiological aspects of antidiuretic hormone with emphasis on the vasopressin regulation and secretion mechanisms, especially osmotic regulation. Part two describes our analysis technique by successive stages and gives, for each point considered, a comparative review of the methods described in the literature. Part three reports our results obtained on normal subjects during dehydration tests and in some pathological cases. Our radioimmunoassay is similar to that of Robertson. In 2 observations of diabetes insipidus no detectable amount of vasopressin was measured in contradiction with the results obtained by most authors. On the whole our purpose has been fulfilled. However this work contains inadequacies which are underlined and will have to be corrected in later studies

  3. Vasopressin Infusion with Small-Volume Fluid Resuscitation during Hemorrhagic Shock Promotes Hemodynamic Stability and Survival in Swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J Gazmuri

    Full Text Available Current management of hemorrhagic shock (HS in the battlefield and civilian settings favors small-volume fluid resuscitation before controlling the source of bleeding. We investigated in a swine model of HS the effects of vasopressin infusion along with small-volume fluid resuscitation; with erythropoietin (EPO and HS severity as additional factors.HS was induced in 24 male domestic pigs (36 to 41 kg by blood withdrawal (BW through a right atrial cannula modeling spontaneous bleeding by a mono-exponential decay function. The initial 12 pigs received no fluids; the last 12 pigs received normal saline (NS half the BW volume. Pigs were randomized 2:1 to receive intraosseously vasopressin (0.04 U/kg·min-1 or vehicle control from minute 7 to minute 210. Pigs assigned to vasopressin were further randomized 1:1 to receive EPO (1,200 U/kg or vehicle control and 1:1 to have 65% or 75% BW of their blood volume. Shed blood was reinfused at 210 minutes and the pigs recovered from anesthesia.Survival at 72 hours was influenced by vasopressin and NS but not by EPO or % BW. Vasopressin with NS promoted the highest survival (8/8 followed by vasopressin without NS (3/8, NS without vasopressin (1/4, and neither treatment (0/4 with overall statistical significance (log-rank test, p = 0.009 and each subset different from vasopressin with NS by Holm-Sidak test. Vasopressin increased systemic vascular resistance whereas NS increased cardiac output.Vasopressin infusion with small-volume fluid resuscitation during severe HS was highly effective enabling critical hemodynamic stabilization and improved 72 hour survival.

  4. Role of renal aquaporins in escape from vasopressin-induced antidiuresis in rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Ecelbarger, C A; S. Nielsen; Olson, B R; Murase, T; Baker, E A; Knepper, M A; Verbalis, J G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether escape from vasopressin-induced antidiuresis is associated with altered regulation of any of the known aquaporin water channels. After 4-d pretreatment with 1-deamino-[8-D-arginine]-vasopressin (dDAVP) by osmotic mini-pump, rats were divided into two groups: control (continued dDAVP) and water-loaded (continued dDAVP plus a daily oral water load). A significant increase in urine volume in the water-loaded rats was observed by the second day...

  5. Vasopressin receptors V1a and V2 are not osmosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Kasper; Assentoft, Mette; Fenton, Robert A;

    2015-01-01

    in AQP4-dependent water permeability was observed, although osmotic challenges failed to mimic vasopressin-dependent V1aR-mediated internalization of AQP4. Direct monitoring of inositol phosphate (IP) production of V1aR-expressing COS-7 cells demonstrated an efficient vasopressin-dependent response....... The V1aR-dependent response was monitored indirectly via its effects on aquaporin 4 (AQP4) when heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and V1aR and V2R function was directly monitored following heterologous expression in COS-7 cells. A tendency toward an osmotically induced, V1aR-mediated reduction...

  6. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover in an enriched rat Leydig cell preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl......An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and...

  7. Spatiotemporal profiles of arginine vasopressin transcription in cultured suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tomoko; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshiko; Enoki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Kazuto; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2015-11-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a major neuropeptide in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is postulated to mediate the output of the circadian oscillation. Mice carrying a reporter gene of AVP transcription (AVP(ELuc)) were produced by knocking-in a cDNA of Emerald-luciferase (ELuc) in the translational initiation site. Homozygous mice did not survive beyond postnatal day 7. Using the heterozygous (AVP(ELuc/+)) mice, a bioluminescence reporter system was developed that enabled to monitor AVP transcription through AVP-ELuc measurement in real time for more than 10 cycles in the cultured brain slice. AVP(ELuc/+) mice showed circadian behaviour rhythms and light responsiveness indistinguishable from those of the wild-type. Robust circadian rhythms in AVP-ELuc were detected in the cultured SCN slice at a single cell as well as tissue levels. The circadian rhythm of the whole SCN slice was stable, with the peak at the mid-light phase of a light-dark cycle, while that of a single cell was more variable. By comparison, rhythmicity in the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus was unstable and damped rapidly. Spatiotemporal profiles of AVP expression at the pixel level revealed significant circadian rhythms in the entire area of AVP-positive cells in the SCN, and at least two clusters that showed different circadian oscillations. Contour analysis of bioluminescence intensity in a cell-like region demonstrated the radiation area was almost identical to the cell size. This newly developed reporter system for AVP gene expression is a useful tool for the study of circadian rhythms. PMID:26342201

  8. Arginine-vasopressin stimulates the formation of phosphatidic acid in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of labelled phosphatidic acid (PA) in [C]arachidonic acid-prelabelled rat Leydig cells. After addition of 10 M AVP [C]arachidonoylphosphatidic acid reached a maximum within 2 min. The increase was dose-dependent (10-10 M). No change in labelling...

  9. Explicit and implicit caregiving interests in expectant fathers: Do endogenous and exogenous oxytocin and vasopressin matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, C.C.C.; Beijers, R.; Doornen, L.J.P. van; Weerth, C. de

    2015-01-01

    Caregiving interest in men (N=46) during the third trimester of their partner's pregnancy was examined. The study included both explicit and implicit measures of caregiving interest, assessments of basal urinary concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin, and exogenous (intranasal) application of th

  10. Reduced preabsorptive insulin response in aged rats : differential effects of amphetamine and arginine-vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Strubbe, J.H.; Bohus, B.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments presented here have been designed to investigate whether the age-related attenuation of the vagal reactivity to emotional stressors and its modulation by amphetamine (Amph) or arginine-vasopressin (AVP) can be generalized for other physiological response patterns. We therefore studie

  11. Lateral septal vasopressin in rats : Role in social and object recognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of male rats to remember familiar conspecifics is called social recognition. It is a form of short-term memory modulated by lateral septal (LS) vasopressin (VP). The specificity of this phenomenon was studied by examining whether recognition of previously investigated objects is also un

  12. Use of Arginine Vasopressin in the Management of Vasodilatory Shock After CABG - A Clinical Tria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay O

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasodilatory shock requiring treatment with catecholamines occurs in some patients following cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the use of vasopressin in the treatment of this syndrome. Forty patients with a left main coronary artery disease and a poor left ventricular function (ejection fraction <30% were studied. Only those patients (n=12, 30% in whom difficulty was experienced in maintaining a mean arterial pressure of > 60 mm Hg and a systemic vascular resistance of greater than 900 dynes.sec.cm5 on maximal doses of pharmacological and mechanical support were selected. Patients underwent a standard cardiac anaesthesia protocol. All patients had a Swan-ganz catheter inserted pre-operatively. Arginine vasopressin was administered as a bolus of 0.015 units/kg intravenously followed by an infusion of 0.03 units/kg/hour. This dose increased the mean arterial pressure from 67+/-7 to 95+/-5 mm Hg and the systemic vascular resistance from 860+/-55 to 1502+/-71 dynes.sec.cm-5. It was also associated with a decrease in pharmacological support. All subjects responded to vasopressin administration. Vasopressin is an effective pressor in vasodilatory shock after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  13. Vasopressin-dependent short-term regulation of aquaporin 4 expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, H B; Fenton, R A; Zeuthen, T;

    2009-01-01

    following pathologies such as brain injuries, brain tumours, and cerebral ischemia. As vasopressin and its G-protein-coupled receptor (V1(a)R) have been shown to affect the outcome of brain edema, we have investigated the regulatory interaction between AQP4 and V1(a)R by heterologous expression in Xenopus...... laevis oocytes. The water permeability of AQP4/V1(a)R-expressing oocytes was reduced in a vasopressin-dependent manner, as a result of V1(a)R-dependent internalization of AQP4. Vasopressin-dependent internalization was not observed in AQP9/V1(a)R-expressing oocytes. The regulatory interaction between AQP......4 and V1(a)R involves protein kinase C (PKC) activation and is reduced upon mutation of Ser(180) on AQP4 to an alanine. Thus, the present study demonstrates at the molecular level a functional link between the vasopressin receptor V1(a)R and AQP4. This functional interaction between AQP4 and V1(a...

  14. Levels of arginine-vasopressin in cerebrospinal fluid during passive avoidance behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R. de; Laczi, F.; Gaffori, O.; Fekete, M.; Wied, D. de

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of immunoreactive arginine-vasopressin (IR-AVP) was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acquisition and retention of passive avoidance behavior. IR-AVP level in CSF of male Wistar rats immediately after the learning trial was increased; the rate of which was related to

  15. Post-training vasopressin injections may facilitate or delay shuttle-box avoidance extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagan, J.J.; Bohus, B.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    After training to avoid footshock in a two-way shuttle box rats were injected with lysine vasopressin (LVP) and returned to the shuttle box 24 hr later for 10 extinction trials. Experiment 1 shows that when injected 30 min after training subsequent extinction responding varied as an inverted “U”-sha

  16. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K; Boer, G J

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells...

  17. Relief of nocturnal enuresis by desmopressin is kidney and vasopressin type 2 receptor independent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, J.H.; Sze, M.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Eggert, P.; Deen, P.M.T.; Muller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is a common problem in childhood and adolescence. Although various treatments are highly effective, a common underlying hypothesis on the pathogenesis is lacking. The success of desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, has been attr

  18. Mechanisms for vasopressin effects on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, C. D.; Palm, D. E.; Shikher, V.; Searles, R. V.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous intracameral infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter min-1) have been reported to raise intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized rats. Palm et al. (1995) previously reported that this effect was attenuated significantly by inclusion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, 10 ng 0.175 microliter-1) in the infusate. This study used experimental and computer simulation methods to investigate factors underlying these changes in IOP. First, constant intracameral infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at different fixed rates (0.049-0.35 microliter min-1) were used to estimate the outflow resistance. Secondly, IOP responses were measured during an 2 hr intracameral infusion of either aCSF or AVP that was the sum of a small constant component (0.05 microliter min-1) and a larger periodic component (0.25 microliter min-1, cycling for 4 min on, then 4 min off); the mean infusion rate was 0.175 microliter min-1. As shown previously for 0.175 microliter min-1 constant infusions, the periodic aCSF infusion induced a significant rise in IOP that was attenuated by AVP administration. Complex demodulation analysis and the estimated gain parameter of a second order transfer function fit to the periodic responses indicated that outflow resistance increased significantly during the infusions in both aCSF and AVP groups, but that the indices of resistance did not differ significantly between aCSF and AVP infused eyes. This finding implies that changes in outflow resistance do not explain the difference in IOP responses to intracameral aCSF and AVP. The two responses differed significantly, though, in damping factors, such that the aCSF responses were considerably more underdamped than the AVP responses. It is hypothesized that aCSF-induced increase in IOP reflects both (1) a small component reflecting increased outflow resistance and (2) a larger non-resistive component. Since the non-resistive component is insensitive to pretreatment with acetazolamide

  19. The effects of vasopressin and oxytocin on methamphetamine-induced place preference behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiah, Cassandra O; Mabandla, Musa V; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A; Daniels, Willie M U

    2012-09-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant drug whose illicit use and resultant addiction has become an alarming global phenomenon. The mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway has been shown to be fundamental to the establishment of addictive behaviour. This pathway, as part of the reward system of the brain, has also been shown to be important in classical conditioning, which is a learnt response. Within the modulation of learning and memory, the neurohypophyseal hormones vasopressin and oxytocin have been reported to play a vital role, with vasopressin exerting a long- term facilitatory effect and oxytocin exerting an inhibitory effect. Therefore we adopted a conditioned place preference model to investigate whether vasopressin V1b receptor antagonist SSR 149415 or oxytocin treatment would cause a decrease in the seeking behaviour in a reinstatement paradigm. Behavioural findings indicated that methamphetamine induced a change in the place preference in the majority of our animals. This change in place preference was not seen when vasopressin was administered during the extinction phase. On the other hand the methamphetamine-induced change in place preference was enhanced during the reinstatement phase in the animals that were treated with oxytocin. Striatal dopamine levels were determined, as methamphetamine is known to increase dopamine transmission in this area. Significant changes in dopamine levels were observed in some of our animals. Rats that received both methamphetamine and oxytocin had significantly higher striatal dopamine than those that received oxytocin alone. Western blot analysis for hippocampal cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) was also conducted as a possible indicator of glutamatergic NMDA receptor activity, a pathway that is important for learning and memory. The Western blot analysis showed no changes in hippocampal pCREB expression. Overall our data led us to conclude that methamphetamine treatment can change place preference

  20. Computational simulation of vasopressin secretion using a rat model of the water and electrolyte homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeau Louis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammals, vasopressin (AVP is released from magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus when osmotic pressure exceeds a fixed set-point. AVP participates to the hydromineral homeostasis (HH by controlling water excretion at the level of the kidneys. Our current understanding of the HH and AVP secretion is the result of a vast amount of data collected over the five past decades. This experimental data was collected using a number of systems under different conditions, giving a fragmented view of the components involved in HH. Results Here, we present a high-level model of the rat HH based on selected published results to predict short-term (hours to long-term (days variation of six major homeostatic parameters: (1 the extracellular sodium concentration, (2 the AVP concentration, (3 the intracellular volume, (4 the extracellular volume, (5 the urine volume and (6 the water intake. The simulation generates quantitative predictions like the daily mean of the extracellular sodium concentration (142.2 mmol/L, the AVP concentration, (1.7 pg/ml, the intracellular volume (45.3 ml/100 g body weight - bw, the extracellular volume (22.6 ml/100 g bw, the urine volume (11.8 ml/100 g bw and the cumulative water intake (18 ml/100 g bw. The simulation also computes the dynamics of all these parameters with a high temporal resolution of one minute. This high resolution predicts the circadian fluctuation of the AVP secretion (5 ± 2 pg/ml and defines the limits of a restoration and a maintenance phase in the HH (2.1 pg/ml. Moreover, the simulation can predict the action of pharmacological compounds that disrupt the HH. As an example, we tested the action of a diuretic (furosemide combined with a sodium deficient diet to generate quantitative prediction on the extracellular sodium concentration (134 mmol/L and the need-induced water intake (20.3 ml/100 g bw. These simulated data are compatible with experimental data (136 ± 3 mmol/L and 17.5

  1. Sexually dimorphic effects of a prenatal immune challenge on social play and vasopressin expression in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Patrick V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested whether a prenatal immune challenge interferes with the development of social play and with neural circuits implicated in social behavior. Methods Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS – 100 μg /kg or saline on the 15th day of pregnancy. Offspring were tested for social play behaviors between postnatal days 26–40. Brains were harvested on postnatal day 45 and processed for arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in situ hybridization. Results In males, LPS treatment reduced the frequency of juvenile play behavior and reduced AVP mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These effects were not found in females. LPS treatment did not change AVP mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, or supraoptic nucleus of either sex, nor did it affect the sex difference in the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Conclusions Given AVP’s central role in regulating social behavior, the sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal LPS treatment on male AVP mRNA expression may contribute to the sexually dimorphic effect of LPS on male social play and may, therefore, increase understanding of factors that contribute to sex differences in social psychopathology.

  2. Perioperative infusion of low- dose of vasopressin for prevention and management of vasodilatory vasoplegic syndrome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting-A double-blind randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baikoussis Nikolaos G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preoperative medication by inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE in coronary artery patients predisposes to vasoplegic shock early after coronary artery bypass grafting. Although in the majority of the cases this shock is mild, in some of them it appears as a situation, "intractable" to high-catecholamine dose medication. In this study we examined the possible role of prophylactic infusion of low-dose vasopressin, during and for the four hours post-bypass after cardiopulmonary bypass, in an effort to prevent this syndrome. In addition, we studied the influence of infused vasopressin on the hemodynamics of the patients, as well as on the postoperative urine-output and blood-loss. In our study 50 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were included in a blind-randomized basis. Two main criteria were used for the eligibility of patients for coronary artery bypass grafting: ejection fraction between 30-40%, and patients receiving ACE inhibitors, at least for four weeks preoperatively. The patients were randomly divided in two groups, the group A who were infused with 0.03 IU/min vasopressin and the group B who were infused with normal saline intraoperativelly and for the 4 postoperative hours. Measurements of mean artery pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP, systemic vascular resistance (SVR, ejection fracture (EF, heart rate (HR, mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP, cardiac index (CI and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR were performed before, during, and after the operation. The requirements of catecholamine support, the urine-output, the blood-loss, and the requirements in blood, plasma and platelets for the first 24 hours were included in the data collected. The incidence of vasodilatory shock was significantly lower (8% vs 20% in group A and B respectively (p = 0,042. Generally, the mortality was 12%, exclusively deriving from group B. Postoperatively, significant higher values of MAP, CVP, SVR and EF

  3. Centrally Applied Somatostatin Inhibits the Estrogen-Induced Luteinizing Hormone Surge via Hypothalamic Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Cell Activation in Female Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de H.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) as well as GH-deficiency dramatically impairs reproductive function. Decreased reproductive function as a result of altered GH release is, at least partially, due to changes at the hypothalamic-pituitary level. We hypothesize that hypothalamic somatostatin (SOM)

  4. Electrophysiological and autoradiographical evidence of V1 vasopressin receptors in the lateral septum of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dreifuss, J.J.

    1987-11-01

    Extracellular recordings were obtained from single neurons located in the lateral septum, an area known to receive a vasopressinergic innervation in the rat brain. Approximately half of the neurons tested responded to 8-L-arginine vasopressin (AVP) by a marked increase in firing rate at concentrations greater than 1 nM. The effect of vasopressin was blocked by synthetic structural analogues possessing antagonistic properties on peripheral vasopressin and oxytocin receptors. Oxytocin was much less potent than vasopressin in firing septal neurons, and a selective oxytocic agonist was totally ineffective. The action of vasopressin on neuronal firing was mimicked by the vasopressor agonist (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin but not by the selective antidiuretic agonist 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin. In a parallel study, sites that bind (/sup 3/H)AVP at low concentration (1.5 nM) were found by in vitro autoradiography in the lateral septum. Adjacent sections were also incubated with 1.5 mM (/sup 3/H)AVP and, in addition, with 100 nM (2-phenylalanine,8-ornithine)vasotocin or 1-deamino(8-D-arginine)vasopressin--i.e., the same compounds as those used for the electrophysiological study. Results showed that the vasopressor agonist, but not the antidiuretic agonist, displaced (/sup 3/H)AVP, thus indicating that the vasopressin binding sites detected by autoradiography in the septum were V1 (vasopressor type) rather than V2 (antidiuretic type) receptors. Based on the electrophysiological evidence, we conclude that these receptors, when occupied, lead to increased firing of lateral septal neurons.

  5. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and stress-related neuronal activation in vasopressin-deficient female Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Anna; Kovács, Krisztina Bea; Balázsfi, Diána; Klausz, Barbara; Pintér, Ottó; Demeter, Kornél; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Rotllant, David; Nadal, Roser; Zelena, Dóra

    2016-05-01

    Vasopressin can contribute to the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders, anxiety and depression. Although these disturbances are more common in females, most of the preclinical studies have been done in males. We compared female vasopressin-deficient and +/+ Brattleboro rats. To test anxiety we used open-field, elevated plus maze (EPM), marble burying, novelty-induced hypophagia, and social avoidance tests. Object and social recognition were used to assess short term memory. To test depression-like behavior consumption of sweet solutions (sucrose and saccharin) and forced swim test (FST) were studied. The stress-hormone levels were followed by radioimmunoassay and underlying brain areas were studied by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. In the EPM the vasopressin-deficient females showed more entries towards the open arms and less stretch attend posture, drank more sweet fluids and struggled more (in FST) than the +/+ rats. The EPM-induced stress-hormone elevations were smaller in vasopressin-deficient females without basal as well as open-field and FST-induced genotype-differences. On most studied brain areas the resting c-Fos levels were higher in vasopressin-deficient rats, but the FST-induced elevations were smaller than in the +/+ ones. Similarly to males, female vasopressin-deficient animals presented diminished depression- and partly anxiety-like behavior with significant contribution of stress-hormones. In contrast to males, vasopressin deficiency in females had no effect on object and social memory, and stressor-induced c-Fos elevations were diminished only in females. Thus, vasopressin has similar effect on anxiety- and depression-like behavior in males and females, while only in females behavioral alterations are associated with reduced neuronal reactivity in several brain areas. PMID:26939727

  6. Low-dose vasopressin infusion results in increased mortality and cardiac dysfunction following ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Indrambarya, Toonchai; Boyd, John H; Wang, Yingjin; McConechy, Melissa; Keith R Walley

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Arginine vasopressin is a vasoactive drug commonly used in distributive shock states including mixed shock with a cardiac component. However, the direct effect of arginine vasopressin on the function of the ischemia/reperfusion injured heart has not been clearly elucidated. Methods We measured left ventricular ejection fraction using trans-thoracic echocardiography in C57B6 mice, both in normal controls and following ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by a one hour ligation of t...

  7. The Therapeutic Role of Vasopressin on Improving lactate Clearance During and After Vasogenic Shock: Microcirculation, Is it The Black Box?

    OpenAIRE

    Elchin Barzegar; Arezoo Ahmadi; Sarah Mousavi; Masoumeh Nouri; Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin as a supplementary vasopressor in septic shock restores vascular tone and mean arterial pressure, meanwhile decreases dose and exposure time to catecholamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vasopressin on lactate and lactate clearance as markers of tissue perfusion during septic shock. In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 30 patients with septic shock were enrolled in two groups. One group received norepinephrine infusion (titrate...

  8. Oxytocin-induced analgesia and scratching are mediated by the vasopressin-1A receptor in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Schorscher-Petcu, Ara; Sotocinal, Susana; Ciura, Sorana; Dupré, Anouk; Ritchie, Jennifer; Sorge, Robert E; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Hu, Shuang-Bao; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Young, Larry J.; Tribollet, Eliane; Quirion, Rémi; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) contribute to the regulation of diverse cognitive and physiological functions including nociception. Indeed, OXT has been reported to be analgesic when administered directly into the brain, the spinal cord or systemically. Here, we characterized the phenotype of oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin-1A receptor (V1AR) null mutant mice in a battery of pain assays. Surprisingly, OTR knockout mice displayed a pain phenotype identi...

  9. The Level of Vasopressin is not solely resulted from the Concentration of Endotoxin but Proportional to Creatinine in Dogs with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    W. Y. Shia1, K. C. Tung1, 2, S. C. Chang1, 2, C. H. Yang1, 2, C. H. Lee2, C. C. Chou1 and W. M. Lee1, 2*

    2011-01-01

    Pyometra is one of the most common reproductive disorder characterized as fluid accumulation mainly pus and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from uterus in bitches. Impaired function of vasopressin is found in the disease. The impact of the circulating endotoxin concentration on vasopressin involved water regulation is still unclear. To document the effect of endotoxin on vasopressin-involved water regulation in dogs with pyometra, blood samples were collected for examination of circulating en...

  10. 星点设计-效应面法优化香青兰黄酮缓释片处方%Optimization of Dracocephalum moldevica flavones sustained-release tablets formulation by central composite design-response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀; 邢建国; 王新春; 李悦; 薛桂蓬; 马祖文; 任文东

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过星点设计-效应面法优化香青兰黄酮缓释片处方并探讨释药机制.方法:以HPMC的用量和乳糖/淀粉(1:1)的用量为考察因素,以2,6,12 h的累积释放度为考察指标,分别用线性和二项式模型描述因素与考察指标之间的数学关系,根据模型绘制等高线图,通过重叠等高线图确定优化处方并进行验证实验,探讨药物释放机制.结果:优化后的处方为HPMC 50 mg,乳糖68 mg,淀粉68 mg,主药150 mg,释放模型符合Higuchi方程.结论:星点设计-效应面法优化香青兰黄酮缓释片的处方具有良好的预测性.%OBJECTIVE To optimize the formulation of sustained-release preparation by the central composite design-response surface methodology. METHODS The amounts of HPMC and lactose:strarch (1:1) as independent variables were optimized with RSM plus CCD by selecting percentages of in vitro cumulative releases at 2,6 and 12 h as dependent variables. Multi-linear and quadratic models were used to estimate the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables, and to delineate RSM and overlay contour plots in order to select the optimal formulations with the application of hypothesized in vitro cumulative release(%) at 2,6 and 12 h. RESULTS Regression coefficients of second-order models were higher than first-order model. Optimized formulation was proposed to consist of HPMC 50 mg,lactose 68 mg,starch 68 mg,remedium car-dinale 150 mg. In vitro release indicated that there existed high approximation between the observed and estimated values. The release was conformed to Higuchi equation. CONCLUSION Central composite design-response surface methodology can be applied to optimize the coating formulation for Dracocephalum moldevica flavones sustained release tablets and the models are proved to be predictable.

  11. Syntaxin 1B, but not syntaxin 1A, is necessary for the regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and of the readily releasable pool at central synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Mishima

    Full Text Available Two syntaxin 1 (STX1 isoforms, HPC-1/STX1A and STX1B, are coexpressed in neurons and function as neuronal target membrane (t-SNAREs. However, little is known about their functional differences in synaptic transmission. STX1A null mutant mice develop normally and do not show abnormalities in fast synaptic transmission, but monoaminergic transmissions are impaired. In the present study, we found that STX1B null mutant mice died within 2 weeks of birth. To examine functional differences between STX1A and 1B, we analyzed the presynaptic properties of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses in STX1B null mutant and STX1A/1B double null mutant mice. We found that the frequency of spontaneous quantal release was lower and the paired-pulse ratio of evoked postsynaptic currents was significantly greater in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of STX1B null neurons. Deletion of STX1B also accelerated synaptic vesicle turnover in glutamatergic synapses and decreased the size of the readily releasable pool in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. Moreover, STX1A/1B double null neurons showed reduced and asynchronous evoked synaptic vesicle release in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. Our results suggest that although STX1A and 1B share a basic function as neuronal t-SNAREs, STX1B but not STX1A is necessary for the regulation of spontaneous and evoked synaptic vesicle exocytosis in fast transmission.

  12. A Minireview on Vasopressin-regulated Aquaporin-2 in Kidney Collecting Duct Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui-Jung; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    The kidney collecting duct is an important renal tubular segment for the regulation of body water and salt homeostasis. Water reabsorption in the collecting duct cells is regulated by arginine vasopressin (AVP) via the vasopressin V2-receptor (V2R). AVP increases the osmotic water permeability of the collecting duct cells through aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3). AVP induces the apical targeting of AQP2 and transcription of AQP2 gene in the kidney collecting duct principal cells. The signaling transduction pathways resulting in the AQP2 trafficking to the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, include AQP2 phosphorylation, RhoA phosphorylation, actin depolymerization and calcium mobilization, and the changes of AQP2 protein abundance in water balance disorders have been extensively studied. These studies elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of body water homeostasis and provide the basis for the treatment of body water balance disorders. PMID:26240594

  13. Altered hepatic vasopressin and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors after chronic endotoxin infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, B.L.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are complicated by a number of hemodynamic and metabolic aberrations. These include catecholamine refractoriness and altered glucose metabolism. Recently, a nonshock rat model of continuous endotoxin infusion via an implanted osmotic pump was developed that reproduces some of the metabolic and cardiovascular findings of human sepsis. By using this model, we have found a decreased number of hepatic plasma membrane alpha 1-adrenergic and (Arg8)vasopressin receptors in rats continuously infused with endotoxin. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)prazosin (35 +/- 7%) and (/sup 3/H) (Arg8)vasopressin (43 +/- 8%) receptors after 30 h of continuous endotoxin infusion with no change in affinity. The ability of norepinephrine to form the high-affinity complex with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors was not altered after chronic endotoxin infusion. The results are consistent with the concept that alterations in receptor number might underlie certain of the metabolic consequences of chronic sepsis.

  14. Vasopressin in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit: Myth or reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vishal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cardiac surgery is undergoing a metamorphosis, with more and more critical patients being operated in our country today. Although the principles of physiology have not changed, it is imperative that care providers continue to stay abreast with developments and newer drugs that may help modify the outcome. The team dynamics have also become more complex, which necessitates the need for all care providers (surgeons, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, and intensivists to better understand the interactions and benefits of newer drugs. Vasopressin has been used in our adult patients for more than a decade and recently has found its rightful place in the pediatric armoury. The objective of this article is to review the physiology of vasopressin and the rationale of its use in critically ill children with shock, in context of the available published data.

  15. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.

  16. The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Fodor; Dóra Zelena

    2014-01-01

    Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on ...

  17. Oxytocin and vasopressin: linking pituitary neuropeptides and their receptors to social neurocircuits

    OpenAIRE

    Baribeau, Danielle A.; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal ac...

  18. Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Linking Pituitary Neuropeptides and their Receptors to Social Neurocircuits

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Andrea Baribeau; Evdokia eAnagnostou

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal ac...

  19. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of pepti...

  20. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene polymorphisms: role in social and psychiatric traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio eAspé Sánchez; Macarena eMoreno; Maria-Ignacia eRivera; Alejandra eRossi; John eEwer

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of pepti...

  1. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase attenuates vasopressin-dependent Ca2+ signaling in rat hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S.; Gaspers, L. D.; Boucherie, S.; Memin, E.; Stellato, K. A.; Guillon, G; Combettes, L; Thomas, A P

    2002-01-01

    Increases in both Ca2+ and nitric oxide levels are vital for a variety of cellular processes; however, the interaction between these two crucial messengers is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase in hepatocytes, in response to inflammatory mediators, dramatically attenuates Ca2+ signaling by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-forming hormone, vasopressin. The inhibitory effects of induction were reversed by nitric oxide inhibitors and mim...

  2. Vasopressin in vasodilatory shock: ensure organ blood flow, but take care of the heart!

    OpenAIRE

    Dünser, Martin W; Hasibeder, Walter R

    2006-01-01

    Supplementary arginine vasopressin infusion in advanced vasodilatory shock may be accompanied by a decrease in cardiac index and systemic oxygen transport capacity in approximately 40% of patients. While a reduction of cardiac output most frequently occurs in patients with hyperdynamic circulation, it is less often observed in patients with low cardiac index. Infusion of inotropes, such as dobutamine, may be an effective strategy to restore systemic blood flow. However, when administering ino...

  3. Vasopressin improves survival in a porcine model of abdominal vascular injury

    OpenAIRE

    Stadlbauer, Karl H; Wagner-Berger, Horst G; Krismer, Anette C; Voelckel, Wolfgang G; Konigsrainer, Alfred; Lindner, Karl H; Wenzel, Volker

    2007-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine and compare the effects of vasopressin, fluid resuscitation and saline placebo on haemodynamic variables and short-term survival in an abdominal vascular injury model with uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock in pigs. Methods During general anaesthesia, a midline laparotomy was performed on 19 domestic pigs, followed by an incision (width about 5 cm and depth 0.5 cm) across the mesenterial shaft. When mean arterial blood pressure was below 20 mmHg, and heart rat...

  4. Vasopressin in Hemorrhagic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Animal Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Pasquale Cossu; Paolo Mura; Lorenzo Matteo De Giudici; Daniela Puddu; Laura Pasin; Maurizio Evangelista; Theodoros Xanthos; Mario Musu; Gabriele Finco

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The latest European guidelines for the management of hemorrhagic shock suggest the use of vasopressors (norepinephrine) in order to restore an adequate mean arterial pressure when fluid resuscitation therapy fails to restore blood pressure. The administration of arginine vasopressin (AVP), or its analogue terlipressin, has been proposed as an alternative treatment in the early stages of hypovolemic shock. Design. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled animal trials. Participants....

  5. Arginine vasopressin versus norepinephrine: will the stronger one win the race?

    OpenAIRE

    Ertmer, Christian; Bone, Hans-Georg; Westphal, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In the current issue of Critical Care, Friesenecker and colleagues present a well-designed comparative study on the microvascular effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and norepinephrine (NE) in a physiological, unanesthetized hamster model. The authors clearly demonstrate that AVP, but not NE, has marked vasoconstrictive effects on large arterioles, whereas the impact on small arterioles is comparable for both vasopressors. However, it remains unclear if these results, per se, reflect a stro...

  6. Use of Arginine Vasopressin in the Management of Vasodilatory Shock After CABG - A Clinical Tria.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay O; Kilpadi K; Prashanth P; Vincent V; Thejas B

    2003-01-01

    Vasodilatory shock requiring treatment with catecholamines occurs in some patients following cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the use of vasopressin in the treatment of this syndrome. Forty patients with a left main coronary artery disease and a poor left ventricular function (ejection fraction <30%) were studied. Only those patients (n=12, 30%) in whom difficulty was experienced in maintaining a mean arterial pressure of > 60 mm Hg and a systemic vascular resistanc...

  7. Rescue of vasopressin V2 receptor mutants by chemical chaperones: specificity and mechanism.

    OpenAIRE

    Robben, J.H.; Sze, M.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Deen, P. M. T.

    2006-01-01

    Because missense mutations in genetic diseases of membrane proteins often result in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of functional proteins, drug-induced rescue of their cell surface expression and understanding the underlying mechanism are of clinical value. To study this, we tested chemical chaperones and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump inhibitors on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing nine ER-retained vasopressin type-2 receptor (V2R) mutants involved in nephrogeni...

  8. Does vasopressin improve the mortality of septic shock patients treated with high-dose NA

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi Ohsugi; Toru Kotani; Satoshi Fukuda; Yoko Sato; Satoshi Toyama; Makoto Ozaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim of Study: In Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2012, noradrenalin (NA) is recommended as a first choice vasopressor. Although vasopressin (VP) is recommended for the treatment of NA-resistant septic shock, the optimal parameters for its administration remain unclear. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the administration of VP to adult septic shock patients who were undergoing high-dose NA (≥0.25 μg/kg/min) therapy in our Inten...

  9. Vasopressin impairs brain, heart and kidney perfusion: an experimental study in pigs after transient myocardial ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Stig; How, Ole-Jakob; Hermansen, Stig Eggen; Stenberg, Thor Allan; Sager, Georg; Myrmel, Truls

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is increasingly used to restore mean arterial pressure (MAP) in low-pressure shock states unresponsive to conventional inotropes. This is potentially deleterious since AVP is also known to reduce cardiac output by increasing vascular resistance. The effects of AVP on blood flow to vital organs and cardiac performance in a circulation altered by cardiac ischemia are still not sufficiently clarified. We hypothesised that restoring MAP by low dose, th...

  10. Levels of arginine-vasopressin in cerebrospinal fluid during passive avoidance behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kloet, E.R. de; Laczi, F.; Gaffori, O.; Fekete, M.; Wied, D. de

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of immunoreactive arginine-vasopressin (IR-AVP) was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acquisition and retention of passive avoidance behavior. IR-AVP level in CSF of male Wistar rats immediately after the learning trial was increased; the rate of which was related to the intensity of the electric footschock during the learning trial and the avoidance latency as measured 1 day after the learning trial. Immediately after the 24 h retention test IR-AVP levels wer...

  11. Experimental sepsis in pigs—effects of vasopressin on renal, hepatic, and intestinal dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Yang, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jing; Li, Ren-Qi; Li, Guo-Min; Fan, Yun-Xia; Li, Wei-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Low-dose arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been proposed as an adjunctive vasopressor for the treatment of advanced vasodilatory shock. However, its effects on renal, hepatic, and intestinal dysfunction during sepsis remain controversial. Methods Fecal peritonitis was induced in 20 anesthetized, invasively monitored, mechanically ventilated female pigs. Following the time point of septic shock (defined as mean artery pressure (MAP) ≤65 mmHg), animals were randomly assigned to the fo...

  12. Vasopressin in vasodilatory shock: hemodynamic stabilization at the cost of the liver and the kidney?

    OpenAIRE

    Bracht, Hendrik; Asfar, Pierre; Radermacher, Peter; Calzia, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    Infusing arginine vasopressin (AVP) in advanced vasodilatory shock is usually accompanied by a decrease in cardiac index and systemic oxygen transport. Whether or not such a vasoconstriction impedes regional blood flow and thus visceral organ function, even when low AVP is used, is still a matter of debate. Krejci and colleagues now report, in this issue of Critical Care, that infusing 'low-dose' AVP during early, short-term, normotensive and normodynamic fecal peritonitis-induced porcine sep...

  13. Arteriolar vasoconstrictive response: comparing the effects of arginine vasopressin and norepinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Friesenecker, Barbara E; Tsai, Amy G; Martini, Judith; Ulmer, Hanno; Wenzel, Volker; Hasibeder, Walter R; Intaglietta, Marcos; Dünser, Martin W

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to examine differences in the arteriolar vasoconstrictive response between arginine vasopressin (AVP) and norepinephrine (NE) on the microcirculatory level in the hamster window chamber model in unanesthetized, normotonic hamsters using intravital microscopy. It is known from patients with advanced vasodilatory shock that AVP exerts strong additional vasoconstriction when incremental dosage increases of NE have no further effect on mean arterial blood pre...

  14. Cardiovascular effects of injections of vasopressin into the nucleus tractus solitarius in conscious rats.

    OpenAIRE

    King, K A; Pang, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of injections of arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) on mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and plasma concentrations of noradrenaline and adrenaline were investigated in conscious, unrestrained rats. Injection of 2 ng AVP into the NTS significantly increased MAP but not plasma catecholamine concentrations, while injection of 10 ng AVP significantly increased MAP and plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Neither dose of AVP produced...

  15. Bombesin, vasopressin, and endothelin rapidly stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation in intact Swiss 3T3 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachary, I.; Gil, J.; Lehmann, W.; Sinnett-Smith, J.; Rozengurt, E. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

    1991-06-01

    The mitogenic neuropeptides bombesin and vasopressin markedly increased tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of multiple substrates in quiescent Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, including two major bands of M{sub r} 90,000 and 115,000. Tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was increased as judged by immunoprecipitation of {sup 32}P{sub i}-labeled cells and immunoblotting of unlabeled cells with monoclonal antiphosphotyrosine antibodies, elution with phenyl phosphate, and phospho amino acid analysis. Phosphotyrosyl proteins generated by bombesin and vasopressin did not correspond either by apparent molecular weight or by immunological and biochemical criteria to several known tyrosine kinase substrates, including phospholipase C{sub {gamma}}, the microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase, GTPase-activating protein, or phosphatidylinositol kinase. The effect was rapid (within seconds), concentration dependent, and inhibited by specific receptor antagonists for both bombesin and vasopressin. The endothelin-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal contractor, also elicited a rapid and concentration-dependent tyrosine/serine phosphorylation of a similar set of substrates. These results demonstrate that neuropeptides, acting through receptors linked to GTP-binding proteins, stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of a common set of substrates in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells and suggest the existence of an additional signal transduction pathway in neuropeptide-induced mitogenesis.

  16. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Qunibi, M.A. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Smith, C.S. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  17. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig

  18. A comparison of vasopressin, terlipressin, and lactated ringers for resuscitation of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chang Lee

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the effect of lactated ringer (LR, vasopressin (Vaso or terlipressin (Terli on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS in rats. METHODS: 48 rats were divided into four treatment groups for UHS study. Vaso group was given bolus vasopressin (0.8 U/kg; the Terli group was given bolus terlipressin (15 mcg/kg; LR group was given LR and the sham group was not given anything. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, serum lactate level, plasma cytokine levels, lung injury and mortality are investigated for these different treatment groups. RESULTS: Compared with LR group, vasopressin and terlipressin-treated groups were associated with higher MAP, lowered mortality rates, less lung injury, lowered serum lactate level, less proinflammatory and more anti-inflammatory cytokine production at certain time points. Comparing between vasopressin and terlipressin treated groups, there is no statistical difference in mortality rates, lung injury, serum lactate level and cytokine level. However, there is a difference in the length of time in maintaining a restored level of MAP (80 to 110 mmHg. The terlipressin treated rats can maintain this restored level of MAP for 45 minutes, but the vasopressin treated rats can only maintain this restored level of MAP for 5 minutes before decreasing gradually to the MAP observed in LR group (40 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Early optimization of hemodynamics with terlipressin or vasopressin in an animal model of UHS was associated with improved hemodynamics and inflammatory cytokine profile than the LR control. Compared with vasopressin, terlipressin has the advantage of ease of use and sustained effects.

  19. Caution on diagnosis of idiopathetic central diabetes insipidus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-ling; WANG Ying-qian; MU Yi-ming

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathetic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a heterogeneous hypothalamus-pituitary disease due to the absence or deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP).Overexcretion of dilute urine causes body's hydration state and symptoms of extraordinary thirst,even with copious water intake (up to 20 L per day).The diagnosis of CDI is commonly confirmed with water deprivation test and vasopressin analog response.1 This disorder is usually caused by the destruction or degeneration of AVP-secreting magnocellular neurons in hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.The classical radiological change of CDI is loss of "bright spot" in MRI image,but it is always not special for differential diagnosis of underlying causes.

  20. Neural Substrate Essential for Suppression of Vasopressin Secretion and Excretion of a Water Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Glenn L; McKinley, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Suppression of vasopressin secretion to very low levels is essential for the excretion of excess water. To investigate a role for the preoptic brain region in the suppression of vasopressin secretion and the excretion of a water load, lesions were made in the vicinity of the lamina terminalis in ewes (LTX-sheep) and responses to water-loading or reduction of cerebrospinal fluid NaCl by i.c.v. isotonic mannitol solution were investigated. In normal conscious sheep, intraruminal water-loading resulted in the urine flow rate increasing and urine osmolality decreasing within 1 h, such that renal free water clearance (CH 2O ) increased from -1.02 ± 0.16 ml/min (mean ± SEM) to a maximum of +4.99 ± 0.62 ml/min at 2.5 h after water-loading (P 2O did not change significantly after water-loading (-1.78 ± 0.13 to -2.03 ± 0.49 ml/min at 2.5 h after water-loading). Plasma vasopressin levels were inappropriately elevated in water-loaded LTX-sheep (n = 3). Intracerebroventricular mannitol (1 ml/h for 2 h) resulted in a water diuresis and increase in CH 2O (-1.16 ± 0.12 to +2.81 ± 0.58 ml/min, P 2O (-1.31 ± 0.14 to -1.35 ± 0.12 ml/min) or the plasma vasopressin concentration (1.47 ± 0.18 to 1.60 ± 0.44 pg/ml, not significant) with i.c.v. mannitol. The results suggest that an inhibitory pathway from the vicinity of the median preoptic nucleus to the supraoptic and hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei plays an important role in the suppression of vasopressin secretion and the excretion of excess water. PMID:26607053

  1. Cyclosporin A inhibits PGE2 release from vascular smooth muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtz, Armin; Pfeilschifter, J.; Kühn, K; KOCH, K M

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the fungoid undecapeptide cyclosporin A (CyA) on PGE2 release from cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells was investigated in this study. We found that CyA time and concentration dependently (ED50:500 ng/ml) inhibited PGE2 release from the cells. CyA attenuated both basal and PGE2 release evoked by angiotensin II (10(-10)-10(-6) M), arginine vasopressin (10(-10)-10(-6) M) and ionomycin (10(-9)-10(-6) M). CyA (1 microgram/ml) did not affect the conversion of exogenous arachid...

  2. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  3. Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Blocker Conivaptan Reduces Brain Edema and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Experimental Stroke in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Zeynalov

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Stroke is complicated by brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, and is often accompanied by increased release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP. AVP acts through V1a and V2 receptors to trigger hyponatremia, vasospasm, and platelet aggregation which can exacerbate brain edema. The AVP receptor blockers conivaptan (V1a and V2 and tolvaptan (V2 are used to correct hyponatremia, but their effect on post-ischemic brain edema and BBB disruption remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate if these drugs can prevent brain edema and BBB disruption in mice after stroke.Experimental mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO with reperfusion. Mice were treated with conivaptan, tolvaptan, or vehicle. Treatments were initiated immediately at reperfusion and administered IV (conivaptan or orally (tolvaptan for 48 hours. Physiological variables, neurological deficit scores (NDS, plasma and urine sodium and osmolality were recorded. Brain water content (BWC and Evans Blue (EB extravasation index were evaluated at the end point.Both conivaptan and tolvaptan produced aquaresis as indicated by changes in plasma and urine sodium levels. However plasma and urine osmolality was changed only by conivaptan. Unlike tolvaptan, conivaptan improved NDS and reduced BWC in the ipsilateral hemisphere: from 81.66 ± 0.43% (vehicle to 78.28 ± 0.48% (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05 vs vehicle. Conivaptan also attenuated the EB extravasation from 1.22 ± 0.08 (vehicle to 1.01 ± 0.02 (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05.Continuous IV infusion with conivaptan for 48 hours after experimental stroke reduces brain edema, and BBB disruption. Conivaptan but not tolvaptan may potentially be used in patients to prevent brain edema after stroke.

  4. Acutely elevated vasopressin increases circulating concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone in fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo; Talamantes, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The physiological actions of vasopressin (VP) in marine mammals are not well defined. To help elucidate its hormonal and renal effects in this group of mammals, northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups (N=7; 99+/-4 kg) were first infused with 0.9% saline (control; 220 ml), followed 24 h later with VP (as a 20 ng kg(-1) bolus, then 2 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for approximately 35 min in 225+/-16 ml saline). During both control and VP periods, blood samples were collected prior to infusion, and 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h after infusion to examine the hormonal responses of the pups to VP. Renal responses were quantified from 24 h urine samples obtained prior to infusion (control) and 24 h post-infusion. Compared to the control period, infusion of VP increased plasma concentrations of cortisol over a 120 min period and aldosterone over 30 min, while plasma renin activity (PRA) was decreased for a 120 min period. The plasma urea:creatinine ratio was elevated following infusion of VP. Urine output and osmotic clearance were increased by 69+/-18% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 36+/-10%, respectively, but free water clearance and glomerular filtration rate were not significantly altered 24 h post-infusion of VP. Solute (osmolality, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion and fractional excretion of electrolytes were also increased when compared to control values. The increase in cortisol concentration suggests that VP may possess corticotropin releasing hormone-like activity in elephant seals. If osmotic diuresis and natriuresis are typical consequences of elevated [VP] in fasting pups, then not increasing VP normally during the fast may serve as a protective mechanism to avoid the potential loss of Na(+) induced by elevated [VP]. Therefore, under natural fasting conditions, pups may be highly sensitive to small changes in [VP], resulting in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

  5. Increased number of vasopressin neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of 'bisexual' adult male rats following perinatal treatment with the aromatase blocker ATD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F. Swaab (Dick); A.K. Slob (Koos); E.J. Houtsmuller (Elisabeth Judith); T. Brand (Teus); J.N. Zhou (J.)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn an earlier article an enlarged subpopulation of vasopressin containing neurons was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of homosexual men as compared to heterosexuals. The present study investigates the possibility that the number of vasopressin neurons in the SCN and sexual par

  6. The Level of Vasopressin is not solely resulted from the Concentration of Endotoxin but Proportional to Creatinine in Dogs with Pyometra

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    W. Y. Shia1, K. C. Tung1, 2, S. C. Chang1, 2, C. H. Yang1, 2, C. H. Lee2, C. C. Chou1 and W. M. Lee1, 2*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is one of the most common reproductive disorder characterized as fluid accumulation mainly pus and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from uterus in bitches. Impaired function of vasopressin is found in the disease. The impact of the circulating endotoxin concentration on vasopressin involved water regulation is still unclear. To document the effect of endotoxin on vasopressin-involved water regulation in dogs with pyometra, blood samples were collected for examination of circulating endotoxin concentration, osmolarity values, vasopressin concentrations, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine. The results indicated that the concentration change of endotoxin was contrary to BUN and creatinine in dogs with pyometra. The trends of concentrations change of BUN and creatinine were similar with osmolarity and vasopressin. Pyometric dogs with high level of circulating endotoxin had significantly lower (P 20 mg/dL and creatinine (> 1.5 mg/dL also had plasma vasopressin significantly higher (P<0.05 than those with low levels of BUN and creatinine and control dogs. The overall results suggested that elevated vasopressin was not mainly associated with the circulating endotoxin concentration and some other factors may collaborate with endotoxin causing impaired function of vasopressin.

  7. Early, but not late therapy with a vasopressin V-1a-antagonist ameliorates the development of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Willemijn A. K. M.; Tahara, Atsua; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Henning, Robert H.; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Vasopressin, mainly through the VIA-receptor, is thought to be a major player in the maintenance of hyperfiltration. Its inhibition could therefore lead to a decrease in progression of chronic renal failure. To this end, the effect of the vasopressin V-1a-receptor-selective antagonist,

  8. Early, but not late therapy with a vasopressin V1a-antagonist ameliorates the development of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Willemijn A K M; Tahara, Atsua; Kluppel, Alex C A; de Zeeuw, Dick; Henning, Robert H; van Dokkum, Richard P E

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vasopressin, mainly through the V1a-receptor, is thought to be a major player in the maintenance of hyperfiltration. Its inhibition could therefore lead to a decrease in progression of chronic renal failure. To this end, the effect of the vasopressin V1a-receptor-selective antagonist,

  9. Synergism between insecticides permethrin and propoxur occurs through activation of presynaptic muscarinic negative feedback of acetylcholine release in the insect central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Vincent; Stankiewicz, Maria; Bonnet, Julien; Grolleau, Françoise; Hougard, Jean Marc; Lapied, Bruno

    2006-07-01

    Although synergism between pesticides has been widely documented, the physiological mechanisms by which an insecticide synergizes another remains unclear. Toxicological and electrophysiological studies were carried out on two susceptible pest species (the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and the cockroach Periplaneta americana) to understand better the physiological process involved in pyrethroid and carbamate interactions. Larval bioassays were conducted with the susceptible reference strain SLAB of C. quinquefasciatus to assess the implication of multi-function oxidases and non-specific esterases in insecticide detoxification and synergism. Results showed that the general theory of synergism (competition between pesticides for a common detoxification enzyme) was unlikely to occur in the SLAB strain since the level of synergy recorded between permethrin and propoxur was unchanged in the presence of piperonyl butoxide and tribufos, two inhibitors of oxidases and esterases, respectively (synergism ratios were similar with and without synergists). We also showed that addition of a sub-lethal concentration of nicotine significantly increased the toxicity of permethrin and propoxur at the lower range of the dose-mortality regression lines, suggesting the manifestation of important physiological disruptions at synaptic level. The effects of both permethrin and propoxur were studied on the cercal-afferent giant-interneuron synapses in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cockroach P. americana using the single-fibre oil-gap method. We demonstrated that permethrin and propoxur increased drastically the ACh concentration within the synaptic cleft, which thereby stimulated a negative feedback of ACh release. Atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, reversed the effect of permethrin and propoxur mixtures. This demonstrates the implication of the presynaptic muscarinic receptors in the negative feedback regulation process and in synergism. Based on these findings, we

  10. Diabetes diminishes the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to vasopressin via vasopressin receptor and Gα proteins regulations in cirrhotic rats.

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    Jing-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal-systemic collateral formation and bleeding. The hemostatic effect is influenced by the response of collateral vessels to vasoconstrictors. Diabetes and glucose also influence vasoresponsiveness, but their net effect on collaterals remains unexplored. This study investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose application on portal-systemic collateral vasoresponsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP in cirrhosis. Spraque-Dawley rats with bile duct ligation (BDL-induced cirrhosis received vehicle (citrate buffer or streptozotocin (diabetic, BDL/STZ. The in situ collateral perfusion was done after hemodynamic measurements: Both were perfused with Krebs solution, D-glucose, or D-glucose and NaF, with additional OPC-31260 for the BDL/STZ group. Splenorenal shunt vasopressin receptors and Gα proteins mRNA expressions were evaluated. The survival rate of cirrhotic rats was decreased by STZ injection. The collateral perfusion pressure changes to AVP were lower in STZ-injected groups, which were reversed by OPC-31260 (a V2R antagonist and overcome by NaF (a G protein activator. The splenorenal shunt V2R mRNA expression was increased while Gα proteins mRNA expressions were decreased in BDL/STZ rats compared to BDL rats. The Gαq and Gα11 mRNA expressions also correlated with the maximal perfusion pressure changes to AVP. Diabetes diminished the portal-systemic collateral vascular response to AVP in rats with BDL-induced cirrhosis, probably via V2 receptor up-regulation and Gα proteins down-regulation.

  11. Effect of vasopressin on Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and the signaling mechanisms on the murine late distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong; Tang, Xudong

    2016-01-15

    It has been demonstrated that the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is able to regulate the expression of Na-K-Cl cotransporters (NKCC1 and NKCC2) in the kidney. The present study investigated the effects of long- and short-term administration of vasopressin on NKCC and the possible signaling mechanism of vasopressin in the mouse distal colon using the siRNA, real-time PCR, western blotting and Ussing chambers method. The results showed the presence of NKCC2 expression in the colon, which was verified with a siRNA technique. The mRNA and protein expression level of NKCC2 significantly increased by about 40% and 90% respectively in response to restricting water intake to 1ml/day/20g for 7 days. In contrast, the NKCC1 expression level was unchanged in the colon. To determine the short-term activation of NKCC2 by vasopressin in vitro, we found that the administration of vasopressin caused a 3-fold increase in mouse colon NKCC2 phosphorylation, which was detected with phosphospecific antibody R5. In addition, the Ussing chamber results showed that NKCC2, cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling pathway may be involved in the vasopressin-induced response. Further, adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL-12330A and PKA inhibitor H89 and Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM reversed the vasopressin induced NKCC2 phosphorylation level increase by about 35%, 28% and 42% respectively suggesting vasopressin stimulate NKCC2 phosphorylation increase mediated by cAMP-PKA and Ca(2+) signaling in the colon. Collectively, these data suggest that the expression and phosphorylation of NKCC2 are increased in the colon by vasopressin stimulation, in association with enhanced activity of the vasopressin/cAMP and Ca(2+) pathways. PMID:26656758

  12. The Therapeutic Role of Vasopressin on Improving Lactate Clearance During and After Vasogenic Shock: Microcirculation, Is It The Black Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Elchin; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Mousavi, Sarah; Nouri, Masoumeh; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin as a supplementary vasopressor in septic shock restores vascular tone and mean arterial pressure, meanwhile decreases dose and exposure time to catecholamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vasopressin on lactate and lactate clearance as markers of tissue perfusion during septic shock. In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 30 patients with septic shock were enrolled in two groups. One group received norepinephrine infusion (titrated to reach the target MAP of ≥65 mm Hg) and the other group in addition to norepinephrine, received vasopressin at a constant rate of 0.03 u/min. Serum lactate levels were assessed at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after randomization. Lactate clearance was estimated for each patient at 24 and 48 hours. Venous lactate was measured in both groups. Despite a tendency toward higher venous lactate at 24 and 48 hours in the norepinephrine group (3.1 vs. 2.5, P=0.67 and 1.7 vs. 1.1, P=0.47), the conflict was not statistically significant among them. While lactate clearance after 24 hours was significantly higher in vasopressin treatment group (46% vs. 20%, respectively; P=0.048), the 48-hour lactate clearance did not differ from statistic viewpoints despite their clinical values (66% vs. 40%, P=0.17). Although lactate levels did not significantly differ between treatment groups, lactate clearance at 24 hours was significantly higher in vasopressin group. This may be the effect of vasopressin effect on microcirculation and tissue hypoperfusion or its catecholamine sparing effect. PMID:26853286

  13. The Therapeutic Role of Vasopressin on Improving lactate Clearance During and After Vasogenic Shock: Microcirculation, Is it The Black Box?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin Barzegar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arginine vasopressin as a supplementary vasopressor in septic shock restores vascular tone and mean arterial pressure, meanwhile decreases dose and exposure time to catecholamines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vasopressin on lactate and lactate clearance as markers of tissue perfusion during septic shock. In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 30 patients with septic shock were enrolled in two groups. One group received norepinephrine infusion (titrated to reach the target MAP of ≥65 mm Hg and the other group in addition to norepinephrine, received vasopressin at a constant rate of 0.03 u/min. Serum lactate levels were assessed at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after randomization. Lactate clearance was estimated for each patient at 24 and 48 hours. Venous lactate was measured in both groups. Despite a tendency toward higher venous lactate at 24 and 48 hours in the norepinephrine group (3.1 vs. 2.5, P=0.67 and 1.7 vs. 1.1, P=0.47, the conflict was not statistically significant among them. While lactate clearance after 24 hours was significantly higher in vasopressin treatment group (46% vs. 20%, respectively; P=0.048, the 48-hour lactate clearance did not differ from statistic viewpoints despite their clinical values (66% vs. 40%, P=0.17. Although lactate levels did not significantly differ between treatment groups, lactate clearance at 24 hours was significantly higher in vasopressin group. This may be the effect of vasopressin effect on microcirculation and tissue hypoperfusion or its catecholamine sparing effect.

  14. Spontaneous release of epiretinal membrane in a young weight-lifting athlete by presumed central rupture and centrifugal pull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM

    2014-11-01

    edges of the ERM and gradual separation from the edges towards the center (remodeling common in youngsters; and 3 acute tearing of ERM at its weakest central point and retraction of part of the membrane towards the epicenter (current case report. Keywords: valsalva maneuver, posterior vitreous detachment

  15. A Comparison of Vasopressin, Terlipressin, and Lactated Ringers for Resuscitation of Uncontrolled Hemorrhagic Shock in an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Chang Lee; Meng-Tse Gabriel Lee; Shy-Shin Chang; Si-Huei Lee; Yu-Chi Huang; Chia-Hung Yo; Shih-Hao Lee; Shyr-Chyr Chen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the effect of lactated ringer (LR), vasopressin (Vaso) or terlipressin (Terli) on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS) in rats. METHODS: 48 rats were divided into four treatment groups for UHS study. Vaso group was given bolus vasopressin (0.8 U/kg); the Terli group was given bolus terlipressin (15 mcg/kg); LR group was given LR and the sham group was not given anything. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum lactate level, plasma cytokine levels, lung in...

  16. V1a vasopressin receptors maintain normal blood pressure by regulating circulating blood volume and baroreflex sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Nasa, Yoshihisa; Tanoue, Akito; Oikawa, Ryo; Kawahara, Yuji; Kiyono, Yasushi; ADACHI, TETSUYA; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki; Mori, Toyoki; Takeo, Satoshi; Okamura, Hitoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2006-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a hormone that is essential for both osmotic and cardiovascular homeostasis, and exerts important physiological regulation through three distinct receptors, V1a, V1b, and V2. Although AVP is used clinically as a potent vasoconstrictor (V1a receptor-mediated) in patients with circulatory shock, the physiological role of vasopressin V1a receptors in blood pressure (BP) homeostasis is ill-defined. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of the V1a recept...

  17. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis......-rats. The triene/tetraene ratio was positively correlated with urinary AVP excretion. It is concluded that FF-rats had elevated plasma AVP concentration and disturbed water balance, both of which probably were provoked by an increased transepidermal water loss....

  18. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased....... Increased water consumption and increased urinary iAVP excretion seem to be early symptoms (after 4 weeks) of EFA deficiency, whereas decreased urine output and decreased urinary PGE excretion occur much later (after 10 weeks). Two energy% linolenate supplementation to a fat-free diet did not change...

  19. Post-training vasopressin injections may facilitate or delay shuttle-box avoidance extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, J J; Bohus, B; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    After training to avoid footshock in a two-way shuttle box rats were injected with lysine vasopressin (LVP) and returned to the shuttle box 24 hr later for 10 extinction trials. Experiment 1 shows that when injected 30 min after training subsequent extinction responding varied as an inverted “U”-shaped function of the LVP dose within the range tested (0.036 to 2.97 μg/rat). Responding was increased with 0.11 μg/rat whereas 2.97 μg/rat reduced responding. Experiment 2 shows that these two dose...

  20. Cardiac ischemia in patients with septic shock randomized to vasopressin or norepinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Sangeeta; Granton, John; Gordon, Anthony C; Cook, Deborah J.; Lapinsky, Stephen; Newton, Gary; Bandayrel, Kris; Little, Anjuli; Siau, Chuin; Ayers, Dieter; Singer, Joel; Lee, Terry CK; Keith R Walley; Storms, Michelle; Cooper, D James

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac troponins are sensitive and specific biomarkers of myocardial necrosis. We evaluated troponin, CK, and ECG abnormalities in patients with septic shock and compared the effect of vasopressin (VP) versus norepinephrine (NE) on troponin, CK, and ECGs. Methods This was a prospective substudy of a randomized trial. Adults with septic shock randomly received, blinded, a low-dose infusion of VP (0.01 to 0.03 U/min) or NE (5 to 15 μg/min) in addition to open-label vasopressors, t...

  1. 星点设计-效应面法优化盐酸二甲双胍缓释片处方%Optimization of metformin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets by central composite design/response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈颖; 林巧平; 刘春晖; 狄留庆

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用星点设计-效应面法优化盐酸二甲双胍缓释片的处方.方法 以HPMC K100M的用量和Carbopol 71GNF的用量为考察因素,以1,3,6和10 h的累积释放度为考察指标,采用多元线性回归和多元非线性回归拟合选择合适的模型,根据最佳模型绘制效应面图和等高线图,选择最佳处方并进行验证.采用相似因子对自研片和国外进口片在不同介质中的累积释放度进行比较研究.结果 优化处方中HPMC K100M和Carbopol 71GNF的用量分别为片重的8%~15%和10%~13%.最佳处方在各时间点的累积释放度的实测值与预测值的偏差均在6%以内.自研片和国外进口片在pH=4.5、pH=6.8和水中的累积释放度相似性因子f 2分别为:76.60、75.58和72.38.结论 通过星点设计-效应面法建立的模型可以用于盐酸二甲双胍缓释片处方的优化.%Aim To optimize the formulation of metformin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets by central composite design/response surface methodology( CCD ). Methods The independent variables were the amount of HPMC KIOOM and Carbopol 71GNF, and the dependent variables were the dissolution of metformin hydrochloride at 1 ,3 ,6 ,10 h. Linear or nonlinear mathematic models were used to estimate the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Response surface and 2D-contour map were delineated according to the hest-fit mathematic models to select the optimized formulation and assess the observed and predicted values. The release rate of the sustained-release tablets and imported tablets were studied by similarity factor. Results Optimized forruulation of metformin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets were proposed to consist of 8% - 15% HPMC K1OOM and 10%~ 13% Carbopol 7IGNF. Bias hetween the observed and predicted values was within 6% . The f2 for the sustained-release tablets and imported tablets in different dissolution mediums( pH =4. 5 ,pH =6. 8 and water )were 76

  2. Modulation of mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis through a specific arginine-vasopressin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahri-Joutei, A.; Pointis, G.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of specific vasopressin binding sites was investigated in purified mouse Leydig cells using tritiated arginine-vasopressin. Binding of radioligand was saturable, time- and temperature-dependent and reversible. (/sup 3/H)-AVP was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity and low capacity. Binding displacements with specific selection analogs of AVP indicated the presence of V/sub 1/ subtype receptors on Leydig cells. The ability of AVP to displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding was greater than LVP and oxytocin. The unrelated peptides, somatostatin and substance P, were less potent, while neurotensin and LHRH did not displace (/sup 3/H)-AVP binding. The time-course effects of AVP-pretreatment on basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone and cAMP accumulations were studied in primary culture of Leydig cells. Basal testosterone accumulation was significantly increased by a 24 h AVP-pretreatment of Leydig cells. This effect was potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor (MIX) and was concomitantly accompanied by a slight but significant increase in cAMP accumulation. AVP-pretreatment of the cells for 72 h had no effect on basal testosterone accumulation, but exerted a marked inhibitory effect on the hCG-stimulated testosterone accumulation. This reduction of testosterone accumulation occurred even in the presence of MIX and was not accompanied by any significant change of cAMP levels.

  3. Oxytocin receptor and vasopressin receptor 1a genes are respectively associated with emotional and cognitive empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzefovsky, F; Shalev, I; Israel, S; Edelman, S; Raz, Y; Mankuta, D; Knafo-Noam, A; Ebstein, R P

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is the ability to recognize and share in the emotions of others. It can be considered a multifaceted concept with cognitive and emotional aspects. Little is known regarding the underlying neurochemistry of empathy and in the current study we used a neurogenetic approach to explore possible brain neurotransmitter pathways contributing to cognitive and emotional empathy. Both the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) genes contribute to social cognition in both animals and humans and hence are prominent candidates for contributing to empathy. The following research examined the associations between polymorphisms in these two genes and individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy in a sample of 367 young adults. Intriguingly, we found that emotional empathy was associated solely with OXTR, whereas cognitive empathy was associated solely with AVPR1a. Moreover, no interaction was observed between the two genes and measures of empathy. The current findings contribute to our understanding of the distinct neurogenetic pathways involved in cognitive and emotional empathy and underscore the pervasive role of both oxytocin and vasopressin in modulating human emotions.

  4. A novel polymorphism in the coding region of the vasopressin type 2 receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Rocha

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI is a rare disease characterized by renal inability to respond properly to arginine vasopressin due to mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2(R gene in affected kindreds. In most kindreds thus far reported, the mode of inheritance follows an X chromosome-linked recessive pattern although autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive modes of inheritance have also been described. Studies demonstrating mutations in the V2(R gene in affected kindreds that modify the receptor structure, resulting in a dys- or nonfunctional receptor have been described, but phenotypically indistinguishable NDI patients with a structurally normal V2(R gene have also been reported. In the present study, we analyzed exon 3 of the V2(R gene in 20 unrelated individuals by direct sequencing. A C®T alteration in the third position of codon 331 (AGC®AGT, which did not alter the encoded amino acid, was found in nine individuals, including two unrelated patients with NDI. Taken together, these observations emphasize the molecular heterogeneity of a phenotypically homogeneous syndrome

  5. Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Linking Pituitary Neuropeptides and their Receptors to Social Neurocircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Andrea Baribeau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin and vasopressin are pituitary neuropeptides that have been shown to affect social processes in mammals. There is growing interest in these molecules and their receptors as potential precipitants of, and/or treatments for, social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder. Numerous behavioral-genetic studies suggest that there is an association between these peptides and individual social abilities; however, an explanatory model that links hormonal activity at the receptor level to complex human behavior remains elusive. The following review summarizes the known associations between the oxytocin and vasopressin neuropeptide systems and social neurocircuits in the brain. Following a micro- to macro- level trajectory, current literature on the synthesis and secretion of these peptides, and the structure, function and distribution of their respective receptors is first surveyed. Next, current models regarding the mechanism of action of these peptides on microcircuitry and other neurotransmitter systems are discussed. Functional neuroimaging evidence on the acute effects of exogenous administration of these peptides on brain activity is then reviewed. Overall, a model in which the local neuromodulatory effects of pituitary neuropeptides on brainstem and basal forebrain regions strengthen signaling within social neurocircuits proves appealing. However, these findings are derived from animal models; more research is needed to clarify the relevance of these mechanisms to human behavior and treatment of social deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Personality is Tightly Coupled to Vasopressin-Oxytocin Neuron Activity in a Gregarious Finch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonapeptides of the vasopressin-oxytocin family modulate social processes differentially in relation to sex, species, behavioral phenotype, and human personality. However, the mechanistic bases for these differences are not well understood, in part because multidimensional personality structures remain to be described for common laboratory animals. Based upon principal components (PC analysis of extensive behavioral measures in social and nonsocial contexts, we now describe three complex dimensions of phenotype (personality for the zebra finch, a species that exhibits a human-like social organization that is based upon biparental nuclear families embedded within larger social groups. These dimensions can be characterized as Social competence/dominance, Gregariousness, and Anxiety. We further demonstrate that the phasic Fos response of nonapeptide neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are significantly predicted by personality, sex, social context, and their interactions. Furthermore the behavioral PCs are each associated with a distinct suite of neural PCs that incorporate both peptide cell numbers and their phasic Fos responses, indicating that personality is reflected in complex patterns of neuromodulation arising from multiple peptide cell groups. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying sex- and phenotype-specific modulation of behavior, and should be broadly relevant, given that vasopressin-oxytocin systems are strongly conserved across vertebrates.

  7. [Vasopressin for therapy of persistent traumatic hemorrhagic shock: The VITRIS.at study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhart, H G; Wenzel, V; Braun, J; Dörges, V; Dünser, M; Gries, A; Hasibeder, W R; Helm, M; Lefering, R; Schlechtriemen, T; Trimmel, H; Ulmer, H; Ummenhofer, W; Voelckel, W G; Waydhas, C; Lindner, K

    2007-02-01

    While fluid management is established in controlled hemorrhagic shock, its use in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock is being controversially discussed, because it may worsen bleeding. In the irreversible phase of hemorrhagic shock that was unresponsive to volume replacement, airway management and catecholamines, vasopressin was beneficial due to an increase in arterial blood pressure, shift of blood away from a subdiaphragmatic bleeding site towards the heart and brain and decrease of fluid resuscitation requirements. The purpose of this multicenter, randomized, controlled, international trial is to assess the effects of vasopressin (10 IU IV) vs. saline placebo IV (up to 3 injections at least 5 min apart) in patients with prehospital traumatic hemorrhagic shock that persists despite standard shock treatment. The study will be carried out by helicopter emergency medical service teams in Austria, Germany, Czech Republic, Portugal, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Inclusion criteria are adult trauma patients with presumed traumatic hemorrhagic shock (systolic arterial blood pressure fluid resuscitation and use of vasopressors) after arrival of the first emergency physician at the scene. The time window for randomization will close after 30 min of shock treatment. Exclusion criteria are terminal illness, no intravenous access, age 60 min before randomization, cardiac arrest before randomization, presence of a do-not-resuscitate order, untreated tension pneumothorax, untreated cardiac tamponade, or known pregnancy. Primary study end-point is the hospital admission rate, secondary end-points are hemodynamic variables, fluid resuscitation requirements and hospital discharge rate. PMID:17265038

  8. The Effect of Maternal Stress Activation on the Offspring during Lactation in Light of Vasopressin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is obvious that preconceptional effects as well as stressors during pregnancy profoundly influence the progeny, the lactation period seems to be at least as important. Here we summarize how maternal stressors during the lactation period affect the offspring. As vasopressin is one of the crucial components both for stress adaptation and social behavior, special emphasis was given to this neuropeptide. We can conclude that stressing the mother does not have the same acute effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (as the main target of stress adaptation of the pups as stressing the pups, but later endocrine and behavioral consequences can be similar. Vasopressin plays a role in acute and later consequences of perinatal stressor applied either to the mother or to the offspring, thereby contributing to transmitting the mothers’ stress to the progeny. This mother-infant interaction does not necessarily mean a direct transmission of molecules, but rather is the result of programming the brain development through changes in maternal behavior. Thus, there is a time lag between maternal stress and stress-related changes in the offspring. The interactions are bidirectional as not only stress in the dam but also stress in the progeny has an effect on nursing.

  9. Studies of GI bleeding with scintigraphy and the influence of vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding depends on accurate localization of the site of hemorrhage. Endoscopy and arteriography, although successful in achieving this goal in the majority of patients, are invasive and have other shortcomings. The introduction of the 99mTc-sulfur colloid technique has greatly simplified the evaluation and management of these patients. This test is useful in detecting and localizing the bleeding site in the lower GI tract. Scintigraphy is now used as the initial study of choice in patients with rectal bleeding. Advances made in angiography and nuclear medicine techniques also have resulted in improved management of patients. Conservative approaches succeed in controlling hemorrhage in most patients. Vasopressin is the most widely tested agent and has been adopted by many as the preferred preparation for this purpose. Before the introduction of the 99mTc-sulfur colloid technique, angiography was used to monitor the effectiveness of this drug, whether administered intravenously or intraarterially. With the use of scintigraphy and intravenous administration of vasopressin, these patients now can be managed noninvasively. Only when the intravenous Pitressin infusion fails to stop hemorrhage, is the intraarterial approach considered. Surgery is used as a last resort when these measures fail to stop the bleeding

  10. Arginine vasopressin as a target in the treatment of acute heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha; A; Gilotra; Stuart; D; Russell

    2014-01-01

    Congestive heart failure(CHF) is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization in the United States. Despite multiple different beneficial medications for the treatment of chronic CHF, there are no therapies with a demonstrated mortality benefit in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure. In fact, studies of inotropes used in this setting have demonstrated more harm than good. Arginine vasopressin has been shown to be up regulated in CHF. When bound to the V1 a and/or V2 receptors, vasopressin causes vasoconstriction, left ventricular remodeling and free water reabsorption. Recently, two drugs have been approved for use that antagonize these receptors. Studies thus far have indicated that these medications, while effective at aquaresis(free water removal), are safe and not associated with increased morbidity such as renal failure and arrhythmias. Both conivaptan and tolvaptan have been approved for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia. We review the results of these studies in patients with heart failure.

  11. Continuous and selective measurement of oxytocin and vasopressin using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kai; Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical detection of oxytocin using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes was studied. Cyclic voltammetry of oxytocin in a phosphate buffer solution exhibits an oxidation peak at +0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is attributable to oxidation of the phenolic group in the tyrosyl moiety. Furthermore, the linearity of the current peaks obtained in flow injection analysis (FIA) using BDD microelectrodes over the oxytocin concentration range from 0.1 to 10.0 μM with a detection limit of 50 nM (S/N = 3) was high (R(2) = 0.995). Although the voltammograms of oxytocin and vasopressin observed with an as-deposited BDD electrode, as well as with a cathodically-reduced BDD electrode, were similar, a clear distinction was observed with anodically-oxidized BDD electrodes due to the attractive interaction between vasopressin and the oxidized BDD surface. By means of this distinction, selective measurements using chronoamperometry combined with flow injection analysis at an optimized potential were demonstrated, indicating the possibility of making selective in situ or in vivo measurements of oxytocin. PMID:27599852

  12. Plasma vasopressin and renin activity in women exposed to bed rest and +G/z/ acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Ellis, S.

    1976-01-01

    To study the effect of prolonged recumbency on plasma vasopressin and renin activity, eight women were subjected to 17 days of absolute bed rest. The tolerance to +3G vertical acceleration of the subjects was tested before and after 14 days of bed rest. From day 2 and through day 17 of bed rest, plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels were reduced 33%. Plasma renin activity (PRA) increased 91% above ambulatory control values from days 10 through 15 of bed rest. When compared to precentrifuge values, exposure to vertical acceleration prior to bed rest provoked a 20-fold rise in mean plasma AVP but resulted in only a slight increase in PRA. After bed rest, acceleration increased plasma AVP 7-fold; however, the magnitude of this increase was less than the post +3G acceleration value obtained prior to bed rest. After bed rest, no significant rise was noted in PRA following +3G acceleration. This study demonstrates that prolonged bed rest leads to a significant rise in the PRA of female subjects, while exposure to positive vertical acceleration provokes a marked rise in plasma AVP.

  13. Vasopressin in Hemorrhagic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Animal Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pasquale Cossu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The latest European guidelines for the management of hemorrhagic shock suggest the use of vasopressors (norepinephrine in order to restore an adequate mean arterial pressure when fluid resuscitation therapy fails to restore blood pressure. The administration of arginine vasopressin (AVP, or its analogue terlipressin, has been proposed as an alternative treatment in the early stages of hypovolemic shock. Design. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled animal trials. Participants. A total of 433 animals from 15 studies were included. Interventions. The ability of AVP and terlipressin to reduce mortality when compared with fluid resuscitation therapy, other vasopressors (norepinephrine or epinephrine, or placebo was investigated. Measurements and Main Results. Pooled estimates showed that AVP and terlipressin consistently and significantly improve survival in hemorrhagic shock (mortality: 26/174 (15% in the AVP group versus 164/259 (63% in the control arms; OR=0.09; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.15; P for effect < 0.001; P for heterogeneity = 0.30; I2=14%. Conclusions. Results suggest that AVP and terlipressin improve survival in the early phases of animal models of hemorrhagic shock. Vasopressin seems to be more effective than all other treatments, including other vasopressor drugs. These results need to be confirmed by human clinical trials.

  14. Continuous and selective measurement of oxytocin and vasopressin using boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kai; Ivandini, Tribidasari A.; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical detection of oxytocin using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes was studied. Cyclic voltammetry of oxytocin in a phosphate buffer solution exhibits an oxidation peak at +0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), which is attributable to oxidation of the phenolic group in the tyrosyl moiety. Furthermore, the linearity of the current peaks obtained in flow injection analysis (FIA) using BDD microelectrodes over the oxytocin concentration range from 0.1 to 10.0 μM with a detection limit of 50 nM (S/N = 3) was high (R2 = 0.995). Although the voltammograms of oxytocin and vasopressin observed with an as-deposited BDD electrode, as well as with a cathodically-reduced BDD electrode, were similar, a clear distinction was observed with anodically-oxidized BDD electrodes due to the attractive interaction between vasopressin and the oxidized BDD surface. By means of this distinction, selective measurements using chronoamperometry combined with flow injection analysis at an optimized potential were demonstrated, indicating the possibility of making selective in situ or in vivo measurements of oxytocin.

  15. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Pigarova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes insipidus represents a serious disease that dramatically interferes with the everyday life of patients due to the need to constantly replenish of fluid lost in the urine, which comes amid shortage of synthesis, secretion or action of pituitary hormone vasopressin. The main difficulty is the differential diagnosis of types of diabetes insipidus in patients with the syndrome of polydipsia-polyuria as the correct differential diagnosis of these forms predetermine the safety and efficacy of further treatment. This lecture presents the current concepts of etiology, diagnosis and treatment of central diabetes insipidus (CDI. We give the comparative characteristics of various preparations of desmopressin for the treatment of the central form of the disease. We also consider the features of the management of selected patient populations with CDI: during pregnancy and lactation, pathology of the thirst sensation, after traumatic brain injury and neurosurgery.

  17. Copeptin, a Surrogate Marker of Vasopressin, Is Associated With Accelerated Renal Function Decline in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Esther; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Jong, Paul E.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; van Son, Willem J.; Struck, Joachim; Lems, Simon P. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Chronically elevated vasopressin (VP) plasma levels have been shown to induce accelerated renal function decline in rats with chronic renal failure. Whether endogenous VP is a renal risk factor in humans has not been investigated yet. We aimed to investigate whether, in renal transplant

  18. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with declining glomerular filtration in patients with diabetes mellitus (ZODIAC-33)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertien, W. E.; Riphagen, I. J.; Drion, I.; Alkhalaf, A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Groenier, K. H.; Struck, J.; de Jong, P. E.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Kleefstra, N.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), the hormone important for maintaining fluid balance, has been shown to cause kidney damage in rodent models of diabetes. We investigated the potential role of AVP in the natural course of kidney function decline in diabetes in an epidemiological study. Plasma copeptin, a

  19. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into

  20. ORAL VERSUS NASAL VASOPRESSIN IN THE TREATMENT OF NOCTURNAL ENURESIS IN 5- TO 12-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas TAGHAVI ARDAKANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNocturnal enuresis is a common childhood problem and has various treatments.This study was carried out to compare oral and nasal vasopressin in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis in 5- to 12-year-old children who were referred to the Shahid Beheshti Clinic in 2008.Materials & MethodsThis study included 100 children (62 males and 38 females with nocturnal enuresis. One group (50 patients received 20 mcg nasal vasopressin which increased up to 40 mcg, depending on the patients' response. The other group (50 patients received 0.2 mg oral vasopressin which increased up to 0.4 mg.The patients were followed up for one month after response to the last dose of drug. Data were recorded in prepared forms and analyzed using Chi-Square and Fisher Test.ResultsThe success rate with oral and nasal method was 80% and 92%, respectively (P=0.08. Only 2% of the children had complications during the treatment; one child treated orally developed gastroenteritis and another child treated with the nasal method developed convulsions (P=1. Sixteen percent of the children treated with the oral method and 28% of the children treated with the nasal method had recurrence (P=0.148.ConclusionOral and nasal forms of vasopressin have equal therapeutic effects. However, oral form of the treatment has fewer serious side effects and is easier to use. Therefore, the use of oral medicine is recommended.

  1. Dialysis Hypotension : A Role for Inadequate Increase in Arginine Vasopressin Levels? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Esmee M.; Zittema, Debbie; Kuipers, Johanna; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Vart, Priya; de Jong, Paul E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis (HD). Some studies have suggested that inadequate arginine vasopressin (AVP) increase could play a role in the pathogenesis of intradialytic hypotension. However, AVP levels during HD and its relation to hypotension has n

  2. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 2; Hypothalamic Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor, Somatostatin Immunoreactivity, and Messenger RNA Levels in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analyses of hypothalamic hormones carried out on tissue from rats flown on an earlier flight (Cosmos 1887) suggested preferential effects on hypophysiotropic principles involved in the regulation of growth hormone secretion and synthesis. We found that staining in the median eminence for peptides that provide both stimulatory (growth hormone-releasing factor, or GRF) and inhibitory (somatostatin, SS) influences on growth hormone secretion were depressed in flight animals relative to synchronous controls, while staining for other neuroendocrine peptides, cortocotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin, were similar in these two groups. While this suggests some selective impact of weightlessness on the two principal central nervous system regulators of growth hormone dynamics, the fact that both GRF- and SS-immunoreactivity (IR) appeared affected in the same direction is somewhat problematic, and makes tentative any intimation that effects on CNS control mechanisms may be etiologically significant contributors to the sequelae of reduced growth hormone secretion seen in prolonged space flight. To provide an additional, and more penetrating, analysis we attempted in hypothalamic material harvested from animals flown on Cosmos 2044 to complement immunohistochemical analyses of GRF and SS staining with quantitative, in situ assessments of messenger RNAs encoding the precursors for both these hormones.

  3. A Dialogue between the Sirène Pathway in Synergids and the Fertilization Independent Seed Pathway in the Central Cell Controls Male Gamete Release during Double Fertilization in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas Rotman; Mathieu Gourgues; Anne-Elisabeth Guitton; Jean-Emmanuel Faure; Frédéric Berger

    2008-01-01

    Angiosperms sexual reproduction involves interactions between the two female gametes in the embryo sac and the two male gametes released by the pollen tube.The two synergids of the embryo sac express the FERONIA/SIRENE receptor-like kinase,which controls the discharge of the two sperm cells from the pollen tube.FER/SRN may respond to a ligand from the pollen tube.Alternatively,the interaction between FER/SRN and a ligand from the embryo sac may lead to a state of competence of the synergids allowing pollen tube discharge.Here,we report the new mutant scylla(syl)impaired in the controI of pollen tube discharge.This mutant also produces autonomous endosperm development in absence of tertilization-a trait associated with the FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) mutant class.This led us to identify autonomous endosperm in srn mutants and to demonstrate synergistic interactions between srn and the fis mutants.In addition,the fis mutants display defects in pollen tube discharge as in srn and syl mutants,confirming the interaction between the two pathways.Our findings suggest that pollen tube discharge is controlled by an interaction between the synergids expressing SRN/FER and the central cell expressing FIS genes.

  4. INHIBITION OF VASOPRESSIN RELEASE IN THE RAT SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS BY EXPOSRUE TO THE PBDE MIXTURE (DE-71) IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-lived toxic organic compounds and are of major concern for human and ecosystem health1,2 . Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are examples of such chemicals...

  5. Correlation between neurohypophyseal vasopressin content and signal intensity on T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance images. An experimental study of vasopressin depletion model using dehydrated rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroaki; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Ikeda, Koshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Fujisawa, Ichiro

    1998-06-01

    We investigated the correlation between the signal intensity on T{sub 1}-weighted MR images and vasopressin (VP) content in the posterior pituitary lobe. Fourteen rabbits were studied. There were 12 water-deprived rabbits (48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours: 2 each) and 2 controls. Sagittal T{sub 1}-weighted SE (spin-echo) MR images were obtained before and after dehydration. The signal intensity ratio of the posterior pituitary lobe to the pons was correlated with the VP content in the posterior lobe as measured by radioimmunoassay. Before water deprivation, high signal intensity in the posterior lobe was demonstrated clearly in all 14 rabbits. After water deprivation, the hyperintense signal gradually decreased and became indistinguishable from anterior lobe in four animals. The mean signal intensity ratio before water deprivation was 1.55{+-}0.12 (mean{+-}SD) and after water deprivation, gradually decreased over time and reached to 1.19 after 168 hours of water deprivation. Pituitary VP content and concentration decreased in parallel with the signal intensity ratio of the posterior pituitary. Significantly correlation was observed between the signal intensity ratio and VP concentration of posterior pituitary (r=0.809, p<0.001) . In conclusion, the results indicate that the signal intensity ratio on T{sub 1}-weighted image may reflect a indicator of pituitary VP content and thus may enable evaluation of disorders of water metabolism. (author)

  6. Effects of Intraosseous Tibial vs. Intravenous Vasopressin in a Hypovolemic Cardiac Arrest Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fulkerson, MSN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study compared the effects of vasopressin via tibial intraosseous (IO and intravenous (IV routes on maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, the time to maximum concentration (Tmax, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, and time to ROSC in a hypovolemic cardiac arrest model. Methods: This study was a randomized prospective, between-subjects experimental design. A computer program randomly assigned 28 Yorkshire swine to one of four groups: IV (n=7, IO tibia (n=7, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR + defibrillation (n=7, and a control group that received just CPR (n=7. Ventricular fibrillation was induced, and subjects remained in arrest for two minutes. CPR was initiated and 40 units of vasopressin were administered via IO or IV routes. Blood samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 minutes. CPR and defibrillation were initiated for 20 minutes or until ROSC was achieved. We measured vasopressin concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography. Results: There was no significant difference between the IO and IV groups relative to achieving ROSC (p=1.0 but a significant difference between the IV compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IV compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was a significant difference between the IO group compared to the CPR+ defibrillation group (p=0.031 and IO compared to the CPR-only group (p=0.001. There was no significant difference between the CPR + defibrillation group and the CPR group (p=0.127. There was no significant difference in Cmax between the IO and IV groups (p=0.079. The mean ± standard deviation of Cmax of the IO group was 58,709±25,463pg/mL compared to the IV group, which was 106,198±62,135pg/mL. There was no significant difference in mean Tmax between the groups (p=0.084. There were no significant differences in odds of ROSC between the tibial IO and IV groups. Conclusion: Prompt access to the vascular system using the IO route can circumvent

  7. Arginine vasopressin in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, Guldal; Noyan, Behzat

    2002-11-15

    We aimed to investigate the possible convulsant action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in both a febrile convulsion model in rat pups and a temporal lobe epilepsy model in adult rats and to define the receptor type which mediates this effect. In rat pups, 125 ng V2 receptor antagonist significantly prevented hyperthermic seizures, but did not affect seizure latency. In adult rats, the only effective dose and agent was 125 ng V2 receptor antagonist, which prevented pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, extended the status epilepticus latency and improved the 24 h survival rate. These data suggest that AVP has a convulsant activity in febrile convulsions and also in seizures independent of fever, and this effect is mediated by V2 receptors. PMID:12438923

  8. Vasopressin elevation of Na+/H+ exchange is inhibited by genistein in human blood platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovits, O; Zik, M; Livne, A A; Granot, Y

    1992-12-01

    The regulation of intracellular Na+ and pHi in human blood platelets is known to be controlled by the function of the Na+/H+ exchanger. The phosphorylation state of the Na+/H+ exchanger which determines the exchanger activity in human blood platelets is regulated by the activities of protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Observations in this study indicate that arginine vasopressin (AVP) that interacts with a V1 receptor, activates the Na+/H+ exchange in human blood platelets through a genistein-inhibited mechanism. The AVP-activated Na+/H+ exchange is probably not regulated by protein kinase C (PKC), since this activation is not inhibited by staurosporine. The multiple ways in which platelet Na+/H+ exchange can be modulated may indicate the critical role played by this exchanger in the homeostasis control of pHi in human blood platelets.

  9. A Human Vascular Model Based on Microdialysis for the Assessment of the Vasoconstrictive Dose-Response Effects of Norepinephrine and Vasopressin in Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Tchou Folkesson, Kim; Samuelsson, Anders; Tesselaar, Erik; Dahlström, Bengt; Sjöberg, Folke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Microdialysis enables drug delivery in the skin and simultaneous measurement of their effects. The present study aimed to evaluate dose-dependent changes in blood flow and metabolism during microdialysis of norepinephrine and vasopressin. Methods: We investigated whether increasing concentrations of norepinephrine (NE, 1.859 mu mol/L) and vasopressin (VP, 1100 nmol/L), delivered sequentially in one catheter or simultaneously through four catheters, yield dose-dependent cha...

  10. Agonist-Independent Interactions between β-Arrestins and Mutant Vasopressin Type II Receptors Associated with Nephrogenic Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocan, Martina; Heng B See; Sampaio, Natália G.; Eidne, Karin A.; Feldman, Brian J.; Pfleger, Kevin D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis is a recently identified genetic disease first described in two unrelated male infants with severe symptomatic hyponatremia. Despite undetectable arginine vasopressin levels, patients have inappropriately concentrated urine resulting in hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, and natriuresis. It was found that each infant had a different mutation of the vasopressin type II receptor (V2R) at codon 137 where arginine was converted to cysteine or leucine ...

  11. Mutations of Vasopressin Receptor 2 Including Novel L312S Have Differential Effects on Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiulpakov, Anatoly; White, Carl W; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S; See, Heng B; Chan, Audrey S; Seeber, Ruth M; Heng, Julian I; Dedov, Ivan; Pavlos, Nathan J; Pfleger, Kevin D G

    2016-08-01

    Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a genetic disease first described in 2 unrelated male infants with severe symptomatic hyponatremia. Despite undetectable arginine vasopressin levels, patients have inappropriately concentrated urine resulting in hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, and natriuresis. Here, we describe and functionally characterize a novel vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) gain-of-function mutation. An L312S substitution in the seventh transmembrane domain was identified in a boy presenting with water-induced hyponatremic seizures at the age of 5.8 years. We show that, compared with wild-type V2R, the L312S mutation results in the constitutive production of cAMP, indicative of the gain-of-function NSIAD profile. Interestingly, like the previously described F229V and I130N NSIAD-causing mutants, this appears to both occur in the absence of notable constitutive β-arrestin2 recruitment and can be reduced by the inverse agonist Tolvaptan. In addition, to understand the effect of various V2R substitutions on the full receptor "life-cycle," we have used and further developed a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer intracellular localization assay using multiple localization markers validated with confocal microscopy. This allowed us to characterize differences in the constitutive and ligand-induced localization and trafficking profiles of the novel L312S mutation as well as for previously described V2R gain-of-function mutants (NSIAD; R137C and R137L), loss-of-function mutants (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; R137H, R181C, and M311V), and a putative silent V266A V2R polymorphism. In doing so, we describe differences in trafficking between unique V2R substitutions, even at the same amino acid position, therefore highlighting the value of full and thorough characterization of receptor function beyond simple signaling pathway analysis. PMID:27355191

  12. 血管加压素研究进展%Research Progress of Arginine Vasopressin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志达

    2013-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is closely related to the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases and kidney diseases. Currently it is often used for the treatment of severe peripheral vasodilatory shock, and particularly beneficial for patients with refractory catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock. For some patients who do not have adequate AVP level in plasma after cardiovascular surgery, external low-dose AVP infusion is helpful to decrease the heart rate, and the dosage and duration of catecholamine use. Early initiation of low-dose AVP infusion may be beneficial for postoperative patients' hemodynamic recovery without adverse complications. More randomized control trials are needed to provide evidence for rational usage, dosage and duration of AVP administration.%血管加压素(arginine vasopressin,AVP)与多种心血管疾病和肾脏疾病的发生相关,目前主要用于治疗严重的外周血管扩张性休克,对于常规儿茶酚胺治疗效果不佳的患者尤为有效.心血管外科术后部分患者体内存在血管加压素相对不足,给予外源性血管加压素能够降低心率、减少儿茶酚胺类的使用量和使用时间.早期应用小剂量的血管加压素可能有助于患者术后血流动力学的恢复,而不会造成并发症的发生.进一步的随机对照试验,将为血管加压素的合理使用和剂量、疗程选择提供依据.

  13. Thirst perception and osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion are altered during recovery from septic shock.

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    Shidasp Siami

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Vasopressin (AVP secretion during an osmotic challenge is frequently altered in the immediate post-acute phase of septic shock. We sought to determine if this response is still altered in patients recovering from septic shock. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Intensive care unit (ICU at Raymond Poincaré and Etampes Hospitals. PATIENTS: Normonatremic patients at least 5 days post discontinuation of catecholamines given for a septic shock. INTERVENTION: Osmotic challenge involved infusing 500 mL of hypertonic saline solution (with cumulative amount of sodium not exceeding 24 g over 120 minutes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Plasma AVP levels were measured 15 minutes before the infusion and then every 30 minutes for two hours. Non-responders were defined as those with a slope of the relation between AVP and plasma sodium levels less than < 0.5 ng/mEq. Among the 30 included patients, 18 (60% were non-responders. Blood pressure and plasma sodium and brain natriuretic peptide levels were similar in both responders and non-responders during the course of the test. Critical illness severity, hemodynamic alteration, electrolyte disturbances, treatment and outcome did not differ between the two groups. Responders had more severe gas exchange abnormality. Thirst perception was significantly diminished in non-responders. The osmotic challenge was repeated in 4 non-responders several months after discharge and the abnormal response persisted. CONCLUSION: More than half of patients recovering from septic shock have an alteration of osmoregulation characterised by a dramatic decrease in vasopressin secretion and thirst perception during osmotic challenge. The mechanisms of this alteration but also of the relationship between haematosis and normal response remain to be elucidated.

  14. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A: implications for autism

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    Tansey Katherine E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815 and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively. Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  15. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A): implications for autism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tansey, Katherine E

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5\\'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815) and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR) at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5\\'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively). Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  16. Vasopressin-dependent flank marking in golden hamsters is suppressed by drugs used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Messenger Tara

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in arginine vasopressin regulation and secretion have been proposed as one possible biochemical abnormality in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. In golden hamsters, arginine vasopressin microinjections into the anterior hypothalamus trigger robust grooming and flank marking, a stereotyped scent marking behaviors. The intensity and repetition of the behaviors induced by arginine vasopressin is somewhat reminiscent of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in humans. The present experiments were carried out to test whether pharmacological agents used to alleviate obsessive compulsive disorder could inhibit arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Results Male golden hamsters were treated daily for two weeks with either vehicle, fluoxetine, clomipramine, or desipramine (an ineffective drug, before being tested for arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking and grooming. Flank marking was significantly inhibited in animals treated with fluoxetine or clomipramine but unaffected by treatment with desipramine. Grooming behavior was not affected by any treatment. Conclusion These data suggest that arginine vasopressin-induced flank marking may serve as an animal model for screening drugs used in the control of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

  17. The renin-angiotensin system and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1977-04-01

    One of several factors affecting the secretion of renin by the kidneys is the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic input is excitatory and is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the membranes of the juxtaglomerular cells. Stimulation of sympathetic areas in the medulla, midbrain and hypothalamus raises blood pressure and increases renin secretion, whereas stimulation of other parts of the hypothalamus decreases blood pressure and renin output. The centrally active alpha-adrenergic agonist clonidine decreases renin secretion, lowers blood pressure, inhibits ACTH and vasopressin secretion, and increases growth hormone secretion in dogs. The effects on ACTH and growth hormone are abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine into the third ventricle, whereas the effect on blood pressure is abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine in the fourth ventricle without any effect on the ACTH and growth hormone responses. Fourth ventricular phenoxybenzamine decreases but does not abolish the inhibitory effect of clonidine on renin secretion. Circulating angiotensin II acts on the brain via the area postrema to raise blood pressure and via the subfornical organ to increase water intake. Its effect on vasopressin secretion is debated. The brain contains a renin-like enzyme, converting enzyme, renin substrate, and angiotensin. There is debate about the nature and physiological significance of the angiotensin II-generating enzyme in the brain, and about the nature of the angiotensin I and angiotensin II that have been reported to be present in the central nervous system. However, injection of angiotensin II into the cerebral ventricles produces drinking, increased secretion of vasopressin and ACTH, and increased blood pressure. The same responses are produced by intraventricular renin. Angiotensin II also facilitates sympathetic discharge in the periphery, and the possibility that it exerts a similar action on the adrenergic neurons

  18. Effects and mechanism analysis of combined infusion by levosimendan and vasopressin on acute lung injury in rats septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuebing; Ma, Shaolin; Liu, Yang; Xu, Wei; Li, Zhanxia

    2014-12-01

    This research is aimed to discover the influence and underling mechanism of combined infusion of arginine vasopressin with levosimendan on acute lung injury in rat septic shock with norepinephrine supplemented. The traditional fecal peritonitis-induced septic shock model was undergone in rats for study. It is observed that the combined infusion supplemented with norepinephrine brought about a lower mean pulmonary artery pressure; lower high-mobility group box 1 levels, pulmonary levels of interleukin-6, and arterial total nitrate/nitrite; lower apoptotic cells scores and total histological scores; but higher pulmonary gas exchange when compared with the separate infusion group and norepinephrine group. This therapy shows potential clinical beneficial assistance in sepsis-induced acute lung injury. The results suggest the mechanism of such effect is through abating pulmonary artery pressure, and more importantly suppressing inflammatory responses in lung when compared with norepinephrine infusion group and the separate infusion of levosimendan or vasopressin alone. PMID:25002345

  19. [Vasopressin V2 receptor-related pathologies: congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic syndrome of inappropiate antidiuresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare hereditary disease with mainly an X-linked inheritance (90% of the cases) but there are also autosomal recessive and dominant forms. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is characterized by a resistance of the renal collecting duct to the action of the arginine vasopressin hormone responsible for the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. The X-linked form is due to inactivating mutations of the vasopressin 2 receptor gene leading to a loss of function of the mutated receptors. Affected males are often symptomatic in the neonatal period with a lack of weight gain, dehydration and hypernatremia but mild phenotypes may also occur. Females carrying the mutation may be asymptomatic but, sometimes, severe polyuria is found due to the random X chromosome inactivation. The autosomal recessive and dominant forms, occurring in both genders, are linked to mutations in the aquaporin-2 gene. The treatment remains difficult, especially in infants, and is based on a low osmotic diet with increased water intake and the use of thiazides and indomethacin. The main goal is to avoid hypernatremic episodes and maintain a good hydration state. Potentially, specific treatment, in some cases of X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, with pharmacological chaperones such as non-peptide vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists will be available in the future. Conversely, the nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is linked to a constitutive activation of the V(2)-receptor due to activating mutations with clinical and biological features of inappropriate antidiuresis but with low or undetectable plasma arginine vasopressin hormone levels.

  20. Vasopressin Infusion with Small-Volume Fluid Resuscitation during Hemorrhagic Shock Promotes Hemodynamic Stability and Survival in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Gazmuri, Raúl J.; Kasen Whitehouse; Karla Whittinghill; Alvin Baetiong; Jeejabai Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current management of hemorrhagic shock (HS) in the battlefield and civilian settings favors small-volume fluid resuscitation before controlling the source of bleeding. We investigated in a swine model of HS the effects of vasopressin infusion along with small-volume fluid resuscitation; with erythropoietin (EPO) and HS severity as additional factors. Methods HS was induced in 24 male domestic pigs (36 to 41 kg) by blood withdrawal (BW) through a right atrial cannula modeling spo...

  1. Vasopressin and terlipressin in adult vasodilatory shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Nassar, Antônio P; Cardoso, Sérgio O; Manetta, José A; Pereira, Victor GM; Espósito, Daniel C; Damasceno, Maria CT; Russell, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Catecholamines are the most used vasopressors in vasodilatory shock. However, the development of adrenergic hyposensitivity and the subsequent loss of catecholamine pressor activity necessitate the search for other options. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of vasopressin and its analog terlipressin compared with catecholamine infusion alone in vasodilatory shock. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of publications between 1966 and 2011 was performed. The Medline and ...

  2. Variants in adjacent oxytocin/vasopressin gene region and associations with ASD diagnosis and other autism related endophenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Sunday M.; Emily eKistner-Griffin; Zhongyu eYan; Stephen eGuter; Cook, Edwin H.; Suma eJacob

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in oxytocin (peptide: OT, gene: OXT) as a treatment pathway for neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Neurodevelopmental disorders affect functional, social, and intellectual abilities. With advances in molecular biology, research has connected multiple gene regions to the clinical presentation of ASD. Studies have also shown that the neuropeptide hormones OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence mammalian social...

  3. Co-localization and regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and arginine vasopressin in neuroendocrine cells of the rat and human brain

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    Gonzalez Ana M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult rat hypothalamo-pituitary axis and choroid plexus are rich in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 which likely has a role in fluid homeostasis. Towards this end, we characterized the distribution and modulation of FGF2 in the human and rat central nervous system. To ascertain a functional link between arginine vasopressin (AVP and FGF2, a rat model of chronic dehydration was used to test the hypothesis that FGF2 expression, like that of AVP, is altered by perturbed fluid balance. Methods Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to examine the distribution of FGF2 and AVP neuropeptides in the normal human brain. In order to assess effects of chronic dehydration, Sprague-Dawley rats were water deprived for 3 days. AVP neuropeptide expression and changes in FGF2 distribution in the brain, neural lobe of the pituitary and kidney were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and western blotting (FGF2 isoforms. Results In human hypothalamus, FGF2 and AVP were co-localized in the cytoplasm of supraoptic and paraventricular magnocellular neurons and axonal processes. Immunoreactive FGF2 was associated with small granular structures distributed throughout neuronal cytoplasm. Neurohypophysial FGF2 immunostaining was found in axonal processes, pituicytes and Herring bodies. Following chronic dehydration in rats, there was substantially-enhanced FGF2 staining in basement membranes underlying blood vessels, pituicytes and other glia. This accompanied remodeling of extracellular matrix. Western blot data revealed that dehydration increased expression of the hypothalamic FGF2 isoforms of ca. 18, 23 and 24 kDa. In lateral ventricle choroid plexus of dehydrated rats, FGF2 expression was augmented in the epithelium (Ab773 as immunomarker but reduced interstitially (Ab106 immunostaining. Conclusions Dehydration altered FGF2 expression patterns in AVP-containing magnocellular neurons and neurohypophysis, as well as in choroid

  4. Chromosomal localization of the human V3 pituitary vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR3) to 1q32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau-Merck, M.F.; Derre, J.; Berger, R. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    Vasopressin exerts its physiological effects on liver metabolism, fluid osmolarity, and corticotrophic response to stress through a set of at least three receptors, V1a, V2, and V3 (also called V1b), respectively. These receptors constitute a distinct group of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. When bound to vasopressin, they couple to G proteins activating phospholipase C for the V1a and V3 types and adenylate cyclase for the V2. The vasopressin receptor subfamily also includes the receptor for oxytocin, a structurally related hormone that signals through the activation of phospholipase C. The chromosomal position of the V2 receptor gene has been assigned to Xq28-qter by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrids, whereas the oxytocin receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 3q26.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The chromosomal location of the V1a gene is currently unknown. We recently cloned the cDNA and the gene coding for the human pituitary-specific V3 receptor (HGMW-approved symbol AVPR3). We report here the chromosomal localization of this gene by two distinct in situ hybridization techniques using radioactive and fluorescent probes. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Angiotensin II, Vasopressin, and Collagen-IV Expression in the Subfornical Organ in a Case of Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH

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    Emilia M. Carmona-Calero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is a disease characterized by hyponatremia and hyperosmolarity of urine where vasopressin and angiotensin II are implicated in the alteration of salt water balance and cardiovascular and blood pressure regulation. The aim of this study is to analyse the expression of substances related with cardiovascular and salt water regulation in the subfornical organ in a case of SIADH. Two brains, one taken from a 66-year-old man with SIADH and the other from a 63-year-old man without SIADH, were used. Immunohistochemical study was performed using anti-angiotensin II, anti-vasopressin, and anti-collagen-VI as primary antibodies. Angiotensin and vasopressin immunoreaction were found in neurons, in perivascular spaces, and in the ependymal layer in the subfornical organ in both cases. However, in the SIADH case, the angiotensin II and collagen-IV expression in the SFO were different suggesting this organ’s possible participation in the physiopathology of SIADH.

  6. Genetic forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI): Vasopressin receptor defect (X-linked) and aquaporin defect (autosomal recessive and dominant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Daniel G; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2016-03-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be inherited or acquired, is characterized by an inability to concentrate urine despite normal or elevated plasma concentrations of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. About 90% of patients with congenital NDI are males with X-linked NDI who have mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor (AVPR2) gene encoding the vasopressin V2 receptor. In less than 10% of the families studied, congenital NDI has an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with mutations in the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) gene. When studied in vitro, most AVPR2 and AQP2 mutations lead to proteins trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum and are unable to reach the plasma membrane. Prior knowledge of AVPR2 or AQP2 mutations in NDI families and perinatal mutation testing is of direct clinical value and can avert the physical and mental retardation associated with repeated episodes of dehydration.

  7. Arginine-vasopressin marker copeptin is a sensitive plasma surrogate of hypoxic exposure

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    Ostergaard L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Louise Ostergaard,1,2,* Alain Rudiger,3,* Sven Wellmann,2,4,5 Elena Gammella,6 Beatrice Beck-Schimmer,2,3 Joachim Struck,7 Marco Maggiorini,2,8 Max Gassmann,1,2,9 1Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, 2Zürich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, 3Institute of Anesthesiology, 4Division of Neonatology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, 5Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Science, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 7Research Department, B•R•A•H•M•S Biomarkers, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hennigsdorf, Germany; 8Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland; 9Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru *These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship Background: A reduced oxygen supply puts patients at risk of tissue hypoxia, organ damage, and even death. In response, several changes are activated that allow for at least partial adaptation, thereby increasing the chances of survival. We aimed to investigate whether the arginine vasopressin marker, copeptin, can be used as a marker of the degree of acclimatization/adaptation in rats exposed to hypoxia. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for up to 48 hours. Arterial and right ventricular pressures were measured, and blood gas analysis was performed at set time points. Pulmonary changes were investigated by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet and dry weight measurements, and lung histology. Using a newly developed specific rat copeptin luminescence immunoassay, the regulation of vasopressin in response to hypoxia was studied, as was atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP by detecting mid-regional proANP. Results: With a decreasing oxygen supply, the rats rapidly became cyanotic and inactive. Despite continued exposure to 10% oxygen, all animals recuperated within 16 hours and

  8. Epigenetic Control of the Vasopressin Promoter Explains Physiological Ability to Regulate Vasopressin Transcription in Dehydration and Salt Loading States in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M P; Greenwood, M; Gillard, B T; Loh, S Y; Paton, J F R; Murphy, D

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is sensitive to increased plasma osmolality and a decreased blood volume, and thus is robustly increased by both dehydration (increased plasma osmolality and decreased blood volume) and salt loading (increased plasma osmolality). Both stimuli result in functional remodelling of the SON and PVN, a process referred to as functional-related plasticity. Such plastic changes in the brain have recently been associated with altered patterns of DNA methylation at CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) residues, a process considered to be important for the regulation of gene transcription. In this regard, the proximal Avp promoter contains a number of CpG sites and is recognised as one of four CpG islands for the Avp gene, suggesting that methylation may be regulating Avp transcription. In the present study, we show that, in an immortalised hypothalamic cell line 4B, the proximal Avp promoter is highly methylated, and treatment of these cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine to demethylate DNA dramatically increases basal and stimulated Avp biosynthesis. We report no changes in the expression of DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a, whereas there is decreased expression of the demethylating enzyme ten-eleven-translocation 2, Tet2, in the SON by dehydration and salt loading. We found higher methylation of the SON Avp promoter in dehydrated but not salt-loaded rats. By analysis of individual CpG sites, we observed hypomethylation, hypermethylation and no change in methylation of specific CpGs in the SON Avp promoter of the dehydrated rat. Using reporter gene assays, we show that mutation of individual CpGs can result in altered Avp promoter activity. We propose that methylation of the SON Avp promoter is necessary to co-ordinate the duel inputs of increased plasma osmolality and decreased blood volume on Avp

  9. Central and peripheral expression and distribution of NUCB2/nesfatin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is the N-terminal fragment of nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). The antibody against nesfatin-1 recognizes both full length of NUCB2 and nesfatin-1, thus the immunolabeling represents NUCB2/nesfatin-1. It has been found that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is widely distributed in the rodent central nervous system. The immunoreactivity is more intensive in the brain autonomic centers that regulate feeding, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular functions, such as the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus, dorsal vagal complex and medullary raphe nuclei. In neurons, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is located in the soma and primary dendrites, not in nerve fibers. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is co-localized with several neurotransmitters involved in regulation of food intake, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions, including oxytocin, vasopressin, neuropeptide Y, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, proopiomelanocortin, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, melanin-concentrating hormone, leptin, mammalian target of rapamycin, urocortin-1, corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin. In the periphery, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is located mainly in the pituitary, gastric mucosa where it coexists with ghrelin, and pancreatic endocrine cells containing insulin. Nesfatin-1 is detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is measurable in the plasma, and altered under different conditions in rodents and humans, such as immune challenge, high fat diet and exercise, anorexia nervosa, anxiety and depression. Anatomical data suggest that nesfatin-1 is a unique neuroendocrine peptide that may be involved in regulation of homeostasis. PMID:23537079

  10. Guipi decoction effects on arginine vasopressin protein and gene expression in the hippocampus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and prefrontal lobe in rats with spleen deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huinan Qian; Xueqin Hu; Libo Shen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin has been shown to enhance learning in experimental animal models.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Guipi decoction enhances memory and learning by increasing arginine vasopressin levels, and to verify the influence of Guipi decoction on arginine vasopressin protein and gene expression in the hippocampal CAI region, prefrontal lobe cortex, and ventral nucleus of hypothalamus in rats with spleen deficiency.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, neuropharmacological, control study was performed in the College of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine between March 2002 and March 2005.MATERIALS: Sixty, healthy, male, Wistar rats were used to establish spleen deficiency models according to the traditional Chinese medicine principle of bitter drugs for purgation, improper diet, and overstrain. Arginine vasopressin-I polyclonal anti-rabbit antibody immunohistocbemistry kit and arginine vasopressin in situ hybridization kit were provided by Department of Neuroanatomy in Shanghai Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into five groups at random: normal control (n = 11), model (n = 13), Guipi decoction (n = 12), recipe control A (n = 12), and recipe control B groups (n = 12). Rats in the latter four groups received 7.5 g/kg of the drugs by intragastric administration each morning, which comprised Dahuang, Houpu, and Zhishi, prepared at a ratio of 2:1 : 1. The rats were lasted every other day, but were allowed free access to water at all times. The rats were forced to swim in 25℃ water until fatigued. Rats in the Guipi decoction and two recipe control groups were intragastrically administered 7.5 g/kg Guipi decoction, Chaihu Shugan powder, and Tianwang Buxin pellets, respectively, each afternoon. Rats in the normal group were intragastrically administered the same amount of normal saline. All rats were treated for 6 weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 6 weeks after drug

  11. Computer-Aided Mapping of Vasopressin Neurons in the Hypothalamus of the Male Golden Hamster: Evidence of Magnocellular Neurons that do not Project to the Neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, P D; Koh, E T; Irvin, R W; Ferris, C F

    1990-04-01

    Abstract Vasopressin-sensitive neurons in the region of the anterior hypothalamus are necessary for the mediation of flank marking behavior in the Golden hamster. The precise nature of the vasopressinergic innervation to the anterior hypothalamus is unknown. In this study we seek to examine the potential sources of this innervation by mapping and counting the vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons that contribute to the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, and those that do not. Vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus were visualized by immunocytochemistry. Sections were mapped with a computer-aided microscope system, and labeled neurons counted. Two-dimensional maps were stacked into a three-dimensional wireframe model which could be manipulated for further examination. The average number of vasopressin neurons was 3,135, with over 60% of all perikarya localized to the lateral supraoptic nucleus. In a double-labeling study, neurons contributing to the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system were retrogradely labeled by the injection of horseradish peroxidase into the neurohypophysis. The enzyme reaction product was visualized by treatment with tetramethylbenzidine followed by nickel-conjugated diaminobenzidine. Sections were subsequently stained for vasopressin by immunocytochemistry. Single- and double-stained neurons from serial sections were mapped and counted. Wireframe and contoured three-dimensional representations were generated. The average number of neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis was 5,619. However, an average of 981 neurons was immunoreactive to vasopressin but devoid of horseradish peroxidase. The greatest number of these non-projecting perikarya were found in and around the anterior hypothalamus, localized primarily in the lateral and medial aspect of the supraoptic nuclei, the ventral area of the paraventricular nucleus, and the nucleus circularis. By comparing the number of non-projecting neurons found by double-staining to the

  12. Genomic effects of cold and isolation stress on magnocellular vasopressin mRNA-containing cells in the hypothalamus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J A; Ledoux, M; McEwen, B S

    1991-06-01

    We assessed the effects of cold and isolation stress on arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. Vasopressin mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization histochemistry at the cellular level. In posterior magnocellular neurons of the PVN isolation stress for 7 or 14 days increased vasopressin mRNA levels 28 and 29%, respectively, compared to group-housed controls. No significant alterations in vasopressin gene expression were observed in the SON after 7 or 14 days of isolation stress. Scattered magnocellular AVP mRNA-expressing cells of the medial parvocellular PVN showed increases of 19 and 34% after 7 and 14 days of isolation, respectively. We also studied the effect of cold or combined cold and isolation stress on vasopressin gene expression in the PVN and SON. Cold stress for 3 h daily for 4 consecutive days increased AVP mRNA levels in the posterior magnocellular PVN by 15%. Cold-isolated animals showed an increase of 21%. No significant effect on AVP mRNA levels in the SON was observed. In contrast to the posterior magnocellular PVN, cold or cold-isolation stress increased AVP mRNA in magnocellular neurons of the medial parvocellular region of the PVN by 25 and 43%, respectively, relative to control rats. These results suggest that psychological and metabolic stress may be added to the list of stressors that activate the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

  13. Ca2+-mobilizing actions of platelet-derived growth factor differ from those of bombesin and vasopressin in Swiss 3T3 mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of the mitogenic peptides bombesin and vasopressin to quiescent Swiss 3T3 mouse cells increased the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration without any measurable delay. In contrast, there was a significant lag period (16 +/- 1.2 s) before platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. This lag was not diminished at high concentrations of either porcine or human PDGF. Similar results were obtained in 3T3 cells loaded with quin-2 or fura-2. The differences in the effects of bombesin, vasopressin, and PDGF on Ca2+ movements were also substantiated by measurements of 45Ca2+ efflux and of cellular 45Ca2+ content. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters inhibited Ca2+ mobilization induced by either bombesin or vasopressin. In contrast, phorbol esters had no effect on PDGF-induced cytosolic Ca2+ concentration increase or acceleration of 45Ca2+ efflux. Finally, bombesin and vasopressin caused a rapid increase in the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, whereas PDGF, even at a saturating concentration, exerted only a small effect. These results indicate that the signal transduction pathway activated by PDGF that lead to Ca2+ mobilization can be distinguished form those utilized by bombesin and vasopressin

  14. The pituitary mediates the anxiolytic-like effects of the vasopressin V1B receptor antagonist, SSR149415, in a social interaction test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Toshiharu; Iijima, Michihiko; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2006-08-14

    A vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonist has been shown to exhibit anxiolytic effects in a variety of animal models of anxiety. In the present study, we examined the involvement of the pituitary in the anxiolytic effects of a vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonist by conducting a social interaction test in rats. In the sham-operated rats, both the vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonist SSR149415 and the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide significantly increased the social behavior of a pair of unfamiliar rats, and the blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were markedly increased during the social interaction test. Hypophysectomy also increased the length of time that the animals engaged in social behavior to the same extent as that observed after treatment of the sham-operated rats with anxiolytics. However, while chlordiazepoxide further increased the duration of social interaction in the hypophysectomized rats, the anxiolytic effects of SSR149415 was no longer observed in these animals. These results suggest that the anxiolytic effects of the vasopressin V(1B) receptor antagonist in the social interaction test are mediated through blockade of the vasopressin V(1B) receptor in the pituitary.

  15. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns. PMID:26553093

  16. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R. (Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport)

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  18. Experiment K-7-20: Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R. (Editor); Krasnov, I.

    1994-01-01

    Pituitary levels of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in rats exposed to 14 days of spaceflight (FLT) as well as in ground-based controls; one group synchronously maintained in flight-type cages with similar feeding schedules (SYN), one group in vivarium cages (VIV), and a group of tail suspended (SUS) animals. Flight rats had significantly less (p less than 0.05) pituitary OT and VP (4.48 +/- 0.31 and 7.48 +/- 0.53 mg hormone / mg protein, n = 5) than either the SYN (6.66 +/- 0..59 and 10.98 + 1.00, n = 5), VIV (6.14 +/- 0.40 and 10.98 +/- 0..81, n = 5) or SUS (5.73 +/- 0.24, n = 4) control groups, respectively. The reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP are similar to measurements made on rats from the previous 12.5 day Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to be a direct result of exposure to spaceflight.

  19. The arginine vasopressin V1b receptor gene and prosociality: Mediation role of emotional empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-09-01

    The vasopressin V1b receptor (AVPR1B) gene has been shown to be closely associated with bipolar disorder and depression. However, whether it relates to positive social outcomes, such as empathy and prosocial behavior, remains unknown. This study explored the possible role of the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 in empathy and prosociality. A total of 256 men, who were genetically unrelated, non-clinical ethnic Han Chinese college students, participated in the study. Prosociality was tested by measuring the prosocial tendencies of cognitive and emotional empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs28373064, was genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results suggest that the AVPR1B gene rs28373064 is linked to emotional empathy and prosociality. The mediation analysis indicated that the effect of the AVPR1B gene on prosociality might be mediated by emotional empathy. This study demonstrated the link between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality and provided evidence that emotional empathy might mediate the relation between the AVPR1B gene and prosociality.

  20. The role of vasopressin, somatostatin and GABA in febrile convulsion in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaki, S; Nagaki, S; Minatogawa, Y; Sadamatsu, M; Kato, N; Osawa, M; Fukuyama, Y

    1996-01-01

    In order to further elucidate a possible role of neuropeptides and GABA in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsions, we studied changes of immunoreactive-arginine vasopressin (IR-AVP), IR-somatostatin (IR-SRIF) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rat brain after febrile convulsions induced by ultra-red light (UR). Male Wistar rats at 16 days of age irradiated with UR developed generalized convulsions after 4.9 +/- 0.5 min irradiation. Six rats were killed by microwave irradiation 3 min after UR irradiation prior to convulsion development, and 29 rats were killed either 0 min, 2 h, 6 h, 24 h or 48 h after febrile convulsions. Non-irradiated rats served as controls. The rat brain was dissected into 4 regions; amygdala, hypothalamus, cortex and hippocampus, and subjected to radioimmunoassays. IR-AVP levels in hypothalamus were increased 3 min after UR and decreased at 2 h and 6 h after the convulsions. IR-SRIF levels were increased in cortex and hippocampus at 3 min after UR and 0 min after the convulsions. The GABA content increased in all regions tested at 2 h and 6 h after the convulsions. These results suggest that AVP, SRIF and GABA may be involved in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsions in different ways. PMID:8649210

  1. Laboratory domestication changed the expression patterns of oxytocin and vasopressin in brains of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-09-01

    The process of domestication is recognized to exert significant effects on the social behaviors of various animal species, including defensive and cognitive behaviors that are closely linked to the expression of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in selected areas of the brain. However, it is still unclear whether the behavioral changes observed under domestication have resulted in differences in the neurochemical systems that regulate them. In this study, we compared the differences in distribution patterns and regional quantities of OT and/or AVP staining in the forebrains of wild and laboratory strains of rats and mice. Our results indicated that, in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), laboratory strains showed significantly higher densities of OT-ir (immunoreactive) and AVP-ir cells than wild strains, while no significant difference in the densities of those cells in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was detected between wild and laboratory strains. Laboratory strains showed higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than wild strains in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and differed in almost every MPOA subnucleus. Our results suggest that domestication significantly alters the expression of OT and AVP in related brain areas of laboratory rats and mice, an observation that could explain the identified changes in behavioral patterns.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described. (author)

  3. Sexually dimorphic role for vasopressin in the development of social play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Paul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of vasopressin (AVP in adult social behavior, its role in social development is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent social behavior of juvenile rats, social play. Previous pharmacological experiments in our laboratory suggested that AVP regulates play in a sex- and brain region-specific manner in juvenile rats. Here we investigate the role of specific AVP systems in the emergence of social play. We first characterize the development of play in male and female Wistar rats and then ask whether the development of AVP mRNA expression correlates with the emergence of play. Unexpectedly, play emerged more rapidly in weanling-aged females than in males, resulting in a sex difference opposite of that typically reported for older, juvenile rats. AVP mRNA and play were correlated in males only, with a negative correlation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and a positive correlation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that AVP acts differentially on multiple systems in a sex-specific manner to regulate social play and suggest a role for PVN and BNST AVP systems in the development of play. Differential neuropeptide regulation of male and female social development may underlie well-documented sex differences in incidence, progression, and symptom severity of behavioral disorders during development.

  4. A review of the nonpressor and nonantidiuretic actions of the hormone vasopressin

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    Gaurang P Mavani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pressor and antidiuretic actions of arginine vasopressin (AVP have been well documented. This review focuses on the less widely appreciated actions of AVP which also have important physiologic functions and when better understood may provide important insights into common disease states. These actions include effects on pain perception and bone structure as well as important relationships to the varied components of metabolic syndrome. These include effects on blood glucose, lipid levels, and blood pressure. AVP may also play a role in the progression of chronic kidney disease and effect physiologic changes relating to aging, abnormal social behavior and cognitive function. Important cellular responses including cell proliferation, inflammation and control of infection and their relationship to AVP are described. Finally, the effects of AVP on hemostasis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal access are noted. The goal of this summary of the various actions of AVP is to direct attention to the potential benefits of research in these underemphasized areas of importance.

  5. Deletion of the V2 vasopressin receptor gene in two Chinese patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Jun

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI is a rare X-linked inherited disorder characterized by the excretion of large volumes of diluted urine and caused by mutations in arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2 gene. To investigate the mutation of AVPR2 gene in a Chinese family with congenital NDI, we screened AVPR2 gene in two NDI patients and eight family members by PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Results Five specific fragments, covering entire coding sequence and their flanking intronic sequences of AVPR2 gene, were not observed in both patients, while those fragments were all detected in the control subjects. Several different fragments around the AVPR2 locus were amplified step by step. It was revealed that a genomic fragment of 5,995-bp, which contained the entire AVPR2 gene and the last exon (exon 22 of the C1 gene, was deleted and a 3-bp (GAG was inserted. Examination of the other family members showed that the mothers and the grandmother were carriers for this deletion. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the two patients in a Chinese family suffering from congenital NDI had a 5,995-bp deletion and 3-bp (GAG insertion at Xq28. The deletion contained the entire AVPR2 gene and exon 22 of the C1 gene.

  6. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  7. Inhaled vasopressin increases sociability and reduces body temperature and heart rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Linnet; Hicks, Callum; Caminer, Alex; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have therapeutic potential across a range of psychiatric disorders. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the intranasal route of administration that is often used to deliver these neuropeptides. Recent preclinical studies, typically involving anesthetized or restrained animals, have assessed intranasal AVP or OT effects, and have obtained somewhat inconsistent results. Here we obtained intranasal administration of AVP in rats by nebulizing the peptide (1ml of 5 or 10mg/ml solution) into a small enclosed chamber over a 2min period in which well-habituated, unanesthetized, unrestrained, rats were placed. Rats were immediately removed from the chamber and tested in the social interaction test, or assessed for changes in heart rate and body temperature using biotelemetry. Results showed that rats exposed to nebulized AVP (5 or 10mg/ml) showed increased social proximity (adjacent lying) and decreased anogenital sniffing in the social interaction test. Biotelemetry showed substantial and long lasting (>1h) hypothermic and bradycardic effects of nebulized AVP. These behavioral and physiological effects of nebulized AVP mimic those observed in recent studies with peripherally injected AVP. Plasma AVP concentrations were substantially increased 10min after nebulized AVP, producing levels above those seen with a behaviorally effective injected dose of AVP (0.005mg/kg intraperitoneal). This study thus provides a novel and effective method for neuropeptide administration to rodents.

  8. Oroxylin A, but Not Vasopressin, Ameliorates Cardiac Dysfunction of Endotoxemic Rats

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    Chin-Hung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in septic patients with myocardial dysfunction is higher than those without it. Beneficial effects of flavonoid oroxylin A (Oro-A on endotoxemic hearts were evaluated and compared with that of arginine vasopressin (AVP which is used to reverse hypotension in septic patients. Endotoxemia in rats was induced by one-injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 10 mg/kg, i.p., and hearts were isolated 5-hrs or 16-hrs later. Isolated hearts with constant-pressure or constant-flow mode were examined by Langendorff technique. Rate and force of contractions of isolated atrial and ventricular strips were examined by tissue myography. Isolated endotoxemic hearts were characterized by decreased or increased coronary flow (CF in LPS-treated-for-5hr and LPS-treated-for-16-hr groups, respectively, with decreased inotropy in both groups. Oro-A-perfusion ameliorated while AVP-perfusion worsened the decreased CF and inotropy in both preparations. Oro-A and AVP, however, did not affect diminished force or rate of contraction of atrial and ventricular strips of endotoxemic hearts. Oro-A-induced CF increase was not affected following coronary endothelium-denudation with saponin. These results suggest that Oro-A ameliorates LPS-depressed cardiac functions by increasing CF, leading to positive inotropy. In contrast, AVP aggravates cardiac dysfunction by decreasing CF. Oro-A is a potentially useful candidate for treating endotoxemia complicated with myocardial dysfunction.

  9. EFFECT OF VASOPRESSIN ON DELAYED NEURONAL DAMAGE IN HIPPOCAMPUS FOLLOWING CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA AND REPERFUSION IN GERBILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新峰; 金泳清; 陈光辉

    1996-01-01

    Mongolian gerbils were used as delayed neuronal damage (DND) animal models.At the end of 15 minute cerebral ischermia and at various reperfusion time ranging from 1 to 96 hours,the content of water and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the CA1 sector of hippocampus were measured by the specific gravity method and radioimmunoassy.Furthermore,we also examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of AVP,AVP antiserum on calcium,Na+,K+-ATP ase activity in the CA1 sector after ischemia and 96 hour reperfusion.The results showed that AVP Contents of CA1 sector of hippocampus during 6 to 96 hour recirculation,and the water content of CA1 sector during 24 to 96 hour were significantly and continuously increased.After ICV injection of AVP,the water content and calcium in CA1 sector of hippocampus at cerebral ischemia and 96 hour recirculation further increased,and the Na+,K+-AT-tion of AVP antiserum,the water contenr and calcium in CA1 sector were significantly decreased as compared with that of control.These suggested that AVP was involved in the pathopysiologic process of DND in hippocampus following cerbral ischemia and reprfusion.Its mechanism might be through the change of intracellular action mediated by specific AVP receptor to lead to Ca inos over-load of neuron and inhibit the Na+,K+-ATPase activity,thereby to exacerbate the DND in hippocampus.

  10. Changes of arginine vasopressin in elderly patients with acute traumatic cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫东; 杨云梅; 吴胜东

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes and clinical significance of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in elderly patients with acute traumatic cerebral injury. Methods: With radioimmunoassay, the plasma levels of AVP were measured in 32 elderly patients with acute traumatic cerebral injury, 30 traumatic patients without cerebral injury and 30 healthy elderly volunteers, respectively.Results: The plasma level of AVP in patients with acute traumatic cerebral injury in the early stage (48.30 ng/L±8.28 ng/L) was much higher than that of the traumatic patients without cerebral injury (25.56 ng/L±4.64 ng/L, P<0.01), which was much higher than that of the healthy volunteers (5.06 ng/L±4.12 ng/L, P<0.01). The level of AVP in the patients with acute traumatic cerebral injury was negatively related with GCS scores.Conclusions: AVP may play an important role in the pathophysiological process in patients with acute traumatic cerebral injury in the early stage. The severer the cerebral injury is, the higher the level of AVP is, which indicates that the level of AVP may be one of the severity indices of traumatic cerebral injury in elderly patients.

  11. Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia

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    Malardo Thiago

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3 at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 μg of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP, a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

  12. Transgenic approach to express the channelrhodopsin 2 gene in arginine vasopressin neurons of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Ohkubo, Jun-Ichi; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Saito, Takeshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Kusuhara, Koichi; Ueta, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    Optogenetics provides a powerful tool to regulate neuronal activity by light-sensitive ion channels such as channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2). Arginine vasopressin (AVP; also known as the anti-diuretic hormone) is a multifunctional hormone which is synthesized in the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the hypothalamus. Here, we have generated a transgenic rat that expresses an AVP-ChR2-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion gene in the MNCs of the hypothalamus. The eGFP fluorescence that indicates the expression of ChR2-eGFP was observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and in the magnocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that is known to contain AVP-secreting neurons. The eGFP fluorescence intensities in those nuclei and posterior pituitary were markedly increased after chronic salt loading (2% NaCl in drinking water for 5days). ChR2-eGFP was localized mainly in the membrane of AVP-positive MNCs. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed from single MNCs isolated from the SON of the transgenic rats, and blue light evoked repetitive action potentials. Our work provides for the first time an optogenetic approach to selectively activate AVP neurons in the rat. PMID:27493075

  13. Salivary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels in Police Officers With and Without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijling, J L; van Zuiden, M; Nawijn, L; Koch, S B J; Neumann, I D; Veltman, D J; Olff, M

    2015-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by symptoms associated with maladaptive fear and stress responses, as well as with social detachment. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) have been associated with both regulating fear and neuroendocrine stress responsiveness and social behaviour. However, there is only limited evidence for dysregulated peripheral OT and AVP levels in PTSD patients. The present study aimed to investigate basal salivary OT and AVP levels in trauma-exposed male and female police officers with and without PTSD. Saliva samples were collected during rest and OT and AVP levels were determined using a radioimmunoassay. Men and women were analysed separately, having adjusted for differences in trauma history, and for hormonal contraception use in women. The results showed that male PTSD patients had lower basal salivary OT levels, and did not differ in AVP levels compared to male trauma-exposed healthy controls after adjusting for childhood emotional abuse. There were no significant differences in basal salivary OT and AVP levels in women. Our findings indicate potential dysfunctioning of the OT system in male PTSD patients. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to further unravel the relationship between the OT and AVP systems, sex, trauma history and PTSD. PMID:26184739

  14. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L; Evans, J; Grindeland, R; Krasnov, I

    1992-08-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, we obtained pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on COSMOS 2044. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to stimulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27% (P less than 0.05) in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (micrograms hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33% (P less than 0.05) compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the COSMOS 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  15. The Effects of Acute Arginine Vasopressin Administration on Social Cognition in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally similar neuropeptides and hormones oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP play significant and complex roles in modulating a range of social behaviours, including social recognition and bond formation. Although OT has well-known roles in facilitating prosocial behaviors and enhancing emotion recognition, AVP has received increasing interest for diverging effects on social cognition behaviour most notably in males. The current study aimed to determine whether AVP also modulates the ability to understand emotion. Using a randomised double blind procedure, 45 healthy young males received either an AVP or placebo nasal spray and completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. In contrast to previous findings, there were no significant differences observed in performance on the RMET between AVP and placebo groups, even after examining items separated by task difficulty, emotional valence, and gender. This study provides diverging evidence from previous findings and adds to the growing body of research exploring the influence of neuropeptide hormones in social behaviour. It demonstrates that in this sample of participants, AVP does not enhance the ability to understand higher order emotion from others. Implications and suggestions for future AVP administration studies are discussed.

  16. Androgen inhibits the increases in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-immunoreactivity following gonadectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingaman, E W; Magnuson, D J; Gray, T S; Handa, R J

    1994-03-01

    To characterize the effect of androgens on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis we examined the regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) following gonadectomy and hormone replacement. Three-month-old male Fischer 344 (F344) rats were gonadectomized (GDX) or sham GDX. Control animals remained intact. Animals were sacrificed 1, 4, 7, 10, or 21 days following surgery. GDX rats had significantly elevated (p < 0.05) levels of hypothalamic CRH 21 days after surgery compared to intact and sham-operated rats. In a second study, 3-month-old male F344 rats were GDX and treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), using a Silastic capsule containing crystalline DHT propionate subcutaneously implanted in each animal's back. Control animals were GDX and sham-treated or left intact (INT). Three weeks following gonadectomy, CRH levels in the hypothalamus of GDX rats showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) compared to intact animals. DHT treatment, beginning at the time of gonadectomy prevented this increase. CRH or arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactivity was examined using immunocytochemistry. The number of CRH-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of GDX, DHT-treated animals was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared to GDX rats. No differences were seen between treatment groups in CRH-IR cell numbers in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis or the central amygdaloid nucleus or in AVP-IR cell numbers in the PVN. These data demonstrate that long-term castration increases hypothalamic CRH content and CRH-IR cell numbers in the PVN by removal of an androgen-dependent repression. PMID:8159272

  17. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  18. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI.

  19. P2Y12 Receptor Localizes in the Renal Collecting Duct and Its Blockade Augments Arginine Vasopressin Action and Alleviates Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Müller, Christa E; Carlson, Noel G; Baqi, Younis; Strasburg, David L; Heiney, Kristina M; Villanueva, Karie; Kohan, Donald E; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2015-12-01

    P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) signaling is mediated through Gi, ultimately reducing cellular cAMP levels. Because cAMP is a central modulator of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced water transport in the renal collecting duct (CD), we hypothesized that if expressed in the CD, P2Y12-R may play a role in renal handling of water in health and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We found P2Y12-R mRNA expression in rat kidney, and immunolocalized its protein and aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in CD principal cells. Administration of clopidogrel bisulfate, an irreversible inhibitor of P2Y12-R, significantly increased urine concentration and AQP2 protein in the kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats. Notably, clopidogrel did not alter urine concentration in Brattleboro rats that lack AVP. Clopidogrel administration also significantly ameliorated lithium-induced polyuria, improved urine concentrating ability and AQP2 protein abundance, and reversed the lithium-induced increase in free-water excretion, without decreasing blood or kidney tissue lithium levels. Clopidogrel administration also augmented the lithium-induced increase in urinary AVP excretion and suppressed the lithium-induced increase in urinary nitrates/nitrites (nitric oxide production) and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress). Furthermore, selective blockade of P2Y12-R by the reversible antagonist PSB-0739 in primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells potentiated the expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA, and cAMP production induced by dDAVP (desmopressin). In conclusion, pharmacologic blockade of renal P2Y12-R increases urinary concentrating ability by augmenting the effect of AVP on the kidney and ameliorates lithium-induced NDI by potentiating the action of AVP on the CD. This strategy may offer a novel and effective therapy for lithium-induced NDI. PMID:25855780

  20. ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM HARD CHROMIUM PLATING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Central Florida Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering is investigating methods for improved estimation of chemical releases which require reporting under provisions of SARA Title III (Toxic Release Inventory, Form R). This paper describes results fr...

  1. Binding-, intracellular transport-, and biosynthesis-defective mutants of vasopressin type 2 receptor in patients with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukaguchi, H; Matsubara, H.; Taketani, S; Mori, Y.; Seido, T; Inada, M

    1995-01-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is most often an X-linked disorder in which urine is not concentrated due to renal resistance to arginine vasopressin. We recently identified four vasopressin type 2 receptor gene mutations in unrelated X-linked NDI families, including R143P, delta V278, R202C, and 804insG. All these mutations reduced ligand binding activity to < 10% of the normal without affecting mRNA accumulation. To elucidate whether the receptors are expressed on the cell surface, we ...

  2. L-histidine augments the response to 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin in Brattleboro homozygous (di/di) rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Charnogursky, G; Moses, A M; Coulson, R.; Bernstein, M; Carvounis, C P

    1990-01-01

    Studies in vitro have shown that L-histidine increases the hydroosmotic response to vasopressin. We examined whether this phenomenon occurs also in vivo. Homozygous Brattleboro rats (di/di) were fed a regular diet (0.5% histidine) or a diet enriched with histidine and received 1 ng of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) daily. Addition of histidine (1% by weight) increased post-dDAVP urine osmolality to a level higher than that of control (502 +/- 62 vs. 316 +/- 36 mosmol/kg, P less th...

  3. Differential modulation of lateral septal vasopressin receptor blockade in spatial learning, social recognition, and anxiety-related behaviors in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Everts, HGJ; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    The role of lateral septal vasopressin (VP) in the modulation of spatial memory, social memory, and anxiety-related behavior was studied in adult, male Wistar rats. Animals were equipped with osmotic minipumps delivering the VP-antagonist d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et)VAVP (1 ng/0.5 mu l per h) bilaterally into the lateral septum (LS). Subsequently, all rats were subjected to four behavioral tests. First, animals were tested in a spatial learning paradigm (Morris water maze; 12 trials), followed by the so...

  4. Novel Vasoregulatory Aspects of Hereditary Angioedema: the Role of Arginine Vasopressin, Adrenomedullin and Endothelin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdácsi, Erika; Jani, Péter K; Csuka, Dorottya; Varga, Lilian; Prohászka, Zoltán; Farkas, Henriette; Cervenak, László

    2016-02-01

    The elevation of bradykinin (BK) level during attacks of hereditary angioedema due to C1-Inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is well known. We previously demonstrated that endothelin-1 (ET-1) level also increases during C1-INH-HAE attacks. Although BK and ET-1 are both potent vasoactive peptides, the vasoregulatory aspect of the pathomechanism of C1-INH-HAE has not yet been investigated. Hence we studied the levels of vasoactive peptides in controls and in C1-INH-HAE patients, as well as evaluated their changes during C1-INH-HAE attacks. The levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), adrenomedullin (ADM) and ET-1 were measured in the plasma of 100 C1-INH-HAE patients in inter-attack periods and of 111 control subjects, using BRAHMS Kryptor technologies. In 18 of the 100 C1-INH-HAE patients, the levels of vasoactive peptides were compared in blood samples obtained during attacks, or in inter-attack periods. AVP, ADM and ET-1 levels were similar in inter-attack samples from C1-INH-HAE patients and in the samples of controls, although cardiovascular risk has an effect on the levels of vasoactive peptides in both groups. The levels of all three vasoactive peptides increased during C1-INH-HAE attacks. Moreover, the levels of ET-1 and ADM as well as their changes during attacks were significantly correlated. This study demonstrated that vascular regulation by vasoactive peptides is affected during C1-INH-HAE attacks. Our results suggest that the cooperation of several vasoactive peptides may be necessary to counterbalance the actions of excess BK, and to terminate the attacks. This may reveal a novel pathophysiological aspect of C1-INH-HAE.

  5. Arginine Vasopressin Is a Blood-Based Biomarker of Social Functioning in Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean S Carson

    Full Text Available Brain arginine vasopressin (AVP critically regulates normative social behavior in mammals, and experimental disruption of the AVP signaling pathway produces social impairments in rodent models. We therefore hypothesized that AVP signaling deficits may contribute to social impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Since blood measures (which are far easier to obtain than brain measures of AVP are most meaningful if they are related to brain AVP activity, Study 1 tested the relationship between AVP concentrations in concomitantly collected blood and CSF samples from children and adults (N = 28 undergoing clinical procedures. Study 2 tested whether blood AVP concentrations: 1 differed between children with ASD (N = 57, their ASD discordant siblings (N = 47, and neurotypical controls (N = 55; and 2 predicted social functioning (using the NEPSY-II Theory of Mind and Affect Recognition tasks and the Social Responsiveness Scale in this large, well-characterized child cohort. Blood AVP concentrations significantly and positively predicted CSF AVP concentrations (F1,26 = 7.17, r = 0.46, p = 0.0127 in Study 1. In Study 2, blood AVP concentrations did not differ between groups or by sex, but significantly and positively predicted Theory of Mind performance, specifically in children with ASD, but not in non-ASD children (F1,144 = 5.83, p = 0.017. Blood AVP concentrations can be used: 1 as a surrogate for brain AVP activity in humans; and 2 as a robust biomarker of theory of mind ability in children with ASD. These findings also suggest that AVP biology may be a promising therapeutic target by which to improve social cognition in individuals with ASD.

  6. Hypernatremia-induced vasopressin secretion is not altered in TRPV1-/- rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Andrew Blake; Stocker, Sean D

    2016-09-01

    Changes in osmolality or extracellular NaCl concentrations are detected by specialized neurons in the hypothalamus to increase vasopressin (VP) and stimulate thirst. Recent in vitro evidence suggests this process is mediated by an NH2-terminal variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel expressed by osmosensitive neurons of the lamina terminalis and vasopressinergic neurons of the supraoptic nucleus. The present study tested this hypothesis in vivo by analysis of plasma VP levels during acute hypernatremia in awake control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. TRPV1(-/-) rats were produced by a Zinc-finger-nuclease 2-bp deletion in exon 13. Intravenous injection of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin produced hypotension and bradycardia in control rats, but this response was absent in TRPV1(-/-) rats. Infusion of 2 M NaCl (1 ml/h iv) increased plasma osmolality, electrolytes, and VP levels in both control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. However, plasma VP levels did not differ between strains at any time. Furthermore, a linear regression between plasma VP versus osmolality revealed a significant correlation in both control and TRPV1(-/-) rats, but the slope of the regression lines was not attenuated in TRPV1(-/-) versus control rats. Hypotension produced by intravenous injection of minoxidil decreased blood pressure and increased plasma VP levels similarly in both groups. Finally, both treatments stimulated thirst; however, cumulative water intakes in response to hypernatremia or hypotension were not different between control and TRPV1(-/-) rats. These findings suggest that TRPV1 channels are not necessary for VP secretion and thirst stimulated by hypernatremia. PMID:27335281

  7. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  8. Affinity capture of (Arg sup 8 )vasopressin-receptor complex using immobilized antisense peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xian Lu; Aiyar, N.; Chaiken, I. (SmithKline Beecham, King of Prussia, PA (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Solubilized noncovalent complexes of (Arg{sup 8})-vasopressin (AVP) with receptor proteins from rat liver membranes were isolated by selective binding to silica-immobilized antisense (AS) peptide. The affinity chromatographic support was prepared with a chemically synthesized AS peptide whose sequence is encoded by the AS DNA corresponding to the 20 amino-terminal residues of the AVP bovine neurophysin II biosynthetic precursor (pro-AVP/BNPII-(20-1)), region that includes the AVP sequence at residues 1-9. The AS peptide-AVP interaction mechanism hypothesized, contact by hydropathic complementarity at multiple sites along the peptide chains, led to the prediction that AVP bound to its receptor would still have enough free surface to interact with immobilized AS peptide. To test this prediction of a three-way interaction, ({sup 3}H)AVP-receptor was obtained as a solubilized, partially purified fraction from rat liver membrane. Covalently crosslinked ({sup 3}H)AVP complex also was bound to the AS peptide column; binding was blocked by competition with unlabeled AVP in the elution buffer. Since the AVP-linked 31- and 38-kDa proteins have the same apparent molecular mass on SDS/PAGE as found previously by photoaffinity labeling, the authors conclude that the AS peptide column has affinity-captured AVP-receptor complexes. The 15-kDa protein appears to be an active AVP-receptor fragment of one or both of the larger proteins. It is generally concluded that immobilized AS peptides may be useful to isolate peptide and protein receptor complexes in other systems as well.

  9. Vasopressin responses to unloading arterial baroreceptors during cardiac nerve blockade in conscious dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, C. P.; Keil, L. C.; Thrasher, T. N.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the relative contributions of afferent input from the heart and from arterial baroreceptors in the stimulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion in response to hypotension caused by thoracic inferior vena caval constriction (TIVCC). Afferent input from cardiac receptors was reversibly blocked by infusing 2% procaine into the pericardial space to anesthetize the cardiac nerves. Acute cardiac nerve blockade (CNB) alone caused a rise in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 24 +/- 3 mmHg but no change in plasma AVP. If the rise in MAP was prevented by TIVCC, plasma AVP increased by 39 +/- 15 pg/ml, and if MAP was allowed to increase and then was forced back to control by TIVCC, plasma AVP increased by 34 +/- 15 pg/ml. Thus the rise in MAP during CNB stimulated arterial baroreceptors, which in turn compensated for the loss of inhibitory input from cardiac receptors on AVP secretion. These results indicate that the maximum secretory response resulting from complete unloading of cardiac receptors at a normal MAP results in a mean increase in plasma AVP of 39 pg/ml in this group of dogs. When MAP was reduced 25% below control levels (from 95 +/- 5 to 69 +/- 3 mmHg) by TIVCC during pericardial saline infusion, plasma AVP increased by 79 +/- 42 pg/ml. However, the same degree of hypotension during CNB (MAP was reduced from 120 +/- 5 to 71 +/- 3 mmHg) led to a greater (P less than 0.05) increase in plasma AVP of 130 +/- 33 pg/ml. Because completely unloading cardiac receptors can account for an increase of only 39 pg/ml on average in this group of dogs, the remainder of the increase in plasma AVP must be due to other sources of stimulation. We suggest that the principal stimulus to AVP secretion after acute CNB in these studies arises from unloading the arterial baroreceptors.

  10. Beneficial and side effects of arginine vasopressin and terlipressin for septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xudong; Zhu, Yu; Zhen, Danyang; Chen, Xiao Ming; Yue, Wu; Liu, Liangming; Li, Tao

    2015-05-15

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its analog, terlipressin (TP), were all demonstrated beneficial for septic shock. What advantages and disadvantages that AVP and TP have for septic shock as well as the mechanism, however, are not completely known. With cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats and lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock rabbits, we systematically compared the beneficial and side effects of AVP and TP, in septic shock and the sex difference, and investigated their relationship to Rho kinase and calcium sensitivity. The results indicated that low dose of TP (2.6 μg/kg/h) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) improving vascular reactivity and animal survival were superior to a small dose of AVP (0.03 U/kg/h) in septic shock rats and rabbits. This improving effect of AVP and TP on vascular reactivity was closely related to the activation of Rho-kinase and Rho-kinase-mediating vascular calcium sensitization. A small dose of TP did not result in hyponatremia, did not increase blood bilirubin and decrease platelet count, whereas AVP did. Animal survival and vascular reactivity in female rats after TP or AVP administration were slightly better than male rats, while there were no significant differences. It was suggested that a small dose of TP has better beneficial effect and less side effects on septic shock than AVP. AVP and TP improving vascular reactivity is closely related to Rho-kinase activation and calcium sensitivity improvement. TP or plus NE may be more appropriate for early emergency care for severe septic shock than AVP. PMID:25769491

  11. Does vasopressin improve the mortality of septic shock patients treated with high-dose NA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Ohsugi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: In Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2012, noradrenalin (NA is recommended as a first choice vasopressor. Although vasopressin (VP is recommended for the treatment of NA-resistant septic shock, the optimal parameters for its administration remain unclear. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the administration of VP to adult septic shock patients who were undergoing high-dose NA (≥0.25 μg/kg/min therapy in our Intensive Care Unit between January 2010 and December 2013. We defined high-dose NA as a dose of >0.25 μg/kg/min, based on the definition of low-dose NA as a dose of 5-14 μg/min because the average body weight of the patients in this study was 53.0 kg. Results: Among 29 patients who required the administration of high-dose NA, 18 patients received VP. Although the patient background physiological conditions and NA dose did not differ between the two groups, the survival rate of the VP-treated patients was significantly lower (33% than that of the patients who were managed with a high-dose of NA-alone (82% (P = 0.014. The lactate clearance did not change after the administration of VP, whereas it improved when in NA treatment alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that the administration of VP did not improve the mortality among septic shock patients when administered in addition to high-dose NA.

  12. Measuring Central Bank Communication:

    OpenAIRE

    David Lucca; Francesco Trebbi

    2008-01-01

    We present a new automated, objective and intuitive scoring method to measure the content of central bank communication about future policy rate moves. We apply the methodology to statements released by the Federal Open Market Commitee (FOMC) after monetary policy meetings. Using high-frequency financial data, we find that yields on short-term risk-free nominal rates respond both to changes in policy rates and the content of the statements, whereas, medium and long-term rates only respond to ...

  13. Optimization (Central Composite Design and Validation of HPLC Method for Investigation of Emtricitabine Loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid Nanoparticles: In Vitro Drug Release and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study is to develop nanoparticles (NPs drug delivery system of emtricitabine solely using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA and evaluate its in vitro and in vivo release performance by systematically optimized HPLC method using Formulation by Design (FbD. NPs were evaluated for in vitro release and in vivo absorption study. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm column, under isocratic conditions using UV detection at 280 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 40 mM phosphate dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 6.8, methanol, and 2% acetonitrile in a ratio of (83 : 15 : 2, v/v/v at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The linear regression analysis for the calibration curves showed a good linear correlation over the concentration range 0.040–2.0 μg/mL, with retention time of 4.39 min. An average encapsulation efficiency of 74.34% was obtained for NPs. In vitro studies showed zero-order release and about 95% drug being released within 15 days in PBS (pH 7.4. In conclusion, the proposed optimized method was successfully applied for the determination of in vitro and in vivo release studies of emtricitabine NPs.

  14. Danhong injection attenuates cardiac injury induced by ischemic and reperfused neuronal cells through regulating arginine vasopressin expression and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingzhu; Orgah, John; Zhu, Jie; Fan, Guanwei; Han, Jihong; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Boli; Zhu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with cardiac myocyte vulnerability through some unknown mechanisms. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) may exert considerable function in the relationship of brain damage and heart failure. Danhong injection (DHI) can protect both stroke and heart failure patients with good efficacy in clinics. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of DHI in heart and brain co-protection effects to determine whether AVP plays key role in this course. In the present study, we found that both the supernatant from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reperfused primary rat neuronal cells (PRNCs) and AVP treatment caused significant reduction in cell viability and mitochondrial activity in primary rat cardiac myocytes (RCMs). Besides, DHI had the same protective effects with conivaptan, a dual vasopressin V1A and V2 receptor antagonist, in reducing the RCM damage induced by overdose AVP. DHI significantly decreased the injury of both PRNCs and RCMs. Meanwhile, the AVP level was elevated dramatically in OGD and reperfusion PRNCs, and DHI was able to decrease the AVP expression in the injured PRNCs. Therefore, our present results suggested that OGD and reperfusion PRNCs might induce myocyte injury by elevating the AVP expression in PRNCs. The ability of DHI to reinstate AVP level may be one of the mechanisms of its brain and heart co-protection effects. PMID:27107944

  15. Vasopressin regulation of epithelial colonic proliferation and permeability is mediated by pericryptal platelet-derived growth factor A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Lluïsa; Pérez-Bosque, Anna; Maijó, Mònica; Naftalin, Richard J; Moretó, Miquel

    2014-10-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has trophic effects on the rat distal colon, increasing the growth of pericryptal myofibroblasts and reducing the colonic crypt wall permeability. This study aimed to reproduce in vitro the effects of AVP observed in vivo using cultures of human CCD-18Co myofibroblasts and T84 colonic epithelial cells. Proliferation of myofibroblasts was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation; the expression of platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGFA), platelet-derived growth factor B, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor was measured by PCR and the expression of epithelial junction proteins by Western blot. Arginine vasopressin stimulated myofibroblast proliferation and the expression of PDGFA without affecting the expression of platelet-derived growth factor B, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-β or vascular endothelial growth factor. These effects were prevented when AVP receptor inhibitors were present in the medium. Pre-incubation of CCD-18Co cells with anti-PDGF antibody or with an inhibitor of the PDGF receptor abolished the effects of AVP. When colonocytes were incubated with medium obtained from myofibroblasts incubated with AVP, both cell proliferation and the expression of epithelial junction proteins increased; however, direct incubation of colonocytes with AVP did not modify these variables. These results demonstrate that AVP stimulates myofibroblast proliferation and induces PDGFA secretion, implying that PDGFA mediates local myofibroblast proliferation by an autocrine feedback loop and regulates epithelial proliferation and permeability by a paracrine mechanism. PMID:25085844

  16. The DSA diagnosis, artery embolization combined with low dose of vasopressin infusion treatment for lower digestive tract hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) diagnosis and interventional treatment for lower digestive tract hemorrhage of unknown reasons. Methods: DSA was performed in 32 patients with unknown etiologic lower digestive tract hemorrhage. The locations and causes of hemorrhage were determined by angiography according to the demonstration of contrast medium extravasation, abnormal vasculature and tumor staining. Superselective arterial embolization was performed with retaining catheter of low dose vasopressin infusion for 12 hours of hemostasis. Results: Seventy-five percent of the lesions were identified by DSA with 2 cases of intestinal typhoid, 1 intestinal tuberculosis, 14 cases of vascular malformation and 7 cases of tumor. Hemostasis was succeeded in 20 of 24 patients. The rate of success was 83.3%. Conclusions: DSA and interventional therapy are of great value in diagnosing and treating patients with lower digestive tract hemorrhage of unknown reasons and even those undergone unsuccessful conservative treatment. Low dose vasopressin infusion through retained catheter is safe and efficient after superselective arterial embolization. (authors)

  17. Novel mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor gene in two pedigrees with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, Hiromitsu; Ito, Masafumi; Oiso, Yutaka; Kurokawa, Masaei; Saito, Hidehiko [Nagoya Univ. School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Watanabe, Tohru; Oda, Yoshihiko; Ishizuka, Toshie; Tani, Nagayuki; Ito, Seiki; Shibata, Akira [Niigata City General Hospital (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Novel mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor gene were identified in two Japanese pedigrees with X-linked congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The V2 receptor belongs to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors that contain seven distinct transmembrane domains, and the V2 receptor gene is encoded by three exons. The coding regions amplified by polymerase chain reaction were directly sequenced. In a pedigree, one of four consecutive guanine sequences (nucleotides 528-531) in the second exon was deleted (528delG). This deletion mutation results in a frame shift beginning at codon 154 in the second intracellular domain and a premature termination at codon 161. In another pedigree, a missense mutation (A{yields}G) was identified at nucleotide position 310 in the second exon. This point mutation, H80R, changes a histidine at codon 80 in the second transmembrane domain to an arginine that is more positively charged than histidine under the neutral environment. Each mutation cosegregated with the phenotype of diabetes insipidus and supposed to be a cause for resistance to arginine vasopressin. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Danhong injection attenuates cardiac injury induced by ischemic and reperfused neuronal cells through regulating arginine vasopressin expression and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingzhu; Orgah, John; Zhu, Jie; Fan, Guanwei; Han, Jihong; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Boli; Zhu, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with cardiac myocyte vulnerability through some unknown mechanisms. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) may exert considerable function in the relationship of brain damage and heart failure. Danhong injection (DHI) can protect both stroke and heart failure patients with good efficacy in clinics. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of DHI in heart and brain co-protection effects to determine whether AVP plays key role in this course. In the present study, we found that both the supernatant from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reperfused primary rat neuronal cells (PRNCs) and AVP treatment caused significant reduction in cell viability and mitochondrial activity in primary rat cardiac myocytes (RCMs). Besides, DHI had the same protective effects with conivaptan, a dual vasopressin V1A and V2 receptor antagonist, in reducing the RCM damage induced by overdose AVP. DHI significantly decreased the injury of both PRNCs and RCMs. Meanwhile, the AVP level was elevated dramatically in OGD and reperfusion PRNCs, and DHI was able to decrease the AVP expression in the injured PRNCs. Therefore, our present results suggested that OGD and reperfusion PRNCs might induce myocyte injury by elevating the AVP expression in PRNCs. The ability of DHI to reinstate AVP level may be one of the mechanisms of its brain and heart co-protection effects.

  19. Serum concentrations of type I and III procollagen propeptides in healthy children and girls with central precocious puberty during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and cyproterone acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Juul, A;

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of type I and III procollagen propeptides (s-PICP and s-PIIINP) were measured in 466 healthy school children and in 23 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) during GnRH analog and cyproterone acetate therapy, using two commercially available RIAs. In normal children, s-PICP and s...

  20. Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation in Children with Autism and Its Impact on Plasma Levels of Arginine-Vasopressin and Oxytocin: A Prospective Single-Blinded Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Sui; Xu, Xin-Jie; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Xiu-Ting; Li, Li; Li, Ning; Han, Song-Ping; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture increases brain levels of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), which are known to be involved in the modulation of mammalian social behavior. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) is often used clinically to produce a similar stimulation to that of acupuncture on the acupoints. In the present study, TEAS was…

  1. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-31)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Ineke J.; Boertien, Wendy E.; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Kleefstra, Nanno; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Struck, Joachim; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by end-stage renal disease or acute myocardial infarction. For stable outpatients, these associations are unknown. Our aim

  2. In mpkCCD cells, long-term regulation of aquaporin-2 by vasopressin occurs independent of protein kinase A and CREB but may involve Epac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen; Trimpert, Christiane; van den Brand, Michiel;

    2012-01-01

    Urine concentration involves the hormone vasopressin (AVP), which stimulates cAMP production in renal principal cells, resulting in translocation and transcription of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels, greatly increasing the water permeability, leading to a concentrated urine. As cAMP levels...

  3. Expression of receptors for gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, luteinizing hormone, and vasopressin in normal adrenals and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galac, S.; Kars, V.J.; Klarenbeek, S.; Teerds, K.J.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2010 Jul;39(1):63-75. Epub 2010 Mar 11. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs. Galac S, Kars VJ, Klarenbeek S, Teerds KJ, Mol JA, Kooistra

  4. DIFFERENCES IN THE NUMBER OF ARGININE-VASOPRESSIN-IMMUNOREACTIVE NEURONS EXIST IN THE SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI OF HOUSE MICE SELECTED FOR DIFFERENCES IN NEST-BUILDING BEHAVIOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERZEE, EA; COMPAAN, JC; LYNCH, CB; Compaan, Josje C.; Lynch, Carol B.

    1992-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a homeostatic modulator of body temperature during fever and may also be involved in normal body temperature control. In the present study the hypothalamus of mice bi-directionally selected for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior was immunocytochemically labeled for

  5. Clinical and molecular evidence of abnormal processing and trafficking of the vasopressin preprohormone in a large kindred with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus due to a signal peptide mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggaard, C; Rittig, S; Corydon, T J;

    1999-01-01

    The autosomal dominant form of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI) is a rare disease characterized by postnatal onset of polyuria and a deficient neurosecretion of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). Since 1991, adFNDI has been linked to 31 different mutations ...

  6. Experiment and Demonstration of Application Effects of Slow -release Fertilizer on Summer Corn in Central Region of Shandong%高效缓释肥在鲁中夏玉米上的应用效果试验示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭跃升; 马荣辉; 高瑞杰; 邢晓飞; 王健; 严芳; 王桂香; 马文丽

    2015-01-01

    The effects of slow -release fertilizer on the agronomic characters,yield and nitrogen utiliza-tion under synchronized seeding and fertilization were studied by the field experiment.The results showed that the corn agronomic characteristics were effectively improved by application of slow -release fertilizer,single basal application could solve the problem of fertilizer shortage at the late growth stage of corn.The summer corn yields under the slow -release fertilizer treatment and 90% slow -release fertilizer treatment had no sig-nificant difference,but both were significantly higher than the yield under conventional fertilizer treatment. The yield under 90% slow -release fertilizer treatment was the highest,that of two experiment sites reached 688.3 kg and 711.0 kg per 666.7m2 .The nitrogen utilization of slow -release fertilizer treatment was signifi-cantly higher than the formula fertilizer and conventional fertilization.The nitrogen utilization under 90% slow-release fertilizer was the highest,which was higher than conventional fertilization by 11.25,15.68 percent point and 14.42,21.01 percent point respectively.The results indicated that the treatment of 90% slow -re-lease fertilizer had significant effect on decreasing cost and increasing benefit.%通过大田试验示范研究了缓释肥在玉米种肥同播条件下对玉米农艺性状、产量及氮肥利用率的影响。结果表明:施用缓释肥能有效改善玉米各农艺性状,一次性施用不会造成玉米生长后期脱肥;对比各处理玉米产量,全量缓控释肥和90%缓释肥两处理差异不显著,极显著高于习惯施肥处理,90%缓释肥处理玉米产量最高,两处试验点666.7m2产量分别为688.3 kg 和711.0 kg;全量缓释肥处理的氮肥利用率明显高于普通配方肥和习惯施肥,其中,以90%缓释肥处理氮肥利用率最高,比普通配方肥提高11.25个和15.68个百分点,分别比习惯施肥提高14.42

  7. Vasopressin, renin, and cortisol responses to hemorrhage during acute blockade of cardiac nerves in conscious dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, C. P.; Keil, L. C.; Thrasher, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of acute cardiac nerve blockade (CNB) on the increases in plasma renin activity (PRA), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and cortisol in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage was determined in conscious dogs (n = 9). Procaine was infused into the pericardial space to produce acute reversible CNB, or saline was infused in the control hemorrhage. Blood was removed from the inferior vena cava at a rate of 1 ml.kg-1.min-1. In the control hemorrhage, plasma AVP increased from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 219 +/- 66 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.63 +/- 0.20 to 3.08 +/- 0.91 ng angiotensin I (ANG I).ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dl. When the hemorrhage was repeated during acute CNB, plasma AVP increased from 2.8 +/- 1.6 to 185 +/- 59 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.44 +/- 0.14 to 2.24 +/- 0.27 ng ANG I.ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.9 +/- 0.3 to 5.4 +/- 0.6 micrograms/dl, and none of the increases differed significantly from the responses during the control hemorrhage. Left atrial pressure fell significantly after removal of 6 ml/kg of blood, but mean arterial pressure was maintained at control levels until blood loss reached 20 ml/kg during pericardial infusion of either saline or procaine. The declines in MAP at the 30 ml/kg level of hemorrhage in both treatments were similar. These results demonstrate that acutely blocking input from cardiac receptors does not reduce the increases in plasma AVP, cortisol, and PRA in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that input from cardiac receptors is required for a normal AVP response to hemorrhage and suggest that other receptors, presumably arterial baroreceptors, can stimulate AVP and cortisol secretion in the absence of signals from the heart.

  8. Early change of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid arginine vasopressin in traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-hua; ZHU Jian-yong; HUANG Wei-dong; JIANG Jiu-kun; LU Yuan-qiang; XU Miao; SU Wei; JIANG Ting-ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes and effects of arginine vasopressin(AVP)in patients with acute traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage(tSAH).Methods:The plasma and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)level of AVP,and intracraniai pressure(ICP)were measured in a total of 21 patients within 24 hours after tSAH.The neurological status of the patients was evaluated by Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS).Correlation between AVP and ICP,CrCS was analyzed respectively.Meanwhile,18 healthy volunteers were recruited as control group.Results:Compared with control group,the levels(pg/ml)of AVP in plasma and CSF((x)±s)in tSAH group were significantly increased within 24 hours(38.72±24.71 vs 4.54±1.38and 34.61±21.43 vs 4.13±1.26,P<0.01),and was remarkably higher in GCS≤8 group than GCS>8 group(50.96±36.81 vs 25.26±12.87 and 44.68±31.72 vs 23.53±10.94,P<0.05).The CSF AVP level was correlated with ICP(r= 0.46,P<0.05),but no statistically significant correlation was found between plasma AVP,CSF AVP and initial GCS(r=-0.29,P>0.05 and r=-0.32,P>0.05,respectively).The ICP(mm Hg)in tSAH patients was elevated and higher in GCS≤8 group than in GCS>8 group(25.9±9.7 vs 17.6±5.2,P<0.05=.Conclusion:Our research suggests that AVP is correlated with the severity of tSAH,and may be involved in the pathophysiological process of brain damage in the early stage after tSAH.It seems that compared with the plasma AVP concentration,CSF AVP is more related to the severity of tSAH.

  9. Neonatal MeCP2 is important for the organization of sex differences in vasopressin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Rautio, Jared J; Kurian, Joseph R; Auger, Anthony P

    2012-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are marked by atypical Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) expression or function; however, the role of MeCP2 is complex and not entirely clear. Interestingly, there are sex differences in some of these disorders, and it appears that MeCP2 has sex-specific roles during development. Specifically, recent data indicate that a transient reduction in MeCP2 within developing amygdala reduces juvenile social play behavior in males to female-typical levels. These data suggest that MeCP2 within the amygdala is involved in programming lasting sex differences in social behavior. In the present study, we infused MeCP2 or control siRNA into the amygdala of male and female rats during the first three days of postnatal life in order to assess the impact of a transient reduction in MeCP2 on arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neural marker that is expressed differentially between males and females and is linked to a number of social behaviors. The expression of AVP, as well as several other genes, was measured in two-week old and adult animals. Two-week old males expressed more AVP and galanin mRNA in the amygdala than females, and a transient reduction in MeCP2 eliminated this sex difference by reducing the expression of both gene products in males. A transient reduction in MeCP2 also decreased androgen receptor (AR) mRNA in two-week old males. In adulthood, control males had more AVP-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) cells than females in the centromedial amygdala (CMA), bed nucleus of the striaterminalis (BST) and in the fibers that project from these cells to the lateral septum (LS). A transient reduction in MeCP2 eliminated this sex difference. Interestingly, there were no lasting differences in galanin or AR levels in adulthood. Reducing MeCP2 levels during development did not alter estrogen receptorα, neurofilament or Foxg1. We conclude that a transient reduction in MeCP2 expression in the developing male amygdala has a transient impact on galanin and

  10. A Two-Year Randomized Trial of Interventions to Decrease Stress Hormone Vasopressin Production in Patients with Meniere’s Disease—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Tadashi; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Fukushima, Munehisa; Sakagami, Masaharu; Ito, Taeko; Yamashita, Akinori; Ota, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Meniere's disease, a common inner ear condition, has an incidence of 15–50 per 100,000. Because mental/physical stress and subsequent increase in the stress hormone vasopressin supposedly trigger Meniere's disease, we set a pilot study to seek new therapeutic interventions, namely management of vasopressin secretion, to treat this disease. We enrolled 297 definite Meniere's patients from 2010 to 2012 in a randomized-controlled and open-label trial, assigning Group-I (control) traditional oral medication, Group-II abundant water intake, Group-III tympanic ventilation tubes and Group-IV sleeping in darkness. Two hundred sixty-three patients completed the planned 2-year-follow-up, which included assessment of vertigo, hearing, plasma vasopressin concentrations and changes in stress/psychological factors. At 2 years, vertigo was completely controlled in 54.3% of patients in Group-I, 81.4% in Group-II, 84.1% in Group-III, and 80.0% in Group-IV (statistically I < II = III = IV). Hearing was improved in 7.1% of patients in Group-I, 35.7% in Group-II, 34.9% in Group-III, and 31.7% in Group-IV (statistically I < II = III = IV). Plasma vasopressin concentrations decreased more in Groups-II, -III, and -IV than in Groups-I (statistically I < II = III = IV), although patients’ stress/psychological factors had not changed. Physicians have focused on stress management for Meniere’s disease. However, avoidance of stress is unrealistic for patients who live in demanding social environments. Our findings in this pilot study suggest that interventions to decrease vasopressin secretion by abundant water intake, tympanic ventilation tubes and sleeping in darkness is feasible in treating Meniere’s disease, even though these therapies did not alter reported mental/physical stress levels. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099046 PMID:27362705

  11. 选择性血管加压素V2受体拮抗剂治疗肝硬化腹水的Meta分析%Effect of the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤绍辉; 张良鹏; 徐丽艳; 张小娟; 周金梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis patients with ascites.Methods PubMed,EMBASE,Web of Science,The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP),Chinese Journal Full-Text Database (CNKI),and Wan Fang Digital Journal Full-text Database were retrieved to collect clinical randomized controlled trials of hepatic cirrhosis with ascites treated by selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists.Meta analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0.Results Nine randomized controlled trials including 1884 patients met the inclusion criteria.Meta-analysis showed that:1) The selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists were associated with a significant reduction in body weight compared with placebo (WMD=-1.98kg,95%CI:-3.24-0.72kg,P=0.002).Treatment with selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists was associated with an improvement of low serum sodium concentration compared to placebo (WMD=3.74mmol/L,95%CI:0.91-6.58mmol/L,P=0.01).The percentage of patients with worsening ascites was higher in the group of patients treated with placebo (RR=0.51,95%CI:0.34-0.77,P=0.001).2) The amplitude of increased urine volume was obviously higher in selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group than in placebo group (WMD=1437.65ml,95%CI:649.01-2226.30ml,P=0.0004).The difference of serum creatinine in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group was not statistically significant compared with the control group (WMD=-3.49μmol/L,95%CI:-12.54-5.56μmol/L,P=0.45).3) There was no statistical significance between the two groups in the heart rate,systolic pressure,diastolic pressure and mortality (P>0.05).The rate of other adverse reactions was higher in the selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists group compared with that of placebo group (P=0.003).Conclusion The selective vasopressin V2 receptor antagonists may

  12. PKCα regulates vasopressin-induced aquaporin-2 trafficking in mouse kidney collecting duct cells in vitro via altering microtubule assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong ZHAO; Xi YAO; Tao-xia WANG; Wen-min JIN; Qian-qian JI; Xiao YANG; Qiu-hong DUAN; Li-jun YAO

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a vasopressin-regulated water channel located in the collecting tubule and collecting duct cells of mammalian kidney.The aim of this study is to investigate whether PKCα plays a role in vasopressin-induced AQP2 trafficking in mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mlMCD3) cells.Methods:AQP2-mlMCD3 stable cell line was constructed by transfection of mouse inner medullary collecting duct 3 (mlMCD3) cells with AQP2-GFP construct.Then the cells were transfected with PKCα shRNA,PKCα A/25E,or PKCα scrambled shRNA.The expression levels of PKCα,AQP2,and phospho-S256-AQP2 were analyzed using Western blot.The interaction between AQP2 and PKCα was examined using immunoprecipitation.The distribution of AQP2 and microtubules was studied using immunocytochemistry.The AQP2 trafficking was examined using the biotinylation of surface membranes.Results:Treatment of AQP2-mlMCD3 cells with 100 μmol/L of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DdAVP) for 30 min stimulated the translocation of AQP2 from the cytoplasm to plasma membrane through influencing the microtubule assembly.Upregulation of active PKCα by transfection with PKCα A/25E plasmids resulted in de-polymerization of α-tubulin and redistributed AQP2 in the cytoplasm.Down-regulation of PKCα by PKCα shRNA partially inhibited DdAVP-stimulated AQP2 trafficking without altering α-tubulin distribution.Although 100 μmol/L of DdAVP increased AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256,down-regulation of PKCα by PKCα shRNA did not influence DdAVP-induced AQP2 phosphorylation,suggesting that AQP2 phosphorylation at serine 256 was independent of PKCα.Moreover,PKCα did not physically interact with AQP2 in the presence or absence of DdAVP.Conclusion:Our results suggested that PKCα regulates AQP2 trafficking induced by DdAVP via microtubule assembly.

  13. A novel point mutation in the translation initiation codon of the pre-pro-vasopressin-neurophysin II gene: Cosegregation with morphological abnormalities and clinical symptoms in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutishauser, J.; Boeni-Schnetzler, M.; Froesch, E.R.; Wichmann, W.; Huisman, T. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a rare variant of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. Several different mutations in the human vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II) gene have been described. We studied nine family members from three generations of an ADNDI pedigree at the clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. AVP concentrations were measured during diagnostic fluid restriction tests. Coronal and sagittal high resolution T1-weighted images of the pituitary were obtained from affected and healthy family members. PCR was used to amplify the AVP-NP II precursor gene, and PCR products were directly sequenced. Under maximal osmotic stimulation, AVP serum levels were close to or below the detection limit in affected individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed the characteristic hyperintense ({open_quotes}bright spot{close_quotes}) appearance of the posterior pituitary in two healthy family members. This signal was absent in all four ADNDI patients examined. The coding sequences of AVP and its carrier protein, neurophysin II, were normal in all family members examined. Affected individuals showed a novel single base deletion (G 227) in the translation initiation codon of the AVP-NP II signal peptide on one allele. The mutation in the AVP-NP II leader sequence appears to be responsible for the disease in this kindred, possibly by interfering with protein translocation. The absence of the hyperintense posterior pituitary signal in affected individuals could reflect deficient posterior pituitary function. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  15. Vascular KCNQ Potassium Channels as Novel Targets for the Control of Mesenteric Artery Constriction by Vasopressin, Based on Studies in Single Cells, Pressurized Arteries, and in Vivo Measurements of Mesenteric Vascular ResistanceS

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Alexander R.; Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Henderson, Kyle K.; Shiels, Aaron J.; Cribbs, Leanne L.; Scrogin, Karie E.; Byron, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Pressor effects of the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), observed when systemic AVP concentrations are less than 100 pM, are important for the physiological maintenance of blood pressure, and they are also the basis for therapeutic use of vasopressin to restore blood pressure in hypotensive patients. However, the mechanisms by which circulating AVP induces arterial constriction are unclear. We examined the novel hypothesis that KCNQ potassium channels mediate the physiologic...

  16. Early changes of endothelin, nitric oxide and arginine-vasopressin in patients with acute cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 黄卫东; 吕雪英

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the early changes and clinical significance of plasma endothelin (ET), nitric oxide (NO) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in patients with acute moderate or severe cerebral injury. Methods: The early (at 24 hours after injury) plasma concentrations of ET, NO and AVP were measured with radioimmunoassay and Green technique in 48 cases of acute moderate (GCS≤8 in 27cases ) or severe (GCS>8 in 21 cases) cerebral injury (Group A), in 42 cases of non-cerebral injury (Group B) and in 38 normal individuals (Group C), respectively. Results: The early plasma concentrations of ET (109.73 ng/L±12.61 ng/L), NO (92.82 μmol/L±18.21 μmol/L) and AVP (49.78 ng/L±14.29 ng/L) in Group A were higher than those in Group B (67.90 ng/L±11.33 ng/L, 52.66 μmol/L±12.82 μmol/L and 29.93 ng/L±12.11 ng/L, respectively, P<0.01) and Group C (50.65 ng/L±17.12 ng/L, 36.12 μmol/L±12.16 μmol/L and 5.18 ng/L±4.18 ng/L, respectively, P<0.001). The amounts of ET, NO and AVP in patients with severe cerebral injury were 116.18 ng/L±18.12 ng/L, 108.19 μmol/L±13.28 μmol/L and 58.13 ng/L±16.78 ng/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the patients with moderate cerebral injury (92.33 ng/L±16.32 ng/L, 76.38 μmol/L±12.71 μmol/L and 36.18 ng/L±12.13 ng/L respectively, P<0.01). The early levels of ET, NO and AVP in Group A were negatively related to the GCS scales. The amounts of ET, NO and AVP were 126.23 ng/L±15.23 ng/L, 118.18 μmol/L±10.12 μmol/L and 63.49 ng/L±14.36 ng/L respectively in patients with subdural hematoma, which were significantly higher than those in patients with epidural hematoma (81.13 ng/L±12.37 ng/L, 68.02 μmol/L±13.18 μmol/L and 45.63 ng/L±12.41 ng/L respectively, P<0.01). The plasma concentrations of ET, NO and AVP in stable duration (at 336 hours after injury) in Group A and Group B were similar to those in Group C.Conclusions: ET, NO and AVP were related to the pathophysiological process that occurs in

  17. Early changes of arginine vasopressin and angiotensin II in patients with acute cerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes and clinical significance of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin II (AT-II) in patients with acute moderate and severe cerebral injury.   Methods: The early plasma concentration was checked by radioimmunoassay in 47 cases of acute moderate and severe cerebral injury, 30 cases of non-cerebral injury and 30 healthy volunteers.   Results: The early plasma concentrations of AVP (50.23 ng/L±15.31 ng/L) and AT-II (248.18 ng/L±82.47 ng/L) in cerebral injury group were higher than those in non-cerebral injury group (AVP for 30.91 ng/L±11.48 ng/L and AT-II for 120.67 ng/L±42.49 ng/L, P<0.01). The early plasma concentrations of AVP and AT-II in cerebral injury group were also obviously higher than those of the volunteers (AVP for 5.16 ng/L±4.23 ng/L and AT-II for 43.11 ng/L±16.39 ng/L, P<0.001). At the same time, the early plasma level of AVP (58.90 ng/L±18.12 ng/L) and AT-II (292.13 ng/L±101.17 ng/L) was higher in severe cerebral injured patients than moderate cerebral injured ones (AVP for 36.68 ng/L±12.16 ng/L and AT-II for 201.42 ng/L±66.10 ng/L, P<0.01). The early level of AVP and AT-II was negatively related to the GCS scales in acute cerebral injury. The early plasma concentrations of AVP (45.98 ng/L±13.48 ng/L) and AT-II (263.28 ng/L±80.23 ng/L) were lower in epidural hematoma group than those of subdural hematoma and cerebral injury group (AVP for 64.12 ng/L±15.56 ng/L and AT-II for 319.82 ng/L±108.11 ng/L, P<0.01).   Conclusions:  AVP and AT-II may play an important role in pathophysiologic process in the secondary cerebral injury. The more severe the cerebral injury is, the higher the early level of AVP and AT-II will be. The early plasma level of AVP and AT-II may be one of the severity indexes of cerebral injury.

  18. /sup 125/I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP: a selective radioligand for V1 vasopressin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.M.; Abrahams, J.M.; Phillips, P.A.; Mendelsohn, F.A.; Grzonka, Z.; Johnston, C.I.

    1989-01-01

    Arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) acts on vascular and hepatic V1 receptors to influence blood pressure and glycogenolysis respectively. We have radioiodinated the AVP V1 receptor antagonist, (1-(beta-mercapto-beta, beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionic-acid), 7-sarcosine, 8-arginine) vasopressin ((d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP) and determined its receptor-binding properties in rat liver and kidney plasma membranes. The binding was of high affinity to single classes of receptors (liver: Kd = 3.0 nM and Bmax = 530 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein, kidney: Kd = 0.5 +/- 0.9 nM and Bmax = 11 +/- 8 fmol/mg protein). Competition of (125I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP binding by unlabelled AVP analogues gave the following order of potency in both tissues, consistent with that expected for binding to a V1 receptor: (d(CH2)5, Tyr(Me)2)AVP greater than AVP greater than (d(CH2)5, D-Ile2, Ile4) AVP greater than DDAVP. No degradation of (125I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP during incubation or storage was detected by HPLC analysis. We have used (125I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP and in vitro autoradiography to demonstrate its use in localizing brain AVP receptors. These studies suggest that (125I)-(d(CH2)5, Sar7)AVP is a suitable selective radioligand for labelling V1 receptors and will provide a valuable tool for the study of the localization and regulation of AVP V1 receptors in tissues and in receptor isolation.

  19. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  20. Vasopressin mRNA and neurophysin-related cell-surface antigen (NRSA) in small-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, W G; Yu, X M

    1993-01-01

    Production by small-cell carcinoma (SCCL) of neurophysins (HNPs) and neurophysin-related cell-surface antigen (NRSA) was examined for two cell lines, for mouse xenografts, and for a resected human tumor, using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to vasopressin-associated human neurophysin (VP-HNP) and polyclonal antibodies to vasopressin (VP). The nature of the mRNA responsible for giving rise to these neurophysin-related products was investigated by performing Northern analysis on preparations of poly A+RNA and cDNA probes complimentary to portions of the exon A, exon B, and exon C regions of the human VP gene. SDS-electrophoresis and Western analysis revealed two prominent proteins of 42,000 and 20,000 Da in acid extracts from all SCCL sources when the monoclonal anti-HNP or one of the two polyclonal anti-HNP preparations were used. These antibodies also disclosed the presence of a minor component of 10,000 Da. A second polyclonal anti-HNP preparation reacted with one prominent protein of 30,000 Da and, for one cell line and mouse xenografts, another protein of 32,000 Da. Both of two anti-VP preparations reacted with proteins of 42,000, 30,000, 25,000, and 20,000 Da in extracts from all SCCL source material. The immunoreactive proteins of 42,000, 30,000, and 20,000 Da were all components of a membrane fraction from SCCL cells and tissues. In Northern analysis, a single RNA of about 900 bases hybridized with exon A and exon B probes, but not with the cDNA probe complimentary to exon C of the VP gene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8387189

  1. Vasopressin decreases pulmonary-to-systemic vascular resistance ratio in a porcine model of severe hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Joy; Golden, Patrick J; Kajiura, Lauren N; Murata, Lee-Ann M; Uyehara, Catherine F T

    2015-05-01

    Vasopressors are gaining renewed interest as treatment adjuncts in hemorrhagic shock. The ideal vasoconstrictor will increase systemic blood pressure without increasing pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), which hinders pulmonary perfusion and exacerbates hypoxemia. However, the selectivity of pressors for pulmonary versus systemic vasoconstriction during hemorrhage has not been characterized. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that vasopressin (VP) has distinct effects on pulmonary versus systemic hemodynamics, unlike the catecholamine vasopressors norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine (PE). Anesthetized and ventilated pigs were assigned to resuscitation with saline only (n = 7) or saline with VP (n = 6), NE (n = 6), or PE (n = 6). Animals were hemorrhaged to a target volume of 30 mL/kg and a mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg. One hour after the start of hemorrhage, animals were resuscitated with saline up to one shed blood volume, followed by either additional saline or a vasopressor. Hemodynamics and oxygenation were measured hourly for 4 h after the start of hemorrhage. Vasopressin increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) while sparing the pulmonary vasculature, leading to a 45% decrease in the PVR/SVR ratio compared with treatment with PE. Conversely, NE induced pulmonary hypertension and led to an increased PVR/SVR ratio associated with decreased oxygen saturation. Phenylephrine and crystalloid had no significant effect on the PVR/SVR ratio. Sparing of pulmonary vasoconstriction occurs only with VP, not with administration of crystalloid or catecholamine pressors. The ability of VP to maintain blood oxygenation indicates that VP may prevent hypoxemia in the management of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:25565637

  2. Serum concentrations of type I and III procollagen propeptides in healthy children and girls with central precocious puberty during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and cyproterone acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Juul, A;

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of type I and III procollagen propeptides (s-PICP and s-PIIINP) were measured in 466 healthy school children and in 23 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) during GnRH analog and cyproterone acetate therapy, using two commercially available RIAs. In normal children, s-PICP and s......-PIIINP levels to height velocity in girls (r = 0.35; P <0.001 and r = 0.33; P <0.001, respectively), while in boys, only s-PIIINP showed significant correlation to height velocity (r = 0.40; P <0.001). In untreated girls with CPP, serum levels of s-PIIINP were elevated [PIIINP SD score (SDS), 2.13]. Levels of s...

  3. The pituitary hormones arginine vasopressin-neurophysin II and oxytocin-neurophysin I show close linkage with interleukin-1 on mouse chromosome 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, J.C.; Nelson, K.K.; Siracusa, L.D. (Jefferson Cancer Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Battey, J. (National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are posterior pituitary hormones. AVP is involved in fluid homeostasis, while OXT is involved in lactation and parturition. AVP is derived from a larger precursor, prepro-arginine-vasopressin-neurophysin II (prepro-AVP-NP II; AVP), and is physically linked to prepro-oxytocin-neurophysin I (prepro-OXT-NPI1; OXT). The genes for AVP and OXT are separated by only 12 kb of DNA in humans, whereas in the mouse 3.5 kb of intergenic sequence lies between Avp and Oxt. Interspecific backcross analysis has now been used to map the Avp/Oxt complex to chromosome 2 in the mouse. This map position confirms and extends the known region of linkage conservation between mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 20. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Hormonal status modifies renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidases and vasopressin-degrading activity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Jesús; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel; Mayas, María Dolores; Carrera, María Pilar; De la Chica, Susana; Cortés, Pedro; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús

    2008-07-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) participates in the maintenance of cardiovascular functions and in the control of blood pressure. By other hand, it is known that blood pressure regulation and HPA activity are affected by sex hormones. The aim of the present work is to analyze the influence of estradiol and progesterone on renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-regulating aminopeptidase A, aminopeptidase B and aminopeptidase N activities and vasopressin-degrading activity in the HPA axis of ovariectomized mice and ovariectomized mice treated subscutaneously with different doses of estradiol and progesterone. Our data suggest that in female mice, estradiol and progesterone influence RAS-regulating and vasopressin-degrading activities at different levels of the HPA axis.

  5. Role of vasopressin in the treatment of anaphylactic shock in a child undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chiara Luca

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia is between 1:5000 and 1:25000 and it is one of the few causes of mortality directly related to general anesthesia. The most important requirements in the treatment of this clinical condition are early diagnosis and maintenance of vital organ perfusion. Epinephrine administration is generally considered as the first line treatment of anaphylactic reactions. However, recently, new pharmacological approaches have been described in the treatment of different forms of vasoplegic shock. Case presentation We describe the case of a child who was undergoing surgery for ventricular septal defect, with an anaphylactic reaction to heparin that was refractory to epinephrine infusion and was effectively treated by low dose vasopressin infusion. Conclusion In case of anaphylactic shock, continuous infusion of low-dose vasopressin might be considered after inadequate response to epinephrine, fluid resuscitation and corticosteroid administration.

  6. Metastatic Prostate Adenocarcinoma Presenting Central Diabetes Insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland and infundibulum can be involved in a variety of medical conditions, including infiltrative diseases, fungal infections, tuberculosis, and primary and metastatic tumors. Metastases to the pituitary gland are absolutely rare, and they are generally secondary to pulmonary carcinoma in men and breast carcinoma in women. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The posterior lobe involvement may explain why patients with pituitary metastases frequently present with diabetes insipidus. We are presenting a case report of a 78-year-old male patient who had metastatic prostate with sudden onset of polyuria and persistent thirst. He had no electrolyte imbalance except mild hypernatremia. The MRI scan of the brain yielded a suspicious area in pituitary gland. A pituitary stalk metastasis was found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of pituitary. Water deprivation test was compatible with DI. A clinical response to nasal vasopressin was achieved and laboratory results revealed central diabetes insipidus. As a result, the intrasellar and suprasellar masses decreased in size, and urinary output accordingly decreased.

  7. Binding of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin to neurophysin studied by /sup 15/N NMR using magnetization transfer and indirect detection via protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Live, D.H.; Cowburn, D.

    1987-10-06

    NMR was used to monitor the binding to neurophysin of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin, /sup 15/N labeling being used to identify specific backbone /sup 15/N and /sup 1/H signals. The most significant effects of binding were large downfield shifts in the amino nitrogen resonance of Phe-3 of vasopressin and in its associated proton, providing evidence that the peptide bond between residues 2 and 3 of the hormones is hydrogen-bonded to the protein within hormone-neurophysin complexes. Suggestive evidence for hydrogen bonding of the amino nitrogen of Tyr-2 was also obtained in the form of decreased proton exchange rates on binding; however, the chemical shift changes of this nitrogen and its associated proton indicated that such hydrogen bonding, if present, is probably weak. Shifts in the amino nitrogen of Asn-5 and in the -NH protons of both Asn-5 and Cys-6 demonstrated that these residues are significantly perturbed by binding, suggesting conformational changes of the ring on binding and/or the presence of binding sites on the hormone outside the 1-3 region. No support was obtained for the thesis that there is a significant second binding site for vasopressin on each neutrophysin chain. The behavior of both oxytocin and vasopressin on binding was consistent with formation of 1:1 complexes in slow exchange with the free state under most pH conditions. At low pH there was evidence of an increased exchange rate. Additionally, broadening of /sup 15/N resonances in the bound state at low pH occurred without a corresponding change in the resonances of equilibrating free hormone. The results suggest significant conformational alteration in neurophysin-hormone complexes at low pH possibly associated with protonation of the carboxyl group of the hormone-protein salt bridge.

  8. Vasopressin is a major vasoconstrictor involved in hindlimb vascular responses to stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Joseph M.; Rossi, Noreen F.; Chen, Haiping; O'Leary, Donal S.; Scislo, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study showed that stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) exerts counteracting effects on the iliac vascular bed: activation of the adrenal medulla and β-adrenergic vasodilation versus vasoconstriction mediated by neural and unknown humoral factors. In the present study we investigated the relative contribution of three major potential humoral vasoconstrictors: vasopressin, angiotensin II, and norepinephrine in this response. In ur...

  9. Effects of the vasopressin agonist terlipressin on plasma cAMP and ENaC excretion in the urine in patients with cirrhosis and water retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Pedersen, Erling B; Møller, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue used for its potent V1a effects in cirrhotic patients. Recent data suggest that terlipressin has affinity to renal V2 receptors and modulates Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression and free water clearance. Stimulation of renal V2 receptors may also affect sodium tra...... transport via the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC). Furthermore, endothelial V2 receptors may indirectly affect proximal sodium handling by increasing plasma cAMP....

  10. Rôle de la vasopressine dans les troubles du métabolisme glucidique : possible impact dans le développement du diabète

    OpenAIRE

    Taveau, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that vasopressin (AVP) level is high in both human and experimental diabetes. In humans, several recent studies have shown an association between copeptin (biomarker of AVP secretion) and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Our team has shown a reverse association between water consumption (decrease AVP secretion) and the risk of hyperglycemia in the general population (D.E.S.I.R cohort). The aim of my thesis was to dete...

  11. Chemical release module facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  12. 精氨酸加压素在血管舒张陛休克治疗中的进展%Arginine vasopressin in vasodilatory shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张转; 孙建宏; 杨建军; 史宏伟; 段满林

    2009-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin is one of the potent vasoeonstrictive agents and it is also called antidiuretic hormone.Its infusion can effectively increase blood pressure and urine output,and can decrease the dose requirement of catecholamine during the treatment of vasodilatory shock.This article reviewed the researches of arginine vasopressin in vasodilatory shock to evaluate the changes in heamodynamics,the perfusion of different organs,and the outcome of disease during the course of its use.%精氨酸加压素(arginine vasopressin,AVP)是一种强有力的血管收缩药,又称为抗利尿激素,用于治疗血管舒张性休克时,可有效提升血压、增加尿量和减少儿茶酚胺用量.现就AVP在血管舒张性休克中的应用作一综述,对其在改善血液动力学、器官灌注、疾病转归等方面的作用进行评估.

  13. Synchrony and Specificity in the Maternal and the Paternal Brain: Relations to Oxytocin and Vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzil, Shir; Hendler, Talma; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Winetraub, Yonatan; Feldman, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on the neurobiology of parenting has defined "biobehavioral synchrony," the coordination of biological and behavioral responses between parent and child, as a central process underpinning mammalian bond formation. Bi-parental rearing, typically observed in monogamous species, is similarly thought to draw on mechanisms of…

  14. The role of the histaminergic system in the central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochem, Jerzy; Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    The histaminergic system consists of neurons located in tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. It affects many functions of the central nervous system, including regulation of the brainstem cardiovascular center. In this paper, we present current review of the literature concerning the role of the histaminergic system in the cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension. Experimental studies demonstrate that in both, normotension and critical hemorrhagic hypotension, histamine, acting as a central neurotransmitter, evokes the pressor effect. Interestingly, increases in mean arterial pressure are significantly higher in hypovolaemic than in normovolaemic animals. Many lines of evidence support the hypothesis that in haemorrhagic shock, the histaminergic system is able to activate neural and humoral compensatory mechanisms involving the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems, arginine vasopressin and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. We suggest that the histaminergic system could be a new target for treatment of hemorrhagic hypotension.

  15. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology cell response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers (n = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) Control (CON):...

  16. Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride to crossbred Angus heifers does not increase stress responsiveness or homeostatic metabolic parameters after a combined corticoptropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anecdotal claims suggest that feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) alters the stress response in cattle; however, there is no scientific data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the stress response of ZH-supplemented cattle when exposed to...

  17. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  18. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  19. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  20. Vasopressin levels in plasma and urine of man, dogs and rats, as measured by radioimmunoassay, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) is reported. The production of antisera and labelled hormone is described. The antibodies are characterized with respect to their binding capacity, specificity and resulting sensitivity in the standard curves. An extraction procedure of AVP from body fluids appeared to be necessary and was performed with activated Vycor glass powder. Other adsorbents were tested as well. The results of the assay indicate that 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma can be detected. The calculations of the data are fully automized using a Fortran IV programme for a digital computer. With this assay, basal AVP levels were measured in the plasma and urine of man, dogs and rats. In these species, plasma levels were in the range of 0.0-3.0 pg/ml. In addition, plasma AVP levels in rats and dogs were measured after different periods of water deprivation. In rats, AVP increase reached its maximum after 48 hrs of water deprivation: 27.1 +- 3.4 pg/ml

  1. AQP2 is necessary for vasopressin- and forskolin-mediated filamentous actin depolymerization in renal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Yui

    2012-02-01

    Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for vasopressin (VP-induced aquaporin 2 (AQP2 trafficking. Here, we asked whether VP and forskolin (FK-mediated F-actin depolymerization depends on AQP2 expression. Using various MDCK and LLC-PK1 cell lines with different AQP2 expression levels, we performed F-actin quantification and immunofluorescence staining after VP/FK treatment. In MDCK cells, in which AQP2 is delivered apically, VP/FK mediated F-actin depolymerization was significantly correlated with AQP2 expression levels. A decrease of apical membrane associated F-actin was observed upon VP/FK treatment in AQP2 transfected, but not in untransfected cells. There was no change in basolateral actin staining under these conditions. In LLC-PK1 cells, which deliver AQP2 basolaterally, a significant VP/FK mediated decrease in F-actin was also detected only in AQP2 transfected cells. This depolymerization response to VP/FK was significantly reduced by siRNA knockdown of AQP2. By immunofluorescence, an inverse relationship between plasma membrane AQP2 and membrane-associated F-actin was observed after VP/FK treatment again only in AQP2 transfected cells. This is the first report showing that VP/FK mediated F-actin depolymerization is dependent on AQP2 protein expression in renal epithelial cells, and that this is not dependent on the polarity of AQP2 membrane insertion.

  2. Mothers of autistic children: lower plasma levels of oxytocin and Arg-vasopressin and a higher level of testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder,thought to be caused by a combination of genetic heritability and environmental risk factors. Some autistic-like traits have been reported in mothers of autistic children. We hypothesized that dysregulation of oxytocin (OXT, Arg-vasopressin (AVP and sex hormones, found in autistic children, may also exist in their mothers. METHODS: We determined plasma levels of OXT (40 in autism vs. 26 in control group, AVP (40 vs. 17 and sex hormones (61 vs. 47 in mothers of autistic and normal children by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively and investigated their relationships with the children's autistic behavior scores (Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC. RESULTS: Significantly lower plasma concentrations of OXT (p<0.001 and AVP (p<0.001, as well as a higher level of plasma testosterone (p<0.05, were found in mothers of autistic children vs. those of control. The children's autistic behavior scores were negatively associated with maternal plasma levels of OXT and AVP. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dysregulation of OXT, AVP and/or testosterone systems exist in mothers of autistic children, which may impact children's susceptibility to autism.

  3. Identification of Potential Pharmacoperones Capable of Rescuing the Functionality of Misfolded Vasopressin 2 Receptor Involved in Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emery; Janovick, Jo Ann; Bannister, Thomas D; Shumate, Justin; Scampavia, Louis; Conn, P Michael; Spicer, Timothy P

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacoperones correct the folding of otherwise misfolded protein mutants, restoring function (i.e., providing "rescue") by correcting their trafficking. Currently, most pharmacoperones possess intrinsic antagonist activity because they were identified using methods initially aimed at discovering such functions. Here, we describe an ultra-high-throughput homogeneous cell-based assay with a cAMP detection system, a method specifically designed to identify pharmacoperones of the vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R), a GPCR that, when mutated, is associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Previously developed methods to identify compounds capable of altering cellular trafficking of V2R were modified and used to screen a 645,000 compound collection by measuring the ability of library compounds to rescue a mutant hV2R [L83Q], using a cell-based luminescent detection system. The campaign initially identified 3734 positive modulators of cAMP. The confirmation and counterscreen identified only 147 of the active compounds with an EC50 of ≤5 µM. Of these, 83 were reconfirmed as active through independently obtained pure samples and were also inactive in a relevant counterscreen. Active and tractable compounds within this set can be categorized into three predominant structural clusters, described here, in the first report detailing the results of a large-scale pharmacoperone high-throughput screening campaign. PMID:27280550

  4. Food deprivation decreases vasopressin mRNA in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogasa,Takashi

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of food deprivation for three days on hypothalamic arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in rats. Simultaneously the effect of water deprivation for the same period was examined as a model of dehydration. Levels of AVP mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus (SON and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN were determined by semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry. Water deprivation increased AVP mRNA in both nuclei as previously reported. In contrast, food deprivation decreased AVP mRNA in these nuclei. The changes in AVP mRNA levels in the PVN were observed in the magnocellular subdivision of the nucleus. Plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone were greatly increased in both treated groups of rats. Plasma AVP and osmolality levels were significantly elevated in water-deprived rats but not in food-deprived rats. These observations indicated that both food deprivation and water deprivation stimulated the pituitary-adrenal axis and that a reduction in AVP mRNA levels in food-deprived rats was caused by food deprivation but not by glucocorticoid feedback suppression nor by altered plasma osmolality.

  5. Peripheral oxytocin and vasopressin: Biomarkers of psychiatric disorders? A comprehensive systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutigliano, Grazia; Rocchetti, Matteo; Paloyelis, Yannis; Gilleen, James; Sardella, Alberto; Cappucciati, Marco; Palombini, Erika; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Politi, Pierluigi; McGuire, Philip; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2016-07-30

    A large array of studies have investigated peripheral oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (ADH) as potential biomarkers of psychiatric disorders, with highly conflicting and heterogenous findings. We searched Web of KnowledgeSM and Scopus® for English original articles investigating OT and/or ADH levels in different biological fluids (plasma/serum, saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid) across several psychiatric disorders. Sixty-four studies were included. We conducted 19 preliminary meta-analyses addressing OT alterations in plasma/serum, saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid of 7 psychiatric disorders and ADH alterations in plasma/serum, saliva, urine and cerebrospinal fluid of 6 psychiatric disorders compared to controls. Hedge's g was used as effect size measure, together with heterogeneity analyses, test of publication biases and quality control. None of them (except serum OT in anorexia nervosa) revealed significant differences. There is no convincing evidence that peripheral ADH or OT might be reliable biomarkers in psychiatric disorders. However, the lack of significant results was associated with high methodological heterogeneity, low quality of the studies, small sample size, and scarce reliability of the methods used in previous studies, which need to be validated and standardized. PMID:27183106

  6. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718. PMID:27053769

  7. Small doses of arginine vasopressin in combination with norepinephrine "buy" time for definitive treatment for uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangming; Tian, Kunlun; Xue, Mingying; Zhu, Yu; Lan, Dan; Peng, Xiaoyong; Wu, Yue; Li, Tao

    2013-11-01

    Implementation of fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion are greatly limited in prehospital or evacuation settings after severe trauma or war wounds. With uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock rats, we investigated if arginine vasopressin (AVP) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) is independent (or slightly dependent) of fluid resuscitation and can "buy" time for the subsequently definitive treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock in the present study. The results showed that AVP (0.4 U/kg) alone or with NE (3 μg/kg) with one-eighth and one-fourth volumes of total blood volume of lactated Ringer's infusion significantly increased and maintained the mean arterial pressure. Among all groups, 0.4 U/kg of AVP + NE (3 μg/kg) with one-eighth volume of lactated Ringer's infusion had the best effect: it significantly increased and maintained hemodynamics and prolonged the survival time. This early treatment strategy significantly improved the effects of subsequently definitive treatments (after bleeding controlled): it increased the subsequent survival, improved the hemodynamic parameters, improved the cardiac function, and increased the tissue blood flow and oxygen delivery. These results suggested that early application of small doses of AVP (0.4 U/kg) + NE before bleeding control can "buy" time for the definitive treatment of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, which may be an effective measure for the early treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock.

  8. UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  9. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  10. A case of a novel mutant vasopressin receptor-dependent nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with bilateral non-obstructive hydronephrosis in a middle aged man: differentiation from aquaporin-dependent nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by response of factor VII and von Willebrand factor to 1-diamino-8-arginine vasopressin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kamoi, Kyuzi; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei

    2003-12-01

    We describe a case of a novel mutant vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R)-dependent nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) with bilateral non-obstructive hydronephrosis in a middle aged man. This could be distinguished from aquaporin 2 (AQP2)-dependent NDI by the response of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF) to 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) administration. A 47-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of polyuria, which had been present from infancy and was suspected of causing non-obstructive hydronephrosis. His mother's father, the older brother of his mother and his second daughter also all had polyuria. Sodium concentration, osmolality and vasopressin in blood were high, while sodium concentration and osmolality in urine were low. There were no changes in urine osmolality, factor VIII and vWF in response to DDAVP infusion. Neither was heart rate, diastolic blood pressure nor facial flushing affected. These findings suggested this case was V2R-dependent NDI rather than AQP2-dependent NDI. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated that the patient had a V2R missense mutation involving a substitution of cysteine for arginine at position 104 (R104C) located in the first extracellular loop of the V2R. It was also found that the patient's mother and his second daughter were heterozygous for this R104C mutation. PMID:14709855

  11. Central precocious puberty and gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Oostdijk (Wilma)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn order to understand the processes occurring during precocious puberty, one needs to specify what is currently known about normal pubertal development. Puberty can be defined as a maturational process of the hypothalamic-pituitarygonadal axis, which results in the development of the go

  12. Aminopeptidase activity in rat brain synaptosomes - 2-mercaptoethanol stimulation and Arg-vasopressin degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, W.H.; Orawski, A.T.

    1986-03-05

    Rat brain synaptic plasma membranes contain an amastatin-inhibited aminopeptidase activity which degrades Arg-vaso-pressin (AVP). The pH optimum for AVP cleavage was found to be 6.8, similar to that reported for oxytocin. The ability of other peptides and arylamides such as oxytocin, Tyr-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH/sub 2/ and Arg-Arg-..beta..NA to inhibit cleavage of (/sup 3/H-Tyr/sup 2/)-AVP suggests that the enzyme may not be specific for AVP. The AVP-cleaving activity has been solubilized and partially characterized. Synaptosomes were lysed with hypotonic buffer, washed, and extracted with 1% Nonidet P-40 detergent. The solubilized protein was chromatographed by gel filtration HPLC on Superose 6. A single peak of activity was found with a M.W. = 117,000 which could hydrolyze 1mM Ala-..beta..NA, Arg-..beta..NA, Arg-Arg-..beta..NA, Phe-Met and Phe-Arg as well as slowly cleave AVP with the ultimate release of /sup 3/H-Tyr. 2-Mercaptoethanol (3.9mM) (ME) stimulated activity 3.6 to 6.6-fold for arylamide and dipeptide substrates, but 35-fold for labelled AVP, possibly owing to reduction of the AVP disulfide bond. All activities in the presence of ME were completely inhibited by 0.2mM amastatin.

  13. Vasopressin stimulates action potential firing by protein kinase C-dependent inhibition of KCNQ5 in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Moran, Christopher J.; Barakat, John A.; Yeh, Jay Z.; Cribbs, Leanne L.; Byron, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    [Arg8]-vasopressin (AVP), at low concentrations (10–500 pM), stimulates oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spikes) in A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Our previous studies provided biochemical evidence that protein kinase C (PKC) activation and phosphorylation of voltage-sensitive K+ (Kv) channels are crucial steps in this process. In the present study, Kv currents (IKv) and membrane potential were measured using patch clamp techniques. Treatment of A7r5 cells with 100...

  14. Arginine-vasopressin in catecholamine-refractory septic versus non-septic shock in extremely low birth weight infants with acute renal injury

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sascha; Gottschling, Sven; Baghai, Ali; Wurm, Donald; Gortner, Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) as a rescue therapy in catecholamine-refractory septic and non-septic shock in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with acute renal injury. Methods Prospective assessment of AVP therapy in three ELBW infants with catecholamine-refractory septic shock and acute renal injury (mean birth weight 600 ± 30 g) and three ELBW infants with non-septic shock and acute renal injury (mean birth weight 770 ± 1...

  15. Regulation of CFTR Expression and Arginine Vasopressin Activity Are Dependent on Polycystin-1 in Kidney-Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Monteiro de Lemos Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is characterized by the development of multiple, progressive, fluid-filled renal cysts that distort the renal parenchyma, leading to end-stage renal failure, mainly after the fifth decade of life. ADPKD is caused by a mutation in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes that encode polycystin-1 (PC-1 and polycystin-2 (PC-2, respectively. PC-1 is an important regulator of several signaling pathways and PC-2 is a nonselective calcium channel. The CFTR chloride channel is responsible for driving net fluid secretion into the cysts, promoting cyst growth. Arginine vasopressin hormone (AVP, in turn, is capable of increasing cystic intracellular cAMP, contributing to cell proliferation, transepithelial fluid secretion, and therefore to disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess if AVP can modulate CFTR and whether PC-1 plays a role in this potential modulation. Methods: M1 cells, derived from mouse cortical collecting duct, were used in the current work. The cells were treated with 10-7 M AVP hormone and divided into two main groups: transfected cells superexpressing PC-1 (Transf and cells not transfected (Ctrl. CFTR expression was assessed by immunodetection, CFTR mRNA levels were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and CFTR net ion transport was measured using the Ussing chamber technique. Results: AVP treatment increased the levels of CFTR protein and mRNA. CFTR short-circuit currents were also increased. However, when PC-1 was overexpressed in M1 cells, no increase in any of these parameters was detected. Conclusions: CFTR chloride channel expression is increased by AVP in M1 cells and PC-1 is capable of regulating this modulation.

  16. Possible contribution of epigenetic changes in the development of schizophrenia-like behavior in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Kornél; Török, Bibiána; Fodor, Anna; Varga, János; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Kovács, Krisztina J; Eszik, Ildikó; Szegedi, Viktor; Zelena, Dóra

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia-like symptoms were detected in vasopressin-deficient (di/di) Brattleboro rats, and it was also suggested that schizophrenia might have an epigenetic component. We aimed to clarify if epigenetic changes contribute to schizophrenia-like behavior of this strain. Behavioral (locomotion by telemetry, cognition by novel object recognition, social recognition and social avoidance test, attention by pre-pulse inhibition) and epigenetic differences were compared between wild type and di/di animals. DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1), DNMT3a, as well as COMT, GAD, VGLUT1, 5HT2A, BDNF mRNA levels in prefrontal brain region and hippocampus were studied by qRT-PCR. Histone3 (H3) and H4 acetylation (Ac) were studied by western-blot followed by region specific examination of H3 lysine9 (K9) acetylation by immunohistochemistry. Impaired cognitive, social and attention behavior of di/di rats confirmed schizophrenia-like symptoms in our local colony. The pan-AcH3 immunoreactivity was lower in prefrontal region and elevated in the hippocampus of di/di animals. We found lower immunopositive cell number in the dorsal peduncular prefrontal cortex and the ventral lateral septum and increased AcH3K9 immunoreactivity in CA1 region of di/di animals. There were no major significant alterations in the studied mRNA levels. We confirmed that Brattleboro rat is a good preclinical model of schizophrenia. Its schizophrenia-like behavioral alteration was accompanied by changes in H3 acetylation in the prefrontal region and hippocampus. This may contribute to disturbances of many schizophrenia-related substances leading to development of schizophrenia-like symptoms. Our studies confirmed that not a single gene, rather fine changes in an array of molecules are responsible for the majority of schizophrenia cases. PMID:26704217

  17. Isolated nerve endings (neurosecretosomes) from the posterior pituitary. Partial separation of vasopressin and oxytocin and the isolation of microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, E; Labella, F S; Sanwal, M

    1967-07-01

    Subcellular fractions of the bovine posterior pituitary, including one composed almost exclusively of pinched-off nerve endings (neurosecretosomes), were characterized electron microscopically, hormonally, and enzymically. 15% of the nerve terminals in the gland were isolated as neurosecretosomes, as estimated from determinations of lactic dehydrogenase, a soluble, cytoplasmic enzyme. Neurosecretosomes were subdivided into three fractions by density-gradient centrifugation. The three subfractions, each shown to be nearly homogeneous populations of neurosecretosomes by means of electron microscopic and enzymic criteria, differed from each other in their vasopressin/oxytocin (VP/OT) ratios. The VP/OT ratio increased from the lightest to the densest fraction, indicating that VP is localized to denser and OT to lighter neurosecretosomes; similar results have been obtained previously for subfractions of neurosecretory granules (NSG). No morphological differences were apparent in neurosecretosomes among the three subfractions. Although complete separation of VP and OT was not achieved, the findings suggest that VP and OT are each stored in a different species of nerve ending and support the hypothesis that a given neurosecretory cell synthesizes, stores, and secretes only one of the peptide hormones. Microvesicles, 40-80 mmicro diameter and contained in typical neurosecretory cell terminals, are believed to be degradation products of membrane ghosts of depleted NSG; electron micrographs indicative of this transformation are presented. A fraction rich in microvesicles, but containing some NSG membranes, was prepared by density-gradient centrifugation of an osmolysate of neurosecretosomes. Smaller, apparently nonneurosecretory nerve endings, lacking NSG but filled with small vesicles, are occasionally seen in sections from whole gland. The vesicles in these atypical posterior pituitary nerve endings may be true neurohumor-containing, "synaptic" vesicles. PMID:6040535

  18. Structure, sequence, expression, and chromosomal localization of the human V{sub 1a} vasopressin receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibonnier, M.; Graves, M.K.; Wagner, M.S. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    We recently reported the structure and functional expression of a human V{sub 1a} vasopressin receptor (V{sub 1a}R) cDNA isolated from human liver cDNA libraries. To understand further the expression and regulation of the V{sub 1a}R, we now describe the genomic characteristics, tissue expression, chromosomal localization, and regional mapping of the human V{sub 1a}R gene, AVPR1A. Tissue distribution of the human V{sub 1a}R mRNA explored by Northern blot analysis of various human tissues or organs revealed the presence of a 5.5-kb mRNA transcript expressed in the liver and to a lesser degree in the heart, the kidney, and skeletal muscle. Screening of human genomic libraries revealed that the human AVPR1A gene is included entirely within a 6.4-kb rated by a 2.2-kb intron located before the corresponding seventh transmembrane domain of the receptor sequence. The first exon also contains 2 kb of 5{prime}-untranslated region, and the second exon includes 1 kb of 3{prime}-untranslated region. 5{prime}-RACE analysis of human liver mRNA by PCR localized the V{sub 1a}R mRNA transcription start site 1973 bp upstream of the translation the intron sequence were used as primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids. AVPR1A was localized by PCR analysis of a somatic cell hybrid panel to chromosome 12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a yeast artificial chromosome physically mapped AVPR1A to region 12q14-q15. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Angiotensin Type-2 Receptors Influence the Activity of Vasopressin Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Annette D; Pitra, Soledad; Wang, Lei; Hiller, Helmut; Pioquinto, David J; Smith, Justin A; Sumners, Colin; Stern, Javier E; Krause, Eric G

    2016-08-01

    It is known that angiotensin-II acts at its type-1 receptor to stimulate vasopressin (AVP) secretion, which may contribute to angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. Less well known is the impact of angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation on these processes. Studies conducted in a transgenic AT2R enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter mouse revealed that although AT2R are not themselves localized to AVP neurons within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), they are localized to neurons that extend processes into the PVN. In the present set of studies, we set out to characterize the origin, phenotype, and function of nerve terminals within the PVN that arise from AT2R-enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive neurons and synapse onto AVP neurons. Initial experiments combined genetic and neuroanatomical techniques to determine that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons derived from the peri-PVN area containing AT2R make appositions onto AVP neurons within the PVN, thereby positioning AT2R to negatively regulate neuroendocrine secretion. Subsequent patch-clamp electrophysiological experiments revealed that selective activation of AT2R in the peri-PVN area using compound 21 facilitates inhibitory (ie, GABAergic) neurotransmission and leads to reduced activity of AVP neurons within the PVN. Final experiments determined the functional impact of AT2R activation by testing the effects of compound 21 on plasma AVP levels. Collectively, these experiments revealed that AT2R expressing neurons make GABAergic synapses onto AVP neurons that inhibit AVP neuronal activity and suppress baseline systemic AVP levels. These findings have direct implications in the targeting of AT2R for disorders of AVP secretion and also for the alleviation of high blood pressure. PMID:27267713

  20. Ionic channels and hormone release from peptidergic nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, J R; Nordmann, J J

    1986-09-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that depolarization of nerve cell terminals leads to the entry of Ca2+ and to the secretion of neurohormones and neurotransmitters, the details of how ionic currents control the release of neuroactive substances from nerve terminals are unknown. The small size of most nerve terminals has precluded direct analysis of membrane ionic currents and their influence on secretion. We now report that it is possible, using patch-clamp techniques, to study stimulus--secretion coupling in isolated peptidergic nerve terminals. Sinus gland terminals from Cardisoma are easily isolated following collagenase treatment and appear morphologically and electrically very similar to non-dissociated nerve endings. We have observed two types of single-channel currents not previously described. The first ('f') channel is activated by intracellular Na+ and the second ('s') by intracellular Ca2+. Both show little selectivity between Na+ and K+. In symmetrical K+, these cation channels have mean conductances of 69 and 213 pS, respectively. Furthermore, at least three types of Ca2+ channels can be reconstituted from nerve terminal membranes prepared from sinus glands. Nerve terminals can also be isolated from the rat neural lobe. These neurosecretosomes release oxytocin and vasopressin, in response to membrane depolarization, only in the presence of external Ca2+. The depolarization of the nerve endings is associated with an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and this increase, measured using a fluorescent indicator, is abolished by Ca2+ channel blockers. Channels similar in their properties to the f and s channels also exist in rat neural lobe endings. Since these channels have not been found in other neurones or neuronal structures they may be unique to peptidergic nerve terminals.

  1. Copeptin as a biomarker and a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with polyuria-polydipsia and hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ-Crain, M; Morgenthaler, N G; Fenske, W

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin is part of the 164 amino acid precursor protein preprovasopressin together with vasopressin and neurophysin II. During precursor processing, copeptin is released together with vasopressin. Copeptin concentrations respond as rapidly as vasopressin to changes in osmolality, a decrease in blood pressure or stress and there is a close correlation of vasopressin and copeptin concentrations. For these reasons, copeptin is propagated as a surrogate marker for vasopressin in the differential diagnosis of the polyuria-polydipsia syndromes and hyponatremia. Results of prospective studies show that a baseline copeptin level without prior fluid deprivation >20 pmol/L is able to identify patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, whereas osmotically stimulated copeptin levels differentiate between patients with partial central diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia with a high sensitivity and specificity >94%. In hyponatremia, low copeptin levels point to primary polydipsia and high levels to hypovolemic hyponatremia. The copeptin to urinary sodium ratio differentiates accurately between volume-depleted and normovolemic disorders. PMID:27156761

  2. Interaction of anesthetics with neurotransmitter release machinery proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; McMillan, Kyle; Pike, Carolyn M; Cahill, Anne L; Herring, Bruce E; Wang, Qiang; Fox, Aaron P

    2013-02-01

    General anesthetics produce anesthesia by depressing central nervous system activity. Activation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptors plays a central role in the action of many clinically relevant general anesthetics. Even so, there is growing evidence that anesthetics can act at a presynaptic locus to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our own data identified the neurotransmitter release machinery as a target for anesthetic action. In the present study, we sought to examine the site of anesthetic action more closely. Exocytosis was stimulated by directly elevating the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration at neurotransmitter release sites, thereby bypassing anesthetic effects on channels and receptors, allowing anesthetic effects on the neurotransmitter release machinery to be examined in isolation. Three different PC12 cell lines, which had the expression of different release machinery proteins stably suppressed by RNA interference, were used in these studies. Interestingly, there was still significant neurotransmitter release when these knockdown PC12 cells were stimulated. We have previously shown that etomidate, isoflurane, and propofol all inhibited the neurotransmitter release machinery in wild-type PC12 cells. In the present study, we show that knocking down synaptotagmin I completely prevented etomidate from inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Synaptotagmin I knockdown also diminished the inhibition produced by propofol and isoflurane, but the magnitude of the effect was not as large. Knockdown of SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 expression also changed the ability of these three anesthetics to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that general anesthetics inhibit the neurotransmitter release machinery by interacting with multiple SNARE and SNARE-associated proteins.

  3. Angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockade decreases vasopressin-induced water reabsorption and AQP2 levels in NaCl-restricted rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Nielsen, Jakob; Knepper, M.A.;

    2005-01-01

    Vasopressin and ANG II, which are known to play a major role in renal water and sodium reabsorption, are mainly coupled to the cAMP/PKA and phosphoinositide pathways, respectively. There is evidence for cross talk between these intracellular signaling pathways. We therefore hypothesized that...... vasopressin-induced water reabsorption could be attenuated by ANG II AT1 receptor blockade in rats. To address this, three protocols were used: 1) DDAVP treatment (20 ng/h sc for 7 days, n = 8); 2) DDAVP (20 ng/h sc for 7 days) and candesartan (1 mg·kg−1·day−1 sc for 7 days) cotreatment (n = 8); and 3......) vehicle infusion as the control (n = 8). All rats were maintained on a NaCl-deficient diet (0.1 meq Na+·200 g body wt−1·day−1) during the experiment. DDAVP treatment alone resulted in a significant decrease in urine output (3.1 ± 0.2 ml/day) compared with controls (11.5 ± 2.2 ml/day, P < 0.05), whereas...

  4. Response Prediction and Influence of Tolvaptan in Chronic Heart Failure Patients Considering the Interaction of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Arginine Vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Muneyuki; Ise, Takayuki; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Akaike, Masashi; Ueno, Rie; Kawabata, Yutaka; Hara, Tomoya; Ogasawara, Kozue; Bando, Mika; Bando, Sachiko; Matsuura, Tomomi; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2016-07-27

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulate body fluids. Although conventional diuretics have been used for treating heart failure, they activate RAAS and exacerbate renal function. Tolvaptan, a newly developed vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist, elicits aquaresis and improves volume overload in heart failure patients, however, the predictors of tolvaptan effectiveness and the influence on the RAAS and renal function according to tolvaptan therapy are not established. We evaluated 26 chronic heart failure patients receiving therapy with 15 mg/day tolvaptan and examined their laboratory and urinary data before and after tolvaptan therapy. A response to tolvaptan was defined as a body weight decrease by more than 2 kg in a week and a urine volume increase by 500 mL/ day compared with that before tolvaptan administration. Body weight, urine volume, and brain natriuretic peptide levels significantly improved (P < 0.05), without any worsening of renal function represented by serum creatinine, sodium, and potassium. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in the plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC). In the responder group, urine osmolality before tolvaptan administration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) but declined significantly after tolvaptan administration (P < 0.05). The AVP/PAC ratio before administration was positively correlated with the efficacy of tolvaptan. Tolvaptan treatment could prevent RAAS activation in chronic heart failure patients. Moreover, monitoring the AVP/PAC ratio may be useful in predicting the tolvaptan response. PMID:27357439

  5. Relationship of Copeptin, a Surrogate Marker for Arginine Vasopressin, With Change in Total Kidney Volume and GFR Decline in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease : Results From the CRISP Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertien, Wendy E.; Meijer, Esther; Li, Jie; Bost, James E.; Struck, Joachim; Flessner, Michael F.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies indicate that arginine vasopressin (AVP) may have deleterious effects in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, the significance of AVP in human ADPKD is unclear. Study Design: Longitudinal observational study with 8.5 (IQR

  6. Experiment K-6-20. The effect of spaceflight on pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    Pituitary levels of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) were measured in rats exposed to 12.5 days of spaceflight (FLT) as well as ground-based controls, one group synchronously maintained in flight-type cages with similar feeding schedules (SYN), and one group in vivarium cages (VIV). Flight rats had significantly less (p less than 0.05) pituitary OT and AVP(1.10 plus or minus 0.04 and 1.69 plus or minus 0.07 micron g, n=5) than either the SYN(1.60 plus or minus 0.08 and 2.11 plus or minus 0.04 micron g, n=5) or VIV (1.54 plus or minus 0.03 and 2.10 plus or minus 0.09 micron g, n=5) control groups, respectively. Because the FLT group mean body weight was significantly less (p less than 0.05) than either control group, the pituitary hormone content was also calculated on the basis of posterior pituitary protein content. When calculated in this manner, pituitary OT in the FLT rats (5.09 plus or minus 0.15 micron g/mg protein) was significantly less (p less than 0.05) than SYN(7.66 plus or minus 0.39 micron g/mg protein) or VIV controls (8.11 plus or minus 0.64 micron g/mg protein). Pituitary AVP was also less in the FLT animals (7.80 plus or minus 0.13 micron g/mg protein) compared to either SYN(9.84 plus or minus 0.51, p less than 0.05) or VIV controls (11.01 plus or minus 0.76, p less than 0.05). The reduced levels of pituitary OT and AVP may have resulted from increased hormone secretion resulting from the combined effects of water deprivation and the stress of the novel microgravity environment.

  7. Bradykinin and vasopressin stimulate Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransport in cultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.A.; Brugnara, C.; Canessa, M.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have characterized a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter in vascular endothelial cells (EC) cultured from different blood vessels and species that is inhibited by the diuretics furosemide and bumentanide. Inward /sup 86/Rb influx transported by the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump in cultured EC from bovine and pig aorta, bovine vena cava, and baboon cephalic vein but not in human umbilical or saphenous vein EC. External Na/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb influx is equal to furosemide or bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx. Ouabain-insensitive /sup 22/Na influx is also partially inhibited by these drugs and stimulated by increasing external K/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/. Net Na/sup +/ extrusion occurs via the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter in the absence of external K/sup +/, whereas net Na/sup +/ influx occurs at higher external K/sup +/. Maximal concentrations (100 nM) of bradykinin and vasopressin increase the initial rate of bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by approx.60 and 70%. Addition of either ethyleneglycol-bis(..beta..-aminotethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid or LaCl/sub 3/ (to block calcium influx) prevents bradykinin-stimulated /sup 86/Rb influx. When intracellular calcium is elevated using ionomycin (100 nM), a Ca/sup 2 +/ionophore, bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx increases approx.twofold. In contrast, isoproterenol (100 ..mu..M) and forskolin (50 /sup +/M), adenylate cyclase stimulators, decrease furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx. Thus in certain types of cultured EC, a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter mediates a fraction of K/sup +/ influx quantitatively as important as the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump (ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx) and appears to be modulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and cyclic nucleotides.

  8. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog in combination with growth hormone for girls with post-menarche idiopathic central precocious puberty%联合应用促性腺激素类似物和生长激素治疗女性初潮后特发性中枢性性早熟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林心苗

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察促性腺激素类似物联合生长激素治疗女性初潮后特发性中枢性性早熟的临床疗效,为本病的临床治疗提供参考.方法 选取女性初潮后特发性中枢性性早熟患者32例.采用促性腺激素类似物联合生长激素进行治疗,治疗6个月后,观察患者治疗前、后的骨龄、乳房Tanner分期、身高、身高标准差分值、预测成人身高、生长速率、子宫和卵巢容积的变化情况.同时对比患者治疗前、后黄体生成素、卵泡刺激素的变化情况.结果 患者治疗前、后的实际年龄、骨龄、实际年龄和骨龄比值、乳房Tanner分期、HtSDSCA的对比,差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗后,患者的身高、预测成人身高、生长速率均显著高于治疗前,而HtSDSBA则显著低于治疗前(P<0.05).治疗后,患者的子宫容积为(1.37±0.47) cm3,卵巢容积(1.12±0.46) cm3,均显著低于治疗前(P<0.05).治疗后,黄体生成素峰值为(1.57±0.67) U/L,卵泡刺激素峰值为(3.52±0.81)mU/ml,均显著低于治疗前(P<0.05).结论 促性腺激素类似物联合生长激素可提高女性初潮后特发性中枢性性早熟的临床治疗效果,改善患者的预测成人最终身高,值得在临床上推广应用.%Objectives To observe the clinical effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog in combination with growth hormone in the treatment of girls with post-menarche idiopathic central precocious puberty and provide some references for the clinical treatment of the disease.Methods 32 girls with postmenarche idiopathic central precocious puberty were selected from our hospital.They were treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and growth hormone for 6 months.The bone age,breast tanner staging,height,standard deviation scores of height,predicted adult height changes,growth rate,ovarian and uterine volume were observed before and after the treatment.At the same time,luteinizing hormone and follicle

  9. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  10. Miniature Release Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to design, build and functionally test a miniature release mechanism for CubeSats and other small satellites. The WFF 6U satellite structure will...

  11. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  12. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  13. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  14. Controlled-release microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  15. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  16. A fluoride release-adsorption-release system applied to fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suljak, J P; Hatibovic-Kofman, S

    1996-09-01

    This investigation compared the initial fluoride release and release following refluoridation of three resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Photac-Fil Applicap, Vitremer, and Fuji II LC) and a new polyacid-modified resin composite material (Dyract). After daily flouride release was measured for 8 days, specimens were refluoridated in 1,000-ppm solutions of fluoride ion for 10 minutes and fluoride release was measured for 5 days. Two further 5-day refluoridation-release periods were carried out. All materials released fluoride initially. Photac released the most; Dyract released the least. Initial release was greatest over the first few days. All materials released significantly more fluoride for 24 to 48 hours after refluoridation. Less fluoride was released with each successive refluoridation for the three glass-ionomer cements. The release from the Dyract compomer remained at a comparatively constant and significantly lower level following each refluoridation.

  17. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans. [Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma VasoPressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, S. E.; Keil, L. C.; Geelen, G.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body and abdominal pressure, produced by antigravity suit inflation, on blood pressure, pulse rate, fluid and electrolyte shift, plasma vasopressin and plasma renin activity in humans in upright postures were studied. Five men and two women stood upright for 3 hr with the suit being either inflated or uninflated. In the control tests, the suit was inflated only during the latter part of the trials. Monitoring was carried out with a sphygnomanometer, with sensors for pulse rates, and using a photometer and osmometer to measure blood serum characteristics. The tests confirmed earlier findings that the anti-g suit eliminates increases in plasma renin activity. Also, the headward redistribution of blood obtained in the tests commends the anti-g suit as an alternative to water immersion or bed rest for initial weightlessness studies.

  18. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation vasopressin and epinephrine in combination%心肺复苏中血管加压素与肾上腺素的联合应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁萍; 张孟瑜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the vascular pressure rope epinephrine during cardiopulmonaiy resuscitation efficacy. Methods 216 patients with cardiac arrest were randomly divided into 3 groups; standard-dose epinephrine group (A group) 75 cases; vasopressin (low dose) + epinephrine (B) 72 cases; vasopressin (large dose) + adrenal cable (C) , 69 cases were observed in each group return of spontaneous circulation, survival, recovery time of spontaneous circulation. Recovery of drugs in each group, while in the application are continuing chest cardiac compression, intubation and mechanical ventilation, continuous ECG, blood pressure monitoring, defibrillation appears to be ventricular fibrillation. Results group A, group B, group C restoration of spontaneous circulation rates were 18. 67% , 33. 33% , 43.48% , group C and B group was significantly higher than the group A (P<0.05). Group C survival rate (45.2%) was significantly higher than the group A (5. 7% ) andB(11.2%) (respectively P <0. 01, P < 0. 05); group B and group C was significantly shorter recovery time of spontaneous circulation in the group A ( respectively, P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion During cardiopulmonary resuscitation combined vasopressin and epinephrine compared with epinephrine alone significantly improve restoration of spontaneous circulation and survival rates, shortened the recovery time of spontaneous circulation, especially in high-dose vasopressin as a significant co-epinephrine.%目的 研究血管加压素联合肾上腺素的应用在心肺复苏中的疗效.方法 216例心跳骤停患者,随机分成3组:肾上腺素标准剂量组(A组)75例;血管加压素(小剂量)+肾上腺素(B组)72例;血管加压素(大剂量)+肾上腺索(C组)69例,各组分别观察自主循环恢复率、存活率、自主循环恢复时间.各组在应用复苏药物的同时,均持续胸外心脏按压、气管插管机械通气,持续心电、血压监测、出现室颤予以电除颤.结果 A组、B组、C

  19. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, C L; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Linneberg, A;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the putative associations of plasma copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin and a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, with obesity-related health problems, such as hyperlipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia, high blood pressure and an android fat...... distribution. METHODS: In 103 obese men (mean age ± standard deviation: 49.4 ± 10.2 years) and 27 normal weight control men (mean age: 51.5 ± 8.4 years), taking no medication, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of copeptin, lipids, glucose and insulin, and determined body...... composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. RESULTS: The obese men had higher [median (interquartile range)] plasma copeptin concentrations [6.6 (4.6-9.5) vs. 4.9 (3.5-6.8) pmol/l, P = 0.040] compared with the normal weight men. In the obese men, plasma copeptin was not related to 24-h systolic...

  20. Hyponatremia and brain injury: absence of alterations of serum brain natriuretic peptide and vasopressin Hiponatremia e traumatismo cranioencefálico: ausência de alteração sanguínea do peptídeo natriurético cerebral e hormônio antidiurético

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Nascimento Costa; Helen Mayumi Nakamura; Leonardo Rodrigues da Cruz; Lucas Sampaio Valente Fernandes de Miranda; Rubens Carneiro dos Santos-Neto; Susyanne Lavor Cosme; Luiz Augusto Casulari

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study any possible relation between hyponatremia following brain injury and the presence of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) or the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and if vasopressin, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and aldosterone have a role in its mechanism. METHOD: Patients with brain injury admitted to the intensive care unit were included and had their BNP, aldosterone and vasopressin levels dosed on day 7. RESULTS: Twenty six adul...