WorldWideScience

Sample records for central v4 receptive

  1. V4 receptive field dynamics as predicted by a systems-level model of visual attention using feedback from the frontal eye field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamker, Fred H; Zirnsak, Marc

    2006-11-01

    Visual attention is generally considered to facilitate the processing of the attended stimulus. Its mechanisms, however, are still under debate. We have developed a systems-level model of visual attention which predicts that attentive effects emerge by the interactions between different brain areas. Recent physiological studies have provided evidence that attention also alters the receptive field structure. For example, V4 receptive fields typically shrink and shift towards the saccade target around saccade onset. We show that receptive field dynamics are inherently predicted by the mechanism of feedback in our model. According to the model an oculomotor feedback signal from an area involved in the competition for the saccade target location, e.g. the frontal eye field, enhances the gain of V4 cells. V4 receptive field dynamics can be observed after pooling the gain modulated responses to obtain a certain degree of spatial invariance. The time course of the receptive field dynamics in the model resemble those obtained from macaque V4.

  2. Energy mix in Central European countries of the V4 group: The quest for stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicek, Frantisek; Smitkova, Miroslava; Kubica, Juraj

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the development of the energy mix in the countries of the V4 region (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). Trends over the past two decades are summarised and critically examined but mainly possible energy scenarios by 2030 are presented. Based on existing scenarios for the V4 countries, the impacts are assessed of potential developments for various ratios between domestic and imported fossil fuels, nuclear sources and RES. The analysis spans the development in energy intensity of the national economies, structural changes in energy consumption in various areas in view of the liberalisation of energy markets.

  3. Central sensitization in spinal cord injured humans assessed by reflex receptive fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biurrun Manresa, José Alberto; Finnerup, Nanna Susanne Brix; Johannesen, Inger Lauge

    2014-01-01

    . Moreover, the topography of the RRF sensitivity and probability areas were significantly different in SCI volunteers compared to NI volunteers in terms of size and shape. CONCLUSIONS: SCI volunteers can develop central sensitization, despite adaptive/maladaptive changes in synaptic plasticity and lack...... of supraspinal control. SIGNIFICANCE: Protective plastic mechanisms may still be functional in SCI volunteers....

  4. Beyond Reception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book argues that it is time to rethink reception as a traditional paradigm for understanding the relation between the ancient Greco-Roman traditions and early Judaism and Christianity. The concept of reception implies taking something from one fixed box into another, often a chronological la...

  5. Teacher receptivity to a system-wide change in a centralized education system: a Rasch measurement model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, R F

    1999-01-01

    The Education Department of Western Australia has implemented a new system called Student Outcome Statements, by trial in 1995/1996, then an a voluntary basis from 1997, with the intention of making it mandatory after 2001. The system describes, in order, the outcomes that students are expected to achieve in eight broad learning areas. The study has three aims. One, to create a scale for teacher receptivity to the use of Student Outcome Statements, based on eight orientations to receptivity: evaluative attitudes, behavior intentions, feelings towards Student Outcome Statements compared to the previous system, the benefits of the new system, support from significant others, alleviation of concerns, collaboration with other teachers, and involvement in decision-making. Two, to analyze the psychometric properties of the scale using the Extended Logistic Model of Rasch (Andrich, 1988; Rasch, 1960/1980) with the computer program RUMM (Andrich, Sheridan & Luo, 1997). Three, to provide advice to decision-makers about how better to implement the system of Student Outcome Statements.

  6. Local field potentials reflect multiple spatial scales in V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineault, Patrick J; Zanos, Theodoros P; Pack, Christopher C

    2013-01-01

    Local field potentials (LFP) reflect the properties of neuronal circuits or columns recorded in a volume around a microelectrode (Buzsáki et al., 2012). The extent of this integration volume has been a subject of some debate, with estimates ranging from a few hundred microns (Katzner et al., 2009; Xing et al., 2009) to several millimeters (Kreiman et al., 2006). We estimated receptive fields (RFs) of multi-unit activity (MUA) and LFPs at an intermediate level of visual processing, in area V4 of two macaques. The spatial structure of LFP receptive fields varied greatly as a function of time lag following stimulus onset, with the retinotopy of LFPs matching that of MUAs at a restricted set of time lags. A model-based analysis of the LFPs allowed us to recover two distinct stimulus-triggered components: an MUA-like retinotopic component that originated in a small volume around the microelectrodes (~350 μm), and a second component that was shared across the entire V4 region; this second component had tuning properties unrelated to those of the MUAs. Our results suggest that the LFP reflects neural activity across multiple spatial scales, which both complicates its interpretation and offers new opportunities for investigating the large-scale structure of network processing.

  7. RECEPTION OF DERBYSHIRE PRINCIPLE RELATING TO SUIT FOR DEFAMATION BY CENTRAL OR LOCAL GOVERNMENT BODIES: THE AMBIVALENCE OF MALAYSIAN JUDICIARY

    OpenAIRE

    Haji Yaakob, Adnan; Shair Mohamed, Mohd Akram; Ali Mohamed, Ashgar Ali

    2017-01-01

    The defamation rule applies to all plaintiffs regardless of theirnature, including cooperation.  However,an important dent to this rule was made in the seminal case of Derbyshire CountyCouncil v Times Newspapers Ltdand others[1993] AC 534, by the United Kingdom House of Lordsthat on the grounds of public interest in the freedom of expression, the courtswill not allow free speech to be fettered, by permitting government bodies,whether local or central, to sue for libel. Essentially, the Derbys...

  8. Genome Sequence of Serratia plymuthica V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleto, S; Van der Auwera, G; Almeida, C; Vieira, M J; Vlamakis, H; Kolter, R

    2014-05-15

    Serratia spp. are gammaproteobacteria and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we announce the genome sequence of Serratia plymuthica strain V4, which produces the siderophore serratiochelin and antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2014 Cleto et al.

  9. Receptivity and judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Nedelsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Both judgment and receptivity are important to optimal politics, and both are important to each other. In making this argument, I use an Arendtian conception of judgment and take mindfulness as an example of receptivity. I argue that receptivity offers a needed dimension to addressing the puzzles of what makes Arendtian judgment possible, and that judgment provides a necessary complement to receptivity for action in the world. Exploring this complementary relation between judgment and receptivity also reveals a surprising similarity between what each offers to the practice of politics, in particular to freedom and the possibility of transformation. At the same time, I argue, these important contributions to politics are best understood and realized if judgment and receptivity are thought of as distinct forms of relating to the world.

  10. Receptive processer og IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Lone

    2002-01-01

    Sproglæringsteoretisk værktøj til udvikling af IT-støttede materialer og programmer inden for sproglig reception......Sproglæringsteoretisk værktøj til udvikling af IT-støttede materialer og programmer inden for sproglig reception...

  11. Natural textures classification in area V4 of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcizet, F; Jouffrais, C; Girard, P

    2008-07-01

    Natural texture of an object is an important cue for recognition. In real conditions, the incidence angle of light on natural textures leads to a complex pattern of micro-shading that modifies 3D rendering of surfaces. Little is known about visual processing of material properties. The present work aims to study the coding of natural textures by the neurons of area V4 of the awake macaque monkey. We used patches of natural textures issued from the CURET database and illuminated with two or three different angles with their corresponding controls (scrambled Fourier phase). We recorded the responses of V4 neurons to stimuli flashed in their receptive fields (RFs) while the macaques performed a simple fixation task. We show that a large majority of V4 neurons responded to texture patches with a strong modulation across stimuli. The analysis of those responses indicate that V4 neurons integrate first and second order parameters in the image (mean luminance, SNR, and energy), which may be used to achieve texture clustering in a multidimensional space. This clustering was comparable to that of a pyramid of Gabor filters and was not affected by illumination angles. Altogether, these results suggest that the V4 neuronal population acts as a set of filters able to classify textures independently of illumination angle. We conclude that area V4 contains mechanisms that are sensitive to the aspect of textured surfaces, even in an environment where illumination changes continuously.

  12. The Reception Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a paradigm for science education research. The paradigm advances the reception learning theory, where regularities to be learned are presented explicitly to the learner. A tool for the study of knowledge production in science education, the Gowin "V," is presented. (RE)

  13. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four

  14. Reception Shop Special Stand

    CERN Multimedia

    Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

    2004-01-01

    Friday 15.10.2004 CERN 50th Anniversary articles will be sold in the Main Building, ground floor on Friday 15th October from 10h00 to 16h00. T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- K-way (M, L, XL) 20.- Silk tie (2 models) 30.- Einstein tie 45.- Umbrella 20.- Caran d'Ache pen 5.- 50th Anniversary Pen 5.- Kit of Cartoon Album & Crayons 10.- All the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC

  15. V4 shape features for contour representation and object detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui; Dong, Zheng; Wang, Luping

    2018-01-01

    Cortical area V4 lies in the middle of the visual pathway involved with object recognition. Neurons in V4 selectively respond to different curve fragments along the object contour. In this paper, we propose a computational model that captures the shape features extracted by V4 neurons. The computational model emulated the information processing mechanism in the visual cortex. It extracted curve segments that V4 neurons respond to and quantitatively represented features of the curve segments. The proposed V4 shape features could describe object contours accurately and efficiently. With quantitative evaluation using the MPEG7 shape dataset, we showed that complex shapes could be represented with a very limited number of V4 shape features. Based on V4 features, we further developed a self-organizing map neural network to learn object shape models. The shape model was defined by a group of V4 features with constraints on their spatial relationships. The model was evaluated in object detection experiments using ETHZ objects and INRIA horses datasets. The proposed model could learn to recognize objects by shapes and accurately outline the object contour in the images. Thus, this model provides insight into the neural mechanisms of shape-based object recognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human V4 and ventral occipital retinotopic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The ventral surface of the human occipital lobe contains multiple retinotopic maps. The most posterior of these maps is considered a potential homolog of macaque V4, and referred to as human V4 (‘hV4’). The location of the hV4 map, its retinotopic organization, its role in visual encoding, and the cortical areas it borders have been the subject of considerable investigation and debate over the last 25 years. We review the history of this map and adjacent maps in ventral occipital cortex, and consider the different hypotheses for how these ventral occipital maps are organized. Advances in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and characterization of the nearby anatomical landmarks and functional brain areas have improved our understanding of where human V4 is and what kind of visual representations it contains. PMID:26241699

  17. Attention-dependent reductions in burstiness and action potential height in macaque area V4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily B.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Reynolds, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Attention improves the encoding of visual stimuli. One mechanism that is implicated in facilitating sensory encoding is the firing of action potentials in bursts. We tested the hypothesis that when spatial attention is directed to a stimulus, this causes an increase in burst firing to the attended stimulus. To the contrary, we found an attention-dependent reduction in burstiness among putative pyramidal neurons in macaque area V4. We accounted for this using a conductance-based Hodgkin-Huxley style model in which attentional modulation stems from scaling excitation and inhibition. The model exhibited attention-dependent increases in firing rate and made the surprising and correct prediction that when attention is directed into a neuron’s receptive field, this reduces action potential height. The model thus provided a unified explanation for three distinct forms of attentional modulation, two of them novel, and implicates scaling of the responses of excitatory and inhibitory input populations in mediating attention. PMID:23852114

  18. Reception research 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue...... on social media can help us better understand the participatory media culture that has established itself over the past decade. To properly address the question of meaning, however, reception research needs to be adapted to the current media landscape. Taking my point of departure in the multi...... (motivation, comprehension, discrimination, position, implementation) for their relevance and explanatory power in today’s media landscape, suggesting new interpretations and new formulations. A revision of reception research does not only concern the notion of reception itself, but also that of the text...

  19. V4 AND EU INREGRATION PROCESS: THE CASE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna APARINA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The assistance of V4 is a very important for Ukraine. V4 countries reiterated their readiness to assist the Ukrainian authorities in preparing a comprehensive reforms package that should be at the forefront of the new government agenda. Such package should be focused on strengthening the rule of law, the efficiency of national and local governments, the transparency of public procurement, the reduction of state regulations and the fight against corruption, as well as envisaging a self-government reform that will bring the decision making process closer to the Ukrainian people. Genuinely implemented reforms, as demonstrated by V4 countries will bring the country closer to the European Union and will contribute to achieving Ukraine’s European aspirations, which are duly noted by the V4 countries. The international conference in support of Ukraine in 2015, as well as the Riga Eastern Partnership summit of 2015 represent important milestones in this respect.

  20. Predicting Volleyball Serve-reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver’s actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones – zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver’s head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver’s on-court positioning and movement. Receivers’ initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver’s initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver’s larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers’ positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball’s kinematics (with the exception of the ball’s lateral displacement, as well as in the receivers’ positioning (distances from the net and from the target. Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball’s rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain

  1. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones—zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus

  2. [Delegates at the President's Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Neil, fl 1983-2004, photographer

    2004-01-01

    A slide showing Indira Gandhi, Indian Prime Minister and Chair of the Conference, Kenneth Kaunda, President of Zambia, and Robert and Sally Mugabe, President and First Lady of Zimbabwe, in discussion at the President's Reception.

  3. New Year’s reception

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At a reception on 28 January, the CERN management presented their best wishes for 2009 to politicians and representatives of the administrations in the local area, and diplomats representing CERN’s Member States, Observer States and other countries.

  4. Locally available grains as carriers of Newcastle Disease V4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of locally available grains as vehicles for the administration of the Australian Heat Resistant V4 vaccine. Feeds tested included millet, sunflower, crushed maize, rapoko, barley, sorghum and rice. One hundred and fifty four indigenous chickens were randomly divided ...

  5. Mechanisms for shaping receptive field in monkey area TE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Keitaro; O'Hashi, Kazunori; Tanifuji, Manabu

    2017-10-01

    Visual object information is conveyed from V1 to area TE along the ventral visual pathway with increasing receptive field (RF) sizes. The RFs of TE neurons are known to be large, but it is largely unknown how large RFs are shaped along the ventral visual pathway. In this study, we addressed this question in two aspects, static and dynamic mechanisms, by recording neural responses from macaque area TE and V4 to object stimuli presented at various locations in the visual field. As a component related to static mechanisms, we found that in area TE, but not in V4, response latency to objects presented at fovea were different from objects in periphery. As a component of the dynamic mechanisms, we examined effects of spatial attention on the RFs of TE neurons. Spatial attention did not affect response latency but modulated response magnitudes depending on attended location, shifting of the longitudinal axis of RFs toward the attended locations. In standard models of large RF formation, downstream neurons pool information from nearby RFs, and this process is repeated across the visual field and at each step along the ventral visual pathway. The present study revealed that this mechanism is not that simple: 1) different circuit mechanisms for foveal and peripheral visual fields may be situated between V4 and area TE, and 2) spatial attention dynamically changes the shape of RFs.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Receptive fields (RFs) of neurons are progressively increased along the ventral visual pathway so that an RF at the final stage, area TE, covers a large area of the visual field. We explored the mechanism and suggested involvement of parallel circuit mechanisms between V4 and TE for foveal and peripheral parts of visual field. We also found a dynamic component of RF shape formation through attentional modulation of responses in a location-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The V4: a Decade after the EU Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard NEŽINSKÝ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to give a picture of the sources of economic growth in the V4 countries during the decade following their EU entry and to crosscheck  the  results  obtained  by  parametric  and  non-parametric  approaches.  Growth accounting technique is used to depict dynamics of the V4 countries evolution since 1995 up to 2013. The poor post-crisis performance reflected in TFP indicator is in line with  the  result  of  the  absence  of  technological  progress  obtained  by  data envelopment analysis. Sources  of  the  economic  growth  are  identified  by growth  accounting  based  on  Solow-Swan  model.  Non-parametrical  part  employs  an SBM  measure  of  efficiency  in  Data  envelopment  analysis as  an application  of  linear programming optimization. Main findings include determining faster-than-average economic growth of the  V4  followed  by  a  considerable  decline  both  in  total  factor  productivity  and  in catching-up rate in the after-crisis period. DEA approach reveals excessive use of labor in all of the V4 countries and finds almost negligibletechnological change. The main concern for economic policy in the V4 as well as the entire EU continues to be tackling unemployment and facilitating factors´ productivity by structural reforms. The paper makes use of parametric and non-parametric approaches  with  a  view  to  cross-checking  the  results  obtained  on  the  technological change within the EU at large and across the V4 countries in particular.

  7. Determinants of Economic Growth in V4 Countries and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The middle and long-term slowdown in growth dynamics could bring serious social and political problems for V4 countries (Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. It would threaten reaching benefits from potential of convergence process with the developed countries of the European Union. As a result, the V4 economies and Romania should find solutions to achieving a sustainable growth that is associated with an improvement of their international competitiveness. This paper provides an empirical analysis of factors that might determine a stable economic growth in the five mentioned countries. The empirical analysis conducted for the period of 2003-2016 employed Bayesian generalized ridge regression. The main results indicated that the FDI promoted economic growth in all countries, except the Slovak Republic. Only in the Czech Republic, the expenditure on education generated economic growth, while the expenditure on R&D had positive effects in Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

  8. Rapid shape detection signals in area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Katherine F; Ghose, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Vision in foveate animals is an active process that requires rapid and constant decision-making. For example, when a new object appears in the visual field, we can quickly decide to inspect it by directing our eyes to the object's location. We studied the contribution of primate area V4 to these types of rapid foveation decisions. Animals performed a reaction time task that required them to report when any shape appeared within a peripherally-located noisy stimulus by making a saccade to the stimulus location. We found that about half of the randomly sampled V4 neurons not only rapidly and precisely represented the appearance of this shape, but they were also predictive of the animal's saccades. A neuron's ability to predict the animal's saccades was not related to the specificity with which the cell represented a single type of shape but rather to its ability to signal whether any shape was present. This relationship between sensory sensitivity and behavioral predictiveness was not due to global effects such as alertness, as it was equally likely to be observed for cells with increases and decreases in firing rate. Careful analysis of the timescales of reliability in these neurons implies that they reflect both feedforward and feedback shape detecting processes. In approximately 7% of our recorded sample, individual neurons were able to predict both the delay and precision of the animal's shape detection performance. This suggests that a subset of V4 neurons may have been directly and causally contributing to task performance and that area V4 likely plays a critical role in guiding rapid, form-based foveation decisions.

  9. Communication from Goods Reception services

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding.

  10. Mediegenre, identifikation og reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Frandsen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sætter forfatterne fokus på forholdet mellem personer, der ser på personer i tv. Udgangspunktet er receptionsanalysen og den motiva- tion for tv-sening, der er forbundet med, at tv-seere relaterer sig til og identificerer sig med personer, der optræder på tv (tv-værter, medvir- kende osv.. Med afsæt i en funktionsorienteret definition af genrebe- grebet (forskellige genrer etablerer forskellige forventninger, indlevel- ser osv. hos modtageren gennemgår forfatterne forskellige teoretiske positioner, der hver især byder på forskellige forestillinger om forholdet (medie-tekst og modtageren. Det drejer sig om psykosemiotik,kogniti- onsteori, parasocial interaktionsteori, mikrosociologisk medieteori og spilteori, som alle har et mere eller mindre eksplicit bud på, hvordan medie og modtagere etablerer relationer som en central del af medie- brugerens motivationer og oplevelser. De forskellige teorier om identi- fikation danner ifølge forfatterne et kontinuum, spændende fra teorier om den stærke indlevelse til den mere overfladiske indlevelse. Forfat- terne advokerer for en mere nuanceret brug af begrebet identifikation, til forskel fra en generel brug af begrebet, som ikke medreflekterer de forskellige teoridannelsers forskellige syn på f.eks. magtforholdet mel- lem medie og modtager, og som derfor kan have store konsekvenser for analysens resultater.

  11. Sexual conflict over floral receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankinen, Asa; Hellriegel, Barbara; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2006-12-01

    In flowering plants, the onset and duration of female receptivity vary among species. In several species the receptive structures wilt upon pollination. Here we explore the hypothesis that postpollination wilting may be influenced by pollen and serve as a general means to secure paternity of the pollen donor at the expense of female fitness. Taking a game-theoretical approach, we examine the potential for the evolution of a pollen-borne wilting substance, and for the coevolution of a defense strategy by the recipient plant. The model without defense predicts an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for the production of wilting substance. The ESS value is highest when pollinator visiting rates are intermediate and when the probability that pollen from several donors arrives at the same time is low. This finding has general implications in that it shows that male traits to secure paternity also can evolve in species, such as plants, where mating is not strictly sequential. We further model coevolution of the wilting substance with the timing of stigma receptivity. We assume that pollen-receiving plants can reduce the costs induced by toxic pollen by delaying the onset of stigmatic receptivity. The model predicts a joint ESS, but no female counter-adaptation when the wilting substance is highly toxic. This indicates that toxicity affects the probability that a male manipulative trait stays beneficial (i.e., not countered by female defense) over evolutionary time. We discuss parallels to male induced changes in female receptivity known to occur in animals and the role of harm for the evolution of male manipulative adaptations.

  12. Receptiveness and humanization from the perspective of anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria de Fátima Oliveira dos; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; Oliveira, Harison José de

    2012-01-01

    Receptiveness is a tool that brings contributions for health care humanization, especially with regard to its practice in the field of Anesthesiology. The aim was to investigate through the report of anesthesiologists the understanding of the receptiveness phenomenon among these professionals. This is a descriptive qualitative research held at the Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley (HULW), in the city of João Pessoa, PB. The sample consisted of 16 attending anesthesiologists, 25% female doctors and 75% male doctors. Data were collected through interviews guided by two semi-structured questions from September to October 2010. Data analysis was performed using the technique of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD). The anesthesiologists' answer to the following question was considered as this study's result: "What do you think about the practice of receptiveness as a strategy to humanize the doctor-patient relationship?" The doctors' CSD presented two central ideas: 1) a holistic approach to the patient; 2) a strategy that improves the doctor-patient relationship. When asked about the strategies adopted by them to humanize the relationship with the patient at the time of reception, their reports were organized based on three central ideas: 1) observation of patients' rights; 2) therapeutic communication; 3) preanesthetic visit. It was found that the physicians involved in the research recognized the value of receptiveness as a strategy to humanize the doctor-patient relationship. The receptivity to the patient in the course of anesthesia is very important because it allows the professional to perform a qualified hearing of the patient's history, together with the humanized care process, which enables the improvement of the interaction between doctor and patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. High temperature tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Stevens, C.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on V-4Cr-4Ti at 750 and 800 C in order to extend the data base beyond the current limit of 700 C. From comparison with previous measurements, the yield strength is nearly constant and tensile elongations decrease slightly with increasing temperature between 300 and 800 C. The ultimate strength exhibits an apparent maximum near 600 C (attributable to dynamic strain aging) but adequate strength is maintained up to 800 C. The reduction in area measured on tensile specimens remained high ({approximately}80%) for test temperatures up to 800 C, in contrast to previous reported results.

  14. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...

  15. Population coding in area V4 during rapid shape detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    While previous studies have suggested that neuronal correlations are common in visual cortex over a range of timescales, the effect of correlations on rapid visually based decisions has received little attention. We trained Macaca mulatta to saccade to a peripherally presented shape embedded in dynamic noise as soon as the shape appeared. While the monkeys performed the task, we recorded from neuronal populations (5–29 cells) using a microelectrode array implanted in area V4, a visual area thought to be involved in form perception. While modest correlations were present between cells during visual stimulation, their magnitude did not change significantly subsequent to the appearance of a shape. We quantified the reliability and temporal precision with which neuronal populations signaled the appearance of the shape and predicted the animals' choices using mutual information analyses. To study the impact of correlations, we shuffled the activity from each cell across observations while retaining stimulus-dependent modulations in firing rate. We found that removing correlations by shuffling across trials minimally affected the reliability or timing with which pairs, or larger groups of cells, signaled the presence of a shape. To assess the downstream impact of correlations, we also studied how shuffling affected the ability of V4 populations to predict behavioral choices. Surprisingly, shuffling created a modest increase in the accuracy of such predictions, suggesting that the reliability of downstream neurons is slightly compromised by activity correlations. Our findings are consistent with neuronal correlations having a minimal effect on the reliability and timing of rapid perceptual decisions. PMID:25787961

  16. Shal/K(v4 channels are required for maintaining excitability during repetitive firing and normal locomotion in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic behaviors, such as walking and breathing, involve the coordinated activity of central pattern generators in the CNS, sensory feedback from the PNS, to motoneuron output to muscles. Unraveling the intrinsic electrical properties of these cellular components is essential to understanding this coordinated activity. Here, we examine the significance of the transient A-type K(+ current (I(A, encoded by the highly conserved Shal/K(v4 gene, in neuronal firing patterns and repetitive behaviors. While I(A is present in nearly all neurons across species, elimination of I(A has been complicated in mammals because of multiple genes underlying I(A, and/or electrical remodeling that occurs in response to affecting one gene.In Drosophila, the single Shal/K(v4 gene encodes the predominant I(A current in many neuronal cell bodies. Using a transgenically expressed dominant-negative subunit (DNK(v4, we show that I(A is completely eliminated from cell bodies, with no effect on other currents. Most notably, DNK(v4 neurons display multiple defects during prolonged stimuli. DNK(v4 neurons display shortened latency to firing, a lower threshold for repetitive firing, and a progressive decrement in AP amplitude to an adapted state. We record from identified motoneurons and show that Shal/K(v4 channels are similarly required for maintaining excitability during repetitive firing. We then examine larval crawling, and adult climbing and grooming, all behaviors that rely on repetitive firing. We show that all are defective in the absence of Shal/K(v4 function. Further, knock-out of Shal/K(v4 function specifically in motoneurons significantly affects the locomotion behaviors tested.Based on our results, Shal/K(v4 channels regulate the initiation of firing, enable neurons to continuously fire throughout a prolonged stimulus, and also influence firing frequency. This study shows that Shal/K(v4 channels play a key role in repetitively firing neurons during prolonged

  17. Electronic properties of GaV4S8: A percolation approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two polycrystalline V4-cluster compounds of GaV4S8 were prepared at different an- nealing temperatures (GaV4S8-1 sintered at 800. ◦. C and GaV4S8-2 sintered at 500 ... This statement is strongly supported by the calculated band- width per cluster in GaV4S8 (∼0.342 eV in GaV4S8-1 and ∼0.374 eV in GaV4S8-2).

  18. Bayesian population receptive field modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Peter; Silson, Edward Harry; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel; Baker, Chris Ian; Penny, Will

    2017-09-08

    We introduce a probabilistic (Bayesian) framework and associated software toolbox for mapping population receptive fields (pRFs) based on fMRI data. This generic approach is intended to work with stimuli of any dimension and is demonstrated and validated in the context of 2D retinotopic mapping. The framework enables the experimenter to specify generative (encoding) models of fMRI timeseries, in which experimental stimuli enter a pRF model of neural activity, which in turns drives a nonlinear model of neurovascular coupling and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) response. The neuronal and haemodynamic parameters are estimated together on a voxel-by-voxel or region-of-interest basis using a Bayesian estimation algorithm (variational Laplace). This offers several novel contributions to receptive field modelling. The variance/covariance of parameters are estimated, enabling receptive fields to be plotted while properly representing uncertainty about pRF size and location. Variability in the haemodynamic response across the brain is accounted for. Furthermore, the framework introduces formal hypothesis testing to pRF analysis, enabling competing models to be evaluated based on their log model evidence (approximated by the variational free energy), which represents the optimal tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Using simulations and empirical data, we found that parameters typically used to represent pRF size and neuronal scaling are strongly correlated, which is taken into account by the Bayesian methods we describe when making inferences. We used the framework to compare the evidence for six variants of pRF model using 7 T functional MRI data and we found a circular Difference of Gaussians (DoG) model to be the best explanation for our data overall. We hope this framework will prove useful for mapping stimulus spaces with any number of dimensions onto the anatomy of the brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Online Object Monitoring With Go4 V4.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Essel, H. G.; Linev, S.

    2011-08-01

    Full data analysis is often necessary for monitoring complex nuclear and atomic physics experiments. This analysis program should run continuously getting data directly from the data acquisition to provide information with low latency. Several visualization and control clients, typically graphical user inter faces (GUI), should be able to inspect the results from the analysis, mostly histograms, but also other objects like parameters. It should be possible for the clients to get updates of selected data continuously without blocking user actions. The Go4 analysis framework developed at GSI provides this functionality. A Go4 analysis program may run in a server mode under control of a non-blocking GUI. Analysis and GUI run in separate tasks, optionally on different nodes. In dedicated threads they can send/receive objects asynchronously via TCP connections. Additional distributed viewers (GUIs) may connect to the same analysis. The Go4 framework is based on the analysis package ROOT developed at CERN. Data channels to the experiment specific data acquisition are implemented as data source classes (plug-ins). The GUI is implemented using the cross-platform GUI framework Qt, version 4, embedding the full ROOT graphics. User written GUIs can be attached. ROOT macros can be executed in the analysis or GUI context, respectively. Complex fits can be performed interactively by a powerful fit package. Go4 v4 runs on Linux, Solaris, Windows (XP, 7) and MacOS. Cross platform connections between G04 environments are possible. Go4 runs in production for several years mainly in the nuclear and atomic physics fields.

  20. Electronic properties of GaV4S8: A percolation approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two polycrystalline V4-cluster compounds of GaV4S8 were prepared at different annealing temperatures (GaV4S8-1 sintered at 800°C and GaV4S8-2 sintered at 500°C). Their temperature-dependent resistivity and structural phase transformation temperature (45 K for GaV4S8-1 and 43K for GaV4S8-2) are found to be very ...

  1. THE AUDIT OF RECEPTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina MOCUŢA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study case is to analyze the quality of the logistics department, focusing on the audit process. Purpose of this paper is to present the advantages resulting from the systematic audit processes and methods of analysis and improvement of nonconformities found. The case study is realised at SC Miele Tehnica SRL Brasov, twelfth production line, and the fourth from outside Germany. The specific objectives are: clarifying the concept of audit quality, emphasizing requirements ISO 19011:2003 "Guidelines for auditing quality management systems and / or environment" on audits; cchieving quality audit and performance analysis; improved process performance reception materials; compliance with legislation and auditing standards applicable in EU and Romania.

  2. Note from the Goods Reception services

    CERN Document Server

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Goods Reception Services

  3. Invocation Receptivity in Female of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females  (40.63 %.  Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.

  4. Profiles of Birch Sensitization (Bet v 1, Bet v 2, and Bet v 4) and Oral Allergy Syndrome Across Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprandi, G; Comite, P; Mussap, M; De Amici, M; Quaglini, S; Barocci, F; Marseglia, G L; Scala, E

    2016-01-01

    Birch allergy (BA) is a common pollinosis caused by the allergens Bet v 1, Bet v 2, and Bet v 4. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is frequently associated with BA. A gradient of sensitization to birch allergen across Europe has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the birch sensitization profile, including OAS, across Italy. We performed a retrospective study of 854 patients (391 males, mean age 35.9 years, range 18-93 years): 196 patients were recruited in Genoa, 188 in northern Italy, 359 in central Italy, and 111 in southern Italy. Serum IgE to Bet v 1, Bet v 2, and Bet v 4 was assessed, and OAS was analyzed. With respect to the geographical path Genoa-North-Center-South, the frequency of sensitization to Bet v 1 decreased significantly (PItaly (58.56%). The frequency of sensitization to Bet v 2 increased significantly (PItaly (52.25%). The frequency of Bet v 4 also increased significantly (P=.0002) from Genoa (6.12%) to southern Italy (14.41%). The distribution of patients with OAS differed significantly across the areas (PItaly. The frequency of birch allergens correlated with OAS in central Italy only. The present study demonstrated a significant difference between sensitization to birch and its clinical expression across Italy.

  5. Opportunities for Doing Business with Countries Neighbouring V4 – The Case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gálová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective is to present the business environment of Ukraine in terms of the possible association with the EU or joining the Customs Union, with expectations  for  V4  countries,  regarding  trade  relations,  potential  business opportunities and barriers. Research Design&Methods: The paper is discussing the opinions of researchers, current  trade  indicators,  information  from  managed  interviews,  completed  with some statistical data. Using qualitative methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison and deduction the knowledge is summarized and limitations concluded. Findings: As the main finding we can conclude the fact that the value of mutual trade between V4 and Ukraine shall continue to grow, with limitation due to the EU common trade policy and trade barriers. Implications&Recommendations: By  signing  the  Association Agreement  in November 2013, the EU was to become the main trade partner for Ukraine. Not signing it resulted in protests and political instability, with difficulties in predictions of mutual (trade relations. Nevertheless, preserving close trade links with Russia as well as deepening those with the EU is equally essential for Ukraine. Contribution&ValueAdded:The  paper  presents  rather  a  unique  topic  of  the cooperation of businesses within the Eastern Partnership of the European Union. The  emerging  markets  of  the  Eastern  European  Countries  (EECs  offer  a  lot  of opportunities from European businesses, especially these from Central Europe.

  6. Blue-light reception through quaternary transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Engelhard; Ralph P Diensthuber; Andreas Möglich; Robert Bittl

    2017-01-01

    .... Using electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectroscopy and site-directed spin labelling, we chart the structural transitions facilitating blue-light reception in the engineered light-oxygen-voltage (LOV...

  7. Receptive field inference with localized priors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijung Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The linear receptive field describes a mapping from sensory stimuli to a one-dimensional variable governing a neuron's spike response. However, traditional receptive field estimators such as the spike-triggered average converge slowly and often require large amounts of data. Bayesian methods seek to overcome this problem by biasing estimates towards solutions that are more likely a priori, typically those with small, smooth, or sparse coefficients. Here we introduce a novel Bayesian receptive field estimator designed to incorporate locality, a powerful form of prior information about receptive field structure. The key to our approach is a hierarchical receptive field model that flexibly adapts to localized structure in both spacetime and spatiotemporal frequency, using an inference method known as empirical Bayes. We refer to our method as automatic locality determination (ALD, and show that it can accurately recover various types of smooth, sparse, and localized receptive fields. We apply ALD to neural data from retinal ganglion cells and V1 simple cells, and find it achieves error rates several times lower than standard estimators. Thus, estimates of comparable accuracy can be achieved with substantially less data. Finally, we introduce a computationally efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm for fully Bayesian inference under the ALD prior, yielding accurate Bayesian confidence intervals for small or noisy datasets.

  8. Polaronic Effect on Electrical Conductivity and Thermoelectric Power in Ga(Cu)V4S8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, I.

    2018-01-01

    Polycrystalline V4-cluster compounds of GaV4S8 and its derivatives Ga0.90 Cu0.10V4S8 and Ga0.90Cu0.20V4S8 have been prepared at 800°C by solid-state reaction method. Although the cubic-rhombohedral phase transformation at 45 K was found to be absent in the derivatives of GaV4S8, low-temperature hopping conduction occurred in all the materials. In the present context, we explain the conduction mechanism for all the materials using polaron theory. The polaron size was found to be large above 260 K but small below 260 K in GaV4S8, as confirmed by the Seebeck coefficient. From the activation energies and polaron size, the anomaly at 260 K is interpreted as associated with crossover from thermally activated to nearest-neighbor hopping upon cooling.

  9. A computational theory of visual receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Tony

    2013-12-01

    A receptive field constitutes a region in the visual field where a visual cell or a visual operator responds to visual stimuli. This paper presents a theory for what types of receptive field profiles can be regarded as natural for an idealized vision system, given a set of structural requirements on the first stages of visual processing that reflect symmetry properties of the surrounding world. These symmetry properties include (i) covariance properties under scale changes, affine image deformations, and Galilean transformations of space-time as occur for real-world image data as well as specific requirements of (ii) temporal causality implying that the future cannot be accessed and (iii) a time-recursive updating mechanism of a limited temporal buffer of the past as is necessary for a genuine real-time system. Fundamental structural requirements are also imposed to ensure (iv) mutual consistency and a proper handling of internal representations at different spatial and temporal scales. It is shown how a set of families of idealized receptive field profiles can be derived by necessity regarding spatial, spatio-chromatic, and spatio-temporal receptive fields in terms of Gaussian kernels, Gaussian derivatives, or closely related operators. Such image filters have been successfully used as a basis for expressing a large number of visual operations in computer vision, regarding feature detection, feature classification, motion estimation, object recognition, spatio-temporal recognition, and shape estimation. Hence, the associated so-called scale-space theory constitutes a both theoretically well-founded and general framework for expressing visual operations. There are very close similarities between receptive field profiles predicted from this scale-space theory and receptive field profiles found by cell recordings in biological vision. Among the family of receptive field profiles derived by necessity from the assumptions, idealized models with very good qualitative

  10. Experimental trials with V 4 HR and LaSota Newcastle disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental trials with V 4 HR and LaSota Newcastle disease virus vaccines administered to chicks via eye drop, drinking water and commercial feed Essais experimentaux avec des vaccins V 4 HR et LaSota contre le virus de la maladie de newcastle administres a ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa.

  11. Developing a Vocabulary Size Test Measuring Two Aspects of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge: Visual versus Aural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kazumi; Iso, Tatsuo; Nadasdy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Testing learners' English proficiency is central to university English classes in Japan. This study developed and implemented a set of parallel online receptive aural and visual vocabulary tests that would predict learners' English proficiency. The tests shared the same target words and choices--the main difference was the presentation of the…

  12. Optical conductivity in multiferroic GaV4S8 and GeV4S8 : Phonons and electronic transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, S.; Mayr, F.; Wang, Zhe; Lunkenheimer, P.; Li, Weiwu; Szaller, D.; Bordács, S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on optical spectroscopy on the lacunar spinels GaV4S8 and GeV4S8 in the spectral range from 100 to 23 000 cm-1 and for temperatures from 5 to 300 K. These multiferroic spinel systems reveal Jahn-Teller driven ferroelectricity and complex magnetic order at low temperatures. We study the infrared-active phonon modes and the low-lying electronic excitations in the cubic high-temperature phase, as well as in the orbitally and in the magnetically ordered low-temperature phases. We compare the phonon modes in these two compounds, which undergo different symmetry-lowering Jahn-Teller transitions into ferroelectric and orbitally ordered phases, and exhibit different magnetic ground states. We follow the splitting of the phonon modes at the structural phase transition and detect additional splittings at the onset of antiferromagnetic order in GeV4S8 . We observe electronic transitions within the d -derived bands of the V4 clusters and document a significant influence of the structural and magnetic phase transitions on the narrow electronic band gaps.

  13. Immune ontogeny and engraftment receptivity in the sheep fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopal-Chase, Jessica L; Pixley, John S; Torabi, Alireza; Cenariu, Mihai C; Bhat, Anupama; Thain, David S; Frederick, Nicole M; Groza, Daria M; Zanjani, Esmail D

    2009-01-01

    The biologic explanation for fetal receptivity to donor engraftment and subsequent long-term tolerance following transplantation early in gestation is not known. We investigated the role fetal immune ontogeny might play in fetal transplantation tolerance in sheep. Engraftment of allogeneic and xenogeneic HSC was determined 60 days following transplantation at different time points in sheep fetal gestation. Parallel analysis of surface differentiation antigen expression on cells from lymphoid organs of timed gestational age fetal sheep was determined by flow cytometry using available reagents. An engraftment window was identified after day 52 gestation lasting until day 71 (term gestation: 145 days). This period was associated with the expression of the leukocyte common antigen CD45 on all cells in the thymus. Double-positive and single-positive CD4 and CD8 cells began appearing in the thymus just prior (day 45 gestation) to the beginning of the engraftment window, while single-positive CD4 or CD8 cells do not begin appearing in peripheral organs until late in the engraftment period, suggesting deletional mechanisms may be operative. In concert, surface IgM-positive cells express CD45 in the thymus at day 45, with a comparable delay in the appearance of IgM/CD45 cells in the periphery until late in the engraftment window. These findings support a central role for the thymus in multilineage immune cell maturation during the period of fetal transplantation receptivity. Further, they suggest that fetal engraftment receptivity is due to gestational age-dependent deletional tolerance. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Busch, D.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The current focus of the U.S program of research on V-base alloys is on V-(4-5)Cr(4-5)Ti that contains 500-1000 wppm Si. in this paper, we present experimental results on baseline tensile properties of two laboratory-scale heats of this alloy and of a 500-kg production heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat 832665) that were measured at 23-700 C. Both the production- and laboratory scale heats of the reference alloy V-4Cr-4Ti exhibited excellent tensile properties at temperatures up to {approx}650{degrees}C.

  15. The politics, science, and art of receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Beausoleil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With so much attention on the issue of voice in democratic theory, the inverse question of how people come to listen remains a marginal one. Recent scholarship in affect and neuroscience reveals that cognitive and verbal strategies, while privileged in democratic politics, are often insufficient to cultivate the receptivity that constitutes the most basic premise of democratic encounters. This article draws on this scholarship and a recent case of forum theatre to examine the conditions of receptivity and responsiveness, and identify specific strategies that foster such conditions. It argues that the forms of encounter most effective in cultivating receptivity are those that move us via affective intensity within pointedly mediated contexts. It is this constellation of strategies—this strange marriage of immersion and mediation—that enabled this performance to surface latent memory, affect and bias, unsettle entrenched patterns of thought and behaviour, and provide the conditions for revisability. This case makes clear that to lie beyond the domain of cognitive and verbal processes is not to lie beyond potential intervention, and offers insight to how such receptivity might be achieved in political processes more broadly.

  16. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. ..... language through in-class reading and conversation tasks which totalled 75 hours. The .... 4 Readers are referred to Wray (2002) and Barfield and Gyllstad (2009) for more details on how to teach collocations.

  17. The reception of relativity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Besouw, J.; van Dongen, J.; Maas, A.; Schatz, H.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the early academic and public reception of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity in the Netherlands, particularly after Arthur Eddington's eclipse experiments of 1919. Initially, not much attention was given to relativity, as it did not seem an improvement over Hendrik A.

  18. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  19. Magnetoencephalography reveals early activation of V4 in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, D; Hubbard, E M; Coulson, S; Huang, M; Ramachandran, V S

    2010-10-15

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes) consistently evoke particular colors (e.g. A may be experienced as red). The cross-activation theory proposes that synesthesia arises as a result of cross-activation between posterior temporal grapheme areas (PTGA) and color processing area V4, while the disinhibited feedback theory proposes that synesthesia arises from disinhibition of pre-existing feedback connections. Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to test whether V4 and PTGA activate nearly simultaneously, as predicted by the cross-activation theory, or whether V4 activation occurs only after the initial stages of grapheme processing, as predicted by the disinhibited feedback theory. Using our high-resolution MEG source imaging technique (VESTAL), PTGA and V4 regions of interest (ROIs) were separately defined, and activity in response to the presentation of achromatic graphemes was measured. Activation levels in PTGA did not significantly differ between synesthetes and controls (suggesting similar grapheme processing mechanisms), whereas activation in V4 was significantly greater in synesthetes. In synesthetes, PTGA activation exceeded baseline levels beginning 105-109ms, and V4 activation did so 5ms later, suggesting nearly simultaneous activation of these areas. Results are discussed in the context of an updated version of the cross-activation model, the cascaded cross-tuning model of grapheme-color synesthesia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Sizes of L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between receptive and productive vocabulary size. The experimental design expanded upon earlier methodologies by using equivalent receptive and productive test formats with different receptive and productive target words to provide more accurate results. Translation tests were scored at two levels of…

  1. The networked reception of transmedial universes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosca, Susana; Klastrup, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    qualitative and quantitative studies. We argue that mapping user experience requires a sophisticated and holistic analytical approach - particularly, due to the popularity of social media platforms. We conclude the article by developing the concept of "networked reception" to characterize new kinds...... of transmedial world experience afforded by social media, which allow users to distribute and communicate not only the content of media texts but also their own experience and reception of transmedial world “texts”.......Building upon ten years of empirical work, this paper reflects on how to study increasingly complex user engagement with transmedial worlds. We examine our own analytical evolution from an initial aesthetic orientation to our current effort to incorporate the user´s own perspective through...

  2. Healthy viewing: the reception of medical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Solange

    2003-09-01

    This paper draws on two reception studies. One focuses on an American medical drama which respondents perceived as entertainment but also as a reliable source of information from which they collected medical and social data by using emotional and ludic strategies. The second compares parallel illness narratives in a soap opera and a documentary. Soap operas were described by informants as good pedagogic tools because they attracted large audiences and promoted identification and repetition which enhance learning. On the other hand, they criticised the documentary for being incomplete and artificial. The conclusion argues that viewers are media-literate, astute and insightful. They produce sophisticated, subtle interpretations which cannot be predicted by content analyses of programmes alone. More reception research is therefore needed, particularly since television is increasingly omnipresent and provides a considerable portion of the public's medical knowledge.

  3. Prediction of turning stability using receptance coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiewicz, Marcin; Powałka, Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an issue of machining stability prediction of dynamic "lathe - workpiece" system evaluated using receptance coupling method. Dynamic properties of the lathe components (the spindle and the tailstock) are assumed to be constant and can be determined experimentally based on the results of the impact test. Hence, the variable of the system "machine tool - holder - workpiece" is the machined part, which can be easily modelled analytically. The method of receptance coupling enables a synthesis of experimental (spindle, tailstock) and analytical (machined part) models, so impact testing of the entire system becomes unnecessary. The paper presents methodology of analytical and experimental models synthesis, evaluation of the stability lobes and experimental validation procedure involving both the determination of the dynamic properties of the system and cutting tests. In the summary the experimental verification results would be presented and discussed.

  4. Online Movie Trailers - A Reception Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Frida Videbæk; Rozé, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This project is a reception analysis of how a target group receive online movie trailers. It utilized a focus group as means of research with participants from the dormitories Kollibrien and Korallen. We concluded that the group we investigated were not interested in online movie trailers as anything else than a preview of a movie. They preferred to experience movie trailers in the cinema. Their opinion of specific movie trailers were also determined by whether or not they identified with the...

  5. Czech children's literature reception in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Starc, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This master’s degree thesis introduces the historical background of the Czech nation and the cultural contacts between Slovenes and Czechs. It outlines the development of the Czech young adult literature. In the thesis is qualitatively and quantitatively researched the reception of the Czech young adult literature. With a qualitative research it has been discovered how many young adult books have been translated from Czech into Slovene language, how many in different periods and which lit...

  6. Non-visual reception in sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Lautar, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis I explore the potential of non-visual components of sculptural artworks. For that purpose I define reception and perception. I introduce senses and sculptural artworks of 20th century that address the specific sense. I examine reasons and consequences of favored treatment of vision and neglection of other senses, as well as the situation of people with blindness and visual impairement in today's visual culture. I committed my own artistic expression to create sculptural artwor...

  7. The Critical Reception of Lewis Nordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    The essay covers the critical reception of Mississippi-writer Lewis Nordan from his debut in 1983 to the boost in scholarly attention in the new millennium. The essay covers newspaper reviews but pays particular attention to the many academic essays that have placed Nordan as a writer...... in the southern literary tradition and have highlighted themes such as magical realism, the grotesque, race relations, music, and gender....

  8. Receptive vocabulary analysis in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveall, Susan J; Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B Allyson; Abbeduto, Leonard; Conners, Frances A

    2016-08-01

    The present study is an in-depth examination of receptive vocabulary in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in comparison to control groups of individuals of similar nonverbal ability with typical development (TD) and non-specific etiology intellectual disability (ID). Verb knowledge was of particular interest, as it is known to be a predictor of later syntactic development. Fifty participants with DS, aged 10-21 years, 29 participants with ID, 10-21 years, and 29 participants with TD, 4-9 years, completed measures of receptive vocabulary (PPVT-4), nonverbal ability (Leiter-R), and phonological memory (Nonword Repetition subtest of the CTOPP). Groups were compared on percentage correct of noun, verb and attribute items on the PPVT-4. Results revealed that on verb items, the participants with ID performed significantly better than both participants with DS and TD, even when overall receptive vocabulary ability and phonological memory were held constant. Groups with DS and TD showed the same pattern of lexical knowledge, performing better on nouns than both verbs and attributes. In contrast, the group with ID performed similarly on nouns and verbs, but worse on attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural modification. Part 1: rotational receptances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottershead, John E.; Kyprianou, Andreas; Ouyang, Huajiang

    2005-06-01

    The inverse problem of assigning natural frequencies and antiresonances by a modification to the stiffness, mass and damping of a structure is addressed. Very simple modifications such as the addition of masses and grounded springs can be easily accommodated and require the measurement of translational receptances at the connection coordinates. Realistic modifications of practical usefulness, such as a modification by an added beam, require the measurement of rotational as well as translational receptances. Such data are difficult to obtain because of the practical problems of applying a pure moment. One method, the so-called 'T-block' approach, has received considerable attention in the literature, but the accompanying problem of ill-conditioning has not been fully addressed until now. The T-block is attached to the structure at the modification point, so that a force applied to the T-block generates a moment together with a force at the connection point between the T-block and the parent structure. Forces and linear displacements measured on the T-block, together with a mass and stiffness model of the T-block itself, allow the problem to be cast as a special case of excitation by multiple inputs. The resulting equations are generally ill-conditioned, but can be regularized by using a small number of independent measurements. The methodology and signal processing techniques required to estimate the rotational receptances are described. An experimental example is used to demonstrate the practical application of the method.

  10. From conciliar ecumenism to transformative receptive ecumenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Anne Plaatjies van Huffel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attends to ecumenicity as the second reformation. The ecumenical organisations and agencies hugely influenced the theological praxis and reflection of the church during the past century. The First World Council of Churches (WCC Assembly in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, has been described as the most significant event in church history since the Reformation during the past decade. We saw the emergence of two initiatives that are going to influence ecumenical theology and practice in future, namely the Receptive Ecumenism and Catholic Learning research project, based in Durham, United Kingdom, and the International Theological Colloquium for Transformative Ecumenism of the WCC. Both initiatives constitute a fresh approach in methodology to ecumenical theology and practice. Attention will be given in this article to conciliar ecumenism, receptive ecumenism, transformative ecumenism and its implications for the development of an African transformative receptive ecumenism. In doing so, we should take cognisance of what Küng says about a confessionalist ghetto mentality: ‘We must avoid a confessionalistic ghetto mentality. Instead we should espouse an ecumenical vision that takes into consideration the world religions as well as contemporary ideologies: as much tolerance as possible toward those things outside the Church, toward the religious in general, and the human in general, and the development of that which is specifically Christian belong together!’

  11. Receptive fields selection for binary feature description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal

    2014-06-01

    Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.

  12. A Feedback Model of Attention Explains the Diverse Effects of Attention on Neural Firing Rates and Receptive Field Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miconi, Thomas; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-02-01

    Visual attention has many effects on neural responses, producing complex changes in firing rates, as well as modifying the structure and size of receptive fields, both in topological and feature space. Several existing models of attention suggest that these effects arise from selective modulation of neural inputs. However, anatomical and physiological observations suggest that attentional modulation targets higher levels of the visual system (such as V4 or MT) rather than input areas (such as V1). Here we propose a simple mechanism that explains how a top-down attentional modulation, falling on higher visual areas, can produce the observed effects of attention on neural responses. Our model requires only the existence of modulatory feedback connections between areas, and short-range lateral inhibition within each area. Feedback connections redistribute the top-down modulation to lower areas, which in turn alters the inputs of other higher-area cells, including those that did not receive the initial modulation. This produces firing rate modulations and receptive field shifts. Simultaneously, short-range lateral inhibition between neighboring cells produce competitive effects that are automatically scaled to receptive field size in any given area. Our model reproduces the observed attentional effects on response rates (response gain, input gain, biased competition automatically scaled to receptive field size) and receptive field structure (shifts and resizing of receptive fields both spatially and in complex feature space), without modifying model parameters. Our model also makes the novel prediction that attentional effects on response curves should shift from response gain to contrast gain as the spatial focus of attention drifts away from the studied cell.

  13. Multisynaptic inputs from the medial temporal lobe to V4 in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taihei Ninomiya

    Full Text Available Retrograde transsynaptic transport of rabies virus was employed to undertake the top-down projections from the medial temporal lobe (MTL to visual area V4 of the occipitotemporal visual pathway in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata. On day 3 after rabies injections into V4, neuronal labeling was observed prominently in the temporal lobe areas that have direct connections with V4, including area TF of the parahippocampal cortex. Furthermore, conspicuous neuron labeling appeared disynaptically in area TH of the parahippocampal cortex, and areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex. The labeled neurons were located predominantly in deep layers. On day 4 after the rabies injections, labeled neurons were found in the hippocampal formation, along with massive labeling in the parahippocampal and perirhinal cortices. In the hippocampal formation, the densest neuron labeling was seen in layer 5 of the entorhinal cortex, and a small but certain number of neurons were labeled in other regions, such as the subicular complex and CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus proper. The present results indicate that V4 receives major input from the hippocampus proper via the entorhinal cortex, as well as "short-cut" pathways that bypass the entorhinal cortex. These multisynaptic pathways may define an anatomical basis for hippocampal-cortical interactions involving lower visual areas. The multisynaptic input from the MTL to V4 is likely to provide mnemonic information about object recognition that is accomplished through the occipitotemporal pathway.

  14. The timing of visual evoked potential activity in human area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H; Weyen, U; Frackowiak, R S; Romaya, J; Zeki, S

    1994-07-22

    Studies of human occipital visual cortex have demonstrated functional specializations for colour and for motion, with a pivotal area for colour processing (area V4) being located in the fusiform gyrus. To study the timing of arrival of signals in area V4 we have recorded multi-channel visual evoked potentials (VEPS) to colour and grey 'Mondrian' stimuli, spatio-temporal dipole source analysis being computed on two independent group averages of five and six subjects respectively. Three active brain regions were identified, which we interpret to correspond to areas V1, V2 and V4; they showed sequential but overlapping activity in time with no difference in magnitude between colour and grey stimulated VEPs. Source analysis of the difference potentials, colour minus grey, isolated source activity resulting from colour stimulation and located it in the region of area V4. Activity in area V4 started at 100 ms and peaked at 135 ms after the onset of the visual stimulus.

  15. Polar and magnetic order in Ga V4S e8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, E.; Butykai, A.; Geirhos, K.; Widmann, S.; Tsurkan, V.; Stefanet, E.; Kézsmárki, I.; Loidl, A.; Lunkenheimer, P.

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, we provide results from specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, dielectric constant, ac conductivity, and electrical polarization measurements performed on the lacunar spinel Ga V4S e8 . With decreasing temperature, we observe a transition from the paraelectric and paramagnetic cubic state into a polar, probably ferroelectric state at 42 K followed by magnetic ordering at 18 K. The polar transition is likely driven by the Jahn-Teller effect due to the degeneracy of the V4 cluster orbitals. The excess polarization arising in the magnetic phase indicates considerable magnetoelectric coupling. Overall, the behavior of Ga V4S e8 in many respects is similar to that of the skyrmion host Ga V4S8 , exhibiting a complex interplay of orbital, spin, lattice, and polar degrees of freedom. However, its dielectric behavior at the polar transition markedly differs from that of the Jahn-Teller-driven ferroelectric Ge V4S8 , which can be ascribed to the dissimilar electronic structure of the Ge compound.

  16. Characterization of the Transcriptional Complexity of the Receptive and Pre-receptive Endometria of Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; An, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Fu, Ming-Zhe; Han, Peng; Peng, Jia-Yin; Hou, Jing-Xing; Zhou, Zhan-Qin; Cao, Bin-Yun; Song, Yu-Xuan

    2015-09-16

    Endometrium receptivity is essential for successful embryo implantation in mammals. However, the lack of genetic information remains an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of a receptive endometrium from the pre-receptive phase in dairy goats. In this study, more than 4 billion high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into 102,441 unigenes; these unigenes were annotated using published databases. A total of 3,255 unigenes that were differentially expressed (DEGs) between the PE and RE were discovered in this study (P-values < 0.05). In addition, 76,729-77,102 putative SNPs and 12,837 SSRs were discovered in this study. Bioinformatics analysis of the DEGs revealed a number of biological processes and pathways that are potentially involved in the establishment of the RE, notably including the GO terms proteolysis, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and the KEGG pathways Cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction. We speculated that ADCY8, VCAN, SPOCK1, THBS1, and THBS2 may play important roles in the development of endometrial receptivity. The de novo assembly provided a good starting point and will serve as a valuable resource for further investigations into endometrium receptivity in dairy goats and future studies on the genomes of goats and other related mammals.

  17. Solubility of hydrogen in V-4Cr-4Ti and lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.; Erck, R.A.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The solubility of hydrogen in V-4Cr-4Ti and liquid lithium was determined at 400-675{degrees}C and a hydrogen pressure of 1.76x10{sup -4} torr (2.35 x 10{sup -2}Pa). Hydrogen concentration in both materials decreased as temperature increased, and the ratio of the hydrogen concentration in liquid lithium and V-4Cr-4Ti (hydrogen distribution ratio R) increased with temperature, e.g., R was {approx} 17 at 400{degrees}C and {approx} 80 at 700{degrees}C. Desorption of hydrogen from V-4Cr-4Ti is a thermally activated process and the activation energy of the desorption rate is 0.405 eV.

  18. Performance of V-4Cr-4Ti material exposed to the DIII-D tokamak environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wampler, W.R. [Sandia National Labs. (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A series of tests is being conducted in the DIII-D tokamak to determine the effects of environmental exposure on a V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy. These tests are part of the effort to build and install a water-cooled vanadium V alloy structure in the upgrade of the DIII-D radiative divertor. Data from the test series indicate that the performance of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy would not be significantly affected by environmental exposure. Interstitial absorption by the material appears to be limited to the surface, and neither the tensile nor the impact properties of the material appear to be affected by the exposure.

  19. Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stott Matthew B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia, strain V4, isolated from the Hell's Gate geothermal area in New Zealand. Similar organisms were independently isolated from geothermal systems in Italy and Russia. Results We report the complete genome sequence of strain V4, the first one from a representative of the Verrucomicrobia. Isolate V4, initially named "Methylokorus infernorum" (and recently renamed Methylacidiphilum infernorum is an autotrophic bacterium with a streamlined genome of ~2.3 Mbp that encodes simple signal transduction pathways and has a limited potential for regulation of gene expression. Central metabolism of M. infernorum was reconstructed almost completely and revealed highly interconnected pathways of autotrophic central metabolism and modifications of C1-utilization pathways compared to other known methylotrophs. The M. infernorum genome does not encode tubulin, which was previously discovered in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter, or close homologs of any other signature eukaryotic proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits unequivocally supports grouping Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae into a single clade, the PVC superphylum, despite dramatically different gene content in members of these three groups. Comparative-genomic analysis suggests that evolution of the M. infernorum lineage involved extensive horizontal gene exchange with a variety of bacteria. The genome of M. infernorum shows apparent adaptations for existence under extremely

  20. Survival of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain V4- UPM coated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... A comparative evaluation of millet, sorghum and other delivery systems for oral Newcastle disease V4 vaccination. Bull. Anim. Prod. Afr., 50: 21-29. McMillan BC, Rehmani SF, Hanson RP (1986). Lectin binding and carbohydrate moieties present on Newcastle disease virus strains. Avian Dis., 30: 340-344.

  1. V4: The Small Angle Scattering Instrument (SANS at BER II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Keiderling

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available V4 is a small-angle neutron scatting instrument with an accessible range of scattering vector 0.01 nm-1 < Q < 8.5 nm-1. Outstanding features of the instrument are the polarized neutron option and the list mode data acquisition, allowing for time-resolved measurements with µs time resolution.

  2. Stability of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain V4-UPM Coated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of village chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) is considered feasible through food-delivered vaccines. Vaccine virus strain V4-UPM coated on cassava granules with or without additive (2% gelatin) was tested for stability at room temperature (RT) for 8 weeks and 40oC for 12 hours at weekly and two hourly ...

  3. Food-Based Newcastle Disease V 4 Vaccine In Guinea Fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy trial of the feed-based Newcastle disease V4 (NDV4HR) vaccine was carried out on guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata, Pallas) in Maiduguri, Nigeria between December 2000 and March 2001. Eighty-five guinea fowls divided into 17 experimental groups of 5 birds per group were used in the study. The trial ...

  4. Survival of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain V4- UPM coated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain V4- UPM coated on three grains offal and exposed to room temperature. ... The time duration taken for the infectivity of the virus to drop below the minimum immunizing dose (MID) (log10 EID50/g≥ 6.0) was compared for virus suspensions containing additive (2% gelatin) ...

  5. Non-linear Galilean vestibular receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennequin, D; Berthoz, A

    2011-01-01

    We present a set of formulas for the receptive fields of the vestibular neurons that are motivated by Galilean invariance. We show that these formulas explain non-trivial data in neurophysiology, and suggest new hypothesis to be tested in dynamical 3D conditions. Moreover our model offers a way for neuronal computing with 3D displacements, which is reputed to be hard, underlying the vestibular reflexes. This computation is presented in a Bayesian framework. The basis of the model is the necessity of living bodies to work invariantly in space-time, allied to the necessary discreteness of neuronal transmission.

  6. Extension of Flutter Boundaries Using In-Flight Receptance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    in a wind-tunnel aerofoil rig. The aerofoil and its suspension were designed as part of the project. The advantage of the receptance method over...binary flutter in a wind-tunnel aerofoil rig. The aerofoil and its suspension were designed as part of the project. The advantage of the receptance...and determination of control gains. This report describes the theory of the method of receptances and its implementation on a wind- tunnel aerofoil

  7. Image statistics underlying natural texture selectivity of neurons in macaque V4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazawa, Gouki; Tajima, Satohiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    Our daily visual experiences are inevitably linked to recognizing the rich variety of textures. However, how the brain encodes and differentiates a plethora of natural textures remains poorly understood. Here, we show that many neurons in macaque V4 selectively encode sparse combinations of higher-order image statistics to represent natural textures. We systematically explored neural selectivity in a high-dimensional texture space by combining texture synthesis and efficient-sampling techniques. This yielded parameterized models for individual texture-selective neurons. The models provided parsimonious but powerful predictors for each neuron’s preferred textures using a sparse combination of image statistics. As a whole population, the neuronal tuning was distributed in a way suitable for categorizing textures and quantitatively predicts human ability to discriminate textures. Together, we suggest that the collective representation of visual image statistics in V4 plays a key role in organizing the natural texture perception. PMID:25535362

  8. Tensile and impact properties of General Atomics 832864 heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Nowicki, L.J.; Gazda, J.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A 1300-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was procured by General Atomics (GA) for the DIII-D radiative divertor program. To determine the mechanical properties of this alloy, tensile and Charpy tests were conducted on specimens prepared from pieces of 4.8-mm-thick as-rolled plates, a major product form for the DIII-D application. The tensile tests were conducted at three temperatures, 26, 280 and 380 C, the last two being the anticipated peak temperatures during DIII-D boronization and postvent bake-out, respectively. Results from these tests show that the tensile and impact properties of the 832864 heat are comparable to those of the other smaller V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloy heats previously developed by the US Fusion Materials Program and that scale-up of vanadium alloy production can be successfully achieved as long as reasonable process control is implemented.

  9. Constructions of Optimal (v,{4,5,6},1,Q)-OOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyang; Fan, Pingzhi; Wu, Dianhua

    Optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) is a promising technique for multimedia transmission in fiber-optic local-area networks (LANs). Variable-weight optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) can be used for OCDMA networks supporting multiple quality of services (QoS). Most constructions for optimal variable-weight OOCs have focused on the case where the number of distinct Hamming weights of all codewords is equal to two, and the codewords of weight 3 are normally included. In this letter, four explicit constructions of optimal (v,{4,5,6},1,Q)-OOCs are presented, and more new optimal (v,{4,5,6},1,Q)-OOCs are obtained via recursive constructions. These improve the existing results on optimal variable-weight OOCs with at least three distinct Hamming weights and minimum Hamming weight 4.

  10. Users Guide to BellhopDRDC_V4: Active and Passive Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    arrival tables, reverberation time series, target echo time series, and the signal excess versus range. Results The major differences between...arrival tables, reverberation time series, target echo time series, and the signal excess versus range. Changes in version 4: The changes between this...Output is reverberation time series without source level for each sensor 11. scatstrength_v4 – contains all scattering strength models OE – Ogden

  11. Multiferroicity and skyrmions carrying electric polarization in GaV4S8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Eugen; Widmann, Sebastian; Lunkenheimer, Peter; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Bordács, Sandor; Kézsmárki, Istvan; Loidl, Alois

    2015-11-01

    Skyrmions are whirl-like topological spin objects with high potential for future magnetic data storage. A fundamental question that is relevant to both basic research and application is whether ferroelectric (FE) polarization can be associated with skyrmions' magnetic texture and whether these objects can be manipulated by electric fields. We study the interplay between magnetism and electric polarization in the lacunar spinel GaV4S8, which undergoes a structural transition associated with orbital ordering at 44 K and reveals a complex magnetic phase diagram below 13 K, including ferromagnetic, cycloidal, and Néel-type skyrmion lattice (SkL) phases. We found that the orbitally ordered phase of GaV4S8 is FE with a sizable polarization of ~1 μC/cm(2). Moreover, we observed spin-driven excess polarizations in all magnetic phases; hence, GaV4S8 hosts three different multiferroic phases with coexisting polar and magnetic order. These include the SkL phase, where we predict a strong spatial modulation of FE polarization close to the skyrmion cores. By taking into account the crystal symmetry and spin patterns of the magnetically ordered phases, we identify exchange striction as the main microscopic mechanism behind the spin-driven FE polarization in each multiferroic phase. Because GaV4S8 is unique among known SkL host materials owing to its polar crystal structure and the observed strong magnetoelectric effect, this study is an important step toward the nondissipative electric field control of skyrmions.

  12. Receptive prosody in nonfluent primary progressive aphasias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Sauter, Disa; Scott, Sophie; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Prosody has been little studied in the primary progressive aphasias (PPAs), a group of neurodegenerative disorders presenting with progressive language impairment. Methods Here we conducted a systematic investigation of different dimensions of prosody processing (acoustic, linguistic and emotional) in a cohort of 19 patients with nonfluent PPA syndromes (11 with progressive nonfluent aphasia, PNFA; five with progressive logopenic/phonological aphasia, LPA; three with progranulin-associated aphasia, GRN-PPA) compared with a group of healthy older controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to identify neuroanatomical associations of prosodic functions. Results Broadly comparable receptive prosodic deficits were exhibited by the PNFA, LPA and GRN-PPA subgroups, for acoustic, linguistic and affective dimensions of prosodic analysis. Discrimination of prosodic contours was significantly more impaired than discrimination of simple acoustic cues, and discrimination of intonation was significantly more impaired than discrimination of stress at phrasal level. Recognition of vocal emotions was more impaired than recognition of facial expressions for the PPA cohort, and recognition of certain emotions (in particular, disgust and fear) was relatively more impaired than others (sadness, surprise). VBM revealed atrophy associated with acoustic and linguistic prosody impairments in a distributed cortical network including areas likely to be involved in perceptual analysis of vocalisations (posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices) and working memory (fronto-parietal circuitry). Grey matter associations of emotional prosody processing were identified for negative emotions (disgust, fear, sadness) in a broadly overlapping network of frontal, temporal, limbic and parietal areas. Conclusions Taken together, the findings show that receptive prosody is impaired in nonfluent PPA syndromes, and suggest a generic early perceptual deficit of prosodic signal

  13. Developmental Stages in Receptive Grammar Acquisition: A Processability Theory Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…

  14. First-year university students' receptive and productive use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study explores academic vocabulary knowledge, operationalised through the Academic Word List, among first-year higher education students. Both receptive and productive knowledge and the proportion between the two are examined. Results show that while receptive knowledge is readily acquired by ...

  15. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated by field artificial ...

  16. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…

  17. First-year university students' receptive and productive use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Academic Word List (AWL)) and students from the same class, who are thus of comparable linguistic ... Language (EFL) students, which it complements by making estimates of the ratio between receptive and ... students' receptive vocabulary size provides teachers with a gauge as to whether those students will be able to ...

  18. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated.

  19. Cross-National Policy Borrowing: Understanding Reception and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2014-01-01

    The article examines two key concepts in research on policy borrowing and lending that are often used to explain why and how educational reforms travel across national boundaries: reception and translation. The studies on reception analyse the political, economic, and cultural reasons that account for the attractiveness of a reform from elsewhere.…

  20. Teacher Empowerment and Receptivity in Curriculum Reform in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Yin, Hong-Biao; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Jin, Yu-Le

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between teacher empowerment, teacher receptivity toward, and perceived outcomes of, a system-wide curriculum change, particularly national curriculum reform in basic education in China. The results of a survey of 1,646 teachers from six provinces indicate that teachers were positive in their receptivity and…

  1. The Continued Relevance of Reception Analysis in the Age of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2015-01-01

    Far from being a remnant of the past, reception analysis must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored...... as empirical reality. This paper argues for the continued relevance of reception analysis, inspite of the mismatch of the label, and develops this argument by applying one of its most fundamental insights, namely its investigation of the relationship between media and audience —or between text and context......: 1) gatekeeping, 2) remix and 3) positioning. Resulting from this framework, three agendas are suggested for the study of audiences of social media: 1) the relationship between old and new media, 2) the “audiencification” of the text, and 3) the war between audiences....

  2. Invariance of visual operations at the level of receptive fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lindeberg

    Full Text Available The brain is able to maintain a stable perception although the visual stimuli vary substantially on the retina due to geometric transformations and lighting variations in the environment. This paper presents a theory for achieving basic invariance properties already at the level of receptive fields. Specifically, the presented framework comprises (i local scaling transformations caused by objects of different size and at different distances to the observer, (ii locally linearized image deformations caused by variations in the viewing direction in relation to the object, (iii locally linearized relative motions between the object and the observer and (iv local multiplicative intensity transformations caused by illumination variations. The receptive field model can be derived by necessity from symmetry properties of the environment and leads to predictions about receptive field profiles in good agreement with receptive field profiles measured by cell recordings in mammalian vision. Indeed, the receptive field profiles in the retina, LGN and V1 are close to ideal to what is motivated by the idealized requirements. By complementing receptive field measurements with selection mechanisms over the parameters in the receptive field families, it is shown how true invariance of receptive field responses can be obtained under scaling transformations, affine transformations and Galilean transformations. Thereby, the framework provides a mathematically well-founded and biologically plausible model for how basic invariance properties can be achieved already at the level of receptive fields and support invariant recognition of objects and events under variations in viewpoint, retinal size, object motion and illumination. The theory can explain the different shapes of receptive field profiles found in biological vision, which are tuned to different sizes and orientations in the image domain as well as to different image velocities in space-time, from a

  3. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum - Poorer mental health under a restrictive reception : poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],

  4. IFP V4.0:a polar-reformatting image formation processor for synthetic aperture radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, Paul H.

    2005-09-01

    IFP V4.0 is the fourth generation of an extraordinarily powerful and flexible image formation processor for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar. It has been successfully utilized in processing phase histories from numerous radars and has been instrumental in the development of many new capabilities for spotlight mode SAR. This document provides a brief history of the development of IFP, a full exposition of the signal processing steps involved, and a short user's manual for the software implementing this latest iteration.

  5. EDGAR_v4.3: a global air pollutant emission inventory from 1970 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Guizzardi, D.; Muntean, M.; Schaaf, E.; Olivier, J. G.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.; Dentener, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides consistent gridded anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, precursor gases and aerosols from 1970 to 2010. Since EDGAR's first release in 1996 (EDGARv2), a continuous improvement and upgrade of the emission data resulted in a sequence of releases. Here we present EDGAR_v4.3 (2014), which features new information on emission factors and an extension to 2009-2010 data compared to EDGAR_v4.2. EDGAR_v4.2 was used in many inverse modeling studies in EU, US, Africa and Asia yielding regional refinement of emission factors and adjustments of technology penetration (e.g. coal mining, power plants) and proxy data for geospatial distribution (e.g. passenger car transport). We focus on SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC emissions for the most recent year (2010), and compare them to two global inventories used in global modeling, as well as the regional inventories included in them. HTAP_v2 is a harmonized, global, gridded, emission database for 2010, developed for global and regional model tasks within the Task Force Hemispheric Transport Air pollution. It uses officially reported, gridded national inventories, complemented with science based data, partly gap-filled with EDGAR. However, since HTAP_v2 is relying on (sub-)national statistics, it may not be as consistent across countries and regions, as a globally calculated inventory using international statistics and global geospatial distributions. Another available global inventory is MACCity, covering the years 1980-2010. We compare EDGAR_v4.3 with HTAP_v2 and MACCity in order to explain differences from national estimates and address emission inventory uncertainties, indicating weaknesses and strengths of these databases. We present the geospatial distribution of emissions at 0.1x0.1 degree resolution, comparing the contribution of developing and emerging countries with industrialized regions, both as absolute and per capita data.

  6. Effects of irradiation at low temperature on V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J.; Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Irradiation at low temperatures (100 to 275{degrees}C) to 0.5 dpa causes significant embrittlement and changes in the subsequent room temperature tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti. The yield strength and microhardness at room temperature increase with increasing irradiation temperature. The tensile flow properties at room temperature show large increases in strength and a complete loss of work hardening capacity with no uniform ductility. Embrittlement, as measured by an increase in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, increases with increasing irradiation temperature, at least up to 275{degrees}C. This embrittlement is not due to pickup of O or other interstitial solutes during the irradiation.

  7. Effect of specimen size on the fracture toughness of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huaxin

    1996-04-01

    J-R curves were generated using the single specimen unload-compliance technique on four specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti to determine the effect of specimen dimensions on the fracture behavior. Ductile crack initiation and growth was observed in the 6.35 mm thick specimens but not in the 12.70 mm thick specimens. The J-R curves determined from these tests were not valid per ASTM validity criteria so quantitative measures of the resistance to ductile crack initiation and growth were not obtained. These data suggests that standard fracture toughness tests were performed with small-scale DCT specimens may also not be valid.

  8. Orbital-Ordering-Driven Multiferroicity and Magnetoelectric Coupling in GeV4S8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran; Simon, Charles; Cannuccia, Elena; Lepetit, Marie-Bernadette; Corraze, Benoit; Janod, Etienne; Cario, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    We report here the discovery of multiferroicity and large magnetoelectric coupling in the type I orbital order system GeV4S8. Our study demonstrates that this clustered compound displays a para-ferroelectric transition at 32 K. This transition originates from an orbital ordering which reorganizes the charge within the transition metal clusters. Below the antiferromagnetic transition at 17 K, the application of a magnetic field significantly affects the ferroelectric polarization, revealing thus a large magnetoelectric coupling. Our study suggests that the application of a magnetic field induces a metamagnetic transition which significantly affects the ferroelectric polarization thanks to an exchange striction phenomenon.

  9. Thermophysical and mechanical properties of V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Solid solution V-Cr-Ti alloys exhibit a good combination of high thermal conductivity, adequate tensile strength, and low thermal expansion. The key thermophysical and mechanical properties for V-(4-5)%Cr-(4-5)%Ti alloys are summarized in this report. Some of these data are available in the ITER Materials Properties Handbook (IMPH), whereas other data have been collected from recent studies. The IMPH is updated regularly, and should be used as the reference point for design calculations whenever possible.

  10. Microstructural characterization of external and internal oxide products on V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, B.A.; Rice, P.M.; Chitwood, L.D.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Air oxidation of V-4Cr-4Ti at 500 C at 1 atm resulted in the formation of a thin (100--150 nm) external vanadium nitride layer which was identified beneath a thicker (1.5 {micro}m) vanadium oxide scale. This nitride layer would only be detected by high-resolution, analytical electron microscopy techniques. Subsequent tests comparing room temperature tensile properties for exposure in laboratory air, dry air and dry oxygen at 1 atm showed more embrittlement in air than in O{sub 2}. Internal oxidation of coarse-grained V-4Cr-4Ti at low oxygen pressures at 500 C was followed by TEM examination. In a sample with a 1400 ppmw O addition, which is sufficient to reduce the ductility to near zero, there appeared to be an oxygen denuded zone (150--250 nm) near the grain boundaries with precipitates at the grain boundaries and uniform ultra-fine (<5 nm) oxygen particles in the matrix. In a similar O-loaded specimen that was subsequently annealed for 4h at 950 C to restore ductility, large oxide particles were observed in the matrix and at the grain boundaries.

  11. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Compressibility effects on the non-linear receptivity of boundary layers to dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Marie F. C.

    The reduction of drag and aerodynamic heating caused by boundary layer transition is of central interest for the development of hypersonic vehicles. Receptivity to flow perturbation in the form of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave growth often determines the first stage of the transition process, which can be delayed by depositing specific excitations into the boundary layer. Weakly ionized Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuators are being investigated as possible sources of such excitations, but little is known today about their interaction with high-speed flows. In this framework, the first part of the thesis is dedicated to a receptivity study of laminar compressible boundary layers over a flat plate by linear stability analysis following an adjoint operator formulation, under DBD representative excitations assumed independent of flow conditions. The second part of the work concentrates on the development of a coupled plasma-Navier and Stokes solver targeted at the study of supersonic flow and compressibility effects on DBD forcing and non-parallel receptivity. The linear receptivity study of quasi-parallel compressible flows reveals several interesting features such as a significant shift of the region of maximum receptivity deeper into the flow at high Mach number and strong wave amplitude reduction compared to incompressible flows. The response to DBD relevant excitation distributions and to variations of the base flow conditions and system length scales follows these trends. Observed absolute amplitude changes and relative sensitivity modifications between source types are related to the evolution of the offset between forcing peak profile and relevant adjoint mode maximum. The analysis highlights the crucial importance of designing and placing the actuator in a way that matches its force field to the position of maximum boundary layer receptivity for the specific flow conditions of interest. In order to address the broad time and length scale spectrum

  13. [Turkish expressive and receptive language test: I. Standardization, reliability and validity study of the receptive vocabulary sub-scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak Berument, Sibel; Güven, Ayşe Gül

    2013-01-01

    A reliable, valid and original test to assess the receptive vocabulary skills of children in Turkey was not available. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop a receptive vocabulary test for Turkish children based on the Turkish language. For the Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale (TIFALDI-RT) 242 concrete and abstract words were chosen from word frequency lists and a comprehensive Turkish Dictionary. Pilot data were collected from 648 children aged 2 to 13 from Ankara, and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 3755 children. Item analysis (item difficulty, discrimination and distractor) was carried out on the pilot data and based on the results, the total item number was reduced to 157. Further, three parameter item analyses (IRT) were carried out on the norm data by using BILOG-MG (SSI, 2002), and the results indicated that the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale could be reduced to 104 items to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were calculated for the whole sample and age groups separately, and all the coefficients were high. For the validity, the relationship between the WISC-R and Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory (AGTE) and Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale were investigated. Once again, the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale scores were found to be significantly related to WISC-R and AGTE scores. The TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale was developed on the basis of the Turkish Language and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample. The TIFALDI-RT also had a high reliability and validity. Thus, the TIFALDI-RT can be used to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary skills.

  14. Gabor analysis of auditory midbrain receptive fields: spectro-temporal and binaural composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Schreiner, Christoph E; Escabí, Monty A

    2003-07-01

    The spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) is a model representation of the excitatory and inhibitory integration area of auditory neurons. Recently it has been used to study spectral and temporal aspects of monaural integration in auditory centers. Here we report the properties of monaural STRFs and the relationship between ipsi- and contralateral inputs to neurons of the central nucleus of cat inferior colliculus (ICC) of cats. First, we use an optimal singular-value decomposition method to approximate auditory STRFs as a sum of time-frequency separable Gabor functions. This procedure extracts nine physiologically meaningful parameters. The STRFs of approximately 60% of collicular neurons are well described by a time-frequency separable Gabor STRF model, whereas the remaining neurons exhibited obliquely oriented or multiple excitatory/inhibitory subfields that require a nonseparable Gabor fitting procedure. Parametric analysis reveals distinct spectro-temporal tradeoffs in receptive field size and modulation filtering resolution. Comparisons between an identical model used to study spatio-temporal integration areas of visual neurons further shows that auditory and visual STRFs share numerous structural properties. We then use the Gabor STRF model to compare quantitatively receptive field properties of contra- and ipsilateral inputs to the ICC. We show that most interaural STRF parameters are highly correlated bilaterally. However, the spectral and temporal phases of ipsi- and contralateral STRFs often differ significantly. This suggests that activity originating from each ear share various spectro-temporal response properties such as their temporal delay, bandwidth, and center frequency but have shifted or interleaved patterns of excitation and inhibition. These differences in converging monaural receptive fields expand binaural processing capacity beyond interaural time and intensity aspects and may enable colliculus neurons to detect disparities in the spectro

  15. Deuterium retention in VPS-W coated vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Uekita, Kazuhiro; Oya, Makoto; Ohtsuka, Yusuke; Nagasaka, Takuya; Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko; Tokunaga, Tomonori; Yoshida, Naoaki

    2013-07-01

    D retention in a VPS W coated V alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti, NIFS Heat 2) was investigated by an ion beam irradiation with a HiFIT device. Irradiation temperature changed from 473 K to 773 K and ion fluence was 1024 m-2. In addition, during ion irradiation atmospheric pressure was 0.5 mTorr. It was found that ambient gas absorption was the dominant process for D retention. Ion irradiation could enhance gas absorption probably due to surface modification (oxide layer removal) and could produce ion induced trapping sites. Although these ion induced processes can be avoided by W coating layers, D retention is still significant for VPS-W coated V alloy. D trapping could be done mainly in V-alloy and its mechanisms could be related to some intrinsic defects in V alloy and formation of titanium hydride at elevated temperature.

  16. Hydrogen Release from Irradiated Vanadium Alloy V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepikov, A. Kh.; Romanenko, O. G.; Chikhray, E. V.; Tazhibaeva, I. L.; Shestakov, V. P.; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-09-01

    The present work is an attempt to obtain data concerning the influence of neutron and ? irradiation upon hydrogen retention in V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy. The experiments on in-pile loading of vanadium alloy specimens at the neutron flux density 1014 n/cm2s, hydrogen pressure of 80 Pa, and temperatures of 563, 613, and 773 K were carried out using the IVG.1M reactor of the Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center. A preliminary set of loading/degassing experiments with non-irradiated material has been carried out to obtain data on hydrogen interaction with vanadium alloy. The, data presented in this work are related both to non-irradiated and irradiated samples.

  17. Exchange anisotropy in the skyrmion host GaV4S8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, D; Stasinopoulos, I; Kézsmárki, I; Fehér, T; Tsurkan, V; von Nidda, H-A Krug; Grundler, D; Loidl, A

    2017-02-15

    Using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy at 34 GHz we explored the magnetic anisotropy of single-crystalline GaV 4 S 8 in the field-polarized magnetic state. We describe the data in terms of an easy-axis type uniaxial anisotropy with an anisotropy constant [Formula: see text] erg cm -3 at 2 K, corresponding to a relative exchange anisotropy [Formula: see text]%, and about [Formula: see text]erg cm -3 near 11 K, i.e. at temperatures where the skyrmion-lattice phase was recently discovered. The relatively large value of K 1 explains the confinement of the skyrmion tubes to the [Formula: see text] easy axes. A distinct set of resonances in the spectra is attributed to the co-existence of different rhombohedral domains. Complementary broadband spectroscopy demonstrates that non-collinear spin states may sensitively be detected by electron spin resonance techniques.

  18. Terahertz dielectric analysis and spin-phonon coupling in multiferroic GeV4S8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Matthew T.; Pokharel, G.; Christianson, A. D.; Mandrus, D.; Valdés Aguilar, R.

    2017-08-01

    We present an investigation of the multiferroic lacunar spinel compound GeV4S8 using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. We find three absorptions which either appear or shift at the antiferromagnetic transition temperature, TN=17 K , as S =1 magnetic moments develop on vanadium tetrahedra. Two of these absorptions are coupled to the magnetic state and one only appears below the Néel temperature, and is interpreted as a magnon. We also observe isosbestic points in the dielectric constant in both the temperature and frequency domains. Further, we perform an analysis on the isosbestic features to reveal an interesting collapse into a single curve as a function of both frequency and temperature, behavior which exists throughout the phase transitions. This analysis suggests the importance of spectral changes in the terahertz range which are linear in frequency and temperature.

  19. Microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti during ion irradiation at 200{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M.; Loomis, B.A. Chung, H.M.

    1996-04-01

    The results of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat no. 832665) that was irradiated with 4.5 MeV {sup 58}Ni{sup ++} ions at 200 {degrees}C are presented. Dose effects were investigated for fluences ranging from 0.5 to 5 dpa. When the irradiation dose was increased, the relative number density of black dots and dislocation loops was nearly constant and accompanied by an increase in the size of the defects. Cavity formation was not observed in any of the specimens, indicating high resistance of the alloy to void swelling at the lower temperature of the experiments.

  20. Microstructural examination of irradiated V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chung, H.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the EBR-II X530 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}400 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to b affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950--1125 C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations. Analytical investigators successfully demonstrated that the precipitates were enriched in titanium, depleted in vanadium and contained no nitrogen.

  1. Particle reflections of low energy light ions from a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, H. [Harima Institute, RIKEN The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)]. E-mail: yamaoka@spring8.or.jp; Tanaka, N. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)]. E-mail: nozomi.tanaka@ppl2.qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nishiura, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takeuchi, S. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shinto, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Okamoto, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sasao, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Wada, M. [Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The angular distributions and energy spectra of positive and negative ions reflected from a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) bombarded by beams of low energy (1-2 keV) ions of H, He, and O were measured. The intensities of H{sup +} or H{sup -} produced from reflection of 2 keV H{sup +} beam at the surface of vanadium alloy showed the maxima at the angles closer to the surface normal from the mirror reflection angle, compared with Mo and W samples. The time dependence of the angular distributions of the reflected H{sup +} or H{sup -} ions measured at the sample temperature of about 240-260 {sup o}C showed a shift of the peak in the angular distribution to the mirror reflection angle.

  2. [The reception of Vesalius in Spain and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the depiction of engravings taken from Vesalius's, Valverde de Hamusco's and Casserio 's treatises in portraits during the 16th and the 17th centuries to understand better the reception of the Fabrica in Spain and England.

  3. Surface-Borne Time-of-Reception Measurements (STORM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....

  4. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027

  5. Mechanical properties of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy after first-wall coating with tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo; Watanabe, Hideo; Kasada, Ryuta; Iwata, Noriyuki; Kimura, Akihiko

    2011-10-01

    A first-wall coating was fabricated with tungsten on a reference V-4Cr-4Ti alloy (NIFS-HEAT-2, NH2) substrate by a vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process and brazing (BR). The hardness, fracture stress, and elastic modulus of tungsten (W) coating applied by the vacuum plasma spray process (VPS-W) were lower than the tungsten used for brazing (BR-W). The low mass density and defects of VPS-W are thought to be responsible for the degradation of the strength. The NH2 substrate indicated hardening and embrittlement produced by the W coating and some post-coating heat treatment (PCHT). Hardening and embrittlement by a VPS coating can be recovered by removing hydrogen from the NH2 substrate in a vacuum by annealing at 673 K. Oxygen transfer from the W coating to the NH2 substrate was indicated above 1173 K but did not induce embrittlement of the substrate. Hardening by the BR process can be recovered by PCHT at 1273 K, but embrittlement was not improved. The mechanisms of the hardening and embrittlement are discussed based on a microstructural analysis.

  6. Visual cortex in aging and Alzheimer's disease: changes in visual field maps and population receptive fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Alyssa A.; Barton, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1) during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM) organization and population receptive fields (pRFs) between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD. PMID:24570669

  7. ANTHROPOLOGICAL DESCARTES’ RATIONALISM AND IT'S HUSSERL’S RECEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to figure out the features of Husserl's reception of anthropological Descartes rationalism. Its implementation requires a consistent solution of the following tasks: 1 schematically express a modern vision of the basic intentions of philosophizing as an anthropological rationalism; 2 highlight the main points of the Husserl's reception of Descartes’ rationalism as the deanthropologizing and analyze radicalization of its basic design as the reanthropologizing. Conclusions. When clarifying the question of the method of reception and completion of the philosophical Descartes’ project in the doctrine of Edmund Husserl, the author finds that the originality of his reception of anthropological Descartes’ rationalism appears as the paradoxical union of denying the existence of anthropology in the base project and the rediscovery of its key role in the radicalization of Descartes. Thinking of its way, he comes to the rediscovery some of the key ideas of the French philosopher, rooted in his anthropological rationalism. Among them is the basic intention of the ambivalence, the rejection of Descartes’ ideas of panrationalism, recognition irreducibility of philosophical method to the mathematical, constitutive of human presence in the new rationalism. Prospects for further research in understanding the author sees a meaningful relationship and continuity of the two great thinkers - namely, the personal nature of philosophizing and the ethical focus of their searching. Originality. Appeal to the reception of Husserl's Cartesian project confirms the thesis of an essential importance for the basic anthropological project of Descartes. The presented version of Husserl reception base project Descartes is a reproduction of the surface age stereotypes, which link the quest of the philosopher with the natural sciences and neglected anthropological measurements. The proposed version of the radicalization of Descartes’ project

  8. Diverse Contexts of Reception and Feelings of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Stepick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical focus of this paper is the context of reception experienced by migrants in their new homeland. In particular we examine relations between established residents and newcomers or immigrants from Cuba, Haiti, and other Caribbean and Latin American nations in South Florida. Based upon long term fieldwork among late adolescents and young adults, we develop a framework and give ethnographic examples of established resident-newcomer relations that influence the contexts of reception for immigrants in South Florida. These contexts range from positive to negative, vary between national and local settings, and change over time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903156

  9. Spatiotemporal receptive field properties of a looming-sensitive neuron in solitarious and gregarious phases of the desert locust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M; Harston, George W J; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Matheson, Thomas; Burrows, Malcolm; Gabbiani, Fabrizio; Krapp, Holger G

    2010-02-01

    Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) can transform reversibly between the swarming gregarious phase and a solitarious phase, which avoids other locusts. This transformation entails dramatic changes in morphology, physiology, and behavior. We have used the lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and its postsynaptic target, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), which are visual interneurons that detect looming objects, to analyze how differences in the visual ecology of the two phases are served by altered neuronal function. Solitarious locusts had larger eyes and a greater degree of binocular overlap than those of gregarious locusts. The receptive field to looming stimuli had a large central region of nearly equal response spanning 120 degrees x 60 degrees in both phases. The DCMDs of gregarious locusts responded more strongly than solitarious locusts and had a small caudolateral focus of even further sensitivity. More peripherally, the response was reduced in both phases, particularly ventrally, with gregarious locusts showing greater proportional decrease. Gregarious locusts showed less habituation to repeated looming stimuli along the eye equator than did solitarious locusts. By contrast, in other parts of the receptive field the degree of habituation was similar in both phases. The receptive field organization to looming stimuli contrasts strongly with the receptive field organization of the same neurons to nonlooming local-motion stimuli, which show much more pronounced regional variation. The DCMDs of both gregarious and solitarious locusts are able to detect approaching objects from across a wide expanse of visual space, but phase-specific changes in the spatiotemporal receptive field are linked to lifestyle changes.

  10. Opto-electronic properties of Zn(1-x)VxO: Green emission enhancement due to V4+ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Tulika; Bajpai, Gaurav; Tiwari, Nidhi; Bhattacharya, Dibyendu; Jha, S. N.; Kumar, Sunil; Biring, Sajal; Sen, Somaditya

    2017-07-01

    Vanadium incorporation in ZnO modifies the lattice structure. The valence state of V plays an important role, controlling the oxygen content and thereby dimensions of the lattice. Both V4+ and V5+ are more electropositive than Zn2+ and reduce oxygen vacancies, resulting in lattice expansion. However, the sizes of both V4+ and V5+ are smaller than Zn2+, thereby resulting in the lattice contraction. The internal competition of increasing oxygen content and reducing effective crystal radius decides the lattice expansion and contraction. This affects the lattice strain and changes electronic levels, which modify absorption and emission processes in between the valence and conduction bands. A strong green emission band not due to oxygen vacancy but due to defects contributed by vanadium is also dependent on the oxidation state of vanadium. Bandgap also increases with the increase in the V4+ content.

  11. Effect of background colors on the tuning of color-selective cells in monkey area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Makoto; Moutoussis, Konstantinos; Zeki, Semir

    2006-05-01

    When objects are viewed in different illuminants, their color does not change or changes little in spite of significant changes in the wavelength composition of the light reflected from them. In previous studies, we have addressed the physiology underlying this color constancy by recording from cells in areas V1, V2, and V4 of the anesthetized monkey. Truly color-coded cells, ones that respond to a patch of a given color irrespective of the wavelength composition of the light reflected from it, were only found in area V4. In the present study, we have used a different approach to test the responses of V4 cells in both anesthetized and awake behaving monkeys. Stimuli of different colors, embedded within a Mondrian-type multicolored background, were used to identify the chromatic selectivity of neurons. The illumination of the background was then varied, and the tuning of V4 neurons was tested again for each background illumination. With anesthetized monkeys, the psychophysical effect of changing background illumination was inferred from our own experience, whereas in the awake behaving animal, it was directly reported by the monkey. We found that the majority of V4 neurons shifted their color-tuning profile with each change in the background illumination: each time the color of the background on the computer screen was changed so as to simulate a change in illumination, cells shifted their color-tuning function in the direction of the chromaticity component that had been increased. A similar shift was also observed in colored match-to-sample psychometric functions of both human and monkey. The shift in monkey psychometric functions was quantitatively equivalent to the shift in the responses of the corresponding population of cells. We conclude that neurons in area V4 exhibit the property of color constancy and that their response properties are thus able to reflect color perception.

  12. STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.

    2010-02-01

    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  13. Dissimilar ultrasonic spot welding of aerospace aluminum alloy AA2139 to titanium alloy TiAl6V4

    OpenAIRE

    Prangnell, Philip; Zhang, Chaoqun Q; Robson, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness, lap shear strength and fracture energy of AA2139–TiAl6V4 spot joints produced by ultrasonic welding were investigated and related to the weld thermal cycle. No obvious intermetallic reaction layer was observed in the AA2139–TiAl6V4 welds, even using transmission electron microscopy. The hardness profile of AA2139 side after welding was studied, demonstrating that the heat introduced by the welding process leads to some softening with partial hardness recovery aft...

  14. Summary of the investigation of low temperature, low dose radiation effects on the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Robertson, J.P.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Experimental details, raw data, method of analysis and results are presented for the low-temperature, low-dose HFBR-V1 through V4 irradiation experiments conducted at ORNL on V-4Cr-4Ti specimens (US Fusion Program Heat No. 832665). Four separate capsules were irradiated in the V-15 and V-16 In-Core Thimbles of the High Flux Beam Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to doses of 0.1 or 0.5 dpa at temperatures between 100 and 505 C. Testing included microhardness, electrical resistivity, tensile properties, and Charpy impact properties.

  15. Procurement of V-Cr-Ti alloys to study minor variations on V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbeck, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The alloys V-6Cr-3Ti, V-4Cr-4Ti-Si, V-6Cr-6Ti, and V-3Cr-3Ti, were prepared by Teledyne Wah Chang Albany Corp. in 1994. Plate and sheet ranging from 0.76 mm to 6.25 mm with residual material being left in 12--20 mm thick bar were fabricated. Although the heats were prepared on a pilot plant scale using different equipment, an effort was made to keep the processing as close to Wah Chang Heat 832665, the reference fusion heat of V-4Cr-4Ti, as possible.

  16. Receptive Learning Styles Of Introverts, Ambiverts And Extroverts In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning to relate with people in their own style is important in helping to understand why they react the way they do. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the differences in the receptive learning styles of introverts, ambiverts and extroverts in Senior High Schools (SHS) in the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, ...

  17. The New ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards: Revising Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R. Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of educational standards inspires a variety of responses---from wholesale acceptance and deployment to criticism and blame. The author of this paper contends that the revision of the ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education must be accompanied by a critical, conscious, and conscientious reception by librarians and information literacy advocates.

  18. The New ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards: Revising Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of educational standards inspires a variety of responses---from wholesale acceptance and deployment to criticism and blame. The author of this paper contends that the revision of the ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education must be accompanied by a critical, conscious, and conscientious reception by librarians and information literacy advocates.

  19. Spectrotemporal dynamics of auditory cortical synaptic receptive field plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froemke, Robert C; Martins, Ana Raquel O

    2011-09-01

    The nervous system must dynamically represent sensory information in order for animals to perceive and operate within a complex, changing environment. Receptive field plasticity in the auditory cortex allows cortical networks to organize around salient features of the sensory environment during postnatal development, and then subsequently refine these representations depending on behavioral context later in life. Here we review the major features of auditory cortical receptive field plasticity in young and adult animals, focusing on modifications to frequency tuning of synaptic inputs. Alteration in the patterns of acoustic input, including sensory deprivation and tonal exposure, leads to rapid adjustments of excitatory and inhibitory strengths that collectively determine the suprathreshold tuning curves of cortical neurons. Long-term cortical plasticity also requires co-activation of subcortical neuromodulatory control nuclei such as the cholinergic nucleus basalis, particularly in adults. Regardless of developmental stage, regulation of inhibition seems to be a general mechanism by which changes in sensory experience and neuromodulatory state can remodel cortical receptive fields. We discuss recent findings suggesting that the microdynamics of synaptic receptive field plasticity unfold as a multi-phase set of distinct phenomena, initiated by disrupting the balance between excitation and inhibition, and eventually leading to wide-scale changes to many synapses throughout the cortex. These changes are coordinated to enhance the representations of newly-significant stimuli, possibly for improved signal processing and language learning in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Reception of Dewey in the Hispanic World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubiola, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe Dewey's reception in the Spanish-speaking countries that constitute the Hispanic world. Without any doubt, it can be said that in the past century Spain and the countries of South America have been a world apart, lagging far behind the mainstream Western world. It includes a number of names and facts about the…

  1. Adolescent Weight Status and Receptivity to Food TV Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…

  2. Joint Book Reading and Receptive Vocabulary: A Parallel Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to understand the reciprocal, bidirectional longitudinal relation between joint book reading and English receptive vocabulary. To address the research goals, a nationally representative sample of Head Start children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort), was used for analysis. The…

  3. The Receptivity of Prospective University Candidates in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , they were willing/not willing to utilise the distance learning mode to access university education. The analysis and tests of hypotheses focused strictly on receptivity to distance learning in relation to age group, gender, marital status, number of ...

  4. Refugee Perceptions of the Port Elizabeth Refugee Reception Centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents findings from an empirical survey conducted at the Nelson Mandela University Refugee Rights Centre based at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in Port Elizabeth, to establish the perceptions and experiences of refugees/asylum seekers of the Refugee Reception Centre in Port Elizabeth in ...

  5. Intervention for Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…

  6. [The Afrikaans receptive vocabulary test (ARV): description and psychometric evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitendag, M; Uys, I; Louw, B

    1991-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychometric characteristics of "Die Afrikaanse Reseptiewe Woordeskattoets (ARW)". The psychometric analysis indicates the test forms (A and B) to be equivalent, reliable and valid and that the ARW can thus be used with confidence as a screening and re-evaluation device for the evaluation of receptive vocabulary as well as intelligence.

  7. A New Receptive Vocabulary Size Test for French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Roselene; Horst, Marlise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have developed several tests of receptive vocabulary knowledge suitable for use with learners of English, but options are few for learners of French. This situation motivated the authors to create a new vocabulary size measure for French, the "Test de la taille du vocabulaire" (TTV). The measure is closely modelled on…

  8. The Judaeo-Karaite Reception of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    and because it has been and still is considered peripheral and sectarian. This volume presents a critical edition of an anonymous Karaite commentary on the Book of Jeremiah presented in both the original Arabic and in English translation. The volume uses this text to examine the commonalities and differences...... between the Rabbinate and the Karaite reception and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible....

  9. Surges and sediments: shaping the reception of reengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, H.S.; Benders, J.G.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The business community is continuously confronted with allegedly new concepts. These are often temporarily intensely advocated, yet are at the same time likely to be portrayed as transitory or ‘faddish’ phenomena. To trace the reception of these concepts, this paper examines the Dutch discourse on

  10. Psychological models of art reception must be empirically grounded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadal, Marcos; Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2018-01-01

    We commend Menninghaus et al. for tackling the role of negative emotions in art reception. However, their model suffers from shortcomings that reduce its applicability to empirical studies of the arts: poor use of evidence, lack of integration with other models, and limited derivation of testable...

  11. The Judaeo-Karaite Reception of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    DESCRIPTION: The Karaites emerged as a school of thought within Middle Eastern Judaism in the 8th century. The Karaites were a “reading community” whose intellectual activity and daily lives were based around the divine scriptures. Over time Karaism became one of the two main competing schools of...... between the Rabbinate and the Karaite reception and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible....

  12. Ovarian fluid of receptive females enhances sperm velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.

  13. Contour detection based on nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the

  14. Improved contour detection by non-classical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, C; Petkov, N; Westenberg, MA; Bulthoff, HH; Lee, SW; Poggio, TA; Wallraven, C

    2002-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve the performance of contour detectors. We introduce a Gabor energy operator augmented with non-CRF inhibition, which we call the bar cell operator. We use natural images with

  15. Real gas effects on receptivity to kinetic fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Anatoli; Edwards, Luke

    2016-11-01

    Receptivity of high-speed boundary layers is considered within the framework of fluctuating hydrodynamics where stochastic forcing is introduced through fluctuating shear stress and heat flux stemming from kinetic fluctuations (thermal noise). The forcing generates unstable modes whose amplification downstream and may lead to transition. An example of high-enthalpy (16 . 53 MJ / kg) boundary layer at relatively low wall temperatures (Tw = 1000 K - 3000 K), free stream temperature (Te = 834 K), and low pressure (0 . 0433 atm) is considered. Dissociation at the chosen flow parameters is still insignificant. The stability and receptivity analyses are carried out using a solver for calorically perfect gas with effective Prandtl number and specific heats ratio. The receptivity phenomenon is unchanged by the inclusion of real gas effects in the mean flow profiles. This is attributed to the fact that the mechanism for receptivity to kinetic fluctuations is localized near the upper edge of the boundary layer. Amplitudes of the generated wave packets are larger downstream in the case including real gas effects. It was found that spectra in both cases include supersonic second Mack unstable modes despite the temperature ratio Tw /Te > 1 . Supported by AFOSR.

  16. Deciphering the proteomic signature of human endometrial receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Gómez, Tamara; Quiñonero, Alicia; Antúnez, Oreto; Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Bellver, Jose; Simón, Carlos; Domínguez, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Are there any proteomic differences between receptive (R) and non-receptive (NR) endometrial receptivity array (ERA)-diagnosed endometria obtained on the same day of a hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) treatment cycle? There is a different proteomic signature between R and NR ERA-diagnosed endometrium obtained on the same day of HRT cycles. The human endometrial transcriptome has been extensively investigated in the last decade resulting in the development of a new diagnostic test based on the transcriptomic signature of the window of implantation (WOI). Much less is known about the proteomics derived from the transcripts present during the WOI. This study was a basic proteomic analysis of human endometrial biopsies taken from twelve IVF patients. Human endometrial biopsies were collected during HRT cycles after 5 days of progesterone (P) administration, and diagnosed as receptive (R; n = 6) or non-receptive (NR; n = 6) by the ERA test. Endometrial proteins were extracted, labelled and separated using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Proteins were identified using mass spectrometry, followed up by in silico analysis. Validation studies using western blots and immunolocalization were performed for the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and annexin A6 (ANXA6) proteins. DIGE analysis followed by protein identification by MALDI-MS and database searches revealed 24 differentially expressed proteins in R versus NR samples. In silico analysis showed two pathways which were significantly different between R and NR samples. Expression of PGRMC1 and ANXA6 was validated and localized by western blots and immunohistochemistry. These results highlight these proteins as key targets likely to be important in the comprehension of human endometrial receptivity. This was mainly a descriptive study with no functional studies on the proteins found. We also used a low number of human endometrial samples for the DIGE analysis. This study identified the

  17. Health Challenges in Refugee Reception: Dateline Europe 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad K. Blitz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of more than one million migrants, many of them refugees, has proved a major test for the European Union. Although international relief and monitoring agencies have been critical of makeshift camps in Calais and Eidomeni where infectious disease and overcrowding present major health risks, few have examined the nature of the official reception system and its impact on health delivery. Drawing upon research findings from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC funded project, this article considers the physical and mental health of asylum–seekers in transit and analyses how the closure of borders has engendered health risks for populations in recognised reception centres in Sicily and in Greece. Data gathered by means of a survey administered in Greece (300 and in Sicily (400, and complemented by in-depth interviews with migrants (45 and key informants (50 including representatives of government offices, humanitarian and relief agencies, NGOs and activist organisations, are presented to offer an analysis of the reception systems in the two frontline states. We note that medical provision varies significantly from one centre to another and that centre managers play a critical role in the transmission of vital information. A key finding is that, given such disparity, the criteria used by the UNHCR to grade health services reception do not address the substantive issue that prevent refugees from accessing health services, even when provided on site. Health provision is not as recorded in UNHCR reporting but rather there are critical gaps between provision, awareness, and access for refugees in reception systems in Sicily and in Greece. This article concludes that there is a great need for more information campaigns to direct refugees to essential services.

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation of Two Successive V3 and V4 IMERG Final Run Precipitation Products over Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement Final Run (IMERGF product has now been upgraded to Version 4 (V4, which has been available since March 2017. Therefore, it is desirable to evaluate the characteristic differences between the V4 and the previous V3 products. A comprehensive performance evaluation of the errors of the successive V3 and V4 IMERGF products is performed with a comparison of the China daily Precipitation Analysis Products (CPAP from March 2014 to February 2015. The version 6 Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP research product (which is another Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM based precipitation product is also used as a comparison in this study. Overall, the IMERGF-V4 product does not exhibit the anticipated improvement for China compared to the IMERGF-V3 product. An analysis of the metrics of annual daily average precipitation over China for the IMERGF-V3 and IMERGF-V4 products indicates a decrease of the relative bias (RB from 3.70% to −7.18%, a decrease of the correlation coefficient (CC from 0.91 to 0.89, an increase of the fractional standard error (FSE from 0.49 to 0.56, and an increase of the root-mean-square error (RMSE from 0.63 mm to 0.72 mm. Compared to the IMERGF-V3 product, the IMERGF-V4 product exhibits a significant underestimation of precipitation in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau with a much lower RB of −60.91% (−58.19%, −65.30%, and −63.74% based on the annual (summer, autumn, and winter daily average precipitation and an even worse performance during winter (−72.33% of RB. In comparison, the GSMaP product outperforms the IMERGF-V3 and IMERGF-V4 products and has the smallest RMSE (0.47 mm/day, highest CC (0.95, lowest FSE (0.37, and best performance of the RB (−2.39% in terms of annual daily precipitation over China. However, the GSMaP product underestimates the precipitation more than the IMERGF-V3 product for the arid XJ region.

  19. Differences in strength and speed demands between 4v4 and 8v8 small-sided football games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, António Natal Campos; Silva, Pedro; Rago, Vincenzo; Barreira, Daniel; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to characterise the acceleration demands of two different formats of small-sided game (SSG), i.e., 4v4 + goalkeepers (4v4 + GK) and 8v8 + goalkeepers (8v8 + GK); (ii) to analyse the correlation between performance in power-based tests and acceleration-based physical loading during the two different SSG formats and (iii) to analyse the neuromuscular-induced fatigue. Eighteen adult male footballers participated in the study (20.7 ± 1.0 years, 178 ± 5 cm and 71.4 ± 2.1 kg). Baseline measurements were obtained from countermovement jumps, 15 s repeated jumps and 5 and 15 m sprints. A total of 36 min was analysed for each SSG (4v4 + GK: two sets of 3 × 6 min, and 8v8 + GK: 2 × 18 min). Heart rate, blood lactate, perceived exertion and movement pattern (GPS) were analysed. Distances covered by very-high-intensity activities and very-high-speed running were lower in 4v4 + GK than in 8v8 + GK (effect sizes (ES) = -0.69 ± 0.67 and -1.04 ± 0.67, respectively; very likely), while accelerations and decelerations were higher in 4v4 + GK than in 8v8 + GK (ES = 1.13-1.52; almost certainly). Blood lactate concentrations were higher (ES = 1.40 ± 0.58; almost certainly) and players perceived themselves to be more tired (ES = 0.80-2.31; almost certainly) after 4v4 + GK than after 8v8 + GK. Sprint ability in 5 and 15 m tests decreased (ES = 0.87 ± 0.58 and 0.89 ± 0.58, respectively; almost certainly) only after 4v4 + GK. This SSG format appeared more demanding in relation to repetitions and fatigue development of muscle power-based actions than 8v8 + GK. It may therefore be logical to use the former type of SSG to target development of power-related football actions.

  20. The reception of Bollywood in Malaysia (1991-2012): a contextual study

    OpenAIRE

    Rohini SREEKUMAR

    2017-01-01

    Bollywood films are increasingly drawing scholarly attention for their global appeal and reception. Transnational studies have examined the reception of Bollywood in Australia, Britain, Scotland, South Africa, Russia, the United States of America, Bangladesh and Nepal. However, academic work on the Southeast Asian reception of these films is scarcer. This research seeks to fill this gap by looking at the reception of Bollywood in Malaysia from 1991-2012. The thesis adopts a...

  1. Age Differences in the Reception of New Scientific Theories: The Case of Plate Tectonics Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messeri, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Reviews various evidences on the relationship between age and the reception of major innovations in science. Examines the possibility that age patterning of reception may vary over time. Reports the potential importance of age on the reception of ideas while rejecting the presumption that advanced age leads to increased resistance. (YP)

  2. Receptive and Expressive Language Skills in Children with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, K. M.; Munir, F.

    1998-01-01

    Receptive and expressive language skills were assessed in 13 British children (ages 4-14) with cri-du-chat syndrome. Results found a discrepancy between the children's chronological ages and their presumed language ages and a receptive-expressive discrepancy, with reduced expressive skills compared to receptive skills. Remediation that focuses on…

  3. Deaf Students' Receptive and Expressive American Sign Language Skills: Comparisons and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…

  4. Receptive vocabulary knowledge and motivation in CLIL and EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Fernández Fontecha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL is a widely researched approach to foreign language learning and teaching. One of the pillars of CLIL is the concept of motivation. Some studies have focused on exploring motivation within CLIL, however there has not been much discussion about the connection between motivation, or other affective factors, and each component of foreign language learning. Hence, given two groups of learners with the same hours of EFL instruction, the main objective of this research is to determine whether there exists any kind of interaction between the number of words learners know receptively and their motivation towards English as a Foreign Language (EFL. Most students in both groups were highly motivated. No relationship was identified between the receptive vocabulary knowledge and the general motivation for the secondary graders but a positive significant relationship was found for the primary CLIL graders. Several reasons will be adduced.

  5. Binaural processing in the synthesis of auditory spatial receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, José Luis

    2003-11-01

    The owl's auditory system computes interaural time (ITD) and interaural level (ILD) differences to create a two-dimensional map of auditory space. Space-specific neurons are selective for combinations of ITD and ILD, which define, respectively, the horizontal and vertical dimensions of their receptive fields. ITD curves for postsynaptic potentials indicate that ICx neurons integrate the results of binaural cross correlation in different frequency bands. However, the difference between the main and side peaks is slight. ICx neurons further enhance this difference in the process of converting membrane potentials to impulse rates. Comparison of subthreshold postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) and spike output for the same neurons showed that receptive fields measured in PSPs were much larger than those measured in spikes in both ITD and ILD dimensions. A multiplication of separate postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD can account for the combination sensitivity of these neurons to ITD-ILD pairs.

  6. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-06-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric focus. The center of activity then switched to Latin America where a group of scholars coalesced in the mid 1990s, seemingly related to the maturation of the history of science as a discrete discipline there somewhat earlier. When interest in Europe revived during the last decade, the center of gravity had moved both eastward, to the former Society bloc countries (a reflection of the institutionalization of the history of science there), and north to Scandinavia. Recently, interest in the topic has emerged in the Islamic World. The subtext of the expansion of this topic is modernization.

  7. Reception of Jovan Cvijić in Slovenian ethnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavec-Gradišnik Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reception of the work of Jovan Cvijić in Slovenian ethnology. Cvijić is considered to be one of the founding fathers of Serbian ethnology, due in large part to his anthropogeographical orientation that strongly marked ethnological research in Serbia until the second half of the 20th century. In Slovenian ethnology, the so-called anthropogeographical school is virtually unknown; however, some of its tenets can be recognized or were actively applied in research of cultural areas, carried out by geographers and ethnographers before and after the Second World War when anthropogeography was considered to be a branch of geography and a discipline akin to ethnography/ethnology. The author aims to discuss when, for whom and in what way was Jovan Cvijić direct or indirect reference within the horizon of Slovenian ethnology. His reception is marked by acknowledging the powerful influence of his political views and engagement on his scholarship.

  8. Limiar anaeróbico (V4 e frequência cardíaca de cavalos Crioulos condicionados para prova funcional Anaerobic threshold (V4 and heart rate of Crioulo horses conditioned for functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Amaral

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o limiar anaeróbico (V4 de 23 cavalos Crioulos hígidos em treinamento. Os animais selecionados foram submetidos a testes de desempenho, composto por três etapas de velocidade progressiva de 6m/s, 8m/s e 10m/s, com duração de cinco minutos cada etapa, até que fosse atingida a concentração de 4mmol/dL de lactato sanguíneo. As concentrações de lactato sanguíneo elevaram-se a partir da velocidade de exercício de 6,0m/s, sendo que 20 animais (90% atingiram 4mmol/L de lactato na velocidade entre 6 - 8m/s, com média de frequência cardíaca que variou de 121 a 140bpm. Concluiu-se que a V4 do cavalo Crioulo está entre as velocidades de 6 - 8m/s e a frequência cardíaca entre 121 - 140bpm.The anaerobic threshold (V4 while running on a track is used in many breeds to evaluate physical conditioning and to establish a training regimen, but these data have not been obtained for the Crioulo breed. This study evaluated 23 healthy Crioulo horses to determine the anaerobic threshold (V4 during training. The selected animals were subjected to a performance test on a track. The test consisted of three five minute stages with increasing speeds of 6m/s, 8 m/s and 10m/s until the blood lactate concentration reached 4mmol/dL. Blood lactate concentrations began to increase at the exercise speed of 6m/s, and 90% (n=20 of the animals reached 4mmol/dL lactate between 6-8m/s, with an average heart rate ranging from 121 to 140bpm at these speeds. Our results demonstrate that the V4 of the Crioulo horse is between 6-8m/s at a heart rate between 121 and 140bpm.

  9. Effect of annealing temperature on the contact properties of Ni/V/4H-SiC structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Chong Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A sandwich structure of Ni/V/4H-SiC was prepared and annealed at different temperatures from 650 °C to 1050 °C. The electrical properties and microstructures were characterized by transmission line method, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A low specific contact resistance of 3.3 × 10-5 Ω·cm2 was obtained when the Ni/V contact was annealed at 1050 °C for 2 min. It was found that the silicide changed from Ni3Si to Ni2Si with increasing annealing temperature, while the vanadium compounds appeared at 950 °C and their concentration increased at higher annealing temperature. A schematic diagram was proposed to explain the ohmic contact mechanism of Ni/V/4H-SiC structure.

  10. Tensile properties of V-(4-15)Cr-5Ti alloys irradiated at 400{degrees}C in the HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    V-(4-15)Cr-5Ti alloys were irradiated in a helium environment to {approx}10 dpa at {approx}400{degrees}C in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This report presents results of postirradiation tests of tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti, V-8Cr-6Ti, V-10Cr-5Ti, and V-15Cr-5Ti. Despite concerns on the effects of transmutation of vanadium to Cr and impurity pickup from the helium environment, all of the alloys exhibited ductile tensile behavior. However, the alloys exhibited ductilities somewhat lower than those of the specimens irradiated to a similar dose and at a similar temperature in an Li environment in fast reactors. Uniform plastic strain in the V-Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys decreased monotonically with increasing Cr content.

  11. Impaired receptivity and decidualization in DHEA-induced PCOS mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility...

  12. A notch-wire composite antenna for polarization diversity reception

    OpenAIRE

    Kuga, Nobuhiro; Arai, H; Goto, N

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a notch-wire composite antenna for polarization diversity reception in an indoor base-station system, A three-notched disk antenna and a wire antenna are proposed as component antennas for the horizontal and the vertical polarization, respectively. These component antennas are unified as a single composite diversity antenna by mounting the wire antenna on the notched disk. Antenna characteristics are calculated using the method of moments (MoM) with wire grid models and ex...

  13. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding receptivity to interruptions in mobile human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Joel,

    2011-01-01

    Interruptions have a profound impact on our attentional orientation in everyday life. Recent advances in mobile information technology increase the number of potentially disruptive notifications on mobile devices by an increasing availability of services. Understanding the contextual intricacies that make us receptive to these interruptions is paramount to devising technology that supports interruption management. This thesis makes a number of contributions to the methodology of studying ...

  15. Effect of thickness and loading mode on the fracture properties of V-4Cr-4Ti at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The effect of thickness on the room temperature (RT) mode I fracture behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti has been investigated. Mode i fracture properties were measured from J-integral tests of compact tension (CT) specimens ranging in thickness from 6.4 mm to 25.4 mm. All specimens were machined in the T-L orientation and vacuum annealed following final matching. Two heats of V-4Cr-4Ti were tested. Specimens 6.4 mm and 12.7 mm thick were taken from ANL Heat No. 832665. The 25.4 mm thick specimens were obtained from GA Heat No. 832864. J-R curves were generated by the single specimen unload-compliance test technique in accordance with ASTM E813. All tests were performed in laboratory air at 25 C. Fracture of V-4Cr-4Ti under mixed-mode loading conditions showed the same trend observed previously for V-5Cr-5Ti and for other tough materials. For materials which fail by microvoid coalescence, the addition of an out-of-plane shear loading component introduces incompatibility stresses at particle interfaces in the trajectory of the crack. These incompatibility stresses cause particle/matrix decohesion or particle fracture which leads to void formation that limits the mode i plastic flow field. The present results demonstrates that fracture of V-4Cr-4Ti is sensitive to the addition of shear loading components and that model fracture toughness tests may not give the most conservative measure of resistance to ductile fracture.

  16. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  17. Application of receptive music therapy in internal medicine and cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyntia Marconato

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of receptive music therapy in clinical practice. METHODS: Receptive music therapy was individually applied via musical auditions, including five stages: musical stimulation, sensation, situation, reflection, and behavioral alteration. Following anamnesis and obtainment of consent, patients answered a first questionnaire on health risk evaluation (Q1, and after participating in 16 weekly music therapy sessions, answered a second one (Q2. RESULTS: Two men and 8 women, aged above 18 years, referred to us due to symptoms of stress, emotional suffering, and the need to change lifestyles (health risk behavior were studied between August 1998 and December 1999. Comparison between answers to Q1 and Q2, showed a trend (P=0.059 for reduction of ingestion of cholesterol-rich foods and for increased prospects in life with a tendency towards improvement, and also of increased intake of fiber-rich food (55.6%, increased levels of personal satisfaction (44.5%, and decreased levels of stress (66.7%. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated decreased stress levels and increased personal satisfaction, higher consumption of fiber-rich food, lower cholesterol intake, and a better perspective on life, suggesting that receptive music therapy may be applied in clinical practice as an auxiliary therapeutic intervention for the treatment of behavioral health risks.

  18. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  19. Aesthetic-Receptive and Critical-Creative in Appreciative Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Setiartin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a process of aesthetically appreciative receptive to emphasize critical-creative reading activities. Metacognitively students understand, address any and explore the idea of the author in the text. Students responded, criticize, and evaluate the author's ideas in the text. At this stage, students can construct their post read text into other forms (new text. The aim of this strategy equips students to understand the meaning of the story, explore ideas, responding critically, and creatively pouring backstory idea. Reading strategies aesthetically-critical-creative receptive grabbed cognitive, effective, and psychomotor toward literacy critical reading and creative writing. Read appreciative included into the activities of reading comprehension. This activity involves the sensitivity and ability to process aesthetically-receptive reading and critical-creative. Readers imagination roam the author to obtain meaningful understanding and experience of reading. Some models of reading comprehension proposed experts covering the steps before reading, when reading, and after reading. At that stage to enable students after reading thinking abilities. Activities that can be done at this stage, for example, examine the back story, retell, make drawings, diagrams, or maps the concept of reading, as well as making a road map that describes the event. Other activities that can be done is to transform our student's text stories through reinforcement form illustrated stories into comic book form, for example (transliteration.

  20. College Student Receptiveness to Various Alcohol Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epler, Amee J.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Loomis, Tiffany B.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Heavy episodic drinking remains a significant problem on college campuses. Although most interventions for college students are behavioral, pharmacological treatments, such as naltrexone, could provide additional options. Participants The authors evaluated receptivity to various alcohol treatment options in a general population of college student drinkers (N = 2,084), assessed in 2005. Methods The authors asked participants to indicate which of 8 treatment options (ie, sell-help book, self-help computer program, self-help group, group therapy, individual therapy, monthly injection, targeted oral medication, or daily oral medication) they would be willing to consider if they were going to cut down on or stop drinking. Results Over 50% of drinkers expressed receptiveness to self-help options or psychotherapy options, and over 25% of drinkers expressed receptiveness to medication options. Conclusions Increasing treatment options for students interested in reducing or stopping drinking by offering pharmacological interventions such as naltrexone could provide an important unmet need among college students. PMID:19592350

  1. The relevance of receptive vocabulary in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalom, Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the performance of students from the 5th year of primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, in receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension of sentences and texts, and to verify possible correlations between both. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the institution (no. 098/13). Fifty-two students in the 5th year from primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, and from two public schools participated in this study. After signing the informed consent and having a speech therapy assessment for the application of inclusion criteria, the students were submitted to a specific test for standardized evaluation of receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension. The data were studied using statistical analysis through the Kruskal-Wallis test, analysis of variance techniques, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient with level of significance to be 0.05. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (was constructed in which reading comprehension was considered as gold standard. The students without indicatives of reading and writing disorders presented a better performance in all tests. No significant correlation was found between the tests that evaluated reading comprehension in either group. A correlation was found between reading comprehension of texts and receptive vocabulary in the group without indicatives. In the absence of indicatives of reading and writing disorders, the presence of a good range of vocabulary highly contributes to a proficient reading comprehension of texts.

  2. Sibship size, sibling cognitive sensitivity, and children's receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Heather; Pauker, Sharon; Plamondon, André; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between sibship size and children's vocabulary as a function of quality of sibling interactions. It was hypothesized that coming from a larger sibship (ie, 3+ children) would be related to lower receptive vocabulary in children. However, we expected this association to be moderated by the level of cognitive sensitivity shown by children's next-in-age older siblings. Data on 385 children (mean age = 3.15 years) and their next-in-age older siblings (mean age = 5.57 years) were collected and included demographic questionnaires, direct testing of children's receptive vocabulary, and videos of mother-child and sibling interactions. Sibling dyads were taped engaging in a cooperative building task and tapes were coded for the amount of cognitive sensitivity the older sibling exhibited toward the younger sibling. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted and showed an interaction between sibship size and sibling cognitive sensitivity in the prediction of children's receptive vocabulary; children exposed to large sibships whose next-in-age older sibling exhibited higher levels of cognitive sensitivity were less likely to show low vocabulary skills when compared with those children exposed to large sibships whose siblings showed lower levels of cognitive sensitivity. Children who show sensitivity to the cognitive needs of their younger siblings provide a rich environment for language development. The negative impact of large sibships on language development is moderated by the presence of an older sibling who shows high cognitive sensitivity.

  3. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eRosslau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions or expression (music production abilities, and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a right-sided stroke, patients with a left-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  4. Retinex processing from the fMRI study on V4: artistic research of colored picture using functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Kitahara, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Artists can imagine 2 kinds of coloured scenes with no recognizable objects. One is the abstract picture such as colour Mondrian, which includes geometric pattern: rectangles, circles and crosses. Another is the decorative texture such as Japanese traditional cloud pattern which is colour camouflage pattern and does not include geometric pattern. We created these 2 kinds of colour dot pattern stimuli composed of 4 iso-luminance colours and the same area and an achromatic version. These functional magnetic resonance imaging stimuli reveal multiple colour-sensitive areas in human ventral occipitotemporal cortex. The results showed that area V4 is highly activated by the stimulus of the abstract picture such as rectangle pattern and spiral but little activated by the stimulus of the decorative texture such as random colour dot picture and cloud pattern. We suggest V4 is activated by figures composed of colour dots with eye-like shape such as disks, crosses, gratings, spirals, and windmill-like figures, and V4 has low response to the camouflage figure in which colour dots do not include eye-like shapes.

  5. Characteristics of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains in Néel-type skyrmion host GaV4S8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butykai, Ádám; Bordács, Sándor; Kézsmárki, István; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois; Döring, Jonathan; Neuber, Erik; Milde, Peter; Kehr, Susanne C.; Eng, Lukas M.

    2017-03-01

    GaV4S8 is a multiferroic semiconductor hosting Néel-type magnetic skyrmions dressed with electric polarization. At Ts = 42 K, the compound undergoes a structural phase transition of weakly first-order, from a non-centrosymmetric cubic phase at high temperatures to a polar rhombohedral structure at low temperatures. Below Ts, ferroelectric domains are formed with the electric polarization pointing along any of the four axes. Although in this material the size and the shape of the ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains may act as important limiting factors in the formation of the Néel-type skyrmion lattice emerging below TC = 13 K, the characteristics of polar domains in GaV4S8 have not been studied yet. Here, we report on the inspection of the local-scale ferroelectric domain distribution in rhombohedral GaV4S8 using low-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy. We observed mechanically and electrically compatible lamellar domain patterns, where the lamellae are aligned parallel to the (100)-type planes with a typical spacing between 100 nm-1.2 μm. Since the magnetic pattern, imaged by atomic force microscopy using a magnetically coated tip, abruptly changes at the domain boundaries, we expect that the control of ferroelectric domain size in polar skyrmion hosts can be exploited for the spatial confinement and manipulation of Néel-type skyrmions.

  6. Characteristics of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains in Néel-type skyrmion host GaV4S8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butykai, Ádám; Bordács, Sándor; Kézsmárki, István; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois; Döring, Jonathan; Neuber, Erik; Milde, Peter; Kehr, Susanne C; Eng, Lukas M

    2017-03-15

    GaV 4 S 8 is a multiferroic semiconductor hosting Néel-type magnetic skyrmions dressed with electric polarization. At T s  = 42 K, the compound undergoes a structural phase transition of weakly first-order, from a non-centrosymmetric cubic phase at high temperatures to a polar rhombohedral structure at low temperatures. Below T s , ferroelectric domains are formed with the electric polarization pointing along any of the four 〈111〉 axes. Although in this material the size and the shape of the ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains may act as important limiting factors in the formation of the Néel-type skyrmion lattice emerging below T C  = 13 K, the characteristics of polar domains in GaV 4 S 8 have not been studied yet. Here, we report on the inspection of the local-scale ferroelectric domain distribution in rhombohedral GaV 4 S 8 using low-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy. We observed mechanically and electrically compatible lamellar domain patterns, where the lamellae are aligned parallel to the (100)-type planes with a typical spacing between 100 nm-1.2 μm. Since the magnetic pattern, imaged by atomic force microscopy using a magnetically coated tip, abruptly changes at the domain boundaries, we expect that the control of ferroelectric domain size in polar skyrmion hosts can be exploited for the spatial confinement and manipulation of Néel-type skyrmions.

  7. Excitations and relaxation dynamics in multiferroic GeV4S8 studied by terahertz and dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, S.; Wang, Zhe; Mayr, F.; Ruff, E.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on THz time-domain spectroscopy on multiferroic GeV4S8 , which undergoes orbital ordering at a Jahn-Teller transition at 30.5 K and exhibits antiferromagnetic order below 14.6 K. The THz experiments are complemented by dielectric experiments at audio and radio frequencies. We identify a low-lying excitation close to 0.5 THz, which is only weakly temperature dependent and probably corresponds to a molecular excitation within the electronic level scheme of the V4 clusters. In addition, we detect complex temperature-dependent behavior of a low-lying phononic excitation, closely linked to the onset of orbitally driven ferroelectricity. In the high-temperature cubic phase, which is paramagnetic and orbitally disordered, this excitation is of relaxational character becomes an overdamped Lorentzian mode in the orbitally ordered phase below the Jahn-Teller transition, and finally appears as well-defined phonon excitation in the antiferromagnetic state. Abrupt changes in the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric permittivity show that orbital ordering appears via a structural phase transition with strong first-order character and that the onset of antiferromagnetic order is accompanied by significant structural changes, which are of first-order character, too. Dielectric spectroscopy documents that at low frequencies, significant dipolar relaxations are present in the orbitally ordered, paramagnetic phase only. In contrast to the closely related GaV4S8 , this relaxation dynamics that most likely mirrors coupled orbital and polar fluctuations does not seem to be related to the dynamic processes detected in the THz regime.

  8. Longitudinal analysis of receptive vocabulary growth in young Spanish English-speaking children from migrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher; Leacox, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this study described developmental trajectories and predicted kindergarten performance of Spanish and English receptive vocabulary acquisition of young Latino/a English language learners (ELLs) from socioeconomically disadvantaged migrant families. In addition, the authors examined the extent to which gender and individual initial performance in Spanish predict receptive vocabulary performance and growth rate. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling of 64 children's receptive vocabulary performance to generate growth trajectories, predict performance at school entry, and examine potential predictors of rate of growth. The timing of testing varied across children. The ELLs (prekindergarten to 2nd grade) participated in 2-5 testing sessions, each 6-12 months apart. The ELLs' average predicted standard score on an English receptive vocabulary at kindergarten was nearly 2 SDs below the mean for monolingual peers. Significant growth in the ELLs' receptive vocabulary was observed between preschool and 2nd grade, indicating that the ELLs were slowly closing the receptive vocabulary gap, although their average score remained below the standard score mean for age-matched monolingual peers. The ELLs demonstrated a significant decrease in Spanish receptive vocabulary standard scores over time. Initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was a significant predictor of growth in English receptive vocabulary. High initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was associated with greater growth in English receptive vocabulary and decelerated growth in Spanish receptive vocabulary. Gender was not a significant predictor of growth in either English or Spanish receptive vocabulary. ELLs from low socioeconomic backgrounds may be expected to perform lower in English compared with their monolingual English peers in kindergarten. Performance in Spanish at school entry may be useful in identifying children who require more intensive instructional support for English vocabulary

  9. ST-segment elevation in V1-V4 in acute pulmonary embolism: a case presentation and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hesham R

    2016-12-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are seen in 70%-80% of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Rarely, APE presents with ST-segment elevation (STE) in leads V1-V4, mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Herein, we describe a case of APE presenting with STE in V1-V3, along with a comprehensive review of the literature. We reviewed Pubmed/Medline indexed articles from 1950 to 2014 reporting cases of APE presenting with STE in V1-V3 or V4 (V1-V3/V4). Cases were analyzed with specific reference to patient demographics, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data, treatment, and outcome. A total of 12 cases were identified comprising seven males and five females aged between 31 and 64 years. Five cases met the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association criteria for massive APE due to sustained hemodynamic instability or requirement for inotropic support, and seven met criteria for submassive PE due to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction or elevated troponin in absence of systemic hypotension. Among the notable clinical features in this cohort is the high incidence of syncope, in 66.7% of the cases, high incidence of concomitant deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in 90% of cases that reported venous Doppler results (eight proximal and one distal DVT), and the presence of a dilated RV in 90% of the cases that reported echocardiographic results. In all but one case the initial working diagnosis was STEMI and emergent cardiac catheterization was planned. In the 90% of cases who eventually had a coronary angiography, the angiogram was performed prior to diagnosing APE, and the lack of occlusive disease prompted further workup that confirmed the diagnosis of APE. In-hospital mortality rate in the studied population was 16.7%. STE in leads V1-V3/V4 in cases with APE identifies a subset of patients who are an intermediate to high risk category. In cases presenting with right precordial lead STE and clinical features that are more

  10. Studies of reactor irradiation effect on hydrogen isotope release from vanadium alloy V4Cr4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulsartov, T. [Kazakhstan State University, Tole-bi-str. 96a., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V. [Kazakhstan State University, Tole-bi-str. 96a., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Chikhray, Y. [Kazakhstan State University, Tole-bi-str. 96a., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kenzhin, Y. [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Krasnoarmeyskaya-str. 10, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Kolbayenkov, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Krasnoarmeyskaya-str. 10, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Tazhibayeva, I. [National Nuclear Center, Lenin-str. 6, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2007-08-01

    Vanadium alloys are most promising materials being considered for lithium blanket-breeder in future fusion reactors. The primary reason for these stems from good combination of physical-mechanical and radiation properties of vanadium alloys. In operational conditions of fusion reactors the very important issue is behavior of vanadium alloy with respect to hydrogen isotopes under neutron and gamma irradiation. This paper shows results of the experimental studies of reactor irradiation influence on parameters of hydrogen release from vanadium alloys. Experiments were carried out for various levels of reactor irradiation and showed the effect of irradiation on parameters of hydrogen release from vanadium alloy V4Cr4Ti.

  11. Membrane–initiated estradiol signaling regulating sexual receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Micevych

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor; GPER, and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH. Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and DRGs.

  12. Aesthetics of reception, Jauss, implied reader and actual reader.

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Cleiton de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss how Hans Robert Jauss, the creator of the aesthetics of reception, has introduced the category of the reader into the literary studies especially when it comes to the importance of the reader to the understanding of the text, and to the history of a society and its literary system or, in other words to the way the formal elements of a literary work are organized and how they are related to aesthetic, ethic and moral evaluations. To do so, it is necessary to...

  13. Life Is Strange a mediated game reception analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mänder, Leili

    2017-01-01

    In this essay a mediated video game reception of the game Life Is Strange is made, with the purpose of examining the players' meaning-making processes from a gender perspective. The materials of this essay consist of videos from six different YouTube channels where each player film themselves whilst playing through Life Is Strange as a way to review and share the gaming experience. The results show how the meaning-making processes are littered with gender discourses and affects. The affects o...

  14. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Virtual Community Reception Center

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-28

    This podcast is an overview of resources from the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes a web-based training tool known as a Virtual Community Reception Center (vCRC).  Created: 2/28/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 2/28/2011.

  15. Functional field score : the effect of using a Goldmann V-4e isopter instead of a Goldmann III-4e isopter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, Maaike; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C; de Boer, Michiel R; van Rens, Ger H M B

    PURPOSE: To investigate the underestimation of field loss in functional field score (FFS) between the Goldmann isopters III-4e and V-4e in visually impaired patients, in order to develop a predictive model for the FFS(III-4e) based on FFS(v-4e) that adjusts for possible confounders. Although the

  16. Microstructural changes of Y-doped V-4Cr-4Ti alloys after ion and neutron irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Watanabe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High-purity Y-doped V-4Cr-4Ti alloys (0.1–0.2wt. % Y, manufactured by the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS, were used for this study. Heavy-ion and fission-neutron irradiation was carried out at temperatures 673–873K. During the ion irradiation at 873K, the microstructure was controlled by the formation of Ti(C,O,N precipitates lying on the (100 plane. Y addition effectively suppressed the growth of Ti(C,O,N precipitates, especially at lower dose irradiation to up to 4 dpa. However, at higher dose levels (12.0 dpa, the number density was almost at the same levels irrespective of the presence of Y. After neutron irradiation at 873K, fine titanium oxides were also observed in all V alloys. However, smaller oxide sizes were observed in the Y-doped samples under the same irradiation conditions. The detailed analysis of EDS showed that the center of the Ti(C,O,N precipitates was mainly enriched by nitrogen. The results showed that the contribution of not only oxygen atoms picked up from the irradiation environment but also nitrogen atoms is essential to understand the microstructural evolution of V-4Cr-4Ti-Y alloys.

  17. A-site-ordered perovskite MnCu3V4O12 with a 12-coordinated manganese(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Yasuhide; Yamada, Ikuya; Fujita, Koji; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Irifune, Tetuo; Yajima, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2013-10-07

    A novel cubic perovskite MnCu3V4O12 has been synthesized at a high pressure and high temperature of 12 GPa and 1373 K. This compound crystallizes in the A-site-ordered perovskite structure (space group Im3) with lattice constant a = 7.26684(10) Å at room temperature. The most notable feature of this compound lies in the fact that the Mn(2+) ion is surrounded by 12 equidistant oxide ions to form a regular icosahedron; the situation of Mn(2+) is unprecedented for the crystal chemistry of an oxide. An anomalously large atomic displacement parameter U(iso)= 0.0222(8) Å(2) is found for Mn(2+) at room temperature, indicating that the thermal oscillation of the small Mn(2+) ion in a large icosahedron is fairly active. Magnetic susceptibility and electric resistivity measurements reveal that 3d electrons of Mn(2+) ions are mainly localized, while 3d electrons in Cu(2+) and V(4+) ions are delocalized and contribute to the metallic conduction.

  18. Platforma Android v.4

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovič, Marko

    2011-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis I focus on mobile operating system Android and specifically on its version Android 4.0, which is designed for smart phones and tablets. The thesis has several parts. In the first part of thesis is devoted to the Android platform as a whole, its architecture, features and previous versions. In the second part I deal with Android 4.0 itself, its differences from previous versions, new features and the unification of the Android platform. The third part contains information...

  19. Computing meaning v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry; Pulman, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers by leading researchers in computational semantics. It presents a state-of-the-art overview of recent and current research in computational semantics, including descriptions of new methods for constructing and improving resources for semantic computation, such as WordNet, VerbNet, and semantically annotated corpora. It also presents new statistical methods in semantic computation, such as the application of distributional semantics in the compositional calculation of sentence meanings. Computing the meaning of sentences, texts, and spoken or texted dialogue i

  20. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  1. Fourier transform high-resolution study of the 2v4 rovibrational band of CH335Cl from 5980 cm-1 to 6220 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Hamid; Ben Sari-Zizi, Najate; Guelachvili, Guy; Alamichel, Claude

    About 1100 lines of the 2v4∓2 perpendicular component and about 600 lines of the 2v40 parallel component of the 2v4 infrared band of CH335Cl have been assigned. A root mean square (RMS) deviation of 0·020 cm-1 has been achieved by a least-squares fit over 732 rovibrational lines of the perpendicular component; for this purpose, a model taking into account anharmonic resonances between (i) 2v4∓2 and v4∓1 + 3v6∓1 and (ii) v4∓1 + 3v6∓1 and 6v6∓2 was used. A RMS deviation of 0·018 cm-1 has been achieved by a least-squares fit, according to an unperturbed model, of over 400 lines of the parallel component; many lines have been excluded from the fit because all the K sub-bands exhibit local anomalies.

  2. Visual cortex in aging and Alzheimer’s disease: Changes in visual field maps and population receptive fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa A. Brewer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1 during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM organization and population receptive fields (pRFs between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD.

  3. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, P R

    2000-12-01

    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism.

  4. The public reception of the Research Assessment Exercise 1996.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Warner

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the public reception of the Research Assessment Exercise 1996 (RAE from its announcement in December 1996 to the decline of discussion at end May 1997. A model for diffusion of the RAE is established which distinguishes extra-communal (or exoteric from intra-communal (or esoteric media. The different characteristics of each medium and the changing nature of the discussion over time are considered. Different themes are distinguished in the public reception of the RAE: the spatial distribution of research; the organisation of universities; disciplinary differences in understanding; a perceived conflict between research and teaching; the development of a culture of accountability; and analogies with the organisation of professional football. In conclusion, it is suggested that the RAE and its effects can be more fully considered from the perspective of scholarly communication and understandings of the development of knowledge than it has been by previous contributions in information science, which have concentrated on the possibility of more efficient implementation of existing processes. A fundamental responsibility for funding councils is also identified: to promote the overall health of university education and research, while establishing meaningful differentiations between units.

  5. Sensory noise predicts divisive reshaping of receptive fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneve, Sophie; Gutkin, Boris

    2017-01-01

    In order to respond reliably to specific features of their environment, sensory neurons need to integrate multiple incoming noisy signals. Crucially, they also need to compete for the interpretation of those signals with other neurons representing similar features. The form that this competition should take depends critically on the noise corrupting these signals. In this study we show that for the type of noise commonly observed in sensory systems, whose variance scales with the mean signal, sensory neurons should selectively divide their input signals by their predictions, suppressing ambiguous cues while amplifying others. Any change in the stimulus context alters which inputs are suppressed, leading to a deep dynamic reshaping of neural receptive fields going far beyond simple surround suppression. Paradoxically, these highly variable receptive fields go alongside and are in fact required for an invariant representation of external sensory features. In addition to offering a normative account of context-dependent changes in sensory responses, perceptual inference in the presence of signal-dependent noise accounts for ubiquitous features of sensory neurons such as divisive normalization, gain control and contrast dependent temporal dynamics. PMID:28622330

  6. Receptivity to Kinetic Fluctuations: A Multiple Scales Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Luke; Tumin, Anatoli

    2017-11-01

    The receptivity of high-speed compressible boundary layers to kinetic fluctuations (KF) is considered within the framework of fluctuating hydrodynamics. The formulation is based on the idea that KF-induced dissipative fluxes may lead to the generation of unstable modes in the boundary layer. Fedorov and Tumin solved the receptivity problem using an asymptotic matching approach which utilized a resonant inner solution in the vicinity of the generation point of the second Mack mode. Here we take a slightly more general approach based on a multiple scales WKB ansatz which requires fewer assumptions about the behavior of the stability spectrum. The approach is modeled after the one taken by Luchini to study low speed incompressible boundary layers over a swept wing. The new framework is used to study examples of high-enthalpy, flat plate boundary layers whose spectra exhibit nuanced behavior near the generation point, such as first mode instabilities and near-neutral evolution over moderate length scales. The configurations considered exhibit supersonic unstable second Mack modes despite the temperature ratio Tw /Te > 1 , contrary to prior expectations. Supported by AFOSR and ONR.

  7. Evidence of proceptive without receptive defeminization in male ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, M J; Stockman, E R; Lundell, L A

    1985-08-01

    The latencies of groups of gonadectomized male and female ferrets to approach and interact with a sexually active stimulus male were measured after administration of estradiol benzoate (EB; 0, 5, 10, or 15 micrograms/kg) in adulthood. Receptive responsiveness to stud males was also assessed in these same ferrets during additional tests. Control female ferrets gonadectomized on Postnatal Day 35 displayed a dose-dependent reduction in approach latencies to the stud male which did not occur in control males castrated on Day 35. The approach latencies of males castrated on Postnatal Day 20 or Day 5 were intermediate between these two extremes. Equivalent dose-dependent reductions in approach latencies were observed in groups of ferrets ovariectomized on Day 5 and implanted sc with Silastic capsules containing either no hormone or different doses of testosterone over Postnatal Days 5-20 or 20-35. Equivalent dose-dependent increments in acceptance quotients were obtained in all groups of male and female ferrets following EB treatment. These results suggest that the capacity to display the proceptive, or appetitive, components of feminine sexual behavior is normally reduced in male ferrets as a consequence of the perinatal action of testicular hormones whereas receptive behavioral capacity is retained in males of this species.

  8. Sensory noise predicts divisive reshaping of receptive fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Chalk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to respond reliably to specific features of their environment, sensory neurons need to integrate multiple incoming noisy signals. Crucially, they also need to compete for the interpretation of those signals with other neurons representing similar features. The form that this competition should take depends critically on the noise corrupting these signals. In this study we show that for the type of noise commonly observed in sensory systems, whose variance scales with the mean signal, sensory neurons should selectively divide their input signals by their predictions, suppressing ambiguous cues while amplifying others. Any change in the stimulus context alters which inputs are suppressed, leading to a deep dynamic reshaping of neural receptive fields going far beyond simple surround suppression. Paradoxically, these highly variable receptive fields go alongside and are in fact required for an invariant representation of external sensory features. In addition to offering a normative account of context-dependent changes in sensory responses, perceptual inference in the presence of signal-dependent noise accounts for ubiquitous features of sensory neurons such as divisive normalization, gain control and contrast dependent temporal dynamics.

  9. Arabinogalactan-protein secretion is associated with the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity in the apple flower

    OpenAIRE

    Losada Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Herrero Romero, María

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Stigmatic receptivity plays a clear role in pollination dynamics; however, little is known about the factors that confer to a stigma the competence to be receptive for the germination of pollen grains. In this work, a developmental approach is used to evaluate the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and its relationship with a possible change in arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Methods Flowers of the domestic apple, Malus × domestica, were assessed for their capacity ...

  10. A.A.EVENT PLANNING - Catering Services For A Wedding Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    This project report focuses on planning the traditional wedding reception for a couple who are interested in having a western reception with an African traditional touch. That is a western African wedding reception. They are both Christians and have invited their church members as well as their family members to be part of their great celebration day. Since the couples and I are members of the same church, they heard of my established business through word of mouth and assign my wedding p...

  11. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4–11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2–11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for...

  12. Airborne Antenna System for Minimum-Cycle-Slip GPS Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    A system that includes a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna and associated apparatus for keeping the antenna aimed upward has been developed for use aboard a remote-sensing-survey airplane. The purpose served by the system is to enable minimum- cycle-slip reception of GPS signals used in precise computation of the trajectory of the airplane, without having to restrict the airplane to maneuvers that increase the flight time needed to perform a survey. Cycle slip signifies loss of continuous track of the phase of a signal. Minimum-cycle-slip reception is desirable because maintaining constant track of the phase of the carrier signal from each available GPS satellite is necessary for surveying to centimeter or subcentimeter precision. Even a loss of signal for as short a time as a nanosecond can cause cycle slip. Cycle slips degrade the quality and precision of survey data acquired during a flight. The two principal causes of cycle slip are weakness of signals and multipath propagation. Heretofore, it has been standard practice to mount a GPS antenna rigidly on top of an airplane, and the radiation pattern of the antenna is typically hemispherical, so that all GPS satellites above the horizon are viewed by the antenna during level flight. When the airplane must be banked for a turn or other maneuver, the reception hemisphere becomes correspondingly tilted; hence, the antenna no longer views satellites that may still be above the Earth horizon but are now below the equatorial plane of the tilted reception hemisphere. Moreover, part of the reception hemisphere (typically, on the inside of a turn) becomes pointed toward ground, with a consequent increase in received noise and, therefore, degradation of GPS measurements. To minimize the likelihood of loss of signal and cycle slip, bank angles of remote-sensing survey airplanes have generally been limited to 10 or less, resulting in skidding or slipping uncoordinated turns. An airplane must be banked in order to make

  13. Hydrogen depth distribution and fatigue properties of TiAl6V4 with implanted nitrogen; Wasserstoff-Tiefenverteilung und Ermuedungseigenschaften von Stickstoff-implantiertem TiAl6V4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Materialwissenschaft; Rueck, D.M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany). Abt. fuer Materialforschung; Soltani-Farshi, M.; Baumann, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1998-12-31

    Depth distributions and cracking initiation were analysed in TiAl6V4 with implanted nitrogen by means of high-energy backscattering spectroscopy, nuclear reaction analysis and fatigue tests under rotary bending loads. The hydrogen content in the substrate is approx. 0.4 at.%. The hydrogen content in the materials layer with implanted nitrogen is up to 2.6 at%. The highest hydrogen concentration was found in material consisting of titanium nitride (TiN) and {alpha}-titanium. In areas with high nitrogen accumulation, where a consistent TiN layer is formed, the hydrogen content is lower than 1.5 at.%. Nitrogen ion implantation was not found to significantly reduce the fatigue strength of the specimens tested under rotary bending loads, although fatigue-induced cracking primarily occurs in specimen zones where the maximum concentrations of hydrogen and nitrogen are close to the surface. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Tiefenverteilungen und die Rissbildung von Stickstoff-implantiertem TiAl6V4 wurden mittels Hochenergie-Rueckstreu-Spektroskopie, Kernreaktionsanalyse und Umlaufbiegetests untersucht. Der Wasserstoffgehalt im Substrat betraegt etwa 0,4 at.%. In der Stickstoff-implantierten Schicht wird eine Wasserstoffakkumulation bis zu 2,6 at% beobachtet. Die hoechste Wasserstoffkonzentration tritt auf, wenn eine Mischung aus Titannitrid (TiN) und mit Stickstoff angereichertem {alpha}-Titan vorliegt. In Bereichen hoher Stickstoffanreicherung, in denen eine zusammenhaengende TiN-Schicht gebildet wird, sinkt der Wasserstoffanteil unter 1,5 at.% ab. Die Stickstoff-Implantation senkt die Lebensdauern im Umlaufbiegeversuch nicht signifikant ab, obwohl die Ermuedungsrisse bevorzugt von Probenbereichen ausgehen, in denen die Maximalgehalte von Stickstoff und Wasserstoff nahe an der Oberflaeche liegen. (orig.)

  14. Expressive and receptive language skills in preschool children from a socially disadvantaged area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ashling; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'shea, Aoife

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that children present with receptive language skills that are equivalent to or more advanced than expressive language skills. This profile holds true for typical and delayed language development. This study aimed to determine if such a profile existed for preschool children from an area of social deprivation and to investigate if particular language skills influence any differences found between expressive and receptive skills. Data from 187 CELF P2 UK assessments conducted on preschool children from two socially disadvantaged areas in a city in southern Ireland. A significant difference was found between Receptive Language Index (RLI) and Expressive Language Index (ELI) scores with Receptive scores found to be lower than Expressive scores. The majority (78.6%) of participants had a lower Receptive Language than Expressive score (RLI ELI), with very few (3.2%) having the same Receptive and Expressive scores (RLI = ELI). Scores for the Concepts and Following Directions (receptive) sub-test were significantly lower than for the other receptive sub tests, while scores for the Expressive Vocabulary sub-test were significantly higher than for the other expressive sub tests. The finding of more advanced expressive than receptive language skills in socially deprived preschool children is previously unreported and clinically relevant for speech-language pathologists in identifying the needs of this population.

  15. Performance and quality assessment of the global ocean eddy-permitting physical reanalysis GLORYS2V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garric, Gilles; Parent, Laurent; Greiner, Eric; Drévillon, Marie; Hamon, Mathieu; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Régnier, Charly; Desportes, Charles; Le Galloudec, Olivier; Bricaud, Clement; Drillet, Yann; Hernandez, Fabrice; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give an overview of the recent upgrade of GLORYS2 (version 4 and GLORYS2V4 hereafter), the latest ocean reanalysis produced at Mercator Ocean that covers the altimetry era (1993-2015) in the framework of Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS; http://marine.copernicus.eu/). The reanalysis is run at eddy-permitting resolution (¼° horizontal resolution and 75 vertical levels) with the NEMO model and driven at the surface by ERA-Interim reanalysis from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The reanalysis system uses a multi-data and multivariate reduced order Kalman filter based on the singular extended evolutive Kalman (SEEK) filter formulation together with a 3D-VAR large scale bias correction. The assimilated observations are along-track satellite altimetry, sea surface temperature, sea ice concentration and in-situ profiles of temperature and salinity. With respect to the previous version (GLORYS2V3), GLORYS2V4 contains a number of improvements. In particular: a) new initial temperature and salinity conditions derived from EN4 data base with a better mass equilibrium with altimetry, b) the use of the updated delayed mode CORA in situ observations from CMEMS, c) a new hybrid Mean Dynamical Topography (MDT) for the assimilation scheme referenced over the 1993-2013 period, d) a better observation operator for altimetry observations for the data assimilation scheme: e) A correction of large scale ERA-Interim atmospheric surface (precipitations and radiative) fluxes as in GLORYS2V3 but towards new satellite data set f) an update of the climatological runoff data base by using the latest version of Dai's 2009 data set for the global ocean together with better account of freshwater fluxes from polar ice sheet's glaciers. The presentation will show that the new reanalysis outperforms the previous version in many aspects such as biases and root mean squared error and, especially in representing

  16. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  17. MicroRNA array and microarray evaluation of endometrial receptivity in patients with high serum progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of higher progesterone (P level on endometrial receptivity. Methods This was a prospective analysis conducted in the Reproductive Medical Center of Peking University Third Hospital. All patients received IVF treatment and canceled embryo transfer in the same cycle and were divided into group 1 (normal P; 7 patients and group 2 (elevated P; 12 patients. Endometrial biopsies were performed 6 days after oocyte retrieval. The global miRNA and mRNA gene expressions in endometrial biopsies were investigated with a V4.0 miRNA probe and 22 K Human Genome Array. Fold ratios were derived to compare gene regulation between the groups. Spp1 and Ang gene expression was selected to verify the array results by RT-PCR and the protein expression of osteopontin and VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method. Results There were 4 miRNA (all down-regulated and 22 mRNA (13 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated exhibiting differential expression between the groups on the microRNA and microarray chips. miRNA-451, Spp1, and Ang expression in RT-PCR verified the array results. Osteopontin and VEGF were also shown to have positive expression in the endometrium. Conclusions Data from microRNA and microarray analysis suggests dissimilar endometrial receptivity in patients with high P levels on the day of hCG, and elevated osteopontin and decreased VEGF had poor pregnancy rates.

  18. Genetic influences on receptive joint attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanze....... The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees.......Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees...

  19. Sensing and Classifying Impairments of GPS Reception on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2011-01-01

    Positioning using GPS receivers is a primary sensing modality in many areas of pervasive computing. However, previous work has not considered how people’s body impacts the availability and accuracy of GPS positioning and for means to sense such impacts. We present results that the GPS performance...... signal statistics. To help both users as well as application systems in understanding and mitigating body and environment-induced effects, we propose a method for sensing the current sources of GPS reception impairment in terms of body, urban and indoor conditions. We present results that show...... degradation on modern smart phones for different hand grip styles and body placements can cause signal strength drops as high as 10-16 dB and double the positioning error. Furthermore, existing phone applications designed to help users identify sources of GPS performance impairment are restricted to show raw...

  20. Translation and reception of Italo Calvino in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Calvino's works arrived in China surprisingly early. The first translated texts date back to the Fifties, when the writer, in his early thirties, was at the beginning of his career. The Chinese version is not a direct translation of the original texts of Calvino, but an indirect translation. This surprisingly early interest is followed by a long period of silence that goes from the second half of the Sixties until the end of the Seventies. The article will try to analyze the first translations of Calvino’s works published in China and to outline the reception of Calvino’s works in modern China in the last several decades. The contextual analysis is aimed to see the relationship between the translations and the historical and ideological context in which they were conceived.

  1. Peripheral auditory processing and speech reception in impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf

    One of the most common complaints of people with impaired hearing concerns their difficulty with understanding speech. Particularly in the presence of background noise, hearing-impaired people often encounter great difficulties with speech communication. In most cases, the problem persists even...... if reduced audibility has been compensated for by hearing aids. It has been hypothesized that part of the difficulty arises from changes in the perception of sounds that are well above hearing threshold, such as reduced frequency selectivity and deficits in the processing of temporal fine structure (TFS......) at the output of the inner-ear (cochlear) filters. The purpose of this work was to investigate these aspects in detail. One chapter studies relations between frequency selectivity, TFS processing, and speech reception in listeners with normal and impaired hearing, using behavioral listening experiments. While...

  2. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  3. Regulation regarding the reception of the construction works and the corresponding installations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Chirică

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Regulation regarding the reception of construction works and corresponding installations, approved by Government's Decision no. 347/2017 (“Regulation 2017” has general applicability for all construction works for which there is an obligation to obtain a building permit. Regulation 2017 brings significant changes and clarifications expected by the real estate sector regarding: (i the composition of the commissions involved in the reception procedure, (ii the role of the site supervisor who thus gains significant participation in the reception procedure, and (iii the participation of the public authorities' representatives at the reception, having the veto right on the decision of the reception commission upon the completion of the construction works. Another element of novelty brought by Regulation 2017 is the possibility to do the reception upon the completion of the construction works, respectively the final reception for parts / objectives / sectors of or from the building, if they are distinct/ independent from a physical and functional point of view. Thus, the new regulation facilitates the procedure of authorizing investment objectives and the costs of the process. The partial reception is another innovation brought by the Regulation 2017 in support of the investor, who can thus take over a part of the construction, at a certain stage, and obtain its registration with the Land Book.

  4. Asynchronous development of stigmatic receptivity in the pear (Pyrus communis; Rosaceae) flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzol, Javier; Rallo, Pilar; Herrero, María

    2003-01-01

    While stigma anatomy is well documented for a good number of species, little information is available on the acquisition and cessation of stigmatic receptivity. The aim of this work is to characterize the development of stigma receptivity, from anthesis to stigma degeneration, in the pentacarpellar pear (Pyrus communis) flower. Stigma development and stigmatic receptivity were monitored over two consecutive years, as the capacity of the stigmas to offer support for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. In an experiment where hand pollinations were delayed for specified times after anthesis, three different stigmatic developmental stages could be observed: (1) immature stigmas, which allow pollen adhesion but not hydration; (2) receptive stigmas, which allow proper pollen hydration and germination; and (3) degenerated stigmas, in which pollen hydrates and germinates properly, but pollen tube growth is impaired soon after germination. This developmental characterization showed that stigmas in different developmental stages coexist within a flower and that the acquisition and cessation of stigmatic receptivity by each carpel occur in a sequential manner. In this way, while the duration of stigmatic receptivity for each carpel is rather short, the flower has an expanded receptive period. This asynchronous period of receptivity for the different stigmas of a single flower is discussed as a strategy that could serve to maximize pollination resources under unreliable pollination conditions.

  5. The effectiveness of correcting codes in reception in the whole in additive normal white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtarkov, Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    Some possible criteria for estimating the effectiveness of correcting codes are presented, and the energy effectiveness of correcting codes is studied for symbol-by-symbol reception. Expressions for the energetic effectiveness of binary correcting codes for reception in the whole are produced. Asymptotic energetic effectiveness and finite signal/noise ratio cases are considered.

  6. Effects of Serial and Concurrent Training on Receptive Identification Tasks: A Systematic Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Kara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study compared the use of serial and concurrent methods to train multiple exemplars when teaching receptive language skills, providing a systematic replication of Wunderlich, Vollmer, Donaldson, and Phillips (2014). Five preschoolers diagnosed with developmental delays or autism spectrum disorders were taught to receptively identify…

  7. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum: Poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Boer, J.B.de; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],

  8. Monstrosities and Twitterings: A Note on the Early Reception of Aristotle's Posterior Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    2010-01-01

    En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser.......En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser....

  9. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  10. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  11. Technological Development and Its Impact on Student Reception of a Campus Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shafizan; Wok, Saodah; Lahabou, Mahaman

    2018-01-01

    In 2011, a study was conducted to look at students' reception of IIUM.FM, a newly launched online campus radio. Using the Technological Acceptance Model (TAM), the study found that factors such as perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude highly influenced audience reception of the online radio. In 2016, a corresponding study,…

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  13. From 82-year-old Musicologist to Anti-imperialist Hero: Metamorphoses of the Hungarian Tagore in East Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Bangha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tagore's reception in various countries in East Central Europe has long been the subject of academic studies. Making an attempt to observe the similarities and dissimilarities of Rabindranath's reception in these culturally very rich countries the paper investigates two understudied phases of Tagore's reception in the region, namely the initial puzzlement at the announcement of the Nobel Prize in 1913 and the repercussions of world politics on Tagore's image in the early years of Indian independence, which coincide with the early years of Communist rule in East Central Europe.

  14. The effects of receptive and expressive instructional sequences on varied conditional discriminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shimin; Sweatt, Kristin T; Lechago, Sarah A; Antal, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    Many Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) curricula recommend teaching receptive responding before targeting expressive responding (Leaf & McEachin, 1999; Lovaas, 2003). However, a small literature base suggests that teaching expressive responses first may be more efficient when teaching children with ASD and other developmental disabilities (Petursdottir & Carr, 2011). The present study employed an alternating treatments design to compare the effects of three instructional sequences to teach feature, function, and class to three children diagnosed with ASD: (a) receptive-expressive, (b) expressive-receptive, and (c) mixed. The results suggested that expressive-receptive was the most efficient training sequence for all three participants. Additionally, greater emergent responding was observed with the expressive-receptive training sequence. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Boundary layer receptivity phenomena in three-dimensional and high-speed boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Streett, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    The process by which the boundary layer internalizes the environmental disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as the boundary-layer receptivity. The paper discusses the importance of receptivity in transition research. The receptivity scenario for three-dimensional and high-speed boundary layers is examined. It is found that, while receptivity mechanisms present in the low-speed case are also operative in these complex flows, certain uniquely 'compressible' receptivity mechanisms may come into play as well. Both numerical, and where convenient, asymptotic procedures are utilized to develop quantitative predictions of the localized generation of a variety of instability types (Tollmien-Schlichting, inflectional, higher modes, crossflow vortices) in boundary layer flows relevant to the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP).

  16. Incorporating a Generic Model of Subcutaneous Insulin Absorption into the AIDA v4 Diabetes Simulator 3. Early Plasma Insulin Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Eldon D.; Tarín, Cristina; Bondia, Jorge; Teufel, Edgar; Deutsch, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    Introduction AIDA is an interactive educational diabetes simulator that has been available without charge via the Internet for over 12 years. Recent articles have described the incorporation of a novel generic model of insulin absorption into AIDA as a way of enhancing its capabilities. The basic model components to be integrated have been overviewed, with the aim being to provide simulations of regimens utilizing insulin analogues, as well as insulin doses greater than 40 IU (the current upper limit within the latest release of AIDA [v4.3a]). Some preliminary calculated insulin absorption results have also recently been described. Methods This article presents the first simulated plasma insulin profiles from the integration of the generic subcutaneous insulin absorption model, and the currently implemented model in AIDA for insulin disposition. Insulin absorption has been described by the physiologically based model of Tarín and colleagues. A single compartment modeling approach has been used to specify how absorbed insulin is distributed in, and eliminated from, the human body. To enable a numerical solution of the absorption model, a spherical subcutaneous depot for the injected insulin dose has been assumed and spatially discretized into shell compartments with homogeneous concentrations, having as its center the injection site. The number of these compartments will depend on the dose and type of insulin. Insulin inflow arises as the sum of contributions to the different shells. For this report the first bench testing of plasma insulin determinations has been done. Results Simulated plasma insulin profiles are provided for currently available insulin preparations, including a rapidly acting insulin analogue (e.g., lispro/Humalog or aspart/Novolog), a short-acting (regular) insulin preparation (e.g., Actrapid), intermediate-acting insulins (both Semilente and neutral protamine Hagedorn types), and a very long-acting insulin analogue (e.g., glargine/Lantus), as

  17. The Reception of Mao's 'Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art' in English-language Scholarship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Qilin

    2015-01-01

    In his article "The Reception of Mao's 'Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art' in English-language Scholarship" Qilin Fu examines the three waves of the reception of Mao Zedong's 1942 text...

  18. The Effect of Technological Parameters on Intensity of Shot Peening Process of 51CrV4 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucior Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the effect of selected technological parameters of shot peening on process intensity of 51CrV4 steel was presented. The experiments were conducted according to statistical 3-level completed plan PS/DC 32. Technological parameters were changed in the range: shot peening time t = 1-3 min and pressure p = 0.2-0.4 MPa. In the article the analysis of experiment reproducibility, impact parameters significance and adequacy of equation were done. As the result of investigations the adequate equation was obtained describing the effect of technological parameters. Significant influence on process intensity was found in case of pressure and interaction of both analyzed technological parameters. The biggest energy of stream shots was gained at the maximum pressure of 0.4 MPa and the shot peening time of 3 minutes. As the result of analysis according to design of experiment (DOE the adequate equation describing the dependencies between technological parameters and process intensity was found.

  19. Terrestrial ecosystem process model Biome-BGCMuSo v4.0: summary of improvements and new modeling possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Barcza, Zoltán; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Dobor, Laura; Gelybó, Györgyi; Fodor, Nándor; Pintér, Krisztina; Churkina, Galina; Running, Steven; Thornton, Peter; Bellocchi, Gianni; Haszpra, László; Horváth, Ferenc; Suyker, Andrew; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-12-01

    The process-based biogeochemical model Biome-BGC was enhanced to improve its ability to simulate carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles of various terrestrial ecosystems under contrasting management activities. Biome-BGC version 4.1.1 was used as a base model. Improvements included addition of new modules such as the multilayer soil module, implementation of processes related to soil moisture and nitrogen balance, soil-moisture-related plant senescence, and phenological development. Vegetation management modules with annually varying options were also implemented to simulate management practices of grasslands (mowing, grazing), croplands (ploughing, fertilizer application, planting, harvesting), and forests (thinning). New carbon and nitrogen pools have been defined to simulate yield and soft stem development of herbaceous ecosystems. The model version containing all developments is referred to as Biome-BGCMuSo (Biome-BGC with multilayer soil module; in this paper, Biome-BGCMuSo v4.0 is documented). Case studies on a managed forest, cropland, and grassland are presented to demonstrate the effect of model developments on the simulation of plant growth as well as on carbon and water balance.

  20. Amorphous Fe72Cu1V4Si15B8 ribbon as magneto-impedance sensing element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surla Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Мagneto-impedance (MI effect in the Fe72Cu1V4Si15B8 amorphous ribbon obtained by melt spinning method has been studied. The aim of study was the characterisation of this ribbon in as-cast state in terms of its application as a MI sensor. The experiments on MI elements were performed in the frequency range from 30 kHz to 300 MHz and maximum external magnetic field up to 28.6 kA/m. Maximum observed MI-ratio (ΔZ = Z(0 - Z(Hmax, Hmax = 28.6 kA/m has amounted to ΔZ/Z(Hmax = 173% at a frequency of 20.46 MHz. The MI curve measured up to 20 MHz shows some shoulder indicating the growth of rotational contribution of magnetization that appears above the domain wall relaxation frequency. The MI profile at frequencies higher than 30 MHz, exhibits a clear peak positioned at transverse anisotropy field Hk, suggesting domination of rotation magnetization in transverse permeability. The linearity in the range up to 5 kA/m with sensitivity of about 11 %/kA/m was observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 172057

  1. Mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of laser and electron-beam welds in V 4Cr 4Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H. M.; Park, J.-H.; Strain, R. V.; Leong, K. H.; Smith, D. L.

    1998-10-01

    Mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of laser and electron-beam (EB) welds of a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti were investigated in as-welded condition and after postwelding heat treatment (PWHT) by impact testing, microhardness measurement, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ductile-brittle-transition temperatures (DBTTs) of the laser and electron-beam welds were significantly higher than that of the base metal. However, excellent impact properties could be restored in both types of welds by postwelding annealing at 1000°C for 1 h in vacuum. Analysis by TEM revealed that annealed weld zones were characterized by extensive networks of fine V(C,O,N) precipitates, which clean away O, C, and N interstitials from the grain matrices. This process is accompanied by simultaneous annealing-out of the dense dislocations present in the weld zone. This finding could be useful in identifying an optimal welding procedure by controlling and adjusting the cooling rate of the weld zone by an innovative method to maximize the precipitation of V(C,O,N).

  2. Impact properties and hardening behavior of laser and electron-beam welds of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Strain, R.V.; Tsai, H.C.; Park, J.H.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The authors are conducting a program to develop an optimal laser welding procedure that can be applied to large-scale fusion-reactor structural components to be fabricated from vanadium-base alloys. Results of initial investigation of mechanical properties and hardening behavior of laser and electron-beam (EB) welds of the production-scale heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (500-kg Heat 832665) in as-welded and postwelding heat-treated (PWHT) conditions are presented in this paper. The laser weld was produced in air using a 6-kW continuous CO{sub 2} laser at a welding speed of {approx}45 mm/s. Microhardness of the laser welds was somewhat higher than that of the base metal, which was annealed at a nominal temperature of {approx}1050{degrees}C for 2 h in the factory. In spite of the moderate hardening, ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) of the initial laser ({approx}80{degrees}C) and EB ({approx}30{degrees}C) welds were significantly higher than that of the base metal ({approx}{minus}170{degrees}C). However, excellent impact properties, with DBTT < {minus}80{degrees}C and similar to those of the base metal, could be restored in both the laser and EB welds by postwelding annealing at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h in vacuum.

  3. Microwave, high-resolution infrared, and quantum chemical investigations of CHBrF2: ground and v4 = 1 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Cludi, Lino; Puzzarini, Cristina; Stoppa, Paolo; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Tasinato, Nicola; Baldacci, Agostino; Baldan, Alessandro; Giorgianni, Santi; Wugt Larsen, René; Stopkowicz, Stella; Gauss, Jürgen

    2011-02-03

    A combined microwave, infrared, and computational investigation of CHBrF(2) is reported. For the vibrational ground state, measurements in the millimeter- and sub-millimeter-wave regions for CH(79)BrF(2) and CH(81)BrF(2) provided rotational and centrifugal-distortion constants up to the sextic terms as well as the hyperfine parameters (quadrupole-coupling and spin-rotation interaction constants) of the bromine nucleus. The determination of the latter was made possible by recording of spectra at sub-Doppler resolution, achieved by means of the Lamb-dip technique, and supporting the spectra analysis by high-level quantum chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level. In this context, the importance of relativistic effects, which are of the order of 6.5% and included in the present work using second-order direct perturbation theory, needs to be emphasized for accurate predictions of the bromine quadrupole-coupling constants. The infrared measurements focused on the ν(4) fundamental band of CH(79)BrF(2). Fourier transform investigations using a synchrotron radiation source provided the necessary resolution for the observation and analysis of the rotational structure. The spectroscopic parameters of the v(4) = 1 state were found to be close to those of the vibrational ground state, indicating that the ν(4) band is essentially unaffected by perturbations.

  4. Temperature dependence of the radiation damage microstructure in V-4Cr-4Ti neutron irradiated to low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, P.M.; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on the US program heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (heat No. 83665) irradiated to damage levels of 0.1--0.5 displacements per atom (dpa) at 110--505 C in the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven. A high density ({approximately}1 {times} 10{sup 23}/m{sup 3}) of small ({approximately}3.0 nm diameter) faulted dislocation loops were observed at irradiation temperatures blow 275 C. These dislocation loops became unfaulted at temperatures above {approximately}275 C, and a high density of small Ti-rich defect clusters lying on {l_brace}001{r_brace} planes appeared along with the unfaulted loops at temperatures above 300 C. The density of the {l_brace}001{r_brace} defect clusters was much higher than that of the dislocation loops at all temperatures above {approximately}300 C. The density of both types of defects decreased with increasing temperature above 300 C, with the most rapid decrease occurring for temperatures above 400 C. Based on the TEM and tensile measurements, the dislocation barrier strengths of the faulted dislocation loops and {l_brace}001{r_brace} defect clusters are {approximately}0.4--0.5 and 0.25, respectively. This indicates that both types of defects can be easily sheared by dislocations during deformation. Cleared dislocation channels were observed following tensile deformation in a specimen irradiated at 268 C.

  5. Microstructure of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy after low-temperature irradiation by ions and neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M. [Northwestern Univ. (United States); Chung, H.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Mechanical properties of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were investigated after low-temperature (<420 C) irradiation. The effects of fast neutrons at 390 C were investigated by irradiation to {approx}4 dpa in the X530 experiment in the EBR-II reactor; these tests were complemented by irradiation with single (4.5-MeV Ni{sup ++}) and dual ion beams (350-keV He{sup +} simultaneously with 4.5-MeV Ni{sup ++}). TEM observations showed the formation of a high density of point-defect clusters and dislocation loops (<30 nm diameter) distributed uniformly in the specimens. Mechanical-property testing showed embrittlement of the alloy. TEM investigations of deformed microstructures were used to determine the causes of embrittlement and yielded observation of dislocation channels propagating through the undeformed matrix. Channels are the sole slip paths and cause early onset of necking and loss of work-hardening in this alloy. Based on a review of the available literature, suggestions are made for further research of slip localization in V-base alloys.

  6. Receptive fields of locust brain neurons are matched to polarization patterns of the sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Miklós; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2014-09-22

    Many animals, including insects, are able to use celestial cues as a reference for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation [1]. In addition to direct sunlight, the chromatic gradient of the sky and its polarization pattern are suited to serve as orientation cues [2-5]. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight causes a regular pattern of E vectors in the sky, which are arranged along concentric circles around the sun [5, 6]. Although certain insects rely predominantly on sky polarization for spatial orientation [7], it has been argued that detection of celestial E vector orientation may not suffice to differentiate between solar and antisolar directions [8, 9]. We show here that polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria can overcome this ambiguity. Extracellular recordings from POL units in the central complex and lateral accessory lobes revealed E vector tunings arranged in concentric circles within large receptive fields, matching the sky polarization pattern at certain solar positions. Modeling of neuronal responses under an idealized sky polarization pattern (Rayleigh sky) suggests that these "matched filter" properties allow locusts to unambiguously determine the solar azimuth by relying solely on the sky polarization pattern for compass navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Posterior wall involvement attenuates predictive value of ST-segment elevation in lead V4R for right ventricular involvement in inferior acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuge, Masami; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Morita, Satoshi; Ebina, Toshiaki; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Maejima, Nobuhiko; Umemura, Satoshi; Kimura, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    ST-segment elevation of ≥1.0 mm in the right precordial chest lead V4R (ST↑V4R) has been shown to be a reliable marker of right ventricular involvement (RVI) in inferior acute myocardial infarction (IMI). However, the impact of left ventricular posterior wall involvement (PWI) on the relation between ST↑V4R and RVI is unknown. We studied 267 patients with recanalized IMI due to the right coronary artery (RCA) occlusion within 6h after symptom onset. A 12-lead electrocardiogram, lead V4R, and leads V7-9 were recorded on admission. RVI was defined as occlusion proximal to the first major right ventricular branch of the RCA. The perfusion territory of the RCA was assessed by angiographic distribution score, and PWI was defined as a score of ≥0.7. Patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of PWI and RVI. RVI was associated with higher peak creatine kinase and a higher rate of impaired myocardial reperfusion, defined as a myocardial blush grade of 0 or 1 after recanalization, in the presence or absence of PWI, especially the former. RVI was associated with a higher rate of ST↑V4R in the absence, but not in the presence, of PWI. ST↑V4R identified RVI with sensitivities of 34% and 96% (pPWI, respectively. In patients with recanalized IMI, RVI is associated with larger infarction and impaired myocardial reperfusion in the presence or absence of PWI, especially the former. However, the presence of PWI attenuates the predictive value of ST↑V4R for RVI.

  8. Glia delimit shape changes of sensory neuron receptive endings in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procko, Carl; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2011-04-01

    Neuronal receptive endings, such as dendritic spines and sensory protrusions, are structurally remodeled by experience. How receptive endings acquire their remodeled shapes is not well understood. In response to environmental stressors, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans enters a diapause state, termed dauer, which is accompanied by remodeling of sensory neuron receptive endings. Here, we demonstrate that sensory receptive endings of the AWC neurons in dauers remodel in the confines of a compartment defined by the amphid sheath (AMsh) glial cell that envelops these endings. AMsh glia remodel concomitantly with and independently of AWC receptive endings to delimit AWC receptive ending growth. Remodeling of AMsh glia requires the OTD/OTX transcription factor TTX-1, the fusogen AFF-1 and probably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR)-related protein VER-1, all acting within the glial cell. ver-1 expression requires direct binding of TTX-1 to ver-1 regulatory sequences, and is induced in dauers and at high temperatures. Our results demonstrate that stimulus-induced changes in glial compartment size provide spatial constraints on neuronal receptive ending growth.

  9. Receptive vocabulary and early literacy skills in emergent bilingual Northern Sotho-English children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien Wilsenach

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored receptive vocabulary size and early literacy skills (namely: letter naming, knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and early writing in emergent bilingual Northern Sotho-English children. Two groups of Grade 1 learners were tested in both English and in Northern Sotho. Group 1 (N = 49 received their formal schooling in English, whilst group 2 (N = 50 received their formal schooling in Northern Sotho. Receptive vocabulary was tested using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Letter knowledge was assessed by asking learners to name letter cards, whilst knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences was tested by asking children to match letter cards with spoken sounds. Early writing was assessed by asking children to write their names. Statistical analyses indicated that both English and Northern Sotho receptive vocabulary knowledge had a significant effect on early literacy skills, whilst no main effect was found for the language of instruction. Group 1 performed significantly better than Group 2 in English receptive vocabulary, in knowledge of phonemegrapheme correspondences and in early writing, but no group differences were found for Northern Sotho receptive vocabulary or for letter knowledge. English receptive vocabulary significantly predicted the outcome of all of the early literacy skills, whilst Northern Sotho receptive vocabulary significantly predicted phoneme-grapheme correspondences and early writing.

  10. Discriminative ability of reflex receptive fields to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Monika; Biurrun Manresa, José A; Treichel, Fabienne; Agten, Christoph A; Heini, Paul; Andersen, Ole K; Curatolo, Michele; Jüni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain has a life time prevalence of 70% to 85%. Approximately 10% to 20% of all patients experience recurrent episodes or develop chronic low back pain. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics explain the transition from acute to chronic low back pain only to a limited extent. Altered central pain processing may be a contributing mechanism. The measurement of reflex receptive fields (RRF) is a novel method to assess altered central pain processing. The RRF area denotes the area of the foot sole from which spinal nociceptive reflexes can be elicited. It was shown to be enlarged in patients with acute and chronic low back pain compared with pain-free individuals. The aim of the study was to explore the discriminative ability of the RRF to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain with the hypothesis that enlarged RRF are associated with chronic low back pain. We included 214 patients with either acute or chronic low back pain and compared RRF between groups in both univariable and multivariable analyses adjusted for different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics possibly associated with the transition to chronic pain. We found a mean difference between patients with acute and chronic low back pain of -0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.04) in the crude, -0.02 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.04) in the age and sex adjusted, and -0.02 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.05) in the fully adjusted model. Our results suggest that the enlargement of RRF area may not be associated with the transition from acute to chronic low back pain.

  11. Impaired receptivity and decidualization in DHEA-induced PCOS mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2016-12-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility in PCOS patients were explored. In our study, ovulation problem also causes sterility in PCOS mice. After blastocysts from normal mice are transferred into uterine lumen of pseudopregnant PCOS mice, the rate of embryo implantation was reduced. In PCOS mouse uteri, the implantation-related genes are also dysregulated. Additionally, artificial decidualization is severely impaired in PCOS mice. The serum estrogen level is significantly higher in PCOS mice than vehicle control. The high level of estrogen and potentially impaired LIF-STAT3 pathway may lead to embryo implantation failure in PCOS mice. Although there are many studies about effects of PCOS on endometrium, both embryo transfer and artificial decidualization are applied to exclude the effects from ovulation and embryos in our study.

  12. Genetic influences on receptive joint attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Schapiro, Steven J; Young, Larry J

    2014-01-20

    Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees. Studies have shown that chimpanzees are polymorphic for a deletion in a sequence in the 5' flanking region of the AVPR1A, DupB, which contains the variable RS3 repetitive element, which has been associated with variation in social behavior in humans. Results revealed that performance on the social cognition task was significantly heritable. Furthermore, males with one DupB(+) allele performed significantly better and were more responsive to socio-communicative cues than males homozygous for the DupB- deletion. Performance on a non-social cognition task was not associated with the AVPR1A genotype. The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees.

  13. Select interneuron clusters determine female sexual receptivity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Akira; Koganezawa, Masayuki; Yasunaga, Kei-ichiro; Emoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    Female Drosophila with the spinster mutation repel courting males and rarely mate. Here we show that the non-copulating phenotype can be recapitulated by the elimination of spinster functions from either spin-A or spin-D neuronal clusters, in the otherwise wild-type (spinster heterozygous) female brain. Spin-D corresponds to the olfactory projection neurons with dendrites in the antennal lobe VA1v glomerulus that is fruitless-positive, sexually dimorphic and responsive to fly odour. Spin-A is a novel local neuron cluster in the suboesophageal ganglion, which is known to process contact chemical pheromone information and copulation-related signals. A slight reduction in spinster expression to a level with a minimal effect is sufficient to shut off female sexual receptivity if the dominant-negative mechanistic target of rapamycin is simultaneously expressed, although the latter manipulation alone has only a marginal effect. We propose that spin-mediated mechanistic target of rapamycin signal transduction in these neurons is essential for females to accept the courting male.

  14. Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.

  15. A Pixel-Encoder Retinal Ganglion Cell with Spatially Offset Excitatory and Inhibitory Receptive Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Keith P. Johnson; Lei Zhao; Daniel Kerschensteiner

    2018-01-01

    The spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only source of visual information to the brain. Here, we genetically identify an RGC type in mice that functions as a pixel encoder and increases firing to light increments (PixON-RGC). PixON-RGCs have medium-sized dendritic arbors and non-canonical center-surround receptive fields. From their receptive field center, PixON-RGCs receive only excitatory input, which encodes contrast and spatial information linearly. From their receptive ...

  16. The Foucault-Habermas Debate: the Reflexive and Receptive Aspects of Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the relationship between two different approaches to critical theory – the reflective and the receptive approaches. I show how it can be fruitful to discuss the relationship between Habermas and Foucault through this distinction. My point is that whereas Habermas focusses...... on critique as a reflexive activity, Foucault mainly focusses on the receptive conditions for critique to be possible. I argue further that Foucault focusses on the receptive aspects of critique, the quest for universality is not as pressing as it is in Habermas’ approach, because problematizing critique can...

  17. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  18. Receptive vocabulary in boys with autism spectrum disorder: cross-sectional developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T; McDuffie, Andrea S; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-11-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4-11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2-11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed.

  19. Exploring racial politics, personal history and critical reception: Clarence Brown's Intruder in the dust (1949)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Gwenda

    2013-01-01

    Discusses the complexities of director Clarence Brown's 1949 film "Intruder in the dust" concerning racial issues, the personal and social elements that contributed to its inception, and its reception...

  20. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4–11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2–11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed. PMID:23588510

  1. Cultural conditions and reception of psychoanalysis in Córdoba, Argentina (1915-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Ferrari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present review we aim to outline the main conditions for the reception of Freud’s theory in Cordoba, Argentine. We will try to display the distinctive points that this process had and establish the differences occurred with the reception of Freud in the city of Buenos Aires. These cultural characteristics that frame the reception of the ideas of the Viennese physician are part of a fundamental and constitutive tension in Argen0tinian’s history. That is why our work introduces, as an interpretative axis, the interior-harbor dichotomy that accounts for such political and cultural tensions. We will expose the principal axes of the reception in Cordoba: 1 rejection and discussion of positivism 2 the existence of a traditional culture and conservative religious thought and 3 influence of Hispanic culture, and especially the Spanish vitalist philosophy implemented by Ortega y Gasset and Eugenio D’Ors.

  2. Theoretical and experimental research on diversity reception technology in NLOS UV communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dahai; Liu, Yile; Zhang, Kai; Luo, Pengfei; Zhang, Min

    2012-07-02

    Diversity reception technology is introduced into ultraviolet communication area in this article with theory analysis and practical experiment. The idea of diversity reception was known as a critical effective method in wireless communication area that improves the Gain significantly especially for the multi-scattering channel. A theoretical modeling and simulation method are proposed to depict the principle and feasibility of diversity reception adopted in UV communication. Besides, an experimental test-bed using ultraviolet LED and dual receiver of photomultiplier tube is setup to characterize the effects of diversity receiving in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet communication system. The experiment results are compared with the theoretical ones to verify the accuracy of theoretical modeling and the effect of diversity reception. Equal gain combining (EGC) method was adopted as the diversity mechanism in this paper. The research results of theory and experiment provide insight into the channel characteristics and achievable capabilities of ultraviolet communication system with diversity receiving method.

  3. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2-4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2-4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set.

  4. Tactual Vocoders in a Multisensory Program Training Speech Production and Reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, D. Kimbrough; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results of a program using vibrotactile and electrocutaneous vocoder in speech reception and production training with 13 profoundly hearing impaired Ss (3-6 years old) showed progress in speech communication not seen prior to training with tactual vocoders. (CL)

  5. Let them speak: using reception analysis to understand children's relationship with fiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Shea, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    .... This article argues that reception analysis, developed in the field of cultural studies, could be usefully applied to children and their reading of fiction, as it offers a particular understanding of media audiences...

  6. The relationship between receptive and productive vocabulary of Slavic EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šišková Zdislava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between learners’ receptive vocabulary knowledge as measured by the Vocabulary Size Test (Nation and Beglar, 2007 and free productive vocabulary knowledge as demonstrated by the learners when writing a short story based on pictures. The focus is on three different areas of productive vocabulary use: lexical diversity (i.e. the proportion of different words in a text, lexical sophistication (i.e. the proportion of advanced words in a text and lexical density (i.e. the proportion of content words in a text. The results of a bivariate correlation analysis indicate that there is a moderate relationship between learners’ receptive vocabulary knowledge and lexical diversity of the texts they produce; there is a weak relationship between their receptive vocabulary knowledge and lexical sophistication in the texts; and there is no relationship between their receptive vocabulary knowledge and lexical density.

  7. The novel desmopressin analogue [V4Q5]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastases in vasopressin type 2 receptor-expressing breast cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARONA, JUAN; PIFANO, MARINA; ORLANDO, ULISES D.; PASTRIAN, MARIA B.; IANNUCCI, NANCY B.; ORTEGA, HUGO H.; PODESTA, ERNESTO J.; GOMEZ, DANIEL E.; RIPOLL, GISELLE V.; ALONSO, DANIEL F.

    2015-01-01

    Desmopressin (dDAVP) is a safe haemostatic agent with previously reported antitumour activity. It acts as a selective agonist for the V2 vasopressin membrane receptor (V2r) present on tumour cells and microvasculature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the novel peptide derivative [V4Q5]dDAVP in V2r-expressing preclinical mouse models of breast cancer. We assessed antitumour effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP using human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells, as well as the highly metastatic mouse F3II cell line. Effect on in vitro cancer cell growth was evaluated by cell proliferation and clonogenic assays. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry. In order to study the effect of intravenously administered [V4Q5]dDAVP on tumour growth and angiogenesis, breast cancer xenografts were generated in athymic mice. F3II cells were injected into syngeneic mice to evaluate the effect of [V4Q5]dDAVP on spontaneous and experimental metastatic spread. In vitro cytostatic effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP against breast cancer cells were greater than those of dDAVP, and associated with V2r-activated signal transduction and partial cell cycle arrest. In MDA-MB-231 xenografts, [V4Q5]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice a week) reduced tumour growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of F3II mammary tumour-bearing immunocompetent mice resulted in complete inhibition of metastatic progression. [V4Q5]dDAVP also displayed greater antimetastatic efficacy than dDAVP on experimental lung colonisation by F3II cells. The novel analogue was well tolerated in preliminary acute toxicology studies, at doses ≥300-fold above that required for anti-angiogenic/antimetastatic effects. Our data establish the preclinical activity of [V4Q5]dDAVP in aggressive breast cancer, providing the rationale for further clinical trials. PMID:25846632

  8. The novel desmopressin analogue [V4Q5]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastases in vasopressin type 2 receptor-expressing breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Orlando, Ulises D; Pastrian, Maria B; Iannucci, Nancy B; Ortega, Hugo H; Podesta, Ernesto J; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Desmopressin (dDAVP) is a safe haemostatic agent with previously reported antitumour activity. It acts as a selective agonist for the V2 vasopressin membrane receptor (V2r) present on tumour cells and microvasculature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the novel peptide derivative [V4Q5]dDAVP in V2r-expressing preclinical mouse models of breast cancer. We assessed antitumour effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP using human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells, as well as the highly metastatic mouse F3II cell line. Effect on in vitro cancer cell growth was evaluated by cell proliferation and clonogenic assays. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry. In order to study the effect of intravenously administered [V4Q5]dDAVP on tumour growth and angiogenesis, breast cancer xenografts were generated in athymic mice. F3II cells were injected into syngeneic mice to evaluate the effect of [V4Q5]dDAVP on spontaneous and experimental metastatic spread. In vitro cytostatic effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP against breast cancer cells were greater than those of dDAVP, and associated with V2r-activated signal transduction and partial cell cycle arrest. In MDA-MB-231 xenografts, [V4Q5]dDAVP (0.3 µg/kg, thrice a week) reduced tumour growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of F3II mammary tumour-bearing immunocompetent mice resulted in complete inhibition of metastatic progression. [V4Q5]dDAVP also displayed greater antimetastatic efficacy than dDAVP on experimental lung colonisation by F3II cells. The novel analogue was well tolerated in preliminary acute toxicology studies, at doses ≥ 300-fold above that required for anti-angiogenic/antimetastatic effects. Our data establish the preclinical activity of [V4Q5]dDAVP in aggressive breast cancer, providing the rationale for further clinical trials.

  9. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of the v1 + v4 Band of 14NF3:Reductions of the Rovibrational Hamiltonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrum of nitrogen trifluoride NF3 has been studied in the v1 + v4 perpendicular band region around 1523 cm−1. All experimental data have been refined applying various reduction forms of the effective rovibrational Hamiltonian developed for an isolated degenerate state of a symmetric top molecule. The v1 = v4 = 1 excited state of the 14NF3 oblate molecule was treated with models taking into account ℓ- and k-type intravibrational resonances. Parameters up to sixth order have been accurately determined and the unitary equivalence of the derived parameter sets in different reductions was demonstrated.

  10. More than Decadence - Johannes Jørgensen's early reception of Arthur Schopenhauer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Johan Christian

    Fremmedsproglig forskningsformidling af hovedpunkterne i artiklen "En Poet og en Religionsstifter, med hvem jeg er enig i næsten alle Ting" Indledende betragtninger over Johannes Jørgensens Schopenhauer-reception.......Fremmedsproglig forskningsformidling af hovedpunkterne i artiklen "En Poet og en Religionsstifter, med hvem jeg er enig i næsten alle Ting" Indledende betragtninger over Johannes Jørgensens Schopenhauer-reception....

  11. Policies and practices in the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....

  12. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  13. Effects of Nose Radius and Aerodynamic Loading on Leading Edge Receptivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, P. W.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the effects of airfoil thickness and mean aerodynamic loading on boundary-layer receptivity in the leading-edge region. The case of acoustic free-stream disturbances, incident on a thin cambered airfoil with a parabolic leading edge in a low Mach number flow, is considered. An asymptotic analysis based on large Reynolds number is developed, supplemented by numerical results. The airfoil thickness distribution enters the theory through a Strouhal number based on the nose radius of the airfoil, S = (omega)tau(sub n)/U, where omega is the frequency of the acoustic wave and U is the mean flow speed. The influence of mean aerodynamic loading enters through an effective angle-of-attack parameter ti, related to flow around the leading edge from the lower surface to the upper. The variation of the receptivity level is analyzed as a function of S, mu, and characteristics of the free-stream acoustic wave. For an unloaded leading edge, a finite nose radius dramatically reduces the receptivity level compared to that for a flat plate, the amplitude of the instability waves in the boundary layer being decreased by an order of magnitude when S = 0.3. Modest levels of aerodynamic loading are found to further decrease the receptivity level for the upper surface of the airfoil, while an increase in receptivity level occurs for the lower surface. For larger angles of attack close to the critical angle for boundary layer separation, a local rise in the receptivity level occurs for the upper surface, while for the lower surface the receptivity decreases. The effects of aerodynamic loading are more pronounced at larger values of S. Oblique acoustic waves produce much higher receptivity levels than acoustic waves propagating downstream parallel to the airfoil chord.

  14. Receptivity to television fast-food restaurant marketing and obesity among U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2013-11-01

    Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15-23 years, were surveyed in 2010-2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2-4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  15. Arabinogalactan-protein secretion is associated with the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity in the apple flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Juan M; Herrero, María

    2012-08-01

    Stigmatic receptivity plays a clear role in pollination dynamics; however, little is known about the factors that confer to a stigma the competence to be receptive for the germination of pollen grains. In this work, a developmental approach is used to evaluate the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and its relationship with a possible change in arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Flowers of the domestic apple, Malus × domestica, were assessed for their capacity to support pollen germination at different developmental stages. Stigmas from these same stages were characterized morphologically and different AGP epitopes detected by immunocytochemistry. Acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and the secretion of classical AGPs from stigmatic cells occurred concurrently and following the same spatial distribution. While in unpollinated stigmas AGPs appeared unaltered, in cross-pollinated stigmas AGPs epitopes vanished as pollen tubes passed by. The concurrent secretion of AGPs with the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity, together with the differential response in unpollinated and cross-pollinated pistils point out a role of AGPs in supporting pollen tube germination and strongly suggest that secretion of AGPs is associated with the acquisition of stigma receptivity.

  16. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771

  17. Reception of Communicative Functions of Prosody in Hypokinetic Dysarthria due to Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Heidi; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Wouters, Kristien; De Bodt, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Mapping adequacy of receptive prosodic abilities in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria due to Parkinson's disease (PD) is useful, because therapy of disturbed production of prosody relies on adequate reception of prosody. There is evidence for a deficit of reception of emotional prosody in PD. The present study aims at presenting a comprehensive picture of the reception of various communicative functions of prosody in hypokinetic dysarthria due to PD. We assessed perception (using a discrimination task) and comprehension (using an identification task) of five communicative functions of Dutch prosody (lexical stress, boundary marking, focus, sentence mode, and emotional prosody) in a group of adults with hypokinetic dysarthria due to PD (n = 22) and a gender and age matched group of unimpaired adults (n = 22). We also investigated the relationship between age and global test score, and the effect of perception and comprehension subtest sequence on the global test score. Between groups, no significant differences in receptive prosodic abilities were found. Within both groups, the comprehension subtest was significantly more difficult than the perception subtest, and there was a significant negative correlation between age and global test score. No subtest sequence effect could be demonstrated. Considering that the older speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria due to PD had receptive prosodic skills inferior to those of the younger speakers, notwithstanding apparently intact cognition and hearing, the findings suggest that age is a factor to be reckoned with in prosody assessment and management in this population.

  18. The reception of nineteenth-century Serbian salon music: Performer, audience and music critic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokanović-Marković Marijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of Salon Music can be traced through the tense, dynamic relation between the consumers of that kind of music (performers, listeners and critics. In the early 1930s, and later even more, a designation “salon style” started to appear in the reviews of the Salon Music. By that fact alone, it was implied that compositions, which were published as Salon Music, or were defined as such in reviews, corresponded to specific musical norms, which, on the other hand, evolved merely from recipient’s needs. In foreign and domestic press from the period, there are many negative epithets referring to Salon Music: “empty, frivolous, coquette, false”. Nevertheless, aesthetic debates in music literature had no impact on Salon Music admirers. In this study, the focus of attention is on the reception of Serbian Salon Music of the nineteenth century within the context of the Central European cultural practice. Salon compositions were interpreted within the interactive relations among musical work-performers-audience-critics. The goal of musical work analysis was not to evaluate the artistic quality or non-quality of the Salon Music, in order to distinguish more or less successful music compositions. It is far more important to bear in mind that artistic quality with the Salon Music consumers of the time had no decisive role. Musical work analysis no longer seeks for aesthetical values in music facts, but for qualities and features that a piece of music must possess in order to fulfill its purpose and function. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  19. Receptive fields of visual neurons: the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillmann, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the visual receptive field (RF) from Hartline to Hubel and Wiesel. Hartline (1938, 1940) found that an isolated optic nerve fiber in the frog could be excited by light falling on a small circular area of the retina. He called this area the RF, using a term first introduced by Sherrington (1906) in the tactile domain. In 1953 Kuffler discovered the antagonistic center-surround organization of cat RFs, and Barlow, Fitzhugh, and Kuffler (1957) extended this work to stimulus size and state of adaptation. Shortly thereafter, Lettvin and colleagues (1959) in an iconic paper asked "what the frog's eye tells the frog's brain". Meanwhile, Jung and colleagues (1952-1973) searched for the perceptual correlates of neuronal responses, and Jung and Spillmann (1970) proposed the term perceptive field (PF) as a psychophysical correlate of the RF. The Westheimer function (1967) enabled psychophysical measurements of the PF center and surround in human and monkey, which correlated closely with the underlying RF organization. The sixties and seventies were marked by rapid progress in RF research. Hubel and Wiesel (1959-1974), recording from neurons in the visual cortex of the cat and monkey, found elongated RFs selective for the shape, orientation, and position of the stimulus, as well as for movement direction and ocularity. These findings prompted the emergence in visual psychophysics of the concept of feature detectors selective for lines, bars, and edges, and contributed to a model of the RF in terms of difference of Gaussians (DOG) and Fourier channels. The distinction between simple, complex, and hypercomplex neurons followed. Although RF size increases towards the peripheral retina, its cortical representation remains constant due to the reciprocal relationship with the cortical magnification factor (M). This constitutes a uniform yardstick for M-scaled stimuli across the retina. Developmental studies have shown that RF properties are not fixed

  20. BP101 Peptide Promotes Female Sexual Receptivity in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Lomonosov, Mikhail; Popova, Anfisa; Lagereva, Evgeniia; Clément, Pierre; Salimov, Ramiz; Golikov, Dmitriy

    2017-03-01

    sexual desire. Andreev-Andrievskiy A, Lomonosov M, Popova A, et al. BP101 Peptide Promotes Female Sexual Receptivity in the Rat. J Sex Med 2017;14:336-346. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The other poet : the ancient reception of Hesiod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    The Other Poet is a doctoral thesis exploring the role of Hesiod in the ancient imagination. Its central question is concerned with the way that Hesiod was given shape in the collective memory of the Greeks. This study thus deals with the processes of remembering and forgetting that created his

  2. Catherine of Siena's wisdom on discernment and her reception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catherine of Siena's wisdom on discernment represents a significant development in the history of this essential Christian theme. Her teaching is the fruit of personal wisdom rather than formal study as she was an uneducated lay woman in fourteenth century Italy. In this article I show how Scripture was central to Catherine's ...

  3. Temporal variability of spectro-temporal receptive fields in the anesthetized auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Freerk Meyer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variability of neuronal response characteristics during sensory stimulation is a ubiquitous phenomenon that may reflect processes such as stimulus-driven adaptation, top-down modulation or spontaneous fluctuations. It poses a challenge to functional characterization methods such as the receptive field, since these often assume stationarity. We propose a novel method for estimation of sensory neurons' receptive fields that extends the classic static linear receptive field model to the time-varying case. Here, the long-term estimate of the static receptive field serves as the mean of a probabilistic prior distribution from which the short-term temporally localized receptive field may deviate stochastically with time-varying standard deviation. The derived corresponding generalized linear model permits robust characterization of temporal variability in receptive field structure also for highly non-Gaussian stimulus ensembles. We computed and analyzed short-term auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF estimates with characteristic temporal resolution 5 s to 30 s based on model simulations and responses from in total 60 single-unit recordings in anesthetized Mongolian gerbil auditory midbrain and cortex. Stimulation was performed with short (100 ms overlapping frequency-modulated tones. Results demonstrate identification of time-varying STRFs, with obtained predictive model likelihoods exceeding those from baseline static STRF estimation. Quantitative characterization of STRF variability reveals a higher degree thereof in auditory cortex compared to midbrain. Cluster analysis indicates that significant deviations from the long-term static STRF are brief, but reliably estimated. We hypothesize that the observed variability more likely reflects spontaneous or state-dependent internal fluctuations that interact with stimulus-induced processing, rather than experimental or stimulus design.

  4. [Study on the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Fubaiju'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Liu, Chang-Li; Wang, Hui-Di; Chen, Ke-Li

    2012-10-01

    To study the blooming habits, pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium and provide theoretical basis for its breeding. Explored the blooming habits by dynamic observation on the process of blossom, evaluated the pollen viability by germination in vitro culture method and estimated stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method. About the pollen viability, there were no significant differences between the flowers which in the same round of the capitulum; Tubular flowers in the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge; In the morning pollen vitality gradually raised, during 11: 00 - 14: 00 maintained the highest, and then gradually decreased; Tubular flower began to loose powder on the third day, during 4th - 6th day the pollen viability was highest, respectively was 35.12%, 39.89%, 38.12%, then gradually decreased, on the 15th day was only 7.41%, finally turned into wither. Regard to the stigma receptivity, the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge, outer edge ligulate flower had no receptivity; Revealed the strongest during 13: 00 - 14:00 in one day; During the 5th - 7th day was the strongest after flowering. The regulation of the stigma secreted mucus existed great consistency with the stigma receptivity, namely the stigma receptivity usually was strong when it secreted large number mucus. Understand the blossom habits of Chrysanthemun morifolium, as well as the dynamic changes regulation of pollen viability and stigma receptivity during its blossom, which could be used to select the flowers in a capitulum which are on the more suitable period and position for artificial pollination and hybridization breeding research.

  5. Structural analysis of the spiroplasma virus, SpV4: implications for evolutionary variation to obtain host diversity among the Microviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Paul R; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Renaudin, Joël; Baker, Timothy S; McKenna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Spiroplasma virus, SpV4, is a small, non-enveloped virus that infects the helical mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum. SpV4 exhibits several similarities to the Chlamydia phage, Chp1, and the Coliphages α3, φK, G4 and φX174. All of these viruses are members of the Microviridae. These viruses have isometric capsids with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, cause lytic infections and are the only icosahedral phages that contain single-stranded circular DNA genomes. The aim of this comparative study on these phages was to understand the role of their capsid proteins during host receptor recognition. Results The three-dimensional structure of SpV4 was determined to 27 Å resolution from images of frozen-hydrated particles. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed 20, ∼54 Å long, ‘mushroom-like’ protrusions on the surface of the capsid. Each protrusion comprises a trimeric structure that extends radially along the threefold icosahedral axes of the capsid. A 71 amino acid portion of VP1 (the SpV4 capsid protein) was shown, by structural alignment with the atomic structure of the F capsid protein of φX174, to represent an insertion sequence between the E and F strands of the eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel. Secondary structure prediction of this insertion sequence provided the basis for a probable structural motif, consisting of a six-stranded antiparallel β sheet connected by small turns. Three such motifs form the rigid stable trimeric structures (mushroom-like protrusions) at the threefold axes, with hydrophobic depressions at their distal surface. Conclusions Sequence alignment and structural analysis indicate that distinct genera of the Microviridae might have evolved from a common primordial ancestor, with capsid surface variations, such as the SpV4 protrusions, resulting from gene fusion events that have enabled diverse host ranges. The hydrophobic nature of the cavity at the distal surface of the SpV4 protrusions suggests that this region may

  6. Design of signal reception and processing system of embedded ultrasonic endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Ruiqiang; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin

    2009-11-01

    Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope, based on embedded microprocessor and embedded real-time operating system, sends a micro ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of the Electronic Endoscope to get the fault histology features of digestive organs by rotary scanning, and acquires the pictures of the alimentary canal mucosal surface. At the same time, ultrasonic signals are processed by signal reception and processing system, forming images of the full histology of the digestive organs. Signal Reception and Processing System is an important component of Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope. However, the traditional design, using multi-level amplifiers and special digital processing circuits to implement signal reception and processing, is no longer satisfying the standards of high-performance, miniaturization and low power requirements that embedded system requires, and as a result of the high noise that multi-level amplifier brought, the extraction of small signal becomes hard. Therefore, this paper presents a method of signal reception and processing based on double variable gain amplifier and FPGA, increasing the flexibility and dynamic range of the Signal Reception and Processing System, improving system noise level, and reducing power consumption. Finally, we set up the embedded experiment system, using a transducer with the center frequency of 8MHz to scan membrane samples, and display the image of ultrasonic echo reflected by each layer of membrane, with a frame rate of 5Hz, verifying the correctness of the system.

  7. Building Harmony through Religious Reception in Culture: Lesson Learned from Radin Jambat Folktale of Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Iswanto

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the existence of various religious receptions in culture gives a great opportunity for the building and nurturance of harmony among religious followers and for the creating of solidarities in the society. This article uncovers receptions of religious aspects (ultimate truth aspect/god, cosmological aspect and religious ritual aspect in the cultural products of Radin Lambat, a folktale from Lampung. The article is based on the texts of Radin Lambat folktale, interviews, and other literary sources about Lampung cultures. Religious receptions as shown in Radin Lambat folktale indicate the preservation of past beliefs, coupled with the gentle addition and inclusion of Islamic teachings, to create harmonization between religion and tradition through folktale. This shows that Islam in the societies of Lampung is Islam that values cultures through the processes of gradual and varied receptions. This article is expected to add evidence to related sources about the concepts and practices of harmony among religious followers in Indonesia in local tradition, and the addition to the range of the rare religious-cultural reception studies of Lampung society

  8. Evidence for catch-up in cognition and receptive vocabulary among adolescents born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Thuy Mai; Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C; Ment, Laura R

    2011-08-01

    Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories.

  9. Does metacognitive strategy instruction improve impaired receptive cognitive-communication skills following acquired brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Anna; Smith, Kathleen; Savill, Katelyn; Finch, Emma

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if metacognitive strategy instruction (MSI) improves the receptive language skills of adults with cognitive-communication disorders secondary to acquired brain injury (ABI). An ABA intervention programme was implemented with eight adults with ABI, aged 25-70 years. The Measure of Cognitive-Linguistic Abilities (MCLA) was administered at baseline and following treatment. The treatment employed in this study involved three components: individual goal-based therapy, group remediation therapy using self-instruction and home practice. No receptive language sub-tests of the MCLA reached statistical significance. However, participants' raw score improvements in receptive language sub-tests indicated that MSI may be effective at remediating CCDs following ABI. Preliminary findings indicate that MSI may be effective in improving receptive language skills in adults with CCDs following ABI. Further research involving a more rigorous study, a larger sample size and a more reliable outcome measure is necessary and may provide statistically significant evidence for the effectiveness of MSI for remediating receptive language disorders.

  10. Active versus receptive group music therapy for major depressive disorder-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiwannapat, Penchaya; Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Poopityastaporn, Patchawan; Katekaew, Wanwisa

    2016-06-01

    To compare the effects of 1) active group music therapy and 2) receptive group music therapy to group counseling in treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). On top of standard care, 14 MDD outpatients were randomly assigned to receive 1) active group music therapy (n=5), 2) receptive group music therapy (n=5), or 3) group counseling (n=4). There were 12 one-hour weekly group sessions in each arm. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1 month (after 4 sessions), 3 months (end of interventions), and 6 months. Primary outcomes were depressive scores measured by Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Thai version. Secondary outcomes were self-rated depression score and quality of life. At 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, both therapy groups showed statistically non-significant reduction in MADRS Thai scores when compared with the control group (group counseling). The reduction was slightly greater in the active group than the receptive group. Although there were trend toward better outcomes on self-report depression and quality of life, the differences were not statistically significant. Group music therapy, either active or receptive, is an interesting adjunctive treatment option for outpatients with MDD. The receptive group may reach peak therapeutic effect faster, but the active group may have higher peak effect. Group music therapy deserves further comprehensive studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Acoustic and Vortical Disturbances (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Boundary-layer receptivity to two-dimensional acoustic and vortical disturbances for hypersonic flows over two-dimensional and axi-symmetric geometries were numerically investigated. The role of bluntness, wall cooling, and pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability were analyzed and compared with the sharp nose cases. It was found that for flows over sharp nose geometries in adiabatic wall conditions the instability waves are generated in the leading-edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves as compared to the fast waves. The computations confirmed the stabilizing effect of nose bluntness and the role of the entropy layer in the delay of boundary layer transition. The receptivity coefficients in flows over blunt bodies are orders of magnitude smaller than that for the sharp cone cases. Wall cooling stabilizes the first mode strongly and destabilizes the second mode. However, the receptivity coefficients are also much smaller compared to the adiabatic case. The adverse pressure gradients increased the unstable second mode regions.

  12. Adaptive spatial filtering improves speech reception in noise while preserving binaural cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissmeyer, Susan R S; Goldsworthy, Raymond L

    2017-09-01

    Hearing loss greatly reduces an individual's ability to comprehend speech in the presence of background noise. Over the past decades, numerous signal-processing algorithms have been developed to improve speech reception in these situations for cochlear implant and hearing aid users. One challenge is to reduce background noise while not introducing interaural distortion that would degrade binaural hearing. The present study evaluates a noise reduction algorithm, referred to as binaural Fennec, that was designed to improve speech reception in background noise while preserving binaural cues. Speech reception thresholds were measured for normal-hearing listeners in a simulated environment with target speech generated in front of the listener and background noise originating 90° to the right of the listener. Lateralization thresholds were also measured in the presence of background noise. These measures were conducted in anechoic and reverberant environments. Results indicate that the algorithm improved speech reception thresholds, even in highly reverberant environments. Results indicate that the algorithm also improved lateralization thresholds for the anechoic environment while not affecting lateralization thresholds for the reverberant environments. These results provide clear evidence that this algorithm can improve speech reception in background noise while preserving binaural cues used to lateralize sound.

  13. Brand Salience For the Visually Impaired: an Exploration on Brand Reception and Experience For Blind and Low Vision Audiences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janice Fung

    2013-01-01

    .... The importance of understanding brand reception and perception through the lens of the visually impaired is intended to increase business value for organizations, enhance information accessibility...

  14. A new treatment of the v4 = 2 excited state of the symmetric top molecule PF3 around 693 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Hamid

    2013-07-01

    All experimental data of the 2ν40 parallel and 2ν4-2 perpendicular components of the pyramidal molecule PF3 have been refined using five equivalent D-, Q-, QD-, L-, LD-reduction forms of the effective rovibrational Hamiltonian recently developed for the vt(E) = 2 vibrational state of a C3v symmetric top molecule. The v4 = 2 excited level of the PF3 molecule has been treated with models taking into account ℓ- and k-intravibrational resonances. The body of data comprised 1171 IR lines of the 2ν40 component, 249 energies of the v4 = 2-2 substate deduced from the 2ν4-2-ν4-1 hot band and 5 reported MW data. The standard deviations of the fits are practically similar for the reductions applied and close to the quality of measurements. The unitary equivalence of the tested relations between the derived parameters was satisfactorily fulfilled.

  15. HIV-1 Env C2-V4 diversification in a slow-progressor infant reveals a flat but rugged fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abigail Smith

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 fitness has been associated with virus entry, a process mediated by the envelope glycoprotein (Env. We previously described Env genetic diversification in a Zambian, subtype C infected, slow-progressor child (1157i in parallel with an evolving neutralizing antibody response. Because of the role the Variable-3 loop (V3 plays in transmission, cell tropism, neutralization sensitivity, and fitness, longitudinally isolated 1157i C2-V4 alleles were cloned into HIV-1NL4-3-eGFP and -DsRed2 infectious molecular clones. The fluorescent reporters allowed for dual-infection competitions between all patient-derived C2-V4 chimeras to quantify the effect of V3 diversification and selection on fitness. 'Winners' and 'losers' were readily discriminated among the C2-V4 alleles. Exceptional sensitivity for detection of subtle fitness differences was revealed through analysis of two alleles differing in a single synonymous amino acid. However, when the outcomes of N = 33 competitions were averaged for each chimera, the aggregate analysis showed that despite increasing diversification and divergence with time, natural selection of C2-V4 sequences in this individual did not appear to be producing a 'survival of the fittest' evolutionary pattern. Rather, we detected a relatively flat fitness landscape consistent with mutational robustness. Fitness outcomes were then correlated with individual components of the entry process. Env incorporation into particles correlated best with fitness, suggesting a role for Env avidity, as opposed to receptor/coreceptor affinity, in defining fitness. Nevertheless, biochemical analyses did not identify any step in HIV-1 entry as a dominant determinant of fitness. Our results lead us to conclude that multiple aspects of entry contribute to maintaining adequate HIV-1 fitness, and there is no surrogate analysis for determining fitness. The capacity for subtle polymorphisms in Env to

  16. Identification of Brain Sites Controlling Female Receptivity in Mosaics of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Laurie; Hall, Jeffrey C.

    1983-01-01

    We have identified cells in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster that are required to be of female genotype for receptivity to copulation with males. To do this, we determined experimental conditions in which female flies virtually always copulate, then measured the minimum amount of male courtship that is required to stimulate females to indicate their receptivity to copulation. We then observed gynandromorphs with female genitalia to determine whether the sex mosaics elicited at least the minimum amount of courtship and, if so, whether they copulated. By analyzing these gynandromorphs, in which the genotype of external and internal tissues could be ascertained, we were able to identify a group of cells in the dorsal anterior brain that, when bilaterally female, is necessary and sufficient for receptivity to copulation. This group of cells is anatomically distinct from those that are required to be of male genotype for the performance of courtship behaviors. PMID:17246106

  17. Exploring the increase of receptive vocabulary knowledge in the foreign language: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Agustín Llach

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tracks the increase in the overall word reception knowledge of 224 young pupils in their 4th, 5th and 6th grades of primary education and in their 1st year of secondary education 7th grade, who learn EFL in a formal context. The 2,000 word frequency band of The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham, 2001, version 2 is used to establish their word knowledge level. Results reveal that the development of these students’ receptive English vocabulary size is incremental and constant, and that it falls within the 1,000 frequency level. Learners increase their receptive vocabulary knowledge in a significant way from one grade to the next. The rate of the gain remains constant across grades.

  18. A Framework for Reliable Reception of Wireless Metering Data using Protocol Side Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior Jacobsen, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Stationary collectors reading wireless, battery powered smart meters, often operate in harsh channel conditions to cut network installation cost to a minimum, challenging the individual link to each meter. The desired performance measure is reliable reception of at least some data from as many...... as possible meters, rather than maximizing the number of received packets from one meter. We consider a method for improving the reliable reception in a metering system that operates under the constraints of the popular Wireless M-Bus protocol. We develop a framework for reliable reception in which we use...... the deterministic protocol structure to obtain side information and group the packets from the same meter. We derive the probability of falsely pairing packets from different senders in the simple case of no channel errors, and show through simulation and data from an experimental deployment the probability...

  19. Simple-cell-like receptive fields maximize temporal coherence in natural video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurri, Jarmo; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2003-03-01

    Recently, statistical models of natural images have shown the emergence of several properties of the visual cortex. Most models have considered the nongaussian properties of static image patches, leading to sparse coding or independent component analysis. Here we consider the basic time dependencies of image sequences instead of their nongaussianity. We show that simple-cell-type receptive fields emerge when temporal response strength correlation is maximized for natural image sequences. Thus, temporal response strength correlation, which is a nonlinear measure of temporal coherence, provides an alternative to sparseness in modeling simple-cell receptive field properties. Our results also suggest an interpretation of simple cells in terms of invariant coding principles, which have previously been used to explain complex-cell receptive fields.

  20. Bridging Cultures. Transnational Cultural Encounters in the Reception of The Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2018-01-01

    the Nordic noir phenomenon. This article deals with reception of the series in three countries (Denmark, UK and Sweden), through analysis of the demographic profile of audiences and the discourses of reception of the series in selected newspapers and on social media. Such transnational intercultural......The Danish-Swedish crime series The Bridge (2011-) is not just a European co-production involving several national funding sources. It has also created quite an active response among transnational audiences, critics, journalists and creative industry people – further expanding and consolidating...... negotiations relate to universal dimensions of stories, but also initiate a cultural encounter between ‘us and them’. The reception shows a fascination of Nordic Noir as a genre, but the transnational cultural encounters with the series also involve social, political and cultural themes and exchange...

  1. Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18): a mixed-valent oxoarsenic(III)/arsenic(V) actinide compound obtained under extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V; Kegler, Philip; Bosbach, Dirk; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2014-08-18

    A high-temperature/high-pressure method was employed to investigate phase formation in the Th(NO3)4·5H2O-As2O3-CsNO3 system. It was observed that an excess of arsenic(III) in starting system leads to the formation of Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18), which is representative of a rare class of mixed-valent arsenic(III)/arsenic(V) compounds. This compound was studied with X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy methods. Crystallographic data show that Th(As(III)4As(V)4O18) is built from (As(III)4As(V)4O18)(4-) layers connected through Th atoms. The arsenic layers are found to be isoreticular to those in previously reported As2O3 and As3O5(OH), and the geometric differences between them are discussed. Bands in the Raman spectrum are assigned with respect to the presence of AsO3 and AsO4 groups.

  2. First high-resolution FTIR study of the v1 = v4 = 1 rovibrational state of 14NF3 near 1523 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmimou, Siham; Msahal, Hicham; Najib, Hamid

    2010-03-01

    The v 1 + v 4 (E, ν0 = 1523.0407 cm-1) perpendicular band of the oblate symmetric top 14NF3 has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy with a resolution of 2.5 × 10-3 cm-1. In total, 1885 rovibrational transitions up to K max = 70 = J max have been assigned. Due to the k(Δℓ = 0, Δk = ±6) interaction (h 3 = 2.22 × 10-13 cm-1) within the kℓ = +4 sublevel, large A+/A- doublets were identified from J = 24 to J = 33 and large A +/A - doublets due to ℓ(Δℓ = ±2, Δk = ±2) rotational resonance (q 4 = 1.730 × 10-3 cm-1) within the kℓ = +1 level were also observed, while the effect of the expected ℓ(Δℓ = ±2, Δk = ∓ 4) interaction was not detected on the ΔK = -1 transitions owing to their vanishing intensity. The same D-reduction Hamiltonian model taking into account intravibrational resonances, recently performed for the v4 = 1 (E, ν0 = 493.4227 cm-1) state of 14NF3, was employed. Assuming the v1 = v4 = 1 vibrational state as isolated, the nonzero weighted experimental data were fitted to 26 free parameters with a standard deviation better than the spectral resolution. The experimental anharmonicity constant x 14 = -2.383 249 (49) cm-1 was determined.

  3. Evaluation of receptivity of the medical students in a lecture of a large group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, GuptaSandeep K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lecturing is widely used teaching method in higher education. Instructors of large classes may have only option to deliver lecture to convey informations to large group students.Aims and Objectives: The present study was to evaluate the effectiveness/receptivity of interactive lecturing in a large group of MBBS second year students. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the well-equipped lecture theater of Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH, Tamil Nadu. A fully prepared interactive lecture on the specific topic was delivered by using power point presentation for second year MBBS students. Before start to deliver the lecture, instructor distributed multiple choice 10 questionnaires to attempt within 10 minutes. After 30 minutes of delivering lecture, again instructor distributed same 10 sets of multiple choice questionnaires to attempt in 10 minutes. The topic was never disclosed to the students before to deliver the lecture. Statistics: We analyzed the pre-lecture & post-lecture questions of each student by applying the paired t-test formula by using www.openepi.com version 3.01 online/offline software and by using Microsoft Excel Sheet Windows 2010. Results: The 31 male, 80 female including 111 students of average age 18.58 years baseline (pre-lecture receptivity mean % was 30.99 ± 14.64 and post-lecture receptivity mean % was increased upto 53.51± 19.52. The only 12 students out of 111 post-lecture receptivity values was less (mean % 25.8± 10.84 than the baseline (mean % 45± 9.05 receptive value and this reduction of receptivity was more towards negative side. Conclusion: In interactive lecture session with power point presentation students/learners can learn, even in large-class environments, but it should be active-learner centered.

  4. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10-13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007-2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. In 2007-2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Charging for port reception facilities in North Sea ports: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, A; Macgill, S

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the charging systems for the use of port reception facilities for waste oil, and to examine the potential impact of the charging elements of the new (late 2000) EU Directive on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues. Experience to date with alternative models for charging is considered. Conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of the EU Directive as a means of controlling pollution in the North Sea and producing a 'level playing field' between ports.

  6. From Iser to Turner and beyond: reception theory meets cognitive criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we review the work of Wolfgang Iser, the major proponent of reception theory, and Mark Turner, the major proponent of cognitive criticism. The two theoretical lines advocated by Iser and Turner focus on the cognitive processes involved with reading literary texts. Unfortunately, bibliographic blind spots in both lines lead to the assumption that there is little overlap between reception theory and cognitive criticism. We put this assumption to rest by comparing and contrasting works by Iser and Turner in detail, starting with Iser’s work in the mid-1970s and ending with Turner’s work in the late 1990s.

  7. Diversity reception for advanced multi-satellite networks: A CDMA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, E.; Degaudenzi, R.; Elia, C.; Giannetti, F.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Diversity reception for Synchronous CDMA (S-CDMA) is introduced and analyzed. A Gaussian co-channel synchronous and asynchronous interference approximation is derived to evaluate the effects on the system bit error rate. Numerical results are provided for a simple mobile communication system where the signals transmitted by two distinct satellites in visibility are coherently combined by a three fingers Rake receiver. A second example showing performance of an integrated ground/satellite single frequency network for digital audio broadcasting is presented. Results show the capacity advantage of utilizing S-CDMA in combination with diversity reception.

  8. Feedback linearisation of nonlinear vibration problems: A new formulation by the method of receptances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chong; Jiffri, Shakir; Li, Daochun; Xiang, Jinwu; Mottershead, John E.

    2018-01-01

    New output feedback-linearisation theory is presented for the treatment of nonlinear vibration problems by a receptance-based approach. An important aspect is a new formulation for investigating the stability of the zero dynamics. The overall methodology possesses the usual benefits of the receptance method, namely that the system matrices (with associated assumptions and approximations) do not have to be known. In addition, it has the distinction of not requiring the form and parameter values of the nonlinearity when the input and output degrees of freedom are away from the nonlinearity itself. This represents a valuable advance over the conventional time-domain feedback linearisation approach.

  9. Instability of the socio-economic systems as a factor of their receptivity towards changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Romanova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article author marks out the life phases of socio-economic systems from the point of view of theirs stability / instability, determines the correlation between life phase and receptivity degree of system to changes. They offer the order parameters of socio-economic system and assessment methods through which instability is conveyed. The suggested methods have been used for solving the problem of assessing the degree of receptivity of the regional economic systems to the currents global crisis and the following modernization process.

  10. A Guide Book for Making a Reservation at the Reception of a Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberg, Olli

    2013-01-01

    The aim for this bachelor's thesis was to produce a guide book for making a reservation to be used at the reception of Original Sokos Hotel Ilves. The need for such a guide book was introduced by the hotel itself as there was no guide book of this kind specifically designed for Original Sokos Hotel Ilves. There was only a very large and rather impractical chain-level guide book for the system used in the front desk computers which had not been in active use by the reception staff. The main el...

  11. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting rabbit doe sexual receptivity as estimated from one generation of divergent selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a  sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero

  12. Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venous catheter (KATHeter), also known as a central line or CVC, is long, soft, thin, hollow tube ... into a large vein (blood vessel). A central line is much like an intravenous (IV) catheter that ...

  13. Altered Balance of Receptive Field Excitation and Suppression in Visual Cortex of Amblyopic Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallum, Luke E; Shooner, Christopher; Kumbhani, Romesh D; Kelly, Jenna G; García-Marín, Virginia; Majaj, Najib J; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2017-08-23

    In amblyopia, a visual disorder caused by abnormal visual experience during development, the amblyopic eye (AE) loses visual sensitivity whereas the fellow eye (FE) is largely unaffected. Binocular vision in amblyopes is often disrupted by interocular suppression. We used 96-electrode arrays to record neurons and neuronal groups in areas V1 and V2 of six female macaque monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ) made amblyopic by artificial strabismus or anisometropia in early life, as well as two visually normal female controls. To measure suppressive binocular interactions directly, we recorded neuronal responses to dichoptic stimulation. We stimulated both eyes simultaneously with large sinusoidal gratings, controlling their contrast independently with raised-cosine modulators of different orientations and spatial frequencies. We modeled each eye's receptive field at each cortical site using a difference of Gaussian envelopes and derived estimates of the strength of central excitation and surround suppression. We used these estimates to calculate ocular dominance separately for excitation and suppression. Excitatory drive from the FE dominated amblyopic visual cortex, especially in more severe amblyopes, but suppression from both the FE and AEs was prevalent in all animals. This imbalance created strong interocular suppression in deep amblyopes: increasing contrast in the AE decreased responses at binocular cortical sites. These response patterns reveal mechanisms that likely contribute to the interocular suppression that disrupts vision in amblyopes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder that alters both monocular vision and binocular interaction. Using microelectrode arrays, we examined binocular interaction in primary visual cortex and V2 of six amblyopic macaque monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ) and two visually normal controls. By stimulating the eyes dichoptically, we showed that, in amblyopic cortex, the binocular combination of signals is

  14. Investigating the Receptive-Expressive Vocabulary Profile in Children with Idiopathic ASD and Comorbid ASD and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has noted that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display weaknesses in receptive vocabulary relative to expressive vocabulary abilities. The current study extended previous work by examining the receptive-expressive vocabulary profile in boys with idiopathic ASD and boys with concomitant ASD and fragile X syndrome…

  15. Meta-signature of human endometrial receptivity: a meta-analysis and validation study of transcriptomic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmäe, Signe; Koel, Mariann; Võsa, Urmo; Adler, Priit; Suhorutšenko, Marina; Laisk-Podar, Triin; Kukushkina, Viktorija; Saare, Merli; Velthut-Meikas, Agne; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Aghajanova, Lusine; Lalitkumar, Parameswaran G; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Giudice, Linda; Simón, Carlos; Salumets, Andres

    2017-08-30

    Previous transcriptome studies of the human endometrium have revealed hundreds of simultaneously up- and down-regulated genes that are involved in endometrial receptivity. However, the overlap between the studies is relatively small, and we are still searching for potential diagnostic biomarkers. Here we perform a meta-analysis of endometrial-receptivity associated genes on 164 endometrial samples (76 from 'pre-receptive' and 88 from mid-secretory, 'receptive' phase endometria) using a robust rank aggregation (RRA) method, followed by enrichment analysis, and regulatory microRNA prediction. We identify a meta-signature of endometrial receptivity involving 57 mRNA genes as putative receptivity markers, where 39 of these we confirm experimentally using RNA-sequencing method in two separate datasets. The meta-signature genes highlight the importance of immune responses, the complement cascade pathway and the involvement of exosomes in mid-secretory endometrial functions. Bioinformatic prediction identifies 348 microRNAs that could regulate 30 endometrial-receptivity associated genes, and we confirm experimentally the decreased expression of 19 microRNAs with 11 corresponding up-regulated meta-signature genes in our validation experiments. The 57 identified meta-signature genes and involved pathways, together with their regulatory microRNAs could serve as promising and sought-after biomarkers of endometrial receptivity, fertility and infertility.

  16. Regulation of endometrial receptivity by the highly expressed HOXA9, HOXA11 and HOXD10 HOX-class homeobox genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Bei; Geerts, Dirk; Bu, Zhiqin; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei; Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhu, Guijin

    2014-01-01

    Are other HOX genes, in addition to HOXA10, involved in endometrial receptivity? The highly expressed HOXA9, HOXA11 and HOXD10 genes also appear to be involved in endometrial receptivity. Within the HOX family of homeobox transcription factor genes are the leading candidates for the regulation of

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Sizes and Their Increased Use by Azerbaijani English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiyeva, Konul

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the results of two studies on receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge of first-year English majors in an English-medium degree programme. The aim of the study is to answer these research questions: (1) to what extent do the receptive and productive vocabulary sizes of English majors increase after a year of…

  18. Identifying and Activating Receptive Vocabulary by an Online Vocabulary Survey and an Online Writing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ivy Chuhui; Kawai, Goh

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to identify and activate the Receptive Vocabulary (RV) of English Language Learners (ELLs), we designed (1) an online five category multiple-choice vocabulary survey that more quickly measures vocabulary knowledge, and (2) an online creative writing task where ELLs chose RV items identified in step (1). While RV items of highly proficient…

  19. Conceptual scoring of receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in simultaneous and sequential bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish. Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilingual children, ages 5-7. The children completed standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and also in Spanish for those who were bilingual. After the standardized administration, bilingual children were given the opportunity to respond to missed items in their other language to obtain a conceptual score. Controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), both simultaneous and sequential bilingual children scored significantly below monolingual children on single-language measures of English receptive and expressive vocabulary. Conceptual scoring removed the significant difference between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children in the receptive modality but not in the expressive modality; differences remained between monolingual and sequential bilingual children in both modalities. However, in both bilingual groups, conceptual scoring increased the proportion of children with vocabulary scores within the average range. Conceptual scoring does not fully ameliorate the bias inherent in single-language standardized vocabulary measures for bilingual children, but the procedures employed here may assist in ruling out vocabulary deficits, particularly in typically developing simultaneous bilingual children.

  20. Team receptivity to newcomers : Five decades of evidence and future research themes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, F.A.; Kane, A.; Ellemers, N.; van der Vegt, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Reviews of research on newcomers mostly address socialization processes, focusing on individual adjustment. This article takes a different approach by examining the ways in which teams adapt to newcomers, indicating team receptivity. We review the empirical research published over the last five

  1. Receptive field properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex under photopic and scotopic lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin R; Hubel, David H

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of the primate visual cortex (area V-1) comes mostly from studies done in photopic conditions, in which retinal cones are active and rods play little or no part. Conflicting results have come from research into the effects of dark adaptation on receptive field organization of cells in the retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus. These studies claim either that the effect of the surround disappears with dark adaptation or that it does not. The current study has as its objective a comparison of responses of V-1 cells in awake-alert macaque monkeys under conditions of light and dark adaptation. We reasoned that basic receptive field properties of V-1 cells such as orientation selectivity, direction selectivity, and end-stopping should be preserved in scotopic conditions if the receptive field organization of antecedent cells is maintained in dim light. Our results indicate that dark adaptation does not alter basic V-1 receptive field characteristics such as selectivity for orientation, direction, and bar length.

  2. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  3. Shyness-Anxiousness and Receptive Language Skills Development in Spanish- and English-Speaking Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…

  4. Systematic variation of population receptive field properties across cortical depth in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracasso, Alessio; Petridou, N; Dumoulin, Serge O

    2016-01-01

    Receptive fields (RFs) in visual cortex are organized in antagonistic, center-surround, configurations. RF properties change systematically across eccentricity and between visual field maps. However, it is unknown how center-surround configurations are organized in human visual cortex across lamina.

  5. Profiles of Receptive and Expressive Language Abilities in Boys with Comorbid Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised and the Autism…

  6. Conceptual scoring of receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in simultaneous and sequential bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish. Method Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilinguals, ages 5–7. The children completed standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and also in Spanish for bilinguals. After the standardized administration, bilinguals were given the opportunity to respond to missed items in their other language to obtain a conceptual score. Results Controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), both simultaneous and sequential bilinguals scored significantly below monolinguals on single-language measures of English receptive and expressive vocabulary. Conceptual scoring removed the significant difference between monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals in the receptive modality, but not in the expressive modality; differences remained between monolinguals and sequential bilinguals in both modalities. However, in both bilingual groups conceptual scoring increased the proportion of children with vocabulary scores within the average range. Conclusions Conceptual scoring does not fully ameliorate the bias inherent in single-language standardized vocabulary measures for bilinguals, but the procedures employed here may assist in ruling out vocabulary deficits, particularly in typically-developing simultaneous bilingual children. PMID:24811415

  7. Predictors of receptive and expressive vocabulary development in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-10-18

    There is a lack of longitudinal data on predictors of vocabulary development in children with Down syndrome (DS). In typically developing children, many internal and external predictors of vocabulary development have been determined before. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of these variables in the receptive and expressive vocabulary development of children with DS. The present study used a longitudinal design in young children with DS to study the vocabulary development over a period of 1.6 years and investigated the possible predictive role of child-related and environmental variables. Receptive vocabulary development was best predicted by the adaptive level of functioning and early receptive vocabulary skills. Expressive vocabulary development was best predicted by the adaptive level of functioning, receptive vocabulary, maternal educational level, level of communicative intent of the child, attention skills and phonological/phonemic awareness. A wide range of internal and external predictors for vocabulary development of children with DS was found. Predictors resemble those predicting vocabulary development in peers with typical development between 1 and 6 years of age, as identified in other studies.

  8. Leaders’ receptivity to subordinates’ creative input: the role of achievement goals and composition of creative input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,

  9. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge Among Middle School Pupils: Receptive Versus Productive Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-08-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.

  10. Making Borges. The Early Reception of Jorge Luis Borges's Work in France and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnterp, L.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the role of individual mediators in the early reception of the works of the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986). It focuses on a number of key mediators such as publishers, editors, translators, and critics in the translation and publication process and in criticism

  11. Examining Second Language Receptive Knowledge of Collocation and Factors That Affect Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi My Hang; Webb, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated Vietnamese EFL learners' knowledge of verb-noun and adjective-noun collocations at the first three 1,000 word frequency levels, and the extent to which five factors (node word frequency, collocation frequency, mutual information score, congruency, and part of speech) predicted receptive knowledge of collocation. Knowledge…

  12. Promoting the Aesthetic Experience: The Rise of Receptive Art Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Cock

    2014-01-01

    In 1999, a mandatory and interdisciplinary art course, Cultural and Artistic Education (Culturele en Kunstzinnige Vorming, or CKV), was introduced in the Dutch secondary school system. The course focuses on receptive, rather than active, art education. Cultural activities, such as visiting an art exhibition or a theatre performance, form the core…

  13. Analysing a Whole CLIL School: Students' Attitudes, Motivation, and Receptive Vocabulary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    CLIL keeps on gaining ground in the European educational context, one clear example is Spain, where the number of schools adopting this methodology has kept growing exponentially in recent years. The present study has a dual perspective looking at the motivation of students towards English and CLIL and showing students' receptive vocabulary…

  14. No Place: Small Children in Norwegian Asylum-Seeker Reception Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Marie Louise; Bagge, Cecilie; Enger, Truls Andre

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on empirical material from fieldwork among young children living with their families in two Norwegian reception centres for asylum-seekers, this article compares their realities to the norms and realities for other children in Norway. Children's spatial and social situations within the centres stand out in stark contrast to Norwegian…

  15. the reception of galatians 2:20 in the patristic period and in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subsequently compare this with the commentaries of Luther and Calvin. 1 I thank Prof. Dr. R.B. ter ... There are two references to this text in his works: one in his ..... theological thought and its reception will portray a more dynamic history of theology than the stated oppositions of traditional conflicts. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Ambrose.

  16. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Tan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage.

  17. Socioemotional Competence, Self-Perceptions, and Receptive Vocabulary in Shy Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Given existing gendered stereotypic assumptions regarding shyness and children's school competencies, this study explored relations among socioemotional competencies, self-perceptions, and receptive vocabulary in shy children. Ninety-one Canadian children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years) were classified as shy (n = 26) based on teachers' behavioural…

  18. The Relation between Language Experience and Receptive-Expressive Semantic Gaps in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the influence of language experience on the presence of the receptive-expressive gap. Each of 778 Spanish-English bilingual children screened pre-kindergarten in Utah and Texas were assigned to one of five language experience groups, ranging from functionally monolingual to balanced bilingual.…

  19. Multi-reception strategy with improved SNR for multichannel MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wu

    Full Text Available A multi-reception strategy with extended GRAPPA is proposed in this work to improve MR imaging performance at ultra-high field MR systems with limited receiver channels. In this method, coil elements are separated to two or more groups under appropriate grouping criteria. Those groups are enabled in sequence for imaging first, and then parallel acquisition is performed to compensate for the redundant scan time caused by the multiple receptions. To efficiently reconstruct the data acquired from elements of each group, a specific extended GRAPPA was developed. This approach was evaluated by using a 16-element head array on a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner with 8 receive channels. The in-vivo experiments demonstrate that with the same scan time, the 16-element array with twice receptions and acceleration rate of 2 can achieve significant SNR gain in the periphery area of the brain and keep nearly the same SNR in the center area over an eight-element array, which indicates the proposed multi-reception strategy and extended GRAPPA are feasible to improve image quality for MRI systems with limited receive channels. This study also suggests that it is advantageous for a MR system with N receiver channels to utilize a coil array with more than N elements if an appropriate acquisition strategy is applied.

  20. The Use of Picture Prompts and Prompt Delay to Teach Receptive Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedora, Joseph; Barry, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The current study extended research on picture prompts by using them with a progressive prompt delay to teach receptive labeling of pictures to 2 teenagers with autism. The procedure differed from prior research because the auditory stimulus was not presented or was presented only once during the picture-prompt condition. The results indicated…

  1. How to Explain Receptivity to Conjunction-Fallacy Inhibition Training: Evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive predictions and judgments under conditions of uncertainty are often mediated by judgment heuristics that sometimes lead to biases. Using the classical conjunction bias example, the present study examines the relationship between receptivity to metacognitive executive training and emotion-based learning ability indexed by Iowa Gambling…

  2. Fides Publica in Ancient Rome and its Reception by Grotius and Locke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, M.

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the Roman notion of des publica and its reception by Grotius and Locke. The Romans considered des publica a general standard of behavior for all those invested with state power. It was regarded as a legal norm with moral connotations, which applied especially, though not

  3. Limits on perceptual encoding can be predicted from known receptive field properties of human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael A; Rhee, Juliana Y; Alvarez, George A

    2016-01-01

    Human cognition has a limited capacity that is often attributed to the brain having finite cognitive resources, but the nature of these resources is usually not specified. Here, we show evidence that perceptual interference between items can be predicted by known receptive field properties of the visual cortex, suggesting that competition within representational maps is an important source of the capacity limitations of visual processing. Across the visual hierarchy, receptive fields get larger and represent more complex, high-level features. Thus, when presented simultaneously, high-level items (e.g., faces) will often land within the same receptive fields, while low-level items (e.g., color patches) will often not. Using a perceptual task, we found long-range interference between high-level items, but only short-range interference for low-level items, with both types of interference being weaker across hemifields. Finally, we show that long-range interference between items appears to occur primarily during perceptual encoding and not during working memory maintenance. These results are naturally explained by the distribution of receptive fields and establish a link between perceptual capacity limits and the underlying neural architecture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESHMEN COLLEGE STUDENTS IN NEED OF AND RECEPTIVE TO COUNSELLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LANGER, PHILIP

    THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COLLEGE FRESHMEN IN NEED OF, AND RECEPTIVE TO, COUNSELING WAS STUDIED WITH THE STRUCTURED-OBJECTIVE RORSCHACH TEST (SORT) TO--(1) MODIFY THE SORT, (2) CLASSIFY SUBJECTS INTO COUNSELING AND NON-COUNSELING GROUPS, (3) DETERMINE IF THE SORT COULD DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN COUNSELING AND NON-COUNSELING SUBJECTS, AND (4) CONSTRUCT…

  5. 47 CFR 1.4000 - Restrictions impairing reception of television broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any commercial non-broadcast communications signals transmitted via wireless technology to and/or from... Transmit Fixed Wireless Communications Signals § 1.4000 Restrictions impairing reception of television... broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite services or multichannel multipoint distribution services. 1...

  6. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Creativity and Their Lexical Reception and Production Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilou, Y.; Yazdani, H.; Shokrpour, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between creativity on one hand and lexical reception and production knowledge of Iranian EFL students on the other hand. The data were collected using three tests: a creativity test (Torrance, 1990), the Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt, & Clapham, 2001), and the Productive Version of the…

  7. Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuka

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

  8. Constructing an Online Test Framework, Using the Example of a Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the features of an online test framework for a receptive skills test that has been adapted, based on a British template, into different sign languages. The online test includes features that meet the needs of the different sign language versions. Features such as usability of the test, automatic saving of scores, and score…

  9. Wolfgang Klafki's Concept of "Didaktik" and Its Reception in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meinert A.; Rakhkochkine, Anatoli

    2018-01-01

    We take the reception of Wolfgang Klafki's didactics in Russia as our example for the difficult relations between knowledge transfer and knowledge transformation. We start with a description, analysis and evaluation of Klafki's two didactical models, categorical didactics and critical-constructive didactics, and then describe and evaluate their…

  10. Semi-quantitative analysis of endometrial receptivity marker mRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In fertile women, expression of molecular marker of endometrial receptivity, HOXA11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic transcriptional element binding protein 1 (BTEB1), rises during the luteal phase with the peak occurring during the implantation window. We evaluated the transcript levels of HOXA-11, LIF and ...

  11. Power/Knowledge for Educational Theory: Stephen Ball and the Reception of Foucault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of the concept of power/knowledge in educational theory. The argument proceeds in two main parts. In the first, I consider aspects of Stephen J. Ball's highly influential work in educational theory. I examine his reception of Foucault's concept of power/knowledge and suggest that there are problems in his…

  12. Longitudinal Receptive American Sign Language Skills across a Diverse Deaf Student Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e.,…

  13. 47 CFR 73.825 - Protection to reception of TV channel 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection to reception of TV channel 6. 73.825... channel 6. (a) LPFM stations will be authorized on Channels 201 through 220 only if the pertinent minimum separation distances in the following table are met with respect to all full power TV Channel 6 stations. FM...

  14. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  15. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  16. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector : A perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217201490; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  17. Order of Stimulus Presentation Influences Children's Acquisition in Receptive Identification Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Aguilar, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Receptive identification is usually taught in matching-to-sample format, which entails the presentation of an auditory sample stimulus and several visual comparison stimuli in each trial. Conflicting recommendations exist regarding the order of stimulus presentation in matching-to-sample trials. The purpose of this study was to compare acquisition…

  18. Linear Uniform Receptiveness in a Pi-Calculus with Location Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Garm Nielsen, Johannes; Finderup, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The notion of receptiveness arises in the pi-calculus as a guarantee of determinacy in the behaviour of callable entities and was first investigated by Sangiorgi. The DpiF process calculus, introduced by Francalanza and Hennessy, extends the pi-calculus with located processes and location and link...

  19. A Qualitative Analysis of General Receptive Vocabulary of Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…

  20. Promoting the Aesthetic Experience: The Rise of Receptive Art Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, C.

    2014-01-01

    In 1999, a mandatory and interdisciplinary art course, Cultural and Artistic Education (Culturele en Kunstzinnige Vorming, or CKV), was introduced in the Dutch secondary school system. The course focuses on receptive, rather than active, art education. Cultural activities, such as visiting an art

  1. the reception of galatians 2:20 in the patristic period and in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the reception of Galatians 2:20 in the Patristic period, and in the Reformation by Luther and Calvin. As it turns out, the interpretation of the verse does not fit into popular notions of their theological traditions. Authors from traditions as different as the Alexandrians and the Antiochians, or Eastern and.

  2. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Rupp

    Full Text Available MHC class II molecules (MHC II play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC molecule. Non-receptiveness hinders the efficient loading of new antigens onto the empty MHC II. However, the mechanisms driving the formation of the peptide inaccessible state are not well understood. Here, a combined approach of experimental site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling is used to reveal structural features underlying "non-receptiveness." Molecular dynamics simulations of the human MHC II HLA-DR1 suggest a straightening of the α-helix of the β1 domain during the transition from the open to the non-receptive state. The movement is mostly confined to a hinge region conserved in all known MHC molecules. This shift causes a narrowing of the two helices flanking the binding site and results in a closure, which is further stabilized by the formation of a critical hydrogen bond between residues αQ9 and βN82. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that replacement of either one of the two residues by alanine renders the protein highly susceptible. Notably, loading enhancement was also observed when the mutated MHC II molecules were expressed on the surface of fibroblast cells. Altogether, structural features underlying the non-receptive state of empty HLA-DR1 identified by theoretical means and experiments revealed highly conserved residues critically involved in the receptiveness of MHC II. The atomic details of rearrangements of the peptide-binding groove upon peptide loss provide insight into structure and dynamics of empty MHC II molecules and may foster rational approaches to interfere with non-receptiveness. Manipulation of peptide loading efficiency for improved peptide vaccination strategies could be one of the applications profiting

  4. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  5. Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental

  6. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Taylor

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children

  7. Receptive field properties of rod-driven horizontal cells in the skate retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The large receptive fields of retinal horizontal cells result primarily from extensive intercellular coupling via gap (electrical) junctions; thus, the extent of the receptive field provides an index of the degree to which the cells are electrically coupled. For rod-driven horizontal cells in the dark-adapted skate retina, a space constant of 1.18 +/- 0.15 mm (SD) was obtained from measurements with a moving slit stimulus, and a comparable value (1.43 +/- 0.55 mm) was obtained with variation in spot diameter. These values, and the extensive spread of a fluorescent dye (Lucifer Yellow) from the site of injection to neighboring cells, indicate that the horizontal cells of the all-rod retina of skate are well coupled electrically. Neither the receptive field properties nor the gap-junctional features of skate horizontal cells were influenced by the adaptive state of the retina: (a) the receptive field organization was unaffected by light adaptation, (b) similar dye coupling was seen in both dark- and light-adapted retinae, and (c) no significant differences were found in the gap-junctional particle densities measured in dark- and light-adapted retinas, i.e., 3,184 +/- 286/microns 2 (n = 8) and 3,073 +/- 494/microns 2 (n = 11), respectively. Moreover, the receptive fields of skate horizontal cells were not altered by either dopamine, glycine, GABA, or the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. We conclude that the rod-driven horizontal cells of the skate retina are tightly coupled to one another, and that the coupling is not affected by photic and pharmacological conditions that are known to modulate intercellular coupling between cone-driven horizontal cells in other species. PMID:1359000

  8. Short persistent sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary performance in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Valerie; Touchette, Evelyne; Dionne, Ginette; Petit, Dominique; Seguin, Jean R; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vitaro, Frank; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 years. In the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, parents reported their children's nocturnal sleep duration annually from ages 2.5 to 10 years, and children were assessed for receptive vocabulary using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at ages 4 and 10 years. Groups with distinct nocturnal sleep duration trajectories were identified and the relationships between sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance were characterized. In all, 1192 children with available sleep duration and PPVT-R data participated in this epidemiological study. We identified four longitudinal nocturnal sleep trajectories: short persistent sleepers (n = 72, 6.0%), short increasing sleepers (n = 47, 3.9%), 10-h sleepers (n = 628, 52.7%) and 11-h sleepers (n = 445, 37.3%). In all, 14.8% of the children showed poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 years. Nocturnal sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 were associated significantly (P = 0.003). After adjusting for baseline receptive vocabulary performance at age 4 and other potential confounding variables, logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared to 11-h sleepers, the odds ratio of presenting poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 was 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-5.74, P = 0.012] for short persistent sleepers and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.06-2.59, P = 0.026) for 10-h sleepers. These results corroborate previous findings in early childhood, and indicate that short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary during middle childhood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. [Impaired endometrial receptivity in primary infertility in women with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia and hereditary thrombophilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanozin, A S; Demura, T A; Kolosovsky, D Yu; Faizullina, N M; Kogan, E A

    The concurrence of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (uCTD) and hereditary thrombophilia (HT) often accompanies female infertility, in the pathogenesis of which impaired endometrial receptivity plays an important role. to investigate endometrial morphological and immunophenotypic features in patients with primary infertility in the presence of uCTD and HT. The pipelle endometrial biopsy specimens taken in the implantation window were examined in 81 patients, including 13 women with a clinical diagnosis of uCTD, 40 with HT, 19 with uCTD concurrent with HT, and in a control group of 9 heathy surrogate mothers. Morphological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric examinations were done to study the paraffin-embedded endometrial biopsy sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, pikrofuksin by van Gieson, and with toluidine blue. Immunohistochemical tests were carried out using primary antibodies against ER, PgR, LIF, PAI-1, VEGF, Collagen I, Collagen III, fibronectin, laminin, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The uCTD, HT, and uCTD + HT groups were found to have signs of decreased endometrial receptivity as dramatically lower counts of mature pinopodes, slower endometrial maturation, reduced expression of the receptivity marker LIF, and deviations of the stromal progesterone-estrogen index from the normal value. Sclerotic foci with type III collagen accumulation were detected in the endometrial stroma. uCTD and HT and especially their concurrence are commonly a concomitant disease and risk factors for infertility in women due to impaired endometrial receptivity. In uCTD, connective tissue remodeling processes are substantially retarded, which ultimately leads to increased processes of endometrial stromal sclerosis, reduced endometrial receptivity, and infertility. The most pronounced morphological and immunophenotypical changes have been ascertained to develop in the uCTD + NT group. The findings may be used to predict and devise new infertility treatments in patients

  10. Tribological behavior of UHMWPE against TiAl6V4 and CoCr28Mo alloys under dry and lubricated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezmil, M; Bensalah, W; Mezlini, S

    2016-10-01

    This work is focused on the study of the tribological behavior of TiAl6V4 and CoCr28Mo against UHMWPE. Wear tests were achieved on a reciprocating pin-on-disc tribometer under dry and lubricated conditions. Four bio-lubricants were retained namely: saline solution (NaCl 0.9%), sesame oil, nigella sativa oil and Hyalgan® which is a pharmaceutical intra-articular injection containing sodium hyaluronate active agent (20mg/2mL). The coefficient of friction and wear volume of UHMWPE were evaluated after tribological tests. It is found that, the friction and wear behaviors of CoCr28Mo/UHMWPE pair under dry and bio-lubrication were the best. Results show that the use of natural oils improved significantly the tribological behavior of CoCr28Mo/UHMWPE and TiAl6V4/UHMWPE pairs. Microscopic and chemical analyses of wear tracks on UHMWPE were carried out and wear mechanisms were proposed for each materials pair. The tribological performance of the used oils was linked to their chemical composition and to their adsorption ability on the metallic surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multispectrum Analysis of 12CH4 in the v4 Band: I. Air-Broadened Half Widths, Pressure-Induced Shifts, Temperature Dependences and Line Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, MaryAnn H.; Benner, D. Chris; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2009-01-01

    Lorentz air-broadened half widths, pressure-induced shifts and their temperature dependences have been measured for over 430 transitions (allowed and forbidden) in the v4 band of (CH4)-12 over the temperature range 210 to 314 K. A multispectrum non linear least squares fitting technique was used to simultaneously fit a large number of high-resolution (0.006 to 0.01/cm) absorption spectra of pure methane and mixtures of methane diluted with dry air. Line mixing was detected for pairs of A-, E-, and F-species transitions in the P- and R-branch manifolds and quantified using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix elements formalism. The measured parameters are compared to air- and N2-broadened values reported in the literature for the v4 and other bands. The dependence of the various spectral line parameters upon the tetrahedral symmetry species and rotational quantum numbers of the transitions is discussed. All data used in the present work were recorded using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak.

  12. Tribological and Wear Performance of Carbide Tools with TiB2 PVD Coating under Varying Machining Conditions of TiAl6V4 Aerospace Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mario Paiva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tribological phenomena and tool wear mechanisms during machining of hard-to-cut TiAl6V4 aerospace alloy have been investigated in detail. Since cutting tool wear is directly affected by tribological phenomena occurring between the surfaces of the workpiece and the cutting tool, the performance of the cutting tool is strongly associated with the conditions of the machining process. The present work shows the effect of different machining conditions on the tribological and wear performance of TiB2-coated cutting tools compared to uncoated carbide tools. FEM modeling of the temperature profile on the friction surface was performed for wet machining conditions under varying cutting parameters. Comprehensive characterization of the TiB2 coated vs. uncoated cutting tool wear performance was made using optical 3D imaging, SEM/EDX and XPS methods respectively. The results obtained were linked to the FEM modeling. The studies carried out show that during machining of the TiAl6V4 alloy, the efficiency of the TiB2 coating application for carbide cutting tools strongly depends on cutting conditions. The TiB2 coating is very efficient under roughing at low speeds (with strong buildup edge formation. In contrast, it shows similar wear performance to the uncoated tool under finishing operations at higher cutting speeds when cratering wear predominates.

  13. Room-temperature fracture in V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti tensile specimens irradiated in Fusion-1 BOR-60 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazda, J.; Meshii, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Tsai, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys were irradiated to {approx}18 dpa at 320 C in the Fusion-1 capsule inserted into the BOR-60 reactor. Tensile tests at 23 C indicated dramatic yield strength increase (>300%), lack of work hardening, and minimal (<1%) total elongations. SEM analysis of fracture and side surfaces were conducted to determine reduction in are and the mode of fracture. The reduction of area was negligible. All but one specimen failed by a combination of ductile shear deformation and cleavage crack growth. Transgranular cleavage cracks were initiated by stress concentrations at the tips of the shear bands. In side-view observations, evidence was found of slip bands typically associated with dislocation channeling. No differences due to pre-irradiation heat treatment and heat-to-heat composition variations were detected. The only deviation from this behavior was found in V-4Cr-4Ti-B alloy, which failed in the grip portion by complete cleavage cracking.

  14. Heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like catalysts Cu2V2O7 and Cr2V4O13 for an efficient removal of azo dye in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kalal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the degradation of non-biodegradable azo-dye (Evans blue by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like process using copper pyrovanadate (Cu2V2O7 and chromium tetravanadate (Cr2V4O13 as catalysts, which have been prepared by wet chemical method. These catalysts were characterized by different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. The effect of various parameters such as initial pH, concentration of dye, amount of catalyst, amount of H2O2, and light intensity on the reaction rate has also been studied. Photodegradation efficiency was found 77.78 and 79% for copper pyrovanadate (Cu2V2O7 and chromium tetravanadate (Cr2V4O13, respectively. A tentative mechanism involving ·OH radicals as an oxidant for the degradation of dye has also been proposed. The observations revealed that the rate of photo-Fenton-like degradation of dye follows pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  15. High-Resolution FTIR Investigation of PF 3 in the 300-550 cm -1 Region: The Ground, v2 = 1, and v4 = 1 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, H.; Sarizizi, B.; Burger, H.; Rahner, A.; Halonen, L.

    1993-05-01

    The infrared spectrum of PF3 has been studied at a resolution of 3 × 10-3 cm-1 in the 300-550 cm-1 region. The ν2(ν0487.71577(3) cm-1) and ν4 bands (ν0347.08616(2) cm-1) have been analyzed, and improved J-dependent ground state parameters up to sextic terms have been determined. A merge of the reported pure rotational data within the v4 = 1 state and the rovibrational transitions yielded an accurate C0 value, 0.159 9636(15) cm-1, which was used to determine an improved r0 structure, d(PF) 1.563230(10) Å and ∡ (FPF) 97.759(2)°. Parameters of the v2 = 1 and v4 = 1 excited states have been obtained by least squares fits, σ ≃ 3 × 10-4 cm-1, of ca. 2500 rovibrational lines for each band. The sign of the strong q(+)4 resonance could be determined unambiguously from the severe intensity perturbations governing the ν4 bandshape.

  16. Manual of PEARLNEQ v4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Tiktak, A.; Leerdam, van R.C.

    2007-01-01

    This document describes a PEARLNEQ-PEST combination, which can be used to estimate the parameters for long-term sorption kinetics in the PEARL model on the basis of an incubation experiment for a certain soil and a certain pesticide. The combination provides also the transformation half-life at

  17. 4 UIE ROL V4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occupation of the island was merely a question of time. ... of the French forces in the Diego Suarez area had been negotiated and the first ..... propaganda. geskriffies en informasie oor Madagaskar onder al die skepe versprei; demonstrasies waarby Suid.Afrikaanse skakeloffisiere teen. woordig was en waartydens die ...

  18. K1V4 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  19. crm_v4.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's 3 arc-second U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone, integrating offshore bathymetry with land...

  20. Resenhas v. 4 n. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Carlos Ferreira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available SENA, Luzia (Org.. Ensino religioso e formação docente.(Religious teaching and teacher qualificationAmauri Carlos FerreiraSANGENIS, Luiz Fernando Conde. Gênese do pensamento único em educação: franciscanismo e jesuitismo na história da educação brasileira.(Genesis of an only thought in education: franciscanism and Jesuitism in the history of Brazilian educationAntônio Francisco da SilvaTREVISAN, A. Santo Tomás de Aquino – O Credo: tradução, prefácio, introdução e notas.(Saint Thomas of Aquinas – The Creed: translation, preface, introduction and notesIvonei Antônio de OliveiraBENELLI, Sílvio José. Pescadores de homens. Estudo psicossocial de um seminário católico.(Fishers of men. A psycho-social study of a Catholic seminaryJoão Batista LibanioESTRADA, Juan Antonio. A impossível teodicéia: a crise de fé em Deus e o problema do mal.(The impossible theodicy: the crisis of faith in God and the problem of evilLindomar Rocha MotaUSARSKI, Frank. Constituintes da Ciência da Religião: cinco ensaios em prol de uma disciplina.(Constituents of the science of religion: five essays on behalf of a disciplineRoberlei PanasiewiczCONGAR, Yves. Ele é o Senhor e dá a vida.(He is the Lord and bestows lifeRoberlei Panasiewicz  

  1. A new service offered by rural environment to the city: stormwater reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Weber, Enrico; Masseroni, Daniele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Stormwaters are the main cause of urban floods in many urbanized areas. Historically, stormwater management practices have been focused on building infrastructures that achieve runoff attenuation through the storage of water volumes in large detention basins. However, this approach has proven to be insufficient to resolve the problem as well as it is difficult to implement in areas with a dense urban fabric. Nowadays, around the world, water managers are increasingly embracing "soft path" approaches, that aim to manage the excess of urban runoff through Green Infrastructures, where detention capacities are provided by the retention proprieties of soil and vegetation elements. Along the line of these new sustainable stormwater management practices, the aim of this study is to promote a further paradigm-shift with respect to the traditional practices i.e. to investigate the possibility to use the already existing green infrastructures of the peri-urban rural areas as reception element of the surplus of urban runoff. Many territories in Northern Italy, for example. are characterized by a high density of irrigation canals and agricultural fields that, in some cases, are isolated or pent-up inside urbanized areas. Both these elements may represent storage volumes for accumulating stormwater from urban areas. In this work, we implemented a holistic framework, based on Self Organized Map technique (SOM), with the objective to produce a spatial map of the stormwater reception level that can be provided by the rural environment. We elaborated physiographic characteristics of irrigation canals and agricultural fields through the SOM algorithm obtaining as output a series of cluster groups with the same level of receptivity. This procedure was applied on an area of 1933 km2 around the city of Milan and a map of 250x250m resolution was obtained with three different levels of stormwater reception capacity. About 50% of rural environment has a good level of reception and only 30

  2. Insulin-producing cells regulate the sexual receptivity through the painless TRP channel in Drosophila virgin females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaomi Sakai

    Full Text Available In a variety of animal species, females hold a leading position in evaluating potential mating partners. The decision of virgin females to accept or reject a courting male is one of the most critical steps for mating success. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, however, the molecular and neuronal mechanisms underlying female receptivity are still poorly understood, particularly for virgin females. The Drosophila painless (pain gene encodes a transient receptor potential (TRP ion channel. We previously demonstrated that mutations in pain significantly enhance the sexual receptivity of virgin females and that pain expression in pain(GAL4 -positive neurons is necessary and sufficient for pain-mediated regulation of the virgin receptivity. Among the pain(GAL4 -positive neurons in the adult female brain, here we have found that insulin-producing cells (IPCs, a neuronal subset in the pars intercerebralis, are essential in virgin females for the regulation of sexual receptivity through Pain TRP channels. IPC-specific knockdown of pain expression or IPC ablation strongly enhanced female sexual receptivity as was observed in pain mutant females. When pain expression or neuronal activity was conditionally suppressed in adult IPCs, female sexual receptivity was similarly enhanced. Furthermore, both pain mutations and the conditional knockdown of pain expression in IPCs depressed female rejection behaviors toward courting males. Taken together, our results indicate that the Pain TRP channel in IPCs plays an important role in controlling the sexual receptivity of Drosophila virgin females by positively regulating female rejection behaviors during courtship.

  3. Endometrial Receptivity Profile in Patients with Premature Progesterone Elevation on the Day of hCG Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Haouzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity.

  4. Physiological approach to the onset of receptivity in female Acheta domesticus. I. Role of the corpora allata and ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renucci, M; Strambi, A; Augier, R

    1985-12-01

    During the 32 hr following the imaginal moult, all female Acheta domesticus actively or passively refuse male courtship; they are unreceptive. As of 32 hr, the most precocious females become receptive and accept mating. At this time, juvenile hormone (JH III) synthesized by corpora allata (CA) is already detectable in hemolymph, while ecdysteroids (synthesized by ovaries) begin increasing at 48 hr. JH III and ecdysteroid levels in hemolymph were measured by RIA. After allatectomy and/or ovariectomy, all females became receptive, thus showing that CA and/or ovaries are not essential to the onset of receptivity. However, male courtship is longer for allatectomized females; in ovariectomized females, mating is delayed.

  5. [Mechanism of intermolecular energy transfer and reception of ultralow action by chemical and biological systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall', L N; Gall', N R

    2009-01-01

    A novel concept of intermolecular energy transfer and reception of the ultralow action in living systems is proposed. The concept is based on the methods of nonlinear mathematical physics used in description of energy movement along molecular chains and on quantum mechanical ideas concerning signal formation in anisotropic media. A concept of a molecular cell as an indivisible structural unit and a constituent of a biological (chemical) system has been put forward and substantiated, which manifests collective features of the unity of molecules, physical fields, and energetically strained bound water media in processes of energy transfer and reception. Both intermolecular energy transfer and amplification of the ultralow action has been shown to be the components of a unified energy process in a living system, and the physical basis of both processes is the unity of molecules and water-field media in a molecular cell.

  6. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  7. Predicting receptive vocabulary change from childhood to adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Rebecca; Scott, James; Copland, David; McMahon, Katie; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Najman, Jake M; Alati, Rosa; Arnott, Wendy

    2016-10-19

    This study examined the parental and early childhood risk factors of different receptive vocabulary developmental profiles from childhood to adulthood. The sample (n=1914), comprised of monolingual English speaking participants, from the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP). Receptive vocabulary was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at the 5 and 21-year follow ups. Four vocabulary profiles were evident: persistently typical, persistently impaired, later onset of difficulties, and resolved delays. The presence of internalising behaviours at 5 years, lower paternal educational attainment, and maternal smoking during pregnancy were associated with later onset vocabulary impairment. These findings have clinical and educational implications for identifying children 'at risk' of later deterioration in language skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The networked reception of transmedial universes: An experience-centered approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Tosca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building upon ten years of empirical work, this paper reflects on how to study increasingly complex user engagement with transmedial worlds. We examine our own analytical evolution from an initial aesthetic orientation to our current effort to incorporate the user´s own perspective through qualitative and quantitative studies. We argue that mapping user experience requires a sophisticated and holistic analytical approach - particularly, due to the popularity of social media platforms. We conclude the article by developing the concept of "networked reception" to characterize new kinds of transmedial world experience afforded by social media, which allow users to distribute and communicate not only the content of media texts but also their own experience and reception of transmedial world “texts”.

  9. DS-CDMA satellite diversity reception for personal satellite communication: Downlink performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGaudenzi, Riccardo; Giannetti, Filippo

    1995-01-01

    The downlink of a satellite-mobile personal communication system employing power-controlled Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) and exploiting satellite-diversity is analyzed and its performance compared with a more traditional communication system utilizing single satellite reception. The analytical model developed has been thoroughly validated by means of extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. It is shown how the capacity gain provided by diversity reception shrinks considerably in the presence of increasing traffic or in the case of light shadowing conditions. Moreover, the quantitative results tend to indicate that to combat system capacity reduction due to intra-system interference, no more than two satellites shall be active over the same region. To achieve higher system capacity, differently from terrestrial cellular systems, Multi-User Detection (MUD) techniques are likely to be required in the mobile user terminal, thus considerably increasing its complexity.

  10. Receptivity to e-cigarette marketing, harm perceptions, and e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-01-01

    To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations.

  11. Pengaruh Kepuasan Kerja terhadap Loyalitas Staf Reception pada Hotel X di Madiun Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Basalamah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Reception staff loyalty is much influenced by several factors, one of them is job satisfaction. Employee job satisfaction plays important role in creating employee loyalty. For hoteliers who serve as provider of accommodation services, the demand for the creation of quality human resources is maximum achievement. One of the important section in the front office is receptionist. Today, hoteliers pay very close attention because the employee turnover will certainly affect the consistency of services offered by the hotel. Therefore, the hotel is getting active in increasing the satisfaction of its staff in order to minimize employee turnover especially in a very important role such the receptionist. Although the validity of the relationship between job satisfaction and reception staff loyalty is still an exciting debate, the result of the research conducted in the Hotel X is expected to help increase employee satisfaction in order to create quality of life that will improve labor productivity.

  12. A qualitative analysis of general receptive vocabulary of adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Thérèse

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age=16.74 years, SD=3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age=16.20 years, SD=3.08) and 62 typical children (M age=5.32 years, SD=0.82). Item analyses using the transformed item difficulties method to detect differential item functioning across groups showed that the groups' rank orders of item difficulty were highly similar. It was concluded that the general receptive vocabulary of older children and adolescents with Down syndrome is not qualitatively distinguished when its overall size is held constant. Methodological and theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.

  13. Health-reception of newly arrived documented migrants in Europe-why, whom, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    address the existing health inequities, nor determining factors of migrant health, including barriers to access health services’.1 Two recent Danish documents highlight these aspects in relation to the health-reception of migrants. A report from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration concludes...... that present health initiatives offered to newly arrived long-term documented migrants are not systematically harmonized and updated and do not cover all relevant migrant groups.2 This is likely to be the case in many other settings across Europe. Subsequently, a new Danish bill sets out to reform the current...... Danish health-reception model, using a more systematic approach based on a close cooperation between social and health sectors.3 With this development, we wish to initiate a European public health debate about how to assess and meet the health needs of newly arrived long-term documented migrants...

  14. Vibration activity and mobility of structure-borne sound sources by a reception plate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B M; Cookson, R; Qi, N

    2008-06-01

    This paper considers a practical structure-borne sound source characterization for mechanical installations, which are connected to plate-like structures. It describes a laboratory-based measurement procedure, which will yield single values of source strength in a form transferable to a prediction of the structure-borne sound power generated in the installed condition. It is confirmed that two source quantities are required, corresponding to the source activity and mobility. For the source activity, a high-mobility reception plate method is proposed which yields a single value in the form of the sum of the squared free velocities, over the contact points. A low-mobility reception plate method also is proposed which, in conjunction with the above, yields the source mobility in the form of the average magnitude of the effective mobility, again over the contact points. Experimental case studies are described and the applicability of the laboratory data for prediction and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  15. "Blood, Guts and Bambi Eyes":Urotsukidoji and the Transcultural Reception and Regulation of Anime

    OpenAIRE

    Pett, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The regulation and reception of anime in Britain has, historically, been fraught with difficulty. In 1992, the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) rejected the first instalment of Urotsukidoji, a controversial series of erotic anime, on the grounds of its sexually explicit content; this decision set a precedent for the way in which they would continue to censor anime for the following two decades. Nearly twenty years later, in 2009, the Coroners and Justice Act, also known as the ‘Dan...

  16. Discriminative learning of receptive fields from responses to non-Gaussian stimulus ensembles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne F Meyer

    Full Text Available Analysis of sensory neurons' processing characteristics requires simultaneous measurement of presented stimuli and concurrent spike responses. The functional transformation from high-dimensional stimulus space to the binary space of spike and non-spike responses is commonly described with linear-nonlinear models, whose linear filter component describes the neuron's receptive field. From a machine learning perspective, this corresponds to the binary classification problem of discriminating spike-eliciting from non-spike-eliciting stimulus examples. The classification-based receptive field (CbRF estimation method proposed here adapts a linear large-margin classifier to optimally predict experimental stimulus-response data and subsequently interprets learned classifier weights as the neuron's receptive field filter. Computational learning theory provides a theoretical framework for learning from data and guarantees optimality in the sense that the risk of erroneously assigning a spike-eliciting stimulus example to the non-spike class (and vice versa is minimized. Efficacy of the CbRF method is validated with simulations and for auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF estimation from experimental recordings in the auditory midbrain of Mongolian gerbils. Acoustic stimulation is performed with frequency-modulated tone complexes that mimic properties of natural stimuli, specifically non-Gaussian amplitude distribution and higher-order correlations. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully identifies correct underlying STRFs, even in cases where second-order methods based on the spike-triggered average (STA do not. Applied to small data samples, the method is shown to converge on smaller amounts of experimental recordings and with lower estimation variance than the generalized linear model and recent information theoretic methods. Thus, CbRF estimation may prove useful for investigation of neuronal processes in response to

  17. The Art of Listening in an Educational Perspective—Listening reception in the mother tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Adelmann, Kent

    2012-01-01

    The purpose is to contribute to the theory and practice of listening reception as one of the four language arts in Swedish as a school subject. The object of inquiry is The Art of Listening (Adelmann 2009) as a Swedish example from a Scandinavian context, compared to mainstream listening research in the USA. The problem explored is: How can we, as researchers and teachers, handle some of the problems within international listening research and adapt listening research to a Scandinavian contex...

  18. English teaching based on icts for the development of reception skills in learning a foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Meléndez, Luz Angélica; Gallego Jaramillo, Sindy Catalina

    2012-01-01

    This is a research paper resulting from the macro-research “Interaction between ictand bilingual teaching as a functional learning alternative”, that was developed from the second semester 2010 to the first semester 2012, in the Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga. Noting the difficulties of children in listening and reading, we have based our approach in the development of receptive skills on second grade students (2-2) of the Escuela Normal Superior de Bucaramanga in order to c...

  19. The nutritional and hedonic value of food modulate sexual receptivity in Drosophila melanogaster females

    OpenAIRE

    Gorter, Jenke A.; Samyukta Jagadeesh; Christoph Gahr; Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Levine, Joel D.; Jean-Christophe Billeter

    2016-01-01

    Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these foods should inform female reproductive behaviours. Yet mechanisms coupling food and sex are poorly understood. Here we show that yeast increases female sexual receptivity through interaction between...

  20. Personality in interaction: how the Big Five relate to the reception of interactive narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Soto-Sanfiel, M.T. (María T.); Aymerich-Franch, L. (Laura); Romero, E. (Estrella)

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explore how users’ personalities affect their responses to interactive narratives. In particular, we analyze the relationship between personality traits and relevant variables in narrative reception: identification with characters, enjoyment, self-perceived physiological sensations, emotional experience and content. Experimental participants (N=310) answered the NEO- FFI personality questionnaire and watched a movie in one of four experimental conditions that combined modali...

  1. Personality in interaction : how the big five relate to the reception of interactive narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Sanfiel, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explore how users’ personalities affect their responses to interactive narratives. In particular, we analyze the relationship between personality traits and relevant variables in narrative reception: identification with characters, enjoyment, self-perceived physiological sensations, emotional experience and content. Experimental participants (N=310) answered the NEO-FFI personality questionnaire and watched a movie in one of four experimental conditions that combined modalit...

  2. Whistle While You Work: Branding, Critical Reception and Pixar’s Production Culture

    OpenAIRE

    McCulloch, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Through a case study of Pixar Animation Studios, McCulloch offers an exploration of the relationship between screen narratives, branded production cultures, and cultural value. \\ud \\ud The chapter analyses the representation and mediation of the company’s Emeryville campus across a range of paratextual materials (primarily journalistic exposés and DVD bonus features), before comparing this to the critical reception of its films. McCulloch discusses the legitimating implications of ‘behind the...

  3. Characterization of a Laser-Generated Perturbation in High-Speed Flow for Receptivity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    with disturbances that are difficult to characterize, such as those created by jets11 and speakers .12 The few high-speed studies of the receptivity to...laser to a small region in the freestream of a wind tunnel. This creates a laser-induced breakdown plasma in the freestream. This plasma quickly...continuous light source. In this case, the light source used was a xenon arc lamp. Variations in the light intensity and in the room temperature are accounted

  4. Receptive field properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex under photopic and scotopic lighting conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Kevin R.; Hubel, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the physiology of the primate visual cortex (area V-1) comes mostly from studies done in photopic conditions, in which retinal cones are active and rods play little or no part. Conflicting results have come from research into the effects of dark adaptation on receptive field organization of cells in the retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus. These studies claim either that the effect of the surround disappears with dark adaptation or that it does not. The current study has as...

  5. Male Reception Towards Masculinity Construction on L-MEN's Instagram Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Izdihar Khalisha, Annisa; Dwiningtyas, S.Sos, MA, Dr. Hapsari

    2016-01-01

    This research envisages information about how the construction of masculinty showed on @LMEN's Instagram influences male's perspective in case of the ideal appearance of masculinity. The purposes of this research are to analyze how @LMEN's Instagram constructs the male's masculinity and how the man interprets those of masculinity concepts. Critical paradigm is used to analyze this research, furthurmore, this research also uses reception analysis method written by Ien Ang. Muscular Male Body I...

  6. Spectrotemporal Modulation Sensitivity as a Predictor of Speech-Reception Performance in Noise With Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Joshua G. W.; Danielsson, Henrik; H?llgren, Mathias; Stenfelt, Stefan; R?nnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The audiogram predicts amp;lt;30% of the variance in speech-reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners fitted with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance could reflect suprathreshold distortion in the auditory pathways or nonauditory factors such as cognitive processing. The relationship between a measure of suprathreshold auditory function-spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity-and SRTs in noise was examined for 154 HI listeners fitted with...

  7. Adapting a receptive vocabulary test for preschool-aged Greek-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Syrika, Asimina; Beckman, Mary E; Edwards, Jan R

    2011-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary is an important measure for language evaluations. Therefore, norm-referenced receptive vocabulary tests are widely used in several languages. However, a receptive vocabulary test has not yet been normed for Modern Greek. To adapt an American English vocabulary test, the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-II (ROWPVT-II), for Modern Greek for use with Greek-speaking preschool children. The list of 170 English words on ROWPVT-II was adapted by (1) developing two lists (A and B) of Greek words that would match either the target English word or another concept corresponding to one of the pictured objects in the four-picture array; and (2) determining a developmental order for the chosen Greek words for preschool-aged children. For the first task, adult word frequency measures were used to select the words for the Greek wordlist. For the second task, 427 children, 225 boys and 202 girls, ranging in age from 2;0 years to 5;11 years, were recruited from urban and suburban areas of Greece. A pilot study of the two word lists was performed with the aim of comparing an equal number of list A and list B responses for each age group and deriving a new developmental list order. The relative difficulty of each Greek word item, that is, its accuracy score, was calculated by taking the average proportion of correct responses across ages for that word. Subsequently, the word accuracy scores in the two lists were compared via regression analysis, which yielded a highly significant relationship (R(2) = 0.97; p vocabulary test for Greek preschool-aged children. Further steps need to be taken when testing larger numbers of 2;0 to 5;11-year-old children on the revised word list for determination of norms. This effort will facilitate early identification and remediation of language disorders in Modern Greek-speaking children. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  8. Audience Reception of Celebrity Private Sphere Through Janji Suci Raffi & Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mandagi, Natasya; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of reality show programs on various television stations became a unique phenomenon to the community. Trans TV station became one of the famous private television that has many programs in television reality show, one of which is Janji Suci Raffi & Gigi. The program presents stories about the private lives of households Raffi Ahmad and Nagita Slavina, as well as the story of the people around them. The purpose of this study is to determine audience reception of the private sp...

  9. Approximation of Measurement Results of “Emergency” Signal Reception Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajda Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The intended aim of this article is to present approximation results of the exemplary measurements of EMERGENCY signal reception probability. The probability is under-stood as a distance function between the aircraft and a ground-based system under established conditions. The measurements were approximated using the properties of logistic functions. This probability, as a distance function, enables to determine the range of the EMERGENCY signal for a pre-set confidence level.

  10. TURAN and EVAN mediate pollen tube reception in Arabidopsis Synergids through protein glycosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Lindner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tube (PT reception in flowering plants describes the crosstalk between the male and female gametophytes upon PT arrival at the synergid cells of the ovule. It leads to PT growth arrest, rupture, and sperm cell release, and is thus essential to ensure double fertilization. Here, we describe TURAN (TUN and EVAN (EVN, two novel members of the PT reception pathway that is mediated by the FERONIA (FER receptor-like kinase (RLK. Like fer, mutations in these two genes lead to PT overgrowth inside the female gametophyte (FG without PT rupture. Mapping by next-generation sequencing, cytological analysis of reporter genes, and biochemical assays of glycoproteins in RNAi knockdown mutants revealed both genes to be involved in protein N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. TUN encodes a uridine diphosphate (UDP-glycosyltransferase superfamily protein and EVN a dolichol kinase. In addition to their common role during PT reception in the synergids, both genes have distinct functions in the pollen: whereas EVN is essential for pollen development, TUN is required for PT growth and integrity by affecting the stability of the pollen-specific FER homologs ANXUR1 (ANX1 and ANX2. ANX1- and ANX2-YFP reporters are not expressed in tun pollen grains, but ANX1-YFP is degraded via the ER-associated degradation (ERAD pathway, likely underlying the anx1/2-like premature PT rupture phenotype of tun mutants. Thus, as in animal sperm-egg interactions, protein glycosylation is essential for the interaction between the female and male gametophytes during PT reception to ensure fertilization and successful reproduction.

  11. Male discrimination of receptive and unreceptive female calls by temporal features

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Taffeta M; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2007-01-01

    In murky, crowded ponds in South Africa, female clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis (Daudin), vocalize to signal reproductive state. Female calls consist of acoustically similar clicks delivered in trains with characteristic rates. The rapping call of a sexually receptive female has a more rapid click rate [81 ms mean interclick interval (ICI)] than the ticking call of an unreceptive female (219 ms ICI). Rapping stimulates male advertisement calling, whereas ticking suppresses an already calling mal...

  12. Temporal course of the threshold and size of the receptive field of the Babinski sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estañol, B

    1983-01-01

    The changes of threshold and receptive field of the Babinski reflex, with time, were assessed in ten patients with acute cerebrovascular lesions. It was found that the threshold of the reflex decreased gradually and the size of the cutaneous afferent reflex field enlarged with the passage of time. These findings suggest that there is a gradual release or organisation of the reflex flexor synergy of which the Babinski sign is a modified part. PMID:6606699

  13. The effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Şener, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 99-104. This study investigated the effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition, in conjunction with an examination of materials and instruction. The study was conducted with the participation of 68 beginner and elementary level students, and their ...

  14. Discriminative learning of receptive fields from responses to non-Gaussian stimulus ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Arne F; Diepenbrock, Jan-Philipp; Happel, Max F K; Ohl, Frank W; Anemüller, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of sensory neurons' processing characteristics requires simultaneous measurement of presented stimuli and concurrent spike responses. The functional transformation from high-dimensional stimulus space to the binary space of spike and non-spike responses is commonly described with linear-nonlinear models, whose linear filter component describes the neuron's receptive field. From a machine learning perspective, this corresponds to the binary classification problem of discriminating spike-eliciting from non-spike-eliciting stimulus examples. The classification-based receptive field (CbRF) estimation method proposed here adapts a linear large-margin classifier to optimally predict experimental stimulus-response data and subsequently interprets learned classifier weights as the neuron's receptive field filter. Computational learning theory provides a theoretical framework for learning from data and guarantees optimality in the sense that the risk of erroneously assigning a spike-eliciting stimulus example to the non-spike class (and vice versa) is minimized. Efficacy of the CbRF method is validated with simulations and for auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) estimation from experimental recordings in the auditory midbrain of Mongolian gerbils. Acoustic stimulation is performed with frequency-modulated tone complexes that mimic properties of natural stimuli, specifically non-Gaussian amplitude distribution and higher-order correlations. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully identifies correct underlying STRFs, even in cases where second-order methods based on the spike-triggered average (STA) do not. Applied to small data samples, the method is shown to converge on smaller amounts of experimental recordings and with lower estimation variance than the generalized linear model and recent information theoretic methods. Thus, CbRF estimation may prove useful for investigation of neuronal processes in response to natural stimuli and

  15. From sensors to spikes: evolving receptive fields to enhance sensorimotor information in a robot-arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Ralli, Jarno; Laredo, Juanlu J; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    In biological systems, instead of actual encoders at different joints, proprioception signals are acquired through distributed receptive fields. In robotics, a single and accurate sensor output per link (encoder) is commonly used to track the position and the velocity. Interfacing bio-inspired control systems with spiking neural networks emulating the cerebellum with conventional robots is not a straight forward task. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt this one-dimensional measure (encoder output) into a multidimensional space (inputs for a spiking neural network) to connect, for instance, the spiking cerebellar architecture; i.e. a translation from an analog space into a distributed population coding in terms of spikes. This paper analyzes how evolved receptive fields (optimized towards information transmission) can efficiently generate a sensorimotor representation that facilitates its discrimination from other "sensorimotor states". This can be seen as an abstraction of the Cuneate Nucleus (CN) functionality in a robot-arm scenario. We model the CN as a spiking neuron population coding in time according to the response of mechanoreceptors during a multi-joint movement in a robot joint space. An encoding scheme that takes into account the relative spiking time of the signals propagating from peripheral nerve fibers to second-order somatosensory neurons is proposed. Due to the enormous number of possible encodings, we have applied an evolutionary algorithm to evolve the sensory receptive field representation from random to optimized encoding. Following the nature-inspired analogy, evolved configurations have shown to outperform simple hand-tuned configurations and other homogenized configurations based on the solution provided by the optimization engine (evolutionary algorithm). We have used artificial evolutionary engines as the optimization tool to circumvent nonlinearity responses in receptive fields.

  16. Influences of pre- and postnatal testosterone treatment on defeminization of sexual receptivity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J J; Christenson, R K

    1987-04-01

    Sexual receptivity was evaluated in female and male pigs that had experienced varying periods of exposure to testosterone pre- and postnatally. For prenatal exposure, pregnant sows were treated with testosterone propionate (TP) from Day 29-35 or Day 39-45 of gestation at a dosage that caused virilization of the external genitalia of their female offspring. Eighty-three percent of the females that received TP prenatally had regular estrous cycles, but reached puberty later than control females. Only 26% of the females that received TP both pre- and postnatally (4-6 mo of age) were observed in estrus by 10 mo of age. After ovariectomy and acute treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB), the proportion of females that showed the immobilization response (receptivity) was similar for all groups of females independent of pre- or postnatal TP treatment. Females treated prenatally from Day 39-45 showed the immobilization response for fewer days after treatment with a high dosage of EB than did controls. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that receptivity in female pigs is not affected greatly by testosterone treatment at the stages of development that were investigated. Males castrated at birth and treated with a single injection of EB after 9.5 mo showed the immobilization response. In contrast, few males castrated at 8 mo or castrated at birth and treated with TP from 3 to 6 mo showed the immobilization response after EB treatment. These observations provide direct evidence for a postnatal component of testosterone-dependent defeminization of receptivity in male pigs.

  17. Exploring the Increase of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in the Foreign Language: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Melania Terrazas; Llach, Maria del Pilar Agustin

    2009-01-01

    This paper tracks the increase in the overall word reception knowledge of 224 young pupils in their 4th, 5th and 6th grades of primary education and in their 1st year of secondary education (7th grade), who learn EFL in a formal context. The 2,000 word frequency band of The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham, 2001, version 2) is…

  18. Using Student Writing Reflections to Inform Our Understanding of Feedback Receptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, Laura; Kelley, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the reflections of 27 native and high-proficiency English-speaking students in two sections of a six-week U.S. college undergraduate content/writing course, to determine what factors influence student receptivity to peer feedback. Reflections stemmed from weekly writing journals designed to enhance process writing skill development, and assessed how amenable students were to peer feedback. Subsequent qualitative analyses resulted in four significant student-generated orien...

  19. Delayed maturation of receptive field center/surround mechanisms in V2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bin; Zheng, Jianghe; Watanabe, Ichiro; Maruko, Ichiro; Bi, Hua; Smith, Earl L.; Chino, Yuzo

    2005-01-01

    Neurons in the adult visual cortex are capable of integrating signals over a large area that surrounds their classic receptive field (RF), and this ability of cortical neurons is thought to be intimately involved in perceptual binding. It is not known, however, at what age these long-range signal interactions emerge. Here, we report that qualitatively adult-like center/surround interactions are already present in the primary visual cortex as early as postnatal day 14 in macaque monkeys. Howev...

  20. Ferroelectric Properties of Na2Pb2R2W2Ti4V4O30(R = Dy, Pr Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush R. Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The polycrystalline samples of Na2Pb2R2W2Ti4V4O30 (R = Dy, Pr were prepared by low-temperature, (i.e., at 650∘C solid-state reaction technique. The preparation conditions have been optimized using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies of the compounds showed the formation of a single-phase orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature. Studies of dielectric properties (ɛr and tan δ of the compounds at frequencies 10, 100, and 1000 kHz in a wide temperature range (room temperature–500∘C exhibit ferroelectric phase transitions at 132∘C for NPDWTV and at 122∘C for NPPWTV of diffuse type. Ferroelectric properties of the materials are confirmed by polarization study.

  1. Early language processing efficiency predicts later receptive vocabulary outcomes in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning.

  2. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  3. Attention directed by expectations enhances receptive fields in cortical area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Geoffrey M; Bearl, David W

    2010-02-22

    Expectations, especially those formed on the basis of extensive training, can substantially enhance visual performance. However, it is not clear that the physiological mechanisms underlying this enhancement are identical to those examined by experiments in which attention is directed by explicit instructions rather than strong expectations. To study the changes in visual representations associated with strong expectations, we trained animals to detect a brief motion pulse that was embedded in noise. Because the nature of the pulse and the statistics of its appearance were well known to the animals, they formed strong expectations which determined their behavioral performance. We used white-noise methods to infer the receptive field structure of single neurons in area MT while they were performing this task. Incorporating non-linearities, we compared receptive fields during periods of time when the animals were expecting the motion pulse with periods of time when they were not. We found receptive field changes consistent with an increased reliability in signaling pulse occurrence. Moreover, these changes were not consistent with a simple gain modulation. The results suggest that strong expectations can create very specific changes in the visual representations at a cellular level to enhance performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational Therapy in Primary Care: Determining Receptiveness of Occupational Therapists and Primary Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Dahl-Popolizio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary care (PC is an emerging practice setting for occupational therapy; however, few occupational therapists currently practice in this setting due to barriers, including uncertainty about reimbursement and the role of occupational therapists. This pilot study aimed to determine if PC providers and occupational therapists are receptive to occupational therapists as integrated interprofessional PC team members if barriers to inclusion are addressed. Method: After a brief educational paragraph explaining potential occupational therapy contributions to PC teams, the participants accessed a link to survey questions regarding their personal level of receptiveness to occupational therapy in PC. The questions comprised Likert scale and open-ended answers. Results: Of the Likert scale responses, 94%-99% provided by occupational therapists and 82%-97% provided by PC providers indicated possibly or yes to the inclusion of occupational therapists on the PC team. The descriptive responses were primarily supportive. Discussion: The majority of the occupational therapists and PC providers surveyed indicated support for including occupational therapists in primary care. This indicates that when barriers are addressed, occupational therapists and PC providers are receptive to the inclusion of occupational therapists as members of the interprofessional PC team.

  5. Organization of receptive language-specific cortex before and after left temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataraia, E; Billingsley-Marshall, R L; Castillo, E M; Breier, J I; Simos, P G; Sarkari, S; Fitzgerald, M; Clear, T; Papanicolaou, A C

    2005-02-08

    To examine brain activation associated with receptive language in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) before and after an anterior temporal lobectomy using magnetoencephalography (MEG), and to evaluate which patients were most likely to show a change in the lateralization and localization of the mechanisms supporting receptive language and if such changes were associated with neuropsychological function. Twelve patients with left TLE underwent preoperative Wada testing, and pre- and postoperative neuropsychological testing and MEG language mapping. The anatomic location of receptive language-related activity sources observed with MEG was determined by coregistering MEG data with structural MRI scans. Language laterality indices were calculated based on the number of reproducible activity sources in each hemisphere. The proximity of language-specific activity sources to Wernicke's area was also examined. Although the small sample size precluded formal statistical analyses, patients with atypical (bilateral) hemispheric dominance preoperatively were more likely than patients with typical (left-hemisphere) dominance to show evidence of increased right hemisphere participation in language functions after surgery. Patients with left hemispheric dominance preoperatively were more likely to show intrahemispheric changes involving a slight inferior shift of the putative location of Wernicke's area. Patients with bilateral representation tended to perform worse on neuropsychological test measures obtained both pre- and postoperatively. Interhemispheric functional reorganization of language-specific areas may occur in patients undergoing left anterior temporal lobectomy. Intrahemispheric reorganization may take place even when the resection does not directly impinge upon Wernicke's area.

  6. The routes to be followed into Alberto Caeiros’s poetry: a reception aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício César Aguiar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the 8th poem Num meio dia de fim de primavera written by Alberto Caeiro. The analysis proposed will be based on some of the Reception Aesthetics concepts mainly focusing on enriching the sensory aspects of the text, especially the visual one. For that purpose, the poetic devices used in the construction of the text as well as its reception by the readers will be highlighted. The analysis will be based on the concepts theorized by Wolfgang Iser. Such concepts are: a the interaction between text and reader and the position of the latter at the time of the former reception; b the blank places; c the negation and negativity structures; and d it will also consider the approach to reading as an act in which the reader is responsible for achieving the meaning for the text and for creating an “aesthetic pleasure” through it. This last concept is grounded in Hans Robert Jauss theory.

  7. Lexical knowledge of Serbian L1 English L2 learners: Reception vs. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović-Jeremić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of lexical knowledge in a second/foreign language is often investigated by means of vocabulary size tests which assess two aspects of the learners' competence: reception and production. Estimates of these two dimensions, as well as the (potential gap between them, have important pedagogical implications in that they indicate the degree to which the learners can comprehend or use the language autonomously. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the vocabulary size of three generations of B2-level L2 learners (CEFR, first-year students majoring in English at the Faculty of Philology and Arts in Kragujevac, Serbia, by means of Vocabulary Levels Tests (Laufer & Nation, 1999; Nation, 1990. The results of the statistical analyses show that the receptive vocabulary of Serbian L2 learners is much more developed than their productive vocabulary, and that the gap between lexical production and reception changes depending on the frequency of the lexemes and the proficiency level of L2 learners. The findings imply that, at the primary and secondary level of education, more attention should be paid to the development of productive lexical knowledge which is crucial not only for success in English degree courses but communication in English in general.

  8. Assessing receptivity for change in urban stormwater management and contexts for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cettner, Annicka; Ashley, Richard; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria

    2014-12-15

    Individual and organisational receptivity for change towards the use of sustainable stormwater management systems has been previously examined, but the significance of the different contexts for achieving this has been largely unexplored. This paper examines the significance of contexts associated to the actions to bring this about by proposing and evaluating an emerging framework based on two related receptivity theories: the individual or organisational approach and the contextual approach. Results from a Swedish national questionnaire with professionals in stormwater management have been used, together with a limited number of interviews to develop and understand the validity of the framework. The analysis has indicated that the respondents were professionally prepared for change (action) but not practically prepared due to inadequate supportive contexts. In response, a number of potential contexts associated to the necessary actions were identified. The framework was found to provide new insights into the influence of receptive contexts for a change in water management practice. These insights can be used by policy makers and others to better support the realization of professional openness for change and thus accelerate the process of change to sustainable stormwater practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  10. Phonological processing skills and its relevance to receptive vocabulary development in children with early cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmee; Yim, Dongsun; Sim, Hyunsub

    2012-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate phonological processing skills for children with cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison with children with normal hearing (NH), and to assess whether phonological processing skills can explain variance in receptive vocabulary scores in children with CIs. Twenty-five deaf children who received a CI before 2 years of age were included in this study, and they ranged from 4 years to 6 years 11 months. Twenty-five children with NH as a control group were matched to children with CIs on the basis of chronological age with 3 months. Phonological processing skills were measured by the phonological awareness (PA), nonword repetition (NWR), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks. Receptive vocabulary skills were also tested by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Korean version. Children with CIs performed significantly lower than children with NH on PA (p.05). Among phonological processing skills, PA contributed significant amount to receptive vocabulary skills in children with CIs (pvocabulary skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurons in Primate Visual Cortex Alternate between Responses to Multiple Stimuli in Their Receptive Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Treue, Stefan; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Bundesen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question concerning representation of the visual world in our brain is how a cortical cell responds when presented with more than a single stimulus. We find supportive evidence that most cells presented with a pair of stimuli respond predominantly to one stimulus at a time, rather than a weighted average response. Traditionally, the firing rate is assumed to be a weighted average of the firing rates to the individual stimuli (response-averaging model) (Bundesen et al., 2005). Here, we also evaluate a probability-mixing model (Bundesen et al., 2005), where neurons temporally multiplex the responses to the individual stimuli. This provides a mechanism by which the representational identity of multiple stimuli in complex visual scenes can be maintained despite the large receptive fields in higher extrastriate visual cortex in primates. We compare the two models through analysis of data from single cells in the middle temporal visual area (MT) of rhesus monkeys when presented with two separate stimuli inside their receptive field with attention directed to one of the two stimuli or outside the receptive field. The spike trains were modeled by stochastic point processes, including memory effects of past spikes and attentional effects, and statistical model selection between the two models was performed by information theoretic measures as well as the predictive accuracy of the models. As an auxiliary measure, we also tested for uni- or multimodality in interspike interval distributions, and performed a correlation analysis of simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons, to evaluate population behavior. PMID:28082892

  12. The developmental transcriptome landscape of receptive endometrium during embryo implantation in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, XiaoRui; Liu, JunZe; Ma, Li; Zhou, ZhanQin; Song, YuXuan; Cao, BinYun

    2017-10-30

    Under natural conditions, some embryos cannot implant successfully because of the dysfunction of receptive endometrium (RE). Thus, it is imperative for us to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the RE from pre-receptive endometrium (PE). In this study, the endometrium from gestational day 5 (D5, PE) and gestational day 15 (D15, RE) dairy goats were selected to systematically analyze the transcriptome using strand-specific Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq, >120 million high-quality paired-end reads were generated and 47,616 transcripts were identified in the endometrium of dairy goats. A total of 810 mRNAs were differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the RE and PE meeting the criteria of P-values<0.05. Bioinformatics analysis of the DEGs revealed that a number of biological processes and pathways were potentially involved in the establishment of the RE, notably energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, we speculated that CXCL14, IGFBP3, and LGALS15 potentially participated in the development of endometrium. What's more, putative SNPs, InDels and AS events were identified and analyzed in the endometrium. In a word, this resulting view of the transcriptome greatly enhances the comprehensive transcript catalog and uncovers the global trends in gene expression during the formation of receptive endometrium in dairy goats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transition Prediction in Hypersonic Boundary Layers Using Receptivity and Freestream Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.; Chou, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Boundary-layer transition in hypersonic flows over a straight cone can be predicted using measured freestream spectra, receptivity, and threshold values for the wall pressure fluctuations at the transition onset points. Simulations are performed for hypersonic boundary-layer flows over a 7-degree half-angle straight cone with varying bluntness at a freestream Mach number of 10. The steady and the unsteady flow fields are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric coordinates using a 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using a third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The calculated N-factors at the transition onset location increase gradually with increasing unit Reynolds numbers for flow over a sharp cone and remain almost the same for flow over a blunt cone. The receptivity coefficient increases slightly with increasing unit Reynolds numbers. They are on the order of 4 for a sharp cone and are on the order of 1 for a blunt cone. The location of transition onset predicted from the simulation including the freestream spectrum, receptivity, and the linear and the weakly nonlinear evolutions yields a solution close to the measured onset location for the sharp cone. The simulations over-predict transition onset by about twenty percent for the blunt cone.

  14. Preschoolers with autism show greater impairment in receptive compared with expressive language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen; Aldred, Catherine; Howlin, Patricia; Charman, Tony

    2010-01-01

    In early typical language development, children understand words before they are able to use them in speech. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) generally show impairments in both the comprehension and the production of language. However, the relative degree of delay or impairment in each of these sub-domains may also be atypical and remains less well-understood. Relative delay in receptive and expressive language skills was examined within a large sample of preschoolers with autism. Children's language abilities varied from pre-verbal to fluent speech. Scores on one direct clinician assessment and two parent-report measures of language were obtained for 152 preschoolers with core autism. As expected, on average, the language ability of the children with autism was lower than typical age norms, albeit with substantial individual variability. On all three language measures, receptive ability was relatively more impaired than expressive ability. Higher non-verbal ability was associated with such an atypical language profile. Recognition of the marked receptive language impairment relative to expressive language, found to affect at least one-third of preschoolers with autism in this sample, has important implications for interacting with these children and for informing appropriate targets in language and communication intervention.

  15. RECEPTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION: EXAMINING PROCESSING TIME AND MEMORY THRESHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Oberg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In the present research a picture card-based vocabulary study method was used to determine the pace of learner acquisition in terms of both receptive and productive knowledge. Fifty-eight first-year Japanese university students in two classes were used in the study. The subjects were placed into a single experimental group and both classes were taught by the researcher. During the treatment sessions the subjects studied fifteen vocabulary items chosen from the course textbook (Fifty-Fifty: A speaking and listening course, Book One, W. Wilson and R. Barnard, 2007, Hong Kong: Pearson Longman using self-produced picture cards. The same post-treatment test was given to the subjects following each treatment session and the results were analyzed using Paired Samples T-tests supported by non-parametric Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks tests by comparing one session’s data with the data of the previous session. The post-treatment data showed a significant difference between the pre-treatment and first sessions in terms of receptive knowledge, and between all sessions except the eighth and ninth in terms of productive knowledge.   Keywords: Vocabulary learning; receptive knowledge; productive knowledge; processing time; memory threshold

  16. Receptive vocabulary and semantic knowledge in children with SLI and children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Briscoe, Josie; Ang, Su-Yin; Brown, Heather; Hermena, Ehab; Kapikian, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary and associated semantic knowledge were compared within and between groups of children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing children. To overcome the potential confounding effects of speech or language difficulties on verbal tests of semantic knowledge, a novel task was devised based on picture-based semantic association tests used to assess adult patients with semantic dementia. Receptive vocabulary, measured by word-picture matching, of children with SLI was weak relative to chronological age and to nonverbal mental age but their semantic knowledge, probed across the same lexical items, did not differ significantly from that of vocabulary-matched typically developing children. By contrast, although receptive vocabulary of children with DS was a relative strength compared to nonverbal cognitive abilities (p knowledge (p vocabulary and depth of semantic knowledge. Overall, these data challenge the integrity of semantic-conceptual development in DS and imply that contemporary theories of semantic cognition should also seek to incorporate evidence from atypical conceptual development.

  17. Relaxation Matrix for Symmetric Tops with Inversion Symmetry: Line Coupling and Line Mixing Effects on NH3 Lines in the V4 Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.

    2017-01-01

    Line shape parameters including the half-widths and the off-diagonal elements of the relaxation matrix have been calculated for self-broadened NH3 lines in the perpendicular v4 band. As in the pure rotational and the parallel v1 bands, the small inversion splitting in this band causes a complete failure of the isolated line approximation. As a result, one has to use formalisms not relying on this approximation. However, due to differences between parallel and perpendicular bands of NH3, the applicability of the formalism used in our previous studies of the v1 band and other parallel bands must be carefully verified. We have found that, as long as potential models only contain components with K1 equals K2 equals 0, whose matrix elements require the selection rule delta k equals 0, the formalism is applicable for the v4 band with some minor adjustments. Based on both theoretical considerations and results from numerical calculations, the non-diagonality of the relaxation matrices in all the PP, RP, PQ, RQ, PR, and RR branches is discussed. Theoretically calculated self-broadened half-widths are compared with measurements and the values listed in HITRAN 2012. With respect to line coupling effects, we have compared our calculated intra-doublet off-diagonal elements of the relaxation matrix with reliable measurements carried out in the PP branch where the spectral environment is favorable. The agreement is rather good since our results do well reproduce the observed k and j dependences of these elements, thus validating our formalism.

  18. Insights into the regenerative property of plant cells and their receptivity to transgenesis: Wheat as a research case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delporte, Fabienne; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Masson, Patrick; Watillon, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    ... receptivity to transgenesis are common to plant and animal cells and highlight the principle of the unity of life. Transgenesis provides an important investigative instrument in plant physiology and is regarded as a valuable tool for crop improvement...

  19. Performance of Optimum and Suboptimum Combining Diversity Reception for Binary DPSK over Independent, Nonidentical Rayleigh Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the error performance analysis of binary differential phase shift keying with differential detection over the nonselective, Rayleigh fading channel with combining diversity reception. Space antenna diversity reception is assumed. The diversity branches are independent, but have nonidentically distributed statistics. The fading process in each branch is assumed to have an arbitrary Doppler spectrum with arbitrary Doppler bandwidth. Both optimum diversity reception and suboptimum diversity reception are considered. Results available previously apply only to the case of first and second-order diversity. Our results are more general in that the order of diversity is arbitrary. Moreover, the bit error probability (BEP) result is obtained in an exact, closed-form expression which shows the behavior of the BEP as an explict function of the one-bit-interval fading correlation coefficient at the matched filter output, the mean signal-to-noise ratio per bit per branch and the order of diver...

  20. A Feedback Model of Attention Explains the Diverse Effects of Attention on Neural Firing Rates and Receptive Field Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miconi, Thomas; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention has many effects on neural responses, producing complex changes in firing rates, as well as modifying the structure and size of receptive fields, both in topological and feature space...

  1. Rick Riordan's Intention in Writing Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief and the Reception of the Readers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mugijatna; Sri Kusumo Habsari; Yunita Ariani Putri

    2014-01-01

      This research studies Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief by Rick Riordan. The objectives are to describe the Greek mythology presented in the novel, the intention of Rick Riordan, and the reception of the readers...

  2. Rick Riordan’s Intention in Writing Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief and the Reception of the Readers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ,, Mugijatna; Habsari, Sri Kusumo; Putri, Yunita Ariani

    2014-01-01

    This research studies Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief by Rick Riordan. The objectives are to describe the Greek mythology presented in the novel, the intention of Rick Riordan, and the reception of the readers...

  3. (Un)receptiveness in interactions with professionals: experiences of parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, Beatriz Castanheira; Marski, Bruna de Souza Lima; Higarashi, Ieda Harumi; Misko, Maira Deguer; Silveira, Aline Oliveira; Wernet, Monika

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the influence of health professionals' receptiveness on parental care of children with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A qualitative study developed under the theoretical framework of Symbolic Interactionism and using a narrative research methodology. Six women and three men, being parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity were individually interviewed in depth. From the scope of information, emotions and their rights, the parents experienced receptiveness from some professionals and unreceptiveness from others. The predominance of unreceptive attitudes in the parental narratives originated the following analysis themes: Informational (un)receptiveness, Emotional (un)receptiveness, and (Un)receptiveness of rights. The study supports human and comprehensive healthcare in the context of retinopathy of prematurity by pointing out the interactive process with health professionals as a potential stressor of parental care. The results signal a nuclear of attitudinal changes and reinforce challenges to the child and family-centered approach. Analisar a influência do acolhimento do profissional de saúde no cuidado parental junto ao filho com retinopatia da prematuridade. Estudo qualitativo desenvolvido sob o referencial teórico do Interacionismo Simbólico e metodológico da pesquisa de narrativas. Foram entrevistados em profundidade e individualmente seis mulheres e três homens, pais de crianças com retinopatia da prematuridade. Os pais vivenciam, nos âmbitos informacional, emocional e de direitos, acolhimento com alguns profissionais e destrato com outros. A predominância da postura de desacolhimento nas narrativas parentais deu origem aos temas de análise: (Des)acolhimento informacional, (Des)acolhimento emocional, e (Des)acolhimento de direitos. O estudo oferece subsídios ao cuidado humano e integral em saúde no contexto da retinopatia da prematuridade ao apontar o processo interativo com os profissionais de saúde enquanto potencial

  4. Mobile television news: a study on the reception of the news on the mobile audience by adults / seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Finger Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available By inserting digital television in Brazil, the programming of open television becomes available in mobile and portable devices without any additional fares. The reception of contents anytime and anywhere is bound to provoke change in the relation between journalists and viewers. For this work, a survey was made in the field of reception to identify, in a qualitative way, the expectations and needs of senior/adult public when watching news in cell phones.

  5. Pre-adolescent Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Its Relationship to Acquiring Friends Who Smoke and Cigarette Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P

    2017-10-01

    This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.

  6. Global EDGAR v4.1 emissions of air pollutants: analysis of impacts of emissions abatement in industry and road transport on regional and global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Doering, U. M.; van Aardenne, J.; Monni, S.; Pagliari, V.; Peters, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The new version v4.1 of the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) compiled by JRC and PBL provides independent estimates of the global anthropogenic emissions and emission trends of precursors of tropospheric ozone (CO, NMVOC, NOx) and acidifying substances (NOx, NH3, SO2) for the period 1970-2005. All emissions are detailed at country level consistently using the same technology-based methodology, combining activity data (international statistics) from publicly available sources and to the extent possible emission factors as recommended by the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. By using high resolution global grid maps per source category of area sources and point sources, we also compiled datasets with annual emissions on a 0.1x0.1 degree grid, as input for atmospheric models. We provide full and up-to-date inventories per country, also for developing countries. Moreover, the time series back in time to 1970 provides for the trends in official national inventories a historic perspective. As part of our objective to contribute to more reliable inventories by providing a reference emissions database for emission scenarios, inventory comparisons and for atmospheric modellers, we strive to transparently document all data sources used and assumptions made where data was missing, in particular for assumptions made on the shares of technologies where relevant. Technology mixes per country or region were taken from other data sources (such as the Platts database) or estimated using other sources or countries as proxy. The evolution in the adoption of technologies world-wide over the 35 years covered by EDGAR v4.1 will be illustrated for the power industry and the road transport sectors, in particular for Europe and the US. Similarly the regional and global impacts of implemented control measures and end-of pipe abatements will be illustrated by the examples of - NOx and SO2 end-of pipe abatements being implemented since the late

  7. The use of the FACT-H&N (v4) in clinical settings within a developing country: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Sobia; Doss, Jennifer Geraldine; Rogers, Simon N

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness about 'quality of life' (QOL) of cancer survivors in developing countries. The study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the FACT-H&N (v4) in Urdu language for Pakistani head and neck cancer patients. In this study the 'same language adaptation method' was used. Cognitive debriefing through in-depth interviews of 25 patients to assess semantic, operational and conceptual equivalence was done. The validation phase included 50 patients to evaluate the psychometric properties. The translated FACT-H&N was easily comprehended (100%). Cronbach's alpha for FACT-G subscales ranged from 0.726 - 0.969. The head and neck subscale and Pakistani questions subscale showed low internal consistency (0.426 and 0.541 respectively). Instrument demonstrated known-group validity in differentiating patients of different clinical stages, treatment status and tumor sites (p 0.75) and showed convergent validity (r > 0.90), with little discriminant validity. Factor analysis revealed 6 factors explaining 85.1% of the total variance with very good (>0.8) Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and highly significant Bartlett's Test of Sphericity (p < 0.001). The cross-culturally adapted FACT-H&N into Urdu language showed adequate reliability and validity to be incorporated in Pakistani clinical settings for head and neck cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microstructural characteristics and mechanism of toughness improvement of laser and electron-beam welds of V-4Cr-4Ti following postwelding heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Park, J.H.; Gazda, J.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The authors are conducting a program to develop an optimal laser welding procedure for large-scale fusion-reactor structural components to be fabricated from vanadium-base alloys. Microstructural characteristics were investigated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and chemical analysis to provide an understanding of the mechanism of the drastic improvement of impact toughness of laser and electron-beam (EB) welds of V-4Cr-4Ti following postwelding annealing at 1000{degrees}C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that annealed weld zones were characterized by extensive networks of fine V(C,O,N) precipitates, which appear to clean away O, C, and N from grain matrices. This process is accompanied by simultaneous annealing-out of the dense dislocations present in the weld fusion zone. It seems possible to produce high-quality welds under practical conditions by controlling and adjusting the cooling rate of the weld zone by some innovative method to maximize the precipitation of V(C,O,N).

  9. Impact of Transposition of the Directive 2013/34/EU into the National Laws of EU Member States Emphatically V4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has published the Directive 2013/34/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements and related reports of certain types of undertakings for reasons of increasing of the competitive advantage and productivity of small and medium‑sized enterprises. The EU Member States have to incorporate the rules of the Directive with their national law by 20 July 2015 at the latest during the year 2016. The intention of this paper is to determine and to evaluate the impacts of transposition of the Directive into the Czech Accounting Law and into the national accounting laws of EU Member States chosen. There is an identification of main differences of Czech Accounting Law and of amended Czech Accounting Law issued 1st of January 2016. There is an impact of implementation of the Directive 2013/34/EU on financial statements and at the same time on requirements of audit for individual categories of Czech accounting entities. In this paper, there is also an analysis of impact of the Directive 2013/34/EU on national accounting laws V4 States and on several further EU Member States. On the basis of comparison of differences recognized, there is an deduction of findings for companies falling into the same group.

  10. Effect of dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-5Ti, V-4Cr-4Ti, and V-3Ti-1Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE), helium was produced uniformly in the specimen at linear rates of {approx}0.4 to 4.2 appm He/dpa by the decay of tritium during irradiation to 18-31 dpa at 424-600{degrees}C in the lithium-filled DHCE capsules in the Fast Flux Test Facility. This report presents results of postirradiation tests of tensile properties of V-5Ti, V-4Cr-4Ti, V-3Ti-1Si. The effect of helium on tensile strength and ductility was insignificant after irradiation and testing at >420{degrees}C. Contrary to initial expectation, room temperature ductility of DHCE specimens was higher than that on non-DHCE specimens, whereas strength was lower, indicating that different types of hardening centers are produced during DHCE and non-DHCE irradiation. In strong contrast to results of tritium-trick experiments, in which dense coalescence of helium bubbles is produced on grain boundaries in the absence of displacement damage, no intergranular fracture was observed in any tensile specimens irradiated in the DHCE.

  11. Generation of the V4.2m5 and AMPX and MPACT 51 and 252-Group Libraries with ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL)

    2016-12-12

    The evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF)/B-7.0 v4.1m3 MPACT 47-group library has been used as a main library for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) neutronics simulator in simulating pressurized water reactor (PWR) problems. Recent analysis for the high void boiling water reactor (BWR) fuels and burnt fuels indicates that the 47-group library introduces relatively large reactivity bias. Since the 47- group structure does not match with the SCALE 6.2 252-group boundaries, the CASL Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) MPACT library must be maintained independently, which causes quality assurance concerns. In order to address this issue, a new 51-group structure has been proposed based on the MPACT 47- g and SCALE 252-g structures. In addition, the new CASL library will include a 19-group structure for gamma production and interaction cross section data based on the SCALE 19- group structure. New AMPX and MPACT 51-group libraries have been developed with the ENDF/B-7.0 and 7.1 evaluated nuclear data. The 19-group gamma data also have been generated for future use, but they are only available on the AMPX 51-g library. In addition, ENDF/B-7.0 and 7.1 MPACT 252-g libraries have been generated for verification purposes. Various benchmark calculations have been performed to verify and validate the newly developed libraries.

  12. Impaired integration of object knowledge and visual input in a case of ventral simultanagnosia with bilateral damage to area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, E Charles; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe; Roberts, Daniel J; Yuen, Sung Lai; Hu, Mo; Rafal, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how brain damage can affect the cognitive processes that support the integration of sensory input and prior knowledge during shape perception. It is based on the first detailed study of acquired ventral simultanagnosia, which was found in a patient (M.T.) with posterior occipitotemporal lesions encompassing V4 bilaterally. Despite showing normal object recognition for single items in both accuracy and response times (RTs), and intact low-level vision assessed across an extensive battery of tests, M.T. was impaired in object identification with overlapping figures displays. Task performance was modulated by familiarity: Unlike controls, M.T. was faster with overlapping displays of abstract shapes than with overlapping displays of common objects. His performance with overlapping common object displays was also influenced by both the semantic relatedness and visual similarity of the display items. These findings challenge claims that visual perception is driven solely by feedforward mechanisms and show how brain damage can selectively impair high-level perceptual processes supporting the integration of stored knowledge and visual sensory input.

  13. Frequency-comb referenced spectroscopy of v4- and v5-excited hot bands in the 1.5 μm spectrum of C2H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twagirayezu, Sylvestre; Cich, Matthew J.; Sears, Trevor J.; McRaven, Christopher P.; Hall, Gregory E.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler-free transition frequencies for v4- and v5-excited hot bands have been measured in the v1 + v3 band region of the spectrum of acetylene using saturation dip spectroscopy with an extended cavity diode laser referenced to a frequency comb. The frequency accuracy of the measured transitions, as judged from line shape model fits and comparison to known frequencies in the v1 + v3 band itself, is between 3 and 22 kHz. This is some three orders of magnitude improvement on the accuracy and precision of previous line position estimates that were derived from the analysis of high-resolution Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra. Comparison to transition frequencies computed from constants derived from published Fourier transform infrared spectra shows that some upper rotational energy levels suffer specific perturbations causing energy level shifts of up to several hundred MHz. These perturbations are due to energy levels of the same rotational quantum number derived from nearby vibrational levels that become degenerate at specific energies. Future identification of the perturbing levels will provide accurate relative energies of excited vibrational levels of acetylene in the 7100-7600 cm-1 energy region.

  14. The infrared spectrum of 13C2H2 in the 60-2600 cm-1 region: bending states up to v 4 + v 5 = 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Herman, Michel; Fusina, Luciano; Di Lonardo, Gianfranco

    2012-11-01

    The vibration-rotation spectra of 13C substituted acetylene, 13C2H2, have been recorded in the region between 60 and 2600 cm-1 at an effective resolution ranging from 0.001 to 0.006 cm-1. Three different instruments were used to collect the experimental data in the extended spectral interval investigated. In total 9529 rotation vibration transitions have been assigned to 101 bands involving the bending states up to v tot = v 4 + v 5 = 4, allowing the characterization of the ground state and of 33 vibrationally excited states. All the bands involving states up to v tot = 3 have been analyzed simultaneously by adopting a model Hamiltonian which takes into account the vibration and rotation l-type resonances. The derived spectroscopic parameters reproduce the transition wavenumbers with a RMS value of the order of the experimental uncertainty. Using the same model, larger discrepancies between observed and calculated values have been obtained for transitions involving states with v tot = 4. These could be satisfactorily reproduced only by adopting a set of effective constants for each vibrational manifold, in addition to the previously determined parameters, which were constrained in the analysis.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of widely cultivated Ganoderma in China based on the mitochondrial V4-V6 region of SSU rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X W; Su, K Q; Zhang, Y M

    2015-02-02

    Ganoderma mushroom is one of the most prescribed traditional medicines and has been used for centuries, particularly in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. In this study, different strains of Ganoderma spp and the genetic relationships of the closely related strains were identified and investigated based on the V4-V6 region of mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA of the Ganoderma species. The sizes of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA regions from different Ganoderma species showed 2 types of sequences, 2.0 or 0.5 kb. A phylogenetic tree was constructed, which revealed a high level of genetic diversity in Ganoderma species. Ganoderma lucidum G05 and G. eupense G09 strains were clustered into a G. resinaceum group. Ganoderma spp G29 and G22 strains were clustered into a G. lucidum group. However, Ganoderma spp G19, G20, and G21 strains were clustered into a single group, the G. lucidum AF214475, G. sinense, G. strum G17, G. strum G36, and G. sinense G10 strains contained an intron and were clustered into other groups.

  16. Engagement with dietary fibre and receptiveness to resistant starch in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Quinn, Sinéad; Morell, Matthew; Topping, David

    2010-11-01

    To investigate community engagement with the health benefits of dietary fibre (DF) and its potential as a framework for the promotion of increased consumption of resistant starch (RS). A nationwide postal Food and Health Survey conducted in Australia by CSIRO Human Nutrition. Adults aged 18 years and above, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll (n 849). A cross-sectional design was employed to analyse ratings of (i) the importance of various RS health and functional claims and (ii) receptiveness to different foods as RS delivery vehicles, according to the respondents' level of fibre engagement as classified under the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) of Health Behaviour. There was a high level of recognition (89·5 %) of DF as being important for health. Significant gender differences were found for ratings of RS attributes and RS delivery options. Women were both more fibre-engaged than men and more receptive than men to RS and its potential benefits. Ratings of the acceptability of several foods as means of delivering RS revealed a general preference for healthy staples over indulgences, with the margin between acceptability of staples and indulgences increasing markedly with increased fibre engagement. Application of the PAPM to awareness of DF reveals a ready-made target group for health messages about RS and pockets of differential potential receptiveness. The findings support the promotion of RS as providing health benefits of DF with the added reduction of risk of serious disease, its delivery through healthy staples and the targeting of messages at both fibre-engaged individuals and women in general.

  17. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  18. Merely misunderstood? Receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language in young children with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Monica L; Martel, Michelle M

    2014-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity.

  19. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eConti-Ramsden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females and 46 typically developing (TD children (30 males, 16 females, both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group x procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman’s Declarative/Procedural model of language and Procedural Deficit Hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children

  20. Episodic receptive aphasia in a child with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: PET correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luat, Aimee F; Chugani, Harry T; Asano, Eishi; Juhász, Csaba; Trock, Gary; Rothermel, Robert

    2006-10-01

    We report a four-year-old boy with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) characterized by episodic receptive aphasia lasting for few weeks followed by gradual recovery of baseline language functions. Neuropsychological evaluation during an episode showed severe impairment in verbal skills and comprehension, but relative preservation of non-verbal skills. Although he could carry on a conversation during remission, neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated findings reflective of receptive language deficits. Prolonged EEG disclosed frequent sharp-wave activity in the left and right temporal regions but no electrographic seizures. Glucose metabolism PET scan during the fourth episode of aphasia revealed intense hypermetabolism in the left temporal neocortex. Awake EEG during the PET tracer uptake period showed 6.0 spikes/min in the left temporal region and 4.0 spikes/min in the right. A repeat PET scan during remission showed hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex. Awake EEG during the FDG uptake period showed 16.0 spikes/min in the right temporal region and 0.3 spikes/min in the left. During his fifth aphasic episode, EEG (without PET) showed 0.16 spikes/min in the right temporal region and none in the left. Intermittent short episodes of predominantly receptive aphasia with near-total recovery between episodes can be one of the clinical presentations of LKS. This case illustrates the dynamic changes of glucose metabolism in the temporal lobe during episodes of aphasia and remission in a case with LKS. The clinical course of our patient with transient EEG and PET findings suggest that glucose metabolism in LKS cannot be attributed solely to interictal epileptiform activities on scalp EEG.

  1. Endometrial Receptivity Markers in Mice Stimulated With Raloxifene Versus Clomiphene Citrate and Natural Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cairong; Yan, Qiuxia; Liu, Kunping; Zhou, Xiuqin; Xian, Yingjie; Liang, Dali; Zhao, Xiaoying; Guo, Xiaoyan; Quan, Song

    2016-06-01

    Ovulation induction therapy with clomiphene citrate can suppress endometrial receptivity. Raloxifene may be an alternative therapeutic for women with ovulatory disorders. This study aimed to compare the expression of endometrial receptivity markers, including homeobox gene 10 (HOXA10), integrin β3, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), as well as pinopode production during the implantation window in mice stimulated with raloxifene and clomiphene citrate and natural cycles. Thirty-six 8-week-old female Kunming mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 12) and administered daily raloxifene (22 mg/kg), clomiphene citrate (18 mg/kg), and normal saline (1 mL), respectively, by gavage. Two days later, mice were injected with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin and mated. Successfully mated female animals were identified with vaginal plugs designated gestation day 1. At day 4.5, pregnant donor mice were euthanized, and uterus samples were collected for immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Homeobox gene 10, integrin β3, and LIF messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were significantly higher in the raloxifene-treated animals compared with the clomiphene citrate group (all P raloxifene and saline groups; however, in the clomiphene citrate-treated mice, fewer and poorly developed pinopodes were obtained. In mice, raloxifene had no effect on HOXA10, integrin β3, and LIF expression as well as pinopode production, suggesting it has no adverse effects on endometrial receptivity. Raloxifene may provide a viable alternative oral ovulation induction agent to clomiphene citrate. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. A Brief Outlook on Graham Greene’s Reception in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Daniela SABAU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a brief outlook on Graham Greene’s reception inFrance in order to analyze the author’s worth as a major European literary figure. Accordingly, wehave proceeded to the examination of some of the French critical studies centered on the Britishauthor’s work namely Victor de Pange’s monograph as well as some of the works of the Frenchscholar Francois Gallix. Our study manages to show Graham Greene’s writings fit into a specificFrench literary pattern.

  3. The reception of Kant’s doctrine of postulates in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila E. Kryshtop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the reception of practical philosophy of Kant in general and the doctrine of the postulates of the practical reason in particular in Russia in the 18th and the first half of the 19th century. Author analyzes the views on Kant’s philosophy of the most representative Russian thinkers and attempts to answer the question why the way practical philosophy of Kant and his postulates of the existence of God and immortality of soul were interpreted in Russia was rather negative and hostile.

  4. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN

    2011-02-01

    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  5. Carrier phase synchronization system for improved amplitude modulation and television broadcast reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN

    2009-09-08

    Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  6. A comparison of methods for teaching receptive language to toddlers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedora, Joseph; Grandelski, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    The use of a simple-conditional discrimination training procedure, in which stimuli are initially taught in isolation with no other comparison stimuli, is common in early intensive behavioral intervention programs. Researchers have suggested that this procedure may encourage the development of faulty stimulus control during training. The current study replicated previous work that compared the simple-conditional and the conditional-only methods to teach receptive labeling of pictures to young children with autism spectrum disorder. Both methods were effective, but the conditional-only method required fewer sessions to mastery. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Critical Reflection on the Reception of Vygotsky’s Theory in the International Academic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafermos M.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze various types of the reception of Vygotsky’s theory in the international academic communities. The paper develops a critical analysis of three widespread theoretical frameworks of interpretation of Vygotsky’s theory: cognitivism, culturalism, cultural-historical activity theory. It is argues that fragmented readings of particular ideas of Vygotsky, without enough understanding of the theoretical programme in which these ideas have been included dominates in North-Atlantic research. The paper proposes the reconstruction of the theoretical programme of cultural-historical psychology in the social and scientific context of its formation.

  8. The reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry, 1892-1954.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalzell, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.

  9. [Amateurism in Geology: the French Reception of the Continental Drift Theory (1920-1950)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vigouroux, Philippe; Gohau, Gabriel

    At the beginning of the XXth century, Wegener proposed a theory – that of the roaming drift of the continents – unifying the rival theories of the Europeans and the Americans. As the work of a non-specialist who didn’t trouble himself with specific details, it raised numerous criticisms from specialists in various disciplines though others welcomed and supported it. Some even understood that despite its flaws, it started a new research program. Paradoxically, as regards its simplicity, nonspecialists – engineers, popularizers, secondary school teachers and even believers in para-sciences – gave it a favorable reception. Being amateurs, they continued to endorse it when specialists abandoned it.

  10. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  11. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  12. Synaptic Contributions to Receptive Field Structure and Response Properties in the Rodent Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of the Thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Vandana; Çiftçioğlu, Ulaş M; Wang, Xin; Lala, Brittany M; Ding, Kimberly R; Smith, William A; Sommer, Friedrich T; Hirsch, Judith A

    2016-10-26

    Comparative physiological and anatomical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of sensory systems. Many lines of evidence show that the murine lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has unique attributes, compared with other species such as cat and monkey. For example, in rodent, thalamic receptive field structure is markedly diverse, and many cells are sensitive to stimulus orientation and direction. To explore shared and different strategies of synaptic integration across species, we made whole-cell recordings in vivo from the murine LGN during the presentation of visual stimuli, analyzed the results with different computational approaches, and compared our findings with those from cat. As for carnivores, murine cells with classical center-surround receptive fields had a "push-pull" structure of excitation and inhibition within a given On or Off subregion. These cells compose the largest single population in the murine LGN (∼40%), indicating that push-pull is key in the form vision pathway across species. For two cell types with overlapping On and Off responses, which recalled either W3 or suppressed-by-contrast ganglion cells in murine retina, inhibition took a different form and was most pronounced for spatially extensive stimuli. Other On-Off cells were selective for stimulus orientation and direction. In these cases, retinal inputs were tuned and, for oriented cells, the second-order subunit of the receptive field predicted the preferred angle. By contrast, suppression was not tuned and appeared to sharpen stimulus selectivity. Together, our results provide new perspectives on the role of excitation and inhibition in retinothalamic processing. We explored the murine lateral geniculate nucleus from a comparative physiological perspective. In cat, most retinal cells have center-surround receptive fields and push-pull excitation and inhibition, including neurons with the smallest (highest acuity) receptive fields. The same is true for thalamic relay cells

  13. A three-dimensional spatiotemporal receptive field model explains responses of area MT neurons to naturalistic movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Shinji; Gallant, Jack L

    2011-10-12

    Area MT has been an important target for studies of motion processing. However, previous neurophysiological studies of MT have used simple stimuli that do not contain many of the motion signals that occur during natural vision. In this study we sought to determine whether views of area MT neurons developed using simple stimuli can account for MT responses under more naturalistic conditions. We recorded responses from macaque area MT neurons during stimulation with naturalistic movies. We then used a quantitative modeling framework to discover which specific mechanisms best predict neuronal responses under these challenging conditions. We find that the simplest model that accurately predicts responses of MT neurons consists of a bank of V1-like filters, each followed by a compressive nonlinearity, a divisive nonlinearity, and linear pooling. Inspection of the fit models shows that the excitatory receptive fields of MT neurons tend to lie on a single plane within the three-dimensional spatiotemporal frequency domain, and suppressive receptive fields lie off this plane. However, most excitatory receptive fields form a partial ring in the plane and avoid low temporal frequencies. This receptive field organization ensures that most MT neurons are tuned for velocity but do not tend to respond to ambiguous static textures that are aligned with the direction of motion. In sum, MT responses to naturalistic movies are largely consistent with predictions based on simple stimuli. However, models fit using naturalistic stimuli reveal several novel properties of MT receptive fields that had not been shown in prior experiments.

  14. Low oral receptivity for dengue type 2 viruses of Aedes albopictus from Southeast Asia compared with that of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Rosen, Leon; Mousson, Laurence; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2003-02-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever has been a major health problem in Asia since the 1950s. During this period, the former principal vector of dengue viruses in Asia, Aedes albopictus, was replaced by Aedes aegypti in most major cities of the area. Ae. aegypti is now considered the main vector of dengue viruses in Asia. Surprisingly, however, this mosquito has been described as having a relatively low oral receptivity for dengue viruses compared with Ae. albopictus. In the present study, we compared the relative oral receptivities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus collected in southeast Asia from both sympatric and allopatric breeding sites. In all instances, the oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti to the dengue type 2 virus used was significantly higher than that of Ae. albopictus. We also compared the relative oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for two other low-passage strains of dengue 2. In all instances, Ae. aegypti was significantly more receptive than Ae. albopictus. It should be noted, however, that the difference was found only for Ae. albopictus recently collected from the field (Ta Promh strain, Cambodia, 2001) and not for an Ae. albopictus strain that had been colonized for many years (Oahu strain, Hawaii, 1971). We also observed a significant increase in the infection rate of Ae. albopictus of the Ta Promh strain with increasing generations in the laboratory. These observations demonstrate the importance of considering the colonization history of mosquitoes when assessing their susceptibility to infection with dengue viruses and, perhaps, other arboviruses.

  15. MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O Function in Pollen Tube Reception Is Linked to Its Oligomerization and Subcellular Distribution1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Andrew C.; Kumimoto, Emily L.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in flowering plants requires communication between synergid cells and a tip-elongating pollen tube (PT) for the successful delivery of sperm cells to the embryo sac. The reception of the PT relies on signaling within the synergid cell that ultimately leads to the degeneration of the receptive synergid and PT rupture, releasing the sperm cells for double fertilization. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), NORTIA, a member of the MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO) family of proteins, plays a critical role in the communication processes regulating PT reception. In this study, we determined that MLO function in PT reception is dependent on MLO protein localization into a Golgi-associated compartment before PT arrival, indicating that PT-triggered regulation of the synergid secretory system is important for synergid function during pollination. Additionally, a structure-function analysis revealed that MLO homooligomerization, mediated by the amino-terminal region of the protein, and carboxyl-terminal tail identity both contribute to MLO activity during PT reception. PMID:28724621

  16. The relationship between cerebral hemisphere volume and receptive language functioning in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Pavawalla, Shital P; Fancher, Jill B; Naillon, Angela J; Hynd, George W

    2009-04-01

    Because poor comprehension has been associated with small cerebral volume and there is a high comorbidity between developmental dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and specific language impairment, the goal of this study was to determine whether cerebral volume is reduced in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in general, as some suggest, or whether the reduction in volume corresponds to poor receptive language functioning, regardless of the diagnosis. Participants included 46 children with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, aged 8 to 12 years. Our results indicated that cerebral volume was comparable between those with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder overall. However, when groups were further divided into those with and without receptive language difficulties, children with poor receptive language had smaller volumes bilaterally as hypothesized. Nonetheless, the relationship between cerebral volume and receptive language was not linear; rather, our results suggest that small volume is associated with poor receptive language only in those with the smallest volumes in both dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  17. Human S100A10 plays a crucial role in the acquisition of the endometrial receptivity phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Laurence; Drissennek, Loubna; Antoine, Yannick; Tiers, Laurent; Hirtz, Christophe; Lehmann, Sylvain; Perrochia, Hélène; Bissonnette, François; Kadoch, Isaac-Jacques; Haouzi, Delphine; Hamamah, Samir

    2016-05-03

    In assisted reproduction, about 30% of embryo implantation failures are related to inadequate endometrial receptivity. To identify molecules involved in endometrial receptivity acquisition, we investigated, using a SELDI-TOF approach, the protein expression profile of early-secretory and mid-secretory endometrium samples. Among the proteins upregulated in mid-secretory endometrium, we investigated the function of S100A10 in endometrial receptivity and implantation process. S100A10 was expressed in epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium of fertile patients during the implantation windows. Conversely, it was downregulated in the mid-secretory endometrium of infertile patients diagnosed as non-receptive. Transcriptome analysis of human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells where S100A10 was silenced by shRNA revealed the deregulation of 37 and 256 genes, respectively, related to components of the extracellular matrix and intercellular connections. Functional annotations of these deregulated genes highlighted alterations of the leukocyte extravasation signaling and angiogenesis pathways that play a crucial role during implantation. S100A10 silencing also affected the migration of primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, decidualization and secretory transformation of primary endometrial stromal cells and epithelial cells respectively, and promoted apoptosis in serum-starved endometrial epithelial cells. Our findings identify S100A10 as a player in endometrial receptivity acquisition.

  18. Wire-based laser metal deposition for additive manufacturing of TiAl6V4: basic investigations of microstructure and mechanical properties from build up parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Arntz, Kristian; Klingbeil, Nils; Schulz, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The wire-based laser metal deposition (LMD-W) is a new technology which enables to produce complex parts made of titanium for the aerospace and automotive industry. For establishing the LMD-W as a new production process it has to be proven that the properties are comparable or superior to conventional produced parts. The mechanical properties were investigated by analysis of microstructure and tensile test. Therefore, specimens were generated using a 4.5 kW diode laser cladding system integrated in a 5-Axis-machining center. The structural mechanical properties are mainly influence by crystal structure and thereby the thermal history of the work piece. Especially the high affinity to oxide, distortion and dual phase microstructure make titanium grade 5 (TiAl6V4) one of the most challenging material for additive manufacturing. By using a proper local multi-nozzle shielding gas concept the negative influence of oxide in the process could be eliminated. The distortion being marginal at a single bead, accumulated to a macroscopic effect on the work piece. The third critical point for additive processing of titanium, the bimodal microstructure, could not be cleared by the laser process alone. All metallurgical probes showed α-martensitic-structure. Therefore, a thermal treatment became a necessary production step in the additive production chain. After the thermal treatment the microstructure as well as the distortion was analyzed and compared with the status before. Although not all technical issues could be solved, the investigation show that LMD-W of titanium grade 5 is a promising alternative to other additive techniques as electronic beam melting or plasma deposition welding.

  19. Boundary Layer Receptivity to Three-Dimensional Freestream Disturbances at Two-Dimensional Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Anthony; Sheehan, Daniel; Davis, Sanford (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The receptivity of a laminar boundary layer to an isolated three-dimensional convected disturbance is investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel experiment. The disturbance is created by the short-duration pulsed displacement of a small low-aspect-ratio wing located upstream of a flat plate. The height of the wing is set so that the convected disturbance grazes the edge of the flat-plate boundary layer. A receptivity site is provided by a two-dimensional roughness strip on the surface of the plate. The different propagation speeds of acoustic, convected and instability waves cause the various wave packets from the pulsed displacement to arrive at a downstream measurement station at different times, separating the phenomena and allowing them to be studied independently. Ensemble- averaged measurements are made with and without roughness on the plate. Preliminary analysis of the measurements suggest the presence of a two-dimensional T-S wave packet arising from an interaction between an acoustic wave and the roughness, and a three-dimensional T-S wave packet arising from an interaction between the localized convected disturbance and the roughness strip. The growth rates and spatial characteristics of the disturbances and the instability wave packets are measured as they propagate downstream.

  20. A modified incidental-teaching procedure for autistic youth: acquisition and generalization of receptive object labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, G G; Krantz, P J; Mason, D; McClannahan, L E

    1983-01-01

    A modified incidental-teaching procedure was used to increase the receptive language skills of autistic youth who had previously experienced lengthy institutionalization. At the time of the study, the two severely language-delayed children had recently been transitioned to a community-based group home. Receptive-labeling skills were taught for four sets of objects typically used in school lunch preparation. The percentage of correct, unprompted object identifications displayed by Youth 1 increased when the incidental-teaching package (gestural prompts, behavior-specific praise, and contingent access to lunch-making supplies) was sequentially introduced in a multiple-baseline design across sets of objects. These results were replicated with Youth 2. The youths' newly acquired language skills also generalized to a different setting (the dining room of the group home) and to a different activity occurring later in the day (a traditional sit-down, discrete-trial session). This research indicates that the linguistic skills of severely developmentally delayed autistic children can be accelerated by incidental instruction that is provided in the course of shaping other home-living skills.

  1. Pollen Viability, Pistil Receptivity, and Embryo Development in Hybridization of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed set is usually low and differs for different crosses of flower lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.. The reasons remain unknown, and this has a negative impact on lotus breeding. To determine the causes, we carried out two crosses of flower lotus, that is, “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua” and pollen viability, pistil receptivity, and embryo development were investigated. The pollen grains collected at 05:00-06:00 hrs had the highest viability, and the viabilities of “Jinsenianhua” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” were 20.6 and 15.7%, respectively. At 4 h after artificial pollination, the number of pollen grains germinating on each stigma reached a peak: 63.0 and 17.2 per stigma in “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, respectively. At 1 d after artificial pollination, the percentages of normal embryos in the two crosses were 55.0 and 21.9%, respectively; however, at 11 d after pollination, the corresponding percentages were 20.8 and 11.2%. Seed sets of the two crosses were 17.9 and 8.0%, respectively. The results suggested that low pistil receptivity and embryo abortion caused low seed set in “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, whereas low fecundity of “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” was mainly attributable to embryo abortion.

  2. The Effect of Singing Paired with Signing on Receptive Vocabulary Skills ofElementary ESL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of singing paired with signing on receptive vocabulary skills of elementary English as a Second Language (ESL) students. Eighty children attended language sessions in one of the following rehearsal conditions: sung text paired with signs, spoken text paired with signs, sung text, and a control group of spoken text only. Pretest and posttest data were analyzed to determine gains in receptive vocabulary identification. Results from this study indicate that all four groups made significant pretest to posttest gains. Children in the sung text paired with sign and the spoken text paired with sign conditions, however, made significantly greater gains in vocabulary recognition than those in the control condition of spoken text only. These findings suggest the benefits of integrating signs into second language rehearsal to provide visual cues and to engage students in meaningful physical participation. The condition yielding the highest mean gain score was that in which signing was paired with singing, indicating there may be advantages to using a combination of the two for language acquisition.

  3. Comparing different stimulus configurations for population receptive field mapping in human fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan eAlvarez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Population receptive field (pRF mapping is a widely used approach to measuring aggregate human visual receptive field properties by recording non-invasive signals using functional MRI. Despite growing interest, no study to date has systematically investigated the effects of different stimulus configurations on pRF estimates from human visual cortex. Here we compared the effects of three different stimulus configurations on a model-based approach to pRF estimation: size-invariant bars and eccentricity-scaled bars defined in Cartesian coordinates and traveling along the cardinal axes, and a novel simultaneous ‘wedge and ring’ stimulus defined in polar coordinates, systematically covering polar and eccentricity axes. We found that the presence or absence of eccentricity scaling had a significant effect on goodness of fit and pRF size estimates. Further, variability in pRF size estimates was directly influenced by stimulus configuration, particularly for higher visual areas including V5/MT+. Finally, we compared eccentricity estimation between phase-encoded and model-based pRF approaches. We observed a tendency for more peripheral eccentricity estimates using phase-encoded methods, independent of stimulus size. We conclude that both eccentricity scaling and polar rather than Cartesian stimulus configuration are important considerations for optimal experimental design in pRF mapping. While all stimulus configurations produce adequate estimates, simultaneous wedge and ring stimulation produced higher fit reliability, with a significant advantage in reduced acquisition time.

  4. Chinese paleontology and the reception of Darwinism in early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaobo

    2017-09-25

    The paper examines the social, cultural and disciplinary factors that influenced the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by China's first generation paleontologists. Darwinism was mixed with Social Darwinism when first introduced to China, and the co-option of Darwinian phrases for nationalistic awakening obscured the scientific essence of Darwin's evolutionary theory. First generation Chinese paleontologists started their training in 1910s-1920s. They quickly asserted their professional identity by successfully focusing on morphology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Surrounded by Western paleontologists with Lamarckian or orthogenetic leanings, early Chinese paleontologists enthusiastically embraced evolution and used fossils as factual evidence; yet not enough attention was given to mechanistic evolutionary studies. The 1940s saw the beginning of a new trend for early Chinese paleontologists to incorporate more biological and biogeographical components in their work, but external events such as the dominance of Lysenkoism in the 1950s made the Modern Synthesis pass by without being publicly noticed in Chinese paleontology. Characterized by the larger goal of using science for nation building and by the utilitarian approach favoring local sciences, the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by first generation Chinese paleontologists raise important questions for studying the indigenizing efforts of early Chinese scientists to appropriate Western scientific theories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acoustic pathways revealed: simulated sound transmission and reception in Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Ted W; Krysl, Petr; Hildebrand, John A

    2008-03-01

    The finite element modeling (FEM) space reported here contains the head of a simulated whale based on CT data sets as well as physical measurements of sound-propagation characteristics of actual tissue samples. Simulated sound sources placed inside and outside of an adult male Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) reveal likely sound propagation pathways into and out of the head. Two separate virtual sound sources that were located at the left and right phonic lips produced beams that converged just outside the head. This result supports the notion that dual sound sources can interfere constructively to form a biologically useful and, in fact, excellent sonar beam in front of the animal. The most intriguing FEM results concern pathways by which sounds reach the ears. The simulations reveal a previously undescribed 'gular pathway' for sound reception in Ziphius. Propagated sound pressure waves enter the head from below and between the lower jaws, pass through an opening created by the absence of the medial bony wall of the posterior mandibles, and continue toward the bony ear complexes through the internal mandibular fat bodies. This new pathway has implications for understanding the evolution of underwater hearing in odontocetes. Our model also provides evidence for receive beam directionality, off-axis acoustic shadowing and a plausible mechanism for the long-standing orthodox sound reception pathway in odontocetes. The techniques developed for this study can be used to study acoustic perturbation in a wide variety of marine organisms.

  6. Different temporal bases for body and arm movements in volleyball serve reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benerink, N H; Bootsma, R J; Zaal, F T J M

    2015-10-01

    In many sports, successfully intercepting a ball requires players to move both their body and their arms. Yet, studies of interception typically focus on one or the other. We performed an analysis of the moments of first foot and arm movements of elite-level volleyball players during serve reception. Video footage of five international matches of the Netherlands men's national volleyball team allowed the systematic coding and analysis of 347 different serve reception events. For each event, we identified the time of serve (TS) and time of contact (TC). Ball flight time (from TS to TC) varied between and within types of serve (power jump serves, n = 193, and jumping float serves, n = 154). Correlation analyses revealed that foot movement was initiated with respect to time from TS, while arm movement was initiated with respect to time until TC. These results suggest that whole-body and arm movements rely on different control processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Development of a Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test for children using cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaopan; Wong, Lena L-N; Wong, Anita M-Y; Xi, Xin

    2013-10-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with profound hearing loss access to sounds and speech. Research on the effects of CI on speech and language development in mainland China is scarce due to the lack of standardized tests. This study aims at developing a vocabulary measure, the Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test (MERVT), for pre-school children with CIs. Using responses from 102 normal-hearing preschool children, the initial vocabulary set was subjected to analyses to identify items with appropriate levels of difficulty and discrimination. Norms on 245 normal-hearing children aged 1;6 to 3;11 were later collected based on the final set of the items. Evaluation of the test's psychometric properties revealed good internal consistency. Significant correlations between the total MERVT scores and the Gesell Developmental Scale scores, between the MERVT expressive and receptive subtest scores and the total scores, and the gradual increase in MERVT scores with age, provided evidence of construct validity. Results from 29 children with CIs were also examined for evidence of the MERVT's construct validity. There was a significant correlation between these children's MERVT scores and their scores from an intelligence test. The MERVT scores increased with an increase in the duration of CI use and in chronological age. With good reliability and strong validity, the test is recommended for use in the monitoring of language development in children with CI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. AL-FEC for Improved Mobile Reception of MPEG-2 DVB-T Transport Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gozálvez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of application layer FEC protection in DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial networks for the provision of mobile services. Mobile reception is characterized by variations of the received signal caused by fast fading and shadowing. DVB-T was originally designed for fixed and portable reception, and generally does not provide enough quality in mobile environments. The link layer protection mechanism MPE-FEC (Multi Protocol Encapsulation-Forward Error Correction was standardized in DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld for the protection of mobile TV services. Although DVB-T itself does not incorporate any link or application layer protection mechanism, AL-FEC (Application layer Forward Error Correction protection can be introduced in DVB-T in a backwards compatible way. By means of AL-FEC, it is possible to improve the robustness of DVB-T services for the provision of mobile TV. In this paper, we explain the concept of AL-FEC protection in DVB-T and evaluate its performance by means of laboratory measurements and dynamic simulations with shadowing. We study different configurations of AL-FEC and compare its performance with MPE-FEC. In this paper, we discuss some implementation aspects of AL-FEC in real scenarios and propose an implementation based on Raptor codes and hash sequences. We also present results obtained by a first AL-FEC prototype for DVB-T that demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  9. Looming-sensitive responses and receptive field organization of telencephalic neurons in the pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Li, Da-Peng; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2006-01-30

    The tectofugal pathway in birds goes from the optic tectum to the telencephalic entopallium via the thalamic nucleus rotundus (nRt). This pathway may be homologous to the colliculo-pulvinar-cortical pathway in mammals. It is known that a population of rotundal neurons in the pigeon can signal impending collision of looming objects with the animal. Here we show by single-unit recording that there exist two groups of looming-sensitive neurons in the entopallium. A tau cell starts firing at a nearly constant time before collision whereas the response onset time of an eta cell is linearly related to the square root of the diameter/velocity ratio of looming objects. These cells are localized in the caudal entopallium. The receptive field (RF) of looming-sensitive cells was mapped on the screen plane but its inhibitory region could not suppress responses to looming objects. It appears that a population of telencephalic cells in pigeons responds to looming objects and their looming responses are not determined by the receptive field organization mapped on the screen plane.

  10. Streamlining the functioning of the FSO systems by choosing the optimal transmission/reception components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Viorel; Puşcoci, Sorin; Stoichescu, Dan Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    FSO systems are becoming more and more used taking under consideration the ease of installation and exploitation under the conditions of the supply of a major fraction of optical fiber bandwidth at reasonable cost. Choosing elements for manufacturing FSO transceivers must keep into account their destination. FSO transceivers can be made using LED or LASER devices at the transmission side, the reception side could be equipped with PIN or APD diodes. This paper makes an analysis of the behavior of semiconductor LASER and LED sources, as well as semiconductor devices PIN and APD for reception side, in various attenuation scenarios, with the aim of achieving an optimization of FSO transceiver, corresponding to different geographical areas, taking into account the specific area and attenuation induced by atmospheric factors, in order to obtain an optimal functioning/price ratio. In this paper it is calculated the bit error rate versus transmission distance for various combinations of sources/receivers, using the Matlab and Optiwave modeling environment, for point to point optical system communication.

  11. MOBIUS-STRIP-LIKE COLUMNAR FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIONS ARE REVEALED IN SOMATO-SENSORY RECEPTIVE FIELD CENTROIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Joseph Wright

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Receptive fields of neurons in the forelimb region of areas 3b and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex, in cats and monkeys, were mapped using extracellular recordings obtained sequentially from nearly radial penetrations. Locations of the field centroids indicated the presence of a functional system, in which cortical homotypic representations of the limb surfaces are entwined in three-dimensional Mobius-strip-like patterns of synaptic connections. Boundaries of somatosensory receptive field in nested groups irregularly overlie the centroid order, and are interpreted as arising from the superposition of learned connections upon the embryonic order. Since the theory of embryonic synaptic self-organisation used to model these results was devised and earlier used to explain findings in primary visual cortex, the present findings suggest the theory may be of general application throughout cortex, and may reveal a modular functional synaptic system, which, only in some parts of the cortex, and in some species, is manifest as anatomical ordering into columns.

  12. Gender Differences in Receptivity to Sexual Offers: A New Research Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Tappé

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most cited series of experiments in social and evolutionary psychology are those conducted by Clark and Hatfield (1989, 2003. In these studies, college students served as confederates in a simple field experiment. They approached fellow college students of another gender and asked one of three questions: (a “Would you go out with me tonight?” (b “Would you come over to my apartment tonight?” or (c “Would you go to bed with me tonight?” Men and women differed markedly in their receptivity to casual sexual offers. When asked: “Would you go out with me tonight?” both were equally receptive. Yet, when confederates asked, “Would you come over to my apartment” or “Would you go to bed with me?” gender differences were striking. In the following series of experiments we attempted to develop a pencil and paper method to mirror the procedure of the classic study. We think we succeeded. Although cultural and social considerations may have influenced participants’ tendency to accept or reject sexual offers, as predicted by evolutionary perspectives, in all three experiments men were more likely than women to accept sexual offers. The studies also explored some of the reasons men and women gave for refusing a date, apartment visit, or a sexual encounter. We close by itemizing some questions that, given this new set of research materials, may be worth asking.

  13. Receptivity and Forced Response to Acoustic Disturbances in High-Speed Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic boundary-layer receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 3.5 flow over a sharp flat plate and a 7-deg half-angle cone. The freestream disturbances are generated from a wavy wall placed at the nozzle wall. The freestream acoustic disturbances radiated by the wavy wall are obtained by solving the linearized Euler equations. The results for the flat plate show that instability modes are generated at all the incident angles ranging from zero to highly oblique. However, the receptivity coefficient decreases by about 20 times when the incident angle increases from zero to a highly oblique angle of 68 degrees. The results for the cone show that no instability modes are generated when the acoustic disturbances impinge the cone obliquely. The results show that the perturbations generated inside the boundary layer by the acoustic disturbances are the response of the boundary layer to the external forcing. The amplitude of the forced disturbances inside the boundary layer are about 2.5 times larger than the incoming field for zero azimuthal wavenumber and they are about 1.5 times for large azimuthal wavenumbers.

  14. New opening hours for the Reception foyer and the visitor facilities in Building 33

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    New hours for visitors Monday to FridayReception: 8:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m.Microcosm: 8:15 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m. Globe: 2:00 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. (on days the Globe is open)SaturdayReception: 8:30 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Microcosm: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Globe: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (on days the Globe is open) The new opening hours will be displayed on both sides of the entrance to Building 33. People working at CERN should note the modified closing times: Access times for CERN staff Monday to Friday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:00 a.m. and closes at 5:45 p.m. Saturday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:30 a.m. and closes at 5:15 p.m. Outside these hours, CERN staff must use the small entrance that opens directly onto the car park.

  15. Hymns across the water … translated and relocated: The reception of Scottish hymns in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsabé Kloppers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article a broad overview of the reception of Scottish hymnody in translation is given. Considering the pivotal role the metrical Psalms used to play in the Scottish churches, they are considered first. Only one metrical Psalm made it to be translated widely and to be included in hymnals over the world. It is the metrical setting of Psalm 23, The Lord’s my Shepherd, paired to the tune of Scottish origin, CRIMOND. It is argued that the metrical psalm owes much of its popularity to the tune. A hymn with a text from the Scottish Paraphrases, paired to a Scottish tune, DUNDEE, and for long the only hymn in the Afrikaans churches with a Scottish connection, is discussed with regard to its reception in these churches. It serves as an example of how a hymn could be translated and relocated and function in a new context. In an overview of Scottish hymns translated and included in the newest hymnals in other countries, such as the Netherlands and Norway, it is shown that primarily hymns and songs of the Iona Community are translated and included in the newest hymnals, with John Lamberton Bell being the main exponent as text, hymn and song writer.

  16. Age-related differences in resolving semantic and phonological competition during receptive language tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Johnson, Micah A; Madden, David J; Burke, Deborah M; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-12-01

    Receptive language (e.g., reading) is largely preserved in the aging brain, and semantic processes in particular may continue to develop throughout the lifespan. We investigated the neural underpinnings of phonological and semantic retrieval in older and younger adults during receptive language tasks (rhyme and semantic similarity judgments). In particular, we were interested in the role of competition on language retrieval and varied the similarities between a cue, target, and distractor that were hypothesized to affect the mental process of competition. Behaviorally, all participants responded faster and more accurately during the rhyme task compared to the semantic task. Moreover, older adults demonstrated higher response accuracy than younger adults during the semantic task. Although there were no overall age-related differences in the neuroimaging results, an Age×Task interaction was found in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), with older adults producing greater activation than younger adults during the semantic condition. These results suggest that at lower levels of task difficulty, older and younger adults engaged similar neural networks that benefited behavioral performance. As task difficulty increased during the semantic task, older adults relied more heavily on largely left hemisphere language regions, as well as regions involved in perception and internal monitoring. Our results are consistent with the stability of language comprehension across the adult lifespan and illustrate how the preservation of semantic representations with aging may influence performance under conditions of increased task difficulty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Reception of the Nag Hammadi Codices: Gnosis and Christianity in Late-Antique Roman Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Dias Chaves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nag Hammadi Codices have been calling the attention of scholars of early Christianity and religions in the Roman Empire almost since their discovery in 1945. These codices, generally associated with the so-called Gnosticism, are not only an example of the religious diversity of Christianity in the Roman Empire, but also a peculiar illustration of the transmission and reception of Christian texts in Late-antiquity. The texts copied in the codices in question were probably composed in Greek somewhere between the second and third centuries, in many different locations in the Empire, but what we have today are Coptic translations compiled in Egypt, in the second half of fourth century. The natural preference for the oldest and for the so-called Gnostic conjecture, lead scholars to prioritize the study of the original context of composition of these texts. However, the last decades saw a growing interest for the study of the context of compilation of these texts in Coptic. This article intends to suggest a new approach and methodology to this kind of study in light of the theory of reception. The goal is to provide scholars with a method that may help us to understand how these texts may have been interpreted by Coptic readers in Late-antique Egypt

  18. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  19. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  20. Comparison of coastal phytoplankton composition estimated from the V4 and V9 regions of the 18S rRNA gene with a focus on photosynthetic groups and especially Chlorophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragin, Margot; Zingone, Adriana; Vaulot, Daniel

    2017-10-06

    We compared the composition of eukaryotic communities using two genetic markers (18S rRNA V4 and V9 regions) at 27 sites sampled during Ocean Sampling Day 2014, with a focus on photosynthetic groups and, more specifically green algae (Chlorophyta). Globally, the V4 and V9 regions of the 18S rRNA gene provided similar images of alpha diversity and ecological patterns. However, V9 provided 20% more OTUs built at 97% identity than V4. 34% of the genera were found with both markers and, of the remnant, 22% were found only with V4 and 44% only with V9. For photosynthetic groups, V4 and V9 performed equally well to describe global communities at different taxonomic levels from the division to the genus and provided similar Chlorophyta distribution patterns. However, at lower taxonomic level, the V9 dataset failed for example to describe the diversity of Dolichomastigales (Chlorophyta, Mamiellophyceae) emphasizing the lack of V9 sequences for this group and the importance of the reference database for metabarcode analysis. We conclude that in order to address questions regarding specific groups (e.g., a given genus), it is necessary to choose the marker based not only on the genetic divergence within this group but also on the existence of reference sequences in databases. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.