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Sample records for central termoelectrica ramon

  1. Atmospheric emissions control at ENELVEN`s Ramon Laguna thermal power plant; Control de emisiones a la atmosfera en la central termoelectrica Ramon Laguna de ENELVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Rincon, Edis Rafael [Empresa de Servicio Electrico (ENELVEN), (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    ENELVEN is an electric utility that covers the areas of generation, transmission and distribution of the Western an South coast of the Maracaibo Lake of the Zulia State, Venezuela. General aspects of the Ramon Laguna of ENELVEN fossil power plant are presented, as well as the environmental measures implanted in this power station to avoid detrimental effects on the environment that could be caused by the emission of combustion products without the appropriate control, such as particulate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and carbon oxides [Espanol] ENELVEN es una empresa de servicio electrico que cubre las areas de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la Costa Occidental y Sur del Lago de Maracaibo, del Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se presentan aspectos generales de la planta termoelectrica Ramon Laguna de la empresa ENELVEN, asi como las medidas ambientales implantadas en esta central para evitar efectos adversos sobre el ambiente que pudieran producirse por la emision de productos de la combustion si no existiera el debido control, tales como: particulas, oxidos de azufre, oxidos de nitrogeno y oxidos de carbono

  2. Integral power evaluation in fossil fuel power plants; Evaluacion energetica integral en unidades de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa I, Luis R; Sanchez H, Laura E; Rodriguez M, Jose H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt G, Jesus [Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Subdireccion de Generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this occasion, a methodology is presented that carries out an integral energy evaluation of fossil fuel power plants units (FFPPU) with the purpose of determining the root of the significant decrements of power produced soon after the annual maintenance service. This proposal, besides identifying the origin of the energy efficiency problems, offers information about the contributions of each one of the involved equipment in the total decrement of the unit. With this methodology, the maintenance focuses in the equipment that contributes to the greater energy loss. This document presents such methodology along with its application in a real case, results and necessary remedial actions, demonstrating that its application offers bases for the investment in corrective measures. [Spanish] En esta ocasion se presenta una metodologia que efectua una evaluacion energetica integral de las unidades de centrales termoelectricas (UCT) con el fin de determinar la raiz de los decrementos de potencia significativos producidos luego del servicio anual de mantenimiento. Dicha propuesta, ademas de identificar el origen de los problemas de eficiencia energetica, brinda informacion acerca de las aportaciones de cada uno de los equipos involucrados al decremento total de la unidad. Con esta metodologia, el mantenimiento se enfoca a los equipos que contribuyen a la mayor perdida de potencia. Este documento exhibe tal metodologia junto con su aplicacion en un caso real, resultados y las acciones correctivas necesarias, demostrando que su aplicacion ofrece bases para una inversion futura en medidas correctivas.

  3. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  4. Electrochemical techniques application in corrosion problems of fossil power plants; Aplicacion de tecnicas electroquimicas en problemas de corrosion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Garcia Ochoa, Esteban Miguel; Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Mariaca Rodriguez, Liboria; Malo Tamayo, Jose Maria; Uruchurtu Chavarin, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    Some aspects of the electrochemical techniques employed to evaluate the corrosion at low temperature in fossil power plants are commented, as well as the results obtained with the application of them in three power plants of this type. [Espanol] Se comentan algunos aspectos de tecnicas electroquimicas utilizadas para evaluar la corrosion en baja temperatura en centrales termoelectricas, asi como los resultados de la aplicacion de las mismas en tres centrales de este tipo.

  5. Methodology for carrying out energy diagnosis in auxiliaries systems in thermal electrical central stations; Metodologia para realizar un diagnostico energetico en sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebradt Garcia, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rojas Hidalgo, Ismael; Huante Perez, Liborio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    One of the potential areas for energy saving in Central Electric Power Plants are the auxiliaries system, so as to based in a preliminary energy diagnosis and considering that energy saving measures would be taken, going from the instrumentation, operational changes in equipment, as well as in using velocity variators in motors, it turns out to be that the energy consumption of auxiliaries at 75% load in a 150 MW thermal power plant varies from 3% to 4% and for the case of a 350 MW power plant the energy consumption of the auxiliaries represents 2 to 3.5%. Nowadays this consumption are above 6%. Considering that the country has 40 units with capacities varying from 150 to 350 MW, the economical and the fuel saving would be substantial. This paper will present a summary of the methodology to be used to carry out this type of projects. [Espanol] Una de las areas potenciales de ahorro de energia en centrales termoelectricas son los sistemas auxiliares, de tal manera que basados en un diagnostico energetico preliminar y considerando que se aplicarian las medidas de ahorro de energia que van desde la instrumentacion, cambios operativos en equipos, asi como el uso de variadores de velocidad en motores, se tienen que los consumos de auxiliares para un 75% de carga en una central termoelectrica de 150 MW varian desde un 3% hasta un 4% y para el caso de una central termoelectrica de 350 MW, el consumo de auxiliares representa del 2 al 3.5%. Hoy en dia dichos consumos estan por encima del 6%. Si consideramos que el pais cuenta con 40 unidades que varian desde 150 MW hasta 350 MW, entonces los ahorros economicos y de combustible serian impactantes. La presente ponencia mostrara un resumen de la metodologia a emplear para la realizacion de este tipo de proyectos.

  6. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Morales, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  7. Feasibility of the operation CFE`s conventional power plants for industrial cogeneration; Factibilidad de operar las centrales termoelectricas convencionales de la CFE para cogeneracion industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H.; Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    An analysis is made on how cogeneration could help to maximize the power plant performance since thanks to cogeneration this type of power plants could utilize a part of the waste energy to be supplied to other processes. Also mention is made of the utilization of computer programs to help the design and the realization of functioning tests of this type of power plants. An economic evaluation is presented on the feasibility of operating this type of power plants as cogeneration units and it is concluded that the operation of fossil power plants in the cogeneration mode is not affected by the site where the power plant is located [Espanol] Se analiza como la cogeneracion podria ayudar a maximizar el rendimiento de las centrales termoelectricas ya que gracias a la cogeneracion este tipo de centrales podrian utilizar una parte de la energia desechada para suministrarla a otros procesos. Tambien se menciona la utilizacion de programas de computo para auxiliar en el diseno o realizacion de pruebas de funcionamiento sobre este tipo de plantas. Se presenta una evaluacion economica sobre la factibilidad de operar este tipo de plantas como unidades de cogeneracion y se concluye en que la operacion de centrales termoelectricas en modo de cogeneracion no se ve afectado por el sitio donde se encuentra la central

  8. Analysis of pumping systems to large flows of cooling water in power plants; Analisis de sistemas de bombeo para grandes flujos de agua de enfriamiento en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon; Herrera Velarde, Jose Ramon; Gonzalez Sanchez, Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rsanchez@iie.org.mx; jrhv@iie.org.mx; ags@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    Accurate measurement of large water flows remains being a challenge in the problems of implementation of circulating water systems of power plants and other applications. This paper, presents a methodology for the analysis in pumping systems with high rates of water in power plants, as well as their practical application and results in pipelines water flow of a thermoelectrical power plant of 350 MW. In this power plant, the water flow per pipeline for a half of condenser oscillates around 7 m{sup 3}/s (14 m{sup 3}/s per power generating unit). In this analysis, we present the techniques used to measure large flows of water with high accurately, as well as the computational model for water circulating system using PIPE FLO and the results of practical application techniques. [Spanish] La medicion precisa de grandes flujos de agua, sigue siendo un reto en los problemas de aplicacion de sistemas de agua de circulacion de centrales termoelectricas, entre otras aplicaciones. En este articulo, se presenta una metodologia para el analisis de sistemas de bombeo con grandes flujos de agua en centrales termoelectricas, asi como, su aplicacion practica y los resultados obtenidos en los ductos de agua de circulacion de una central generadora con unidades de 350 MW. En esta central, los flujos por caja de agua oscilan alrededor de los 7 m{sup 3}/s (14 m{sup 3}/s por unidad generadora). En el analisis, se presentan las tecnicas utilizadas para medir con precision grandes flujos de agua (tubo de Pitot), asi como, el modelado del sistema de agua de circulacion por medio de un paquete computacional (PIPE FLO) y resultados obtenidos de la aplicacion de dichas tecnicas.

  9. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  10. Thermal analysis of the heat recuperator of a combined cycle thermoelectric central; Analisis termico del recuperador de calor de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, Hernando; Sanchez, I.; Lazcano, L. C.; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Alvarez, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, O. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tula (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The thermoelectric centrals of the combined cycle type (Brayton Cycle and Rankine Cycle) present a series of opportunities to increase the efficiency of the combined cycle or of the generated power. This paper shows the methodology for the performance of energy balances in a heat recuperator (H. R.), typically employed in the combined cycle stations operating in Mexico, for the assessment of the energy harnessing in the different sections conforming a H. R. The effect of the installation of evaporative coolers and/or an absorption cooling system at the gas turbine compressor intake on the steam generation in the heat recuperator, is evaluated. This extra generation of steam is quantified for its potential use in the same absorption refrigeration system. From the assessment, it follows up that the steam generation in the H.R. is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and that, although the increased amount of steam generated can not be harnessed in total by the steam turbine, the remaining fraction is good enough to cover the heat demand for the operation of the refrigeration system. [Espanol] Las centrales termoelectricas del tipo ciclo combinado (ciclo Brayton y ciclo Rankine) presentan un conjunto de oportunidades para incrementar la eficiencia del ciclo combinado o bien la potencia generada. En el presente trabajo se expone la metodologia para realizar los balances de energia en un recuperador de calor (R.C.) tipicamente utilizado en las Centrales de Ciclo Combinado (CCC) que operan en Mexico, para evaluar el aprovechamiento de la energia en las diferentes secciones que conforman un R.C. Se evalua el efecto que tiene la instalacion de enfriadores evaporativos y/o un sistema de enfriamiento por absorcion en la succion del compresor de la turbina de gas sobre la generacion de vapor en el recuperador de calor. Se cuantifica esta generacion extra de vapor para su posible utilizacion en el mismo sistema de refrigeracion por absorcion. De la evaluacion se

  11. Environmental management project of the Patache power plant project and associated transmission line; Gestion ambiental proyecto central termoelectrica Patache y linea de transmision asociada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno Paredes, Cristian [Compania Electrica Tapaca (CELTA, S. A.), (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    This report makes a brief description of the services developed by INGENDESA of the projects executed in the area of engineering as well as in the area of environmental matters. In a second instance a relatively detailed presentation is made of the most important background of the Chilean project: {sup E}nvironmental Management of the Patache Power Plant and the Associated Transmission Line-Compania Electrica Tarapaca (CELTA, S.A.) Region I{sup .} The justification for the construction of the power plant and the environmental problems associated with the same are described [Espanol] En el presente informe se hace una breve presentacion de los servicios desarrollados por INGENDESA, de los proyectos elaborados tanto en el area de la ingenieria como en la tematica ambiental. En segunda instancia, se hace una presentacion relativamente detallada de los antecedentes mas importantes del proyecto chileno {sup G}estion Ambiental Central Patache y Linea de Transmision Asociada - Compania Electrica Tarapaca (CELTA, S.A.) I Region{sup .} Se describe la justificacion de la construccion de esta central termoelectrica y los problemas ambientales asociados a la misma

  12. Coordinated control of a combined cycle thermoelectric central; Control coordinado de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Parra, Marino; Castelo Cuevas, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the coordinated control (CC) of the Distributed Control System (Sistema de Control Distribuido) (SICODI) of the Combined Cycle Central of Gomez Palacio, Durango, is presented. The description of the control scheme and its realization in software is made. From the scheme the operation strategies and automation, supervision and control are described in detail. The software components of the programming are described, the program structure and control data and its implementation in working stations VAX 3100 under the operating system VMS (Virtual Memory System), are described. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el control coordinado (CC) del Sistema de Control Distribuido (Sicodi) de la central de ciclo combinado Gomez Palacio, Durango. Se describe el esquema de control y su realizacion en software. Del esquema se detallan las estrategias de operacion y automatizacion, supervision y control. Del software se describen los componentes de la programacion, la estructura de programas y datos del control y su implementacion en estaciones de trabajo VAX 3100 bajo el sistema operativo VMS (Virtual Memory System).

  13. A simple model to evaluate the impact of the thermal power plants emissions; Un modelo simple para evaluar el impacto de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodas Grapain, Arturo; Salcido, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Formulation and validation of a dispersion model for relative plumes are presented in this paper. This model (MOTTQUIP: Modelo de Transporte Turbulento y Quimico de Plumas) was developed to assess the environmental impact of power generation. The theoretical formulation if this model is based on the integral form of the mass balance equation. MOTTQUIP can simulate (in two dimensions) the turbulent dispersion and chemical transformation phenomena of a nitrogen oxides (Nox) non-buoyant plume in an ozone (O{sub 3}) atmosphere. The results produced by MOTTQUIP, however, can run in a personal computer consuming relatively short CPU times. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan la formulacion y la validacion de un modelo (MOTTQUIP: Modelo de Transporte Turbulento y Quimica de Plumas) para evaluar el impacto de las emisiones de contaminantes reactivos de centrales termoelectricas. Este modelo se formula a partir de la forma integral de la ecuacion de balance de masa, y no de su forma diferencial, como se procede generalmente. MOTTQUIP simula, en dos dimensiones, la dispersion turbulenta y transformacion quimica de una pluma no flotante de oxidos de nitrogeno (Nox), misma que se interna paulatinamente en un ambiente de ozono (O{sub 3}). Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los de modelos alternos que simulan el mismo sistema reactivo, encontrandose una concordancia bastante aceptable. Una ventaja de MOTTQUIP, sin embargo, es que puede utilizarse en sistemas de computo pequenos, empleando tiempos de CPU relativamente cortos.

  14. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  15. Solution to the colloidal silica problem in the San Luis Potosi power plant; Solucion del problema de silice coloidal en la central termoelectrica San Luis Potosi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rubalcava, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Guerra, Protasio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In June 1986 the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) made tests to raise the load of the first normalized unit of 350 MW of the San Luis Potosi Power Plant; although the new system for colloidal silica removal had not yet been installed, consisting of a hollow fibers ultra-filtration system with a capacity of 110 m{sup 3}, that for the first time would be applied in a Mexican power plant. It was decided to install this system due to the fact that the well water supplying this power plant comes from a geothermal reservoir, with water at 38 degrees Celsius and a silica content of 15 to 250 parts per billion (ppb) of colloidal silica, which makes it necessary to eliminate it in order to enable the boiler operation at its design conditions (175 bars (2573 psig) and 540 degrees Celsius). Although a demineralizing plant existed for the boiler feed water make up, the ion exchange resins were not able to retain the colloidal silica. Also, the First Unit operation was held at 25% of its rated capacity; in trying to raise the output to 50%, the silica concentration in the boiler water went over the allowed limits, resulting in a concentration of 1,500 ppb in the boiler water and 28 ppb in the steam. One the ultra-filtration plant was installed, the power plant operated at full rated capacity with silica concentrations in the steam lower than the permitted concentration, i.e. 10 ppb . By the end of 1987 the Second Unit of 350 MW was put into operation with the ultra-filtration system in operation, reaching full load without any problem. Once confirmed the efficiency of the ultra-filtration for the colloidal silica removal, CFE will apply this system in other power plants of the country having the same problem. [Espanol] En junio de 1986, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) efectuo pruebas de elevacion de carga en la primera unidad normalizada de 350 MW de la central termoelectrica San Luis Potosi; sin embargo, aun no se terminaba de instalar el nuevo sistema para la

  16. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  17. Modern concepts of thermodynamic optimization in Mexican thermoelectric stations; Conceptos modernos de optimacion termodinamica en centrales termoelectricas mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-de Gortari, J; Vidal-Santo, A.; Mendez-Lavielle, F.; Bautista-Godinez, O. [Departamento de Termoenergia, from Facultad de Ingenieria UNAM (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a summary review of the current thermodynamic concepts related to the maximum power generation and minimum entropy production are presented. The results of the analysis are considered in Mexican power stations using conventional cycles and are compared with other power stations around the world. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisa el analisis de maxima generacion de potencia que implica la minimizacion de la produccion de entropia en centrales generadoras de potencia. De acuerdo con los lineamientos mas recientes publicados en la literatura. Los conceptos y resultados del analisis se aplican a varias centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales en el mundo.

  18. Modern concepts of thermodynamic optimization in Mexican thermoelectric power stations; Conceptos modernos de optimacion termodinamica en centrales termoelectricas mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes de Gortari, J.; Vidal Santo, A.; Mendez Lavielle, F.; Bautista Godinez, O. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a summary review of the current thermodynamic concepts to the maximum power generation and minimum entropy production are presented. The results of the analysis are considered in Mexican power stations using conventional cycles and are compared with other power stations around the world. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisa el analisis de maxima generacion de potencia que implica la minimizacion de la produccion de entropia en centrales generadoras de potencia, de acuerdo con los lineamientos mas recientes publicados en la literatura. Los conceptos y resultados del analisis se aplican a varias centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales en el mundo.

  19. Control of a deareador level of a thermoelectric power station using modern control techniques; Control de nivel de un deareador de una central termoelectrica utilizando tecnicas de control moderno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Estrada, Jose Israel

    1997-01-01

    The present work shows the implementation of the scheme of predictive control IMC (Internal Model Control) in order to control the level of the deareador of a combined cycle thermoelectric power station of (C.C.T.S.). The implementation has the purpose of looking for alternative strategies of control to the classic ones (PID`s) that more efficiently control the variables of interest, in addition to getting into the new control techniques of control. Following the philosophy of predictive control IMC the form to applying this technique is shown, as well as the implementation of this type of controllers. A comparison of predictive control IMC is made with the scheme of conventional control (three control elements PID`s ) used at present to control the level of the deareador in the Combined Cycle Thermoelectric Power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Mexico and of Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra la implementacion del esquema de control predictivo IMC (Control con Modelo Interno) con el objeto de controlar el nivel del deareador de una Central Termoelectrica de Ciclo Combinado (C.T.C.C.). La implementacion tiene la finalidad de buscar estrategias de control alternas a las clasicas (PID`s) que controlen mas eficientemente la variable de interes, ademas de incursionar en las nuevas tecnicas de control. Siguiendo la filosofia del control predictivo IMC se muestra la forma de aplicar esta tecnica, asi como la implementacion de este tipo de controladores. Se hace una comparacion del control predictivo IMC con el esquema de control convencional (control de tres elementos PID`s) utilizando actualmente para controlar el nivel del deareador en las centrales termoelectricas de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y de Gomez Palacio, Durango en Mexico.

  20. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    of the Christian faith. He soon discovered that the main challenge was to explain the divine Trinity to non Christians. Furthermore, he realised that culture and language barriers must be taken into account when he tried to explain the Christian faith. In-stead of focussing on the differences, Llull sought out...... might be a viable and valuable approach to understand some of the challenges and possibilities found in computer science and ethics. Vita Llull was born in 1232 in Palma de Mallorca, a melting pot for different cul-tures and religions at the time. Being educated at the king’s court, Llull learned......Ramon Llull’s Ars Magna Thessa Jensen Institute for Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University Aalborg, Denmark thessa@hum.aau.dk The Great Art of Ramon Llull — the Ars Magna — must be seen as one of the basic philosophical approaches to formalisation of thought, language, and knowledge...

  1. Diffusion and dispersion heat of hydrotermal discharge from power plant; Difusion y dispersion de calor de la descarga hidrotermal de una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Villalobos, J. Rodolfo

    1996-12-31

    numerica del comportamiento hidrodinamico de la descarga al mar del agua de enfriamiento de la central termoelectrica Tuxpan (CTT) bajo dos distintas condiciones ambientales meteorologicas y oceanograficas, a saber: Caso I, viento variable de direccion SW con intensidad promedio igual a 3 m s-1 y Caso II, viento variable del NW con intensidad promedio igual a 11.10 m s-1. Las simulaciones numericas se realizaron mediante un modelo tridimensional de circulacion costera y difusion y dispersion de calor. El analisis estadistico del banco de datos de intensidad y direccion del viento medido del 1 de enero de 1981 al 31 de diciembre de 1983, indica que el numero de valores de mayor ocurrencia se presento dentro del intervalo de 180 grados a 315 grados. Por lo mismo, el efecto del viento proveniente del sector sur genera un patron de circulacion superficial de flujo norte que alejan de la obra de toma el agua caliente descargada. En contraste, el viento que proviene del sector norte genera corrientes superficiales de flujo sur que impulsa el efluente hidrotermico hacia la obra de toma. Las comparaciones entre los resultados de las simulaciones numericas y los datos de campo indican que, para una variedad de condiciones ambientales meteorologicas y oceanograficas representativas del Sitio Tuxpan (ST), el modelo simula correctamente los patrones de difusion y dispersion superficial de los efluentes medidos los dias 19, 20 y 21 de agosto de 1992 (Caso I) y 26 de noviembre de 1992 (Caso II). La precision promedio con la cual el modelo predice las areas de impacto de los efluentes descargados en el ST es de {+-} 11%. Para todos los casos analizados, el tamano real del area de impacto termico que podria alterar substancialmente el ecosistema marino no fue mayor a 0.1 Km{sup 2}. Los posibles efectos ecologicos que podrian resultar como consecuencia de los gradientes termicos inducidos por la descarga superficial de agua caliente solo podrian ser considerados de significancia local. Los

  2. Actions for the environmental adequateness and emissions control at the Martin del Corral power plant-Termozipa; Obras de adecuacion ambiental y control de emisiones para la central termoelectrica Martin del Corral - Termozipa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo Osorio, Luis [Empresa de Energia de Bogota, Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the general data on the Martin del Corral-Termozipa, of Colombia, fossil fueled power plant are exposed. The results of a study to determine the environmental impact originated in the influence zone of this Power Plant are presented, particularly on the Bogota River. The study was framed into the environmental policy driven by the Colombian sector. Different solutions addressed to the optimization of the handling, capacity and control of the emissions and counteract the pollution possibilities of the Bogota River are described [Espanol] En esta ponencia se exponen datos generales de la central termoelectrica Martin del Corral - Termozipa-, de Colombia. Se presentan los resultados de un estudio para determinar el impacto ambiental ocasionado en la zona de influencia de esta central, y en particular sobre el rio Bogota. El estudio se enmarco dentro de la politica ambiental impulsada por el sector colombiano. Se describen diversas soluciones encaminadas a optimizar el manejo, capacidad y control de las emisiones y contrarrestar las posibilidades de contaminacion del rio Bogota

  3. Present situation of the control of the transmissions of thermal power plants in Colombia; Situacion actual del control de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lozada, Hector [Consultor Ambiental, Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents, departing from a historical recollection, the evolution analysis of the Colombian Electric Sector, with emphasis in the electric component performance. Also, a general view is offered on the characteristics of the thermal electric resource in terms of energy production level, type of fuels used and annual amount of air pollutants originated in the combustion process. In the second part of the paper the normative scheme and the regulation for emissions control, particularly coming from power plants; and the tendencies in the policies that for the management of the atmospheric resource are being implemented in the country are identified. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta, a partir de un breve recuento historico, el analisis de la evolucion del Sector Electrico Colombiano con enfasis en el comportamiento del componente termoelectrico. Asi mismo se ofrece una vision general sobre las caracteristicas del parque termico, en terminos de los niveles de produccion de energia, los tipos de combustibles utilizados y las cantidades anuales de contaminantes atmosfericos que se generan en el proceso de combustion. En la segunda parte del trabajo se comenta el esquema normativo y la regulacion para el control de las emisiones, en particular de las procedentes de plantas termoelectricas; y se identifican las tendencias de las politicas que para la administracion del recurso atmosferico se estan implantando en el pais.

  4. Starting of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant, using predictive control based in a neuronal model; Arranque del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica, usando control predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo Dominguez, Tonatiuh

    2004-09-15

    In this thesis work it is presented the design and implementation of a simulator of total scope of a predictive controller based in the neuronal model of the temperature in two stages of the heating of the steam generator of a fossil fuel power plant. An implemented control scheme is detailed, as well as the methodology for the identification of a neuronal model utilized for the control. Finally the results of the implementation in the simulator located at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are shown to be satisfactory. This control structure is not applied directly in closed circuit, but provides the value of the control actions to a human operator. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno e implementacion, en un simulador de alcance total, de un controlador predictivo basado en un modelo neuronal para el control de la temperatura en dos etapas del calentamiento del generador de vapor de una central termoelectrica. Se detalla el esquema de control implementado, asi como la metodologia de identificacion de un modelo neuronal utilizado para la sintesis del control. Finalmente se muestran los resultados de la implementacion en el simulador que se encuentra en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); dichos resultados fueron satisfactorios. Esta estructura de control no se aplica directamente en lazo cerrado, sino que provee el valor de las acciones de control a un operador humano.

  5. Advances in the research line of diagnosing of faults in fossil fuel power plants; Avances en la linea de investigacion de diagnostico de fallas en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruz H, Jose A [Universidad Autonoma del Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Sanchez C, Edgar N [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Suarez Cerda, Dionisio A; Quintero R, Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This article deals with a research in progress searching to take care of the faults that occur with greatest frequency in the fossil fuel power plants of Mexico with the aid of tools of computational intelligence such as the neuronal networks and the fuzzy logic, for the online recognition of the dynamic behavior patterns of variable groups. What this research looks for is the development of individual systems, in relation to the computational intelligence techniques that continuously supervise the functioning of the unit and inform the operator of the eventual faults in the understanding that on time attention to the faults will result in a minimum cost. The advantages of these diagnosis mechanisms are established in comparison to alternative diagnosis methods, such as their associative memory useful to store fault patterns. [Spanish] Se trata de una investigacion en progreso que busca atender las fallas que ocurren con mayor frecuencia en las unidades termoelectricas de Mexico con la ayuda de herramientas de inteligencia computacional como las redes neuronales y la logica difusa, para el reconocimiento en linea de patrones de comportamiento dinamico de grupos de variables. Lo que esta investigacion busca es desarrollar sendos sistemas, en relacion a las tecnicas de inteligencia computacional, que supervisen continuamente el funcionamiento de la unidad e informen al operador de fallas eventuales, en el entendido que la oportuna atencion a fallas redituara en un costo minimo. Las ventajas de estos mecanismos de diagnostico se establecen en comparacion a metodos de diagnostico alternativos, como su memoria asociativa util para almacenar patrones de falla.

  6. Computerized system for the support of the predictive maintenance in thermoelectric power stations of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Sistema computarizado para el apoyo del mantenimiento predictivo en centrales termoelectricas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda A, Segio; Garcia M, Raul; Poujol G, Francisco; Chairez C, Carlos; Dominguez M, Nely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the functionality of the Integral System of Information for the Diagnosis of Predictive Maintenance (SIIDMP) in the thermoelectric centrals, whose primary target is to give support to the personnel related with the maintenance and operation of the thermoelectric central to optimize the application of the inspection, maintenance and its associated costs. It is important to comment that in the generating power stations of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) techniques and methodologies for the preventive and corrective maintenance are applied, in addition of which they count on electronic equipment of operation dedicated to the inspection and control of vibratory equipment. The architecture of the SIIDMP is of the client-server type and for its design and implantation Windows NT 4.0 was used as operating system, SQL Server 7.0 as server and manager of the database, Visual C++ for the programs of data mining, Vision Basic 6.0 for the codification of the application programs and Interface Man-Machine (IMM), the communication mechanism Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) to establish the connection with the different data sources, as well as libraries of symbols and graphs that were included in the interface of the user. The main objective of the SIIDMP is to take care of the own necessities on optimization, improvements and savings in the operation of the power stations. With systems like the SIIDMP, a reduction of the costs due to shutdowns by accidental failures of the main equipment is looked for, limiting the deterioration of the equipment, as well as to provide knowledge and aid to all the personnel who take part in the management of the operation and conservation of the facilities of the power station. [Spanish] Se describe la funcionalidad del Sistema Integral de Informacion para el Diagnostico de Mantenimiento Predictivo en las centrales termoelectricas (SIIDMP), cuyo objetivo principal es apoyar al personal relacionado con el

  7. Monitoring and diagnosis of condensation systems in thermoelectric power stations: behavior indicators; Monitoreo y diagnostico de sistemas de condensacion en centrales termoelectricas: indicadores de comportamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Hugo; Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this article are described the basic characteristics, capacities and benefits of a computer system for the monitoring and operation diagnosis of the main equipment of a condensation system of thermoelectric power plants. The system monitors the process variables in real time and, with base in these variables, it can realize a diagnosis of the cooling tower, the condenser, the circulation water and the circulating water pumps, deducting the possible problems (deficiency causes) and raising alternatives to improve the system performance or to solve the problem. It is important to mention that with base in the raised alternatives, the user can take decisions to diminish or eliminate the problem. The essential content of the article focuses in the description of the basic procedures for the calculation of the performance and diagnosis indicators of the condensation system of the equipment. The equipment evaluation is carried out by means of the comparison between the indicators values and the expected ones, whereas the diagnosis is realized by means of an expert system. [Spanish] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas principales, capacidades y beneficios de un sistema computacional para el monitoreo y diagnostico del funcionamiento de los equipos principales de un sistema de condensacion de plantas termoelectricas. El sistema monitorea las variables del proceso en tiempo real y, con base en dichas variables, puede realizar un diagnostico de la torre de enfriamiento, el condensador y las bombas de agua de circulacion, deduciendo los posibles problemas (causas de las deficiencias) y planteando alternativas para mejorar el desempeno del sistema o solucionar el problema. Es importante mencionar que con base en las alternativas planteadas, el usuario puede tomar decisiones para reducir o eliminar el problema. El contenido esencial del articulo se enfoca en la descripcion de los procedimientos basicos para el calculo de los indicadores de desempeno y

  8. Results in energy saving obtained with the application of speed variator in fossil power stations; Resultados de ahorro de energia obtenidos con la aplicacion de variadores de velocidad en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlos Rueda, Rosa Maria [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The project of installation of speed variator in fossil power stations (CT's) of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), as an energy saving measure, is a pilot project that began with the support of the Subdivision de Generacion, and promoted by the Energy Saving Program of the Electric Sector (PAESE), with the putting in operation of an equipment in the condensate pump of the Punta Prieta II C. T. U3. The energy saving observed was substantial, fluctuating between the 19.4% at high loads (at 90% load) and the 71.1% at low loads (at 40% load) of the generating unit. With these results, it was decided to extend the scope of the project with the installation of 6 more equipment for equal number of fossil power stations, located in 4 of the 5 Regions of Generation. The fossil power stations, selected for this stage of the project were: C. T. Felipe Carrillo Puerto U1, C.T. Lerma U4, C.T. Salamanca U1, C.T. Monterrey U6, C.T. Francisco Villa U3 and the C.T. Punta Prieta II-U1. The equipment was in operation during the first quarter of 1998, and the first results indicate an energy savings average per equipment, between 39% and 52%. The recovery of the investment fluctuates between the 48.4% and the 87.6% in less than two years of operation, with which a maximum period of recovery of 3 years is expected. The estimated potential of energy saving, considering the application of these devices in condensate pumps, feedwater pumps (where no speed variator is installed) forced draft fans, induced draft fans and gas recirculation fans, as well as circulation water pumps, of the existing Generating Power stations, ascends to an annual total of 830,000, which represents an approximate 9.4% of the National consumption of self services. [Spanish] El proyecto de instalacion de variadores de velocidad en Centrales Termoelectricas (CT's) de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), como medida de ahorro de energia, es un proyecto piloto que se inicio con el apoyo de la

  9. Robust velocity and load control of a steam turbine in a combined cycle thermoelectric power station; Control robusto de velocidad y carga de una turbina de vapor en una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Archundia, Enrique

    1998-12-31

    of the computation, the programming languages and the numerical methods allow to develop mathematical models that simulate in an approximate manner the processes to control, as it is the case of the combined cycle thermoelectric power station and in this way making the evaluation of algorithms of modern control possible. In chapter I a functional description of the steam turbine process is given. Since this belongs to a combined cycle thermoelectric power station, it is begun with the description of this power station, later to emphasize the subsystem of the steam turbine and emphasize each one of the elements that comprise this last one. [Espanol] Este trabajo de investigacion esta orientado a disenar, desarrollar y validar un algoritmo de control moderno, que permita la obtencion de mejores desempenos en el control de velocidad de una turbina de vapor perteneciente a una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado, en todo el intervalo de operacion, asi como la obtencion de mejores desempenos en el control de la cantidad de megawatts generados por la misma cuando esta acoplada a un generador electrico, comparando el desempeno con el obtenido mediante el controlador convencional existente. Los cambios en la referencia de velocidad o carga, son a solicitud del operador y se dan siempre en forma de rampa, indicando la rapidez con la que se desea efectuar el cambio de valor en la referencia. Esta es la razon por la cual el objetivo principal del control a disenar es realizar un buen seguimiento a referencias del tipo rampa. En el subsistema de la turbina de vapor existente el inconveniente de que las valvulas que regulan el flujo de vapor hacia la turbina, presentan un acoplamiento con la valvula del bypass que permite derivar el flujo de vapor hacia el condensador principal sin tener que pasar por la turbina. Es por esto que se propone un control multivariable que contemple la interaccion que se presenta entre las valvulas antes mencionadas, partiendo de un diseno

  10. Intelligent control system for the temperature regulation in a gas turbine of a combined cycle fossil fuel power plant; Sistema de control inteligente para regular la temperatura en la turbina de gas de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espindola Vasquez, Agustin

    2004-11-15

    logic theory and its performance was evaluated using a non- linear mathematical model that emulates the CTCC behavior. The fuzzy supervision system is integrated by three main modules: Supervision of blades temperature during the starting stage of the UTG; Supervision of blades temperature runback during the power generation stage of the UTG, and Control by Temperature during power generation stage of the UTG. The temperature fuzzy supervisor is implemented in a nonlinear mathematical model that simulates a CTCC. The obtained and analyzed results in the different sceneries of the simulation tests show that the temperature fuzzy supervision system displays a better performance than the obtained with the scheme of conventional supervision. [Spanish] En las Unidades Turbogas (UTG) de una Central Termoelectrica de Ciclo Combinado (CTCC), una de las variables criticas tanto desde el punto de vista operativo como desde el punto de vista de seguridad, es la temperatura de los alabes de la turbina. El mejor desempeno de la unidad turbogas desde el punto de vista de generacion electrica se obtiene cuando es posible lograr la mayor eficiencia termica. Desde el punto de vista de seguridad se busca mantener la temperatura de los alabes en el limite impuesto por el fabricante, garantizando con esto la integridad de las partes internas de la UTG al evitar que esfuerzos termicos considerables decrementen su vida util. Para mantener la temperatura de alabes dentro del limite establecido, el sistema de control de la UTG cuenta con un sistema de supervision de temperatura de alabes, que modifica la referencia de los controladores PI de velocidad o de potencia generada, mismos que regulan la valvula de flujo de combustible a la camara de combustion de la UTG. Este sistema de supervision esta basado en condiciones logicas para generar su salida. En las plantas de proceso cuya operacion es compleja y su comportamiento dinamico es no lineal, las estrategias de control de lazo simple no

  11. General diagnosis on the control of the pollution by combustion gases of the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL); Diagnostico general del control de la contaminacion de los gases de la combustion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Arce, Efren [Central Termica Gonzalo Zevallos, (Ecuador)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the characteristics of the electric sector of Ecuador, its interconnected system, the principal laws in effect on the prevention and control of the environmental pollution related to the electric sector and an overview of the pollution control in the fossil fueled power plants of the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan las caracteristicas del Sector Electrico del Ecuador, su Sistema Nacional Interconectado, las principales leyes vigentes en el pais sobre la prevencion y control de la contaminacion ambiental relacionadas con el sector electrico y, un panorama general con respecto al control de la contaminacion en las centrales termoelectricas del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion (INECEL)

  12. Opportunities for the operation of the Comision Federal de Electricidad`s fossil fuel power plant stations eventually to be retired as cogeneration units; Oportunidades de operar las centrales termoelectricas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, eventualmente retirables como unidades de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, E. H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Merlos Rueda, R. M. [Programa de Ahorro de Energia para el Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The Programa de Ahorro de Energia para el Sector Electrico (PAESE) (Program for Energy Conservation for the Electric Sector) in collaboration with the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), decided to evaluate technically and economically the possibilities of operating the Comision Federal de Electricidad`s Thermoelectric Power Stations (TPS), eventually to be retired as cogeneration units in supplying thermal energy to industry. The study was focussed to the Monterrey and San Jeronimo Power Stations, determining in a first stage, the optimum radius for handling and transporting steam and/or hot water and so to define the industries that potentially could obtain heat energy from the TPS, in this stage the thermal needs of the evaluated industries were determined (pressure, temperature and flow). In a second stage, the different arrangements to be made to operate the selected TPS, so as to be in position of satisfying such thermal energy demands were evaluated. This paper presents the results of this study. [Espanol] El Programa de Ahorro de Energia para el Sector Electrico (PAESE), en colaboracion con el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, decidieron evaluar tecnica y economicamente las posibilidades de operar las centrales termoelectricas (CT`s) de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, eventualmente retirables, como unidades de cogeneracion al ofrecer calor a la industria. El estudio se enfoco en las centrales de Monterrey y San Jeronimo, determinado en una primera etapa el radio optimo para el manejo y transporte de vapor y/o agua caliente y asi definir a las industrias que potencialmente podrian recibir calor de las CT`s, en esta etapa se determinaron las necesidades termicas de las industrias evaluadas (presion, temperatura y flujo). En una segunda etapa se evaluo los diferentes arreglos para operar las CT`s seleccionadas para que pudieran satisfacer dichas demandas termicas. En este trabajo se presentaron los resultados de dicho estudio.

  13. Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Neuron Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Aykan Zergeroğlu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Ramon y Cajal’s emergence in the world of science has led to a new era in neuroscience. He was the founder of modern neuroscience with the neuron doctrine he revealed. He showed that nervous system was not a continuum network structure as it is believed to that day, but consists of individual cell as in all other tissues. His contribution to modern neuroscience was not limited to the neuron doctrine, he also contributed to neuronal morphology, communication and development. All of these contributions was honored with a shared Nobel Prize Award with Camillo Golgi in 1906, for their studies on the nervous system. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, was a scientist with unusual observation and interpretation talents, who pushed the conditions until the end to access to information and share his findings in the underdeveloped scientific environment of Spain. Besides, he was involved in scientific breakthroughs of his country. Ramon y Cajal was not only a scientist but also a multi-faceted personality; a passionate chess player, gymnast, a very talented painter and photographer.

  14. Intelligent system of aid for the starting of fossil fuel units; Sistema inteligente de ayuda para el arranque de unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Cerda, Dionisio A; Ibargueengoytia Gonzalez, Pablo H; Villavicencio Ramirez, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the aid system for the starting of fossil fuel units is described (SIAAT) based on techniques of artificial intelligence, that the Management of Supervision of Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) develops. It analyzes the problem of the starting of fossil fuel units, which sets out to solve through computer techniques based on artificial intelligence. The system architecture is proposed and the challenges that are due to face are mentioned so that the system works in line with the process and along with it. In addition to the technical aspects covered in the project, the more relevant results that make an impact in the expectations of application of the system are mentioned, as well as the expected benefits of its use in fossil fuel power stations. [Spanish] En este articulo se describe el Sistema de ayuda para el Arranque de Unidades Termoelectricas (SIAAT) basado en tecnicas de inteligencia artificial, que desarrolla la Gerencia de Supervision de Procesos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Se analiza el problema del arranque de unidades termoelectricas, el cual se propone resolver a traves de tecnicas computacionales basadas en inteligencia artificial. Se presenta la arquitectura del sistema y se mencionan los retos que se deben enfrentar para que el sistema funcione en linea junto con el proceso. Ademas de los aspectos tecnicos abordados en el proyecto, se mencionan los resultados mas relevantes que impactan en las expectativas de aplicacion del sistema, asi como los beneficios esperados de su uso en centrales termoelectricas.

  15. On line chemical analyzers for high purity steam and water, applied to steam power plants; Analizadores quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, aplicados a centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Perez, Ruth [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    This article presents a general overview of the advances in the subject of on line analyzers of chemical parameters for high purity water and steam and specifies which ones are commercially available. Also are mentioned besides, the criteria nowadays applied for the selection of the sites for sample grabbing and the analysis that is necessary to perform in each point, depending on the power plant type and the treatment administered (phosphates-Ph coordinated or AVT treatment). [Espanol] El articulo presenta un panorama general de los avances que en materia de analizadores de parametros quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, y especifica cuales estan disponibles en forma comercial. Se citan, ademas los criterios que se aplican actualmente para seleccionar los puntos de toma de muestra y los analisis que es necesario efectuar en cada punto, dependiendo del tipo de central y del tratamiento que se le administre (fosfatos-pH coordinado o tratamiento AVT).

  16. [Santiago Ramon y Cajal in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2016-11-16

    Introduccion. La vida y obra de Santiago Ramon y Cajal ha sido recogida en articulos cientificos, obras biograficas y autobiograficas, comics, peliculas, series televisivas o documentales que han intentado reflexionar sobre su vida o sus aportaciones a la ciencia y acercarlo a la poblacion general. Objetivo. Analizar como ha sido representada la figura de Santiago Ramon y Cajal en la literatura, el cine y la television, y conocer al cientifico a traves de su obra de ficcion. Desarrollo. Son multiples las obras biograficas escritas sobre Santiago Ramon y Cajal, articulos cientificos, comics, libros para niños y jovenes, sin olvidar las obras autobiograficas, ensayos, e incluso literatura de ciencia ficcion, que permiten una buena aproximacion a la vida del cientifico y a su obra. Su figura ha sido tambien llevada al cine (Salto a la gloria) o a la television (Ramon y Cajal, historia de una voluntad; Las mariposas del alma), que han acercado a Cajal, con mayor o menor acierto y exactitud, a la poblacion general. Conclusiones. A traves de los numerosos escritos biograficos, apuntes historicos, articulos, la propia obra cientifica, de ensayo y de ficcion de Cajal, asi como de las representaciones que el cine y la television han hecho del Nobel español, podemos realizar una interesante aproximacion al cientifico, al profesor, al divulgador, al medico humanista y, en suma, al hombre que realizo tan importantes aportaciones a la neurociencia.

  17. Ramon Lindali kõrgeim hüpe / Annika Poldre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poldre, Annika

    2005-01-01

    Endisele tippsportlasele Ramon Lindalile kuulub viis firmat Eestis ja Soomes, kus valmistatakse eksklusiivsisustust laevadele, hotellidele ja restoranidele ning tegeldakse disaini ja projekteerimisega

  18. Thermoelectric power plant conversion from fuel oil to coal with integration of a CO{sub 2} capture plant. Part 1; Conversion de una central termoelectrica de combustoleo a carbon con integracion de una planta de captura de CO{sub 2}. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huante Perez, Liborio; Rodriguez Martinez, J. Hugo; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The major features in the design of power plant conversion from fuel oil to coal, considering the new technical characteristics of fuel and his transportation to plant, equipment required to comply with Mexican environmental standards and additional requirements of auxiliaries are described. In addition, changes needed on power plant design were considered according to integrates CO{sub 2} capture plant alternatives. [Spanish] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas principales en el diseno de la conversion de Centrales de combustoleo a carbon, considerando el nuevo combustible y su transporte hasta la central, los equipos requeridos para cumplir con las normas ambientales y los requerimientos adicionales de los servicios auxiliares. Adicionalmente, se lleva a cabo el analisis de los cambios requeridos en el diseno de la conversion considerando diferentes opciones para la integracion de una planta de captura de CO{sub 2}, la cual debera entregar este subproducto para su compresion y envio a su destino final para su almacenamiento.

  19. Ramon Rask võitleb põhimõtte pärast / Marian Männi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männi, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Portreelugu Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna cum laude lõpetanud Ramon Raskist, tema kohtuvõitlusest ülikooliga; professionaalse tasuta õigusabi võimalustest tudengitele Paul Varuli advokaadibüroo poolt Eesti Üliõpilasliidu juures

  20. Control structures design for fossil power station units; Diseno de estructuras de control para unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel; Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this paper are designed an analyzed the control ties of a 300MW fossil unit at different operation levels. The design and analysis were developed on an operation range of 50% to 100% load. The main control ties were studied among which are the feedwater flow, the superheating zone temperatures and the generated output. The technique used for the design is the decomposition in singular values (DSV) of the plant transference matrix. This is a recent technique that permits finding the most important interactions among output-input variables, over a significative frequencies range for the transference matrix of the plant. For this purpose utilizes the control properties of the transference matrix, such as: control effort, output-input interaction and ruggedness with respect to uncertainties. The control structures obtained were tested in a digital model of a fossil plant unit. A comparison study of both structures (original and modified) showed enhancement in the performance of the power plant with modified structure. [Espanol] En este trabajo se disenan y analizan los lazos de control de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 MW, a diferentes niveles de operacion. El diseno y analisis se desarrollo sobre un rango de operacion de 50 a 100 por ciento de carga. Se estudiaron los principales lazos de control entre los que se encuentran el flujo de agua de alimentacion, las temperaturas de la zona de sobrecalentamiento y la potencia generada. La tecnica utilizada para el diseno es la descomposicion en valores singulares (DVS) de la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Esta es una tecnica reciente que permite encontrar las interacciones mas importantes entre variables entrada-salida, sobre un rango de frecuencias significativas para la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Utiliza para ello las propiedades de control de la matriz de transferencia, como son: esfuerzo de control, interaccion entrada-salida y robustez con respecto a incertidumbres. Las estructuras de control

  1. Bishop Ramon Despont and the Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson, Mark D.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This article treats the intervention of Bishop Ramon Despont (1289-1312 in the affairs of the Jews of the kingdom of Valencia. It deals mainly with his efforts to put an end to Jewish usury and with the effects of his initiatives on Christian-Jewish relations.[fr] Cet article traite de l'intervention de l'évêque Ramon Despont (1289-1312 dans les affaires des juifs du royaume de Valence. Il s'occupe principalement des efforts de cet évêque pour mettre tin à l'usure juive et des conséquences de ses initiatives sur les relations entre chrétiens et juifs.

  2. Digital viscosity controller for fossil power plants; Controlador digital de viscosidad para plantas termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista B, Amberto; Ocampo P, Carlos; Gutierrez A, Ruben; Madinaveitia V, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    Upon the need of increasing the efficiency of the existing fossil power plants in Mexico, the Instrumentation and Control Department of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) designed and built a viscosity controller to enhance the fuel oil heating process. The system strategy, that allows the control either by temperature or viscosity considers, as an important element, the changing characteristics of the supplied fuels. The equipment that is utilized forms apart of the line Acquisition and Control System (ACS) developed at the same Institute, that has been successfully applied in other systems. [Espanol] Ante la necesidad de aumentar la eficiencia de las plantas termoelectricas existentes en Mexico, el Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), diseno y construyo un controlador de viscosidad para mejorar el proceso de calentamiento del aceite combustible. La estrategia del sistema, que permite controlar ya sea por viscosidad o por temperatura, considera como elemento importante las caracteristicas cambiantes de los combustibles suministrados. El equipo que se utiliza forma parte de la linea SAC (sistema de adquisicion y control), desarrollada en el mismo Instituto, que se ha aplicado satisfactoriamente en otros sistemas.

  3. Ramon Mercader (1913-1978) : itinerari vital, ideològic i polític

    OpenAIRE

    Puigventós López, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    La present tesi doctoral versa sobre la figura del comunista català Ramon Mercader. Nascut en el si d'una família burgesa vinguda a menys, per una sèrie de conflictes personals sa mare, Caritat del Río, se l'endugué juntament amb els seus germans al sud de França, on es quedà per estudiar hosteleria quan el pare anà a cercar-los per un intent de suïcidi de la mare. Retornà a Catalunya el 1929 ja molt polititzat, de manera que ingressà al Partit Comunista de Catalunya participant de les activi...

  4. Vida i importància de Ramon Llull en el context del segle XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillgarth, J. N.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to sketch the background for the life and ideas of Ramon Llull (1232-1316 so as to bring out the ways in which he was in agreement with the ideas of the popes and the leading Dominicans and Franciscans of his time on missions and crusades and also the ways in which he differed from them. These differences were largely due to Llull’s education in Majorca, rather than in a university such as Paris, and to his lay status as a former member of the royal household of James II of Majorca.[fr] Une esquisse de l'arrière-fond de la vie et des idées de Raymond Lulle (1232-1316. On voudrait faire sortir les aspects où il se trouvait d'accord avec les idées sur les missions et les croisades soutenues par les papes et les dominicains et franciscains de son époque et aussi les principales différences, dues en grande partie au fait de son éducation à Majorque (et non dans une université comme à Paris et à son état laïque et son rang comme membre de la maison royale de Jacques II de Majorque.

  5. Intelligent support system online for the operation of fossil fuel units; Sistema inteligente de ayuda en linea para la operacion de unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero R, Agustin; Suarez C, Dionisio A; Sanchez L, Jose Alfredo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present a support system online for the operation (SAO) of fossil fuel units, having as objective to support the operator of fossil fuel units when handling guidelines and essential information to carry out the starting and shutdown in a safe and efficient way, reducing the consumption of the useful life of the steam generator and the turbine, as well as the operational cost. Here are presented the intelligent systems for the support of the operation and are described the main characteristics in the dominion of application for the support system, its architecture and functionality, as well as the results obtained in the system assessment performed with the aid of total reach simulator of a fossil fuel unit and a pilot unit. [Spanish] Es motivo de esta publicacion, la presentacion de un sistema de ayuda en linea para la operacion (SAO) de unidades termoelectricas que tiene como objetivo asistir al operador de una unidad termoelectrica con guias de manejo e informacion esencial para llevar a cabo el arranque o paro en forma segura y eficiente, reducir el consumo de vida util del generador de vapor y la turbina, asi como el costo de operacion. Aqui se presentan los sistemas inteligentes de ayuda a la operacion y se describen las caracteristicas principales del dominio de aplicacion para el sistema de ayuda, su arquitectura y funcionalidad, asi como los resultados obtenidos de la evaluacion del sistema realizada con la ayuda de un simulador de alcance total de una unidad termoelectrica y una unidad piloto.

  6. Current status of the Colombia power plants emissions; Estado de las emisiones en las centrales termoelectricas de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijano Hurtado, Ricardo [Ministerio de Minas y Energia, (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    The characteristics of the Colombian thermal electric resource and the environmental characteristics of the region such as: the climate where the power plants are located; the Geology and the type of soils; the technology employed for the atmospheric emissions control; the water consumption in the region; the systems for ash extraction an social-economical aspects are described [Espanol] Se describen las caracteristicas del parque termico de Colombia y las caracteristicas ambientales de la region como son: el clima donde estan localizadas las plantas; la geologia y los tipos de suelos; la tecnologia utilizada en el control de las emisiones atmosfericas; el consumo de agua en la region; los sistemas de extraccion de cenizas y aspectos socioeconomicos

  7. Technical study of the CO{sub 2} capture process with monoethanolamine for a thermoelectric plant; Estudio tecnico del proceso de captura de CO{sub 2} con monoetanolamina para una planta termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Diaz, Abigail; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel; Peralta Martinez, Maria Vita; Gonzalez Santalo, Jose Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Franco Lopez, Rogelio; Carreon Silva, Ramon [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    planta termoelectrica de 350 MW, que utilizaria carbon como combustible, en el simulador de procesos ASPEN HYSYS. Para este proceso se requieren dos columnas: una de absorcion, en la cual entran los gases y el solvente, que en este caso fue una solucion de monoetanolamina (MEA) al 30%. La MEA reacciona con el CO{sub 2} contenido en los gases, reteniendolo, de manera que los gases restantes que son emitidos al ambiente, ya no lo contienen. La MEA y el CO{sub 2} capturado pasan a la segunda columna donde estos dos componentes se separan, utilizando energia termica para regenerar la MEA liberando el CO{sub 2}. El CO{sub 2} liberado sale por la parte superior de la columna y la MEA recuperada, que es reutilizada en la columna de absorcion, por el fondo. La concentracion de CO{sub 2} en los gases de la combustion es de 14.54% volumen. La simulacion se realizo definiendo una eficiencia de captura de 90%, lo que arrojo un consumo de energia termica para regenerar la MEA de 4.75 GJt/ton CO{sub 2}, que seria suministrada por la central termoelectrica. Considerando una capacidad de gases a tratar de 280 ton/h (por tren) se determino la altura de las columnas de absorcion y desercion, asi como el flujo de solucion de MEA.

  8. Alavi, Hamid R., Aira Htenas, Ron Kopicki, Andrew W. Sheperd and Ramon Clarete (eds (2012, Trusting Trade and the Private Sector for Food Security in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ming CHIN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the edited compilation: Alavi, Hamid R., Aira Htenas, Ron Kopicki, Andrew W. Sheperd and Ramon Clarete (eds (2012, Trusting Trade and the Private Sector for Food Security in Southeast Asia, Washington DC: The World Bank, ISBN: 978-0-8213-8626-2, 264 pages

  9. Adjustable control in the steam zone of a steam power plant; Control ajustable de la zona de vapor de una unidad termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Gallegos, Joaquin; Bourguet Diaz, Rafael Ernesto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    A general description is presented of self adjustable control systems, as well as of the design and its application for steam temperature regulation of a steam power plant unit model. The algorithm employed is a controller of minimum variance that ponders the output deviation as well as the control effort. The results are compared with the ones obtained in a conventional control scheme, showing in general a better performance in the conducted experiments. [Espanol] Se presenta una descripcion general de los sistemas de control autoajustable, asi como del diseno y su aplicacion para regular las temperaturas de vapor de un modelo de unidad termoelectrica. El algoritmo utilizado es un controlador de variancia minima que pondera tanto la desviacion de salida como el esfuerzo de control. Los resultados se comparan con los obtenidos en un esquema de control convencional, mostrando en general un mejor desempeno en los experimentos realizados.

  10. O Diabo e suas representações simbólicas em Ramon Llull e Dante Alighieri (séculos XIII e XIV)

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Klítia

    2002-01-01

    Este artigo visa recuperar os elementos fundamentais da concepção de Diabo e de Inferno para os medievos, particularmente durante os séculos XIII e XIV. Analisamos a visão de Diabo e de Inferno descrita por Ramon Llull (1232-1316) no Livro das Maravilhas (1288-1289), na Doutrina para Crianças (1274-1276) e no Livro dos Anjos (1274?-1283?), comparando brevemente sua concepção com a de Dante Alighieri na Divina Comédia (1307-1321). This article intents to recover the fundamentals elements of...

  11. System of aid for the starting of the steam generator of a thermoelectric unit; Sistema de ayuda para el arranque del generador de vapor de una unidad termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero R, Agustin; Suarez C, Dionisio A; Aquino E, Juan C; Diaz H, Carlos A; Cruz T, Jorge A; Sanchez L, Jose A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    This article presents the development of an on line aid system, whose objective is to aid the operator of a thermoelectric unit, providing the information that is required to carry out the heating and pressurization of the steam generator in the shortest possible time. The former takes place respecting the operation limits determined by the manufacturer and the conditions of security established to carry out the maneuvers of operation of the equipment. The system incorporates a scheme of predictive control, based on a neuronal model that estimates the optimal position of two final elements of control to fulfill with the curves of reference for the temperature and pressure of the main steam. The system is based on an architecture client-server and uses technology Web for the access of the information through a navigator of the Internet. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de ayuda en linea, cuyo objetivo es asistir al operador de una unidad termoelectrica, proporcionando la informacion que requiere para llevar a cabo el calentamiento y presurizacion del generador de vapor en el menor tiempo posible. Lo anterior se efectua respetando los limites de operacion determinados por el fabricante y las condiciones de seguridad establecidas para efectuar las maniobras de operacion de los equipos. El sistema incorpora un esquema de control predictivo, basado en un modelo neuronal, que estima la posicion optima de dos elementos finales de control para cumplir con las curvas de referencia para la temperatura y presion del vapor principal. El sistema esta basado en una arquitectura cliente-servidor y utiliza tecnologia Web para el acceso a la informacion a traves de un navegador del Internet.

  12. Allocation of thermoelectric units in short term in large scale electric power systems; Asignacion de unidades termoelectricas a corto plazo en sistemas electricos de potencia de gran escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Moya, Isaias

    1987-08-01

    mathematics with dynamic programming to accelerate the search of a solution and (2) the development of an alternating method to solve the economic dispatch problem without restrictions. This method does not have to form the curve of incremental equivalent cost, with which a great deal of memory storage and execution time are saved. [Spanish] Se presenta un metodo para resolver el problema de asignacion de unidades termoelectricas en sistemas electricos de potencia de gran escala. El problema consiste en determinar cuales unidades generadoras deberan ser programadas para entrar o salir de operacion durante los intervalos de horizonte de planeacion, de tal forma que se satisfagan a minimo costo, y en forma confiable la demanda pronosticada de potencia electrica y las restricciones fisicas y operativas de los componentes del sistema de potencia. El metodo esta compuesto por dos etapas: la primera etapa encuentra una solucion inicial factible de unidades termo por medio de metodos heuristicos. La segunda etapa produce una solucion a partir de un estado de asignacion inicial factible. El costo de operacion se reduce aplicando programacion dinamica en aproximaciones sucesivas, de tal forma que el producto de cada interaccion constituye el estado de asignacion de menor costo encontrado hasta esa etapa. El rango de busqueda para la solucion optima es reducido aplicando tecnicas de relajacion lagrangeana para seleccionar unicamente las unidades que tienen el mayor potencial de reducir el costo de operacion. El algoritmo es validado utilizando un sistema representativo del sistema interconectado nacional que consta de 108 unidades termoelectricas agrupadas en 7 grupos de generacion, para un horizonte de planeacion de una semana dividido en intervalos horarios, conteniendo 18,144 variables discretas, 18,144 variables continuas y 39,024 restricciones. En una computadora VAX 11/780 el problema es resuelto en 55 minutos de CPU con una estimacion del 1.02% de suboptimalidad que indica que

  13. Visioon Eestist / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Eestis tuleb presidendivalimiste eel vastutustundlikult arutleda sisuliste väärtuste ja visioonide, mitte aga võimalike hääletuskombinatsioonide üle. Presidendikandidaatide mõtete baasil on võimalik kujundada ühiskonnale humanistlik ja tasakaalustatud visioon, millest tulevane president oma töös võiks lähtuda

  14. Gaussian plume model for the SO{sub 2} in a thermoelectric power plant; Modelo de pluma gaussiano para el SO{sub 2} en una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes L, C.; Munoz Ledo, C. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The Gaussian Plume Model is an analytical extension to simulate the dispersion of the SO{sub 2} concentration at ground level as a function of the emission changes in the spot sources, as well as the pollutant dispersion in the Wind Rose, when the necessary parameters are fed. The model was elaborated in a personal computer and the results produced are generated in text form. [Espanol] El modelo de pluma gaussiano es una extension analitica para simular la dispersion de las concentraciones de SO{sub 2} a nivel del piso en funcion de los cambios de las emisiones en las fuentes puntuales, asi como, la dispersion del contaminante en la rosa de los vientos cuando se le alimentan los parametros necesarios. El modelo fue elaborado en una computadora personal y los resultados que proporciona los genera en modo texto.

  15. "En la boca de las nubes" (A la boca dels núvols y con los pies en el suelo. Ramon Vinyes: contra la literatura, la vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Marrugat i Doménech

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una lectura unitaria del volumen de narraciones de Ramon Vinyes En la boca de las nubes (1946. Además, va a las fuentes de las cuales surge la estética del libro —la narrativa catalana y europea de los años 20-30 y el pensamiento teórico de Vinyes— para explicar como el autor decadentista de La ardiente cabalgata (1909 acaba por escribir un libro tan alejado de los posicionamientos que había mantenido durante el Modernismo. Y es que si en 1909 Vinyes decantaba la balanza de la dicotomía artevida hacia el primero de estos términos, en 1946, después de haber vivido una guerra civil y dos guerras mundiales, la decanta radicamente hacia el segundo. Así, el lector podrá encontrar sugestivas comparaciones entre Vinyes y escritores como T. Gautier, Villiers de l’Isle-Adam, Gabriele d’Annunzio o Gabriel Alomar por lo que se refiere a su época modernista; entre Vinyes y Malraux, Saint-Exupéry, V. Woolf, Joan Oliver o Salvador Espriu, por lo que se refiere a los años 30; y entre Vinyes i Pere Calders o Lluís Ferran de Pol, por lo que se refiere al exilio

  16. La adaptación cinematográfica de Ehun metro, a partir de la novela de Ramon Saizarbitoria : análisis de un caso de traducción intersemiótica

    OpenAIRE

    Urkulo, Iraitz

    2012-01-01

    Se trata de un artículo de análisis comparativo que, siguiendo las tendencias de estudio multidisciplinar, estrecha lazos entre dos modalidades artísticas históricamente ligadas como son la literatura y el cine. Ésta es sin duda una oportunidad para profundizar en uno de los grandes clásicos de la literatura vasca moderna, la novela 100 metro, publicada hace ahora 36 años originalmente en euskara por Ramon Saizarbitoria. En 1986 se estrenaría su versión cinematográfica, rodada bajo la direcci...

  17. Boiler model of a 300 Mw fossil fuel power plant for the turbine turning simulator; Modelo de caldera de una planta termoelectrica de 300 Mw para el simulador de rodado de turbina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano Roman, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the model is to reproduce the behavior of a boiler of a 300 Mw fossil fuel unit, in the training turbine turning simulator. This simulator was designed to be used in the training that is performed in the control rooms or training centers of the fossil fuel power plants of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). In this article the equations of the model for a 300 Mw thermal plant are described, based in balances and physical relationships. The basic considerations and simplifications are shown. The model considers the combustion in the furnace, the dome, the downcomers, the recirculation pumps, the water walls, the superheater and the reheater. The mass and energy balances take into account the sensible heat of all the constituents involved, as well as the combustion heat. Heat transference zones by convection or by a combined mechanism convective-radiant, in the boiler furnace, are considered. The dome pressure is modeled with basis in the mass and energy balance, considering all the existing sources and sinks. The simulation also reflects the pressure transients due to thermal variations, combustion variations, and steam demand variations. The heat transference by convection is considered for all the tube banks along the combustion gases path to the stack. Comparisons were made with the design and operation data of the power station, using a selection of transient states to demonstrate de model fidelity. This selection was focussed of transients states, at the unit start up, since in this operation stage the turning and the heating of the turbine is accomplished. [Espanol] El objetivo del modelo es reproducir el comportamiento de una caldera de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 Mw, en el simulador para entrenamiento en rodado de turbina. Este simulador se diseno para ser utilizado en el entrenamiento que se realiza en los cuartos de control o centros de entrenamiento de las plantas termoelectricas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE

  18. Fra Bauhaus til San Ramon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    Jeg vil med mit paper vise, hvordan den arkitektoniske udvikling i de sidste 80-100 år skiftevis har fundet sted i henholdsvis Europa og USA – og jeg vil afslutningsvis se på helt aktuel forstadsudvikling i USA. Det gør jeg, fordi den danske og skandinaviske forstandsudvikling på mange områder fi...

  19. Sotsiaalliberaalid plagieerivad Keskerakonda / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Keskerakonnast eraldunud sotsiaalliberaalide saadikurühma poliitilise manifesti analüüs. Autori hinnangul on enamus nende seisukohti Keskerakonna programmilised seisukohad ümbersõnastatud kujul

  20. Prefeasibility of the project for repowering the Nachi Cocom thermal station in Merida, Yucatan state; Prefactibilidad del proyecto de repotenciacion de la central termoelectrica de Nachi- Cocom, en Merida estado de Yucatan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Perez, J.L. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an alternative to the solution of the more efficient use of energy and for the solution on environmental pollution at a reduced cost, satisfying the electric energy demand with additional capacity three times as much greater than the installed capacity and utilizing evaluation of projects techniques for the prefeasibility analysis of the project. The investment for this type of projects results are feasible and attractive because of the short amortization term. The summary of results is given in Table 4. [Espanol] El presenta trabajo da una alternativa de solucion al uso mas eficiente de la energia y solucion a los problemas de contaminacion ambiental a un costo reducido, satisfaciendo la demanda de energia electrica con capacidad adicional de tres veces mayor a la capacidad instalada. Empleando tecnicas de evaluacion de proyectos para analisis de la prefactibilidad del proyecto. La inversion para este tipo de proyectos resulta factible y atractiva por el corto tiempo de amortizacion. El resumen de los resultados se muestra en la tabla 4.

  1. Chemical processes of coal for use in power plants. Part 1: Approximate analysis and associated indexes of pulverized coal; Procesos quimicos del carbon para su uso en centrales termoelectricas. Parte 1: Analisis aproximado e indices asociados del carbon pulverizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J. A.; Manzanares-Papayanopoulos, E.; Herrera-Velarde, J. R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    The usage of hydrocarbons, such as natural gas, oil products and coal, will be the main source of energy to the mankind for next generations. Therefore, the actual research and technological developments point out to employ with high efficiency those fuels. The main interests are to release most of the energy as possible and to guide the combustion reactions. It is well known that during the combustion process of coal, the chemical energy is converted to thermal energy, which it allows the steam production, and therefore to produce energy through an electric generator. The main interest of the work presented here is to study the behavior of the coal combustion processes in function of the approximate analysis and some associate indices of that analysis, to point out the optimization of the coal usage as main fuel in electrical power generation plants. [Spanish] El uso de hidrocarburos como son el gas natural, los derivados del petroleo y el carbon mineral, continuara siendo en las proximas decadas la principal fuente de energia de la humanidad. Por consiguiente, la investigacion cientifica y los desarrollos tecnologicos actualmente se enfocan en emplear de manera mas eficiente dichos combustibles, satisfaciendo entre otros factores, dos intereses principales: liberar la mayor cantidad de energia, reduciendo al minimo el material combustible no quemado, y direccionar las reacciones del proceso de combustion para minimizar la cantidad de productos no deseados resultantes de la reaccion. A traves de los procesos quimicos de combustion del carbon, se transforma la energia quimica a energia termica, lo que permite la produccion de vapor para a su vez impulsar una turbina la cual esta acoplada a un generador electrico. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del comportamiento de los procesos quimicos que se llevan a cabo durante las reacciones de combus-tion del carbon en funcion del analisis aproximado y de los indices asociados resultantes de dicho analisis; lo cual permitira la optimizacion del uso del carbon como materia prima para la generacion de energia electrica.

  2. Fault diagnosis in the steam generator of a thermoelectric power plant using Petri networks; Diagnostico de fallas en el generador de vapor de una termoelectrica usando redes de Petri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Cerda, Dionisio A; Sanchez Lopez, Alfredo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Martinez Prieto, Jose E; Garcia Beltran, Carlos D. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    , disponibilidad, eficiencia, seguridad y continuidad de la operacion, las cuales afectan gravemente los indices de desempeno del sistema. En este articulo se presenta un esquema de diagnostico de fallas, aplicado al generador de vapor de una unidad termoelectrica, basado en tecnicas de modelado de sistemas dinamicos mediante redes de Petri. Frente a otros metodos, el esquema ofrece mayor facilidad para su implementacion, rapidez de adaptacion ante cambios de zona de operacion y buena robustez. Una manera de reducir el efecto de las fallas en un sistema de produccion, consiste de dos pasos. El primero es diagnosticar la falla tan pronto como ocurra y subsecuentemente poner en practica acciones correctivas. El concepto de diagnostico de fallas se relaciona con la primera etapa y comprende tanto la deteccion, como la localizacion de esta. Es decir, ademas de determinar que una falla esta presente, se sabe en que componente ha ocurrido. Con base en lo anterior, es claro que un sistema de diagnostico requiere supervisar las variables que caracterizan el comportamiento de las fallas, a fin de detectarlas en el momento en que se presenten e informarlo al operador. Con esta informacion, el operador podra realizar las acciones correctivas necesarias para que la planta siga operando en la medida de lo posible.

  3. Multicenter study in monitoring central venous catheters complications in hematologic patiennts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen García Gabás

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most hematological patients suffer a significant venous damage related to different administrated intravenous therapy, being necessary to place central venous catheters (CVC. CVC is associated with various complications. The most common catheter-related complications are occlusion and infection. To avoid such of them, the development of protocols for insertion and care are needed, as well as recording and following up complications. To this end, we propose a cross-sectional carried out during 13 months whose main goal is to know the incidence of CVC- related complications (mainly occlusion and infection in hematological patients.Population included all the =14 ages patients admitted to different hematological units at Ramon y Cajal and Gregorio Marañón hospitals in Madrid and who signed informed consent. Socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and complications were entered into a log which included a pursuit of care protocol.

  4. “Como Deus É Ciente em sua Essência Divina”: a Presciência de Deus em Santo Tomás de Aquino e no Livro da Contemplação (C. 1271-1273 de Ramon Llull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho é analisar a concepção filosófica depresciência em Santo Tomás de Aquino e Ramon Llull, nas obrasSuma Teológicae O Livro da Contemplação. Para isso, discorremos previamente sobre o conceito deciência, base aristotélica tomista. Por fim, apresentamos a tradução (inédita de um extrato doLivro da Contemplação, como base documental para a segunda parte do trabalho.

  5. Nädal Riigikogus / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Järg 7.,14.,21. mai, 4.,11.,18. juuni, 24.september, 1.,15.,22.,29. oktoober, 12.,19.,26. november, 10.,17.,24. detsember, 5.,21.,28. jaanuar 2004. a., 4.,18., 25. veebruar, 3.,17.,24. märts, 21., 28. aprill, 12., 19., 26. mai, 9.,16. juuni, 22.,29. sept. lk. 5. Riigikogu töö tutvustus

  6. Euroopa Liit ja Eesti erakonnad / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    Autor arutleb, millised muutused on toimumas lähiajal Eesti erakondadega seoses Eesti liitumisega Euroopa Liiduga ja nendib, et juba praegu võib täheldada Eesti erakondade järkjärgulist üleminekut senistelt isikupõhistelt koalitsioonidelt suurema ideoloogilise konsolideerumise suunas

  7. Eesti vajab vasakpoolsemat valitsust / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    Autori sõnul valitseb Eestis peamiselt odavale allhankele orienteeritud ultraliberaalne mõtteviis, mis ei pööra inimkapitali arengule piisavat ja pidevat tähelepanu ning on kaugel euroopalikust ühiskonnamudelist

  8. 21. sajandi alguse julgeolekudilemmadest / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    21. sajandi alguse julgeolekuküsimused: riikidevahelised asümmeetrilised konfliktid, rünnakuohud, tuumaterrori oht, rahvusvaheline terrorism, võitlus selle vastu, Euroopast lähtuv terrorioht. Euroopa Liidu riikide ja USA vaheliste erimeelsuste allikatest julgeoleku küsimustes

  9. Hoidkem Eesti õigel kursil! / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Järg 30. jaan. lk. 7, 9. veebr. lk. 7. Eestis tuleks välja arendada rahvuslik teadmistepõhine innovatsioonisüsteem. Tootlikkuse suurendamiseks tuleks enam panustada uutesse tehnoloogiatesse ja efektiivsematesse töömeetoditesse. Samuti tuleks luua sotsiaalne ja regionaalne tasakaal

  10. Eesti Euroopas ja Euroopa Eestis / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    Autor annab ülevaate, milliseid uudiseid on välisajakirjandus Eesti kohta avaldanud, millised on lähiaastatel EL-i ees seisvad probleemid, kuhu läheb lõviosa EL-i maksumaksja rahast. Autori sõnul on Eesti sattunud nn. musta nimekirja Euroopa sotsiaalharta rikkumise pärast

  11. Analysis of the problems of induced draft fans in a carbo-electric power station; Analisis de la problematica de ventiladores de tiro inducido de una central carboelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Sanchez, Valentin de Jesus; Vital Flores, Francisco [LAPEM, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The induced draft fans of the 350 MW units of a Thermo-electric power plant presented problems consisting of the failure of the capacity of gases extraction, together with the presence of cracks in the blades; this condition was observed since the stage of putting into service. Consequently, losses have been originated in the availability in two units, as well as, losses due to the manufacture of new impellers, which also originated that, in some cases, that the measures of the impellers, locally manufactured, differed from the originals, resulting in differences in the unit's efficiency. [Spanish] Los ventiladores tiro inducido de las unidades de 350 MW de una Central Termoelectrica presentaban una problematica consistente en la falla de capacidad de extraccion de gases, aunado a la presencia de fracturas en las aspas de los impulsores, esta condicion se observo desde la etapa de puesta en servicio. En consecuencia se han ocasionado perdidas de disponibilidad en dos unidades, asi como tambien, perdidas debido a la fabricacion de nuevos impulsores, lo que tambien origino que, en algunos casos, las medidas de los impulsores, fabricados localmente, diferian de los originales, dando como resultado diferencias en la eficiencia de las unidades.

  12. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  13. Training simulators for power plant operation based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality; Simuladores para entrenamiento en la operacion de centrales basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano Roman, Miguel; Tavira Mondragon, Jose A.; Romero Jimenez, Guillermo; Buenabad Arias, Maria de los Angeles [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The possibility of utilizing simulators to support the fossil fuel power plants operation personnel training, is analyzed. These simulators can be based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality. The software and hardware advances of these technologies are analyzed and it is concluded that the simulators development for operators training supported in the fore mentioned technologies represents a new alternative for the instruction of personnel of this type of power stations that has to be analyzed and evaluated, since one of the disadvantages of this type of technologies is the equipment and software investment cost [Espanol] Se analiza la posibilidad de utilizar simuladores para ayudar al entrenamiento del personal en la operacion de centrales termoelectricas, dichos simuladores pueden estar basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual. Se describen los avances en software y hardware de estas tecnologias y se concluye en que el desarrollo de simuladores para el entrenamiento de operadores apoyados con las tecnologias antes mencionadas representa una nueva alternativa para la instruccion del personal de este tipo de centrales, que hay que analizar y evaluar, ya que una de las desventajas de este tipo de tecnologias es el costo de inversion en equipo y software

  14. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  15. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  16. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  17. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  18. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  19. TRANSPORTE ELECTRONICO Y PROPIEDADES TERMOELECTRICAS EN UNA MOLECULA ARTIFICIAL

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ SILVA, GUILLERMO ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia el transporte termoeléctrico a través de una molécula de triple punto cuántico en un arreglo triangular atravesada por un flujo de campo magnético y conectada a una fuente y un sumidero en común. Se consideran contactos ferromagnéticos y un desdoblamiento de energía debido al efecto Zeeman, lo que hace que el transporte sea dependiente de espín. Controlando el acoplamiento hacia los contactos es posible encontrar un filtro de espín eficiente para un rango pequ...

  20. Rehabilitation and extension of the useful operating life of a high pressure casing of the 75 MW steam turbine of the thermoelectric power plant President Juarez in Rosarito, B.C.; Rehabilitacion y extension de vida util de una carcasa de alta presion de la turbina de vapor de 75 MW de la central termoelectrica Presidente Juarez en Rosarito, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur C, Zdzislaw; Hernandez R, Alejandro; Luna R, Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fernandez, Rafael; Nieblas, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rosarito, Baja California (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The effective operation of the steam turbines is important to the world industries, but as all machinery, it is necessary to constantly examine and give maintenance to this equipment with the purpose of producing better results. Yet, many steam turbines arrive at an operation period of 30 or 40 years, over their original design capacity. A factor like this, only augments the probabilities of future problems with the casings, such as: thermal fatigue fissures, deformation of the horizontal union and erosion problems in the low pressure housings. The deformation of the casing can affect its capacity to maintain aligned the stationary parts of the turbine, as a consequence, damages can appear in the fixed and rotary components by interference or friction. Also, the water induction can deform the casing to such a degree that, the alignment of the stationary parts is altered until it causes contact and friction between stationary and rotary parts. However, depending on the type and degree of the casing deformation, different methods of rehabilitation can be applied. The core goal is to recover the planarity of the union of the flanges, re-machining the plane of the flange of the upper and lower casing or, alternatively, to carry out a scraping by hand. [Spanish] El funcionamiento eficaz de las turbinas de vapor es importante para las industrias del mundo, pero como toda maquinaria, es necesario examinar y dar mantenimiento constantemente a este equipo con la finalidad de producir mejores resultados. Con todo, muchas turbinas de vapor llegan a un periodo de operacion de 30 o 40 anos, por encima de su capacidad de diseno original. Un factor como este, solo eleva las probabilidades de futuros problemas con las carcasas, tales como: fisuras por fatiga termica, deformacion de la union horizontal y problemas de erosion en las carcasas de baja presion. La deformacion de la carcasa puede afectar su capacidad para mantener alineadas las partes estacionarias de la turbina, como consecuencia, pueden presentarse danos en los componentes fijos y rotatorios por interferencia o rozamiento. Asimismo, la induccion de agua puede deformar la carcasa a tal grado que, la alineacion de las partes estacionarias se altera hasta provoca contacto y rozamiento entre partes estacionarias y rotatorias. Ahora bien, dependiendo del tipo y grado de la deformacion de la carcasa, se pueden aplicar diferentes metodos de rehabilitacion. Lo medular es restaurarla planicidad de la union de las bridas, remaquinando el plano de la brida de la carcasa inferior y superior o, alternativamente, llevar a cabo un escrapeado manual.

  1. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  2. Ramon Vinyes o la fecunda irreverencia. De Barcelona a Barranquilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Gilard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un ensayo del académico francés Jacques Gilard, que reflexiona en torno a la vida y la obra de Ramón Vinyes. No se puede olvidar que el fue la persona, que allá por los años ochenta, rescató del olvido, la obra del escritor catalán.

  3. Amerikanisering af dansk arkitektur - fra Bauhaus til San Ramon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Jeg vil med mit paper vise, hvordan den arkitektoniske udvikling i de sidste 80-100 år skiftevis har fundet sted i henholdsvis Europa og USA – og jeg vil afslutningsvis se på helt aktuel forstadsudvikling i USA. Det gør jeg, fordi den danske og skandinaviske forstandsudvikling på mange områder fi...

  4. Europarlament suurendab oma mõjujõudu / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Autori hinnangul andis Euroopa Parlamendi edukas vastuseis Rocco Buttiglione nimetamisele Euroopa Komisjoni volinikuks tunnistust parlamendi mõjujõu kasvust. Siiri Oviiri ja liberaalide fraktsiooni seisukohtadest Buttiglione küsimuses

  5. Siiri Oviir osales Euroopa Naise valimiskogus / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi liikme Siiri Oviiri osalemisest Rahvusvahelise Euroopa Naiste Assotsiatsiooni (AIPFE) valimiskogus 13. oktoobril 2004, kus nimetati Euroopa Naine 2004 kandidaadiks kreeklanna Aliki Moschi-Gauget

  6. Kriminaalvastutus juriidilise isiku jagunemisel / Ramon Rask, Marko Kairjak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rask, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Jagunemise tsiviilõiguslikust regulatsioonist (ÄS § 434), juriidilise isiku karistusõigusliku vastutuse eesmärkidest (KarS § 44 lg 8 - rahaline karistus, § 46 - sundlõpetamine, § 55 - riigisaladuse ja salastatud välisteabe töötlemise õiguse või loomapidamise õiguse äravõtmine), juriidilise isiku karistusõiguslikust vastutusest jagunemisel (ühinguidentiteet, vastutus eraldumise või jaotumise korral)

  7. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  8. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.

  9. Central venous catheter - flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/22/2016 Updated by: ...

  10. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  11. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or hands. Central pain syndrome often begins shortly after the causative injury or damage, but may be delayed by months or even years, especially if it is related to post-stroke pain. × Definition Central pain syndrome is a neurological ...

  12. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Blattner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as "hot comb alopecia," "follicular degeneration syndrome," "pseudopelade" in African Americans and "central elliptical pseudopelade" in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  13. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  14. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  15. The central peak revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirane, G.

    1995-10-27

    The central peak in SrTiO{sub 3} was first observed by Riste and his collaborators in 1971. This was one of the key discoveries leading to an understanding of the dynamics of phase transitions. The most recent discovery of two length scales in SrTiO{sub 3} motivated a reinvestigation of the soft phonon and associated central peak by neutron scattering. These recent experiments shed new light on the nature of the central peak. It is now well established to be strongly sample dependent and it originates from defects in bulk crystals.

  16. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  17. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities ...

  18. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  19. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  20. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  1. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  2. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  3. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  4. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  5. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  6. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  7. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  8. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  9. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  10. Glueballs A central mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin

    2000-01-01

    Glueball candidates and qqbar mesons have been found to be produced with different momentum and angular dependences in the central region of pp collisions. This talk illustrates this phenomenon and explains the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0++,0-+, 1++, 2++ and 2-+. For production of 0++ and 2++ mesons the analysis reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates. An explanation is given for the absence of 0-+ glueball candidates in central production at present energies and the opportunity for their discovery at RHIC is noted.

  11. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.

  12. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bano, Shahina; Chaudhary, Vikas; Yadav, Sachchidanand

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system tuberculosis is a rare presentation of active tuberculosis and accounts for about 1% of cases (1). The three clinical categories include meningitis, intracranial tuberculomas, and spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis. We report a case of a young man who presented with active pulmonary tuberculosis in addition to tuberculous meningitis and the presence of numerous intracranial tuberculomas.

  13. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  14. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  15. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  16. Central nervous system tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2014-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients.

  17. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology.

  18. Multicultural Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  19. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma.

  20. Company activities - central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayling, G.

    2007-06-15

    The first section of the article gives an overview of exploration and new developments in the field of gold, nickel, diamond and opal mining in central Queensland. The second part looks at coal, coal seam gas and petroleum exploration and development projects in the area. 1 fig.

  1. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    2016-01-01

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they a

  2. Central areolar choroidal dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zonneveld-Vrieling, M.N.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, follow-up data and molecular genetic background in a large group of patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred three patients with CACD from the Netherlands. METHODS

  3. Induced, endogenous and exogenous centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Martin G.; Stephen P. Borgatti

    2010-01-01

    Centrality measures are based upon the structural position an actor has within the network. Induced centrality, sometimes called vitality measures, take graph invariants as an overall measure and derive vertex level measures by deleting individual nodes or edges and examining the overall change. By taking the sum of standard centrality measures as the graph invariant we can obtain measures which examine how much centrality an individual node contributes to the centrality of the other nodes in...

  4. Do Central Banks Need Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Stella

    1997-01-01

    Central banks may operate perfectly well without capital as conventionally defined. A large negative net worth, however, is likely to compromise central bank independence and interfere with its ability to attain policy objectives. If society values an independent central bank capable of effectively implementing monetary policy, recapitalization may become essential. Proper accounting practice in determining central bank profit or loss and rules governing the transfer of the central bank’s ope...

  5. Central simple Poisson algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yucai; XU Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  6. Central corneal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bijsterveld, O P

    1976-05-01

    Central corneal abscess developed in the experimental animal after inoculation of biologically active staphylococcal strains in a paracentral epithelial lesion of the cornea. These abscesses did not ulcerate, developed only with high inocula, occurred more frequently in immunized rabbits. A serpiginous type of ulceration did not develop at the site of the initial epithelial lesion nor at any other place in the cornea. Histologically, the lesions consisted of densely packed polymorphonuclear leukocytes between the corneal lamellae.

  7. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  8. Centrality Measures in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Francis; Tebaldi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We show that although the prominent centrality measures in network analysis make use of different information about nodes' positions, they all process that information in an identical way: they all spring from a common family that are characterized by the same simple axioms. In particular, they are all based on a monotonic and additively separable treatment of a statistic that captures a node's position in the network.

  9. Distributed Assessment of Network Centrality

    CERN Document Server

    Wehmuth, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for the Distributed Assessment of Network CEntrality (DANCE) in complex networks. DANCE attributes to each node a volume-based centrality computed using only localized information, thus not requiring knowledge of the full network topology. We show DANCE is simple, yet efficient, in assessing node centrality in a distributed way. Our proposal also provides a way for locating the most central nodes, again using only the localized information at each node. We also show that the node rankings based on DANCE's centrality and the traditional closeness centrality correlate very well. This is quite useful given the vast potential applicability of closeness centrality, which is however limited by its high computational costs. We experimentally evaluate DANCE against a state-of-the-art proposal to distributively assess network centrality. Results attest that DANCE achieves similar effectiveness in assessing network centrality, but with a significant reduction in the associated costs for practical ap...

  10. Central core disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth Heinz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Central core disease (CCD is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies. CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal weakness pronounced in the hip girdle; orthopaedic complications are common and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS is a frequent complication. CCD and MHS are allelic conditions both due to (predominantly dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1 gene, encoding the principal skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (RyR1. Altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis within muscle cells due to mutation-induced conformational changes of the RyR protein are considered the main pathogenetic mechanism(s. The diagnosis of CCD is based on the presence of suggestive clinical features and central cores on muscle biopsy; muscle MRI may show a characteristic pattern of selective muscle involvement and aid the diagnosis in cases with equivocal histopathological findings. Mutational analysis of the RYR1 gene may provide genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Management is mainly supportive and has to anticipate susceptibility to potentially life-threatening reactions to general anaesthesia. Further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms may provide the basis for future rational pharmacological treatment. In the majority of patients, weakness is static or only slowly progressive, with a favourable long-term outcome.

  11. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  12. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  13. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - flushing Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/17/2016 Updated by: ...

  14. Central effects of fingolimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  15. [Central anticholinergic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Urretavizcaya, P; Cenoz Osinaga, J C; Jáuregui Garía, M L; Gállego Culleré, J

    1991-10-01

    Two new cases of anticolinergic central syndrome are described. The first case, a 8 year old girl, suffered a severe encefalopathy after topical application of mydriatic cholirio as an aid in a rutine study of ocular refraction. The second case, 67 year old man presented a severe neurological picture after accidental intake of a silvester plantground (Atropa belladonna). His neurological condition returned quickly to normal whith administration of physostigmine. Differents aspects of the etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis are discussed with special emphasis in patients with delirium or acute confusional states. Finally, attention is drawn in the necessity of a properly use of anticholinergic drugs overcoat in aged or children.

  16. Central osteosclerosis with trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeling, Emma L.; Brady, Angela F. [North West Thames Regional Genetics Service, Kennedy-Galton Centre, Level 8 V, North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Watford Road, HAI 3UJ, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Cruwys, Michele [Department of Paediatrics, Hillingdon Hospital, Hillingdon, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Suri, Mohnish [Clinical Genetics Service, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Aylett, Sarah E. [Neurosciences Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder associated with defects in nucleotide excision repair. We report a 7-year-old boy with TTD due to mutation in the XPD gene. The patient has classic features of this condition, including brittle, sulphur-deficient hair, ichthyosis, growth retardation and developmental delay. In addition, he has radiological evidence of progressive central osteosclerosis. Although similar radiological findings have previously been reported in a small number of patients, this association is not widely recognised. We review the radiological findings in this and other similar cases and discuss the natural history of these bony changes. (orig.)

  17. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...... manipulation instrument -, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  18. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, David A; Olsen, Elise A

    2008-01-01

    A progressive scarring alopecia of the central scalp is commonly seen in young to middle-aged females of African descent. It usually starts at the vertex or mid top of the scalp and gradually spreads centrifugally, hence, the unifying term of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. The clinical pattern is suggestive of female pattern alopecia, but a lack of follicular pores indicative of scarring is present. It can progress for years before slowly burning out. The etiology is unknown but genetic factors may be important. It is often associated with a history of traumatic hairstyling involving heat, traction, and chemicals. However, most patients of African descent without this disorder have similar styling habits. Nonetheless, avoidance of physical and chemical trauma to the scalp hair, the use of suitable shampoos and conditioners, and the encouragement of natural hairstyles may be helpful. Any infection should be treated. Topical or intralesional corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics may be useful and topical minoxidil should be tried with the hope of preventing further scarring and encouraging regrowth of recovering follicles. Current research into the etiology of this disorder will help to foster much-needed clinical trials of therapeutic agents.

  19. Central Sumatra enjoys success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsosantiko, A.

    1977-05-02

    The Sihapas group contains the most prolific oil producing zones in the Central Sumatra Basin. It represents the transgressive, coarse clastic sequence deposited during the early Miocene. Some of these sandstone grade laterally into siltstones and shales of the Telisa Formation, believed to be a major source of rock for Central Sumatra oil. Recent exploratory wells drilled between the mountain front and coastal plain areas have provided more data for stratigraphic studies. These have resulted in subdivision of the lower Miocene transgressive sequence into discrete rock-stratigraphic units. The former Sihapas Formation has subsequently been elevated to group rank and now consists of several formations with the Duri Formation as the uppermost sand unit. This study covers Caltex's areas of operation, which includes the area between the Kampar River of the south, the Barumum River to the north, the Malacca Straits to the east, and the Barisan Mt. to the west. A basic map shows the regional scene, while a stratigraphic chart shows the lithology.

  20. en los pivotes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Roque Rodés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión y comentarios sobre las ventajas y limitantes del empleo del LEPA (Low Enery Precision Aplication en los sistemas de riego de pivotes centrales. Estos sistemas o filosofía de manejo del agua para condiciones de escasez o mala calidad del líquido es una alternativa viable para la producción de alimentos. Introducida en la década del 80 en las planicies del sur de Texas, donde la alta evaporación del agua y la necesidad de regar grandes áreas con pivotes centrales obligaba a la búsqueda de una alternativa para incrementar al máximo la eficiencia de aplicación del riego. Aún en fase de estudio e introducción en Cuba para áreas específicas, puede ser una solución de incremento de los rendimientos de los cultivos, empleando menos agua y aguas con calidad limitada

  1. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  2. Orden monetario y bancos centrales Monetary order and Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglietta Michel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el enfoque evolucionista e institucionalista de la economía de las convenciones francesa, este trabajo analiza el surgimiento histórico de la banca central y la creación institucional del 'arte de la banca central'. El artículo estudia los modelos formales del orden monetario, la banca libre y la banca central, y analiza los eventos históricos que llevaron a que el Banco de Inglaterra inventara el arte de manejar los bancos centrales en conjunción con el aprendizaje colectivo e institucional que lo hizo posible. Aglietta muestra que la banca central no es una creación del Estado sino una creación institucional endógena al sistema de mercado.With the evolutionist and institutionalist focus of the economics of the French conventions, this paper analyzes the historical rise of the central bank and the institutional creation of the 'art of the central bank'. The article studies formal models of the monetary order, free banking and the central bank, and analyzes the historie events that led to the Bank of England inventing the art of managing the central banks, in conjunction with the collective and institutional learning that made it possible. Aglietta shows that the central bank is not a creation of the State, but rather aninstitutional creation endogenous to the market system.

  3. UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  4. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  5. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  6. [MANAGEMENT OF CENTRAL HYPERSOMNIAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Lopez, Régis

    2016-06-01

    Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom. The treatment of daytime sleepiness is based on modafinil in first intention. Other psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and exceptionally dextro-amfetamine may be considered. In narcolepsy type 1, antidepressants such as inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline will be considered to improve cataplexy. Sodium oxybate is an effective treatment on sleepiness, cataplexy and bad night sleep in narcolepsy. The management for other symptoms or comorbidities should be considered it necessary such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, the disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Important therapeutic perspectives are to be expected concerning new psychostimulant and anticataplectiques, but mainly on immune-based therapies administered as early as possible after disease onset and on hypocretin replacement therapy for patients with severe symptoms.

  7. Automatic system of tests for control equipment in combined cycle power stations; Sistema automatico de pruebas para equipos de control en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Flores L, Zenon; Delgadillo V, Miguel A; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This article deals on the Automatic System of Tests, denominated PROBADOR, used by the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentation (GCI) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)for the accomplishment of dynamic tests in laboratory, to the systems of acquisition and control developed with the electronic line SAC-IIE that are installed in the Thermoelectric Power station of Combined Cycle (CTCC) of Dos Bocas, Veracruz and Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Also the architecture, the functions that are carried out in the equipment of the System of Acquisition and control (SAC) and in the personal computer (PC) that conforms it are described, as well as the methodology used for the development of the tests. The PC constitutes Interface Man-Machine (IMM) and in the SAC equipment the simulation of the processes is made (by means of the execution of algebraic-differential equations) in the compressor, combustion chamber, gas turbine, heat recuperators, steam turbines and condenser equipment that integrate a CTCC. The equations that are used are based in the thermodynamics, flow dynamics and heat transfer; they become attached to the real process with a margin of error that is estimated in 10%. Finally, the tendencies of the PROBADOR and the technical and economic advantages are described that it has provided for the improvement in the performance of the control systems, before different situations, with no need to have the real process. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre el Sistema Automatico de Pruebas, denominado PROBADOR, utilizado por la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas para la realizacion de pruebas dinamicas en laboratorio, a los sistemas de adquisicion y control desarrollado con la linea electronica SAC-IIE que estan instalados en las Centrales Termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado (CTCC) de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Tambien se describen la arquitectura, las funciones que se llevan

  8. y Banca Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel García Banchs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las teorías monetarias modernas, ortodoxas y heterodoxas, han pasado por alto el hecho de que posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial el mundo quedó dividido entre economías emisoras y receptoras de reservas, pasando el sistema monetario internacional desde entonces a ser completamente asimétrico. De allí que, desde el punto de vista teórico, señalemos la necesidad de tomar en cuenta si las economías emiten o no una moneda de reserva internacional, pues ello explicaría la existencia de diversas prácticas monetarias a nivel mundial. Este trabajo propone, y calcula, indicadores basados en datos provenientes de los balances de activos y pasivos de quince bancos centrales pertenecientes a Norteamérica, Suramérica, Europa y Asia. Los hallazgos con respecto a las diversas estructuras de activos y pasivos confirman la hipótesis acerca de la presencia de tales asimetrías. Se infiere en consecuencia que la política monetaria es menos flexible pero más influyente en las economías receptoras de reservas, y a la vez más flexible pero menos influyente en las economías emisoras. En pocas palabras, la exogeneidad de la tasa de interés de corto plazo es más débil en el caso de las economías receptoras de reservas las cuales se ven obligadas a acumular divisas y a procurar la estabilidad del tipo de cambio, debido a que sus monedas locales no son aceptadas en el exterior. Así, aunque la oferta crediticia es endógena en esas economías, las mismas no han sido capaces de librarse aún de la necesidad de mantener reservas monetarias en divisas extranjeras

  9. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  10. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  11. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the p

  12. Central presbycusis: an emerging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, George A

    2012-07-01

    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system (central presbycusis) is common but rarely looked for by those who provide aural rehabilitation. Patients who complain of difficulty hearing in noise--the key symptom of central presbycusis--are generally disadvantaged with conventional rehabilitation. This symptom should be documented with commercially available speech-in-noise tests, which use materials that are uncomplicated to administer. Those patients who perform poorly on such tests should have a customized rehabilitation program aimed at optimizing their remaining communication abilities. Otolaryngologists who provide auditory rehabilitation may wish to consider expanding their practices to meet the communication needs of older patients with central presbycusis. Central presbycusis is an emerging area for basic and clinical research in auditory neurotology, particularly in the relation of cognitive dysfunction to impaired auditory processing.

  13. Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke

    This paper brings into question whether information systems should be centralized or decentralized in order to provide greater support for different business processes. During the last century companies and organizations have used different approaches for centralization and decentralization; a simple answer to the question does not exist. This paper provides a survey of the evolution of centralized and decentralized approaches, mainly in a Nordic perspective. Based on critical reflections on the situation in the end of the century we can discuss what we can learn from history to achieve alignment between centralized and decentralized systems and the business structure. The conclusion is that theories, management and practice for decisions on centralization or decentralization of information systems must be improved. A conscious management and control of centralization /decentralization of IT support is a vital question in the company or the organization, and this is not a task that can be handled only by IT-specialists. There is a need for business oriented IT management of centralization/decentralization.

  14. Betweenness centrality profiles in trees

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Benjamin; Turan, Gyorgy

    2016-01-01

    Betweenness centrality of a vertex in a graph measures the fraction of shortest paths going through the vertex. This is a basic notion for determining the importance of a vertex in a network. The k-betweenness centrality of a vertex is defined similarly, but only considers shortest paths of length at most k. The sequence of k-betweenness centralities for all possible values of k forms the betweenness centrality profile of a vertex. We study properties of betweenness centrality profiles in trees. We show that for scale-free random trees, for fixed k, the expectation of k-betweenness centrality strictly decreases as the index of the vertex increases. We also analyze worst-case properties of profiles in terms of the distance of profiles from being monotone, and the number of times pairs of profiles can cross. This is related to whether k-betweenness centrality, for small values of k, may be used instead of having to consider all shortest paths. Bounds are given that are optimal in order of magnitude. We also pre...

  15. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  16. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  17. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  18. Central cementifying fibroma of mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Edward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Central cementifying fibroma is a rare non odontogenic tumor coming in the group of fibro osseouslesion, arising from periodontal ligament and is usually seen in tooth bearing area. It can affect boththe mandible and the maxilla, particularly the mandible. This bone tumour consists of highly cellular,fibrous tissue that contains varying amounts of calcified tissue resembling bone, cementum or both.Here we present a case of Central cementifying fibroma (recurrent in a 34 year old female.

  19. Inferring Centrality from Network Snapshots

    OpenAIRE

    Haibin Shao; Mehran Mesbahi; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi

    2017-01-01

    The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagati...

  20. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  1. Controlling centrality in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Romance, Miguel; Russo, Giovanni; Latora, Vito

    2011-01-01

    Spectral centrality measures allow to identify influential individuals in social groups, to rank Web pages by their popularity, and even to determine the impact of scientific researches. The centrality score of a node within a network crucially depends on the entire pattern of connections, so that the usual approach is to compute the node centralities once the network structure is assigned. We face here with the inverse problem, that is, we study how to modify the centrality scores of the nodes by acting on the structure of a given network. We prove that there exist particular subsets of nodes, called controlling sets, which can assign any prescribed set of centrality values to all the nodes of a graph, by cooperatively tuning the weights of their out-going links. We show that many large networks from the real world have surprisingly small controlling sets, containing even less than 5-10% of the nodes. These results suggest that rankings obtained from spectral centrality measures have to be considered with ex...

  2. Rosette Central Configurations, Degenerate central configurations and bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Jinzhi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we find a class of new degenerate central configurations and bifurcations in the Newtonian $n$-body problem. In particular we analyze the Rosette central configurations, namely a coplanar configuration where $n$ particles of mass $m_1$ lie at the vertices of a regular $n$-gon, $n$ particles of mass $m_2$ lie at the vertices of another $n$-gon concentric with the first, but rotated of an angle $\\pi/n$, and an additional particle of mass $m_0$ lies at the center of mass of the system. This system admits two mass parameters $\\mu=m_0/m_1$ and $\\ep=m_2/m_1$. We show that, as $\\mu$ varies, if $n> 3$, there is a degenerate central configuration and a bifurcation for every $\\ep>0$, while if $n=3$ there is a bifurcations only for some values of $\\epsilon$.

  3. Coverage centralities for temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex by the proportion of (normal) vertex pairs, the quickest routes between which can (or should) use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bo...

  4. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  5. Inferring Centrality from Network Snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibin; Mesbahi, Mehran; Li, Dewei; Xi, Yugeng

    2017-01-01

    The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagation rate of influence exerted on consensus networks and the Kirchhoff index of the underlying graph. Moreover, the tempo centrality also encodes the disturbance rejection of nodes in a consensus network. Our findings provide an approach to infer the performance of a consensus network from its temporal data. PMID:28098166

  6. CENTRAL MECHANISMS OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S. Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture is an component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that has been used for three thousand years to treat diseases and relieve pain. Pain is found to be the most common reason for people to use acupuncture. Due to recent scientific findings, acupuncture treatment has been accepted worldwide. Numerous trials have been conducted especially in analgesia. The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, however, the underlying mechanism still not clear. This article summarizes the central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. Method: We have focused on examining the recent literature on acupuncture analgesia. The central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. We focused on the studies related to central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia from these aspects: (neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy. Result: The result revealed that acupuncture act on various parts of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral ganglia and cerebral cortex to alleviate pain. The central mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture include neurohumors and neurotransmitters, which are involved in analgesia. At spinal level, Spinal opioids, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin are the key elements acupuncture-induced analgesia. At brain level, Endogenous opioid peptides, limbic system play essential roles in mediating the analgesia. Conclusion: Acupuncture is an effective approach to pain management. There is good evidence in both experimental and clinical research that supports acupuncture efficacy in management of chronic pain through central nervous system. Acupuncture should be strongly used as a part of pain management plans. This work helps in improving our understanding of the scientific basis underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  7. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David

    2016-01-01

    In this brief invited review, I will attempt to summarise some of the key areas of interest in the study of central stars of planetary nebulae which (probably) won't be covered by other speakers' proceedings. The main focus will, inevitably, be on the subject of multiplicity, with special emphasis on recent results regarding triple central star systems as well as wide binaries which avoid a common-envelope phase. Furthermore, in light of the upcoming release of Kepler's Campaign 11 data, I will discuss a few of the prospects from that data including the unique possibility to detect merger products.

  8. Central Libraries in Uncertain Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses security and safety issues for public libraries, especially high-profile central facilities, in light of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Highlights include inspecting bags as patrons enter as well as exit; the need for security guidelines for any type of disaster or emergency; building design; and the importance of communication.…

  9. New Economy, Old Central Banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, Jan Marc

    2002-01-01

    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inf1ation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a r

  10. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  11. Water Governance in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Assche, Van Kristof; Valentinov, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    We develop a social systems theory perspective on Central Asian post-Socialist transition, placing particular emphasis on the coordination problems in transboundary water governance. The extensive Soviet water-energy infrastructure around the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers required coordination, bu

  12. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  13. Learning and the central bank

    OpenAIRE

    Charles T. Carlstrom; Timothy S. Fuerst

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that sunspot equilibria may arise under an interest-rate operating procedure in which the central bank varies the nominal rate with movements in future inflation (a forward-looking Taylor rule). This paper demonstrates that these sunspot equilibria may be learnable in the sense of E-stability.

  14. The MEANING multilingual central repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atserias, J.; Villarejo, L.; Rigau, G.; Agirre, E.; Carroll, J.; Magnini, B.; Vossen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of the Multilingual Central Repository, a lexical knowledge base developed in the framework of the MEANING project. Currently the MCR integrates into the EuroWordNet framework five local wordnets (including four versions of the English WordNet from Princeton),

  15. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  16. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  17. 27 CFR 9.75 - Central Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Coast. 9.75... Central Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Central Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Central Coast...

  18. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi; Hamid Zamani Moghadam Dolu; Elham Pishbin; Maryam Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central veno...

  19. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  20. Clinical cancer diagnosis using optical fiber-delivered coherent anti-stokes ramon scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang

    This thesis describes the development of a combined label-free imaging and analytical strategy for intraoperative characterization of cancer lesions using the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging (CARS) technique. A cell morphology-based analytical platform is developed to characterize CARS images and, hence, provide diagnostic information using disease-related pathology features. This strategy is validated for three different applications, including margin detection for radical prostatectomy, differential diagnosis of lung cancer, as well as detection and differentiation of breast cancer subtypes for in situ analysis of margin status during lumpectomy. As the major contribution of this thesis, the developed analytical strategy shows high accuracy and specificity for all three diseases and thus has introduced the CARS imaging technique into the field of human cancer diagnosis, which holds substantial potential for clinical translations. In addition, I have contributed a project aimed at miniaturizing the CARS imaging device into a microendoscope setup through a fiber-delivery strategy. A four-wave-mixing (FWM) background signal, which is caused by simultaneous delivery of the two CARS-generating excitation laser beams, is initially identified. A polarization-based strategy is then introduced and tested for suppression of this FWM noise. The approach shows effective suppression of the FWM signal, both on microscopic and prototype endoscopic setups, indicating the potential of developing a novel microendoscope with a compatible size for clinical use. These positive results show promise for the development of an all-fiber-based, label-free imaging and analytical platform for minimally invasive detection and diagnosis of cancers during surgery or surgical-biopsy, thus improving surgical outcomes and reducing patients' suffering.

  1. Keskerakond nõuab toidukaupade käibemaksu alandamist / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Keskerakonna fraktsioon esitas 5. mail Riigikogu menetlusse eelnõu toidukaupade käibemaksumäära alandamiseks, mille põhieesmärgiks on Euroopa Liitu astumisega kaasneva üldise hinnatõusu pidurdamine

  2. Oviir : Euroopa Liit peab vältima sotsiaalsete äärealade teket / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Parlament kiitis heaks tööhõive ja sotsiaalse solidaarsuse integreeritud programmi PROGRESS, millega eraldatakse aastatel 2007-2013 Euroopa Liidu eelarvest üle 800 milj. euro tööhõive, sotsiaalse kaitse ja kaasamise, töökeskkonna, töötervishoiu, tööohutuse, mittediskrimineerimise ning soolise võrdõiguslikkuse olukorra parandamiseks liikmesriikides ja Euroopa Liiduga assotsieerunud riikides

  3. Euroopa tahab oma sõnumit inimestele lähemale tuua / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vali Uudised, 16. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 16. jaan. 2004, lk. 11. Kokkuvõtteid Eesti Keskerakonna delegatsiooni visiidist Brüsselisse 6.-7. jaanuaril 2004 Euroopa Liberaaldemokraatliku Reformipartei Europarlamendi fraktsiooni küllakutsel

  4. EL rahastab stalinismiohvrite mälestuse jäädvustamist / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Parlament võttis vastu resolutsiooni, millega on aastateks 2007-2013 loodud programm "Euroopa kodanikele" eesmärgiga vähemalt 235 miljoni euroga toetada Euroopa Liidu põhiõiguste hartaga sätestatud Euroopa väärtuste ja aktiivse Euroopa kodakondsuse edendamist

  5. [Dr. Juan Ramon Beltran and his contribution to the School of Dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz, A

    1999-01-01

    He was in charge of the course of Legal Dentistry at the School of Dentistry from 1929 through 1932. He prepared the study program for this subject, basing it on the experience he had gained as professor in Legal Medicine at the Faculty of Medical Sciences in Buenos Aires. He published the book "Medicina Legal para la ensenanza de la Odontologia Legal y Social" (1932), and its second edition included an important contribution made by Dr. Juan Ubaldo Carrea, Main Professor of Orthodontics with Legal Dentistry at this school

  6. Ramon Llull and the Teaching of Foreign Languages in the Late Middle Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The "foreign languages" considered in this paper are the non-European contemporary tongues whose study was encouraged by the Crusades and related projects for recovering the Holy Land from the Muslims, Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac (Chaldaic), of which Arabic held pride of place. No-one was more significant in advancing the study and…

  7. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  8. Centrality in Interconnected Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Omodei, Elisa; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases, they require to be modeled by interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions on several levels simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology, from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network. However, defining the centrality of actors in an interconnected structure is not trivial. In this paper, we capitalize on the tensorial formalism, recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, to show how several centrality measures -- well-known in the case of standard ("monoplex") networks -- can be extended naturally to the realm of interconnected multiplexes. We consider diagnostics widely used in different fields, e.g., computer science, biology, communication and social sciences, to cite only some of them. We show, both theoretically and numerically, that using the weighted monoplex obta...

  9. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  10. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  11. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; /MIT; Neubauer, M.; /UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I.; /Frascati; Weems, L.; /Fermilab; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  12. Central Nucleon-Nucleon Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robilotta, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    The outer region of the NN interactions is dominated by the one pion exchange potential (OPEP), followed by the two-pion exchange potential (TPEP). Chiral calculations of the TPEP have been performed using either heavy baryon1 (HB) or relativistic2 perturbation theories. We compare the predictions from these two approaches for the dominant central interaction and show that they fail to agree by 25% ...

  13. Celtic Sites of Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, Manuel

    This chapter concerns the astronomy practiced by Celtic peoples in some parts of central Iberia, specifically the Vetton and Celtiberian peoples, inhabitants of the so-called Late Iron Age. The construction of some elements of religion or worship was perfectly determined by geometry, topography, and especially astronomy, because their spatial orientation occurs in locations of great interest for maintaining the local calendar. The maintenance of this calendar was probably the primary objective of some of the elements studied.

  14. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  15. Central Asia, Physical Geography Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    over 2,000 m) is not applicable to Central Asia, partly because the general hypsometric level of this region is high and unstable, as a consequence of...organic fossils in them, gastropods have been discovered. On the main territory of the Tarim massif, which evidently represented a weakly elevated...places seams of gypsum and rock salt, and, in a part to the west of the town of Aksu, also a bed of gray limestone with small fresh- water gastropods

  16. Central charges in regular mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Villanueva, V M

    1997-01-01

    We consider the algebra associated to a group of transformations which are symmetries of a regular mechanical system (i.e. system free of constraints). For time dependent coordinate transformations we show that a central extension may appear at the classical level which is coordinate and momentum independent. A cochain formalism naturally arises in the argument and extends the usual configuration space cochain concepts to phase space.

  17. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity.

  18. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...... level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity....

  19. CHINA AND ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Pan

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.

  20. [Historical demography in the Central American isthmus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Brignoli, H

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews and evaluates sources of information on the demographic history of Central America. Past and present administrative, state, ecclesiastical, and genealogical sources are examined, and recent studies of various Central American countries are cited. A bibliography is provided

  1. Puente del Pedrido, tramo central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torroja, Eduardo

    1962-02-01

    Full Text Available Planteada la necesidad de proceder a la ejecución del tramo central del puente en el Pasaje del Pedrido sobre la ría de Betanzos, y encontrándonos con que las armaduras para el mismo, que ya estaban acopiadas a pie de obra antes de la guerra, estaban totalmente no tuvimos inconveniente, puesto que habían de adquirirse de nuevo, en introducir algunas ligeras modificaciones sobre el proyecto anterior, a fin de reducir en lo posible el coste de la obra.

  2. Nonlocally Centralized Simultaneous Sparse Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷阳; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    The concept of structured sparse coding noise is introduced to exploit the spatial correlations and nonlo-cal constraint of the local structure. Then the model of nonlocally centralized simultaneous sparse coding(NC-SSC)is proposed for reconstructing the original image, and an algorithm is proposed to transform the simultaneous sparse coding into reweighted low-rank approximation. Experimental results on image denoisng, deblurring and super-resolution demonstrate the advantage of the proposed NC-SSC method over the state-of-the-art image resto-ration methods.

  3. Inverting the central limit theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Navascues, Miguel; Villanueva, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    The central limit theorem states that the sum of N independently distributed n-tuples of real variables (subject to appropriate normalization) tends to a multivariate gaussian distribution for large N. Here we propose to invert this argument: given a set of n correlated gaussian variables, we try to infer information about the structure of the discrete microscopic probability distributions whose convolution generated such a macroscopic behavior. The techniques developed along the article are applied to prove that the classical description of certain macroscopic optical experiments is infinitely more complex than the quantum one.

  4. Kalmanovitz y la banca central.

    OpenAIRE

    Maya M, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Salomón Kalmanovitz, Codirector del Banco de la República (B de la R) hasta enero de 2005, uno de los economistas colombianos más brillantes, publicó un libro titulado Ensayos sobre Banca Central, Comportamiento, Independencia e Historia (Norma, 2003). Si los estudiantes de economía de los años 70 y 80 estudiaron a un Kalmanovitz marxista, los estudiantes de hoy estudian a un economista ortodoxo y liberal, igualmente brillante. Kalmanovitz es un partidario de la independencia de la BC para la...

  5. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  6. Capitalizing Central Banks: A Net Worth Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Ize

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a simple, quantitative, net worth-based, approach to assessing the need for central bank capital. It derives a concept of "core capital" (a function of the central bank's operating expenditures and the carrying cost of its international reserves) as the minimum capital needed by a central bank to ensure the credibility of its inflation target. The approach is illustrated with the published accounts of three loss-making central banks and selected accounting entries for a br...

  7. The European Central Bank and the Eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Carol C. Bertaut

    2002-01-01

    The Eurosystem comprises the European Central Bank at its center as well as the national central banks of the twelve countries currently participating in monetary union. The European Central Bank was established in July 1998, six months before the beginning of Stage Three of economic and monetary union. Although decisions regarding monetary policy are made centrally by the Governing Council of the Eurosystem, the operational aspects of monetary policy-including open market operations, adminis...

  8. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  9. Central Pontine Myelinolysis: Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Akar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central pontine myelinolysis is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of myelin in the central pons as well as in the other parts of the brain like basal ganglia, lateral geniculate bodies, external and internal capsules, and cerebellum. We report the clinical and radiological findings of three patients with central pontine myelinolysis and one patient with both pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis.

  10. Central bank independence and inflation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the relationship between central bank independence (CBI), proxied by the central bank governor's turnover rate and an indicator based on central bank laws in place, and inflation using a random coefficient model with the Hildreth-Houck estimator for more than 100 countries in the perio

  11. "Christofest" New Yorgi Central Parkis / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    12. II 2005. a. avatakse Christo ja Jeanne-Claude'i keskkonnainstallatsioon "The Gates" New Yorgi Central Parkis. Paralleelselt toimub Metropolitan Muuseumis näitus "Christo and Jeanne-Claude : The Gates, Central Park, New York", kus eksponeeritakse Central Parki installatsiooni ettevalmistavaid materjale: joonistusi, diagramme, fotosid jne

  12. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  13. Glial involvement in trigeminal central sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that trigeminal neurons exhibit central sensitization, an increase in the excitability of neurons within the central nervous system to the extent that a normally innocuous stimulus begins to produce pain after inflamma-tion or injury, and that glial activities play a vital role in this central sensitization. The involvement of glial cells in trigeminal central sensitization contains multiple mechanisms, including interaction with glutamatergic and purinergic receptors. A better understanding of the trigeminal central sensitization mediated by glial cells will help to find potential therapeutic targets and lead to developing new analge-sics for orofacial-specific pain with higher efficiency and fewer side-effects.

  14. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  15. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  16. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    McNulty, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a unique process at hadron machines in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. LHCb have measured the cross-sections for the CEP of vector mesons, $J/\\psi,\\psi(2S),\\Upsilon(1S),\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(3S)$, which are photo-produced. In the double pomeron exchange process, preliminary measurements have been made of $\\chi_{c0},\\chi_{c1}, \\chi_{c2}$ meson production while the first observations of the CEP of pairs of charmonia, $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $J/\\psi \\psi(2S)$, have been made and limits obtained on the pair production of other charmonia.

  17. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  18. CST-01-Central Standard Timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    薄如蝉翼名为CentralStandardTiming的工作室推出了E—ink材质代号为CST-01的手表,其厚度仅为0.8mm,号称全球最薄。一次充电10分钟便可连续使用15年。该手表屏幕由多层柔性材料构成。整体十分轻巧并且可弯曲,腕带则采用了柔性不锈钢材质。CST-01的预售价格为129美元。约合人民币800元,目前已经在著名的集资网站Kickstarter上创建项目。

  19. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  20. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  1. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    in organisational structure, tasks, culture and time with performance contracts is expected to affect the contract content, hypotheses on variation across agencies are deduced. The empirical basis of the paper is a study of all performance contracts between parent ministries and subordinate agencies in Danish......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible...

  2. Hirsch index as a network centrality measure

    CERN Document Server

    Campiteli, Monica G; Soles, Paulo R C; Soares, Leonardo H D; Kinouchi, Osame

    2010-01-01

    We study the h Hirsch index as a local node centrality measure for complex networks in general. The h index is compared with the Degree centrality (a local measure), the Betweenness and Eigenvector centralities (two non-local measures) in the case of a biological network (Yeast interaction protein-protein network) and a linguistic network (Moby Thesaurus II) as test environments. In both networks, the Hirsch index has poor correlation with Betweenness centrality but correlates well with Eigenvector centrality, specially for the more important nodes that are relevant for ranking purposes, say in Search Machine Optimization. In the thesaurus network, the h index seems even to outperform the Eigenvector centrality measure as evaluated by simple linguistic criteria.

  3. A matrix analysis of different centrality measures

    CERN Document Server

    Benzi, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Node centrality measures including degree, eigenvector, Katz and subgraph centralities are analyzed for both undirected and directed networks. We show how parameter-dependent measures, such as Katz and subgraph centrality, can be "tuned" to interpolate between degree and eigenvector centrality, which appear as limiting cases of the other measures. We interpret our finding in terms of the local and global influence of a given node in the graph as measured by graph walks of different length through that node. Our analysis gives some guidance for the choice of parameters in Katz and subgraph centrality, and provides an explanation for the observed correlations between different centrality measures and for the stability exhibited by the ranking vectors for certain parameter ranges. The important role played by the spectral gap of the adjacency matrix is also highlighted.

  4. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  5. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  6. Transpleural central venous catheter discovered during thoracotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Malhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an uncommon complication of subclavian central venous catheterization, discovered at thoracotomy. The central venous catheter (CVC was placed by left infraclavicular route after induction of general anesthesia. CVC was secured after aspiration of blood and satisfactory central venous tracing. On thoracotomy, CVC was noticed to traverse the pleural cavity while the tracing was normal. CVC was thus removed consequent to which bleeding from each puncture site was noticed, that were secured surgically.

  7. The Centrality of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Miles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available I am excited about this new journal focused on the subject of organization design. In my view, organization design is a central issue in the field of management. Designing an organization requires an understanding of strategy, as we pointed out some time ago (Miles & Snow, 1978. For example, if you want to be a prospector (a first-mover strategy, you have to design your firm to move quickly in new directions, which is likely to require that it be arranged so that various kinds of teams can interact across organizational units and levels. Designing an organization to follow a first-mover strategy also requires both an understanding of leadership and a commitment to the free flow of information throughout the organization. Leaders must understand how cross-functional teams pursue ideas and opportunities, and they must facilitate collaborative knowledge sharing to drive innovations that help the firm operate entrepreneurially. Because an organization is a complex, dynamic system, perhaps no other single topic is so deeply implanted at the core of management, organization theory, and organizational behavior as organization design. Moreover, organization design once was, and could be again, the topic of an ongoing dialogue between managers and academics focused on business organizations.

  8. Maximal switchability of centralized networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2016-08-01

    We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.

  9. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  10. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunov, I. [CERN; Andreeva, J. [CERN; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P. [CERN

    2014-01-01

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required, They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  11. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Given the distributed nature of the grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and scared around the globe, VOs are facing the challenge to monitor the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard SSB (Site Status Board) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be set. During the integration of the CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were implemented; all in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can use them as well. Alongside these enhancements, there were a few changes to the core of the SSB framework from which the CMS production team was able to benefit. We will present the details of the implementation and the adva...

  12. [Aniseikonia of central serous chorioretinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, H; Awaya, S

    1992-03-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CRS) is one of the typical diseases that accompany micropsia. However very little is known about micropsia of CRS, because of the difficulty to measure "aniseikonia" in terms of micropsia. Aniseikonia in 65 cases of CRS was measured quantitatively by Awaya's New Aniseikonia Tests (NAT). The tests were performed at two different distances of 40 cm (visual angle: 6 degrees) and 20 cm (12 degrees) and under 4 meridians of the halfmoon on NAT, horizontal, 45 degrees, vertical and 135 degrees, respectively. The mean value of aniseikonia under each testing condition was as follows: 6 degrees horizontal -3.13%, 45 degrees -2.56%, vertical -2.13%, 135 degrees -2.57%, 12 degrees; horizontal -1.38%, 45 degrees -1.69%, vertical -1.84%, 135 degrees -1.50%. At 6 degrees aniseikonia is larger in the horizontal meridian than in the vertical with statistical significance (t-test, p less than 0.05), while at 12 degrees aniseikonia is smaller than at 6 degrees and shows no particular tendency in terms of meridian. The phenomenon observed at 6 degrees may be what is called "oriented metamorphopsia".

  13. Concept of the central clip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Chan, Pak Hei; Foin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    -risk surgical population with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with severe MR (3 or 4+) and high operative risk (as defined by logistic EuroSCORE) refused for conventional mitral valve repair were considered for MitraClip(®). The procedure was performed under general anaesthesia...... with transoesophageal echocardiographic (TOE) guidance. Device success was defined as placement of one or more MitraClips(®) with a reduction of MR to ≤2+. Patients were followed up clinically and with TOE at one month and one year. From September 2009 to March 2012, 43 patients with severe MR with a mean age of 74.......8±10.7 years (30 males, 13 females; mean logistic EuroSCORE 24.1±11, mean LVEF 47.5±18.5%; mean±SD) were treated. Median follow-up was 385 days (104-630; Q1-Q3). Device implantation success was 93%. All patients were treated following the central clip concept: 52.5% of MR was degenerative in aetiology and 47...

  14. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central venous line might have some complications and complication follow-up should be considered. Thromboembolism and infection are two important medical complications. Arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax and hemothorax are mechanical Central venous line complications. Chest X-ray and some other techniques should be used for detecting these complications.Central venous line tip misplace is a considerable problem for emergency department staffs, previously chest X-ray has been used for central venous line misplace detection. In some recent studies, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and intravascular electrocardiography have been used for central venous line misplace.

  15. A global central banker competency model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Brits

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: No comprehensive, integrated competency model exists for central bankers. Due to the importance of central banks in the context of the ongoing global financial crisis, it was deemed necessary to design and validate such a model.Research purpose: To craft and validate a comprehensive, integrated global central banker competency model (GCBCM and to assess whether central banks using the GCBCM for training have a higher global influence.Motivation for the study: Limited consensus exists globally about what constitutes a ‘competent’ central banker. A quantitatively validated GCBCM would make a significant contribution to enhancing central banker effectiveness, and also provide a solid foundation for effective people management.Research approach, design and method: A blended quantitative and qualitative research approach was taken. Two sets of hypotheses were tested regarding the relationships between the GCBCM and the training offered, using the model on the one hand, and a central bank’s global influence on the other.Main findings: The GCBCM was generally accepted across all participating central banks globally, although some differences were found between central banks with higher and lower global influence. The actual training offered by central banks in terms of the model, however, is generally limited to technical-functional skills. The GCBCM is therefore at present predominantly aspirational. Significant differences were found regarding the training offered.Practical/managerial implications: By adopting the GCBCM, central banks would be able to develop organisation-specific competency models in order to enhance their organisational capabilities and play their increasingly important global role more effectively.Contribution: A generic conceptual framework for the crafting of a competency model with evaluation criteria was developed. A GCBCM was quantitatively validated.

  16. Haemangiopericytoma of central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, M.F.; Benjamin, C.S. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Clinical Oncology

    1995-02-01

    The records of four patients presenting with a histological diagnosis of haemangiopericytoma of the central nervous system, in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed retrospectively, with the aim of determining the natural history of the disease and response to various treatment modalities. Three out of the four patients reviewed presented with primary cerebral disease and the fourth with a primary spinal cord tumour. All three cerebral primary patients were initially treated with local surgical excision. All three patients received radical radiotherapy following local recurrence. The first two patients remained disease-free locally although one patient developed a solitary liver metastasis 5 years after radiotherapy. The third patient was referred with multiple cerebral metastases and failed to respond to radiotherapy. The patient with the primary lesion in the spinal cord was treated with local excision followed by postoperative radiotherapy and remains disease-free 17 years after treatment. One patient failed to respond to chemotherapy, prescribed to treat a local recurrence adjacent to the previous radiotherapy field. This was successfully excised subsequently. The patient presenting with multiple cerebral metastases was the only patient to die of this disease. Results suggest that local recurrence is avoidable with adequate wide excision of the primary tumour followed by local radical radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains controversial and no conclusion could be drawn regarding the role of palliative radiotherapy from this study. Active treatment and long-term follow-up are necessary because of the relative aggressiveness of this disease and the propensity for late relapses. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengor, A.M.C. (Instanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey))

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses...

  19. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries created for a previously published report about the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area...

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant recharge value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  2. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  3. Central Life Interests and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Robert; And Others

    Data on central life interests (CLI) and five aspects of job satisfaction were obtained in a sample of bluecollar males and two samples of clerical females. Both a multiple discriminant analysis and a bivariate analysis were performed. The results of these analyses showed that central life interest was significantly related to the total set of job…

  4. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  5. An unusual Complication of Central Venous Cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheter (CVC hub fracture is a rare complication of central venous cannulation. We report a case where catheter hub fracture was detected immediately after CVC insertion. Causes of catheter hub fracture and its complications are discussed.

  6. The Latino Experience in Central Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Central Falls is, by far, the poorest community in Rhode Island. More than 40 percent of the children under 18 live in poverty, and 40 percent of that group live in severe poverty. At Central Falls High School, low-income Latino students have fallen behind their white counterparts, with shockingly low graduation, poor literacy, and low…

  7. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...

  8. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been…

  9. China-Central Asia Power Cooperation Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo

    2010-01-01

    After analyzing the basic information,distribution of energy resources and condition of power industry in Central Asia, the high feasibility for China to cooperate closely with Central Asia in transnational power interconnection, power investment and technology exchanges, etc. is studied. Furthermore, the forms, mechanisms, existing problems and suggestions for the improvement of current policies related to the power cooperation are proposed.

  10. An overview of CMS central hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Katta, S

    2002-01-01

    The central hadron calorimeter for CMS detector is a sampling calorimeter with active medium as scintillator plates interleaved with brass absorber plates. It covers the central pseudorapidity region (¿ eta ¿<3.0). The design and construction aspects are reported. The status of construction and assembly of various subdetectors of HCAL are presented. (5 refs).

  11. The Cartan Matrix of a Centralizer Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umesh V Dubey; Amritanshu Prasad; Pooja Singla

    2012-02-01

    The centralizer algebra of a matrix consists of those matrices that commute with it. We investigate the basic representation-theoretic invariants of centralizer algebras, namely their radicals, projective indecomposable modules, injective indecomposable modules, simple modules and Cartan matrices. With the help of our Cartan matrix calculations we determine their global dimensions. Many of these algebras are of infinite global dimension.

  12. Central bank independence and financial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that central bank independence (CBI) may not only be beneficial for reaching the objective of price stability, but also for maintaining financial stability. Greater independence from external pressure implies that central banks are less politically constrained in acting to prevent

  13. A SCALED CENTRAL PATH FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-xiang Yuan

    2001-01-01

    Interior point methods are very efficient methods for solving large scale linear programming problems. The central path plays a very important role in interior point methods. In this paper we propose a new central path, which scales the variables. Thus it has the advantage of forcing the path to have roughly the same distance from each active constraint boundary near the solution.

  14. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  15. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry.

  16. Central differences, Euler numbers and symbolic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I relate some coefficients encountered when computing the functional determinants on spheres to the central differentials of nothing. In doing this I use some historic works, in particular transcribing the elegant symbolic formalism of Jeffery (1861) into central difference form which has computational advantages for Euler numbers, as discovered by Shovelton (1915). I derive sum rules for these, and for the central differentials, the proof of which involves an interesting expression for powers of sech x as multiple derivatives. I present a more general, symbolic treatment of central difference calculus which allows known, and unknown, things to be obtained in an elegant and compact fashion gaining, at no cost, the expansion of the powers of the inverse sinh, a basic central function. Systematic use is made of the operator 2 asinh(D/2). Umbral calculus is employed to compress the operator formalism. For example the orthogonality/completeness of the factorial numbers, of the first and second kinds, translates, ...

  17. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  18. Centrality and economic development in the Rijnland region: social and spatial concepts of centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.

    2007-01-01

    In urban research, spatial and social concepts of centrality are being distinguished. From a spatial point of view, metrical centrality implies that something is located in the middle of an area. However, metrical and topological centrality are not equivalent. In research where space syntax methods

  19. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles.

  20. Betweenness Centrality in Some Classes of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raghavan Unnithan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several centrality measures that have been introduced and studied for real-world networks. They account for the different vertex characteristics that permit them to be ranked in order of importance in the network. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the influence of a vertex over the flow of information between every pair of vertices under the assumption that information primarily flows over the shortest paths between them. In this paper we present betweenness centrality of some important classes of graphs.

  1. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy after Solar Eclipse Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of central serous chorioretinopathy after solar eclipse viewing. Case Report: A middle-age man developed a sudden-onset unilateral scotoma after viewing a partial solar eclipse in Hong Kong. Fundus examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography showed features compatible with central serous chorioretinopathy. The patient was managed conservatively and reevaluated periodically. Serial optical coherence tomographic evaluations demonstrated an initial increase in the amount of subretinal fluid which spontaneously resolved 10 weeks after the onset of symptoms. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the possibility of development of central serous chorioretinopathy following solar eclipse viewing.

  2. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  3. Central black hole masses of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊军辉

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the stellar velocity dispersions in the host galaxies are used to estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of elliptical galaxies. We find that the central black hole masses are in the range of 10(5.5-9.5) M(○). Based on the estimated masses in this paper and those by Woo & Urry (2002) and the measured host galaxy absolute magnitude,a relation, log(MBH/M(○)) = -(0.25 ± 4.3 × 10-3)MR + (2.98 4 0.208) is found for central black hole mass and the host galaxy magnitude. Some discussions are presented.

  4. Erroneous laboratory values obtained from central catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J B; Messina, M

    1991-01-01

    Serious analytic errors in potassium measurements have been identified in blood specimens obtained from newly inserted central catheters. Erroneous elevated readings have been related to interactions of chemistry analyzer electrodes and substances fixed to external and intraluminal walls of the central catheter. Anecdotal summaries of this phenomenon are presented to enable the nurse to recognize potential problems when sampling blood from central catheters. Studies were performed to determine the amount of flush necessary to clear the catheter of interfering residue. To eliminate this potentially hazardous occurrence, recommended flush volumes, nursing implications, and actions are described.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: central precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difference in gene activation is caused by a phenomenon called genomic imprinting. Because only the copy of ... cause the disorder. When passed from parent to child, the condition is known as familial central precocious ...

  6. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  7. Red wine, arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Papamichael, Christos; Lekakis, John; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Zampelas, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    Red wine is considered to reduce cardiovascular risk and decrease peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Central aortic pressures are often more sensitive clinical and prognostic factors than peripheral pressures, while arterial stiffness is an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular events. Great efforts are being made to find natural sources of improving health. In order to clarify the mechanisms under which a widely used drink, like red wine, is affecting heart and vessels, we aimed to review the available data regarding the effects of red wine on arterial stiffness, wave reflections and central blood pressures. The effect of red wine on central hemodynamics has been poorly explored with divergent results. Possible consequences of acute and long-term intake on arterial stiffness, wave reflections and central pressures are not clear. This might make someone skeptical when suggesting the consumption of a glass of red wine, although its cardioprotective actions (when moderately consumed) are already shown from epidemiological studies.

  8. NCI Central Review Board Receives Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs has awarded the NCI Central Institutional Review Board full accreditation. AAHRPP awards accreditation to organizations demonstrating the highest ethical standards in clinical res

  9. Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influential nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.

  10. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  11. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  12. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  13. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  14. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Tumors Treatment Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment Childhood Brain Stem Glioma ... Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. ...

  15. NCPC Central Files Information System (CFIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Capital Planning Commission — This dataset contains records from NCPC's Central Files Information System (CFIS), which is a comprehensive database of projects submitted to NCPC for design review...

  16. Central respiratory failure during acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Jennifer L; Dunn, Courtney; Gaspari, Romolo J

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is a global health problem with over 250,000 deaths per year. OPs affect neuronal signaling through acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to accumulation of Ach at the synaptic cleft and excessive stimulation at post-synaptic receptors. Mortality due to OP agents is attributed to respiratory dysfunction, including central apnea. Cholinergic circuits are integral to many aspects of the central control of respiration, however it is unclear which mechanisms predominate during acute OP intoxication. A more complete understanding of the cholinergic aspects of both respiratory control as well as neural modification of pulmonary function is needed to better understand OP-induced respiratory dysfunction. In this article, we review the physiologic mechanisms of acute OP exposure in the context of the known cholinergic contributions to the central control of respiration. We also discuss the potential central cholinergic contributions to the known peripheral physiologic effects of OP intoxication.

  17. Alluvial Boundary of California's Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the extent of the alluvial deposits in the Central Valley of California and encompasses the contiguous Sacramento, San Joaquin, and...

  18. Shattering and Compressing Networks for Centrality Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sarıyüce, Ahmet Erdem; Kaya, Kamer; Çatalyürek, Ümit V

    2012-01-01

    Who is more important in a network? Who controls the flow between the nodes or whose contribution is significant for connections? Centrality metrics play an important role while answering these questions. The betweenness metric is useful for network analysis and implemented in various tools. Since it is one of the most computationally expensive kernels in graph mining, several techniques have been proposed for fast computation of betweenness centrality. In this work, we propose and investigate techniques which compress a network and shatter it into pieces so that the rest of the computation can be handled independently for each piece. Although we designed and tuned the shattering process for betweenness, it can be adapted for other centrality metrics in a straightforward manner. Experimental results show that the proposed techniques can be a great arsenal to reduce the centrality computation time for various types of networks.

  19. Earthquakes in Central California, 1980-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in central California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Livermore, 1980, Coalinga,...

  20. Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...

  1. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  2. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  3. Central Bank Transparency: Causes, Consequences and Updates

    OpenAIRE

    Nergiz Dincer; Barry Eichengreen

    2009-01-01

    We present updated estimates of central bank for 100 countries up through 2006 and use them to analyze both the determinants and consequences of monetary policy transparency in an integrated econometric framework. We establish that there has been significant movement in the direction of greater central bank transparency in recent years. Transparent monetary policy arrangements are more likely in countries with strong and stable political institutions. They are more likely in democracies, with...

  4. Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    dollars worth of illegal or unregistered cash, most of it associated with narcotics trafficking and unreported remittances from migrant labor , is...Economic Dimensions of Security in Central Asia month on some construction sites.32 Remittances from legal migrant labor are part of the Central Asian...farms and construction sites,36 since they rarely have any le- gal standing. Also, income from migrant labor is usually barely suffi- cient to cover

  5. "Shadow Banking: Policy Challenges for Central Banks"

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Thorvald Grung

    2014-01-01

    Central banks responded with exceptional liquidity support during the financial crisis to prevent a systemic meltdown. They broadened their tool kit and extended liquidity support to nonbanks and key financial markets. Many want central banks to embrace this expanded role as "market maker of last resort" going forward. This would provide a liquidity backstop for systemically important markets and the shadow banking system that is deeply integrated with these markets. But how much liquidity su...

  6. Central odontogenic fibroma of the simple type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The central odontogenic fibroma is a rare benign neoplasm, and considered to be derived from the mesenchymal tissue of dental origin. It is a poorly defined tumor of the jawbones which has only been infrequently reported in the literature. We report a histologically proven case of simple-type central odontogenic fibroma, which affected the left canine-premolar region of the maxilla in a 52-year-old woman.

  7. Entrapment of guidewire during central venous catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is common in the setting of ICU for various reasons like monitoring of CVP, fluid administration and vasopressor or drug infusions. Guidewires are routinely used in the Seldinger technique during central venous catheter placement CVC placement is not innocuous as numerous complications may occur, with varying frequency and severity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3080-3081

  8. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, P.K.

    1986-12-01

    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  9. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates.

  10. Central Hemodynamics and Microcirculation in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovskikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare central hemodynamic and microcirculatory changes in critical conditions caused by different factors and to reveal their possible differences for a further differentiated approach to intensive therapy. Subjects and methods. The study covered 16 subjects with severe concomitant injury (mean age 41.96±2.83 years and 19 patients with general purulent peritonitis (mean age 45.34±2.16 years. Their follow-up was 7 days. The central hemodynamics was estimated by transpulmonary thermodilution using a Pulsion PiCCO Plus system (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany. The microcirculatory bed was evaluated by cutaneous laser Doppler flowmetry using a LAKK-02 capillary blood flow laser analyzer (LAZMA Research-and-Production Association, Russian Federation. Results. The pattern of central hemodynamic and microcirculatory disorders varies with the trigger that has led to a critical condition. Central hemodynamics should be stabilized to ensure the average level of tissue perfusion in victims with severe concomitant injury. In general purulent peritonitis, microcirculatory disorders may persist even if the macrohemodynamic parameters are normal. Conclusion. The macrohemodynamic and microcirculatory differences obtained during the study suggest that a complex of intensive therapy should be differentiated and, if the latter is used, it is necessary not only to be based on the central hemodynamics, but also to take into consideration functional changes in microcirculation. Key words: severe concomitant injury, general purulent peritonitis, micro-circulation, central hemodynamics, type of circulation.

  11. Fast network centrality analysis using GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exploding volume of data generated by continuously evolving high-throughput technologies, biological network analysis problems are growing larger in scale and craving for more computational power. General Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU provides a cost-effective technology for the study of large-scale biological networks. Designing algorithms that maximize data parallelism is the key in leveraging the power of GPUs. Results We proposed an efficient data parallel formulation of the All-Pairs Shortest Path problem, which is the key component for shortest path-based centrality computation. A betweenness centrality algorithm built upon this formulation was developed and benchmarked against the most recent GPU-based algorithm. Speedup between 11 to 19% was observed in various simulated scale-free networks. We further designed three algorithms based on this core component to compute closeness centrality, eccentricity centrality and stress centrality. To make all these algorithms available to the research community, we developed a software package gpu-fan (GPU-based Fast Analysis of Networks for CUDA enabled GPUs. Speedup of 10-50× compared with CPU implementations was observed for simulated scale-free networks and real world biological networks. Conclusions gpu-fan provides a significant performance improvement for centrality computation in large-scale networks. Source code is available under the GNU Public License (GPL at http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/gpu-fan/.

  12. Central auditory function of deafness genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaredt, Marc A; Ebbers, Lena; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2014-06-01

    The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereotypical manner. However, functional characterization of transgenic mice with mutated deafness genes demonstrated gene-specific abnormalities in the central auditory system as well. A frequent function of deafness genes in the central auditory system is supported by a genome-wide expression study that revealed significant enrichment of these genes in the transcriptome of the auditory brainstem compared to the entire brain. Here, we will summarize current knowledge of the diverse central auditory functions of deafness genes. We furthermore propose the intimately interwoven gene regulatory networks governing development of the otic placode and the hindbrain as a mechanistic explanation for the widespread expression of these genes beyond the cochlea. We conclude that better knowledge of central auditory dysfunction caused by genetic alterations in deafness genes is required. In combination with improved genetic diagnostics becoming currently available through novel sequencing technologies, this information will likely contribute to better outcome prediction of hearing devices.

  13. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  14. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  15. Making Central Banks Serve The Real Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleika Reiners

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge is to redirect central bank money into the real economy and to the needs of society. If new money is issued to expand the productive capacity, there is no reason for inflation. Long-term financing could become available at an affordable price. Central bank money must not replace a sound tax system and the distribution of income and wealth, but complement them. The remaining task, apart from the financing of real needs, is the prevention of speculative asset price inflation. For this, central banks and regulators should install debt brakes for the financial sector. Furthermore, independent monetary policy calls for capital account management. It enables national central banks to find space for the conduct of their own policies in an interdependent global economy. Coordination between central banks and governments might increase as policies combine monetary, fiscal and regulatory facets. The future role of central banks should particularly lie in their insights regarding capital flows and leverage cycles and in their ability to create and withdraw money, depend­ing on economic conditions.

  16. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region.

  17. Determinants of Central Adiposity among Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central obesity is one of the major public health problems. Recent studies have indicated that body fat distribution would be important in general health. Materials and Methods: The present study is a review of several studies which discuss the contributing factors of abdominal obesity, particulary in Iran. This study reviews 34 cross-sectional and interventional studies, which have been comducted during 1995-2012 and issued in English language. PubMed search engine and the related keywords were used to search the papers.Results: Breakfast skipping and also the sleep duration as well as the quality of diet are also associated with central adiposity. Dietary diversity score among Iranians can be related to abdominal adiposity. Fastfood consumption can increase the risk of central adiposity among young Iranian population. Red meat intake and food source of trans fat can increase the risk of central adiposity. Low quality diet with low amount of nutrients can increase the risk of central adiposity. Conclusion: Some behaviours such as sleep duration and eating breakfast can be associated with central adiposity among Iranians. Diet quality and dietary diversity score is also associated with this problem among Iranians.

  18. Market Information and Signaling in Central Bank Operations, or, How Often Should a Central Bank Intervene?

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    A central bank must decide on the frequency with which it will conduct open market operations and the variability in short-term money market that it will allow. The paper shows how the optimal operating procedure balances the value of attaining an immediate target and broadcasting the central bank's intentions against the informational advantages to the central bank of allowing the free play of market forces to reveal more of the information available to market participants.

  19. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology.

  20. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  1. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  2. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults from...... an uptake area of 2.4 million in Denmark were included at admission to a regional brain injury unit (BIU), on average 19 days after injury. Patients in the retrospective study used for comparison were randomly chosen from the national hospital register. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Out of 117 patients...... post-trauma was 0.29, and at 1 year 0.055 per 100,000 population. By comparison of 39 patients from the centralized unit injured in 2000-2003 with 21 patients injured in 1982, 1987 or 1992 and with similar PTA- and age distributions and male/female ratio, Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge...

  3. Angiotensin II during Experimentally Simulated Central Hypovolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    Central hypovolemia, defined as diminished blood volume in the heart and pulmonary vascular bed, is still an unresolved problem from a therapeutic point of view. The development of pharmaceutical agents targeted at specific angiotensin II receptors, such as the non-peptidergic AT2-receptor agonist...... of these agents in a hypovolemic setting. We argue that the latest debates on the effect of angiotensin II during hypovolemia might guide for future studies, investigating the effect of such agents during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia. The purpose of this review is to examine the role...... of angiotensin II during episodes of central hypovolemia. To examine this, we reviewed results from studies with three experimental models of simulated hypovolemia: head up tilt table test, lower body negative pressure, and hemorrhage of animals. A systemic literature search was made with the use of Pub...

  4. Central pain: definition, phisiopathology and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Moschini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Central pain is the expression of an injury and/or a primary or secondary dysfunction of the central nervous system.1 It is based on total or partial damage along the spinal-thalamic-cortical pathways and it may have cerebral or spinal origin. It has variable incidence according to its etiology: 8-10% in stroke patients, 30% in multiple sclerosis patients, 30-60% in paraplegic patients.2-3 At the spinal level, the most frequent causes are: traumatic injuries, cancer, plaques from multiple sclerosis, syringomyelia. In this review, we examine the main symptoms that contribute to confirm the diagnosis of central pain, neuropathic or thalamic. The presence of nerve injury, evaluated by neuroimaging and neurophysiological tests, allows us to complete the diagnostic picture.

  5. Generation of central exclusive final states

    CERN Document Server

    Lönnblad, Leif

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for the generation of central exclusive final states in the Pythia 8 program. The implementation allows for the investigation of higher order corrections to such exclusive processes as approximated by the initial-state parton shower in Pythia 8. To achieve this, the spin and colour decomposition of the initial-state shower has been worked out, in order to determine the probability that a partonic state generated from an inclusive sub-process followed by a series of initial-state parton splittings can be considered as an approximation of an exclusive colour- and spin-singlet process. We use our implementation to investigate effects of parton showers on some examples of central exclusive processes, and find sizeable effects on di-jet production, while the effects on e.g. central exclusive Higgs production are minor.

  6. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  7. Centralized rehabilitation after servere traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Liebach, Annette; Nordenbo, Annette Mosbæk

    2006-01-01

    post-trauma was 0.29, and at 1 year 0.055 per 100,000 population. By comparison of 39 patients from the centralized unit injured in 2000-2003 with 21 patients injured in 1982, 1987 or 1992 and with similar PTA- and age distributions and male/female ratio, Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge......OBJECTIVES: To present results from the first 3 years of centralized subacute rehabilitation after very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to compare results of centralized versus decentralized rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospectively, the most severely injured group of adults from...... an uptake area of 2.4 million in Denmark were included at admission to a regional brain injury unit (BIU), on average 19 days after injury. Patients in the retrospective study used for comparison were randomly chosen from the national hospital register. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Out of 117 patients...

  8. Central Venous Catheter-Related Hydrothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Hun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of 88-year-old women who developed central venous catheter-related bilateral hydrothorax, in which left pleural effusion, while right pleural effusion was being drained. The drainage prevented accumulation of fluid in the right pleural space, indicating that there was neither extravasation of infusion fluid nor connection between the two pleural cavities. The only explanation for bilateral hydrothorax in this case is lymphatic connections. Although vascular injuries by central venous catheter can cause catheter-related hydrothorax, it is most likely that the positioning of the tip of central venous catheter within the lymphatic duct opening in the right sub-clavian-jugular confluence or superior vena cava causes the catheter-related hydrothorax. Pericardial effusion can also result from retrograde lymphatic flow through the pulmonary lymphatic chains.

  9. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  10. Central functions of the orexinergic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yang Zhang; Lei Yu; Qian-Xing Zhuang; Jing-Ning Zhu; Jian-Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide orexin is synthesized by neurons exclusively located in the hypothalamus.However,these neurons send axons over virtually the entire brain and spinal cord and therefore constitute a unique central orexinergic system.It is well known that central orexin plays a crucial role in the regulation of various basic non-somatic and somatic physiological functions,including feeding,energy homeostasis,the sleep/wake cycle,reward,addiction,and neuroendocrine,as well as motor control.Moreover,the absence of orexin results in narcolepsy-cataplexy,a simultaneous somatic and non-somatic dysfunction.In this review,we summarize these central functions of the orexinergic system and associated diseases,and suggest that this system may hold a key position in somatic-non-somatic integration.

  11. 75 FR 14436 - Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois Public Service Company, Ameren Energy Resources Company, LLC, AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company; Notice of Filing March 18, 2010. Take notice that on March 15, 2010, Ameren...

  12. The primary Maxillary Central Incisor in the Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Balslev-Olesen, M

    2012-01-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor (SMMCI) is a developmental anomaly in the permanent dentition with one single central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This condition has been associated with extra- and intraoral malformations in the frontonasal segment of the c...

  13. Actual versus perceived central bank transparency: the case of the European Central Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.; Eijffinger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Central banks have become more and more transparent about their monetary policy making process. In the central bank transparency literature the distinction between actual and perceived transparency is often lacking. However, as perceptions are crucial for the actions of economic agents this distinct

  14. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced,…

  15. Central Bank Independence, Centralization of Wage Bargaining, Inflation and Unemployment - Theory and Some Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cukierman, A.; Lippi, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework to investigate the effects of central bank independence, of the degree of centralization of wage bargaining and of the interaction between those institutional variables, on real wages, unemployment and inflation, in a framework in which unions are averse to

  16. A History of the Central Limit Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the history of the central limit theorem and related probabilistic limit theorems from about 1810 through 1950. In this context the book also describes the historical development of analytical probability theory and its tools, such as characteristic functions or moments. The central limit theorem was originally deduced by Laplace as a statement about approximations for the distributions of sums of independent random variables within the framework of classical probability, which focused upon specific problems and applications. Making this theorem an autonomous mathematical

  17. Central nervous system involvement in diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Dinesh; Wilkinson, Iain D; Davies, Jennifer; Gandhi, Rajiv; Tesfaye, Solomon

    2011-08-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic and often disabling condition that affects a significant number of individuals with diabetes. Long considered a disease of the peripheral nervous system, there is now increasing evidence of central nervous system involvement. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods detailed in this review have led to a better understanding and refinement of how diabetic neuropathy affects the central nervous system. Recognition that diabetic neuropathy is, in part, a disease that affects the whole nervous system is resulting in a critical rethinking of this disorder, opening a new direction for further research.

  18. Simulating central forces in the classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirregabiria, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    We describe the easy to customize and extend open source Java program Central force workbench that can be used in the classroom to simulate the motion of a particle (or a two-body system) under central forces. It may be useful to illustrate problems in which the analytical solution is not available as well as to help students to grasp a more intuitive understanding of the main features of this kind of problem and to realize the exceptional nature of the particular case of Newtonian (and harmonic) forces. We also include some suggestions on how to use the program as a pedagogical tool.

  19. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline L. Pfau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress.

  20. Betweenness Centrality : Algorithms and Lower Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kintali, Shiva

    2008-01-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in large scale network analysis is to determine the importance of a particular node in a network. Betweenness centrality is the most widely used metric to measure the importance of a node in a network. In this paper, we present a randomized parallel algorithm, lower bounds and an algebraic method for computing betweenness centrality of all nodes in a network. We prove that any path comparison based algorithm cannot compute betweenness of all nodes in less than O(nm) time.

  1. Central odontogenic fibroma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [School of Dentistry, Busan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Central odontogenic fibroma is a rare odontogenic neoplasm that originates from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. Here, a case of central odontogenic fibroma in a 17-year-old male is reported. Since the present case showed a multilocular radiolucency with partially ill-defined border between the right mandibular condyle and the distal root of the right mandibular third molar, differential diagnosis involved a wide range of pathosis from benign lesions like ameoloblastic fibroma and odontogenic myxoma to more aggressive lesions such as desmoplastic fibroma, juvenile aggressive fibromatosis, or fibrosarcoma.

  2. Incoerenza temporale e indipendenza della banca centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Jossa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the author, the emphasis authors currently tend to place on the 'surprise effect' in order to argue for the independence of central banks is to a large extent unjustified. The main arguments for the independence of a cen-tral bank are others: firstly, the opinion that governments are induced to in-cur excessive expenditure due to reasons highlighted by public choice theo-rists and, secondly, the idea that inflation arises in connection with social conflict. Additionally, this study makes it clear that 'time inconsistency' theory is far from being a new way of stating old ideas.  JEL Codes: E58Keywords:

  3. [Centralization in obstetrics: pros and cons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, V M; Ramb, S

    1996-01-01

    Possible advantages and disadvantages of a general centralization of German obstetric facilities are analysed in the study. The need for centralization of risk cases, especially premature births (regionalization) is pointed out. Centralization appears appropriate, since every fifth maternity unit in Germany (19.78%) has 300 or fewer deliveries per year. This one fifth of perinatal clinics accounts for 6.3% of all deliveries (N = 49450). There are appreciable differences between the old and new federal states (Bundesländer): in the recently acceded federal states, 48.7% of all perinatal clinics have deliveries of 300 and less per year. This group of perinatal clinics accounts for 29% of all deliveries in the new federal states. We have carried out a survey of the mother's attitude to centralization: out of 416 patients in the Detmold women's hospital whose mean age was 29.0 +/- 4.2 years, 90.4% were not in favor of general centralization of obstetrics. 43% were also against a centralization of risk cases (regionalization). 75% of the women surveyed objected to centralized obstetrics because of the 'possible absence of the family', the 'possible absence of students and trainees' (44.9%), the 'unfamiliarity with staff and premises' (41.8%) and 'fear of anonymity' (44.5%). The majority of all women (84.1%) did not want to have a drive more than 20 km to an obstetrics center. Fear of 'delivery in a taxi'(78.6%), the 'fear that the husband will come too late to the delivery' (65.4%) and that the 'overall course of the delivery might not be adequate for reasons of time'. The presence of a pediatrics department in conjunction with the perinatal clinic was rated very positively (93%). It is concluded from the data and further juridical considerations that centralization of risk cases (regionalization) is indispensable in the near future and that somewhat more further into the future decentralization should be carried out by closing obstetrics departments with substantially

  4. The Boolean algebra and central Galois algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B∣bx=g(xb   for all   x∈B} for g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg. Then a relation is given between the set of elements in the Boolean algebra (Ba,≤ generated by {0,eg∣g∈G} and a set of subgroups of G, and a central Galois algebra Be with a Galois subgroup of G is characterized for an e∈Ba.

  5. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  6. China-Central Asia Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The China-Central Asia Friendship Association(CCAFA) held its inaugural meeting in Beijing on December 18,2007. The CCAFA,founded at the initiation of the CPAFFC,is a national non-profit social organization with legal person status.It aims to further expand people-to-people contact between China and the five Central Asian countries,namely Kazakhstan,Kirghizstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan,enhance regional cooperation and deepen good-neighbourly relations so as to consolidate the social foundation for lasting friendship between China and these countries and promote common development.

  7. Interview with Ramon Perez Simarro, Secretary General for Spain's energy and environmental policies. Entrevista Ramon Perez Simarro, Secretario General de la Energia, Energia y medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingot, F.

    1991-12-01

    For the first time, environmental objectives have featured in the 1991-2000 National Energy Plan. Emissions are dealt with from both a quantitative and qualitative point of view. Amongst the most important objectives are those for reducing SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions and for limiting the rate of increase of CO[sub 2] emissions up to the end of the century. 10 figs.

  8. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  9. Central Asia: A New Great Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    southward from civil war, or of revolutionary slogans hitting a chord with Iran’s own ethnic minorities, can only be met by economic investment and reliance...concern, both public and private, over the impact of radiation drifting into Kazakhstan has also been quite vocal .108 Chinese concerns about Central

  10. Quantum Central Processing Unit and Quantum Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安民

    2002-01-01

    Based on a scalable and universal quantum network, quantum central processing unit, proposed in our previous paper [Chin. Phys. Left. 18 (2001)166], the whole quantum network for the known quantum algorithms,including quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm, is obtained in a unitied way.

  11. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa Ramadan; Pandey, Tarun; Badawi, Mona H

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification.

  12. Intracranial calcification in central diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kandari, Salwa R. [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); Pandey, Tarun [Al Razi Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuwait (Kuwait); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Radiology Department, Little Rock, AR (United States); Badawi, Mona H. [Al-Adan Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kuwait (Kuwait)

    2008-01-15

    Intracranial calcification is a known but extremely rare complication of diabetes insipidus. To date, only 16 patients have been reported and all had the peripheral (nephrogenic) type of diabetes insipidus. We report a child with intracranial calcification complicating central diabetes insipidus. We also report a child with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and compare the patterns of intracranial calcification. (orig.)

  13. Workers' Central Life Interests and Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Robert; Champoux, Joseph E.

    Supervisors' ratings of individual industrial workers appear to be related to the central life interests (CLI) of the workers. The group of workers who had a job-oriented CLI received the highest ratings from their superivsors among the three CLI groups on Initiative and Application, Cooperation and Quantity of Work and were rated low on…

  14. Dust on UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    In March 1982 the central derector of UA1 was contaminated by dirt in the compressed air used for cooling during the bakeout of the beam pipe. The lengthy cleaning imposed a change of the collider schedule (Annual Report 1982 p. 114).

  15. Central serotonin metabolism and frequency of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, H.M. van; Haan, S. de

    1979-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) metabolism can be disturbed in a subgroup of patients with vital (endogenous, primary) depression. Presumably these disturbances do not result from the depression and have a predisposing rather than a causative relationship to it. This latter statement i

  16. Betweenness centrality patterns in random planar graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lion, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Random planar graphs appear in a variety of context and it is important for many different applications to be able to characterize their structure. Local quantities fail to give interesting information and it seems that path-related measures are able to convey relevant information about the organization of these structures. In particular, nodes with a large betweenness centrality (BC) display non-trivial patterns, such as loops of very central nodes. We discuss briefly empirical results for different random planar graphs and we propose a toy model which allows us to discuss the condition for the emergence of non-trivial patterns such as central loops. This toy model is made of a star network with $N_b$ branches of size $n$ and links of weight $1$, superimposed to a loop at distance $\\ell$ from the center and with links of weight $w$. We estimate for this model the BC at the center and on the loop and we show that the loop can be more central than the origin if $w

  17. Gabapentin inhibits central sensitization during migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbo Zhang; Guo Shao; Wei Zhang; Sijie Li; Jingzhong Niu; Dongmei Hu; Mingfeng Yang; Xunming Ji

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral and central sensitizations are phenomena that occur during migraine. The role of pentin, a migraine preventive drug, on central sensitization remains unclear. In this study, a rat model of migraine was established by electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion, and the an-imals were given intragastric gabapentin. Changes in amino acid content in the cerebrospinal fluid and protein kinase C membrane translocation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus were examined to clarify the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of gabapentin in the treatment of central sensitization during migraine. Electrophysiology, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and western blot analysis results revealed that gabapentin reduces neuronal excitability in the spinal nucleus in the trigeminal nerve, decreases excitatory amino acid content and inhibits the activation of protein ki-nase C. This provides evidence that excitatory amino acids and protein kinase C are involved in the formation and maintenance of central sensitization during migraine. Gabapentin inhibits migraine by reducing excitatory amino acid content in the cerebrospinal fluid and inhibiting protein kinase C ac-tivation.

  18. Ferrobasalts from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Popko, D.C.

    The occurrence of ferrobasalts recovered from the Central Indian Ocean Basin crust generated at the Southeast Indian Ridge during a phase of moderate to fast spreading accretion (approx 110-190 mm/yr, full rate) is reported. FeO (13-19%), and Ti...

  19. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  20. The central limit theorem and chaos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Ying-xuan

    2009-01-01

    Let X be a compact metric space and f : X → X be a continuous map. This paper studies some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems.It is shown that if f satisfies the central limit theorem, then f is topologically ergodic and f is sensitively dependent on initial conditions if and only if f is neither minimal nor equicontinuous.

  1. Award Winning Communication Programs: Centrality or Confusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Mary E.; Schmidt, Jacqueline J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a post hoc analysis of peer-identified excellent departments at small colleges (5,000 or fewer undergraduates) to discover if they suffer from a lack of centrality. Hopes that this information may be used to help departments plan curriculum, develop evaluation methods, or write mission statements to strengthen existing programs or defend…

  2. Central Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis in Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvrendu Sankar Kar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A 15 years male presented with fever, convulsion, unconsciousness and dystonia of acute onset. He was investigated and treated. MRI brain shows central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis. Osmotic injury, Wilson's disease and other possibilities were excluded by clinical findings with supportive investigations. Patient was improved satisfactorily with treatment. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 420-421

  3. Central African Security: Conflict in the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Alliances mouvantes et conflits extraterritoriaux en Afrique Centrale. Paris: L’Hamarttan. Jean-Claude Willame, Banyarwanda et Banyamulenge: Violence...ethnique et gestion de l’identitaire au Kivu. Paris; L’Harmattan, 1997. Crawford Young, “Zaire: The Anatomy of a Failed State,” in David Birmingham & Phyllis

  4. Performance Management in Dutch Central Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Nico P.; Kruijf, de Johan A.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates how and to what extent performance indicators in Dutch central government are actually embedded in performance management. In a case study encompassing 12 government organizations, the relevance of the indicators presented is analysed in three stages: (1) with respect to th

  5. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  6. Superficial siderosis in the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pythinen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Paeaekkoe, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ilkko, E. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-02-01

    We describe a rare entity, superficial siderosis of the central nervous system, due to multiple small episodes of subarachnoid haemorrhage from any source. Non-specific neurological findings are associated with deposition of iron-containing pigments in the leptomeninges and superficial layers of the cortex. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates characteristic low signal in the meninges. (orig.)

  7. Ablated tektite from the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glass, B.P.; Chapman, D.R.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    , if it originated in Southeast Asia, it must have had a very shallow trajectory (only a few degrees) and a velocity on the order of 7 km/s as it re-entered the atmosphere. The central Indian Ocean tektite is compositionally similar to high-magnesium (HMg...

  8. The ultimate determinants of central bank independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Schaling, E.

    1995-01-01

    Using a graphical method, a new way of determining the optimal degree of central bank conservativeness is developed in this paper. Unlike Lohmann (1992) and Rogoff (1985), we are able to express the upper and lower bounds of the interval containing the optimal degree of conservativeness in terms of

  9. Stochastic modelling of central heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    and the degree Erhvervsforsker (a special Danish degree, equivalent to ``Industrial Ph.D.''). The thesis is mainly concerned with experimental design and system identification for individual components in water based central heating systems. The main contribution to this field is on the nonlinear dynamic...

  10. The Marstal Central Solar Heating Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Jochen, Dahm

    1999-01-01

    The central solar heating plant in Marstal is running since 1996 and has been monitored since. The resulting data from the plant is analysed and the plant performance evaluated. A TRNSYS-model (computersimulation) id prepared and validated based on the measured data from the plant. Acceptable good...

  11. Central Computer IMS Processing System (CIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Howard

    As part of the IMS Version 3 tryout in 1971-72, software was developed to enable data submitted by IMS users to be transmitted to the central computer, which acted on the data to create IMS reports and to update the Pupil Data Base with criterion exercise and class roster information. The program logic is described, and the subroutines and…

  12. Radiologic placement of tunneled central venous catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Seong Tae; Yang, Po Song; Yang, Dong Hunn; Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Eun Joo [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluoroscopy-guided, radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter into the superior vena cava (SVC). Thirty five patients underwent tunneled central venous catheter placement to facilitate long-term chemotherapy. They included 33 leukemic patients, one colon cancer patient, and one multiple myeloma patient. After confirming central venous patency with a injection of contrast media via the peripheral cephalic or basilic vein in the wrist joint, the subclavian vein was punctured under fluoroscopic guidance. A 7F double lumen TPN catheter was placed into the SVC through a subcutaneous tunnel in the anterior chest wall. Catheter placements were successful in all patients. The mean procedure time was 17.2minutes, mean fluooscopy time was 1.3minutes, mean number of punctures was 1.4, and mean volume of injhected contrast media was 43.5cc. Only two of all leukemic patients developed mild hematomas at the puncture site, but these soon resolved themselves. None of the patients developed pneumothorax or hemothorax. But late complications included local infection in two patients (6%) and thrombotic occlusion of the catheter in one (3%). The occluded catheter was successfully recanalized with Urokinase infusion. Fluoroscopy-guided, radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an easy and safe method, and useful for patients requiring long-term venous access.

  13. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  14. The quantum human central neural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere.

  15. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  16. Primary Angiitis Of The Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Meenakshi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of primary angiitis of central nervous system (PACNS presenting with headache, seizures and focal deficits is presented. Despite multiple lesions noted on brain MRI, definitive diagnosis required a brain biopsy. A high index of clinical suspicious and the utility of brain biopsy for diagnosis are emphasized.

  17. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  18. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  19. THE LICHENS OF NORTH CENTRAL OKLAHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARVIN WENDELL KECK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 1,000 specimens of lichens were collected at 78 collecting stations in 11 counties of North Central Oklahoma during 1959 and 1960. The objectives were to identify lichens collected in the area; to establish a record of lichen distribution for each county in the area; and to analyze the ecological relationships.

  20. Notes on Central Asian dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl Jr., J.W.

    2000-01-01

    New and old material from Central Asia is published. In total 38 species are recorded from various locations in this region. For the more interesting species notes and figures are provided. One probably new Ischnura species is briefly described, but not formally named. For a, possibly new, subspecie

  1. Notes on Central Asian dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Schoorl Jr., J.W.

    2000-01-01

    New and old material from Central Asia is published. In total 38 species are recorded from various locations in this region. For the more interesting species notes and figures are provided. One probably new Ischnura species is briefly described, but not formally named. For a, possibly new, subspecies of Sympetrum sinaiticum Dumont, 1977, a short diagnosis with figures is provided.

  2. Larger foraminifera from Central Falcon (Venezuela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Nettie E.; Vlerk, van der I.M.

    1931-01-01

    Dr. H. G. Kugler, chief geologist of the North Venezuelan Petroleum Company, at Puerto Cabello, entrusted us with the examination of a collection of larger foraminifera, selected from material collected by the geologists of this Company in Central Falcon. Dr. A. Senn kindly added material that had a

  3. Volkswagen Sets up Central Lab in BRICI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On June 2, Volkswagen Corp of Germany settled its Chinese central laboratory in Sinopec Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry (BRICI). This is the top-level lab of Volkswagen in Asia - Pacific region and it marks another close cooperation between Volkswagen Corp of Germany and Sinopec Corp.

  4. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  5. Financial Stability and Central Bank Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetter, Michael; Roszbach, Kasper; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The financial crisis has ignited a debate about the appropriate objectives and the governance structure of Central Banks. We use novel survey data to investigate the relation between these traits and banking system stability focusing in particular on their role in micro-prudential supervision. We fi

  6. Stone age transitions. Neolithisation in central Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Knutsson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A summary of a series of individual research projects focused on the processes from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic in central Scandinavia. The projects were embeded in the "Coast to Coast project". The historicity in this process was emphasised.

  7. Fat graft myringoplasty in small central perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perforations of the tympanic membrane (TM are treated with various surgical techniques and materials. Although autologous temporalis fascia is the most common material used for the closure of TM perforations, however for a dry, small central perforation the fat graft myringoplasty (FM is a good alternative as it is a simple and cost-effective technique. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of FM for repair of small central perforations. Suggestions for optimizing the outcome of FM are presented. Material and Methods: Twenty patients (10 males and 10 females who had uncomplicated dry small central perforation, which was confined to one quadrant of the pars tensa underwent FM. The outcome was evaluated after 1-week, 1-month, and 3 months. Results: After 3 months of follow-up, a closure rate of 80% was achieved. Mean preoperative air-bone (AB gap was 22.90 ± 6.54 dB and mean postoperative AB gap was 21.80 ± 6.28 dB. Mean improvement in AB gap postoperatively was 1.1 ± 2.63 dB. Conclusion: Fat graft myringoplasty, with its ease of technique and good graft uptake rate justifies its use in the closure of small dry central TM perforations.

  8. Clinical analysis and treatment of central pain due to headinjury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Central pain is induced by the involvement of the abnormal pain pathway due to diseases of the central nervous system. Central pain after brain trauma is common clinically, but it is often misdiagnosed and neglected because of lack of objective disturbances. We treated 20 cases of central pain after head injury by invigorating blood circulation and satisfactory result was obtained.

  9. Axonal Regeneration in Mammals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-14

    S. 1914. Degeneracion y Regeneration del Sistema Nervioso , Vol. 1, 2. (Nicolas Moya, Madrid), Ramon y Cajal, S. 1928. Degeneration and Regeneration...Cajal, S. 1905. Notas preventivas sobre la degeneracion y regeneracion las vias nerviosos centrales. Trab. Lab. Invest. Biol. Univ. Madrid, 4: 295-301

  10. A measure of centrality based on modularity matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of measure of structural centrality for networks, called modularity centrality, is introduced. This centrality index is based on the eigenvector belonging to the largest magnitude eigenvalue of modularity matrix. The measure is illustrated and compared with the standard centrality measures using a classic dataset. The statistical distribution of modularity centrality is investigated by con- sidering large computer generated graphs and two networks from the real world.

  11. HISTORIAS DENTRO DEL HOSPITAL: TALLER DE ANIMACION A LA LECTURA Y ESCRITURA EN EL AULA HOSPITALARIA RAMON Y CAJAL

    OpenAIRE

    RAMIREZ VEGA ; CHENDA FRANCISCA

    2010-01-01

    El siguiente proyecto de innovación tiene como propósito contribuir a la mejora de la calidad de vida de los niños y adolescentes de entre 3 años a 16 años que presentan una enfermedad aguda o crónica que asisten al Aula Hospitalaria Ramón y Cajal. Se pretende contribuir a la mejora de la calidad de vida de estos niños y adolescentes durante su estadía en el Hospital, a través de la participación activa en las actividades del Taller de animación a la lectura y escritura "His...

  12. Ühinev Euroopa tähistab sümboolset sünnipäeva / Ramon Loik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loik, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    1951. a. allkirjastati Pariisis Euroopa Söe- ja Teraseühenduse asutamisleping, mille kuus osapoolt - Prantsusmaa, Saksamaa Liitvabariik, Belgia, Holland, Luksemburg ja Itaalia asusid koos turge ühendama ning tootmist laiendama

  13. «Ja em vaig aplatanant»: l'exil colombien de Ramon Vinyes (1940-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Gilard

    2014-11-01

    Barranquilla (1940-1950: Franco’s victory forces him to seek exile and return again to Colombia, where the longing for the lost fatherland and the distance from his family and Colombian society provoke in him a feeling of apathy. But also at that time he creates a narrative style that may be said to belong to the initial stirrings of what will later be called Magic Realism.

  14. Proceedings of the Women`s Technical and Professional Symposium, San Ramon, CA, October 3-4, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walling, R.; Norton, M. [eds.

    1996-08-01

    This year`s symposium showcases women`s contributions to science and technology, provide opportunities to learn new skills, discuss barriers that restrict women`s contributions to science and technology, and target actions for change. This 2-day event features presentations from women with a broad range of experiences, and also panel discussions, workshops, seminars, professional development workshops, and an opportunity for networking.

  15. A Climatology of Central American Gyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papin, P. P.; Griffin, K. S.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    Monsoon gyres, commonly found over the western Pacific Ocean, are characterized by broad low-level cyclonic circulations that occur at a variety of spatial scales ranging from 1500-3000 km. Low-level cyclonic gyre circulations, while less frequent and occupying a smaller scale, have also been observed over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. A noteworthy gyre observed during the 2010 PREDICT field project served as a "collector" of TC Matthew and a source for TC Nicole. During October 2011, devastating flooding occurred in Guatemala and El Salvador when TD 12-E, embedded in a gyre circulation, made landfall on the Pacific coast of Central America. These gyre occurrences, their apparent links to TC activity, and their association with high-impact weather motivates this presentation. A preliminary analysis of Central American gyres suggests that their spatial scales vary between 1000-2000 km. These gyres also tend to be co-located with reservoirs of deep moisture that are characterized by high precipitable water values (>50 mm) and embedded deep convection on their southern and eastern sides. Catastrophic flooding can occur when gyre cyclonic circulations interact with the topography of Central America. A Central American gyre climatology including gyre frequency over the TC season and individual gyre duration will be presented. This climatology is then used to craft a gyre composite using previous gyre cases from 1980-2010. Particular attention will be given to the common synoptic and sub-synoptic scale features that precede and take place during gyre formation. This includes the role that intraseasonal and interannual circulations such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) might play in gyre development. TC genesis events within gyre circulations will also be highlighted and examined further. Finally, the results of a September 2010 case study will be used to illustrate the impact that Central American

  16. THE ALLIANCE TRACHYNION DISTACHYAE RIVAS-MARTINEZ 1978 IN CENTRAL ITALYIN CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DE SANCTIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The therophytic basiphilous vegetation of Central Italy has been generally framed in a single association Trifolio scabri- Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Biondi et al. 1997. We show that a considerable floristic variation exists inside Trifolio-Hypochoeridetum in Central Italy, and that it should be treated as a complex of no less than five different associations: Medicagini rigidulae-Trifolietum scabri Fanelli et al. hoc loco, Trifolio scabri-Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Biondi, Izco. Ballelli & Formica 1997 s.s, Hippocrepido siliquosae- Brachypodietum distachyi Fanelli et al. ad interim, Trigonello gladiatae-Brachypodietum distachyi Fanelli et al. hoc loc, Crucianello latifoliae-Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Filesi, Blasi, Di Marzio 1996. These associations are floristically and ecologically distinct, and show different geographical ranges in Central Italy. The great diversity of Trachynion distachyae in Central Italy is related to the widespread occurrence of limestone and calcareous alluvial rocks and to a climate with abundant winter and autumn rains very favourable to the development of winter annuals.

  17. On Central Extensions of Associative Dialgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, Isamiddin S.

    2016-03-01

    The concept of central extensions plays an important in constructing extensions of algebras. This technique has been successfully used in the classification problem of certain classes of algebras. In 1978 Skjelbred and Sund reduced the classification of nilpotent Lie algebras in a given dimension to the study of orbits under the action of automorphism group on the space of second degree cohomology of a smaller Lie algebra with coefficients in a trivial module. Then W. de Graaf applied the Skjelbred and Sund method to the classification problem of low-dimensional nilpotent Lie and associative algebras over some fields. The main purpose of this note is to establish elementary properties of central extensions of associative dialgebras and apply the above mentioned method to the classification of low dimensional nilpotent associative dialgebras.

  18. [Central nervous system malformations: neurosurgery correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-León, Juan C; Betancourt-Fursow, Yaline M; Jiménez-Betancourt, Cristina S

    2013-09-06

    Congenital malformations of the central nervous system are related to alterations in neural tube formation, including most of the neurosurgical management entities, dysraphism and craniosynostosis; alterations of neuronal proliferation; megalencefaly and microcephaly; abnormal neuronal migration, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heterotopia and cortical dysplasia, spinal malformations and spinal dysraphism. We expose the classification of different central nervous system malformations that can be corrected by surgery in the shortest possible time and involving genesis mechanisms of these injuries getting better studied from neurogenic and neuroembryological fields, this involves connecting innovative knowledge areas where alteration mechanisms in dorsal induction (neural tube) and ventral induction (telencephalization) with the current way of correction, as well as the anomalies of cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal migration and finally the complex malformations affecting the posterior fossa and current possibilities of correcting them.

  19. Sheehan's syndrome with central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Dar, Mohd Iqbal; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2011-03-01

    Sheehan's syndrome refers to the occurrence of hypopituitarism after delivery, usually preceded by postpartum hemorrhage. The condition still continues to be a common cause of hypopituitarism in developing countries like India. The disorder usually presents with anterior pituitary failure with preservation of posterior pituitary functions. Posterior pituitary dysfunction in the form of central diabetes insipidus is rare in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We describe the clinical course of a young lady who after her sixth childbirth developed severe postpartum hemorrhage followed by development of panhypopituitarism which was confirmed by hormonal investigation and demonstration of empty sella on imaging. In addition, she developed Polyuria. The water deprivation test and response to vasopressin test results indicated central diabetes insipidus. She needed oral desmopressin on a continuous basis to control polyuria.

  20. Comprehensive management of presbycusis: central and peripheral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Kourosh; Lin, Frank R; Coelho, Daniel H; Sataloff, Robert T; Gates, George A

    2013-04-01

    The prevailing otolaryngologic approach to treatment of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), presbycusis, emphasizes compensation of peripheral functional deficits (ie, hearing aids and cochlear implants). This approach does not address adequately the needs of the geriatric population, 1 in 5 of whom is expected to consist of the "old old" in the coming decades. Aging affects both the peripheral and central auditory systems, and disorders of executive function become more prevalent with advancing age. Growing evidence supports an association between age-related hearing loss and cognitive decline. Thus, to facilitate optimal functional capacity in our geriatric patients, a more comprehensive management strategy of ARHL is needed. Diagnostic evaluation should go beyond standard audiometric testing and include measures of central auditory function, including dichotic tasks and speech-in-noise testing. Treatment should include not only appropriate means of peripheral compensation but also auditory rehabilitative training and counseling.

  1. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....... illustrate with our empirical analysis on global sourcing organization design at Global Chemical Company (GCC, a pseudonym) that revisiting the conventional wisdom about global sourcing organization designs is required; by engaging in a detailed, subfirm level of analysis on the design of the purchasing...

  2. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    Network-based techniques are widely used in criminal investigations because patterns of association are actionable and understandable. Existing network models with nodes as first class entities and their related measures (e.g., social networks and centrality measures) are unable to capture...... and analyze the structural richness required to model and investigate criminal network entities and their associations. We demonstrate a need to rethink entity associations with one specific case (inspired by \\textit{The Wire}, a tv series about organized crime in Baltimore, United States) and corroborated...... by similar evidence from other cases. Our goal is to develop centrality measures for fragmented and non-navigational states of criminal network investigations. A network model with three basic first class entities is presented together with a topology of associations between network entities. We implement...

  3. Centralizers in simple locally finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kuzucuoğlu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey article on centralizers of finitesubgroups in locally finite, simple groups or LFS-groups as wewill call them. We mention some of the open problems aboutcentralizers of subgroups in LFS-groups and applications of theknown information about the centralizers of subgroups to thestructure of the locally finite group. We also prove thefollowing: Let $G$ be a countably infinite non-linear LFS-groupwith a Kegel sequence $mathcal{K}={(G_i,N_i | iinmathbf{N} }$. If there exists an upper bound for ${ |N_i| |iin mathbf{N} }$, then for any finite semisimplesubgroup $F$ in $G$ the subgroup $C_G(F$ has elements oforder $p_i$ for infinitely many distinct prime $p_i$. Inparticular $C_G(F$ is an infinite group. This answers Hartley'squestion provided that there exists a bound on ${ |N_i| | iin mathbf{N}$.

  4. Introduction to FAST central control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinghai; Zhu, Lichun; Jiang, Zhiqian

    2016-07-01

    FAST is the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. During observation, part of spherical reflector forms paraboloid to the source direction, meanwhile the feed is placed to instant focus. The control of telescope is difficult and complicated. An autonomous central control system is designed and implemented for methodically and efficiently operation. The system connects and coordinates all subsystems including control, measurement and health monitoring for reflector, feed support and receiver respectively. The main functions are managing observation tasks, commanding subsystems, storing operating data, monitoring statuses and providing the uniform time standard. In this paper, the functions, software and hardware of FAST central control system are presented. The relative infrastructures such as power, network and control room arrangement are introduced.

  5. The segetal flora of the Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia U. Warcholińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a state and general characteristic of segetal flora of Central Poland is given. The segetal flora of the researched area consists 587 taxa. 127 (21,6% of them are on the list of threatened segetal plants. The studied flora was characterized by a high percentage of short-living plants (341 species - 58,1 %. Species of nature origin (apophytes constitute the dominant group (341 species - 58,1 %. Species of the archaeophytes group were frequently recorded (143 species - 24,4%. The most threatened species in the area of Central Poland are: Vaccaria hispanica (CR, Adonis flammea (CR, Coringia orientalis (CR, Thymelaea passerina (CR, Lythrum hyssopifolia (CR, Bupleurum rotundifolium (CR, Kickxia elatine (CR, Isolepis setacea (CR, Bromus arvensis (CR, Lolium temulentum (CR, L. remotum (CR.

  6. COOPERATION VS. COMPETITION IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica MIHALACHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the cooperation-competition ratio in the Central Asia region aiming at maintaining a force balance between Russia and China – as main state actors of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, and avoiding the dominance of a state over the other member states of the Organization. Our paper attempts to identify the theoretical arguments that might render a better insight in this organization as a framework meant to mutually balance influence between Russia and China, with the purpose of reciprocally monitoring and limiting their power in a region considered the core of SCO – from a geographical point of view and from the point of view of the two powers’ interest. On the other hand, we should take into account that promoting multipolarity in the global politics is a common interest of China and Russia; both countries started to exclude, to various extents, the Western powers’ interests in Central Asia.

  7. Spherical explosion with central energy source

    CERN Document Server

    Masuyama, Miyu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution describing the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements to satisfy boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus derived applicable range, and compare with the semi-analytic solutions.

  8. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species are being reported for the first time from the region. The commercial button mushroom Agaricus bisporus lacks good breeding characters due to its bisporic nature. These wild cousins of the button mushroom can definitely prove to be a good source of genetic manipulations to the existing strains and also to develop new strains with improved characters.

  9. Central charge for the Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropotenko, K.

    2016-12-01

    Proceeding in exactly the same way as in the derivation of the temperature of a dual CFT for the extremal black hole in the Kerr/CFT correspondence, it is found that the temperature of a chiral, dual CFT for the Schwarzschild black hole is T = 1/2π. Comparing Cardy’s formula with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and using T, it is found that the central charge for the Schwarzschild black hole is of the form c = 12Jin, where Jin is the intrinsic angular momentum of the black hole, Jin = A/8πG. It is shown that the central charge for any four-dimensional (4D) extremal black hole is of the same form. The possible universality of this form is briefly discussed.

  10. Expansion of museums in Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagodzińska, Katarzyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents reflections on the specificity of collections and museums of contemporary art in Central Europe and considers a possibility of creating a regional alternative for the West. The analysis is conducted in the context of the expansionist policy of contemporary museums – notably the Louvre, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the Hermitage – whose numerous new development projects gave rise to a number of dilemmas in the museological world. The author discusses global "museum brands" that invest in Central Europe and addresses the possible profits of the expansion of such "concerns" for culture in the region, as well as emphasises the potential of the region itself, which may be used for its development without the avail of the internationally renowned collectors' names.

  11. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Spiegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective, neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system, or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system. The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed.

  12. Infections associated with the central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasković, Biljana; Fabri, Izabella; Benka, Anna Uram; Rakić, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Central venous catheters are of an essential importance to critically ill patients who require long-term venous access for various purposes. Their use made the treatment much easier, but still they are not harmless and are prone to numerous complications. Catheter infections represent the most significant complication in their use. The frequency of infections varies in different patient care settings, but their appearance mostly depends on the patient's health condition, catheter insertion time, localization of the catheter and type of the used catheter. Since they are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and related to significant number of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, it is very important that maximal aseptic precautions are taken during the insertion and the maintenance period. Prevention of infection of the central venous catheters demands several measures that should be applied routinely.

  13. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Ghabaee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS is an idiopathic disorder (vasculitis restricted to the central nervous system (CNS. It often presents with focal neurological deficits suggesting stroke or a combination of confusion and headache. We herein report three cases with various combinations of fever, partial seizure, encephalopathy, paresis, headache and ataxia. One of them was initially treated as herpes simplex meningoencephalitis, but further investigations revealed primary angiitis. Primary angiitis of the CNS has protean manifestations and should always be considered in patients suspicious to have CNS infection or stroke, particularly who does not respond to the routine treatments. Clinical data, exclusion of differential diagnoses and typical angiography seem to be enough to justify the diagnosis in the majority of cases.

  14. Iowa Central Quality Fuel Testing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heach, Don; Bidieman, Julaine

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project is to finalize the creation of an independent quality fuel testing laboratory on the campus of Iowa Central Community College in Fort Dodge, Iowa that shall provide the exploding biofuels industry a timely and cost-effective centrally located laboratory to complete all state and federal fuel and related tests that are required. The recipient shall work with various state regulatory agencies, biofuel companies and state and national industry associations to ensure that training and testing needs of their members and American consumers are met. The recipient shall work with the Iowa Department of Ag and Land Stewardship on the development of an Iowa Biofuel Quality Standard along with the Development of a standard that can be used throughout industry.

  15. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction - An alternative surgical technique for central pancreatic mass resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswanto Sucandy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Central pancreatectomy has gained popularity in the past decade as treatment of choice for low malignant potential tumor in the midpancreas due to its ability to achieve optimal preservation of pancreatic parenchyma. Simultaneously, advancement in minimally invasive approach has contributed to numerous novel surgical techniques with significantly lower morbidity and mortality. With the purpose of improving patient outcomes, we describe a laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy as an alternative method to the previously described open central pancreatectomy with roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction. Case Report: A 39 year old man presented to our clinic with a 2.5 cm neuroendocrine tumor at the neck of the pancreas. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction was successfully performed. Operative time was 210 minutes with blood loss of 200 ml. Postoperative course was uneventful except for a minimal pancreatic leak which was controlled by an intraoperatively placed closed suction drain. At 2 week follow up, patient was asymptomatic with well preserved pancreatic endo and exocrine functions. Permanent pathology findings showed a well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with negative margins and nodes. Conclusions: Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction is feasible and safe for a centrally located tumor. Laparoscopic assisted technique facilitates application of minimally invasive approach by increasing surgical feasibility in typically complex pancreatic operations.

  16. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction - An alternative surgical technique for central pancreatic mass resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswanto Sucandy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Central pancreatectomy has gained popularity in the past decade as treatment of choice for low malignant potential tumor in the midpancreas due to its ability to achieve optimal preservation of pancreatic parenchyma. Simultaneously, advancement in minimally invasive approach has contributed to numerous novel surgical techniques with significantly lower morbidity and mortality. With the purpose of improving patient outcomes, we describe a laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy as an alternative method to the previously described open central pancreatectomy with roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction. Case Report: A 39 year old man presented to our clinic with a 2.5 cm neuroendocrine tumor at the neck of the pancreas. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction was successfully performed. Operative time was 210 minutes with blood loss of 200 ml. Postoperative course was uneventful except for a minimal pancreatic leak which was controlled by an intraoperatively placed closed suction drain. At 2 week follow up, patient was asymptomatic with well preserved pancreatic endo and exocrine functions. Permanent pathology findings showed a well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with negative margins and nodes. Conclusions: Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction is feasible and safe for a centrally located tumor. Laparoscopic assisted technique facilitates application of minimally invasive approach by increasing surgical feasibility in typically complex pancreatic operations.

  17. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects...

  18. Lagrange, central norms, and quadratic Diophantine equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Diophantine equation of the form x2−Dy2=c, where c=±1,±2, and provide a generalization of results of Lagrange with elementary proofs using only basic properties of simple continued fractions. As a consequence, we achieve a completely general, simple, and elegant criterion for the central norm to be 2 in the simple continued fraction expansion of D.

  19. Cancer-related fatigue: central or peripheral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuzsen, Tugba; Davis, Mellar P; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Walsh, Declan; Siemionow, Vlodek; Kirkova, Jordanka; Khoshknabi, Dilara; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan; Yue, Guang H

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate cancer-related fatigue (CRF) by objective measurements to determine if CRF is a more centrally or peripherally mediated disorder, cancer patients and matched noncancer controls completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) and underwent neuromuscular testing. Cancer patients had fatigue measured by the BFI, were off chemotherapy and radiation (for more than four weeks), had a hemoglobin level higher than 10 g/dL, and were neither receiving antidepressants nor were depressed on a screening question. The controls were screened for depression and matched by age, gender, and body mass index. Neuromuscular testing involved a sustained submaximal elbow flexion contraction (SC) at 30% maximal level (30% maximum elbow flexion force). Endurance time (ET) was measured from the beginning of the SC to the time when participants could not maintain the SC. Evoked twitch force (TF), a measure of muscle fatigue, and compound action potential (M-wave), an assessment of neuromuscular-junction transmission were performed during the SC. Compared with controls, the CRF group had a higher BFI score (Pcontrols, P<0.05). This indicated less muscle fatigue. There was a greater TF (P<0.05) at the end of the SC, indicating greater central fatigue, in the CRF group, which failed to recruit muscle (to continue the SC), as well as the controls. M-Wave amplitude was lower in the CRF group than in the controls (P<0.01), indicating impaired neuromuscular junction conduction with CRF unrelated to central fatigue (M-wave amplitude did not change with SC). These data demonstrate that CRF patients exhibited greater central fatigue, indicated by shorter ET and less voluntary muscle recruitment during an SC relative to controls.

  20. Central bank conservatism and labor market reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jordahl, Henrik; Laséen, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    How does central bank conservatism affect labor market reform? In this paper we examine the economic forces at work. An increase in conservatism triggers two opposite effects. It reduces the inflation bias of discretionary monetary policy and hence the benefits of a reform. It also increases unemployment variability, which increases the precautionary benefits of a reform. In combination, the two effects produce a u-shaped relation between conservatism and labor market reform. An empirical inv...

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Centralized Dynamic Cell Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Pedersen, Klaus I.;

    2016-01-01

    mechanism and solutions involving cell switching in general. Simulation results show that such solutions can greatly benefit from the use of receivers with interference suppression capabilities and a larger number of antennas, with a maximum data rate gain of 120%. High performance gains are observed...... with two different traffic models, and it is not necessary to be able to connect to a large number of cells in order to reap most of the benefits of the centralized dynamic cell selection....

  2. Virasoro central charges for Nichols algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Semikhatov, A M

    2011-01-01

    Virasoro central charge associated with Nichols algebras is invariant under the Weyl groupoid action and takes very suggestive values for some items in Heckenberger's list of rank-2 Nichols algebras. In particular, this might be taken as an indication of the existence of reasonable logarithmic extensions of W3==WA2, WB2, and WG2 models of conformal field theory. In the W3 case, the construction of an octuplet extended algebra is outlined.

  3. Central compact objects in magnetic lethargy

    CERN Document Server

    Viganò, Daniele; Perna, Rosalba

    2013-01-01

    Central Compact Objects are peculiar young neutron stars, with very low external magnetic fields combined with high fluxes in the X-ray band and surface temperature anisotropies. However, in their crust the magnetic field can be strong, result of its burial during a short post-supernova hypercritical accretion episode. The implications of this latter scenario for the temperature anisotropy, pulsed fraction and luminosity are discussed.

  4. Pandillas and Security in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the topic of pandillas (street gangs) and their implications for security in Central America. There is minimal scholarly literature on pandillas and security. In part this is due to serious challenges in analyzing pandillas. First, pandilla members consider truth to be situational; data derived directly from them is suspect. Second, those who know most about them are involved in NGOs that rely on foreign assistance for their work. The project reports the...

  5. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  6. Central bank operating frameworks and collateral markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2015-01-01

    Collateral markets have become increasingly important as demand for collateral assets has increased in recent years, driven by changing market practices and an evolving regulatory landscape. This report explores whether and how the design of central banks' operational frameworks influences private collateral markets, including collateral availability, pricing, related market practices, and market performance under stress. It studies these issues by reviewing available information from a range...

  7. Deforestation in eastern and central nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Shuji; Miyamoto, Shinji; Kariya, Yoshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Dated charcoal and humic materials in soil, both of which are evidence of forest fire and vegetation changes, as well as pollen analysis of soil indicate occurrence of past deforestation in the Nepal Himalayas. In Sirubari, central Nepal, human impact such as population growth and cultural change may have accelerated an environmental change during the 14-15th centuries. In Junbesi and Phaplu, the Solu area of eastern Nepal, temporary deforestation caused by hunting and grazing is evident of h...

  8. DNA, the central molecule of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, Peter; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of aging could have enormous medical implications. Despite a century of research, however, there is no universally accepted theory regarding the molecular basis of aging. On the other hand, there is plentiful evidence suggesting that DNA constitutes the central molecule in this process. Here, we review the roles of chromatin structure, DNA damage, and shortening of telomeres in aging and propose a hypothesis for how their interplay leads to aging phenotypes.

  9. Gas industry in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, H. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The transition to a market economy in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has had many implications for the gas sector, in particular on the market development and prices, on the structure of the sector and on the investment level. The institutional and financial barriers to the development of CEE`s gas markets are summarized. Technical and marketing barriers are discussed, covering system design and integrity, metering, markets and energy efficiency. Finally, World Bank role and objectives are outlined. (R.P.)

  10. Regional Strategic Appraisal of Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    originally consisted of five states that gained their independence from Spain in 1821 and formed a single country, called Central America Federation ...and in each case a civilian president has voluntarily yielded power to another elected civilian. Electoral processes have nearly acquired a “life of...Observatorio de Seguridad y Defensa en America Latina (OSAL), Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. 38 Ibid. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agosin, Manuel R., David

  11. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999, aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s2. In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia, the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth < 50 km seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64, intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8, 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.

  12. Two root canals in maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Gomes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Case report: This clinical article reports an unusual root canal configuration that was detected in a maxillary central incisor with two root canals, demonstrated by radiographic and computerized tomography exams. Conclusion: Knowledge of endodontic anatomy as well as the obtainment of both preoperative radiographs and tomography is important to detect abnormal tooth morphology.

  13. Central Nervous System Involvement in Whipple Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Compain, Caroline; Sacre, Karim; Puéchal, Xavier; Klein, Isabelle; Vital-Durand, Denis; Houeto, Jean-Luc; De Broucker, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Papo, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Whipple disease (WD) is a rare multisystemic infection with a protean clinical presentation. The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in 3 situations: CNS involvement in classic WD, CNS relapse in previously treated WD, and isolated CNS infection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, diagnostic workup, brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, treatment, and follow-up data in 18 patients with WD and CNS infection. Ten men and 8 women were included with a median ag...

  14. The Central Mystery of Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Partha

    2009-01-01

    A critical re-examination of the double-slit experiment and its variants is presented to clarify the nature of what Feynmann called the ``central mystery'' and the ``only mystery'' of quantum mechanics, leading to an interpretation of complementarity in which a `wave {\\em and} particle' description rather than a `wave {\\em or} particle' description is valid for the {\\em same} experimental set up, with the wave culminating in the particle sequentially in time. This interpretation is different ...

  15. The central part of CMS is lowered

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    On 28 February 2007, the CMS central piece containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) was gently lowered into place. Only 20 cm separated the detector, which was suspended by four huge cables, each with 55 strands and sophisticated monitoring to minimize sway and tilt, from the walls of the shaft. The entire process took about 10 hours to complete.

  16. Central bank purchases of government bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Samuel; Kim, Jaehong

    2015-01-01

    We develop a microfounded model, where agents have the possibility to trade money for government bonds in an over-the-counter market. It allows us to address important open questions about the effects of central bank purchases of government bonds, these being: under what conditions these purchases can be welfare-improving, what incentive problems they mitigate, and how large these effects are. Our main finding is that this policy measure can be welfare-improving, by correcting a pecuniary ext...

  17. ACLED Country Report: Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rights Watch, 2014). This has led to reprisal attacks on the part of the Séléka, and targeting by both groups now frequent- ly focuses on the religion ... religion . The distribution of Figure 8: Conflict Events Involving the Anti-Balaka, Central African Republic, August 2013 - September 2014. The...of the country where Islam is the majority religion . Most of its members are Muslim, including leader Michel Djotodia, who served as president from

  18. Remote Control Research in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Trefon, Theodore; Cogels, Serge

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how a project being implemented in peri-urban central Africa is coordinated from an office in Brussels. After an overview that addresses the conceptual challenges of defining ‘peri-urban’ and the question of why these social spaces are important from a development perspective, the article outlines ‘remote control research’ step-by-step: (i) conceptualisation, (ii) identification and recruitment of local experts, (iii) selection of research sites, (iv) the process of form...

  19. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  20. Human Rights Training for Central Government Officials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUR STAFF REPORTER

    2007-01-01

    @@ More than 50 officials from central government departments attended a human rights training class held in Nanchang,Jiangxi Province, on May 29-June 2. The class was sponsored by the State Council Information Office, during which the trainees attended lectures given on China's human rights concepts and the current human rights conditions in the country,human rights theories and international human rights instruments and protection of human rights under the rule of law.

  1. Central bank learning and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaselassie, Mewael F.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze optimal monetary policy when a central bank has to learn about an unknown coefficient that determines the effect of surprise inflation on aggregate demand. We derive the optimal policy under active learning and compare it to two limiting cases---certainty equivalence policy and cautionary policy, in which learning takes place passively. Our novel result is that the two passive learning policies represent an upper and lower bound for the active learning policy, irrespective of the s...

  2. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Antonios, Rafic S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. PMID:27784979

  3. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour,1,2 Rafic S Antonios,1 Iqbal Ike K Ahmed3 1Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods: We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results: This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion: The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. Keywords: brunescent cataract, cortex aspiration, phacoemulsification, pseudo-exfoliation, weak zonules

  4. Tuberculoma of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLance, Arthur R; Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Clark, Aaron J; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sun, Matthew Z; Bollen, Andrew W; Phillips, Joanna J; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is among the oldest and most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Nearly one third of the world's population has active or latent disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths annually. Central nervous system involvement, while rare, is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Manifestations include tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis, with the majority of cases occurring in children and immunocompromised patients. Despite advancements in imaging and laboratory diagnostics, tuberculomas of the central nervous system remain a diagnostic challenge due to their insidious nature and nonspecific findings. On imaging studies tuberculous meningitis is characterized by diffuse basal enhancement, but tuberculomas may be indistinguishable from neoplasms. Early diagnosis is imperative, since clinical outcomes are largely dependent on timely treatment. Stereotactic biopsy with histopathological analysis can provide a definitive diagnosis, but is only recommended when non-invasive methods are inconclusive. Standard medical treatment includes rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin or ethambutol. In cases of drug resistance, revision of the treatment regimen with second-line agents is recommended over the addition of a single drug to the first-line regimen. Advances in genomics have identified virulent strains of tuberculosis and are improving our understanding of host susceptibility. Neurosurgical referral is advised for patients with elevated intracranial pressure, seizures, or brain or spinal cord compression. This review synthesizes pertinent findings in the literature surrounding central nervous system tuberculoma in an effort to highlight recent advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  5. Visibility of the central canal on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit-Lacour, M.C.; Lasjaunias, P.; Iffenecker, C.; Benoudiba, F.; Hadj Rabia, M.; Doyon, D. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Faculte de Paris Sud (France); Hurth, M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculte Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2000-10-01

    The central canal of the spinal cord is present at birth and becomes progressively obliterated. Cadaver studies have shown that it may persiste partially or completely. To our knowledge, this entity has not been described on MRI. We reviewed 794 MRI studies of the spinal cord, and found 12 patients (aged 14 to 65 years) who had an intramedullary cavity. The cavity was at the junction of the ventral {sup 1}/{sub 3} and dorsal {sup 2}/{sub 3} of the spinal cord, except at the level of the lumbar enlargement, where it was central. It was filiform in most cases, although sometimes fusiform (3 to 4 mm in diameter), and had regular contours. The cavity were thoracic in 69 % of cases. The clinical features were totally unrelated to the image, and there were no anatomical factors (Chiari malformation, dysraphism) predisposing to syringomyelia. The images were perfectly compatible with a persistent central canal, which we interpret as a variant of normal anatomy. Therefore it is important to regard these findings as normal, to avoid unnecessary treatment and follow-up. (orig.)

  6. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  7. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  8. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  9. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  10. The Centralizer on H- Separable Smash Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝家贵

    2002-01-01

    Let H be a finite dimensional Hopf algebra over a field and A an H-module algebra. The H induces an action on the CA#H(A) by adjoint and CA#H(A)H= Z(A # H) = C,where CA#H(A) denotes the centralizer which algebra A in A # H and Z(A # H) the center of A # H.The aim of this paper is to discuss ,the Galois conditions on the centralizer CA# H(A).We prove that CA# H(A)/ZA # H is H* -Galois if and only if CA# H(A)# H/CA# H(A) is H-separable). Furthermore , if H is a finite dimensional semisimple Hopf algebra and CA# H(A)# H is an Azumaya C-algebra or A # H/A is H-separable, CA# H(A) satisfies the double centralizer property in CA# H(A)# H, CA# H(A)/C is separable and there exists a cocommutative left integral t ∈∫1H,then CA# H(A)/C is H*-Galois.

  11. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohadjer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  12. Centrally acting antihypertensive agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Domenic A

    2007-05-01

    Centrally acting agents stimulate alpha(2) receptors and/or imadozoline receptors on adrenergic neurons situated within the rostral ventrolateral medulla and, in so doing, sympathetic outflow is reduced. Centrally acting agents also stimulate peripheral alpha(2) receptors, which, for the most part, is of marginal clinical significance. Central a agonists have had a lengthy history of use, starting with alpha-methyldopa, which has had a dramatic decline in use, in part, because of bothersome side effects. Patients who require multidrug therapy with otherwise resistant hypertension, such as diabetic and/or renal failure patients, are typically responsive to these drugs, as are patients with sympathetically driven forms of hypertension. Perioperative forms of hypertension respond well to clonidine, a circumstance where the additional anesthesia- and analgesia-sparing effects of this drug may offer additional clinical benefits. Clonidine can be used adjunctively with other more traditional therapies in heart failure, particularly when hypertension is present. Sustained-release moxonidine, however, is associated with early mortality and morbidity when used in patients with heart failure. Escalating doses of drugs in this class often give rise to salt and water retention, in which case diuretic therapy becomes a valuable adjunctive therapy.

  13. Temporal diversification of Central American cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulsey C Darrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes are classic examples of adaptive radiation because of their putative tendency to explosively diversify after invading novel environments. To examine whether ecological opportunity increased diversification (speciation minus extinction early in a species-rich cichlid radiation, we determined if Heroine cichlids experienced a burst of diversification following their invasion of Central America. Results We first reconstructed the Heroine phylogeny and determined the basal node to use as the root of Central American Heroine diversification. We then examined the influence of incomplete taxon sampling on this group's diversification patterns. First, we added missing species randomly to the phylogeny and assessed deviations from a constant rate of lineage accumulation. Using a range of species numbers, we failed to recover significant deviations from a pure-birth process and found little support for an early burst of diversification. Then, we examined patterns of lineage accumulation as nodes were increasingly truncated. We assumed that as we removed more recently diverged lineages that sampling would become more complete thereby increasing the power to detect deviations from a pure-birth model. However, truncation of nodes provided even less support for an early burst of diversification. Conclusions Contrary to expectations, our analyses suggest Heroine cichlids did not undergo a burst of diversification when they invaded from South America. Throughout their history in Central America, Heroine cichlids appear to have diversified at a constant rate.

  14. Decreased central corneal thickness in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortak, Huseyin; Inanır, Ahmet; Demir, Selim; Uysal, Alper; Şahin, Şafak; Sağcan, Mustafa; Önder, Yalçın; Alim, Sait; Demir, Ayşe Kevser

    2014-04-01

    Central corneal thickness and dry eye tests were evaluated in a study population consisting of 68 ankylosing spondylitis patients diagnosed according to the modified New York criteria, and 61 age-matched controls without ankylosing spondylitis. A full ophthalmological evaluation was performed on each subject. All subjects were screened for age, gender, HLA-B27, tear break-up time test, Schirmer test, and duration of disease. Central corneal thickness was measured under topical anesthesia with an ultrasonic pachymeter. The mean central corneal thickness was 537.3 ± 30.6 μm, range 462-600 μm, in ankylosing spondylitis patients, whereas it was 551.7 ± 25.2 μm, range 510-620 μm, in controls (p = 0.005). The Schirmer test result was 7.3 ± 5.9 mm for the ankylosing spondylitis patients and 11.7 ± 5.8 mm for the control group (p = 0.002). Tear break-up time was 7.3 ± 3.2 s for the ankylosing spondylitis patients and 14.0 ± 4.5 s for the control group (p ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, attention must be given to lower dry eye tests in surgical interventions such as photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis in ankylosing spondylitis patients.

  15. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  16. Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, D; Behnke-Mursch, J; Weiss, E; Christen, H J; Kühl, J; Lakomek, M; Pekrun, A

    2000-04-01

    Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare malignancies with a still almost uniformly fatal outcome. There is still no proven curative therapy available. We report our experience with nine patients with central nervous system rhabdoid tumors. Gross complete surgical removal of the tumor was achieved in six patients. Seven patients received intensive chemotherapy. Four of these were treated in addition with both neuroaxis radiotherapy and a local boost directed to the tumor region, while two patients received local radiotherapy only. The therapy was reasonably well tolerated in most cases. Despite the aggressive therapy, eight of the nine patients died from progressive tumor disease, and one patient died from hemorrhagic brain stem lesions of unknown etiology. The mean survival time was 10 months after diagnosis. Conventional treatment, although aggressive, cannot change the fatal prognosis of central nervous system rhabdoid tumors. As these neoplasms are so rare, a coordinated register would probably be a good idea, offering a means of learning more about the tumor's biology and possible strategies of treatment.

  17. Comparing Central Peak and Central Pit Craters on Mercury and Mars: Implications for Crustal Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Horstman, Ryan M.

    2016-10-01

    We have measured and classified 20,782 impact craters on Mercury and 24,495 craters on Mars 5 km in diameter and larger for a comparison study of these features. We identified 1144 floor pit and 638 summit pit craters on Mars and 32 summit pit craters but no floor pits on Mercury. We also identified 1682 central peak craters on Mars and 1764 on Mercury. We computed the ratio of the pit or basal peak diameter to the crater diameter in each case and compared the results for the two bodies. Summit pits on Mars have a median pit-to-crater diameter (Dp/Dc) ratio of 0.12 compared to 0.09 on Mercury, indicating pits are slightly larger relative to their parent crater on Mars. We find no correlation of the distribution of Mercury's central pits with features attributed to volatiles, i.e. radar-bright polar craters and craters containing hollows. This indicates that Mercury's central pits form by collapse of a weak brecciated core in the central peak and do not require the presence of volatiles, as is commonly assumed for central pit formation. The median peak-to-crater diameter (Dpk/Dc) ratio for the peaks on which summit pits are found on both bodies is statistically identical to that of the respective normal unpitted central peaks. This indicates that the peaks on which summit pits occur form in the same manner as normal central peaks but subsequently undergo core collapse to create the summit pit. Interestingly, the median Dpk/Dc for Martian peaks is twice as high as for their Mercurian counterparts (0.30 versus 0.15, respectively). Because Mercury and Mars have essentially the same surface gravity, the only major difference between the two bodies that could explain this observation is target characteristics. Prior studies of the composition of the crust and the detection of larger-than-normal secondary craters have led to the proposal that Mercury's crust is stronger than the crusts of the other terrestrial planets. Mercury's low number of central pit craters, the

  18. Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marushiakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations During recent years the topic of Gypsy/Roma migration and identities became burning topic of pan-EUropean public discourse. Much less attention is paid to the Gypsy migrations outside the borders of European Union. The present article has ambitious goal to fulfill this gap and to present contemporary Gypsy migrations in Post-soviet Central Asian in order to see how this “burning” topic looks outside European space. After breakdown of Soviet Union and establishing of new independent republics in Central Asia and in connection to economical difficulties, wars and social unrest, in order to make their living, the communities of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’ revitalised their former nomadic traditions and migrate towards Russian Federation and in frames of Central Asia towards Kazakhstan. There they are earning their living through begging and sporadic work in construction and scrap collection. A central point of this article is the impact of these contemporary migrations on the development of identities and well being of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’. The multilevel, hierarchically structured identities of Central-Asian ‘Gypsies' are analysed as demonstrated in different historical contexts – as former “Soviet people”, member of former ruling class of agricultural proletariat, and as declassed community today; as Central-Asian ‘Gypsies’ or as citizens of respective Central Asian Republics during migrations in Russian Federation in front of Russian majority society and in front of Roma; and in context of the Central Asian region during the migrations to Kazakhstan and in their home countries.     Cyganie środkowoazjatyccy – tożsamości i migracje W ostatnich latach tematyka migracji i tożsamości Cyganów (Romów stała się tematem palącym w unijnoeuropejskim dyskursie publicznym. O wiele mniej uwagi poświęca się w nim migracjom Cyganów, które mają miejsce poza granicami

  19. Ganymede crater dimensions - Implications for central peak and central pit formation and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Veronica J.; Schenk, Paul M.; Jay Melosh, H.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Collins, Gareth S.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of impact craters on the icy Galilean satellites differs from craters on rocky bodies. The differences are thought due to the relative weakness of ice and the possible presence of sub-surface water layers. Digital elevation models constructed from Galileo images were used to measure a range of dimensions of craters on the dark and bright terrains of Ganymede. Measurements were made from multiple profiles across each crater, so that natural variation in crater dimensions could be assessed and averaged scaling trends constructed. The additional depth, slope and volume information reported in this work has enabled study of central peak formation and development, and allowed a quantitative assessment of the various theories for central pit formation. We note a possible difference in the size-morphology progression between small craters on icy and silicate bodies, where central peaks occur in small craters before there is any slumping of the crater rim, which is the opposite to the observed sequence on the Moon. Conversely, our crater dimension analyses suggest that the size-morphology progression of large lunar craters from central peak to peak-ring is mirrored on Ganymede, but that the peak-ring is subsequently modified to a central pit morphology. Pit formation may occur via the collapse of surface material into a void left by the gradual release of impact-induced volatiles or the drainage of impact melt into sub-crater fractures.

  20. Experiencia del Banco Central Autónomo

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Tapia

    1993-01-01

    Four years after the Central Bank of Chile started operating under its new law of autonomy, the principal characteristic that emerges, under this article's view, is the fragility of its balance. Whereas central banks usually operate as in textbooks, with

  1. How do they become nodes? Revisiting team member network centrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwen; Ipe, Minu

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the antecedents of team member network centrality using a sample of 207 team members. Team member network centrality indicates how closely the individual is linked to others in the group. The authors investigated the role of personality traits, interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB), education, and team tenure on an individual's network centrality. The authors also examined the mediating effect of ICB on the relationship between personality traits and team member network centrality. Results supported the relation between (a) personal traits--conscientiousness and agreeableness--and (b) ICB and network centrality. In addition, ICB mediated the relation between conscientiousness and network centrality and between agreeableness and network centrality, respectively. That is, people who are more conscientious and agreeable manifest more ICB and therefore more possibly become nodes within their teams' social network. Further, results supported the idea that education and team tenure are positively related to network centrality. The authors discuss the theoretical contributions and implications.

  2. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  3. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system....

  4. Measured compaction for 24 extensometers in the Central Valley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the compaction data for 24 extensometers used for observations in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley...

  5. Evapotranspiration Input Data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains monthly reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an...

  6. Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Just, Søren Andreas;

    Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, volume 73, supplement 2, p. 287......Septic arthritis in the central part of Denmark, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, volume 73, supplement 2, p. 287...

  7. Central motor conduction in brachial monomelic amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of subclinical involvement of motor pathways in clinically diagnosed Brachial Monomelic Amyotrophy (BMMA is unknown. Aims: To determine the prevalence of subclinical involvement of central motor pathways in BMMA using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Setting and Design: Prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods: Central motor conduction time (CMCT was determined by ′F′ wave method using figure-of-eight coil attached to Magstim 200 stimulator, in 17 patients with BMMA. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from first dorsal interosseous of the affected (AFF and unaffected upper limbs (UNAFF at rest and during partial contraction. Comparison was made with data from 10 healthy controls (CTRL. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Results: Compared to controls, the mean CMCT of AFF was significantly prolonged, both at rest and contraction: (a Rest: AFF-6.68±1.78 ms, UNAFF-6.36±1.16 ms, CTRL-5.71±1.02 ms; Fisher′s PLSD for AFF vs. CTRL: P =0.037, (b Contraction: AFF-5.78±1.62 ms, UAFF - 4.86±1.38 ms, CTRL-4.06±0.80 ms; Fisher′s PLSD for AFF vs. CTRL; P =0.0002, AFF vs. UNAFF- P =0.044. Prolonged CMCT (>mean+2SD of controls was observed in 29.4% of AFF and 6.25% of UNAFF at rest, and in 47.1% and 23.5% respectively during contraction. Conclusions: Dysfunction of central motor pathways was observed in both affected and unaffected upper limbs of some patients with BMMA of upper limbs. The dysfunction was more pronounced during voluntary contraction. A larger study is needed to validate the significance of these findings.

  8. Angiotensin II during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Walther Jensen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Central hypovolemia, defined as diminished blood volume in the heart and pulmonary vascular bed, is still an unresolved problem from a therapeutic point of view. The development of pharmaceutical agents targeted at specific angiotensin II receptors, like the non-peptidergic AT2-receptor agonist compound 21, is yielding many opportunities to uncover more knowledge about angiotensin II receptor profiles and possible therapeutic use. Cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective therapeutic use of compound 21 have been suggested. However, there has not yet been a focus on the use of these agents in a hypovolemic setting. We argue that the latest debates on the effect of angiotensin II during hypovolemia might guide for future studies investigating the effect of such agents during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of angiotensin II during episodes of central hypovolemia.To examine this, we reviewed results from studies with three experimental models of simulated hypovolemia: head up tilt table test, lower body negative pressure, and hemorrhage of animals. A systemic literature search was made with the use of PubMed/MEDLINE for studies that measured variables of the renin-angiotensin system or its effect during simulated hypovolemia. 12 articles, using one of the three models, were included and showed a possible organ protective effect and an effect on the sympathetic system of angiotensin II during hypovolemia. The results support the possible organ protective vasodilatory role for the AT2-receptor during hypovolemia on both the kidney and the splanchnic tissue.

  9. The Case of NRENs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Franciscus Janz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available National Research and Education Network organizations (NRENs provide advanced information and communication technology (ICT services for the academic community of their country. Their focus is often on providing affordable high speed bandwidth amongst their members and to other research networks, but NRENs also provide other advanced services such as electronic repositories, educational environments and supercomputing facilities. Higher Education and Research institutions have to play an active role in the transformation to the “Knowledge Society”. A recent (2010 report of the International Telecommunication Union has identified NRENs as important vehicles in reaching the goals of the World Summit of the Information Society. It is also demonstrated that the Central Asian countries score very low in the Networked Readiness Indices of the World Economic Forum, including areas where strong NRENs could improve the status quo. NRENs therefore have a role that is also important for the nation itself and therefore claims for government support are legitimate. About 62% of the countries of the world already have an NREN and there are four characteristics that are common to these NRENs. In nearly all of the cases the NREN is a not-for-profit organization that not only serves the academic community, but is also owned by the same community. Four out of five Central Asian countries have an active NREN and these NRENs all participate in the EC funded CAREN project that aims to set up a sustainable regional network for the academic communities in the participating countries. Today, the Central Asian Research and Education Network (CAREN is upgrading the ancient Silk Road to a 21st-century high-speed internet highway for research and educational institutions through the region. Operational since July 2010, CAREN currently interconnects scientists and students from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

  10. HIS Central and the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitenack, T.; Zaslavsky, I.; Valentine, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project maintains a comprehensive workflow for publishing hydrologic observations data and registering them to the common Hydrologic Metadata Catalog. Once the data are loaded into a database instance conformant with the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model (ODM), the user configures ODM web service template to point to the new database. After this, the hydrologic data become available via the standard CUAHSI HIS web service interface, that includes both data discovery (GetSites, GetVariables, GetSiteInfo, GetVariableInfo) and data retrieval (GetValues) methods. The observations data then can be further exposed via the global semantics-based search engine called Hydroseek. To register the published observations networks to the global search engine, users can now use the HIS Central application (new in HIS 1.1). With this online application, the WaterML-compliant web services can be submitted to the online catalog of data services, along with network metadata and a desired network symbology. Registering services to the HIS Central application triggers a harvester which uses the services to retrieve additional network metadata from the underlying ODM (information about stations, variables, and periods of record). The next step in HIS Central application is mapping variable names from the newly registered network, to the terms used in the global search ontology. Once these steps are completed, the new observations network is added to the map and becomes available for searching and querying. The number of observations network registered to the Hydrologic Metadata Catalog at SDSC is constantly growing. At the time of submission, the catalog contains 51 registered networks, with estimated 1.7 million stations.

  11. El glaciarismo pleistoceno del Sistema Central

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza Gilsanz, Javier; Carrasco, Rosa María

    2006-01-01

    El Sistema Central Español es una montaña intraplaca, originada por la reactivación de una antigua penillanura durante la orogenia Alpina. Sus cimas alomadas tienen una altura media de 1700-1800 m, en algunos sectores 1900-2000 m y en macizos locales pueden llegar a los 2300-2500 m; se trata por tanto de una montaña media, de ambiente mediterráneo continentalizado. Exceptuando Gata-Peña de Francia, en los macizos culminante de los demás sectores aparecen morfologías glaciares bien desarrol...

  12. Central limit theorems under special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeague, Ian W

    2015-04-01

    Several relativistic extensions of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution have been proposed, but they do not explain observed lognormal tail-behavior in the flux distribution of various astrophysical sources. Motivated by this question, extensions of classical central limit theorems are developed under the conditions of special relativity. The results are related to CLTs on locally compact Lie groups developed by Wehn, Stroock and Varadhan, but in this special case the asymptotic distribution has an explicit form that is readily seen to exhibit lognormal tail behavior.

  13. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  14. Discos en estrellas centrales de nebulosas planetarias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saker, L.; Gómez, M.

    2016-08-01

    With the aim of investigating the possible existence of disks in the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN), in this contribution we present the spectral energy distributions of ten CSPN that show infrared (IR) excesses. Basic parameters of the disks such as internal radius and temperature are derived. When comparing the characteristics of these disks with the previously found around white dwarfs, it was found that the latter are significantly smaller. The disk sizes are compared with associated nebula. In general, disks are very compact and small in relation to the characteristic dimension of the nebula.

  15. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  16. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Fiala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  17. Strangeness production as a function of centrality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, E. [University of Bergen, Department of Physics, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Blaes, R.; Cherney, M.; de la Cruz, B.; Fernandez, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Geist, W.M.; Greiner, D.E.; Gruhn, C.; Hafidouni, M.; Hrubec, J.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kuipers, J.P.M.; Ladrem, M.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lovhoiden, G.; MacNaughton, J.; Mosquera, J.; Nathaniec, Z.; Nelson, J.M.; Neuhofer, G.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Plo, M.; Porth, P.; Powell, B.; Ramil, A.; Rohringer, H.; Sakrejda, I.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Traxler, J.; Voltolini, C.; Wozniak, K.; Yanez, A.; Zybert, R.; Douglas E. Greiner for the NA36 Collaboration

    1995-07-20

    A correction to the TPC efficiency calculations based on discriminator response data is shown to have an average effect of 20% on the absolute magnitude of the earlier results. Consistency between runs with the NA36 magnet in different polarities is demonstrated. Comparisons are made with NA35 S+Ag data. The absolute flux of {Lambda} particles is approximately a factor of two in disagreement between the two experiments. A dependence of the rapidity spectrum for lambda`s on centrality is demonstrated. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  18. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  19. The Central 3 kpc of NGC 5850

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, M; Eckart, A; Zuther, J; Fischer, S; Valencias-S., M; Combes, F; Garcia-Burillo, S

    2013-01-01

    NGC 5850 is a nearby (z=0.0085) early type spiral galaxy classified as LINER. It is considered as a prototype double-barred system. Our optical Integral Field Spectroscopic (IFS) data of the central 21x19 arcsec^2 of NGC 5850 show extended LINER-like emission which we ascribe to the presence of a hot and evolved stellar population, possibly together with a faint AGN. Additionally NGC 5850 shows extended `composite' ionization patterns, likely to stem from a mixture of LINER-like ionization and photoionization by star formation. The kinematics of the gas deviates strongly from a simple rotational structure.

  20. Central Limit Theorem for Nonlinear Hawkes Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lingjiong

    2012-01-01

    Hawkes process is a self-exciting point process with clustering effect whose jump rate depends on its entire past history. It has wide applications in neuroscience, finance and many other fields. Linear Hawkes process has an immigration-birth representation and can be computed more or less explicitly. It has been extensively studied in the past and the limit theorems are well understood. On the contrary, nonlinear Hawkes process lacks the immigration-birth representation and is much harder to analyze. In this paper, we obtain a functional central limit theorem for nonlinear Hawkes process.

  1. Relativistic Newtonian Dynamics under a central force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Yaakov

    2016-10-01

    Planck's formula and General Relativity indicate that potential energy influences spacetime. Using Einstein's Equivalence Principle and an extension of his Clock Hypothesis, an explicit description of this influence is derived. We present a new relativity model by incorporating the influence of the potential energy on spacetime in Newton's dynamics for motion under a central force. This model extends the model used by Friedman and Steiner (EPL, 113 (2016) 39001) to obtain the exact precession of Mercury without curving spacetime. We also present a solution of this model for a hydrogen-like atom, which explains the reason for a probabilistic description.

  2. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jazcilevich, D. Aron; Garcia, R. Agustin; Suarez, Gerardo Ruiz; Magana, R. Victor; Perez, L. Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Mexico City (Mexico); Fuentes-Gea, Vicente [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios del Posgrado, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  3. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  4. Improving Financial Services of China's Central Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ On August 29,Deputy Governor of People's Bank of China,Mr.Su Ning,held a press conference at State Council Information Office,and answered questions from media.The press conference mainly focused on the progress the central bank has made in improving financial services,which raised a lot of concern from public.At the conference,Mr. Su Ning fullv illustrated that China has achieved great progress in the recent years,and would perform better in future.

  5. Central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichenmaier, M.; Sheinman, O. K.

    2008-08-01

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as a further development of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. These are almost-graded Lie algebras of current type. In this paper local cocycles and associated almost-graded central extensions of Lax operator algebras are classified. It is shown that in the case when the corresponding finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple the two-cohomology space is one-dimensional. An important role is played by the action of the Lie algebra of meromorphic vector fields on the Lax operator algebra via suitable covariant derivatives.

  6. Central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichenmaier, Martin; Sheinman, Oleg K.

    2007-01-01

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as a further development of I.Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. These are almost-graded Lie algebras of current type. In this article local cocycles and associated almost-graded central extensions are classified. It is shown that in the case that the corresponding finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple the two-cohomology space is one-dimensional. An important role is played by the action of the Lie algebr...

  7. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Khajeh Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-years-old female patient with painless swelling of the right side of mandible is described. She noticed the swelling from two years ago, without painful symptoms. Axial CT imaging showed buccal expansion with intact buccal and lingual cortical bone. The report of incisional biopsy was central odontogenic fibroma. Under general anesthesia the lesion was removed after ostectomy of buccal cortical plate and inferior alveolar nerve preserved. Three-year follow-up after tumor excision relieved no recurrence.

  8. Temperature of the Central Processing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lavrov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat is inevitably generated in the semiconductors during operation. Cooling in a computer, and in its main part – the Central Processing Unit (CPU, is crucial, allowing the proper functioning without overheating, malfunctioning, and damage. In order to estimate the temperature as a function of time, it is important to solve the differential equations describing the heat flow and to understand how it depends on the physical properties of the system. This project aims to answer these questions by considering a simplified model of the CPU + heat sink. A similarity with the electrical circuit and certain methods from electrical circuit analysis are discussed.

  9. Las conflictivas fronteras de Asia Central

    OpenAIRE

    Stanganelli, Isabel Cecilia

    2002-01-01

    Si bien el gran juego político del siglo XIX definió la frontera entre Rusia y Afganistán mediante un tratado firmado por Rusia y el Reino Unido, la vasta región que hoy constituyen las cinco restantes repúblicas de Asia Central fue incorporada a Rusia zarista en sucesivas etapas y en el período soviético dotada por Moscú de límites con funciones puramente administrativas. La sorpresiva independencia de las repúblicas en diciembre de 1991 transformó a esos límites en internacionales. Lejos...

  10. GROWING MAGNETIC FIELDS IN CENTRAL COMPACT OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos el efecto de un modelo de crecimiento del campo magnético en los llamados Objetos Compactos Centrales (OCCs. Tal evolución del campo magnético no es una idea nueva (Blandford, Applegate, & Hernquist 1983 pero sus implicaciones evolutivas no han sido estudiadas completamente (Michel 1994. Discutimos las nuevas clases de estrellas de neutrones, las cuales se presentan en cinco tipos reconocidos en los últimos diez años. Comentamos la posibilidad de que un pulsar magnetizado, débilmente rotante, pueda haberse formado en SN1987A.

  11. Centrally active nonhormonal hot flash therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Charles L; Stearns, Vered; Barton, Debra

    2005-12-19

    Given the problems associated with hormonal therapy, and the prominent problem of hot flashes in menopausal women, there is a need for nonhormonal agents to alleviate hot flashes. Several compounds that appear to act on the central nervous system have been investigated. Potential mechanisms for their effects on hot flashes have been described. Bellergal (no longer available on the US market, where it was known as Bellergal-S), a combination preparation sedative that consists of low-dose phenobarbital, ergotamine tartrate, and levorotatory alkaloids of belladonna, is an old agent that was popular approximately 20 years ago; however, there is limited suggestion of efficacy for this agent. Clonidine, an older antihypertensive drug, is another centrally active agent that has been studied. Randomized trials have demonstrated that it clearly works for reducing hot flashes, but the magnitude of efficacy is somewhat limited. Toxicity from this agent limits its utility in the clinic. Methyldopa is another centrally active agent that has been studied but to a more limited degree. It appears to have minimal efficacy and too much toxicity to make it clinically useful. Anecdotal observations from a number of sources suggested that newer antidepressants can alleviate hot flashes. This led to pilot trials of venlafaxine and paroxetine, with results suggesting benefit from both drugs. Subsequently, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials of venlafaxine, paroxetine, and fluoxetine were conducted. All 3 of these clinical trials demonstrated statistically significant reductions in hot flashes with these newer antidepressants compared with placebo. Pilot trials of citalopram and mirtazapine, 2 other newer antidepressants, have also suggested efficacy. Toxicity evaluations have suggested that these agents are, again, well tolerated by the majority of patients. A recent trial, however, was unable to demonstrate any benefit for fluoxetine or citalopram over a placebo

  12. Central pontine myelinolysis after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estol, C J; Faris, A A; Martinez, A J; Ahdab-Barmada, M

    1989-04-01

    Eight adults and 3 children out of 85 patients who had neuropathologic examination after death following orthotopic liver transplantation showed central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Four patients also had extrapontine myelinolysis. Eight patients had significant serum sodium changes. In 5, the fluctuation occurred perioperatively and 4 had a clinical picture consistent with CPM, although no patient had this as an antemortem diagnosis. We emphasize the role of hepatic dysfunction as a cause of CPM and recommend careful monitoring of electrolytes in the perioperative period of patients undergoing liver transplantation.

  13. Internationalisation in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    This is a unique volume among the existing variety of publications on foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) because it focuses on the internationalization process taking place there. It addresses the rapid changes of the business climate in the region that have led...... to intensive internationalization of companies, businesses and national economies. Existing FDI books have mostly taken the perspective of attracting inward FDI flows, missing the aspect of FDI outflows from CEE countries. While foreign investors face the specific context of a region that poses new...

  14. Pathology of the Trachea and Central Bronchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Ocazionez, Daniel; Vargas, Daniel; Carter, Brett W; Wu, Carol C; Nachiappan, Arun C; Gupta, Pushpender; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    A wide variety of disorders can affect the trachea and central bronchi. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of tracheobronchial disease. Tracheobronchial abnormalities are sometimes incidentally detected on routine imaging or when imaging is performed for another reason. Abnormalities of the tracheobronchial tree, however, can be easily missed because they can be subtle. Furthermore, because symptoms in patients with tracheobronchial disorders often overlap symptoms of lung disease, radiologists may focus their attention on the lungs and overlook the tracheobronchial tree. In this article, we review a wide range of tracheobronchial diseases with emphasis on their computed tomographic appearances.

  15. PLASTICITY IN THE ADULT CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Dexter R F; Fallon, James B; Kamke, Marc R

    2006-04-01

    The central auditory system retains into adulthood a remarkable capacity for plastic changes in the response characteristics of single neurons and the functional organization of groups of neurons. The most dramatic examples of this plasticity are provided by changes in frequency selectivity and organization as a consequence of either partial hearing loss or procedures that alter the significance of particular frequencies for the organism. Changes in temporal resolution are also seen as a consequence of altered experience. These forms of plasticity are likely to contribute to the improvements exhibited by cochlear implant users in the post-implantation period.

  16. PLASTICITY IN THE ADULT CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Dexter R. F.; Fallon, James B.; Kamke, Marc R.

    2007-01-01

    The central auditory system retains into adulthood a remarkable capacity for plastic changes in the response characteristics of single neurons and the functional organization of groups of neurons. The most dramatic examples of this plasticity are provided by changes in frequency selectivity and organization as a consequence of either partial hearing loss or procedures that alter the significance of particular frequencies for the organism. Changes in temporal resolution are also seen as a consequence of altered experience. These forms of plasticity are likely to contribute to the improvements exhibited by cochlear implant users in the post-implantation period. PMID:17572797

  17. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  18. Involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on renal responses to central moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Carina A F; de Andrade, Glaucia M F; De Paula, Patricia M; De Luca, Laurival A; Menani, José V

    2009-04-01

    Moxonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline receptor agonist) injected into the lateral ventricle induces diuresis, natriuresis and renal vasodilation. Moxonidine-induced diuresis and natriuresis depend on central imidazoline receptors, while central alpha1-adrenoceptors are involved in renal vasodilation. However, the involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on diuresis and natriuresis to central moxonidine was not investigated yet. In the present study, the effects of moxonidine, alpha-methylnoradrenaline (alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) or phenylephrine (alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist) alone or combined with previous injections of prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine or RX 821002 (alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on urinary sodium, potassium and volume were investigated. Male Holtzman rats (n = 5-18/group) with stainless steel cannula implanted into the lateral ventricle and submitted to gastric water load (10% of body weight) were used. Injections of moxonidine (20 nmol) or alpha-methylnoradrenaline (80 nmol) i.c.v. induced natriuresis (196 +/- 25 and 171 +/- 30, respectively, vs. vehicle: 101 +/- 9 microEq/2 h) and diuresis (9.0 +/- 0.4 and 12.3 +/- 1.6, respectively, vs. vehicle: 5.2 +/- 0.5 ml/2 h). Pre-treatment with prazosin (320 nmol) i.c.v. abolished the natriuresis (23 +/- 4 and 76 +/- 11 microEq/2 h, respectively) and diuresis (5 +/- 1 and 7.6 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h, respectively) produced by i.c.v. moxonidine or alpha-methylnoradrenaline. RX 821002 (320 nmol) i.c.v. abolished the natriuretic effect of alpha-methylnoradrenaline, however, yohimbine (320 nmol) did not change renal responses to moxonidine. Phenylephrine (80 nmol) i.c.v. induced natriuresis and kaliuresis that were blocked by prazosin. Therefore, the present data suggest that moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline acting on central imidazoline receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors, respectively, activate central alpha1-adrenergic mechanisms to

  19. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  20. Undetermination of the relation between network synchronizability and betweenness centrality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sheng-Jun; Wu Zhi-Xi; Dong Hai-Bong; Chen Guan-Rung

    2011-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is taken as a sensible indicator of the synchronizability of complex networks. To test whether betweenness centrality is a proper measure of the synchronizability in specific realizations of random networks, this paper adds edges to the networks and then evaluates the changes of betweenness centrality and network synchronizability. It finds that the two quantities vary independently.

  1. The Exponent Set of Central Symmetric Primitive Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佘喜; 胡亚辉

    2004-01-01

    This paper first establishes a distance inequality of the associated diagraph of a central symmetric primitive matrix, then characters the exponent set of central symmetric primitive matrices, and proves that the exponent set of central symmetric primitive matrices of order n is {1, 2,… ,n-1}. There is no gap in it.

  2. Some properties of the central heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wazir, Z; Khan, E U; Haseeb, Mahnaz Q; Ajaz, M; Khan, K H

    2009-01-01

    Some experimental results are discussed in connection with the properties of the central heavy ion collisions. These experiments indicate the regime changes and saturation at some values of the centrality. This phenomenon is considered to be a signal of the percolation cluster formation in heavy ion collisions at high energies. Keywords: heavy ion collisions, theoretical models, centrality, phase transition.

  3. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  4. 22 CFR 94.3 - Functions of the Central Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Functions of the Central Authority. 94.3 Section 94.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.3 Functions of the Central Authority. The U.S. Central Authority shall cooperate with...

  5. On Central Series of the Multiplicative Group of Division Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roozbeh Hazrat

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the descending central series of the multiplicative group of a division ring. We show that certain properties, which a term in the descending central series may have, can be lifted to the full multiplicative group,and determine quotients of consecutive terms in the descending central series in tame Henselian unramified or totally ramified cases.

  6. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an agency, instrumentality and controlled entity of the Government of Iran for all purposes under this part. (Secs....

  7. The Trade Off Between Central Bank Independence and Conservativeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoeberichts, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a parameter for central bank independence in a monetary policy game with a conservative central banker.It tries to explain the optimal degree of central bank independence and conservativeness by four economic and political determinants, both theoretically and empirically.There

  8. The Transformations of the Central Area of Nora: the 3D Reconstruction of the Central Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Capuzzo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction of the Central Baths of Nora has required a long and reasoned analysis. On the basis of precise comparisons, a planimetric study of the complex has been first carried out, followed by the more difficult one of the elevations and the roofs, in order to create a model that allows to appreciate the building not only in its structural complexity, but also in the relationship with the spatial context in which it stood. This work represents only a part of a larger project that lead to the creation of a 3D model of the whole central district of Nora.

  9. Categorical attribute based centrality: E-I and G-F centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Martin G.; Stephen P. Borgatti

    2012-01-01

    In a paper examining informal networks and organizational crisis, Krackhardt and Stern (1988) proposed a measure assessing the extent to which relations in a network were internal to a group as opposed to external. They called their measure the E-I index. The measure is now in wide use and is implemented in standard network packages such as UCINET (Borgatti et al., 2002). The measure is based on a partition-based degree centrality measure and as such can be extended to other centrality measur...

  10. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  11. The impact of centrality on cooperative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M; Fontanari, José F

    2016-01-01

    The solution of today's complex problems requires the grouping of task forces whose members are usually connected remotely over long physical distances and different time zones, so the importance of understanding the effects of imposed communication patterns (i.e., who can communicate with whom) on group performance. Here we use an agent-based model to explore the influence of the betweenness centrality of the nodes on the time the group requires to find the global maxima of families of NK-fitness landscapes. The agents cooperate by broadcasting messages informing on their fitness to their neighbors and use this information to copy the more successful agent in their neighborhood. We find that for easy tasks (smooth landscapes) the topology of the communication network has no effect on the performance of the group and that the more central nodes are the most likely to find the global maximum first. For difficult tasks (rugged landscapes), however, we find a positive correlation between the variance of the betw...

  12. Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanović-Jaković Natalija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. Specific laboratory investigations and fluorescein angiography excluded the presence of vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, hypercoagulable state and antiphospholipid syndrome. Conclusion. The patient met all the five of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria for the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and hyperuricemia. Measurement of C-reactive protein is useful for the assessment of therapeutic systemic effect on any abnormality in the metabolic syndrome. Individual therapy for all risk factors in the metabolic syndrome is necessary to prevent complications such as cardiovascular, retinal vascular diseases and stroke.

  13. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  14. Reading performance and central field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanonidou, E

    2011-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness in Europe and the U.S. and a leading cause of significant loss of visual acuity in elderly patients. Reading is a key visual task in everyday living involving a synthesis of a number of different motor, sensory and cognitive functions. When the centre of a reader's visual field is obscured, reading speed declines and oculomotor pattern differs, compared to normal reading. Improvement in the generation of visual stimuli using computer-generated images and projection/display systems as well as advances in eye movement recording techniques, including infrared pupil tracking and magnetic search coils, have contributed greatly to our understanding of these sensorimotor abnormalities. The developed reading strategies have been thoroughly investigated in individuals with central field loss either induced artificially or related to eye pathology.The following review aims at presenting the contemporary literature regarding the sensory and oculomotor deficits in reading ability, resulting from central field loss and should contribute to a greater understanding of the functional visual deficit caused by this visual impairment.

  15. First Operation of the Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Ruber, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. It was cooled down from the 17th to 23th May 2006, and the first kA was put into it the same evening as it was cold and superconductive. That makes our solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas. The Central Solenoid in its final position at the heart of ATLAS. The coil current (red line) and voltage (blue line) showing the operation at nominal current of 7.73 kA for a magnetic field of 2.0 T and the subsequent successful commissioning up to 8 kAT The cool down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems and was achieved in perfect collaboration with the liquid argon detector with which it shares the Barrel Cryostat. Powering up to nominal current had to wait until the last week of July when the End-Cap Calorimeters were in closed position. The Tile Barrel and E...

  16. Nutrient Limitation in Central Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-24

    As coastal plants that can survive in salt water, mangroves play an essential role in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The Red Sea, where the growth of mangroves is stunted, is one of the least studied LMEs in the world. Mangroves along the Central Red Sea have characteristic heights of ~2 m, suggesting nutrient limitation. We assessed the nutrient status of mangrove stands in the Central Red Sea and conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P and Fe and various combinations thereof) on 4-week-old seedlings of Avicennia marina to identify limiting nutrients and stoichiometric effects. We measured height, number of leaves, number of nodes and root development at different time periods as well as the leaf content of C, N, P, Fe, and Chl a in the experimental seedlings. Height, number of nodes and number of leaves differed significantly among treatments. Iron treatment resulted in significantly taller plants compared with other nutrients, demonstrating that iron is the primary limiting nutrient in the tested mangrove population and confirming Liebig\\'s law of the minimum: iron addition alone yielded results comparable to those using complete fertilizer. This result is consistent with the biogenic nature of the sediments in the Red Sea, which are dominated by carbonates, and the lack of riverine sources of iron.

  17. Central extension of graded Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Welte, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the universal central extension of two important classes of so-called root-graded Lie algebras defined over a commutative associative unital ring $k.$ Root-graded Lie algebras are Lie algebras which are graded by the root lattice of a locally finite root system and contain enough $\\mathfrak{sl}_2$-triples to separate the homogeneous spaces of the grading. Examples include the infinite rank analogs of the simple finite-dimensional complex Lie algebras. \\\\ In the thesis we show that in general the universal central extension of a root-graded Lie algebra $L$ is not root-graded anymore, but that we can measure quite easily how far it is away from being so, using the notion of degenerate sums, introduced by van der Kallen. We then concentrate on root-graded Lie algebras which are graded by the root systems of type $A$ with rank at least 2 and of type $C$. For them one can use the theory of Jordan algebras.

  18. Unraveling the central proopiomelanocortin neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Mercer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons form a potent anorexigenic network, but our understanding of the integration of this hypothalamic circuit throughout the central nervous system (CNS remains incomplete. POMC neurons extend projections along the rostrocaudal axis of the brain, and can signal with both POMC-derived peptides and fast amino acid neurotransmitters. Although recent experimental advances in circuit-level manipulation have been applied to POMC neurons, many pivotal questions still remain: How and where do POMC neurons integrate metabolic information? Under what conditions do POMC neurons release bioactive molecules throughout the CNS? Are GABA and glutamate or neuropeptides released from POMC neurons more crucial for modulating feeding and metabolism? Resolving the exact stoichiometry of signals evoked from POMC neurons under different metabolic conditions therefore remains an ongoing endeavor. In this review, we analyze the anatomical atlas of this network juxtaposed to the physiological signaling of POMC neurons both in vitro and in vivo. We also consider novel genetic tools to further characterize the function of the POMC circuit in vivo. Our goal is to synthesize a global view of the POMC network, and to highlight gaps that require further research to expand our knowledge on how these neurons modulate energy balance.

  19. Central cholinergic regulation of respiration: nicotinic receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuesi M SHAO; Jack L FELDMAN

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in brainstem and spinal cord regions involved in the control of breathing. These receptors mediate central cholinergic regulation of respiration and effects of the exogenous ligand nicotine on respiratory pattern. Activation of a4* nAChRs in the preBotzinger Complex (preBotC), an essential site for normal respiratory rhythm generation in mammals, modulates excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and depolarizes preBotC inspiratory neurons, leading to increases in respiratory frequency. nAChRs are also present in motor nuclei innervating respiratory muscles. Activation of post- and/or extra-synaptic a4* nAChRs on hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons depolarizes these neurons, potentiating tonic and respiratory-related rhythmic activity. As perinatal nicotine exposure may contribute to the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), we discuss the effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on development of the cholinergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in control of breathing. Advances in understanding of the mechanisms underlying central cholinergic/nicotinic modulation of respiration provide a pharmacological basis for exploiting nAChRs as therapeutic targets for neurological disorders related to neural control of breathing such as sleep apnea and SIDS.

  20. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Richard H.; Zdeb, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.