WorldWideScience

Sample records for central super massive

  1. Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  2. Massive photons from Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Bonetti, Luca; Helayël-Neto, José A; Spallicci, Alessandro D A M

    2016-01-01

    In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs), we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy) and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy) breaking, leading to {observable} imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry) odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT) or tensor (even CPT). In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive and gauge invariant Carroll-Field-Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the mass is proportional to the breaking vector. The latter is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of $10^{-19}$ eV or $2 \\times 10^{-55}$ kg and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.

  3. Dusty supernovae running the thermodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; González, Sergio Martínez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core collapse supernovae as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large supernova rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II supernova era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of dust to gas mass ratio and this the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) vs cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to freq...

  4. High velocity stars from close interaction of a globular cluster and a super massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R

    2015-01-01

    Observations show the presence, in the halo of our Galaxy, of stars moving at velocities so high to require an acceleration mechanism involving the presence of a massive central black hole. Thus, in the frame of a galaxy hosting a supermassive black hole ($10^8$ $M_{\\odot}$) we investigated a mechanism for the production of high velocity stars, which was suggested by the results of N-body simulations of the close interaction between a massive, orbitally decayed, globular cluster and the super massive black hole. The high velocity acquired by some stars of the cluster comes from the transfer of gravitational binding energy into kinetic energy of the escaping star originally orbiting around the cluster. After the close interaction with the massive black hole, stars could reach a velocity sufficient to travel in the halo and even overcome the galactic gravitational well, while some of them are just stripped from the globular cluster and start orbiting on precessing loops around the galactic centre.

  5. Super massive black hole in galactic nuclei with tidal disruption of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank and Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  6. Super massive black hole in galactic nuclei with tidal disruption of stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shiyan; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2014-09-10

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank and Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  7. The M-sigma Relation of Super Massive Black Holes from the Scalar Field Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    We explain the M-sigma relation between the mass of super massive black holes in galaxies and the velocity dispersions of their bulges in the scalar field or the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter model. The gravity of the central black holes changes boundary conditions of the scalar field at the galactic centers. Owing to the wave nature of the dark matter this significantly changes the galactic halo profiles even though the black holes are much lighter than the bulges. As a result the heavier the black holes are, the more compact the bulges are, and hence the larger the velocity dispersions are. This tendency is verified by a numerical study. The M-sigma relation is well reproduced with the dark matter particle mass $m\\simeq 5\\times 10^{-22} eV$.

  8. Growing massive black holes through super-critical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, A; Dotti, M; Fiacconi, D; Mayer, L; Madau, P

    2015-01-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at $z \\sim 6-7$ remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses $\\sim 10^5\\,\\rm M_\\odot$, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient super-critical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circum-nuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the "slim disc" solution can increase its mass by 3 orders of magnitudes within a few million y...

  9. On Critical Massive (Super)Gravity in adS3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    We review the status of three-dimensional “general massive gravity” (GMG) in its linearization about an anti-de Sitter (adS) vacuum, focusing on critical points in parameter space that yield generalizations of “chiral gravity”. We then show how these results extend to N = 1 super-GMG, expanded about

  10. On Critical Massive (Super)Gravity in adS(3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K.; Aldaya,; Barcelo, C; Jaramillo, JL

    2011-01-01

    We review the status of three-dimensional "general massive gravity" (GMG) in its linearization about an anti-de Sitter (adS) vacuum, focusing on critical points in parameter space that yield generalizations of "chiral gravity". We then show how these results extend to,N = 1 super-GMG, expanded about

  11. From super-charged nuclei to massive nuclear density cores

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Due to $e^+e^-$-pair production in the field of supercritical $(Z \\gg Z_{cr}\\approx 170 $) nucleus an electron shell, created out of the vacuum, is formed. The distribution of the vacuum charge in this shell has been determined for super-charged nuclei $Ze^3 \\ga 1$ within the framework of the Thomas-Fermi equation generalized to the relativistic case. For $Ze^3 \\gg 1$ the electron shell penetrates inside the nucleus and almost completely screens its charge. Inside such nucleus the potential takes a constant value equal to $V_0=-(3\\pi^2 n_p)^{1/3} \\sim -2m_{\\pi}c^2$, and super-charged nucleus represents an electrically neutral plasma consisting of $e,p$ and $n$. Near the edge of the nucleus a transition layer exists with a width $\\lambda \\approx \\alpha^{-1/2} \\hbar/m_{\\pi} c\\sim 15$ fm, which is independent of $Z~~ (\\hbar/m_{\\pi} c \\ll \\lambda \\ll \\hbar/m_e c)$. The electric field and surface charge are concentrated in this layer. These results, obtained earlier for hypothetical superheavy nuclei with $Z \\sim ...

  12. On Critical Massive (Super)Gravity in adS3

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    We review the status of three-dimensional "general massive gravity" (GMG) in its linearization about an anti-de Sitter (adS) vacuum, focusing on critical points in parameter space that yield generalizations of "chiral gravity". We then show how these results extend to N=1 super-GMG, expanded about a supersymmetric adS vacuum, and also to the most general `curvature-squared' N=1 supergravity model.

  13. On Critical Massive (Super)Gravity in adS{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sezgin, Ergin [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.nl, E-mail: ohohm@mit.edu, E-mail: j.rosseel@rug.nl, E-mail: sezgin@tamu.edu, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-22

    We review the status of three-dimensional 'general massive gravity' (GMG) in its linearization about an anti-de Sitter (adS) vacuum, focusing on critical points in parameter space that yield generalizations of {sup c}hiral gravity{sup .} We then show how these results extend to super-GMG, expanded about a supersymmetric adS vacuum, and also to the most general 'curvature-squared' supergravity model.

  14. Can very massive Population III stars produce a super-collapsar?

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Sung-Chul; Kozyreva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of the first generation of stars in the early Universe may be very massive ($\\gtrsim 300~\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$) as they form in metal-free environments. Formation of black holes from these stars can be accompanied by supermassive collapsars to produce long gamma-ray bursts of a unique type having a very high total energy ($\\sim 10^{54}~\\mathrm{erg}$) as recently suggested by several authors. We present new stellar evolution models of very massive Population III stars including the effect of rotation to provide theoretical constraints on super-collapsar progenitors. We find that the angular momentum condition for super-collapsar can be fulfilled if magnetic torques are ignored, in which case Eddington-Sweet circulations play the dominant role for the transport of angular momentum. We further find that the initial mass range for super-collapsar progenitors would be limited to $300~\\mathrm{M_\\odot} \\lesssim M \\lesssim 700~\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. However, all of our very massive star models of this mass range e...

  15. Super massive black holes in star forming gaseous circumnuclear discs

    CERN Document Server

    del Valle, Luciano; Molina, Juan; Cuadra, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Using N-body/SPH simulations we study the evolution of the separation of a pair of SMBHs embedded in a star forming circumnuclear disk (CND). This type of disk is expected to be formed in the central kilo parsec of the remnant of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Our simulations indicate that orbital decay of the SMBHs occurs more quickly when the mean density of the CND is higher, due to increased dynamical friction. However, in simulations where the CND is fragmented in high density gaseous clumps (clumpy CND), the orbits of the SMBHs are erratically perturbed by the gravitational interaction with these clumps, delaying, in some cases, the orbital decay of the SMBHs. The densities of these gaseous clumps in our simulations and in recent studies of clumpy CNDs are significantly higher than the observed density of molecular clouds in isolated galaxies or ULIRGs, thus, we expect that SMBH orbits are perturbed less in real CNDs than in the simulated CNDs of this study and other recent studies. We also find that the migr...

  16. Central charges in 2d reduced cosmological massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the dimensionally reduced model of the (2+1)-dimensional cosmological massive gravity, we obtain the central charges of the two types of the black hole based on the entropy function method. One is for the BTZ black hole and the other one is actually for the warped AdS3 black hole.

  17. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, Alan J.; Asai, M.; balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, John; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; DeVaney, D.; DeStefano, PC F.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hansen, S.; Harris, Harold R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, M.; Moffatt, R. A.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Platt, M.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Ruschman, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, A.; Seitz, D.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-06-01

    We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg-days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass < 30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1:2 10-42cm2 at 8 GeV/c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses < 6 GeV/c2.

  18. Super and massive AGB stars - IV. Final fates - Initial to final mass relation

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Carolyn L; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C; Lau, Herbert H B

    2014-01-01

    We explore the final fates of massive intermediate-mass stars by computing detailed stellar models from the zero age main sequence until near the end of the thermally pulsing phase. These super-AGB and massive AGB star models are in the mass range between 5.0 and 10.0 Msun for metallicities spanning the range Z=0.02-0.0001. We probe the mass limits M_up, M_n and M_mass, the minimum masses for the onset of carbon burning, the formation of a neutron star, and the iron core-collapse supernovae respectively, to constrain the white dwarf/electron-capture supernova boundary. We provide a theoretical initial to final mass relation for the massive and ultra-massive white dwarfs and specify the mass range for the occurrence of hybrid CO(Ne) white dwarfs. We predict electron-capture supernova (EC-SN) rates for lower metallicities which are significantly lower than existing values from parametric studies in the literature. We conclude the EC-SN channel (for single stars and with the critical assumption being the choice ...

  19. Detection of a low-eccentricity and super-massive planet to the subgiant HD 38801

    CERN Document Server

    Harakawa, Hiroki; Fischer, Debra A; Ida, Shigeru; Omiya, Masashi; Johnson, John A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Toyota, Eri; Hori, Yasunori; Howard, Andrew W

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of a large mass planet orbiting around the K0 metal-rich subgiant HD38801 ($V=8.26$) by precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Subaru Telescope and the Keck Telescope. The star has a mass of $1.36M_{\\odot}$ and metallicity of [Fe/H]= +0.26. The RV variations are consistent with a circular orbit with a period of 696.0 days and a velocity semiamplitude of 200.0\\mps, which yield a minimum-mass for the companion of $10.7\\mjup$ and semimajor axis of 1.71 AU. Such super-massive objects with very low-eccentricities and hundreds of days period are uncommon among the ensemble of known exoplanets.

  20. MASSIVE PARALLELISM WITH GPUS FOR CENTRALITY RANKING IN COMPLEX NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico L. Cabral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many problems in Computer Science can be modelled using graphs. Evaluating node centrality in complex networks, which can be considered equivalent to undirected graphs, provides an useful metric of the relative importance of each node inside the evaluated network. The knowledge on which the most central nodes are, has various applications, such as improving information spreading in diffusion networks. In this case, most central nodes can be considered to have higher influence rates over other nodes in the network. The main purpose in this work is developing a GPU based and massively parallel application so as to evaluate the node centrality in complex networks using the Nvidia CUDA programming model. The main contribution of this work is the strategies for the development of an algorithm to evaluate the node centrality in complex networks using Nvidia CUDA parallel programming model. We show that the strategies improves algorithm´s speed-up in two orders of magnitude on one NVIDIA Tesla k20 GPU cluster node, when compared to the hybrid OpenMP/MPI algorithm version, running in the same cluster, with 4 nodes 2 Intel(R Xeon(R CPU E5-2660 each, for radius zero.

  1. Massive star formation in the central regions of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, J H; Böker, T; Shlosman, I; Colina, L; Combes, F; Axon, D J

    2005-01-01

    Context: The morphology of massive star formation in the central regions of galaxies is an important tracer of the dynamical processes that govern the evolution of disk, bulge, and nuclear activity. Aims: We present optical imaging of the central regions of a sample of 73 spiral galaxies in the H alpha line and in optical broad bands, and derive information on the morphology of massive star formation. Methods: We obtained images with the William Herschel Telescope, mostly at a spatial resolution of below one second of arc. For most galaxies, no H alpha imaging is available in the literature. We outline the observing and data reduction procedures, list basic properties, and present the I-band and continuum-subtracted H alpha images. We classify the morphology of the nuclear and circumnuclear H alpha emission and explore trends with host galaxy parameters. Results: We confirm that late-type galaxies have a patchy circumnuclear appearance in H alpha, and that nuclear rings occur primarily in spiral types Sa-Sbc....

  2. Satellite Accretion Onto Massive Galaxies With Central Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Boylan-Kolchin, M; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Ma, Chung-Pei

    2006-01-01

    Minor mergers of galaxies are expected to be common in a hierarchical cosmology such as $\\Lambda$CDM and have the potential to significantly affect galactic structure. In this paper we dissect the case-by-case outcome from a set of numerical simulations of a single satellite elliptical galaxy accreting onto a massive elliptical galaxy. We take care to explore cosmologically relevant orbital parameters and to set up realistic initial galaxy models that include all three relevant dynamical components: dark matter halos, stellar bulges, and central massive black holes. The effects of several different parameters are considered, including orbital energy and angular momentum, satellite density and inner density profile, satellite-to-host mass ratio, and presence of a black hole at the center of the host. Black holes play a crucial role in protecting the shallow stellar cores of the hosts, as satellites merging onto a host with a central black hole are more strongly disrupted than those merging onto hosts without b...

  3. Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes as long-lived cosmological standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Valls-Gabaud, David; Hu, Chen; Netzer, Hagai

    2013-02-22

    Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) reach saturated luminosities above a certain accretion rate due to photon trapping and advection in slim accretion disks. We show that these SEAMBHs could provide a new tool for estimating cosmological distances if they are properly identified by hard x-ray observations, in particular by the slope of their 2-10 keV continuum. To verify this idea we obtained black hole mass estimates and x-ray data for a sample of 60 narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies that we consider to be the most promising SEAMBH candidates. We demonstrate that the distances derived by the new method for the objects in the sample get closer to the standard luminosity distances as the hard x-ray continuum gets steeper. The results allow us to analyze the requirements for using the method in future samples of active black holes and to demonstrate that the expected uncertainty, given large enough samples, can make them into a useful, new cosmological ruler.

  4. The Link Between Ejected Stars, Hardening and Eccentricity Growth of Super Massive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Kouwenhoven, M B N

    2013-01-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation picture suggests that super massive black holes (MBHs) observed in galactic nuclei today have grown from coalescence of massive black hole binaries (MBHB) after galaxy merging. Once the components of a MBHB become gravitationally bound, strong three-body encounters between the MBHB and stars dominate its evolution in a "dry" gas free environment, and change the MBHB's energy and angular momentum (semi-major axis, eccentricity and orientation). Here we present high accuracy direct N-body simulations of spherical and axisymmetric (rotating) galactic nuclei with order a million stars and two massive black holes that are initially unbound. We analyze the properties of the ejected stars due to slingshot effects from three-body encounters with the MBHB in detail. Previous studies have investigated the eccentricity and energy changes of MBHs using approximate models or Monte-Carlo three body scatterings. We find general agreement with the average results of previous semi-analytic mo...

  5. Implications of primordial black holes on the first stars and the origin of the super--massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D; Freese, Katherine; Volonteri, Marta

    2008-01-01

    If the cosmological dark matter has a component made of small primordial black holes, they may have a significant impact on the physics of the first stars and on the subsequent formation of massive black holes. Primordial black holes would be adiabatically contracted into these stars and then would sink to the stellar center by dynamical friction, creating a larger black hole which may quickly swallow the whole star. The first stars would thus live only for a very short time and would not contribute much to reionization of the universe. They would instead become $10 - 10^3 M_\\odot$ black holes which (depending on subsequent accretion) could serve as seeds for the super--massive black holes seen at high redshifts as well as those inside galaxies today.

  6. Identifying Central Bank Liquidity Super-Spreaders in Interbank Funds Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.; Machado, C.; Sarmiento Paipilla, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    We model the allocation of central bank liquidity among the participants of the interbank market by using network analysis’ metrics. Our analytical framework considers that a super-spreader simultaneously excels at receiving (borrowing) and distributing (lending) central bank’s liquidity for the who

  7. Compact Massive Object in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, I Tosta e

    2016-01-01

    The central regions of galaxies show the presence of super massive black holes and/or very dense stellar clusters. Both objects seem to follow similar host-galaxy correlations, suggesting that they are members of the same family of Compact Massive Objects. We investigate here a huge data collection of Compact Massive Objects properties to correlate them with absolute magnitude, velocity dispersion and mass of their host galaxies.

  8. 3D N=2 massive super Yang-Mills and membranes/D2-branes in a curved background

    CERN Document Server

    Hyun, S; Yi, S H; Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2003-01-01

    We present a three dimensional novel massive N=2 super Yang-Mills action as a low energy effective worldvolume description of the D2-branes on a pp-wave. The action contains the Myers term, mass terms for three Higgs, and terms mixing the electric fields with other two Higgs. We derive the action in three different ways, from the M-theory matrix model, from the supermembrane action, and from the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. We verify the consistent mutual agreement and comment how each approach is complementary to another. In particular, we give the eleven dimensional geometric interpretation of the vacua in the worldvolume theory as the membranes tilted to the eleventh direction with the giant gravitons around.

  9. Super and Massive AGB Stars: II - Nucleosynthesis and Yields - Z=0.02, 0.008 and 0.004

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Carolyn L; Lau, Herbert H B; Lattanzio, John C; Siess, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    We have computed detailed evolution and nucleosynthesis models for super and massive AGB stars over the mass range 6.5-9.0 Msun in divisions of 0.5 Msun with metallicities Z=0.02, 0.008 and 0.004. These calculations, in which we find third dredge-up and hot bottom burning, fill the gap between existing low and intermediate-mass AGB star models and high mass star models that become supernovae. For the considered metallicities, the composition of the yields is largely dominated by the thermodynamic conditions at the base of the convective envelope rather than by the pollution arising from third dredge up. We investigate the effects of various uncertainties, related to the mass-loss rate, mixing length parameter, and the treatment of evolution after the envelope instability that develops near the end of the (Super)AGB phase. Varying these parameters alter the yields mainly because of their impact on the amount of third dredge up enrichment, and to a lesser extent on the hot bottom burning conditions. Our models ...

  10. Infalling clouds onto super-massive black hole binaries - I. Formation of discs, accretion and gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goicovic, F G; Sesana, A; Stasyszyn, F; Amaro-Seoane, P; Tanaka, T L

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that most -if not all- galaxies harbour a super-massive black hole (SMBH) at their nucleus, hence binaries of these massive objects are an inevitable product of the hierarchical evolution of structures in the universe, and represent an important but thus-far elusive phase of galaxy evolution. Gas accretion via a circumbinary disc is thought to be important for the dynamical evolution of SMBH binaries, as well as in producing luminous emission that can be used to infer their properties. One plausible source of the gaseous fuel is clumps of gas formed due to turbulence and gravitational instabilities in the interstellar medium, that later fall toward and interact with the binary. In this context, we model numerically the evolution of turbulent clouds in near-radial infall onto equal-mass SMBH binaries, using a modified version of the SPH code GADGET-3. We present a total of 12 simulations that explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations, and show that t...

  11. Towards a census of super-compact massive galaxies in the Kilo Degree Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Napolitano, N R; Roy, N; Radovich, M; Cavuoti, S; Brescia, M; Longo, G; Getman, F; Capaccioli, M; Grado, L; Kuijken, K H; de Jong, J T A; McFarland, J P

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of compact and massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) can provide significant constraints on the galaxy merging history. The optical Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS), carried out with the VST, gives a unique opportunity to perform a complete census of the most compact galaxies in the Universe. This paper presents a first census of compact galaxy candidates from the first 156 square degrees of KIDS. Effective radii (Re) in the g-, r-, and i- bands are derived fitting galaxy images with PSF-convolved S\\'ersic models, high-quality photo-z, are derived from machine learning techniques, and stellar masses, are calculated by fitting aperture photometry with predictions from stellar population models. After the morphological star/galaxy separation, massiveness ($M_{\\star} > 8 \\times 10^{10}\\, \\rm M_{\\odot}$) and compactness ($R_{e} 0.2, while, remarkably, no such system is found at z<0.2. (abridged)

  12. Unicentric Castleman's disease of the pancreas with massive central calcification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Goetze; Matthias Banasch; Klaus Junker; Wolfgang E. Schmidt; Christian Szymanski

    2005-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman's disease of the pancreas is extremely rare, with only six cases described in the worldwide literature.An asymptomatic case of unicentric, hyaline, vascular-type Castleman's disease (UCD) localized to the tail of the pancreas with central calcification imitating a primary neoplasm of the pancreas is presented. This is the first description of endosonographic and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic findings of pancreatic UCD. Additionally, computed tomography, histological and serologic findings are reported.

  13. Relativistic cross sections of mass loss of a star tidally disrupted by a super-massive rotating black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, P B

    2005-01-01

    [abbreviated] We consider the problem of tidal disruption of a star by a super-massive Kerr black hole. Using a numerically fast Lagrangian model of the tidally disrupted star we survey the parameter space of the problem and find the regions in the parameter space where the total disruption of the star or a partial mass loss take place as a result of fly-by around the black hole. Our treatment is based on General Relativity, and we consider the range of the black hole masses where the tidal disruption competes with the relativistic effect of direct capture of the star by the black hole. We find that our results can be represented on the plane of specific orbital angular momenta of the star $(j_{\\theta}, j_{\\phi})$. We calculate the contours of a given mass loss of the star on this plane, referred to as the tidal cross sections, for a given black hole mass $M$, rotational parameter $a$ and inclination of the trajectory of the star with respect to the black hole equatorial plane. It is shown that the tidal cros...

  14. Generalized status epilepticus associated with massive pulmonary aspiration and transient central diabetes insipidus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO MAURICIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus causes significant morbidity and mortality. A case of generalized status epilepticus followed by massive pulmonary aspiration, acute respiratory failure and transient central diabetes insipidus is presented. Seizures were promptly controlled, but the patient required mechanical ventilation and correction of polyuria with desmopressin acetate. During hospitalization mental status improved, diabetes insipidus spontaneously remitted and he was discharged without neurologic sequelae. The clinical and pathophysiological features of this case are discussed.

  15. Reservation for Other Backward Classes in Indian Central Government Institutions like IITs, IIMs and AIIMs- A Study of the Role of Media using Fuzzy Super FRM models

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Kandasamy, K

    2009-01-01

    In this book the authors introduce three new types of fuzzy model called the super column Fuzzy Relational Model using super column matrices, super row fuzzy relational model using super row matrices and super mixed fuzzy relational model using supermatrices. These new models are used to study the role of media on 27 percent reservation for the other backward classes in the educational institutions run by the Indian central Government. This book has four chapters. Chapter one introduces the new notion of super fuzzy relational models using supermatrices. In chapter two these new models are used to study the problem. Conclusions and opinions are given in chapters four and three respectively.

  16. Setting firmer constraints on the evolution of the most massive, central galaxies from their local abundances and ages

    OpenAIRE

    Buchan, Stewart; Shankar, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    There is still much debate surrounding how the most massive, central galaxies in the local universe have assembled their stellar mass, especially the relative roles of in-situ growth versus later accretion via mergers. In this paper, we set firmer constraints on the evolutionary pathways of the most massive central galaxies by making use of empirical estimates on their abundances and stellar ages. The most recent abundance matching and direct measurements strongly favour that a substantial fr...

  17. A Faster Parallel Algorithm and Efficient Multithreaded Implementations for Evaluating Betweenness Centrality on Massive Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madduri, Kamesh; Ediger, David; Jiang, Karl; Bader, David A.; Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel

    2009-02-15

    We present a new lock-free parallel algorithm for computing betweenness centralityof massive small-world networks. With minor changes to the data structures, ouralgorithm also achieves better spatial cache locality compared to previous approaches. Betweenness centrality is a key algorithm kernel in HPCS SSCA#2, a benchmark extensively used to evaluate the performance of emerging high-performance computing architectures for graph-theoretic computations. We design optimized implementations of betweenness centrality and the SSCA#2 benchmark for two hardware multithreaded systems: a Cray XMT system with the Threadstorm processor, and a single-socket Sun multicore server with the UltraSPARC T2 processor. For a small-world network of 134 million vertices and 1.073 billion edges, the 16-processor XMT system and the 8-core Sun Fire T5120 server achieve TEPS scores (an algorithmic performance count for the SSCA#2 benchmark) of 160 million and 90 million respectively, which corresponds to more than a 2X performance improvement over the previous parallel implementations. To better characterize the performance of these multithreaded systems, we correlate the SSCA#2 performance results with data from the memory-intensive STREAM and RandomAccess benchmarks. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our implementation to analyze massive real-world datasets by computing approximate betweenness centrality for a large-scale IMDb movie-actor network.

  18. Identifying Central Bank Liquidity Super-Spreaders in Interbank Funds Networks (Replaced by CentER DP 2014-047)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, C.; Machado, C.; Sarmiento, M.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the Colombian interbank funds market is an inhomogeneous and hierarchical network in which a few financial institutions fulfill the role of “super-spreaders” of central bank liquidity among market participants. Results concur with evidence from other interbank markets and othe

  19. The superconformal algebra and central extension of meromorphic vector fields with multipoles on the super-Riemann sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconformal algebras of meromorphic vector fields with multipoles, the central extension and the relevant abelian differential of the third kind on the super-Riemann sphere are constructed. The background of our theory concerns with the interaction of closed superstrings. (orig.)

  20. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-27

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  1. Super-massive planets around late-type stars - the case of OGLE-2012-BLG-0406Lb

    OpenAIRE

    Poleski, Radosław; Udalski, Andrzej; Dong, Subo; Szymański, Michał K.; Soszyński, Igor; Kubiak, Marcin; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Kozłowski, Szymon; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Jan; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Gould, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The core accretion theory of planetary formation does not predict that super-Jupiters will form beyond the snow line of a low mass stars. We present a discovery of 3.9 +- 1.2 M_Jup mass planet orbiting the 0.59 +- 0.17 M_Sun star using the gravitational microlensing method. During the event, the projected separation of the planet and the star is 3.9 +- 1.0 AU i.e., the planet is significantly further from the host star than the snow line. This is a fourth such planet discovered using the micr...

  2. Implications of primordial black holes on the first stars and the origin of the super--massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bambi, Cosimo; Spolyar, Douglas; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Freese, Katherine; Volonteri, Marta

    2008-01-01

    If the cosmological dark matter has a component made of small primordial black holes, they may have a significant impact on the physics of the first stars and on the subsequent formation of massive black holes. Primordial black holes would be adiabatically contracted into these stars and then would sink to the stellar center by dynamical friction, creating a larger black hole which may quickly swallow the whole star. If these primordial black holes are heavier than $\\sim 10^{22} {\\rm g}$, the...

  3. Setting firmer constraints on the evolution of the most massive, central galaxies from their local abundances and ages

    CERN Document Server

    Buchan, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    There is still much debate surrounding how the most massive, central galaxies in the local universe have assembled their stellar mass, especially the relative roles of in-situ growth versus later accretion via mergers. In this paper, we set firmer constraints on the evolutionary pathways of the most massive central galaxies by making use of empirical estimates on their abundances and stellar ages. The most recent abundance matching and direct measurements strongly favour that a substantial fraction of massive galaxies with Mstar>3x10^11 Msun reside at the centre of clusters with mass Mhalo>3x10^13 Msun. Spectral analysis supports ages >10 Gyrs, corresponding to a formation redshift z_form >2. We combine these two pieces of observationally-based evidence with the mass accretion history of their host dark matter haloes. We find that in these massive haloes, the stellar mass locked up in the central galaxy is comparable to, if not greater than, the total baryonic mass at z_form. These findings indicate that eith...

  4. Setting firmer constraints on the evolution of the most massive, central galaxies from their local abundances and ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Stewart; Shankar, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    There is still much debate surrounding how the most massive, central galaxies in the local universe have assembled their stellar mass, especially the relative roles of in situ growth versus later accretion via mergers. In this paper, we set firmer constraints on the evolutionary pathways of the most massive central galaxies by making use of empirical estimates on their abundances and stellar ages. The most recent abundance matching and direct measurements strongly favour that a substantial fraction of massive galaxies with Mstar>3 × 1011 M⊙ reside at the centre of clusters with mass Mhalo>3 × 1013 M⊙. Spectral analysis supports ages >10 Gyr, corresponding to a formation redshift zform>2. We combine these two pieces of observationally based evidence with the mass accretion history of their host dark matter haloes. We find that in these massive haloes, the stellar mass locked up in the central galaxy is comparable to, if not greater than, the total baryonic mass at zform. These findings indicate that either only a relatively minor fraction of their present-day stellar mass was formed in situ at zform, or that these massive, central galaxies form in the extreme scenario where almost all of the baryons in the progenitor halo are converted into stars. Interestingly, the latter scenario would not allow for any substantial size growth since the galaxy's formation epoch either via mergers or expansion. We show our results hold irrespective of systematic uncertainties in stellar mass, abundances, galaxy merger rates, stellar initial mass function, star formation rate and dark matter accretion histories.

  5. Identifying Central Bank Liquidity Super-Spreaders in Interbank Funds Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Léon, C.; Machado, C.; Sarmiento, M.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the Colombian interbank funds market exhibits an inhomogeneous and hierarchical network structure, akin to a core-periphery organization, in which a few financial institutions fulfill the role of super-spreaders because of their simultaneous importance as global borrowers and

  6. The Dynamics of Dense Stellar Systems with a Massive Central Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Michael A.

    In this work, we explore the dynamics of two similar types of dense stellar systems with a central black hole of mass much greater than a typical stellar object. In particular, we use numerical N-body simulations to examine the effects that the massive black hole (MBH) has on the surrounding stars and compact objects as they pertain to indirectly observable signals. The first systems we consider are the highly uncertain cusps likely comprised of primarily massive compact objects that surround the MBHs at the center of typical galaxies. The gradual inspiral of a compact object by emission of gravitational radiation, called an extreme mass-ratio inspiral (EMRI), will produce a signal that falls in the peak detection range of the space-bound laser interferometer space antenna (LISA). Despite a veritable gold mine of astrophysical data that could be gleaned from such a detection, previous investigations in the literature have left the predicted rate of these events uncertain by several orders of magnitude. We present direct N-body simulations of the innermost ≤ 100 objects with the inclusion of the first-order Post-Newtonian correction with the aim of reducing one of the key uncertainties in the dynamics of these systems - the efficiency of resonant relaxation. We find that relativistic pericenter precession prevents a significant enhancement of the EMRI rate; the rate we derive during this work is consistent with those derived in the literature from less direct methods. We do find, however, that our EMRI progenitors originate from much closer to the MBH than previous investigations have suggested was likely. Our second investigation delves into the possibility of finding intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), with masses ˜ 102-4 Msun , at the center of dense star clusters. Because of the substantial investment of telescope time needed to perform the multiyear proper motion studies that are likely needed to achieve a definitive detection, careful selection of

  7. Petrography, mineral chemistry, fluid inclusion microthermometry and Re–Os geochronology of the Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (Central Pontides, Northern Turkey).

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, M; Oyman, T.; Çiçek, M.; Selby, D.; Özgenç, İ.; Tokçaer, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Re–Os isotopic system is applied for the first time to the sulfide ores and the overlying black-shales at the Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit of the Central Pontides, Northern Turkey. The ore samples collected include predominantly pyrite, accompanied by chalcopyrite, sphalerite and other species. Massive ore is almost free of gangues, whereas the stockwork ore includes quartz and calcite gangue. The composition of sphalerite is similar to ancient and modern massive sulfide mine...

  8. Cerro de Pasco and other massive sulfide deposits of central Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    The famous Cerro de Pasco Pb-Zn-Ag deposit historically has been considered to be hydrothermally derived from an adjacent Tertiary volcanic vent. However, texturally massive pyrite-chert and pyrite-sphalerite-galena in the deposit have the same strike and cross folds as the adjacent pre-Tertiary strata. Both the deposit and the strata are cut by one of the large Longitudinal Faults. Both dikes and pyrite-enargite veins associated with the vent cut the massive sulfides; fragments of massive pyrite occur in the vent. A few examples of laminated pyrite and chert, banded pyrite and chert, banded pyrite and sphalerite, and banded pyrite, sphalerite, and galena are preserved in the massive sulfide portion of the deposit. The deposit has the composition and zoning patterns typical of shale-hosted massive sulfides. Cerro de Pasco probably in part of the pelitic Devonian Excelsior formation. The Colquijirca deposit 8 km to the south and the San Cristobal district 110 km to the south likewise have been considered to be Tertiary volcanic hydrothermal deposits. Colquijirca consists of stratigraphically controlled mantos of layered pyrite, chert and tuff in the Tertiary Calera formation. The mantos of the San Cristobal district are along the upper contact of the pyritic, Permian, Catalina felsic volcanic rocks; some ore consists of laminated pyrite and sphalerite. Tertiary plutons are conspicuously absent at San Cristobal, and the ores are brecciated by Tertiary folding.

  9. Physics of the Galactic Center Cloud G2, on its Way towards the Super-Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Burkert, Andreas; Alig, Christian; Gillessen, Stefan; Genzel, Reinhard; Fritz, Tobias; Eisenhauer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The origin, structure and evolution of the small gas cloud, G2, is investigated, that is on an orbit almost straight into the Galactic central supermassive black hole (SMBH). G2 is a sensitive probe of the hot accretion zone of Sgr A*, requiring gas temperatures and densities that agree well with models of captured shock-heated stellar winds. Its mass is equal to the critical mass below which cold clumps would be destroyed quickly by evaporation. Its mass is also constrained by the fact that at apocenter its sound crossing timescale was equal to its orbital timescale. Our numerical simulations show that the observed structure and evolution of G2 can be well reproduced if it formed in pressure equilibrium with the surrounding in 1995 at a distance from the SMBH of 7.6e16 cm. If the cloud would have formed at apocenter in the 'clockwise' stellar disk as expected from its orbit, it would be torn into a very elongated spaghetti-like filament by 2011 which is not observed. This problem can be solved if G2 is the h...

  10. The growth of typical star-forming galaxies and their super massive black holes across cosmic time since z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Calhau, João; Stroe, Andra; Best, Philip; Smail, Ian; Lehmer, Bret; Harrison, Chris; Thomson, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Understanding galaxy formation and evolution requires studying the interplay between the growth of galaxies and the growth of their black holes across cosmic time. Here we explore a sample of Ha-selected star-forming galaxies from the HiZELS survey and use the wealth of multi-wavelength data in the COSMOS field (X-rays, far-infrared and radio) to study the relative growth rates between typical galaxies and their central supermassive black holes, from z=2.23 to z=0. Typical star-forming galaxies at z~1-2 have black hole accretion rates (BHARs) of 0.001-0.01 Msun/yr and star formation rates (SFRs) of ~10-40 Msun/yr, and thus grow their stellar mass much quicker than their black hole mass (~3.3 orders of magnitude faster). However, ~3% of the sample (the sources detected directly in the X-rays) show a significantly quicker growth of the black hole mass (up to 1.5 orders of magnitude quicker growth than the typical sources). BHARs fall from z=2.23 to z=0, with the decline resembling that of star formation rate de...

  11. Evolution of Massive Stars Up to the End of Central Oxygen Burning

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Mounib F. El; Meyer, Bradley S.; The, Lih-Sin

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the evolution of massive stars of masses 15, 20, 25 and 30 $\\msun$ assuming solar-like initial chemical composition. The stellar sequences were evolved through the advanced burning phases up to the end of core oxygen burning. We present a careful analysis of the physical characteristics of the stellar models. In particular, we investigate the effect of the still unsettled reaction $^{12}$C($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{16}$O on the advanced evolution by using recent comp...

  12. Radiative feedback from massive black holes in elliptical galaxies. AGN flaring and central starburst fueled by recycled gas

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, L

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the radiative output from massive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies is not in doubt, given the well established relations among electromagnetic output, black hole mass and galaxy optical luminosity. We show how this AGN radiative output affects the hot ISM of an isolated elliptical galaxy with the aid of a high-resolution hydrodynamical code, where the cooling and heating functions include photoionization plus Compton heating. We find that radiative heating is a key factor in the self-regulated coevolution of massive black holes and their host galaxies and that 1) the mass accumulated by the central black hole is limited by feedback to the range observed today, and 2) relaxation instabilities occur so that duty cycles are small enough (~0.03) to account for the very small fraction of massive ellipticals observed to be in the "on" -QSO- phase, when the accretion luminosity approaches the Eddington luminosity. The duty cycle of the hot bubbles inflated at the galaxy center duri...

  13. Electromagnetic imaging of seafloor massive sulfide deposits at the Central Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hendrik; Schwalenberg, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetics is considered to become a key method to evaluate the spatial extent, composition, and inner structure of Seafloor Massive Sulfide (SMS) deposits that contain potentially high grades of polymetallic minerals - essential ingredients for the growing high-tech industry. On land, airborne or ground electromagnetic methods are established as standard geophysical tools for locating and mapping massive sulfide deposits. In contrast to terrestrial systems, marine EM instrumentation to locate the heterogeneous and often sediment covered ore deposits are still in their infancy. To accomplish EM imaging of such complex deep sea environments, the GOLDEN EYE deep sea profiler has been developed at the University of Bremen by contract of the BGR, based on experiences with the MARUM NERIDIS benthic EM Profiler. GOLDEN EYE lands on the seafloor or glides with well constrained ground distance and is entirely controlled from the vessel. The rigid, circular fiberglass platform of 3.5 m in diameter hosts a frequency domain EM inloop sensor with horizontal transmitter of 3.34 m diameter and coaxial receiver and bucking coils. Operation frequencies between 10 and 20,000 Hz can be combined and jointly inverted to resolve the resistivity structure of the topmost 10 to 15 meters below seafloor with high lateral and near-surface resolution. We will present the concept and development state of this deep sea electromagnetic profiler, and first results from a recent cruise to the Edmond hydrothermal vent field in 3 km water depth. Preliminary analysis of the new data reveal electric conductivity values of more than 10 S/m associated with active and inactive SMS deposits. Simultaneously collected DC magnetic data indicate a local positive magnetic anomaly associated with the active Edmond hydrothermal vent field while nearby fossil deposits are characterized by negative magnetic anomalies. First 1D inversion results provide insights into the vertical extend and overburden

  14. Massively parallel cis-regulatory analysis in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Susan Q; Myers, Connie A; Hughes, Andrew E O; Byrne, Leah C; Flannery, John G; Corbo, Joseph C

    2016-02-01

    Cis-regulatory elements (CREs, e.g., promoters and enhancers) regulate gene expression, and variants within CREs can modulate disease risk. Next-generation sequencing has enabled the rapid generation of genomic data that predict the locations of CREs, but a bottleneck lies in functionally interpreting these data. To address this issue, massively parallel reporter assays (MPRAs) have emerged, in which barcoded reporter libraries are introduced into cells, and the resulting barcoded transcripts are quantified by next-generation sequencing. Thus far, MPRAs have been largely restricted to assaying short CREs in a limited repertoire of cultured cell types. Here, we present two advances that extend the biological relevance and applicability of MPRAs. First, we adapt exome capture technology to instead capture candidate CREs, thereby tiling across the targeted regions and markedly increasing the length of CREs that can be readily assayed. Second, we package the library into adeno-associated virus (AAV), thereby allowing delivery to target organs in vivo. As a proof of concept, we introduce a capture library of about 46,000 constructs, corresponding to roughly 3500 DNase I hypersensitive (DHS) sites, into the mouse retina by ex vivo plasmid electroporation and into the mouse cerebral cortex by in vivo AAV injection. We demonstrate tissue-specific cis-regulatory activity of DHSs and provide examples of high-resolution truncation mutation analysis for multiplex parsing of CREs. Our approach should enable massively parallel functional analysis of a wide range of CREs in any organ or species that can be infected by AAV, such as nonhuman primates and human stem cell-derived organoids.

  15. The central star of the planetary nebula lmc-n66: a Massive accreting white dwarf?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La estrella central del sistema PN LMC - N66 present o una impresionante transferencia de masa en 1993 - 1994 y regres o a su condici on inicial alrededor de 8 a~nos m as tarde. Su espectro se parece al de una estrella WN4.5 y es la unica estrella central con rmada de nebulosas planetarias que posee este tipo de espectro. Presentamos el an alisis reciente de los par ametros para la estrella central llevado a cabo por Hamann et al. (2003 que encontraron que durante la transferencia de masa la luminosidad bolom etrica se increment o en un factor mayor que 6. Discutimos los posibles escenarios que fueron propuestos para explicar los excepcionales par ametros estelares y el mecanismo de transferencia de masa. Las caracter sticas estelares, la morfolog a y la cinem atica de la nebulosa planetaria sugieren la presencia de un sistema binario (una estrella masiva con una compa~nera menos masiva o una enana blanca que acreta la materia en un sistema de binarias cercanas, siendo estos los casos que contradicen de manera menos severa las restricciones observacionales.

  16. Banded sulfide-magnetite ores of Mauk copper massive sulfide deposit, Central Urals: Composition and genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safina, N. P.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Kotlyarov, V. A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Large, R. R.; Blinov, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    The results of investigation of metamorphosed sulfide-magnetite ores from the Mauk deposit located within the Main Ural Fault at the junction of Tagil and Magnitogorsk massive sulfide zones are discussed. The ore-hosting sequence comprises metamorphic rocks formed from basalt, carbonaceous and carbonaceous-cherty siltstone, and lenticular serpentinized ultramafic bodies. The ores of the deposit are represented by banded varieties and less frequent breccia. The clastic origin of the banded ore is indicated by load casts at the bottom of sulfide beds, alternation of sulfide and barren beds, and the truncation of the growth zones of pyrite crystals. Pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite are the major minerals of the banded ores. The internal structure of the listed minerals testifies to the deep metamorphic recrystallization of primary hydrothermal-sedimentary ores accompanied with deformation. Cubanite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, greigite, and gold are enclosed in metacrysts of pyrite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite. The accessory minerals of the Pb-Bi-Te, Bi-Te, and Ag-Te systems as well as uraninite have been found at the Mauk deposit for the first time. Magnetite predominantly replaces pyrite and less frequently chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and gangue minerals. It was established that the major carriers of As and Co are crystals of metamorphic pyrite. Chalcopyrite is the major carrier of Zn, Sn, Te, Pb, Bi, and Ag. Admixture of Fe and Cu is typical of sphalerite, and Se and Ni are characteristic of pyrrhotite. Ti, V, Mn, Sb, As, Ba, and U are concentrated in magnetite. The banded ores of the Mauk deposit are suggested as having been transformed in several stages: diagenesis, anadiagenesis, epidiagenesis ( t 500°C).

  17. Nature and origin of a Pleistocene-age massive ground-ice body exposed in the Chapman Lake moraine complex, central Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Denis; Lauriol, Bernard; Clark, Ian D.; Cardyn, Raphaelle; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2007-09-01

    A massive ground-ice body was found exposed in the headwall of a thaw flow developed within the Chapman Lake terminal moraine complex on the Blackstone Plateau (Ogilvie Mountains, central Yukon Territory), which is contemporaneous to the Reid glaciation. Based on visible cryostructures in the 4-m-high headwall, two units were identified: massive ground ice, overlain sharply by 2 m of icy diamicton. The nature and origin of the Chapman Lake massive ground ice was determined using cryostratigraphy, petrography, stable O-H isotopes and the molar concentration of occluded gases (CO 2, O 2, N 2 and Ar) entrapped in the ice, a new technique in the field of periglacial geomorphology that allows to distinguish between glacial and non-glacial intrasedimental ice. Collectively, the results indicate that the Chapman Lake massive ground ice formed by firn densification with limited melting-refreezing and underwent deformation near its margin. Given that the massive ground-ice body consists of relict glacier ice, it suggests that permafrost persisted, at least locally, on plateau areas in the central Yukon Territory since the middle Pleistocene. In addition, the d value of Chapman Lake relict glacier ice suggests that the ice covering the area during the Reid glaciation originated from a local alpine glaciation in the Ogilvie Mountains.

  18. Super and massive AGB stars - III. Nucleosynthesis in metal-poor and very metal-poor stars - Z=0.001 and 0.0001

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Carolyn L; Lau, Herbert H B; Lattanzio, John C; Siess, Lionel; Campbell, Simon W

    2014-01-01

    We present a new grid of stellar models and nucleosynthetic yields for super-AGB stars with metallicities Z=0.001 and 0.0001, applicable for use within galactic chemical evolution models. Contrary to more metal rich stars where hot bottom burning is the main driver of the surface composition, in these lower metallicity models the effect of third dredge-up and corrosive second dredge-up also have a strong impact on the yields. These metal-poor and very metal-poor super-AGB stars create large amounts of He4, C13 and N14, as well as the heavy magnesium isotopes Mg25 and Mg26. There is a transition in yield trends at metallicity Z approximately 0.001, below which we find positive yields of C12, O16, N15, Al27 and Si28, which is not the case for higher metallicities. We explore the large uncertainties derived from wind prescriptions in super-AGB stars, finding approximately 2 orders of magnitude difference in yields of Ne22, Na23, Mg24,25,26, Al27 and our s-process proxy isotope g. We find inclusion of variable co...

  19. Super- and sub-Eddington accreting massive black holes: A comparison of slim and thin accretion discs through study of the spectral energy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Castello-Mor, Nuria; Kaspi, Shai

    2016-01-01

    We employ optical and UV observations to present SEDs for two reverberation-mapped samples of super-Eddington and sub-Eddington AGN with similar luminosity distributions. The samples are fitted with accretion disc models in order to look for SED differences that depend on the Eddington ratio. The fitting takes into account measured BH mass and accretion rates, BH spin and intrinsic reddening of the sources. All objects in both groups can be fitted by thin AD models over the range 0.2-1$\\,\\mu$m with reddening as a free parameter. The intrinsic reddening required to fit the data are relatively small, $E(B-V)\\leq0.2$~mag, except for one source. Super-Eddington AGN seem to require more reddening. The distribution of $E(B-V)$ is similar to what is observed in larger AGN samples. The best fit disc models for the two groups are very different, with super-Eddington sources require much more luminous far-UV continuum. The exact amount depends on the possible saturation of the UV radiation in slim discs. In particular,...

  20. An infinite supermultiplet of massive higher-spin fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bekaert, Xavier; Valenzuela, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    The representation theory underlying the infinite-component relativistic wave equation written by Majorana is revisited from a modern perspective. On the one hand, the massless solutions of this equation are shown to form a supermultiplet of the superPoincare algebra with tensorial central charges; it can also be obtained as the infinite spin limit of massive solutions. On the other hand, the Majorana equation is generalized for any space-time dimension and for arbitrary Regge trajectories. Inspired from these results, an infinite supermultiplet of massive fields of all spins and of equal mass is constructed in four dimensions and proved to carry an irreducible representation of the orthosymplectic group OSp(1|4) and of the superPoincare group with tensorial charges.

  1. Peralkaline- and calc-alkaline-hosted volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Bonnifield District, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Foley, Nora K.; Slack, John E.; Koenig, Alan E.; Oscarson, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag-Au deposits of the Bonnifield mining district formed during Late Devonian-Early Mississippian magmatism along the western edge of Laurentia. The largest deposits, Dry Creek and WTF, have a combined resource of 5.7 million tonnes at 10% Zn, 4% Pb, 0.3% Cu, 300 grams per tonne (g/t) Ag, and 1.6 g/t Au. These polymetallic deposits are hosted in high field strength element (HFSE)- and rare-earth element (REE)-rich peralkaline (pantelleritic) metarhyolite, and interlayered pyritic argillite and mudstone of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist Formation. Mystic Creek metarhyolite and alkali basalt (Chute Creek Member) constitute a bimodal pair that formed in an extensional environment. A synvolcanic peralkaline quartz porphyry containing veins of fluorite, sphalerite, pyrite, and quartz intrudes the central footwall at Dry Creek. The Anderson Mountain deposit, located ~32 km to the southwest, occurs within calc-alkaline felsic to intermediate-composition metavolcanic rocks and associated graphitic argillite of the Wood River assemblage. Felsic metavolcanic rocks there have only slightly elevated HFSEs and REEs. The association of abundant graphitic and siliceous argillite with the felsic volcanic rocks together with low Cu contents in the Bonnifield deposits suggests classification as a siliciclastic-felsic type of VMS deposit. Bonnifield massive sulfides and host rocks were metamorphosed and deformed under greenschist-facies conditions in the Mesozoic. Primary depositional textures, generally uncommon, consist of framboids, framboidal aggregates, and spongy masses of pyrite. Sphalerite, the predominant base metal sulfide, encloses early pyrite framboids. Galena and chalcopyrite accompanied early pyrite formation but primarily formed late in the paragenetic sequence. Silver-rich tetrahedrite is a minor late phase at the Dry Creek deposit. Gold and Ag are present in low to moderate amounts in pyrite from all of

  2. Supertwistors and massive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezincescu, Luca, E-mail: mezincescu@server.physics.miami.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Routh, Alasdair J., E-mail: a.j.routh@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Townsend, Paul K., E-mail: p.k.townsend@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    In the (super)twistor formulation of massless (super)particle mechanics, the mass-shell constraint is replaced by a “spin-shell” constraint from which the spin content can be read off. We extend this formalism to massive (super)particles (with N-extended space–time supersymmetry) in three and four space–time dimensions, explaining how the spin-shell constraints are related to spin, and we use it to prove equivalence of the massive N=1 and BPS-saturated N=2 superparticle actions. We also find the supertwistor form of the action for “spinning particles” with N-extended worldline supersymmetry, massless in four dimensions and massive in three dimensions, and we show how this simplifies special features of the N=2 case. -- Highlights: •Spin-shell constraints are related to Poincaré Casimirs. •Twistor form of 4D spinning particle for spin N/2. •Twistor proof of scalar/antisymmetric tensor equivalence for 4D spin 0. •Twistor form of 3D particle with arbitrary spin. •Proof of equivalence of N=1 and N=2 BPS massive 4D superparticles.

  3. ON THE INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT CENTRAL STELLAR MASS-HALO MASS RELATION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE MOST MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z ∼ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Francesco; Buchan, Stewart [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Guo, Hong; Zheng, Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States); Bouillot, Vincent [Centre for Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701 (South Africa); Rettura, Alessandro [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Meert, Alan; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi; Vikram, Vinu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kravtsov, Andrey [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Behroozi, Peter [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Maraston, Claudia; Capozzi, Diego [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Ascaso, Begoña; Huertas-Company, Marc [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Lemaux, Brian C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Gal, Roy R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Lubin, Lori M., E-mail: F.Shankar@soton.ac.uk [University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2014-12-20

    The stellar mass-halo mass relation is a key constraint in all semi-analytic, numerical, and semi-empirical models of galaxy formation and evolution. However, its exact shape and redshift dependence remain under debate. Several recent works support a relation in the local universe steeper than previously thought. Based on comparisons with a variety of data on massive central galaxies, we show that this steepening holds up to z ∼ 1 for stellar masses M {sub star} ≳ 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Specifically, we find significant evidence for a high-mass end slope of β ≳ 0.35-0.70 instead of the usual β ≲ 0.20-0.30 reported by a number of previous results. When including the independent constraints from the recent Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey clustering measurements, the data, independent of any systematic errors in stellar masses, tend to favor a model with a very small scatter (≲ 0.15 dex) in stellar mass at fixed halo mass, in the redshift range z < 0.8 and for M {sub star} > 3 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, suggesting a close connection between massive galaxies and host halos even at relatively recent epochs. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to the evolution of the most massive galaxies since z ∼ 1.

  4. Massive Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Rham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP, cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alternative and related models of massive gravity such as new massive gravity, Lorentz-violating massive gravity and non-local massive gravity.

  5. A Super Roman Pot

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that were installed in each downstream arm of the ISR intersection I-8. Detectors placed inside these Super Roman Pots could be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams. (See Annual Report 1974 p. 110.)

  6. Supernovae from massive AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The

  7. Multiple sulphur and lead sources recorded in hydrothermal exhalites associated with the Lemarchant volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, central Newfoundland, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, Stefanie; Piercey, Stephen J.; Layne, Graham D.; Piercey, Glenn; Cloutier, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Metalliferous sedimentary rocks (mudstones, exhalites) associated with the Cambrian precious metal-bearing Lemarchant Zn-Pb-Cu-Au-Ag-Ba volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposit, Tally Pond volcanic belt, precipitated both before and after VMS mineralization. Sulphur and Pb isotopic studies of sulphides within the Lemarchant exhalites provide insight into the sources of S and Pb in the exhalites as a function of paragenesis and evolution of the deposit and subsequent post-depositional modification. In situ S isotope microanalyses of polymetallic sulphides (euhedral and framboidal pyrite, anhedral chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena and euhedral arsenopyrite) by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) yielded δ34S values ranging from -38.8 to +14.4 ‰, with an average of ˜ -12.8 ‰. The δ34S systematics indicate sulphur was predominantly biogenically derived via microbial/biogenic sulphate reduction of seawater sulphate, microbial sulphide oxidation and microbial disproportionation of intermediate S compounds. These biogenic processes are coupled and occur within layers of microbial mats consisting of different bacterial/archaeal species, i.e., sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and those that disproportionate sulphur compounds. Inorganic processes or sources (i.e., thermochemical sulphate reduction of seawater sulphate, leached or direct igneous sulphur) also contributed to the S budget in the hydrothermal exhalites and are more pronounced in exhalites that are immediately associated with massive sulphides. Galena Pb isotopic compositions by SIMS microanalysis suggest derivation of Pb from underlying crustal basement (felsic volcanic rocks of Sandy Brook Group), whereas less radiogenic Pb derived from juvenile sources leached from mafic volcanic rocks of the Sandy Brook Group and/or Tally Pond group. This requires that the hydrothermal fluids interacted with juvenile and evolved crust during hydrothermal circulation, which is consistent with the existing

  8. Enhancing the rate of tidal disruptions of stars by a self-gravitating disc around a massive central black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubr L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We further study the idea that a self-gravitating accretion disc around a supermassive black hole can increase the rate of gradual orbital decay of stellar trajectories (and hence tidal disruption events by setting some stars on eccentric trajectories. Cooperation between the gravitational field of the disc and the dissipative environment can provide a mechanism explaining the origin of stars that become bound tightly to the central black hole. We examine this process as a function of the black hole mass and conclude that it is most efficient for intermediate central masses of the order of ∼ 104Mʘ. Members of the cluster experience the stage of orbital decay via collisions with an accretion disc and by other dissipative processes, such as tidal effects, dynamical friction and the emission of gravitational waves. Our attention is concentrated on the region of gravitational dominance of the central body. Mutual interaction between stars and the surrounding environment establishes a non-spherical shape and anisotropy of the nuclear cluster. In some cases, the stellar sub-system acquires ring-type geometry. Stars of the nuclear cluster undergo a tidal disruption event as they plunge below the tidal radius of the supermassive black hole.

  9. The central region of M83: Massive star formation, kinematics, and the location and origin of the nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, J H; Ryder, S D; Falcon-Barroso, J; Fathi, K; Gutierrez, L

    2010-01-01

    We report new near-IR integral field spectroscopy of the central starburst region of the barred spiral galaxy M83 obtained with CIRPASS on Gemini-S, which we analyse in conjunction with GHaFaS Fabry-Perot data, an AAT IRIS2 Ks-band image, and near- and mid-IR imaging from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. The bulk of the current star formation activity is hidden from optical view by dust extinction, but is seen in the near- and mid-IR to the north of the nucleus. This region is being fed by inflow of gas through the bar of M83, traced by the prominent dust lane entering into the circumnuclear region from the north. An analysis of stellar ages confirms that the youngest stars are indeed in the northwest. A gradual age gradient, with older stars further to the south, characterises the well-known star-forming arc in the central region of M83. Detailed analyses of the Pa beta ionised gas kinematics and near-IR imaging confirm that the kinematic centre coincides with the photometric centre of M83, and that ...

  10. 肾动脉栓塞治疗6例肾穿刺活检术或肾镜取石术术后大出血%Super-Selective Renal Arterial Embolization in the Treatment of Massive Hemorrhage after Renal Biopsy or Mini-Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明林; 许哲; 潘建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of super-selective renal arterial cmboiization in the treatment of massive hemorrhage after renal biopsy or mini-percutaneous ncphrolithotomy. Methods: A total of 6 patients with massive hemorrhage after renal biopsy or mini-percutaneous ncphrolithotomy were treated with super-selective renal arterial cmbolization. Results: The hemorrhage in all 6 cases was under control immediately after the treatment of super-selective renal arterial cmbolization, without late hemorrhage at the lsr week, 2r week and 4n week after the cmbolization. No obvious renal impairment was observed in all cases. Conclusions; Surpcr-sclcctivc renal arterial cmbolization is a good way to treat massive hemorrhage after renal biopsy or mini-pcrcutancous ncphrolithotomy.%目的:探讨超选择性肾动脉栓塞治疗肾穿刺活检术或经皮肾镜取石术术后继发大出血的临床价值.方法:回顾分析6例肾穿刺活检术或经皮肾镜取石术术后并发大出血接受超选择性肾动脉栓塞介入治疗的患者的相关资料.结果:在超选择性肾动脉栓塞治疗后,6例患者的大出血均立即得到控制,且术后1周、2周、4周随访均无迟发性出血.所有患者术后均无明显肾功能损害.结论:超选择性肾动脉栓塞是治疗肾穿刺活检术及经皮肾镜取石术术后继发大出血的首选方法.

  11. Massive, Topologically Massive, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, Stanley D; Tekin, Bayram

    2002-01-01

    In three dimenions, there are two distinct mass-generating mechanisms for gauge vector and tensr fields: adding the usual Proca/Pauli-Fierz, or the more esoteric Chern-Simons (CS), terms. Here we analyze the three-term models where both types are present, and their various limits. Surprisingly, in the tensor case, these seemingly inncouos systems are physically unacceptable. If the sign of the Eisntein term is ``wrong'' as required in the CS case, then the excitation masses are always complex; with the usual sign, there is (known) region of the two mass parameters where reality is restored, but a ghost problem arises. For the two-term sytem without Eintein term, complex masses are unavoidable. This constrasts with the smooth behavir of the corresponding vector models. Seperately, we show that the ``partial masslessness'' exhibited by (plane) massive spin-2 models in de Sitter backgrounds is formally shared by the three-system: it enjoys a reduced local gauge invariance when this mass parameter is tuned to the...

  12. Super Special Codes using Super Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K

    2010-01-01

    The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these codes are given in the final chapter.

  13. Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia de Rham

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...

  14. Logic gates realized by nonvolatile GeTe/Sb2Te3 super lattice phase-change memory with a magnetic field input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Feng, Jinlong; Guan, Xiawei; Miao, Xiangshui

    2016-07-01

    Nonvolatile memory devices or circuits that can implement both storage and calculation are a crucial requirement for the efficiency improvement of modern computer. In this work, we realize logic functions by using [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice phase change memory (PCM) cell in which higher threshold voltage is needed for phase change with a magnetic field applied. First, the [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice cells were fabricated and the R-V curve was measured. Then we designed the logic circuits with the super lattice PCM cell verified by HSPICE simulation and experiments. Seven basic logic functions are first demonstrated in this letter; then several multi-input logic gates are presented. The proposed logic devices offer the advantages of simple structures and low power consumption, indicating that the super lattice PCM has the potential in the future nonvolatile central processing unit design, facilitating the development of massive parallel computing architecture.

  15. 基于SuperMap Objects的太原师范学院中区植物查询系统%Plant Inquiry System of the Central Campus of Taiyuan Normal University Based on SuperMap Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱丽氚; 邱文君

    2012-01-01

    基于SuperMap Objects的太原师范学院中区植物查询系统是在软件工程基本原理的指导下,运用SuperMap Objects二次开发组件,在Visual Basic 2008 IDE软件开发环境下,开发的植物查询系统,可以对校园植物进行选择、漫游、全副显示、距离测量等基本空间操作以及图形查属性、属性查图形、SQL查询等功能.

  16. Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  17. Massive Branes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E. A.; Lozano, Y.; Ortín, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Published in: Nucl. Phys. B 518 (1998) 363-423 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We investigate the effective worldvolume theories of branes in a background given by (the bosonic sector of) 10-dimensional massive IIA supergravity (``massive branes'') and their M-theoretic orig

  18. Minimal Massive 3D Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to Topologically Massive Gravity (TMG) with the same "minimal" bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new "minimal massive gravity" has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra.

  19. Super Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D G Hitlin

    2006-11-01

    Heavy-flavor physics, in particular and physics results from the factories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A new generation of colliders, Super Factories, with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique clarification of new physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  20. Globular cluster-massive black hole interactions in galactic centers

    CERN Document Server

    Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R

    2016-01-01

    Many, if not all, galaxies host massive compact objects at their centers. They are present as singularities (super massive black holes) or high density star clusters (nuclear tar clusters). In some cases they coexist, and interact more or less strongly. In this short paper I will talk of the 'merger' globular cluster scenario, which has been shown in the past to be an explanation of the substantial mass accumulation in galactic centers. In particular, I will present the many astrophysical implications of such scenario pointing the attention on the mutual feedback of orbitally decaying globular clusters with massive and super massive black holes.

  1. Super compacting of drums with dry solid radioactive waste in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde;Super compactacion de bidones con desecho radiactivo solido seco en la central nucleo electrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, R.; Lara H, M. A.; Cabrera Ll, M.; Verdalet de la Torre, O., E-mail: marco.lara@cfe.gob.m [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Carretera Nautla-Cardel Km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde located in the Gulf of Mexico, completes in this 2009, nineteen years to produce by nuclear means 4.78% of the electric power that Mexico requires daily. During this time, the Unit 1 has generated more of 88.85 million mega watt-hour and the Unit 2 more of 69.48 million mega watt-hour with an availability average of 83.55%. Derived of their operation cycles, the nuclear power plant has generated (as any other installation of its type) radioactive wastes of low activity that at the moment are temporarily stored in the site. Due to the life cycle of the nuclear power plant, actually has become necessary to begin a project series focused to continue guaranteeing the storage of these wastes, guarantee that is a license requirement for the operation of this nuclear installation before the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards. The Federal Commission of Electricity beginning a project that allows continue guaranteeing space of sufficient storage for the wastes that the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde could generate for the rest of its useful life, this project consisted on a process of physical volume reduction of dry solid radioactive wastes denominated super compacting, it has made possible to reduce the volume that these wastes occupy in the temporary storage noted Dry Solid Radioactive Wastes Deposit located inside the site that occupies the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This work presents the super compacting results, as well as a description of the realization of this task until concluding with the super compacting of 5,854 drums with dry solid radioactive waste of low activity. We will enunciate which were the radiological controls that the Department of Radiological Protection of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde applied to this work that was realized for first time in Mexico and the nuclear power plant. (Author)

  2. More on massive 3D supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sezgin, Ergin [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.nl, E-mail: ohohm@mit.edu, E-mail: j.rosseel@rug.nl, E-mail: sezgin@tamu.edu, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-07

    Completing earlier work on three-dimensional (3D) N=1 supergravity with curvature-squared terms, we construct the general supergravity extension of 'cosmological' massive gravity theories. In particular, we show that all adS vacua of 'new massive gravity' (NMG) correspond to supersymmetric adS vacua of a 'super-NMG' theory that is perturbatively unitary whenever the corresponding NMG theory is perturbatively unitary.

  3. Effects of massive wind power integration on short-term water resource management in central Chile - a grid-wide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Olivares, M. A.; Palma, R.

    2013-12-01

    In central Chile, water from reservoirs and streams is mainly used for irrigation and power generation. Hydropower reservoirs operation is particularly challenging because: i) decisions at each plant impact the entire power system, and ii) the existence of large storage capacity implies inter-temporal ties. An Independent System Operator (ISO) decides the grid-wide optimal allocation of water for power generation, under irrigation-related constraints. To account for the long-term opportunity cost of water, a future cost function is determined and used in the short term planning. As population growth and green policies demand increasing levels of renewable energy in power systems, deployment of wind farms and solar plants is rising quickly. However, their power output is highly fluctuating on short time scales, affecting the operation of power plants, particularly those fast responding units as hydropower reservoirs. This study addresses these indirect consequences of massive introduction of green energy sources on reservoir operations. Short-term reservoir operation, under different wind penetration scenarios, is simulated using a replica of Chile's ISO's scheduling optimization tools. Furthermore, an ongoing study is exploring the potential to augment the capacity the existing hydro-power plants to better cope with the balancing needs due to a higher wind power share in the system. As reservoir releases determine to a great extent flows at downstream locations, hourly time series of turbined flows for 24-hour periods were computed for selected combinations between new wind farms and increased capacity of existing hydropower plants. These time series are compiled into subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) indexes (Zimmerman et al, 2010). The resulting sample of indexes is then analyzed using duration curves. Results show a clear increase in the SDHA for every reservoir of the system as more fluctuating renewables are integrated into the system. High

  4. On Topologically Massive Gravity with Extended Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lauf, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction of $2+1$-dimensional toplogically massive adS gravity with ${\\mathcal{N}}$-extended supersymmetry in conformal superspace by means of introducing a compensating hypermultiplet for the super-Weyl invariance. For $\\mathcal{N}\\geq 3$ the scalar multiplet must be on shell and the potential for the scalar compensator is completely determined by the geometry. As a consequence the resulting massive theory has no free parameter for $\\mathcal{N}\\geq 4$. For $\\mathcal{N}= 4$ we obtain the complete off-shell component action.

  5. A study of the clinical profile of atrial fibrillation in a tertiary care super-specialty referral centre in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Gautam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The conventional causes and risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF are somewhat arbitrary; overlap exists, multiple aetiologies are often present in one individual, and clinical presentation is non- specific. This study was an attempt to study the clinical and echocardiographic profile of patients with AF in a tertiary care super-specialty hospital of a developing country. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in College of Medical Sciences, Chitwan, Nepal throughout the year 2010. Subjects with AF, diagnosed based on clinical history, medical records and surface ECG, were included in the study. The presentation, types and causes of AF and structural as well as functional abnormalities were assessed. Results A total of 136 consecutive subjects were included in the study. The mean age was 42.40 (20.48 years ranging from 17 to 80 years. Majority of the AF subjects were female (54.41%. Among symptomatic cases, palpitation was the most common (23.53% presentation followed by dyspnea (17.65% and stroke or transient ischemic attack (15.44%. Asymptomatic presentation was also not uncommon (25%. Persistent AF was the most common form (31.62%. Rheumatic heart disease was the most common cause (33.09% followed by lone atrial fibrillation (23.52%, coronary artery disease (16.18%, hypertension (8.82% and thyrotoxicosis (7.35%. Other causes included chronic obstructive airway disease (5.88%, diabetes (2.94%, cardiomyopathy (1.47%, constrictive pericarditis (1.47%, myocarditis (0.74% and infective endocarditis (0.74%. Nearly 65 % subjects had either structural or functional abnormalities in echocardiographic study; dilated left atrium was the most prevalent abnormality. Conclusion In contrast to the studies reported from developed nations, our subjects with AF were younger and female, the most common cause was RHD and the majority had either structural or functional abnormalities in echocardiographic study. Journal of College of Medical

  6. Geology, lithogeochemistry and paleotectonic setting of the host sequence to the Kangasjärvi Zn-Cu deposit, central Finland: implications for volcanogenic massive sulphide exploration in the Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Roberts

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kangasjärvi Zn-Cu deposit is a highly deformed and metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS deposit located in the Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi base metal mining district of central Finland. The host sequence to the deposit, referred to as the Inner Volcanic Sequence (IVS, is comprised of a bimodal suite of metavolcanic rocks and a regionally extensive tonalite-trondhjemite gneiss (sub-volcanic intrusions?. A separate and perhaps younger sequence of mafic volcanic rocks, with irregular intervals of undifferentiated intermediate to felsic schists and metalimestones, referred to as the Outer Volcanic Sequence (OVS, are separated from the IVS sequence by intervals of metagreywacke and U-P-bearing graphitic schists. A stratigraphic scheme for rocks within the IVS is proposed based on outcrop observations, locally preserved volcanic textures, aspects of seafloor-related hydrothermal alteration and lithogeochemistry. In this scheme, rare andesites form the lowermostvolcanic stratigraphy and are overlain by typical island-arc basalts that were erupted in a subaqueous setting. Tonalite-trondhjemite subvolcanic intrusions were locally emplaced within andesites and coeval rhyolites were extruded on the basaltic substrate. The extrusion of rhyolites, including high-silica rhyolites, was coeval with regional-scale, pre-metamorphic seafloor hydrothermal alteration and local sulphide mineralization. Extensively altered rhyolites envelope massive sulphides and are underlain by altered basalts. The latter rocks are now characterized by a variety of low-variance metamorphic mineral assemblages (e.g. orthoamphibole-cordierite rocks and define a domain of intense pre-metamorphic chlorite ± sericite alteration in the stratigraphic footwall of the deposit. The altered nature of these rocks is attributed to reaction with seawater-related hydrothermal fluids within a zone of upflow at or near the seafloor. The fundamental controls on convective

  7. Non-local massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2013-11-25

    We present a general covariant action for massive gravity merging together a class of “non-polynomial” and super-renormalizable or finite theories of gravity with the non-local theory of gravity recently proposed by Jaccard, Maggiore and Mitsou (Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 044033). Our diffeomorphism invariant action gives rise to the equations of motion appearing in non-local massive gravity plus quadratic curvature terms. Not only the massive graviton propagator reduces smoothly to the massless one without a vDVZ discontinuity, but also our finite theory of gravity is unitary at tree level around the Minkowski background. We also show that, as long as the graviton mass m is much smaller the today's Hubble parameter H{sub 0}, a late-time cosmic acceleration can be realized without a dark energy component due to the growth of a scalar degree of freedom. In the presence of the cosmological constant Λ, the dominance of the non-local mass term leads to a kind of “degravitation” for Λ at the late cosmological epoch.

  8. dbSUPER: a database of super-enhancers in mouse and human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Zhang, Xuegong

    2016-01-01

    Super-enhancers are clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive cell-type-specific gene expression and are crucial to cell identity. Many disease-associated sequence variations are enriched in super-enhancer regions of disease-relevant cell types. Thus, super-enhancers can be used as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. Current studies have identified super-enhancers in more than 100 cell types and demonstrated their functional importance. However, a centralized resource to integrate all these findings is not currently available. We developed dbSUPER (http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbsuper/), the first integrated and interactive database of super-enhancers, with the primary goal of providing a resource for assistance in further studies related to transcriptional control of cell identity and disease. dbSUPER provides a responsive and user-friendly web interface to facilitate efficient and comprehensive search and browsing. The data can be easily sent to Galaxy instances, GREAT and Cistrome web-servers for downstream analysis, and can also be visualized in the UCSC genome browser where custom tracks can be added automatically. The data can be downloaded and exported in variety of formats. Furthermore, dbSUPER lists genes associated with super-enhancers and also links to external databases such as GeneCards, UniProt and Entrez. dbSUPER also provides an overlap analysis tool to annotate user-defined regions. We believe dbSUPER is a valuable resource for the biology and genetic research communities. PMID:26438538

  9. A dynamical theory for linearized massive superspin 3/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, James S. Jr.; Koutrolikos, Konstantinos [Center for String and Particle Theory, Department of Physics, University of MarylandCollege Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States)

    2014-03-05

    We present a new theory of free massive superspin Y=3/2 irreducible representation of the 4D, N=1 Super-Poincaré group, which has linearized non-minimal supergravity (superhelicity Y=3/2) as it’s massless limit. The new results will illuminate the underlying structure of auxiliary superfields required for the description of higher massive superspin systems.

  10. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  11. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  12. Holography based super resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Mudassar, Asloob A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the simulation of a simple technique of superresolution based on holographic imaging in spectral domain. The input beam assembly containing 25 optical fibers with different orientations and positions is placed to illuminate the object in the 4f optical system. The position and orientation of each fiber is calculated with respect to the central fiber in the array. The positions and orientations of the fibers are related to the shift of object spectrum at aperture plane. During the imaging process each fiber is operated once in the whole procedure to illuminate the input object transparency which gives shift to the object spectrum in the spectral domain. This shift of the spectrum is equal to the integral multiple of the pass band aperture width. During the operation of single fiber (ON-state) all other fibers are in OFF-state at that time. The hologram recorded by each fiber at the CCD plane is stored in computer memory. At the end of illumination process total 25 holograms are recorded by the whole fiber array and by applying some post processing and specific algorithm single super resolved image is obtained. The superresolved image is five times better than the band-limited image. The work is demonstrated using computer simulation only.

  13. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R{sub ⊕}, 2–20M{sub ⊕}) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R{sub ⊕}, 2–6M{sub ⊕}). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  14. Super Linear Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In this book, the authors introduce the notion of Super linear algebra and super vector spaces using the definition of super matrices defined by Horst (1963). This book expects the readers to be well-versed in linear algebra. Many theorems on super linear algebra and its properties are proved. Some theorems are left as exercises for the reader. These new class of super linear algebras which can be thought of as a set of linear algebras, following a stipulated condition, will find applications in several fields using computers. The authors feel that such a paradigm shift is essential in this computerized world. Some other structures ought to replace linear algebras which are over a century old. Super linear algebras that use super matrices can store data not only in a block but in multiple blocks so it is certainly more powerful than the usual matrices. This book has 3 chapters. Chapter one introduces the notion of super vector spaces and enumerates a number of properties. Chapter two defines the notion of sup...

  15. Feedback-regulated Super Massive Black Hole Seed Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Mark; Mesinger, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the seeds of high-redshift supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a key question in cosmology. Direct collapse black holes (DCBH) that form in pristine, atomic-line cooling halos, illuminated by a Lyman-Werner (LW) UV flux exceeding a critical threshold J_crit, represent an attractive possibility. We investigate when and where these conditions are met during cosmic evolution. For the LW intensity, J_LW, we account for departures from the background value in close proximity to star forming galaxies. For the pristine halo fraction, we account for both (i) supernova driven outflows, and (ii) the inherent pollution from progenitor halos. We estimate the abundance of DCBH formation sites, n_DCBH(z), and find that it increases with cosmic time from n_DCBH(z=20) ~ 1e-12 -1e-7 cMpc^-3 to n_DCBH(z=10) ~ 1e-10 - 1e-5 cMpc^-3. Our analysis shows the possible importance of galactic winds, which can suppress the predicted n_DCBH by several orders of magnitude, and cause DCBH formation to preferentially occur ar...

  16. Super-massive black hole mass scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alister W; Schombert, James

    2014-01-01

    Using black hole masses which span 10^5 to 10^(10) solar masses, the distribution of galaxies in the (host spheroid stellar mass)-(black hole mass) diagram is shown to be strongly bent. While the core-Sersic galaxies follow a near-linear relation, having a mean M_(bh)/M_(sph) mass ratio of ~0.5%, the Sersic galaxies follow a near-quadratic relation: M_bh~M_sph^(2.22+\\-0.58). This is not due to offset pseudobulges, but is instead an expected result arising from the long-known bend in the M_(sph)-sigma relation and the log-linear M_(bh)-sigma relation.

  17. Epidemiology of massive transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, M A; Chiesa, F; Vasan, S K;

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, massive transfusion protocols have received increasing attention. The potential risks associated with massive transfusion have been discussed and associations with both increased morbidity and mortality have been reported. However there is a paucity of comprehensive d...

  18. New massive gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.

  19. A Massive Substellar Companion to the Massive Giant HD 119445

    CERN Document Server

    Omiya, Masashi; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sato, Bun'ei; Kambe, Eiji; Kim, Kang-Min; Yoon, Tae Seog; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Masuda, Seiji; Toyota, Eri; Urakawa, Seitaro; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2009-01-01

    We detected a brown dwarf-mass companion around the intermediate-mass giant star HD 119445 (G6III) using the Doppler technique. This discovery is the first result from a Korean-Japanese planet search program based on precise radial velocity measurements. The radial velocity of this star exhibits a periodic Keplerian variation with a period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity of 410.2 days, 413.5 m/s and 0.082, respectively. Adopting a stellar mass of 3.9 M_solar, we were able to confirm the presence of a massive substellar companion with a semimajor axis of 1.71 AU and a minimum mass of 37.6 M_Jup, which falls in the middle of the brown dwarf-mass region. This substellar companion is the most massive ever discovered within 3 AU of a central intermediate-mass star. The host star also ranks among the most massive stars with substellar companions ever detected by the Doppler technique. This result supports the current view of substellar systems that more massive substellar companions tend to exist around more massi...

  20. Are gluons massive ?

    CERN Document Server

    Gilani, A H S

    2004-01-01

    It is claimed that only one gluon is massless and the other seven gluons are massive. Out of eight gluons, six are colored and two are neutral. Among neutral gluons, one is massless and other one is massive. Massive neutral gluon is heavier than the colored gluons. Gluons can only be predicted by set theory but not by SU(3).

  1. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  2. NETL Super Computer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NETL Super Computer was designed for performing engineering calculations that apply to fossil energy research. It is one of the world’s larger supercomputers,...

  3. The exceptional story of massive IIA supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Franz; Guarino, Adolfo; Inverso, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    The framework of exceptional field theory is extended by introducing consistent deformations of its generalised Lie derivative. For the first time, massive type IIA super-gravity is reproduced geometrically as a solution of the section constraint. This provides a unified description of all ten- and eleven-dimensional maximal supergravities. The actionof the E7(7) deformed theory is constructed, and reduces to those of exceptional field theory and gauged maximal supergravity in respective limits. The relation of this new framework to other approaches for generating the Romans mass non-geometrically is discussed.

  4. The Super Girl Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Changsha,the capital city of Hunan Province, has become famous across China for its innovative TV channel, in particular the cultural phenomenon of the Super Girl talent show. And as far as culture goes, Hunan TV is merely a reflection of a renaissance happening in the city. Animation, music halls, drama festivals and a famous book market are just some of the city's cultural sectors that are benefiting from the fame and notoriety of the Super Girl show.

  5. Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Lluís Martí

    2016-06-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment performs a large variety of studies, many of them in the neutrino sector. The archetypes are atmospheric neutrino (recently awarded with the Nobel prize for Mr. T. Kajita) and the solar neutrinos analyses. In these proceedings we report our latest results and present updates to indirect dark matter searches, our solar neutrino analysis and discuss the future upgrade of Super-Kamiokande by loading gadolinium into our ultra-pure water.

  6. Massive scalar field evolution in de Sitter

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of a massive, non-interacting and non-minimally coupled quantised scalar field in an expanding de Sitter background is investigated by solving the field evolution for an arbitrary initial state. In this approach there is no need to choose a vacuum in order to provide a definition for particle states. We conclude that the expanding de Sitter space is a stable equilibrium configuration under small perturbations of the initial conditions. Depending on the initial state, the energy density can approach its asymptotic value from above or below, the latter of which implies a violation of the weak energy condition. The backreaction of the quantum corrections can therefore lead to a phase of super-acceleration also in the non-interacting massive case.

  7. THE GALACTIC CENTER S-STARS AND THE HYPERVELOCITY STARS IN THE GALACTIC HALO: TWO FACES OF THE TIDAL BREAKUP OF STELLAR BINARIES BY THE CENTRAL MASSIVE BLACK HOLE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fupeng; Lu Youjun [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu Qingjuan [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-05-10

    In this paper, we investigate the link between the hypervelocity stars (HVSs) discovered in the Galactic halo and the Galactic center (GC) S-stars, under the hypothesis that they are both the products of the tidal breakup of the same population of stellar binaries by the central massive black hole (MBH). By adopting several hypothetical models for binaries to be injected into the vicinity of the MBH and doing numerical simulations, we realize the tidal breakup processes of the binaries and their follow-up dynamical evolution. We find that many statistical properties of the detected HVSs and GC S-stars could be reproduced under some binary injecting models, and their number ratio can be reproduced if the stellar initial mass function is top-heavy (e.g., with slope {approx} - 1.6). The total number of the captured companions is {approx}50 that have masses in the range {approx}3-7 M{sub Sun} and semimajor axes {approx}< 4000 AU and survive to the present within their main-sequence lifetime. The innermost one is expected to have a semimajor axis {approx}300-1500 AU and a pericenter distance {approx}10-200 AU, with a significant probability of being closer to the MBH than S2. Future detection of such a close star would offer an important test to general relativity. The majority of the surviving ejected companions of the GC S-stars are expected to be located at Galactocentric distances {approx}< 20 kpc, and have heliocentric radial velocities {approx} - 500-1500 km s{sup -1} and proper motions up to {approx}5-20 mas yr{sup -1}. Future detection of these HVSs may provide evidence for the tidal breakup formation mechanism of the GC S-stars.

  8. Mass Deformations of Super Yang-Mills Theories in D= 2+1, and Super-Membranes: A Note

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Abhishek

    2008-01-01

    Mass deformations of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in three spacetime dimensions are considered. The gluons of the theories are made massive by the inclusion of a non-local gauge and Poincare invariant mass term due to Alexanian and Nair, while the matter fields are given standard Gaussian mass-terms. It is shown that the dimensional reduction of such mass deformed gauge theories defined on $R^3$ or $R\\times T^2$ produces matrix quantum mechanics with massive spectra. In particular, all known massive matrix quantum mechanical models obtained by the deformations of dimensional reductions of minimal super Yang-Mills theories in diverse dimensions are shown also to arise from the dimensional reductions of appropriate massive Yang-Mills theories in three spacetime dimensions. Explicit formulae for the gauge theory actions are provided.

  9. Super Virasoro Algebras From Chiral Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hyakutake, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we construct Noether charges for the chiral supergravity, which contains the Lorentz Chern-Simons term, by applying Wald's prescription to the vielbein formalism. We investigate the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence by using the vielbein formalism. The asymptotic symmetry group is carefully examined by taking into account the local Lorentz transformation, and we construct super Virasoro algebras with central extensions from the chiral supergravity.

  10. Logistics of massive transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2010-01-01

    Care of the patient with massive bleeding involves more than aggressive surgery and infusion of large amounts of blood products. The proper management of massive transfusions-whether they are in trauma patients or other bleeding patients-requires coordination of the personnel in the surgical suite or the emergency department, the blood bank, and laboratory.

  11. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Tuan Q

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a higher dimensional massive bigravity, which acts as a companion model to a recent proposed higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity. In particular, we derive the Einstein field equations along with constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity. We find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered. Then, we find some simple cosmological solutions such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity.

  12. Lie super-bialgebra structures on super-Virasoro algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengyun YANG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we obtain that every super-Virasoro algebra admits only triangular coboundary Lie super-bialgebra structures and this is proved mainly based on the computation of derivations from the superVirasoro algebra to the tensor product of its adjoint module.

  13. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  14. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    have become interested in different ways of “supersizing” acoustic instruments in order to open up previously-unheard instrumental sounds. Super instruments vary a great deal but each has a transformative effect on the identity and performance practice of the performing musician. Furthermore, composers...... can empower performers by producing super instrument works that allow the concert instrument to become an ensemble controlled by a single player. The existing instrumental skills of the performer can be multiplied and the qualities of regular acoustic instruments extended or modified. Such a situation...

  15. Handbook of Super 8 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  16. Super-energy tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Senovilla, J M M

    2000-01-01

    A purely algebraic construction of super-energy tensors for arbitrary fields is presented in any dimensions. These tensors have good mathematical and physical properties, and they can be used in any theory having as basic arena an n-dimensional manifold with a metric of Lorentzian signature. In general, the completely timelike component of these s-e tensors has the mathematical features of an energy density: they are positive definite and satisfy the dominant property. Similarly, the super-momentum vectors have mathematical properties of s-e flux vectors. The classical Bel-Robinson tensor is included in our general definition. The energy-momentum and super-energy tensors of physical fields are also obtained, and the procedure is illustrated by writing down these tensors explicitly for the cases of scalar, electromagnetic, and Proca fields. Moreover, `(super)$^k$-energy' tensors are defined and shown to be meaningful and in agreement for the different physical fields. In flat spacetimes, they provide infinitel...

  17. Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite and ...

  19. Remarks about massive and massless particles in supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketov, S. V.; Kim, Y.-S.

    1993-01-01

    The internal space-time symmetry and simple supersymmetry of relativistic particles are briefly discussed in terms of the little group of the Poincare group. The little group generators in a finite-dimensional matrix representation of the N = 1 super-Poincare algebra are explicitly constructed. The supergeometry of a massive case continuously becomes that of a massless case in the infinite-momentum limit. The origin of the gage transformations associated with the massless supermultiplets becomes transparent in that limit.

  20. Supersymmetrizing massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, O.

    2013-07-01

    When four scalar fields with global Lorentz symmetry are coupled to gravity and take a vacuum expectation value, breaking diffeomorphism invariance spontaneously, the graviton becomes massive. This model is supersymmetrized by considering four N=1 chiral superfields with global Lorentz symmetry. The global supersymmetry is promoted to a local one using the rules of tensor calculus of coupling the N=1 supergravity Lagrangian to the four chiral multiplets. When the scalar components of the chiral multiplets zA acquire a vacuum expectation value, both diffeomorphism invariance and local supersymmetry are broken spontaneously. The global Lorentz index A becomes identified with the space-time Lorentz index, making the scalar fields zA vectors and the chiral spinors ψA spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields. We show that the spectrum of the model in the broken phase consists of a massive spin-2 field, two massive spin-3/2 fields with different mass and a massive vector.

  1. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, F. F.

    2016-01-01

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed.

  3. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, F. F.

    2016-04-01

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed.

  4. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, F.F. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  5. SuperQuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    ). Peptides were fragmented with collision-induced dissociation using isolation windows of 1, 2, and 4 Th while recording data both with high-resolution and low-resolution. The results obtained using SuperQuant were compared to those using the conventional ion trap-based approach (low mass accuracy MS2......SuperQuant is a quantitative proteomics data processing approach that uses complementary fragment ions to identify multiple co-isolated peptides in tandem mass spectra allowing for their quantification. This approach can be applied to any shotgun proteomics data set acquired with high mass accuracy...... the ion trap-based method. Improvements in identifications resulted in up to 10% more PSMs, 15% more peptides, and 10% more proteins quantified on the same raw data. The developed approach does not affect the accuracy of the quantification and observed coefficients of variation between replicates...

  6. ATLASGAL --- towards a complete sample of massive star forming clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, J S; Csengeri, T; Wyrowski, F; Schuller, F; Hoare, M G; Lumsden, S L; Mottram, J C; Thompson, M A; Menten, K M; Walmsley, C M; Bronfman, L; Pfalzner, S; König, C; Wienen, M

    2014-01-01

    By matching infrared-selected, massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and compact HII regions in the RMS survey to massive clumps found in the submillimetre ATLASGAL survey, we have identified ~1000 embedded young massive stars between 280\\degr < $\\ell$ < 350\\degr and 10degr < $\\ell$ < 60\\degr with |b|<1.5degr. Combined with an existing sample of radio-selected methanol masers and compact HII regions, the result is a catalogue of ~1700 massive stars embedded within ~1300 clumps located across the inner Galaxy, containing three observationally distinct subsamples, methanol-maser, MYSO and HII-region associations, covering the most important tracers of massive star formation, thought to represent key stages of evolution. We find that massive star formation is strongly correlated with the regions of highest column density in spherical, centrally condensed clumps. We find no significant differences between the three samples in clump structure or the relative location of the embedded stars, which sug...

  7. Super sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Fjukstad, Bård

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation studies composing a super sensor network from the combination of three functional sensor networks; A Sensor data producing network, a sensor data computing network and a sensor controlling network. The target devices are today labeled as large sensor nodes. The communication are based on an IP network using HTTP as the main protocol. Bonjour is used for service discovery, with some adjustments for technical reasons. This allows for naming and location of available servi...

  8. Super Fractal Interpolation Functions

    OpenAIRE

    G. P. Kapoor; Prasad, Srijanani Anurag

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the notion of Super Fractal Interpolation Function (SFIF) is introduced for finer simulation of the objects of the nature or outcomes of scientific experiments that reveal one or more structures embedded in to another. In the construction of SFIF, an IFS is chosen from a pool of several IFS at each level of iteration leading to implementation of the desired randomness and variability in fractal interpolation of the given data. Further, an expository description of our inv...

  9. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  10. Super Fuzzy Matrices and Super Fuzzy Models for Social Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Amal, K

    2008-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of fuzzy super matrices and operations on them. This book will be highly useful to social scientists who wish to work with multi-expert models. Super fuzzy models using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Fuzzy Relational Maps, Bidirectional Associative Memories and Fuzzy Associative Memories are defined here. The authors introduce 13 multi-expert models using the notion of fuzzy supermatrices. These models are described with illustrative examples. This book has three chapters. In the first chaper, the basic concepts about super matrices and fuzzy super matrices are recalled. Chapter two introduces the notion of fuzzy super matrices adn their properties. The final chapter introduces many super fuzzy multi expert models.

  11. Super-quantum curves from super-eigenvalue models

    CERN Document Server

    Ciosmak, Paweł; Manabe, Masahide; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In modern mathematical and theoretical physics various generalizations, in particular supersymmetric or quantum, of Riemann surfaces and complex algebraic curves play a prominent role. We show that such supersymmetric and quantum generalizations can be combined together, and construct supersymmetric quantum curves, or super-quantum curves for short. Our analysis is conducted in the formalism of super-eigenvalue models: we introduce $\\beta$-deformed version of those models, and derive differential equations for associated $\\alpha/\\beta$-deformed super-matrix integrals. We show that for a given model there exists an infinite number of such differential equations, which we identify as super-quantum curves, and which are in one-to-one correspondence with, and have the structure of, super-Virasoro singular vectors. We discuss potential applications of super-quantum curves and prospects of other generalizations.

  12. Super Gravitons Interacting with the Super Virasoro Group

    OpenAIRE

    Gates Jr, S. James; Rodgers, V. G. J.

    2001-01-01

    We describe actions that correspond to the interaction of the Super Virasoro algebra with supergravitons. These new field theories introduce a superfield that corresponds to dual elements of the super Virasoro algebra. We are also able to extend the definition of these field theories to higher dimensions. We explicitly exhibit the 2, 3 and 4 dimensional cases. Remarkably, the fundamental prepotentials describing these dual elements of the super Virasoro algebra, in each model, agrees with the...

  13. Cosmic Decoherence: Massive Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Junyu; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We study the decoherence of massive fields during inflation based on the Zurek's density matrix approach. With the cubic interaction between inflaton and massive fields, the reduced density matrix for the massive fields can be calculated in the Schr\\"odinger picture which is related to the variance of the non-Gaussian exponent in the wave functional. The decoherence rate is computed in the one-loop form from functional integration. For heavy fields with $m\\gtrsim \\mathcal{O}(H)$, quantum fluctuations will easily stay in the quantum state and decoherence is unlikely. While for light fields with mass smaller than $\\mathcal{O}(H)$, quantum fluctuations are easily decohered within $5\\sim10$ e-folds after Hubble crossing. Thus heavy fields can play a key role in studying problems involving inflationary quantum information.

  14. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  15. Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Andringa, Roel; de Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered `massive 3D gravity'. Another is a `new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  16. Massive 3D supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andringa, Roel; Bergshoeff, Eric A; De Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Sezgin, Ergin [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: O.Hohm@rug.n, E-mail: sezgin@tamu.ed, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-21

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered 'massive 3D gravity'. Another is a 'new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  17. Problems of Massive Gravities

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, S; Ong, Y C; Waldron, A

    2014-01-01

    The method of characteristics is a key tool for studying consistency of equations of motion; it allows issues such as predictability, maximal propagation speed, superluminality, unitarity and acausality to be addressed without requiring explicit solutions. We review this method and its application to massive gravity theories to show the limitations of these models' physical viability: Among their problems are loss of unique evolution, superluminal signals, matter coupling inconsistencies and micro-acausality (propagation of signals around local closed timelike/causal curves). We extend previous no-go results to the entire three-parameter range of massive gravity theories. It is also argued that bimetric models suffer a similar fate.

  18. The Merging History of Massive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, M; Madau, P; Sesana, A

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a hierarchical structure formation scenario describing the evolution of a Super Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) population. The seeds of the local SMBHs are assumed to be 'pregalactic' black holes, remnants of the first POPIII stars. As these pregalactic holes become incorporated through a series of mergers into larger and larger halos, they sink to the center owing to dynamical friction, accrete a fraction of the gas in the merger remnant to become supermassive, form a binary system, and eventually coalesce. A simple model in which the damage done to a stellar cusps by decaying BH pairs is cumulative is able to reproduce the observed scaling relation between galaxy luminosity and core size. An accretion model connecting quasar activity with major mergers and the observed BH mass-velocity dispersion correlation reproduces remarkably well the observed luminosity function of optically-selected quasars in the redshift range 1

  19. A Trio of Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Today, at an international conference, a team of European astronomers announced a remarkable breakthrough in the field of extra-solar planets. Using the HARPS instrument at the ESO La Silla Observatory, they have found a triple system of super-Earths around the star HD 40307. Moreover, looking at their entire sample studied with HARPS, the astronomers count a total of 45 candidate planets with a mass below 30 Earth masses and an orbital period shorter than 50 days. This implies that one solar-like star out of three harbours such planets. A trio of Super-Earths ESO PR Photo 19a/08 A trio of Super-Earths "Does every single star harbour planets and, if yes, how many?" wonders planet hunter Michel Mayor from Geneva Observatory. "We may not yet know the answer but we are making huge progress towards it." Since the discovery in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Pegasi by Mayor and Didier Queloz, more than 270 exoplanets have been found, mostly around solar-like stars. Most of these planets are giants, such as Jupiter or Saturn, and current statistics show that about 1 out of 14 stars harbours this kind of planet. "With the advent of much more precise instruments such as the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, we can now discover smaller planets, with masses between 2 and 10 times the Earth's mass," says Stéphane Udry, one of Mayor's colleagues. Such planets are called super-Earths, as they are more massive than the Earth but less massive than Uranus and Neptune (about 15 Earth masses). The group of astronomers have now discovered a system of three super-Earths around a rather normal star, which is slightly less massive than our Sun, and is located 42 light-years away towards the southern Doradus and Pictor constellations. "We have made very precise measurements of the velocity of the star HD 40307 over the last five years, which clearly reveal the presence of three planets," says Mayor. The planets, having 4.2, 6.7, and 9.4 times the mass of the

  20. Constraints and Superspin for SuperPoincare Algebras in Diverse Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-04-27

    We generalize to arbitrary dimension the construction of a covariant and supersymmetric constraint for the massless superPoincare algebra, which was given for the eleven-dimensional case in a previous work. We also contrast it with a similar construction appropriate to the massive case. Finally we show that the constraint uniquely fixes the representation of the algebra.

  1. BPS preons and tensionless super-p-brane in generalized superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Bandos, I A

    2003-01-01

    Tensionless super-p-branes in a generalized superspace with additional tensorial central charge coordinates might provide an extended object model for BPS preons, i.e. for hypothetical constituents of M-theory preserving 31 of 32 supersymmeties.

  2. Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration are proved for 3≤d≤6, which fills in the gap between central limit theorem(CLT)and large deviation principle(LDP).

  3. More on Massive 3D Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    We explore the space of static solutions of the recently discovered three-dimensional `New Massive Gravity' (NMG), allowing for either sign of the Einstein-Hilbert term and a cosmological term parametrized by a dimensionless constant $\\lambda$. For $\\lambda=-1$ we find black hole solutions asymptotic (but not isometric) to the unique (anti) de Sitter vacuum, including extremal black holes that interpolate between this vacuum and (a)dS$_2 \\times S^1$. We also investigate unitarity of linearized NMG in (a)dS vacua. We find unitary theories for some dS vacua, but (bulk) unitarity in adS implies negative central charge of the dual CFT, except for $\\lambda=3$ where the central charge vanishes and the bulk gravitons are replaced by `massive photons'. A similar phenomenon is found in the massless limit of NMG, for which the linearized equations become equivalent to Maxwell's equations.

  4. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...... of the glass and a heat-treatment of the aerogel increases the visible quality and the solar energy transmittance. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss...

  5. Super-heptazethrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wangdong; Sun, Zhe; Herng, Tun Seng; Gonçalves, Théo P; Gopalakrishna, Tullimilli Y; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Ding, Jun; Wu, Jishan

    2016-07-18

    The challenging synthesis of a laterally extended heptazethrene molecule, the super-heptazethrene derivative SHZ-CF3, is reported. This molecule was prepared using a strategy involving a multiple selective intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation followed by oxidative dehydrogenation. Compound SHZ-CF3 exhibits an open-shell singlet diradical ground state with a much larger diradical character compared with the heptazethrene derivatives. An intermediate dibenzo-terrylene SHZ-2H was also obtained during the synthesis. This study provides a new synthetic method to access large-size quinoidal polycyclic hydrocarbons with unique physical properties. PMID:27240255

  6. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties...

  7. Massive and Open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  8. Hypervelocity binary stars: smoking gun of massive binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Youjun; Lin, D N C

    2007-01-01

    The hypervelocity stars recently found in the Galactic halo are expelled from the Galactic center through interactions between binary stars and the central massive black hole or between single stars and a hypothetical massive binary black hole. In this paper, we demonstrate that binary stars can be ejected out of the Galactic center with velocities up to 10^3 km/s, while preserving their integrity, through interactions with a massive binary black hole. Binary stars are unlikely to attain such high velocities via scattering by a single massive black hole or through any other mechanisms. Based on the above theoretical prediction, we propose a search for binary systems among the hypervelocity stars. Discovery of hypervelocity binary stars, even one, is a definitive evidence of the existence of a massive binary black hole in the Galactic center.

  9. Prototyping an active neutron veto for SuperCDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Robert; Loer, Ben

    2015-08-01

    Neutrons, originating cosmogenically or from radioactive decays, can produce signals in dark matter detectors that are indistinguishable from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To combat this background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, we are investigating designs for an active neutron veto within the constrained space of the compact SuperCDMS passive shielding. The current design employs an organic liquid scintillator mixed with an agent to enhance thermal neutron captures, with the scintillation light collected using wavelength-shifting fibers and read out by silicon photo-multipliers. We will describe the proposed veto and its predicted efficiency in detail and give some recent results from our R&D and prototyping efforts.

  10. Prototyping an Active Neutron Veto for SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, Robert [Southern Methodist U.; Loer, Ben [Fermilab

    2015-08-17

    Neutrons, originating cosmogenically or from radioactive decays, can produce signals in dark matter detectors that are indistinguishable from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To combat this background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, we are investigating designs for an active neutron veto within the constrained space of the compact SuperCDMS passive shielding. The current design employs an organic liquid scintillator mixed with an agent to enhance thermal neutron captures, with the scintillation light collected using wavelength-shifting fibers and read out by silicon photo-multipliers. We will describe the proposed veto and its predicted efficiency in detail and give some recent results from our R&D and prototyping efforts.

  11. Prototyping an Active Neutron Veto for SuperCDMS

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons, originating cosmogenically or from radioactive decays, can produce signals in dark matter detectors that are indistinguishable from Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). To combat this background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, we are investigating designs for an active neutron veto within the constrained space of the compact SuperCDMS passive shielding. The current design employs an organic liquid scintillator mixed with an agent to enhance thermal neutron captures, with the scintillation light collected using wavelength-shifting fibers and read out by silicon photo-multipliers. We will describe the proposed veto and its predicted efficiency in detail and give some recent results from our R&D and prototyping efforts.

  12. Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rune; Berkowicz, Adela; Lousen, Thea;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clearance of D+ red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation in D- individuals mediated by passively administered anti-D occurs by opsonization with the antibody and subsequent removal in the spleen. Few data exist on the kinetics of clearance of large volumes of D+ RBCs from the...... maternal circulation by anti-D in clinical cases of massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH). CASE REPORT: A 33-year-old D- woman delivered a D+ female infant by emergency cesarean section for suspected fetal anemia. A massive FMH, initially estimated to be approximately 142 mL of RBCs, was found. In addition...... to the standard dose of intramuscular (IM) anti-D (300 microg) given immediately after delivery, 2700 microg of anti-D was administered intravenously (IV). The clearance of D+ fetal cells from the maternal circulation was monitored by flow cytometry in samples obtained on a daily basis using anti-D...

  13. Massive antenatal fetomaternal hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Koldkjaer, Ole; Berkowicz, Adela

    2005-01-01

    Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can lead to life-threatening anemia. Quantification based on flow cytometry with anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) is applicable in all cases but underestimation of large fetal bleeds has been reported. A large FMH from an ABO-compatible fetus allows an estimation of t...... of the life span of fetal red blood cells (RBCs) in the maternal circulation.......Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can lead to life-threatening anemia. Quantification based on flow cytometry with anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) is applicable in all cases but underestimation of large fetal bleeds has been reported. A large FMH from an ABO-compatible fetus allows an estimation...

  14. Massive Open Online Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Tharindu Rekha Liyanagunawardena

    2013-01-01

    Im englischsprachigen Raum verbreitete sich in den letzten Jahren ein Bildungsformat, die so genannten Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). So bezeichnete die New York Times beispielsweise das Jahr 2012 als „Das Jahr der MOOCs“ (Pappano 2012). Inzwischen hält das Format der offenen Online-Kurse mit großen Teilnehmerzahlen auch in Deutschland Einzug, wie verschiedene Presseartikel zum Jahresende 2012 zeigten (vgl. Dworschak 2013; Koller 2012; Mehnert 2012; Noack 2012a,...

  15. Massive Open Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharindu Rekha Liyanagunawardena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs are a new addition to the open educational provision. They are offered mainly by prestigious universities on various commercial and non-commercial MOOC platforms allowing anyone who is interested to experience the world class teaching practiced in these universities. MOOCs have attracted wide interest from around the world. However, learner demographics in MOOCs suggest that some demographic groups are underrepresented. At present MOOCs seem to be better serving the continuous professional development sector.

  16. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  17. Dual massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morand, Kevin, E-mail: Kevin.Morand@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2012-08-29

    The linearized massive gravity in three dimensions, over any maximally symmetric background, is known to be presented in a self-dual form as a first order equation which encodes not only the massive Klein-Gordon type field equation but also the supplementary transverse-traceless conditions. We generalize this construction to higher dimensions. The appropriate dual description in d dimensions, additionally to a (non-symmetric) tensor field h{sub {mu}{nu}}, involves an extra rank-(d-1) field equivalently represented by the torsion rank-3 tensor. The symmetry condition for h{sub {mu}{nu}} arises on-shell as a consequence of the field equations. The action principle of the dual theory is formulated. The focus has been made on four dimensions. Solving one of the fields in terms of the other and putting back in the action one obtains two other equivalent formulations of the theory in which the action is quadratic in derivatives. In one of these representations the theory is formulated entirely in terms of a rank-2 non-symmetric tensor h{sub {mu}{nu}}. This quadratic theory is not identical to the Fierz-Pauli theory and contains the coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric parts of h{sub {mu}{nu}}. Nevertheless, the only singularity in the propagator is the same as in the Fierz-Pauli theory so that only the massive spin-2 particle is propagating. In the other representation, the theory is formulated in terms of the torsion rank-3 tensor only. We analyze the conditions which follow from the field equations and show that they restrict to 5 degrees of freedom thus producing an alternative description to the massive spin-2 particle. A generalization to higher dimensions is suggested.

  18. New improved massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, T.; Yetişmişoğlu, C.

    2016-06-01

    We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first-order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti de-Sitter space AdS 3) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.

  19. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Routh, Alasdair J.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same 'minimal' bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new 'minimal massive gravity'

  20. Massive stellar X-ray sources in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerhan, Jon Christian

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discover unidentified members of the massive stellar population in the Galactic center, using a novel selection technique: the identification of infrared counterparts to hard X-ray sources. This method provides a means of distinguishing a subset of hot, massive stars from the more numerous cool giants that dominate the stellar population of the central Galaxy, providing potential beacons toward undiscovered regions of massive star formation, and the remains of tidally-disrupted stellar clusters. Hard-X-ray selection also highlights exotic species of massive star, including Wolf-Rayet (WR) binaries with colliding supersonic winds, and wind-accreting neutron stars and black holes in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Massive stars were sought in the central 300 pc of the Galaxy by cross- correlating X-ray and IR point-source catalogs. Approximately 1% of the 6067 Chandra X-ray sources near the Galactic center have near-infrared matches with K s consistent with thermal emission from plasma at temperatures above 2 keV, not a ubiquitous feature of single massive stars. The X-ray data are consistent with models of strong WR/O winds colliding with the surfaces of binary companions, but are also consistent with known, low-luminosity HMXBs. Future experiments are discussed, aimed at unambiguously determining the masses of the stellar components, and surveying the environments of confirmed massive stellar X-ray sources for additional massive stars. The overall rarity of hard X-ray-emitting massive stars among stellar populations suggests the presence of a massive stellar population, comparable in size to that within the known stellar clusters in the Galactic center.

  1. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  2. The JASMIN super-data-cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, B N; Churchill, J; Juckes, M; Kershaw, P; Oliver, P; Pritchard, M; Stephens, A

    2012-01-01

    The JASMIN super-data-cluster is being deployed to support the data analysis requirements of the UK and European climate and earth system modelling community. Physical colocation of the core JASMIN resource with significant components of the facility for Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space (CEMS) provides additional support for the earth observation community, as well as facilitating further comparison and evaluation of models with data. JASMIN and CEMS together centrally deploy 9.3 PB of storage - 4.6 PB of Panasas fast disk storage alongside the STFC Atlas Tape Store. Over 370 computing cores provide local computation. Remote JASMIN resources at Bristol, Leeds and Reading provide additional distributed storage and compute configured to support local workflow as a stepping stone to using the central JASMIN system. Fast network links from JASMIN provide reliable communication between the UK supercomputers MONSooN (at the Met Office) and HECToR (at the University of Edinburgh). JASMIN also supports...

  3. 基于JXTA的Super-peer搜索方法设计%Design JXTA Based Super-peer Search Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李歆海; 李善平

    2003-01-01

    Efficient resource search method has significant impact on the scalability and availability of P2P network. Generally there are two search methods, pure Peer-to-Peer method and central index method. Recently, some search methods with super-peer concept are appearing, which are the compromise of those two methods and have favorable scalability and avafiability. In this paper, we compare the advantage and deficiency of these three kinds of search methods, and based on JXTA platform design the super-peer search method.

  4. On super form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Penante, Brenda; Travaglini, Gabriele; Wen, Congkao

    2014-01-01

    We compute form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills dual to massive Kaluza-Klein modes in supergravity. These are appropriate supersymmetrisations T_k of the scalar operators Tr(\\phi^k) for any k, which for k=2 give the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet operator. Using harmonic superspace, we derive simple Ward identities for these form factors, which we then compute perturbatively at tree level and one loop. We propose a novel on-shell recursion relation which links form factors with different numbers of fields. Using this, we conjecture a general formula for the n-point MHV form factors of T_k for arbitrary k and n. Finally, we use supersymmetric generalised unitarity to derive compact expressions for all one-loop MHV form factors of T_k in terms of one-loop triangles and finite two-mass easy box functions.

  5. On super form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills dual to massive Kaluza-Klein modes in supergravity. These are appropriate supersymmetrisations Tk of the scalar operators Tr (ϕk) for any k, which for k = 2 give the chiral part of the stress-tensor multiplet operator. Using harmonic superspace, we derive simple Ward identities for these form factors, which we then compute perturbatively at tree level and one loop. We propose a novel on-shell recursion relation which links form factors with different numbers of fields. Using this, we conjecture a general formula for the n-point MHV form factors of Tk for arbitrary k and n. Finally, we use supersymmetric generalised unitarity to derive compact expressions for all one-loop MHV form factors of Tk in terms of one-loop triangles and finite two-mass easy box functions

  6. Search for Low-Mass WIMPs with SuperCDMS

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Beaty, J; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cherry, M; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; DeVaney, D; Di Stefano, P C F; Silva, E Do Couto E; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Hansen, S; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hines, B A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kenany, S; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Nelson, R H; Novak, L; Page, K; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Platt, M; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Resch, R W; Ricci, Y; Ruschman, M; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schmitt, R L; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Seitz, D N; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Tomada, A; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg-days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass < 30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1.2e-42 cm2 at 8 GeV/c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses < 6 GeV/c2.

  7. Asteroseismology with SuperWASP

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The highly successful SuperWASP planetary transit finding programme has surveyed a large fraction of both the northern and southern skies. There now exists in the its archive over 420 billion photometric measurements for more than 31 million stars. SuperWASP provides good quality photometry with a precision exceeding 1% per observation in the approximate magnitude range 9 < V < 12. The archive enables long-baseline, high-cadence studies of stellar variability to be undertaken. An overview of the SuperWASP project is presented, along with results which demonstrate the survey's asteroseismic capabilities.

  8. Xinjiang Girl World Super Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leading Chinese model Yue Mei won thetitle of World Super Model at the ’98 WorldSuper Model Competition held in FranceSeptember 6 - 17. Yue, a university studentfrom the Xinjiang Uygur AutonomousRegion, had won the top title at ’98 ChinaSuper Model Competition held in Beijingone month earier.After that, she underwentone month’s professional modeling trainingwith the New Silk Road ModelingManagement Company before setting off forthe world competition. In France, Yueimpressed the judges with her strikingfeatures, and display of oriental elegance and

  9. SOWFA + Super Controller User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; Churchfield, M.; Lee, S.; Johnson, K.; Michalakes, J.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-08-01

    SOWFA + Super Controller is a modification of the NREL's SOWFA tool which allows for a user to apply multiturbine or centralized wind plant control algorithms within the high-fidelity SOWFA simulation environment. The tool is currently a branch of the main SOWFA program, but will one day will be merged into a single version. This manual introduces the tool and provides examples such that a user can implement their own super controller and set up and run simulations. The manual only discusses enough about SOWFA itself to allow for the customization of controllers and running of simulations, and details of SOWFA itself are reported elsewhere Churchfield and Lee (2013); Churchfield et al. (2012). SOWFA + Super Controller, and this manual, are in alpha mode.

  10. SuperB Progress Report: Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Donvito, G.; Spinoso, V.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; /INFN, Pavia /Bergamo U., Ingengneria Dept.; Eigen, G.; Fehlker, D.; Helleve, L.; /Bergen U.; Carbone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Gabrielli, A.; Galli, D.; Giorgi, F.; Marconi, U.; Perazzini, S.; Sbarra, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valentinetti, S.; Villa, M.; Zoccoli, A.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Caltech /Carleton U. /Cincinnati U. /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /UC, Irvine /Taras Shevchenko U. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Frascati /INFN, Legnaro /Orsay, IPN /Maryland U. /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Caltech /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /PNL, Richland /Queen Mary, U. of London /Rutherford /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome2 /Rome U.,Tor Vergata /INFN, Rome3 /Rome III U. /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Padua /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /TRIUMF /British Columbia U. /Montreal U. /Victoria U.

    2012-02-14

    This report describes the present status of the detector design for SuperB. It is one of four separate progress reports that, taken collectively, describe progress made on the SuperB Project since the publication of the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008.

  11. Massive molecular outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Beuther, H.; Schilke, P.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Sridharan, T. K.; Wyrowski, F.

    2001-01-01

    We present a mapping study of massive molecular outflows in 26 high-mass star-forming regions at 11'' spatial resolution. Bipolar morpholgy is found in 80% of the sources and the collimation is higher than previously thought. Additionally, we find that well known low-mass correlations continue up to the high-mass regime, and accretion rates are around 10^(-4) Msun/yr rising as high as 10^(-3) Msun/yr. A tight correlation between the outflow and the core mass is established, implying that the ...

  12. Massive sphere determinants

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2014-01-01

    An expression for the functional determinant on a sphere for a massive (scalar) field derived by Denef, Hartnoll and Sachdev using quasinormal modes is shown to exist already in the literature together with the multiplicative anomaly interpretation. The relevant expressions are outlined and several equivalent versions are given. The variation with mass is determined numerically. As an application of the derived formulae, the Hartle--Hawking probability of the Universe (via the dS/CFT correspondance) is recomputed. Agreement is found with Anninos, Denef and Harlow. The calculation is extended to all (odd) dimensions. I also compute the wave function which reveals an interesting feature.

  13. Super Ministries,Better Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chinese lawmakers on March 15th endorsed a State Counci l proposal for institutional overhaul of the tentral government,which involves the establishment of"super ministries"concerning energy,transport,industry and environmental protection.

  14. N=1 supersymmetry and super quantum electrodynamic in Atiyah-Ward space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, M.A. de; Cima, O.M. Del; Magalhaes, M.N.P.

    1994-12-01

    The supersymmetric gauge invariant action for the massive Abelian N=1 super-QED{sub 2+2} in the Atiyah-Ward space-time (D=2+2) is formulated. The questions concerning the scheme of the gauge invariance in D=2+2 by means of gauging the massive N=1 super-QED{sub 2+2} are investigated. It is studied how to ensure the gauge invariance at the expenses of the introduction of a complex vector superfield. It is discussed the Wess-Zumino gauge and thereupon we conclude that in this gauge, only the imaginary part of the complex vector field, B{sub {mu}}, gauges a U(1)-symmetry, whereas its real part gauges a Weyl symmetry. It is build up the gauge invariant massive term by introducing four scalar superfields: a pair of chiral and a pair of anti-chiral superfields; the supermultiplets of each pair have opposite U (1)-changes. It is carried out a dimensional reduction a la Scherk of the massive N=1 super-QED{sub 2+2} action from D=2+2 to D=1+2. Truncations are needed in order to suppress unphysical modes and one ends up with a parity-preserving N=1 super QED{sub 1+2} (rather than N=2) in D=1+2 which spectrum is free from tachyons and ghosts at tree-level. Finally it is show that the N=1 super-QED{sub 1+2} obtained is the supersymmetry version of the {sub {phi}3} QED. (author). 27 refs.

  15. N=1 supersymmetry and super quantum electrodynamic in Atiyah-Ward space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supersymmetric gauge invariant action for the massive Abelian N=1 super-QED2+2 in the Atiyah-Ward space-time (D=2+2) is formulated. The questions concerning the scheme of the gauge invariance in D=2+2 by means of gauging the massive N=1 super-QED2+2 are investigated. It is studied how to ensure the gauge invariance at the expenses of the introduction of a complex vector superfield. It is discussed the Wess-Zumino gauge and thereupon we conclude that in this gauge, only the imaginary part of the complex vector field, Bμ, gauges a U(1)-symmetry, whereas its real part gauges a Weyl symmetry. It is build up the gauge invariant massive term by introducing four scalar superfields: a pair of chiral and a pair of anti-chiral superfields; the supermultiplets of each pair have opposite U (1)-changes. It is carried out a dimensional reduction a la Scherk of the massive N=1 super-QED2+2 action from D=2+2 to D=1+2. Truncations are needed in order to suppress unphysical modes and one ends up with a parity-preserving N=1 super QED1+2 (rather than N=2) in D=1+2 which spectrum is free from tachyons and ghosts at tree-level. Finally it is show that the N=1 super-QED1+2 obtained is the supersymmetry version of the φ3 QED. (author). 27 refs

  16. NGC 1277: A MASSIVE COMPACT RELIC GALAXY IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205-La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ferré-Mateu, Anna [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Balcells, Marc [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain); Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia, E-mail: trujillo@iac.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-10

    As early as 10 Gyr ago, galaxies with more than 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} of stars already existed. While most of these massive galaxies must have subsequently transformed through on-going star formation and mergers with other galaxies, a small fraction (≲0.1%) may have survived untouched until today. Searches for such relic galaxies, useful windows to explore the early universe, have been inconclusive to date: galaxies with masses and sizes like those observed at high redshift (M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}; R{sub e} ≲ 1.5 kpc) have been found in the local universe, but their stars are far too young for the galaxy to be a relic galaxy. This paper explores the first case of a nearby galaxy, NGC 1277 (at a distance of 73 Mpc in the Perseus galaxy cluster), which fulfills many criteria to be considered a relic galaxy. Using deep optical spectroscopy, we derive the star formation history along the structure of the galaxy: the stellar populations are uniformly old (>10 Gyr) with no evidence for more recent star formation episodes. The metallicity of their stars is super-solar ([Fe/H] = 0.20 ± 0.04 with a smooth decline toward the outer regions) and α-enriched ([α/Fe] = 0.4 ± 0.1). This suggests a very short formation time scale for the bulk of the stars in this galaxy. This object also rotates very fast (V {sub rot} ∼ 300 km s{sup –1}) and has a large central velocity dispersion (σ > 300 km s{sup –1}). NGC 1277 allows the exploration in full detail of properties such as the structure, internal dynamics, metallicity, and initial mass function as they were at ∼10-12 Gyr ago when the first massive galaxies were built.

  17. Microsphere Super-resolution Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zengbo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it was discovered that microsphere can generate super-resolution focusing beyond diffraction limit. This has led to the development of an exciting super-resolution imaging technique -microsphere nanoscopy- that features a record resolution of 50 nm under white lights. Different samples have been directly imaged in high resolution and real time without labelling, including both non-biological (nano devices, structures and materials) and biological (subcellular details, viruses) sampl...

  18. Evolution and Nucleosynthesis of Very Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, after a brief introduction and overview of stellar evolution, we discuss the evolution and nucleosynthesis of very massive stars (VMS: M>100 solar masses) in the context of recent stellar evolution model calculations. This chapter covers the following aspects: general properties, evolution of surface properties, late central evolution, and nucleosynthesis including their dependence on metallicity, mass loss and rotation. Since very massive stars have very large convective cores during the main-sequence phase, their evolution is not so much affected by rotational mixing, but more by mass loss through stellar winds. Their evolution is never far from a homogeneous evolution even without rotational mixing. All VMS at metallicities close to solar end their life as WC(-WO) type Wolf-Rayet stars. Due to very important mass loss through stellar winds, these stars may have luminosities during the advanced phases of their evolution similar to stars with initial masses between 60 and 120 solar masses. A...

  19. N=1 supersymmetry and super-QED in Atiyah-Ward space-time

    CERN Document Server

    D'Andrade, M A; Magalhães, M N P; De Andrade, M A; Del Cima, O M; Magalhães, M N P

    1995-01-01

    In this work the supersymmetric gauge invariant action for the massive Abelian N=1 super-{\\QED} in the Atiyah-Ward space-time ({\\DDdd}) is formulated. The questions concerning the scheme of the gauge invariance in {\\DDdd} by means of gauging the massive N=1 super-{\\QED} are investigated. We study how to ensure the gauge invariance at the expenses of the introduction of a complex vector superfield. We discuss the Wess-Zumino gauge and thereupon we conclude that in this gauge, only the imaginary part of the complex vector field, B_{\\m}, gauges a U(1)-symmetry, whereas its real part gauges a Weyl symmetry. We build up the gauge invariant massive term by introducing four scalar superfields: a pair of chiral and a pair of anti-chiral superfields; the supermultiplets of each pair have opposite U(1)-charges. We carry out a dimensional reduction {\\it{\\`a la}} Scherk of the massive N=1 super-{\\QED} action from {\\DDdd} to {\\Ddd}. Truncations are needed in order to suppress unphysical modes and one ends up with a parity...

  20. The Origin of Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia: Glaciated Super Valley, Not Super Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; Otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2015-04-01

    Research for morphology, its origin of the Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia, is few and far between, particularly, any in recent years. The origin of the morphology of the basin presents a new study, combining previous study materials, their results and interpreting the digital photos. Also the main bases of theory is Pleistocene Last Glacial Maximum distribution. Many scholars have proven that global glaciation covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene era. This global glaciation occurred in the northwest part of Mongolia to Mongolian Altay, Khangay and Khuvsgul mountain range. At the same time, the present appearance of basin that developed inheriting since the Mesozoic era, forms by global glaciation. The morphology of Basin of Great Lakes is super trough or glaciated super valley. At current day, "knock and lochan" topography (scoured region) and rock drumlins lie in the central part of the basin. Huge meltwater from this glaciation formed Shargasub-basin as a super kettle hole by erosion and overflowed water from it formed pluvial basins or big lakes in the Lake Valley.

  1. Off-shell massive N=1 supermultiplets in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzenko, Sergei M

    2016-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the construction of new off-shell higher spin N=1 supermultiplets in three spacetime dimensions. We elaborate on the gauge prepotentials and linearised super-Cotton tensors for higher spin N=1 superconformal geometry and propose compensating superfields required to formulate off-shell massless higher spin supermultiplets. The corresponding gauge-invariant actions are worked out explicitly using an auxiliary oscillator realisation. We construct, for the first time, off-shell massive higher spin supermultiplets. The gauge-invariant actions for these supermultiplets are obtained by adding Chern-Simons like mass terms (that is, higher spin extensions of the linearised action for N=1 conformal supergravity) to the actions for the massless supermultiplets. For each of the massive gravitino and supergravity multiplets, we propose two dually equivalent formulations.

  2. NGC 5195 in M51: Feedback `Burps' after a Massive Meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.; Vega, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a double-arc-like X-ray structure lying ˜15-30'' (~0.8-1.7 kpc) south of the NGC 5195 nucleus visible in the merged exposures of long Chandra pointings of M51. The curvature and orientation of the arcs argues for a nuclear origin. We interpret the arcs as episodic outbursts from the central super-massive black hole (SMBH). The arcs are radially spaced by ~15'' (~1$ kpc), but are rotated relative to each other by ~30°, requiring episodic activity. We also find aslender Hα-emitting region just outside the outer edge of the outer X-ray arc, suggesting that the X-ray-emitting gas plowed up and displaced the Hα-emitting material from the galaxy core.Star formation may have commenced in that arc. Hα emission is present at the inner arc, but appears more complex in structure. In contrast to an explosion expected to be azimuthally symmetric, the X-ray arcs suggest a focused outflow. We conclude that NGC 5195 represents the nearest galaxy exhibiting on-going, large-scale outflows of gas, in particular, two episodes of a focused outburst of the SMBH. The observation has implications for SMBH feedback and the subsequent galaxy evolution.

  3. NGC 5195 in M51: Feedback 'Burps' after a Massive Meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, E. M.; Jones, C.; Machacek, M.; Vega, L. D.

    2016-06-01

    We describe a double-arc-like X-ray structure lying ˜15″-30″ (˜0.8-1.7 kpc) south of the NGC 5195 nucleus, visible in the merged exposures of long Chandra pointings of M51. The curvature and orientation of the arcs argues for a nuclear origin. The arcs are radially separated by ˜15″ (˜1 kpc), but are rotated relative to each other by ˜30°. From an archival image, we find a slender Hα-emitting region just outside the outer edge of the outer X-ray arc, suggesting that the X-ray-emitting gas plowed up and displaced the Hα-emitting material from the galaxy core. Star formation may have commenced in that arc. Hα emission is present at the inner arc, but appears more complex in structure. In contrast to an explosion expected to be azimuthally symmetric, the X-ray arcs suggest a focused outflow. We interpret the arcs as episodic outbursts from the central super-massive black hole (SMBH). We conclude that NGC 5195 represents the nearest galaxy exhibiting on-going, large-scale outflows of gas, in particular, two episodes of a focused outburst of the SMBH. The arcs represent a clear demonstration of feedback.

  4. NGC 5195 in M51: Feedback `Burps' after a Massive Meal?

    CERN Document Server

    Schlegel, Eric M; Machacek, Marie; Vega, Laura D

    2016-01-01

    We describe a double-arc-like X-ray structure lying ~15-30" (~0.8-1.7 kpc) south of the NGC 5195 nucleus visible in the merged exposures of long Chandra pointings of M51. The curvature and orientation of the arcs argues for a nuclear origin. The arcs are radially separated by ~15" (~1$ kpc), but are rotated relative to each other by ~30 deg. From an archival image, we find a slender Halpha-emitting region just outside the outer edge of the outer X-ray arc, suggesting that the X-ray-emitting gas plowed up and displaced the Halpha-emitting material from the galaxy core. Star formation may have commenced in that arc. Halpha emission is present at the inner arc, but appears more complex in structure. In contrast to an explosion expected to be azimuthally symmetric, the X-ray arcs suggest a focused outflow. We interpret the arcs as episodic outbursts from the central super-massive black hole (SMBH). We conclude that NGC 5195 represents the nearest galaxy exhibiting on-going, large-scale outflows of gas, in particu...

  5. Super-Sample Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yin; Takada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    When extracting cosmological information from power spectrum measurements, we must consider the impact of super-sample density fluctuations whose wavelengths are larger than the survey scale. These modes contribute to the mean density fluctuation delta_b in the survey and change the power spectrum in the same way as a change in the cosmological background. They can be simply included in cosmological parameter estimation and forecasts by treating delta_b as an additional cosmological parameter enabling efficient exploration of its impact. We verify that the minimum variance estimator of delta_b is both unbiased and has the predicted variance using sub-volumes of large-volume N-body simulations for power spectra measured with respect to either the global or local mean density e.g., for weak lensing or galaxy clustering. Parameter degeneracies arise since the response of the power spectrum to delta_b and cosmological parameters share similar properties in changing the growth of structure and dilating the scale o...

  6. Massively Parallel QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of the strong nuclear force, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), can be numerically simulated from first principles on massively-parallel supercomputers using the method of Lattice Gauge Theory. We describe the special programming requirements of lattice QCD (LQCD) as well as the optimal supercomputer hardware architectures that it suggests. We demonstrate these methods on the BlueGene massively-parallel supercomputer and argue that LQCD and the BlueGene architecture are a natural match. This can be traced to the simple fact that LQCD is a regular lattice discretization of space into lattice sites while the BlueGene supercomputer is a discretization of space into compute nodes, and that both are constrained by requirements of locality. This simple relation is both technologically important and theoretically intriguing. The main result of this paper is the speedup of LQCD using up to 131,072 CPUs on the largest BlueGene/L supercomputer. The speedup is perfect with sustained performance of about 20% of peak. This corresponds to a maximum of 70.5 sustained TFlop/s. At these speeds LQCD and BlueGene are poised to produce the next generation of strong interaction physics theoretical results

  7. Massive de Sitter

    CERN Document Server

    Kakushadze, Zurab

    2014-01-01

    We discuss non-perturbative dynamics of massive gravity in de Sitter space via gravitational Higgs mechanism. We argue that enhanced local symmetry and null (ghost) state at (below) the perturbative Higuchi bound are mere artifacts of not only linearization but also assuming the Fierz-Pauli mass term. We point out that, besides de Sitter, there are vacuum solutions where the space asymptotically is de Sitter both in the past and in the future, the space first contracts, this contraction slows down, and then reverses into expansion, so there is an epoch where the space is (nearly) flat. We confirm this by constructing a closed-form exact solution to full non-perturbative equations of motion for a "special" massive de Sitter case. We give a formula for the "critical" mass above which such solutions apparently do not exist. For the Fierz-Pauli mass term this "critical" mass coincides with the perturbative Higuchi bound, which serves as the non-perturbative reinterpretation of the latter. We argue that, notwithst...

  8. Massive Gravity in Three Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    A particular higher-derivative extension of the Einstein-Hilbert action in three spacetime dimensions is shown to be equivalent at the linearized level to the (unitary) Pauli-Fierz action for a massive spin-2 field. A more general model, which also includes `topologically-massive' gravity as a special case, propagates the two spin 2 helicity states with different masses. We discuss the extension to massive ${\\cal N}$-extended supergravity, and we present a `cosmological' extension that admits...

  9. Massive Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Feng; Hai Jin

    2006-01-01

    To accommodate the explosively increasing amount of data in many areas such as scientific computing and e-Business, physical storage devices and control components have been separated from traditional computing systems to become a scalable, intelligent storage subsystem that, when appropriately designed, should provide transparent storage interface, effective data allocation, flexible and efficient storage management, and other impressive features. The design goals and desirable features of such a storage subsystem include high performance, high scalability, high availability, high reliability and high security. Extensive research has been conducted in this field by researchers all over the world, yet many issues still remain open and challenging. This paper studies five different online massive storage systems and one offline storage system that we have developed with the research grant support from China. The storage pool with multiple network-attached RAIDs avoids expensive store-and-forward data copying between the server and storage system, improving data transfer rate by a factor of 2-3 over a traditional disk array. Two types of high performance distributed storage systems for local-area network storage are introduced in the paper. One of them is the Virtual Interface Storage Architecture (VISA) where VI as a communication protocol replaces the TCP/IP protocol in the system. VISA's performance is shown to achieve better than that of IP SAN by designing and implementing the vSCSI (VI-attached SCSI) protocol to support SCSI commands in the VI network. The other is a fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system that is designed and implemented to provide high I/O performance and high reliability. A global distributed storage system for wide-area network storage is discussed in detail in the paper, where a Storage Service Provider is added to provide storage service and plays the role of user agent for the storage system. Object based Storage Systems not only

  10. Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.

  11. massive excision of liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-liang LI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the promotion effect of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs transplantation and mobilized bone marrow stem cells on the recovery of liver function and liver tissue regeneration after massive partial hepatectomy in rats. Methods The rats were randomly divided into four groups after massive partial hepatectomy (about 85%, namely massive hepatectomy group (control group, n=15, received massive hepatectomy only, G-CSF group [n=15, received rhG-CSF 150μg/(kg•d by intraperitoneal injection after the operation for 5 days], MSCs group [n=15, received 5ml suspension of MSCs (about 1.5×106 by tail vein injection after the operation], and G-CSF+MSCs group [n=14, received 1.5ml suspension of MSCs (about 1.5×106 by tail vein injection and rhG-CSF 150μg/(kg•d by intraperitoneal injection for 5 days after the operation]. The CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood of the rats were assessed by flow cytometry after G-CSF mobilization. Liver function tests including ALT, AST and ALB were performed on the 3rd and 9th day after surgery. All the rats were sacrificed and liver tissue was harvested for histopathological study. The expression of Ki-67 and BrdU positive cells in the liver were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Flow cytometric results identified the isolated cells were MSCs. BMSCs in peripheral blood significantly increased in number after rhG-CSF mobilization, and reaching the maximum number on the 5th day. After mobilization for 3, 5 and 9 days, the positive CD34 cells in G-CSF group were 0.009%, 0.016%, 0.019% respectively, which were higher than those in control group. The level of albumin was significantly elevated in three treatment groups compared with control group on the 9th day after the hepatectomy (P<0.05 or P<0.01. The expression of Ki-67 (110.16±27.64, 103.57±33.90, 98.52±21.87 vs 72.39±27.04 cells and BrdU positive cells (17.96±5.57, 16.45±5.75, 16.66±5.11 vs 11.72±3.83 cells in three

  12. Profiling Young Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, T; Cunningham, M R; Minier, V

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of spectral energy distribution analysis for 162 of the 405 sources reported in the SIMBA survey of Hill et al. (2005). The fits reveal source specific parameters including: the luminosity, mass, temperature, H$_2$ number density, the surface density and the luminosity-to-mass ratio. Each of these parameters are examined with respect to the four classes of source present in the sample. Obvious luminosity and temperature distinctions exist between the mm-only cores and those cores with methanol maser and/or radio continuum emission, with the former cooler and less luminous than the latter. The evidence suggests that the mm-only cores are a precursor to the methanol maser in the formation of massive stars. The mm-only cores comprise two distinct populations distinguished by temperature. Analysis and conclusions about the nature of the cool-mm and warm-mm cores comprising the mm-only population are drawn.

  13. Aspergilloma and massive haemoptysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wern Yew; Chan, Tze; Yadavilli, Rajesh Kumar; McWilliams, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A 40-year-old homeless woman who was a known intravenous drug user and heroin smoker, presented with massive haemoptysis. Initial CT-pulmonary angiogram (CT-PA) did not show active haemorrhage but found an opacity in a right upper lobe cavity likely to represent a mycetoma. She was started on antifungal therapy but haemoptysis persisted and bronchial angiography was performed. Again no active haemorrhage was identified but abnormal vasculature was seen supplying the right upper lobe. This was empirically embolised with particles which did not improve her symptoms. A subsequent CT-PA identified a pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm in the cavity wall which was successfully embolised. There was no further haemoptysis and a repeat CT-PA 3 weeks later showed continuing occlusion of the pulmonary artery aneurysm. Investigations for tuberculosis were negative and she was discharged clinically well and on long-term antifungal therapy. PMID:24739651

  14. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  15. The Supernova Channel of Super-AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Poelarends, A J T; Langer, N; Heger, A

    2007-01-01

    We study the late evolution of solar metallicity stars in the transition region between white dwarf formation and core collapse. This includes the super-asymptotic giant branch (super-AGB, SAGB) stars, which have massive enough cores to ignite carbon burning and form an oxygen-neon (ONe) core. The most massive SAGB stars have cores that may grow to the Chandrasekhar mass because of continued shell-burning. Their cores collapse, triggering a so called electron capture supernovae (ECSN). From stellar evolution models we find that the initial mass range for SAGB evolution is 7.5 ... 9.25\\msun. We perform calculations with three different stellar evolution codes to investigate the sensitivity of this mass range to some of the uncertainties in current stellar models. The mass range significantly depends on the treatment of semiconvective mixing and convective overshooting. To consider the effect of a large number of thermal pulses, as expected in SAGB stars, we construct synthetic SAGB models that include a semi-a...

  16. Some scaled limit theorems for an immigration super-Brownian motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the small time limit behaviors for an immigration super-Brownian motion are studied,where the immigration is determined by Lebesgue measure.We first prove a functional central limit theorem,and then study the large and moderate deviations associated with this central tendency.

  17. Super-Eddington growth of the first black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Pezzulli, Edwige; Schneider, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of the first super massive black holes (SMBHs) at $z \\gtrsim 6$ is still a subject of intense debate. If black holes (BHs) grow at their Eddington rate, they must start from $\\gtrsim 10^4 \\, M_\\odot$ seeds formed by the direct collapse of gas. Here we explore the alternative scenario where $\\sim 100 \\, M_\\odot$ BH remnants of the first stars grow at super-Eddington rate via radiatively inefficient slim accretion disks. We use an improved version of the cosmological, data-constrained semi-analytic model GAMETE/QSOdust, where we follow the evolution of nuclear BHs and gas cooling, disk and bulge formation of their host galaxies. Adopting SDSS J1148+5251 (J1148) at $z = 6.4$ as a prototype of luminous $z \\gtrsim 6$ quasars, we find that $\\sim$ 80% of its SMBH mass is grown by super-Eddington accretion, which can be sustained down to $z \\sim 10$ in dense, gas-rich environments. The average BH mass at $z \\sim 20$ is $M_{\\rm BH} \\gtrsim 10^4 \\,M_\\odot$, comparable to that of direct collapse BHs. At $z ...

  18. Electrically tuned super-capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Tazima S

    2015-01-01

    Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helmholtz double layer). Making the electrodes porous increases their effective surface area [6-8]. A separating layer between the anode and the cathode electrodes is used to minimize unintentional electrical discharge (Figure 1). Here we show how to increase the capacitance of super-capacitors by more than 45 percent when modifying the otherwise passive separator layer into an active diode-like structure. Active control of super-capacitors may increase their efficiency during charge and discharge cycles. Controlling ion flow...

  19. Potential Biosignatures in Super-Earth Atmospheres II. Photochemical Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, J. L.; Gebauer, S.; Godolt, M.; Palczynski, K.; Rauer, H.; Stock, J.; von Paris, P.; R. Lehmann; Selsis, F.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral characterization of super-Earth atmospheres for planets orbiting in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars is a key focus in exoplanet science. A central challenge is to understand and predict the expected spectral signals of atmospheric biosignatures (species associated with life). Our work applies a global-mean radiative-convective-photochemical column model assuming a planet with an Earth-like biomass and planetary development. We investigated planets with gravities of 1g and 3g and ...

  20. Massive Gravity in Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    A particular higher-derivative extension of the Einstein-Hilbert action in three spacetime dimensions is shown to be equivalent at the linearized level to the (unitary) Pauli-Fierz action for a massive spin-2 field. We discuss the extension to massive ${\\cal N}$-extended supergravity, and we present a `cosmological' extension admitting a supersymmetric anti-de Sitter vacuum.

  1. Massive Gravity in Three Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    A particular higher-derivative extension of the Einstein-Hilbert action in three spacetime dimensions is shown to be equivalent at the linearized level to the (unitary) Pauli-Fierz action for a massive spin-2 field. A more general model, which also includes "topologically-massive" gravity as a speci

  2. Massive Sheltering Phase Begins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The resettlement of millions of destitute earthquake victims is the government’s next priority One of the first tasks of central and local governments after the col- lapse of infrastructure following the May 12 quake has been to devise a plan to settle the victims by mobilizing all resources and setting up relief centers in

  3. Siting the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering established the Super Collider Site Evaluation Committee to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for the Superconducting Super Collider. Thirty-six proposals were examined by the committee. Using the set of criteria announced by DOE in its Invitation for Site Proposals, the committee identified eight sites that merited inclusion on a ''best qualified list.'' The list represents the best collective judgment of 21 individuals, carefully chosen for their expertise and impartiality, after a detailed assessment of the proposals using 19 technical subcriteria and DOE's life cycle cost estimates. The sites, in alphabetical order, are: Arizona/Maricopa; Colorado; Illinois; Michigan/Stockbridge; New York/Rochester; North Carolina; Tennessee; and Texas/Dallas-Fort Worth. The evaluation of these sites and the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this book

  4. The Super-Kamiokande Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, C W

    2008-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande is a 50 kiloton water Cherenkov detector located at the Kamioka Observatory of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo. It was designed to study neutrino oscillations and carry out searches for the decay of the nucleon. The Super-Kamiokande experiment began in 1996 and in the ensuing decade of running has produced extremely important results in the fields of atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations, along with setting stringent limits on the decay of the nucleon and the existence of dark matter and astrophysical sources of neutrinos. Perhaps most crucially, Super-Kamiokande for the first time definitively showed that neutrinos have mass and undergo flavor oscillations. This chapter will summarize the published scientific output of the experiment with a particular emphasis on the atmospheric neutrino results.

  5. Analyzing Black Hole Super-Radiance Emission of Particles/Energy from a Black Hole as a Gedankenexperiment to Get Bounds on the Mass of a Graviton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of super-radiance in BH physics, so dE/dt<0 specifies conditions for a mass of a graviton being less than or equal to 1065 grams, allows for determing what role additional dimensions may play in removing the datum that massive gravitons lead to 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury. The present document makes a given differentiation between super-radiance in the case of conventional BHs and Braneworld BH super-radiance, which may delineate whether Braneworlds contribute to an admissible massive graviton in terms of removing the usual problem of the 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury which is normally associated with massive gravitons. This leads to a fork in the road between two alternatives with the possibility of needing a multiverse containment of BH structure or embracing what Hawkings wrote up recently, namely, a redo of the event horizon hypothesis as we know it

  6. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Nezhla [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics; Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Techner, Joerg [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  7. Microsphere Super-resolution Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zengbo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it was discovered that microsphere can generate super-resolution focusing beyond diffraction limit. This has led to the development of an exciting super-resolution imaging technique -microsphere nanoscopy- that features a record resolution of 50 nm under white lights. Different samples have been directly imaged in high resolution and real time without labelling, including both non-biological (nano devices, structures and materials) and biological (subcellular details, viruses) samples. This chapter reviews the technique, which covers its background, fundamentals, experiments, mechanisms as well as the future outlook.

  8. Quantisation of super Teichmueller theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aghaei, Nezhla; Teschner, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    We construct a quantisation of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces using coordinates associated to ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. By constructing a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential.

  9. The construction of orthodox super rpp semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; GUO Yuqi; Kar Ping Shum

    2004-01-01

    We define orthodox super rpp semigroups and study their semilattice decompositions. Standard representation theorem of orthodox super rpp semigroups whose subband of idempotents is in the varieties of bands described by an identity with at most three variables are obtained.

  10. Massive gauge-flation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Carlos M.; Rodríguez, Yeinzon

    2016-06-01

    Gauge-flation model at zeroth-order in cosmological perturbation theory offers an interesting scenario for realizing inflation within a particle physics context, allowing us to investigate interesting possible connections between inflation and the subsequent evolution of the Universe. Difficulties, however, arise at the perturbative level, thus motivating a modification of the original model. In order to agree with the latest Planck observations, we modify the model such that the new dynamics can produce a relation between the spectral index ns and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r allowed by the data. By including an identical mass term for each of the fields of the system, we find interesting dynamics leading to slow-roll inflation of the right length. The presence of the mass term has the potential to modify the ns versus r relation so as to agree with the data. As a first step, we study the model at zeroth-order in cosmological perturbation theory, finding the conditions required for slow-roll inflation and the number of e-foldings of inflation. Numerical solutions are used to explore the impact of the mass term. We conclude that the massive version of gauge-flation offers a viable inflationary model.

  11. Search for Dark Matter WIMPs using Upward Through-going Muons in Super-Kamiokande

    OpenAIRE

    Collaboration, Super-Kamiokande; :; Desai, S.; Ashie, Y.; Fukuda, S; Y. Fukuda; Ishihara, K; Itow, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Minamino, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.(University of Tokyo, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Kamioka Observatory, Kamioka, Japan); Namba, T.; Nambu, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of indirect searches for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with 1679.6 live days of data from the Super-Kamiokande detector using neutrino-induced upward through-going muons. The search is performed by looking for an excess of high energy muon neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun, the core of the Earth, and the Galactic Center, as compared to the number expected from the atmospheric neutrino background. No statistically significant excess was seen. We...

  12. Observation of super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray imaging modality in which tomographic sections of the breast are generated from a limited range of tube angles. Because oblique x-ray incidence shifts the image of an object in subpixel detector element increments with each increasing projection angle, it is demonstrated that DBT is capable of super-resolution (i.e., subpixel resolution). Methods: By convention, DBT reconstructions are performed on planes parallel to the breast support at various depths of the breast volume. In order for resolution in each reconstructed slice to be comparable to the detector, the pixel size should match that of the detector elements; hence, the highest frequency that can be resolved in the plane of reconstruction is the alias frequency of the detector. This study considers reconstruction grids with much smaller pixelation to visualize higher frequencies. For analytical proof of super-resolution, a theoretical framework is developed in which the reconstruction of a high frequency sinusoidal input is calculated using both simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection. To study the frequency spectrum of the reconstruction, its Fourier transform is also determined. The experimental feasibility of super-resolution was investigated by acquiring images of a bar pattern phantom with frequencies higher than the detector alias frequency. Results: Using analytical modeling, it is shown that the central projection cannot resolve frequencies exceeding the detector alias frequency. The Fourier transform of the central projection is maximized at a lower frequency than the input as evidence of aliasing. By contrast, SBP reconstruction can resolve the input, and its Fourier transform is correctly maximized at the input frequency. Incorporating filters into the reconstruction smoothens pixelation artifacts in the spatial domain and reduces spectral leakage in the Fourier domain. It is also demonstrated that the existence of super

  13. A perturbation study of axisymmetric strongly magnetic degenerate stars : the case of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bera, Prasanta

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a strong magnetic field a stellar equilibrium configuration, aided by the Lorentz force, can support a larger mass than a non-magnetic one. This has been considered a possible explanation of the super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs giving rise to over-luminous Type-Ia supernovae. We present here linear and non-linear perturbation studies of such strongly magetised configurations and show that axisymmetric configurations with poloidal or toroidal fields are unstable. The numerical evolution of the perturbations shows instability after about an Alfv\\'en crossing time. This time scale is very short for the magnetically supported super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. Uniform rotation about the symmetry axis can reduce the growth rate but can not stabilize the super-massive configurations. It is concluded that long-lived super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs supported by magnetic field are unlikely to occur in Nature.

  14. Super Virasoro algebra and solvable supersymmetric quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interesting and deep relationships between super Virasoro algebras and super soliton systems (super KdV, super mKdV and super sine-Gordon equations) are investigated at both classical and quantum levels. An infinite set of conserved quantities responsible for solvability is characterized by super Virasoro algebras only. Several members of the infinite set of conserved quantities are derived explicitly. (author)

  15. Super Girls Still Center Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The TV singing contest continues to draw a devoted audience, but will its impact on Chinese culture fall away like a shooting star? Ask any teenage girl in China to name the finalists of last year's Super Girl show and chances are she will instantly come up with the three big names.She'll probable

  16. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian D.

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  17. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  18. Gauge Model with Massive Gravitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2003-01-01

    Gauge theory of gravity is formulated based on principle of local gauge invariance. Because the model hasstrict local gravitational gauge symmetry, and gauge theory of gravity is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum model.However, in the original model, all gauge gravitons are massless. We want to ask whether there exist massive gravitonsin Nature. In this paper, we will propose a gauge model with massive gravitons. The mass term of gravitational gaugefield is introduced into the theory without violating the strict local gravitational gauge symmetry. Massive gravitons canbe considered to be possible origin of dark energy and dark matter in the Universe.

  19. A not so massive cluster hosting a very massive star

    CERN Document Server

    Alegría, S Ramírez; Borissova, J; Kurtev, R; Navarro, C; Kuhn, M; Carballo-Bello, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present the first physical characterization of the young open cluster VVV CL041. We spectroscopically observed the cluster main-sequence stellar population and a very-massive star candidate: WR62-2. CMFGEN modeling to our near-infrared spectra indicates that WR62-2 is a very luminous (10$^{6.4\\pm0.2} L_{\\odot}$) and massive ($\\sim80 M_{\\odot}$) star.

  20. The intersection of climate, tectonic uplift, and regional groundwater flow in the central Andean Plateau: Insight from the accumulation of the massive evaporite deposit in the Salar de Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutt, D. F.; Hynek, S. A.; Corenthal, L.; Munk, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Salar de Atacama (SdA), a large endorheic basin adjacent to the Central Andes in the hyperarid Atacama Desert, has accumulated over 1800 km3 of evaporites and a lithium-rich brine since the late Miocene. Focused groundwater discharge in endorheic basins, such as those in the Chilean Altiplano, provide opportunities to investigate mechanisms for closing hydrologic budgets in arid regions. We demonstrate that modern evapotranspiration is 5 to 21 times greater than modern recharge from precipitation in the topographic watershed. Multiple lines of evidence including an adapted chloride mass balance method applied to remotely sensed precipitation estimates and sodium mass balance calculations support this conclusion. We contend that the missing water needed to close the extreme hydrologic imbalance of SdA is sourced from recharge on the orogenic plateau in an area over 4 times larger than the topographic watershed, augmented by transient draining of stored groundwater. Groundwater recharged during wetter periods in the late Pleistocene is still actively draining and discharging from storage without corresponding recharge into the system. Geologic evidence from the volume of evaporites deposited in the basin suggests that the SdA has been receiving significant amounts of fresh inflow waters over at least 7 Ma despite the region being hyperarid over the same time frame. Our conceptualization of the depositional model for evaporite accumulation necessitates the water table being at or close to the land surface. Subsidence associated with basin development has accommodated significant accumulation of these deposits thereby requiring the sustenance of fresh inflow waters during uplift of the Andean plateau. Sustained groundwater discharge to the basin requires long residence times, deep water tables and strong gradients in landscape and climate enabled by an uplifting plateau. The application of steady state assumptions to the modern hydrologic system are unsupported by

  1. Massive BTZ black hole thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, S H; Panahiyan, S

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by large applications of BTZ black holes and interesting results of massive gravity, we investigate massive BTZ black holes in presence of Maxwell and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics. We study geometric as well as thermodynamic structure of the solutions through canonical ensemble. Despite the existence of massive term, obtained solutions are asymptotically (a)dS and have a curvature singularity at the origin. Next, we regard varying cosmological constant and examine Van der Waals like behavior of the solutions in the extended phase space. In addition, we employ geometrical thermodynamic approaches and show that using Weinhold, Ruppeiner and Quevedo metrics leads to existence of ensemble dependency while HPEM metric yields uniform picture. For neutral case, it will be shown that generalization to massive gravity leads to presence of non-zero temperature and heat capacity for vanishing horizon radius. Such behavior is not observed for linearly charged solutions while generalization to nonlinearly on...

  2. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  3. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M., E-mail: jthomas@mpe.mpg.de [Max Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r{sub b} , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.

  4. Super-hydrophobic and super-wetting surfaces: analytical potential?

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Glen; Shirtcliffe, Neil; Newton, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Roughening or texturing surfaces provides super-liquid repellent or film forming properties without alteration of the surface chemistry. These surfaces are easy to produce, can amplify wetting properties and can be either "sticky" or "slippy" to liquids. Their use as water-repellent coatings is established, but their potential for use in microfluidics and sensor applications remains largely unfulfilled. This article explains several key ideas and suggests why there may be potential for analyt...

  5. The super star cluster driven feedback in ESO338-IG04 and Haro 11

    CERN Document Server

    Bik, Arjan; Menacho, Veronica; Adamo, Angela; Hayes, Matthew; Melinder, Jens; Amram, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The stellar content of young massive star clusters emit large amounts of Lyman continuum photons and inject momentum into the inter stellar medium (ISM) by the strong stellar winds of the most massive stars in the cluster. When the most massive stars explode as supernovae, large amounts of mechanical energy are injected in the ISM. A detailed study of the ISM around these massive cluster provides insights on the effect of cluster feedback. We present high quality integral field spectroscopy taken with VLT/MUSE of two starburst galaxies: ESO 338-IG04 and Haro 11. Both galaxies contain a significant number of super star clusters. The MUSE data provide us with an unprecedented view of the state and kinematics of the ionized gas in the galaxy allowing us to study the effect of stellar feedback on small and large spatial scales. We present our recent results on studying the ISM state of these two galaxies. The data of both galaxies show that the mechanical and ionization feedback of the super star clusters in the ...

  6. Super-resolution microscopy of the synaptic active zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine eEhmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain function relies on accurate information transfer at chemical synapses. At the presynaptic active zone (AZ a variety of specialised proteins are assembled to complex architectures, which set the basis for speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission.Calcium (Ca2+ channels are pivotal for the initiation of excitation-secretion coupling and, correspondingly, capture a central position at the AZ. Combining quantitative functional studies with modelling approaches has provided predictions of channel properties, numbers and even positions on the nanometre scale. However, elucidating the nanoscopic organisation of the surrounding protein network requires direct ultrastructural access. Without this information, knowledge of molecular synaptic structure-function relationships remains incomplete. Recently, super-resolution microscopy techniques have begun to enter the neurosciences. These approaches combine high spatial resolution with the molecular specificity of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy can be used to obtain information on the organisation of AZ proteins.

  7. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  8. The Era of Super Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The world has entered the "super capitalism" era when one third of its economic activities are controlled by less than 3 percent of global financial capital. This year,a global economic recession,triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis,seems unavoidable. To tackle international financial problems,Tao Dong,Chief Economist for Asia at Credit Suisse First Boston in Hong Kong,shared his insights with China Business Journal. Excerpts follow.

  9. The evolution of massive and very massive stars in clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Vanbeveren, Dany

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reviews massive star (initial mass smaller than 120 M0) and very massive star (initial mass larger than 120 M0) evolution. I will focus on evolutionary facts and questions that may critically affect predictions of population and spectral synthesis of starburst regions. We discuss the ever-lasting factor 2 or more uncertainty in the stellar wind mass loss rates. We may ask ourselves if stellar rotation is one of the keys to understand the universe, why so many massive stars are binary components and why binaries are ignored or are considered as the poor cousins by some people? And finally, do ultra luminous X-ray sources harbor an intermediate mass black hole with a mass of the order of 1000 M0?

  10. Super-Eccentric Migrating Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle; Dong, Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2011-01-01

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e=0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e>0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is \\dot a \\propto a^0.5 and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/dlog a\\propto a^0.5. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  11. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  12. BEWARE OF...SUPER GLUES!!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    What happened? A number of accidents have occurred with the use of 'Super Glues'. Some individuals have suffered injuries - severe irritation, or skin bonded together - through getting glue on their face and in their eyes. What are the hazards associated with glues? 'Super Glues' (i.e. cyanoacrylates): Are harmful if swallowed and are chemical irritants to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. Present the risk of polymerization (hardening) leading to skin damage. Be careful ! 'Super Glues' can bond to skin and eyes in seconds. Note: Other glues, resins and hardeners are also chemicals and as such can cause serious damage to the skin, eyes, respiratory or digestive tract. (For example: some components can be toxic, harmful, corrosive, sensitizing agents, etc.). How to prevent accidents in the future? Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for all of the glues you work with. Check the label on the container to find out which of the materials you work with are hazardous. Wear the right Per...

  13. Massive Star Formation: The Role of Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallscheer, Cassandra L.; Beuther, H.; Sauter, J.; Wolf, S.; Zhang, Q.; Keto, E.; Sridharan, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained multiple data sets from the SMA, PdBI, and IRAM 30m telescope of the Infrared Dark Cloud IRDC18223-3, the High-Mass Protostellar Object IRAS18151-1208, and the hot core source IRAS18507+0121 in order to search for clues regarding the role of rotation and disks in high mass star formation. These three objects allow us to compare the central-most regions surrounding the embedded continuum source at three different evolutionary stages of the formation process. Toward all three regions we see rotational or elongated structures perpendicular to the molecular outflows. Similarities and differences in the evolutionary sequence are discussed in the context of core and disk evolution. We have also carried out continuum and line radiative transfer modeling of the disk-like structures. Having a more complete picture of the evolutionary process that a massive star experiences will contribute significantly to the future of massive star formation research. Support for this project comes from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the International Max-Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg.

  14. Positive Signs in Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  15. Signatures of massive collisions in debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Kral, Quentin; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Boccaletti, Anthony; Charnoz, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Violent stochastic collisional events have been invoked as a possible explanation for some debris discs displaying pronounced asymmetries or having a great luminosity excess. So far, no thorough modelling of the consequences of such events has been carried out, mainly because of the extreme numerical challenge of coupling the dynamical and collisional evolution of dust. We perform the first fully self-consistent modelling of the aftermath of massive breakups in debris discs. We follow the collisional and dynamical evolution of dust released after the breakup of a Ceres-sized body at 6 AU from its central star. We investigate the duration, magnitude and spatial structure of the signature left by such a violent event, as well as its observational detectability. We use the recently developed LIDT-DD code (Kral et al., 2013), which handles the coupled collisional and dynamical evolution of debris discs. The main focus is placed on the complex interplay between destructive collisions, Keplerian dynamics and radiat...

  16. Testing and Characterization of SuperCDMS Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shank, Benjamin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) relies on collection of phonons and charge carriers in semiconductors held at tens of milliKelvin as handles for detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). This thesis begins with a brief overview of the direct dark matter search (Chapter 1) and SuperCDMS detectors (Chapter 2). In Chapter 3, a 3He evaporative refrigerator facility is described. Results from experiments performed in-house at Stanford to measure carrier transport in high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals operated at sub-Kelvin temperatures are presented in Chapter 4. Finally, in Chapter 5 a new numerical model and a time-domain optimal filtering technique are presented, both developed for use with superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), that provide excellent event reconstruction for single particle interactions in detectors read out with superconducting W-TESs coupled to energy-collecting films of Al. This thesis is not intended to be read straight through. For those new to CDMS or dark matter searches, the first two chapters are meant to be a gentle introduction for experimentalists. They are by no means exhaustive. The remaining chapters each stand alone, with different audiences.

  17. Massive Gravitons on Bohmian Congruences

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Taking a quantum corrected form of Raychaudhuri equation in a geometric background described by a Lorentz-violating massive theory of gravity, we go through investigating a time-like congruence of massive gravitons affected by a Bohmian quantum potential. We find some definite conditions upon which these gravitons are confined to diverging Bohmian trajectories. The respective behaviour of those quantum potentials are also derived and discussed. Additionally, and through a relativistic quantum treatment of a typical wave function, we demonstrate schematic conditions on the associated frequency to the gravitons, in order to satisfy the necessity of divergence.

  18. Broadbeam for Massive MIMO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Deli; Qian, Haifeng; Li, Geoffrey Ye

    2016-05-01

    Massive MIMO has been identified as one of the promising disruptive air interface techniques to address the huge capacity requirement demanded by 5G wireless communications. For practical deployment of such systems, the control message need to be broadcast to all users reliably in the cell using broadbeam. A broadbeam is expected to have the same radiated power in all directions to cover users in any place in a cell. In this paper, we will show that there is no perfect broadbeam. Therefore, we develop a method for generating broadbeam that can allow tiny fluctuations in radiated power. Overall, this can serve as an ingredient for practical deployment of the massive MIMO systems.

  19. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...

  20. Watching the Birth of Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J L; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.

    2003-01-01

    Subarcsecond infrared and radio observations yield important information about the formation of super star clusters from their surrounding gas. We discuss the general properties of ionized and molecular gas near young, forming SSCs, as illustrated by the prototypical young forming super star cluster nebula in the dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253. This super star cluster appears to have a gravitationally bound nebula. The lack of molecular gas suggests a very high star formation efficiency, consistent with the formation of a large, bound star cluster.

  1. An Integrated Assessment of Super & Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Elena Claire

    2013-01-01

    We assess the optimality of investments in power grid innovation, under both technological options of Super and Smart Grids, using the WITCH model in the version that includes Super-Grids. Super Grids allow producing and trading of electricity generated by large scale concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in highly productive areas that are connected to the %demand centres through High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) cables. We extend the model to include also Smart-Grids that allow: i) to incr...

  2. Characterization of a NIMONIC TYPE super alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of strength and thermofluence of a NIMONIC type super alloy under thermal treatment was determined. The relationship between microstructure, phases and precipitates was also studied. (author)

  3. Central regions of LIRGs: rings, hidden starbursts, Supernovae and star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Petri; Escala, Andres; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Reunanen, Juha; Ryder, Stuart; Zijlstra, Albert

    2012-07-01

    We study star formation (SF) in very active environments, in luminous IR galaxies, which are often interacting. A variety of phenomena are detected, such as central starbursts, circumnuclear SF, obscured SNe tracing the history of recent SF, massive super star clusters, and sites of strong off-nuclear SF. All of these can be ultimately used to define the sequence of triggering and propagation of star-formation and interplay with nuclear activity in the lives of gas rich galaxy interactions and mergers. In this paper we present analysis of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of central regions of two interacting LIRGs. We detect a nuclear 3.3 μm PAH ring around the core of NGC 1614 with thermal-IR IFU observations. The ring's characteristics and relation to the strong star-forming ring detected in recombination lines are presented, as well as a scenario of an outward expanding starburst likely initiated with a (minor) companion detected within a tidal feature. We then present NIR IFU observations of IRAS 19115-2124, aka the Bird, which is an intriguing triple encounter. The third component is a minor one, but, nevertheless, is the source of 3/4 of the SFR of the whole system. Gas inflows and outflows are detected in their nuclei locations. Finally, we briefly report on our on-going NIR adaptive optics imaging survey of several dozen LIRGs. We have detected highly obscured core-collapse SNe in the central kpc, and discuss the statistics of "missing SNe" due to dust extinction. We are also determining the characteristics of hundreds of super star clusters in and around the core regions of LIRGs, as a function of host-galaxy properties.

  4. Attenuation of super-soft X-ray sources by circumstellar material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel; Gilfanov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    of the circumbinary material photo-ionised by the radiation of the central source. Our results show that the circumstellar mass-loss rates required for obcuration of super-soft X-ray sources is about an order of magnitude larger than those reported in earlier studies, for comparable model parameters. While this does...

  5. The first massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2012-01-01

    I briefly outline recent theoretical developments on the formation of the first massive black holes (MBHs) that may grow into the population of MBHs powering quasars and inhabiting galactic centers today. I also touch upon possible observational tests that may give insights on what the properties of the first MBHs were.

  6. Massively parallel quantum computer simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, K.; Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Trieu, B.; Arnold, G.; Richter, M.; Lippert, Th.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, N.

    2007-01-01

    We describe portable software to simulate universal quantum computers on massive parallel Computers. We illustrate the use of the simulation software by running various quantum algorithms on different computer architectures, such as a IBM BlueGene/L, a IBM Regatta p690+, a Hitachi SR11000/J1, a Cray

  7. Five-loop massive tadpoles

    CERN Document Server

    Luthe, T

    2016-01-01

    We provide an update on a long-term project that aims at evaluating massive vacuum integrals at the five-loop frontier, with high precision and in various space-time dimensions. A number of applications are sketched, mainly concerning the determination of anomalous dimensions, for quantum field theories in four, three and two dimensions.

  8. Causality Constraints on Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Camanho, Xian O; Rahman, Rakibur

    2016-01-01

    The parameter space of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity ought to be constrained essentially to a line. The theory is shown to admit pp-wave backgrounds on which linear fluctuations otherwise undergo significant time advances, potentially leading to closed time-like curves. This classical phenomenon takes place well within the theory's validity regime.

  9. Massive Hybrid Stars with Strangeness

    CERN Document Server

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Masuda, Kota

    2014-01-01

    How massive the hybrid stars could be is discussed by a "3-window model" proposed from a new strategy to construct the equation of state with hadron-quark transition. It is found that hybrid stars have a strong potentiality to generate a large mass compatible with two-solar-mass neutron star observations.

  10. Self-similar super universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidharth, B.G. [International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences, Hyderabad (India) and International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences, Udine (Italy) and B.M. Birla Science Centre, Centre for Applicable Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Adarsh Nagar, Hyderabad 500 063 (India)]. E-mail: hyd1_birlasc@sancharnet.in

    2006-10-15

    The Hamilton-Jacobi theory of Classical Mechanics can be extended in a novel manner to systems which are fuzzy in the sense that they can be represented by wave functions. A constructive interference of the phases of the wave functions then gives us back Classical systems. In a suitable description this includes both Quantum Theory and General Relativity in the well known superspace formulation. This is generalized to non-smooth spaces a la El Naschie's Cantorian spacetime. However, there are several nuances which provide insight into these latter systems. All this is considered in this paper together with suitable generalization, to cascades of super universes.

  11. Hot super-Earths and giant planet cores from different migration histories

    CERN Document Server

    Cossou, Christophe; Hersant, Franck; Pierens, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Planetary embryos embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disks undergo Type I orbital migration. Migration can be inward or outward depending on the local disk properties but, in general, only planets more massive than several $M_\\oplus$ can migrate outward. Here we propose that an embryo's migration history determines whether it becomes a hot super-Earth or the core of a giant planet. Systems of hot super-Earths (or mini-Neptunes) form when embryos migrate inward and pile up at the inner edge of the disk. Giant planet cores form when inward-migrating embryos become massive enough to switch direction and migrate outward. We present simulations of this process using a modified N-body code, starting from a swarm of planetary embryos. Systems of hot super-Earths form in resonant chains with the innermost planet at or interior to the disk inner edge. Resonant chains are disrupted by late dynamical instabilities triggered by the dispersal of the gaseous disk. Giant planet cores migrate outward toward zero-torque zones...

  12. Exclusive physics at the LHC with SuperChic 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L.A. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V.A. [University of Durham, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M.G. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    We present a range of physics results for central exclusive production processes at the LHC, using the new SuperChic 2 Monte Carlo event generator. This includes significant theoretical improvements and updates, most importantly a fully differential treatment of the soft survival factor, as well as a greater number of generated processes. We provide an overview of the latest theoretical framework, and consider in detail a selection of final states, namely exclusive 2 and 3 jets, photoproduced vector mesons, two-photon initiated muon and W boson pairs and heavy χ{sub c,b} quarkonia. (orig.)

  13. Exclusive physics at the LHC with SuperChic 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L. A., E-mail: l.harland-lang@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V. A. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, DH1 3LE, Durham (United Kingdom); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, 188300, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, 188300, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-06

    We present a range of physics results for central exclusive production processes at the LHC, using the new SuperChic 2 Monte Carlo event generator. This includes significant theoretical improvements and updates, most importantly a fully differential treatment of the soft survival factor, as well as a greater number of generated processes. We provide an overview of the latest theoretical framework, and consider in detail a selection of final states, namely exclusive 2 and 3 jets, photoproduced vector mesons, two-photon initiated muon and W boson pairs and heavy χ{sub c,b} quarkonia.

  14. THE CASE AGAINST A MASSIVE BLACK-HOLE AT THE GALACTIC-CENTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDERS, RH

    1992-01-01

    MANY of the compact near-infrared sources observed in the central parsec of our Galaxy have been shown to be very massive, luminous blue stars with strong helium lines and fast winds, perhaps similar to Wolf-Rayet stars1-3; and the complex near-infrared source IRS16, which appears to be the central

  15. Influence of Entropy on Composition and Structure of Massive Protoneutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin; Jia, Huan-Yu; Mu, Xue-Ling; Zhou, Xia

    2016-08-01

    Adjusting the suitable coupling constants in relativistic mean Geld (RMF) theory and focusing on thermal effect of an entropy per baryon (S) from 0 to 3, we investigate the composition and structure of massive protoneutron stars corresponding PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432. It is found that massive protoneutron stars (PNSs) have more hyperons than cold neutron stars. The entropy per baryon will stiffen the equation of state, and the influence on the pressure is more obvious at low density than high density, while the influence on the energy density is more obvious at high density than low density. It is found that higher entropy will give higher maximum mass, higher central temperature and lower central density. The entropy per baryon changes from 0 to 3, the radius of a PNS corresponding PSR J0348+0432 will increase from 12.86 km to 19.31 km and PSR J1612-2230 will increase from 13.03 km to 19.93 km. The entropy per baryon will raise the central temperature of massive PNSs in higher entropy per baryon, but the central temperature of massive PNSs maybe keep unchanged in lower entropy per baryon. The entropy per baryon will increase the moment of inertia of a massive protoneutron star, while decrease gravitational redshift of a massive neutron star. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11175147

  16. The formation of massive primordial stars in rapidly rotating disks

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    Massive primordial halos exposed to moderate UV backgrounds are the potential birthplaces of very massive stars or even supermassive black holes. In such a halo, an initially isothermal collapse will occur, leading to high accretion rates of $\\sim0.1$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$. During the collapse, the gas in the interior will turn into a molecular state, and form an accretion disk due to the conservation of angular momentum. We consider here the structure of such an accretion disk and the role of viscous heating in the presence of high accretion rates for a central star of $10$, $100$ and $10^4$~M$_\\odot$. Our results show that the temperature in the disk increases considerably due to viscous heating, leading to a transition from the molecular to the atomic cooling phase. We found that the atomic cooling regime may extend out to several $100$~AU for a $10^4$~M$_\\odot$ central star and provides substantial support to stabilize the disk. It therefore favors the formation of a massive central object. The comparison o...

  17. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J; Bender, R; Erwin, P; Fabricius, M

    2013-01-01

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centres of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centres by gravitationally slingshotting central stars towards large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here we analyse the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral-field spectrograph SINFONI at the ESO-VLT. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars and a dark-matter halo. We show that the use of integral-field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude upon the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores,...

  18. Massive black holes interactions during the assembly of heavy sub-structures in the centre of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Donnari, M; Merafina, M

    2016-01-01

    We performed a series of direct N-body simulations with the aim to follow the dynamical evolution of a galaxy cluster (GC) ($M_{clus}\\simeq 10^{14} M_{\\odot}$) in different environment. The results show the formation of heavy sub-structures in the cluster centre in consequence of multiple merging among the innermost galaxies. Moreover we investigate the dynamics of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) residing in the centre of galaxies that form the most massive sub-structure.

  19. Low-energy effects in a higher-derivative gravity model with real and complex massive poles

    CERN Document Server

    Accioly, Antonio; Shapiro, Ilya L

    2016-01-01

    The most simple super-renormalizable model of quantum gravity is based on the general local covariant six-derivative action. It was recently shown that such a theory may also have unitary S-matrix, in the case when massive poles are complex. In the present work we construct the modified Newton potential and explore the gravitational light bending in a general six-derivative theory, including the most interesting case of complex massive poles. In what concerns light deflection, the results are obtained within classical and semiclassical approaches. The presentation is given in details which can be useful for better understanding the effects of the higher derivative terms.

  20. Quaternion Generalization of Super Poincare Group

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Bhupendra C S

    2015-01-01

    Super Poincare algebra in D = 6 space-time dimensions has been analysed in terms of quaternion analyticity of Lorentz group. Starting the connection of quaternion Lorentz group with SO(1; 5) group, the SL(2;H) spinors for Dirac & Weyl representations of Poincare group are described consistently to extend the Poincare algebra to Super Poincare algebra for D = 6 space-time.

  1. Temporal Super Resolution Using Variation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Temporal super resolution (TSR) is the ability to convert video from one frame rate to another and is as such a key functionality in modern video processing systems. A higher frame rate than what is recorded is desired for high frame rate displays, for super slow-motion, and for video/film format...

  2. Tetrahedral Units: For Dodecahedral Super-Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Y; Liebman, J F

    2016-01-01

    Different novel organic-chemical possibilities for tetrahedral building units are considered, with attention to their utility in constructing different super-structures. As a representative construction we consider the use of sets of 20 such identical tetrahedral units to form a super-dodecahedron.

  3. The quest for ultimate super resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Philip; Ben-Benjamin, Jonathan Samuel

    2016-09-01

    With the wealth of super-resolution techniques available in the literature it is useful to provide a succinct review of the general concepts involved in the different schemes. In this paper we group super-resolution schemes into several broad categories to simplify comparison, and to elucidate the factors limiting their respective resolutions.

  4. Super-radiance and flux conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical foundations of the phenomenon known as super-radiance still continues to attract considerable attention. Despite many valiant attempts at pedagogically clear presentations, the effect nevertheless still continues to generate some significant confusion. Part of the confusion arises from the fact that super-radiance in a quantum field theory [QFT] context is not the same as super-radiance (super-fluorescence) in some condensed matter contexts; part of the confusion arises from traditional but sometimes awkward normalization conventions, and part is due to sometimes unnecessary confusion between fluxes and probabilities. We shall argue that the key point underlying the effect is flux conservation, (and, in the presence of dissipation, a controlled amount of flux non-conservation), and that attempting to phrase things in terms of reflection and transmission probabilities only works in the absence of super-radiance. To help clarify the situation we present a simple exactly solvable toy model exhibi...

  5. Ending Aging in Super Glassy Polymer Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, CH; Nguyen, PT; Hill, MR; Thornton, AW; Konstas, K; Doherty, CM; Mulder, RJ; Bourgeois, L; Liu, ACY; Sprouster, DJ; Sullivan, JP; Bastow, TJ; Hill, AJ; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-04-16

    Aging in super glassy polymers such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) (PMP), and polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) reduces gas permeabilities and limits their application as gas-separation membranes. While super glassy polymers are initially very porous, and ultra-permeable, they quickly pack into a denser phase becoming less porous and permeable. This age-old problem has been solved by adding an ultraporous additive that maintains the low density, porous, initial stage of super glassy polymers through absorbing a portion of the polymer chains within its pores thereby holding the chains in their open position. This result is the first time that aging in super glassy polymers is inhibited whilst maintaining enhanced CO2 permeability for one year and improving CO2/N-2 selectivity. This approach could allow super glassy polymers to be revisited for commercial application in gas separations.

  6. Search for neutrinos from annihilation of captured low-mass dark matter particles in the Sun by Super-Kamiokande

    OpenAIRE

    collaboration, The Super-Kamiokande; :; K. Choi; Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.(University of Tokyo, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Kamioka Observatory, Kamioka, Japan); Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Sekiya, H.

    2015-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande (SK) can search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by detecting neutrinos produced from WIMP annihilations occurring inside the Sun. In this analysis, we include neutrino events with interaction vertices in the detector in addition to upward-going muons produced in the surrounding rock. Compared to the previous result, which used the upward-going muons only, the signal acceptances for light (few-GeV/$c^2$ $\\sim$ 200-GeV/$c^2$) WIMPs are significantly increased. ...

  7. Unification of the Fundamental Plane and Super-Massive Black Holes Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Remco van den

    2016-01-01

    According to the Virial Theorem, all gravitational systems in equilibrium sit on a plane in the 3D parameter space defined by their mass, size and second moment of the velocity tensor. While these quantities cannot be directly observed, there are suitable proxies: the luminosity Lk, half-light radius Re and dispersion sigma_e. These proxies indeed lie on a very tight Fundamental Plane (FP). How do the black holes in the centers of galaxies relate to the FP? Their masses are known to exhibit n...

  8. SuperMassive Blackholes grow from stellar BHs of star formation history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca-Volmerange, Brigitte

    The origin of the supermassive black hole masses M SMBH discovered at the highest redshifts is still actively debated. Moreover the statistically significant relation of M SMBH with bulge luminosities L V , extended on several magnitude orders, confirms a common physical process linking small (<= 1pc) to large (kpcs) size scales. The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of two z=3.8 radio galaxies 4C41.17 and TN J2007-1316, best-fitted by evolved early type galaxy and starburst scenarios also imply masses of stellar remnants. Computed with the evolutionary code Pegase.3, the cumulated stellar black hole mass M sBH reach up to several 109M⊙, similar to M SMBH at same z. We propose the SMBH growth is due to the migration of the stellar dense residues (sBH) towards the galaxy core by dynamical friction. Discussed in terms of time-scales, this process which is linking AGN and star formation, also fully justifies the famous relation M SMBH -L V .

  9. Star Clusters and Super Massive Black Holes: High Velocity Stars Production

    CERN Document Server

    Fragione, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    One possible origin of high velocity stars in the Galaxy is that they are the product of the interaction of binary systems and supermassive black holes. We investigate a new production channel of high velocity stars as due to the close interaction between a star cluster and supermassive black holes in galactic centres. The high velocity acquired by some stars of the cluster comes from combined effect of extraction of their gravitational binding energy and from the slingshot due to the interaction with the black holes. Stars could reach a velocity sufficient to travel in the halo and even overcome the galactic potential well, while some of them are just stripped from the cluster and start orbiting around the galactic centre.

  10. Super-massive binary black holes and emission lines in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Popovic, Luka C

    2011-01-01

    The broad emission spectral lines emitted from AGNs are our main probe of the geometry and physics of the broad line region (BLR) close to the SMBH. There is a group of AGNs that emits very broad and complex line profiles, showing two displaced peaks, one blueshifted and one redshifted from the systemic velocity defined by the narrow lines, or a single such peak. It has been proposed that such line shapes could indicate a supermassive binary black hole (SMB) system. We discuss here how the presence of an SMB will affect the BLRs of AGNs and what the observational consequences might be. We review previous claims of SMBs based on broad line profiles and find that they may have non-SMB explanations as a consequence of a complex BLR structure. Because of these effects it is very hard to put limits on the number of SMBs from broad line profiles. It is still possible, however, that unusual broad line profiles in combination with other observational effects (line ratios, quasi-periodical oscillations, spectropolarim...

  11. Unification of the Fundamental Plane and Super-Massive Black Holes Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, Remco van den

    2016-01-01

    According to the Virial Theorem, all gravitational systems in equilibrium sit on a plane in the 3D parameter space defined by their mass, size and second moment of the velocity tensor. While these quantities cannot be directly observed, there are suitable proxies: the luminosity Lk, half-light radius Re and dispersion sigma_e. These proxies indeed lie on a very tight Fundamental Plane (FP). How do the black holes in the centers of galaxies relate to the FP? Their masses are known to exhibit no strong correlation with total galaxy mass, but they do correlate weakly with bulge mass (when present), and extremely well with the velocity dispersion through the Mbh = sigma_e^5.3 relation. These facts together imply that a tight plane must also exist defined by black hole mass, total galaxy mass and size. Here I show that this is indeed the case using a heterogeneous set of 225 black holes. The sample includes BHs from zero to 10 billion solar masses and host galaxies ranging from low surface brightness dwarfs, throu...

  12. OGLE16aaa - a Signature of a Hungry Super Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Hamanowicz, A; Jonker, P G; Arcavi, I; Guillochon, J; Brown, P J; Kozłowski, S; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Poleski, R; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M; Rybicki, K A; Greiner, J; Krühler, T; Bolmer, J

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery and first three months of follow-up observations of a currently on-going unusual transient detected by the OGLE-IV survey, located in the centre of a galaxy at redshift z=0.1655. The long rise to absolute magnitude of -20.5 mag, slow decline, very broad He and H spectral features make OGLE16aaa similar to other optical/UV Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs). Weak narrow emission lines in the spectrum and archival photometric observations suggest the host galaxy is a weak-line Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), which has been accreting at higher rate in the past. OGLE16aaa, along with SDSS J0748, seems to form a sub-class of TDEs by weakly or recently active supermassive black holes (SMBHs). This class might bridge the TDEs by quiescent SMBHs and flares observed as "changing-look QSOs", if we interpret the latter as TDEs. If this picture is true, the previously applied requirement for identifying a flare as a TDE that it had to come from an inactive nucleus, could be leading to observational bi...

  13. Multimedia over massive MIMO wireless systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haichao; Ge, Xiaohu; Zi, Ran; Zhang, Jing; Ni, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To satisfy the massive wireless traffic transmission generated by multimedia applications, the massive multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) wireless system has emerged as a possible solution for future 5G wireless communication systems. However, the mutual coupling effect of massive MIMO systems has a negative effect potential on the wireless capacity. In this paper, the receive diversity gain is first defined and analyzed for massive MIMO wireless systems. Furthermore, we propose an effective cap...

  14. Massive binary stars as a probe of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.

    2010-10-01

    Massive stars are among the largest and most influential objects we know of on a sub-galactic scale. Binary systems, composed of at least one of these stars, may be responsible for several types of phenomena, including type Ib/c supernovae, short and long gamma ray bursts, high-velocity runaway O and B-type stars, and the density of the parent star clusters. Our understanding of these stars has met with limited success, especially in the area of their formation. Current formation theories rely on the accumulated statistics of massive binary systems that are limited because of their sample size or the inhomogeneous environments from which the statistics are collected. The purpose of this work is to provide a higher-level analysis of close massive binary characteristics using the radial velocity information of 113 massive stars (B3 and earlier) and binary orbital properties for the 19 known close massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. This work provides an analysis using the largest amount of massive star and binary information ever compiled for an O-star rich cluster like Cygnus OB2, and compliments other O-star binary studies such as NGC 6231, NGC 2244, and NGC 6611. I first report the discovery of 73 new O or B-type stars and 13 new massive binaries by this survey. This work involved the use of 75 successful nights of spectroscopic observation at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory in addition to observations obtained using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph at WIYN, the HIRES echelle spectrograph at KECK, and the Hamilton spectrograph at LICK. I use these data to estimate the spectrophotometric distance to the cluster and to measure the mean systemic velocity and the one-sided velocity dispersion of the cluster. Finally, I compare these data to a series of Monte Carlo models, the results of which indicate that the binary fraction of the cluster is 57 +/- 5% and that the indices for the power law distributions, describing the log of the periods, mass

  15. Massive Kaluza-Klein Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, D C N

    2013-01-01

    The non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein unification of gravitation with gauge fields theory is reformulated, with the inclusion of a massive spin-2 field defined by the extrinsic curvature. The internal space is non-compact, characterized by the group of rotations of vectors orthogonal to the space-time. The non-compactness of the internal space warrants the solution of the fermion chirality problem of the original Kaluza-Klein theory and makes it closer to the more recent Brane World paradigm, in special to the so called DGP model. However, the access of gravitation to the extra dimensions is defined by the mentioned massive spin-2 field obeying the Fierz-Pauli equation. The existence of a short range gravitational component makes possible to apply the modified Kaluza-Klein unification to the Tev scale of energies.

  16. Minimal theory of massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    De Felice, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. After defining the theory in the unitary gauge in the vielbein language, we shall perform a Hamiltonian analysis to count the number of physical degrees of freedom, and then study some phenomenologies. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham - Gabadadze - Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory.

  17. Massive dilaton and topological gravity

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1995-01-01

    A model in which the massive dilaton is introduced by minimally extending the two dimensional topological gravity is studied semi-classically. The theory is no longer topological because of the explicit Weyl scale symmetry breaking. Due to the dilaton the semiclassical stress-energy tensor gets renormalized and it is shown how the gravitational background coupled to the the dilaton depends on the dilaton mass as well as the renormalization mass scale, but not on the Newton's constant.

  18. Engaging with Massive Online Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ashton; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon; Leskovec, Jure

    2014-01-01

    The Web has enabled one of the most visible recent developments in education---the deployment of massive open online courses. With their global reach and often staggering enrollments, MOOCs have the potential to become a major new mechanism for learning. Despite this early promise, however, MOOCs are still relatively unexplored and poorly understood. In a MOOC, each student's complete interaction with the course materials takes place on the Web, thus providing a record of learner activity of ...

  19. Hidden Ghost in Massive gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav(Theoretical Physics, Ludwig Maxmillians University, Theresienstr. 37, 80333, Munich, Germany)

    2013-01-01

    The Hessian's determinant for a version of massive gravity given by an infinite expansion of a square root function of the induced metric, vanishes. We show that it allows us to eliminate one of four scalar fields used to generate the graviton mass. This, however, gives rise to the appearance of extra terms in the action with the squared time derivative of the metric, thus signaling that a nonlinear ghost survives.We demonstrate this phenomenon considering a simple system with constraint, whi...

  20. The Massive Thermal Basketball Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, J O; Strickland, Michael T; Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The "basketball diagram" is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar fieldtheory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculatethis diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it toexpressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluatednumerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massivescalar field with a phi^4 interaction to three-loop order.

  1. Massive star clusters in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E

    2009-01-01

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCSs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GCS research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  2. Massive Electrodynamics and Magnetic Monopoles

    OpenAIRE

    Israelit, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Including torsion in the geometric framework of the Weyl-Dirac theory we build up an action integral, and obtain from it a gauge covariant (in the Weyl sense) general relativistic massive electrodynamics. Photons having an arbitrary mass, electric, and magnetic currents (Dirac's monopole) coexist within this theory. Assuming that the space-time is torsionless, taking the photons mass zero, and turning to the Einstein gauge we obtain Maxwell's electrodynamics.

  3. Super-critical phasematching for photon pair generation in structured light modes

    CERN Document Server

    Saaltink, Rebecca Y; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim; Lundeen, Jeff S

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for directly producing radially and azimuthally polarized photon pairs through spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC). This method constitutes a novel geometry for SPDC, in which a radially polarized Bessel-Gauss pump beam is directed into a nonlinear crystal, with the central propagation direction parallel to the crystal axis. The phasematching conditions are controlled by changing the opening angle of the pump beam; as the crystal axis cannot be tuned, we refer to this process as super-critical phasematching. We model and plot the spatial and polarization output distributions for Type-I and Type-II super-critical phasematching.

  4. Orbital period changes and the higher-order multiplicity fraction amongst SuperWASP eclipsing binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Lohr, M E; Payne, S G; West, R G; Wheatley, P J

    2015-01-01

    Orbital period changes of binary stars may be caused by the presence of a third massive body in the system. Here we have searched the archive of the Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) project for evidence of period variations in 13927 eclipsing binary candidates. Sinusoidal period changes, strongly suggestive of third bodies, were detected in 2% of cases; however, linear period changes were observed in a further 22% of systems. We argue on distributional grounds that the majority of these apparently linear changes are likely to reflect longer-term sinusoidal period variations caused by third bodies, and thus estimate a higher-order multiplicity fraction of 24% for SuperWASP binaries, in good agreement with other recent figures for the fraction of triple systems amongst binary stars in general.

  5. The role of rotation on the evolution of dynamo generated magnetic fields in Super Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2011-01-01

    Planetary magnetic fields could have a role on the evolution of planetary atmospheres and the required conditions for the emergence and evolution of life (habitability). After briefly review the current efforts to study the evolution of dynamo generated magnetic fields in massive earth-like rocky planets (Super Earths), we take the results from thermal evolution models and updated scaling laws for convection driven magnetodynamos to predict the evolution of the local Rossby number, the basic indicator of core magnetic field geometry and regime. We study the dependence of this property on planetary mass and rotation rate. Previous works have paid Attention only to the evolution of dipolar dominant core magnetic fields assuming rapid rotating planets. Here we extend these results including consistently the effects of rotation on the evolution of planetary magnetic field properties and obtain global constraints to the existence of intense protective magnetic fields in rapidly and slowly rotating Super Earths. We...

  6. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: ohohm@mit.ed, E-mail: j.rosseel@rug.n, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-07

    We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N=4 supersymmetric 'general massive supergravity' and the maximally supersymmetric N=8 'new massive supergravity'. We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N=7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N=6 to be maximal at the nonlinear level.

  7. On Maximal Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric "general massive supergravity" and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 "new massive supergravity". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level.

  8. Extinction in young massive clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Up to ages of ~100 Myr, massive clusters are still swamped in large amounts of gas and dust, causing considerable and uneven levels of extinction. At the same time, large grains (ices?) produced by type II supernovae profoundly alter the interstellar medium (ISM), thus resulting in extinction properties very different from those of the diffuse ISM. To obtain physically meaningful parameters of stars (luminosities, effective temperatures, masses, ages, etc.) we must understand and measure the local extinction law. We have developed a powerful method to unambiguously determine the extinction law everywhere across a cluster field, using multi-band photometry of red giant stars belonging to the red clump (RC) and are applying it to young massive clusters in the Local Group. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, with about 20 RC stars per arcmin2, for each field we can easily derive an accurate extinction curve over the entire wavelength range of the photometry. As an example, we present the extinction law of the Tarantula nebula (30 Dor) based on thousands of stars observed as part of the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project. We discuss how the incautious adoption of the Milky Way extinction law in the analysis of massive star forming regions may lead to serious underestimates of the fluxes and of the star formation rates by factors of 2 or more.

  9. Search for bosonic superweakly interacting massive dark matter particles with the XMASS-I detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Hieda, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Ichimura, K; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

    2014-09-19

    Bosonic superweakly interacting massive particles (super-WIMPs) are a candidate for warm dark matter. With the absorption of such a boson by a xenon atom, these dark matter candidates would deposit an energy equivalent to their rest mass in the detector. This is the first direct detection experiment exploring the vector super-WIMPs in the mass range between 40 and 120 keV. With the use of 165.9 day of data, no significant excess above background was observed in the fiducial mass of 41 kg. The present limit for the vector super-WIMPs excludes the possibility that such particles constitute all of dark matter. The absence of a signal also provides the most stringent direct constraint on the coupling constant of pseudoscalar super-WIMPs to electrons. The unprecedented sensitivity was achieved exploiting the low background at a level 10(-4)  kg-1 keVee-1 day-1 in the detector.

  10. Super-Hubble Supergravity Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, Anupam; Stephens, Philip

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that large Hubble-induced supergravity corrections to the inflaton field can ruin the flatness of the potential, thus creating a tension between slow-roll inflation and supergravity. In this paper we show that it is possible to obtain a cosmologically flat direction, embedded within the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model), in spite of very large super-Hubble corrections. As an illustration, we show that a flat direction which is lifted by $n=6$ operator matches the current cosmic microwave background data for a wide range of Hubble parameters, i.e. $10^{5} {\\rm GeV}\\lesssim H_{inf}\\lesssim 10^{8.5}$ GeV. Our results are generic and can be applicable to any $F$-term inflationary models.

  11. Super congruences and Euler numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Let $p>3$ be a prime. We prove that $$\\sum_{k=0}^{p-1}\\binom{2k}{k}/2^k=(-1)^{(p-1)/2}-p^2E_{p-3} (mod p^3),$$ $$\\sum_{k=1}^{(p-1)/2}\\binom{2k}{k}/k=(-1)^{(p+1)/2}8/3*pE_{p-3} (mod p^2),$$ $$\\sum_{k=0}^{(p-1)/2}\\binom{2k}{k}^2/16^k=(-1)^{(p-1)/2}+p^2E_{p-3} (mod p^3)$$, where E_0,E_1,E_2,... are Euler numbers. Our new approach is of combinatorial nature. We also formulate many conjectures concerning super congruences and relate most of them to Euler numbers or Bernoulli numbers. Motivated by ...

  12. Super-Earth Atmospheres: Self-consistent Gas Accretion and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em

    2016-07-01

    Some recently discovered short-period Earth- to Neptune-sized exoplanets (super-Earths) have low observed mean densities that can only be explained by voluminous gaseous atmospheres. Here, we study the conditions allowing the accretion and retention of such atmospheres. We self-consistently couple the nebular gas accretion onto rocky cores and the subsequent evolution of gas envelopes following the dispersal of the protoplanetary disk. Specifically, we address mass-loss due to both photo-evaporation and cooling of the planet. We find that planets shed their outer layers (dozens of percent in mass) following the disk's dispersal (even without photo-evaporation), and their atmospheres shrink in a few Myr to a thickness comparable to the radius of the underlying rocky core. At this stage, atmospheres containing less particles than the core (equivalently, lighter than a few percent of the planet's mass) can be blown away by heat coming from the cooling core, while heavier atmospheres cool and contract on a timescale of Gyr at most. By relating the mass-loss timescale to the accretion time, we analytically identify a Goldilocks region in the mass-temperature plane in which low-density super-Earths can be found: planets have to be massive and cold enough to accrete and retain their atmospheres, but not too massive or cold, such that they do not enter runaway accretion and become gas giants (Jupiters). We compare our results to the observed super-Earth population and find that low-density planets are indeed concentrated in the theoretically allowed region. Our analytical and intuitive model can be used to investigate possible super-Earth formation scenarios.

  13. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  14. Super Star Cluster Nebula in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 660

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.; Turner, J. L.; Tsai, C.-W.; Beck, S. C.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2004-12-01

    We have mapped the starburst galaxy NGC 660 at 100mas resolution at K band (1.3 cm) with the NRAO Very Large Array. A peculiar galaxy at a distance of 13 Mpc, NGC 660 contains concentrated central star formation of power ˜ 2 x 1010 Lsun. Our 1.3 cm continuum image reveals a bright, compact source of less than 10 pc extent with a rising spectral index. We infer that this is optically thick free-free emission from a super star cluster nebula. The nebula is less than 10 pc in size, comparable in luminosity to the ``supernebula" in the dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253. We estimate that there are a few thousand O stars contained in this single young cluster. There are a number of other weaker continuum sources, either slightly smaller or more evolved clusters of similar size within the central 300 parsecs of the galaxy. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  15. The origin of the α-enhancement of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Marijke C.; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-09-01

    We study the origin of the stellar α-element-to-iron abundance ratio, [α/Fe]*, of present-day central galaxies, using cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) project. For galaxies with stellar masses of M* > 1010.5 M⊙, [α/Fe]* increases with increasing galaxy stellar mass and age. These trends are in good agreement with observations of early-type galaxies, and are consistent with a `downsizing' galaxy formation scenario: more massive galaxies have formed the bulk of their stars earlier and more rapidly, hence from an interstellar medium that was mostly α-enriched by massive stars. In the absence of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), however, [α/Fe]* in M* > 1010.5 M⊙ galaxies is roughly constant with stellar mass and decreases with mean stellar age, extending the trends found for lower mass galaxies in both simulations with and without AGN. We conclude that AGN feedback can account for the α-enhancement of massive galaxies, as it suppresses their star formation, quenching more massive galaxies at earlier times, thereby preventing the iron from longer lived intermediate-mass stars (supernova Type Ia) from being incorporated into younger stars.

  16. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, B.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Pous, E.; /Barcelona U.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; /Bergen U.; Asgeirsson, D.; /British Columbia U.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; /Caltech; Heinemeyer, S.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; McElrath, B.; /CERN; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; /Cincinnati U.; Blanke, M.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    SuperB is a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measurements that can be made at SuperB play a pivotal role in understanding the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. Examples for using the interplay between measurements to discriminate New Physics models are discussed in this document. SuperB is a Super Flavour Factory, in addition to studying large samples of B{sub u,d,s}, D and {tau} decays, SuperB has a broad physics programme that includes spectroscopy both in terms of the Standard Model and exotica, and precision measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. In addition to performing CP violation measurements at the {Upsilon}(4S) and {phi}(3770), SuperB will test CPT in these systems, and lepton universality in a number of different processes. The multitude of rare decay measurements possible at SuperB can be used to constrain scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model. In terms of other precision tests of the Standard Model, this experiment will be able to perform precision over

  17. 中印度洋海岭Edmond热液区块状硫化物中自然金的发现及其意义%The discovery of native gold in massive sulfides from the Edmond hydrothermal field, Central Indian Ridge and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴仲玮; 孙晓明; 戴瑛知; 石贵勇; 王琰; 芦阳; 梁业恒

    2011-01-01

    There are three types of hydrothermal precipitates sampled from the Edmond hydrothermal field, Central Indian Ridge; Fe-rich massive sulfides mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite, silica-rich hydrothermal precipitates, and anhydrite-dominated sulfate ore samples. Irregular-shaped or tabular grains of native gold ( <20μm) mainly associated with anhydrite and sphalerite have been identified in sulfate ore samples and Fe-rich massive sulfides by SEM/EDS observation and XPS analysis. This is the first documented occurrence of native gold grains in seafloor hydrothermal precipitates from the Edmond vent field, CIR. To a lesser extent, gold occurs as submicroscopic particles deposited on the surface of coarse-grained pyrite. EPMA results indicate that high gold contents (with an average of 6700 × 10-6 Au) are associated with late-stage, low-temperature ( Fe-poor) sphalerite, and silver is significantly enriched in sulfosalt minerals (5.0% -6.7% Ag) occurring at the margins of exsolved chalcopyrite grains within sphalerite. In conclusion, the mineralization of precious metals in polymetallic massive sulfides is closely related to late-stage, low to moderate temperature hydrothermal ore-forming processes at the seafloor. Evaluation of possible complexes of gold indicates that AuCl2 - or AuHS° is the dominant complex, which is consistent with the high temperature and chlorinity of acidic end-member hydrothermal fluids in the Edmond vent field. Mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater, together with conductive cooling and/or phase separation may be important factors controlling gold precipitation and enrichment.%位于中印度洋中速扩张洋脊的Edmond热液区块状硫化物矿石样品主要分为以黄铁矿-黄铜矿为主的富Fe块状硫化物、热水沉积成因的富含硅质块状矿石和以硬石膏为主的硫酸盐矿石等3种不同类型.通过扫描电镜观察和X射线光电子能谱分析,在硫酸盐矿石和富Fe块状硫化物中首次

  18. Super-Calogero-Moser-Sutherland systems and free super-oscillators a mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, P K

    2001-01-01

    We show that the supersymmetric rational Calogero-Moser-Sutherland (CMS) model of A_{N+1}-type is equivalent to a set of free super-oscillators, through a similarity transformation. We prescribe methods to construct the complete eigen-spectrum and the associated eigen-functions, both in supersymmetry preserving as well as supersymmetry breaking phases, from the free super-oscillator basis. Further we show that a wide class of super-Hamiltonians realizing dynamical OSp(2|2) supersymmetry, which also includes all types of rational super-CMS as a small subset, are equivalent to free super-oscillators. We study BC_{N+1}-type super-CMS model in some detail to understand the subtleties involved in this method.

  19. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  20. Formation of Super-Earth Mass Planets at 125-250 AU from a Solar-type Star

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, S J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate pathways for the formation of icy super-Earth mass planets orbiting at 125-250 AU around a 1 solar mass star. An extensive suite of coagulation calculations demonstrates that swarms of 1 cm to 10 m planetesimals can form super-Earth mass planets on time scales of 1-3 Gyr. Collisional damping of 0.01-100 cm particles during oligarchic growth is a highlight of these simulations. In some situations, damping initiates a second runaway growth phase where 100-3000 km protoplanets grow to super-Earth sizes. Our results establish the initial conditions and physical processes required for in situ formation of super-Earth planets at large distances from the host star. For nearby dusty disks in HD 107146, HD 202628, and HD 207129, ongoing super-Earth formation at 80-150 AU could produce gaps and other structures in the debris. In the solar system, forming a putative planet X at a 1000 AU) requires a modest (very massive) protosolar nebula.

  1. Formation of Super-Earth Mass Planets at 125–250 AU from a Solar-type Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate pathways for the formation of icy super-Earth mass planets orbiting at 125–250 AU around a 1 {{M}ȯ } star. An extensive suite of coagulation calculations demonstrates that swarms of 1 cm–10 m planetesimals can form super-Earth mass planets on timescales of 1–3 Gyr. Collisional damping of 10‑2‑102 cm particles during oligarchic growth is a highlight of these simulations. In some situations, damping initiates a second runaway growth phase where 1000–3000 km protoplanets grow to super-Earth sizes. Our results establish the initial conditions and physical processes required for in situ formation of super-Earth planets at large distances from the host star. For nearby dusty disks in HD 107146, HD 202628, and HD 207129, ongoing super-Earth formation at 80–150 AU could produce gaps and other structures in the debris. In the solar system, forming a putative planet X at a≲ 300 AU (a≳ 1000 AU) requires a modest (very massive) protosolar nebula.

  2. MASSIVE INFANT STARS ROCK THEIR CRADLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    that are responsible for lighting up this cloud of gas. The apparently innocuous-looking star at the very center of the nebula, just below the brightest region, is actually about 30 times more massive and almost 200,000 times brighter than our Sun. The intense light and powerful stellar 'winds' from this ultra-bright star have cleared away the surrounding gas to form a large cavity. The bubble is approximately 25 light-years in diameter - about the same size as the famous star-forming Orion Nebula. The Orion Nebula is sculpted by intense radiation from newly born stars in the same way as N83B. Astronomers estimate that the spherical void in N83B must have been carved out of the nebula very recently - in astronomical terms - maybe as little as 30,000 years ago. The hottest star in N83B is 45 times more massive than the Sun and is embedded in the brightest region in the nebula. This bright region, situated just above the center, is only about 2 light-years across. The region's small size and its intense glow are telltale signs of a very young, massive star. This star is the youngest newcomer to this part of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The Hubble image shows a bright arc structure just below the luminous star. This impressive ridge may have been created in the glowing gas by the hot star's powerful wind. Measurements of the age of this star and neighboring stars in the nebula show that they are younger than the nebula's central star. Their formation may have been 'triggered' by the violent wind from the central star. This 'chain-reaction' of stellar births seems to be common in the Universe. About 20 young and luminous stars have been identified in the region, but it may well be that many more massive stars remain undetected in other areas of the Large Magellanic Cloud, hidden by dust in small clusters like N83B. To the right of the glowing N83B is a much larger diffuse nebula, known as DEM22d, which is partly obscured by an extended lane of dust and gas. This image is

  3. Cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G., E-mail: m.lagos13@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: p.ferreira1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of classical scalar, vector and tensor cosmological perturbations in ghost-free massive bigravity. In particular, we find the full evolution equations and analytical solutions in a wide range of regimes. We show that there are viable cosmological backgrounds but, as has been found in the literature, these models generally have exponential instabilities in linear perturbation theory. However, it is possible to find stable scalar cosmological perturbations for a very particular choice of parameters. For this stable subclass of models we find that vector and tensor perturbations have growing solutions. We argue that special initial conditions are needed for tensor modes in order to have a viable model.

  4. Hidden Ghost in Massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chamseddine, Ali H

    2013-01-01

    The Hessian's determinant for a version of massive gravity given by an infinite expansion of a square root function of the induced metric, vanishes. We show that it allows us to eliminate one of four scalar fields used to generate the graviton mass. This, however, gives rise to the appearance of extra terms in the action with the squared time derivative of the metric, thus signaling that a nonlinear ghost survives.We demonstrate this phenomenon considering a simple system with constraint, which is supposed to reduces the number of physical degrees of freedom, however, we explicitly show how the constraint forces the metric to propagate an extra tachyonic state.

  5. Counterterms in Massive Gravity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We derived local boundary counterterms in massive gravity theory with a negative cosmological constant in four dimensions. With these counterterms at hand we analyzed the properties of the boundary field theory in the context of AdS/CFT duality by calculating the boundary stress energy tensor. The calculation shows that the boundary stress energy tensor is conserved, and momentum dissipation might occur on the level of linear response only. We also calculated the thermodynamic quantities and the boundary stress energy tensor for a specific type of solutions. The thermodynamic potentials agree with the results of literature up to some constants which can be removed by adding finite counterterms.

  6. Quantum aspects of massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon

    2011-05-01

    We consider the effect of quantum interactions on Pauli-Fierz massive gravity. With generic graviton cubic interactions, we observe that the 1-loop counterterms do not conform to the tree level structure of Pauli-Fierz action, resulting in the reappearance of the sixth mode ghost. Then to explore the quantum effects to the full extent, we calculate the resummed graviton propagator with an arbitrary interaction and analyze its complete structure, from which a minimal condition for the absence of the ghost is obtained.

  7. MONOLITH a massive magnetized tracking calorimeter for the study of atmospheric neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Terranova, F

    2001-01-01

    MONOLITH is a proposed massive (34 kton) magnetized tracking calorimeter at the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, optimized for the detection of high energy atmospheric muon neutrinos. The main goal is to establish (or reject) the neutrino oscillation hypothesis through an explicit observation of the full first oscillation swing. The Delta m/sup 2/ sensitivity range for this measurement comfortably covers the complete Super-Kamiokande allowed region. Other measurements include studies of matter effects and the up/down ratio of NC events, the study of cosmic ray muons in the multi-TeV range, and auxiliary measurements from the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. (2 refs).

  8. Reaction mechanisms in massive nuclei collisions and perspectives for synthesis of heavier superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a hardship in synthesis of heaviest super heavy elements in massive nuclei reactions due to the hindrance to complete fusion of reacting nuclei caused on the onset of quasifission process which strongly competes with complete fusion and due to the strong increase of fission yields along the de-excitation cascade of the compound nucleus in comparison with the evaporation residue formation. The hindrance to formation of compound nucleus and evaporation residue is determined by the characteristic of the entrance channel. (authors)

  9. FUELING-CONTROLLED THE GROWTH OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Escala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the relation between nuclear massive black holes and their host spheroid gravitational potential. Using AMR numerical simulations, we analyze how gas is transported into the nuclear (central kpc regions of galaxies. We study gas fueling onto the inner accretion disk (sub-pc scale and star formation in a massive nuclear disk like those generally found in proto-spheroids (ULIRGs, SCUBA Galaxies. These sub-pc resolution simulations of gas fueling, which is mainly depleted by star formation, naturally satisfy the `MBH -Mvirial' relation, with a scatter considerably less than that observed. We nd that a generalized version of the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law for starbursts is satis ed, in which the total gas depletion rate ( _Mgas = _MBH + _MSF scales as Mgas=torbital. See Escala (2007 for more details about this work.

  10. Fueling-Controlled the Growth of Massive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, A.

    2009-05-01

    We study the relation between nuclear massive black holes and their host spheroid gravitational potential. Using AMR numerical simulations, we analyze how gas is transported into the nuclear (central kpc) regions of galaxies. We study gas fueling onto the inner accretion disk (sub-pc scale) and star formation in a massive nuclear disk like those generally found in proto-spheroids (ULIRGs, SCUBA Galaxies). These sub-pc resolution simulations of gas fueling, which is mainly depleted by star formation, naturally satisfy the `M_BH-M_{virial}' relation, with a scatter considerably less than that observed. We find that a generalized version of the Kennicutt-Schmidt Law for starbursts is satisfied, in which the total gas depletion rate (dot M_gas=dot M_BH + M_SF scales as M_gas/t_orbital. See Escala (2007) for more details about this work.

  11. Bonus symmetry for super Wilson loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münkler, Hagen

    2016-05-01

    The Yangian level-one hypercharge generator for the super Wilson loop in { N }=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is constructed. Moreover, evidence for the presence of a corresponding symmetry generator at all higher levels is provided. The derivation is restricted to the strong-coupling description of the super Wilson loop and based on the construction of novel conserved charges for type IIB superstrings on {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5.

  12. Charm Physics at SuperB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of Charm Decays at SuperB provide unique opportunities to understand the Standard Model and constrain new physics, both at the Y(4S), and at charm threshold. We discuss the physics potential of such measurements from the proposed SuperB experiment with 75 ab-1 of data at the Y(4S) and a subsequent run dedicated to exploiting quantum correlations at the charm threshold. (author)

  13. Frame dragging and super-energy

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, L; Di Prisco, A

    2007-01-01

    We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of super-energy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, toghether with the previously established link between vorticity and super--energy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes strength further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.

  14. Massive Gravity in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Kakushadze, Zurab

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a Brane World scenario where we live on a 3-brane with massive gravity in infinite-volume bulk. The bulk graviton can be much heavier than the inverse Hubble size, as heavy the bulk Planck scale, whose lower bound is roughly the inverse of 0.1 mm. The 4D Einstein-Hilbert term on the brane shields the brane matter from both strong bulk gravity and large bulk graviton mass. Gravity on the brane does not become higher-dimensional at large distances. Instead, at distance scales above the bulk Planck length, gravity on the brane behaves as 4D gravity with small graviton mass roughly of order or below the inverse Hubble size. Unlike the massless case, with massive gravity in the bulk one can have: i) 4D tensor structure on a codimension-1 brane; and ii) no infrared tachyon for smoothed-out higher codimension branes. The effects of the brane dynamics on the bulk are exponentially suppressed away from the brane. One consequence is that there are no "self-accelerated" solutions. In codimension-2 cases there...

  15. Solid Holography and Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alberte, Lasma; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pujolas, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric...

  16. Conformally symmetric massive discrete fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Manoelito M. de

    2001-04-01

    Conformal symmetry is taken as an attribute of theories of massless fields in manifolds with specific dimensions. This paper shows that this is not an absolute truth; it is a consequence of the mathematical representation used for the physical interactions. It introduces a new kind of representation where the propagation of massive (invariant mass) and mass-less interactions are unifiedly described by a single conformally symmetric Green's function. Sources and fields are treated at a same footing, symmetrically, as discrete fields - the fields in this new representation - fields defined with support on straight lines embedded in a (3+1) - Minkowski manifold. The discrete field turns out to be a point in phase space. It is finite everywhere. With a finite number of degrees of freedom it does not share the well known problems faced by the standard continuous formalism which can be retrieved from the discrete one by an integration over a hypersurface. The passage from discrete to continuous fields illuminates the physical meaning and origins of their properties and problems. The price for having massive discrete field with conformal symmetry is of hiding its mass and timelike velocity behind its non-constant proper-time. (author)

  17. Studies of the Super VELO

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156302

    2016-01-01

    The Super VELO is the Run 5 upgrade of the VeloPix detector of the LHCb experiment. Its most challenging task is to cope with a luminosity increase of the factor 10. This study examines the potential physics performance of a detector based on the VeloPix design at high luminosity conditions. It is found that an unmodified VeloPix detector shows poor performance when exposed to 10x design luminosity, most gravely high ghost rates of 40 %. When applying basic assumptions about material changes such as cutting the silicon thickness by half and removing the RF foil, the ghost rate drops by 20 %. When using thin silicon and re-optimizing the tracking algorithm, the ghost rate can even be reduced by 60 %. Applying the additional modification of a pixel area size four times smaller, the ghost rate drops by 88 % and the IP resolution improves. Finally, in a dream scenario with thin silicon, smaller pixels and no RF foil, big gains in resolution and a ghost rate of less than 4 % can be achieved.

  18. The tristan super light facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Photon Factory and its user group have achieved excellent scientific results since its commissioning in 1982, ranging from material science to medical application, by using the synchrotron radiation at the 2.5 GeV PF storage ring, and since 1986, further at the 6.5 GeV Tristan accumulation ring which provides brilliant photons in high energy region. Efforts are exerted currently at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics for the extensive research and development works to study the feasibility of the Tristan e+e- collider main ring to be utilized as an extremely intense and highly advanced light source, which is called Tristan super light facility. What kinds of the application are expected for such highly brilliant source and their scientific significance should be clarified. This design report is an outcome by the joint work of in-house staffs and outside users, and it would serve as an excellent guide for the future studies on a next generation synchrotron radiation light source. The conversion plan of Tristan, the basic design of insertion devices, coherent X-ray sources, beam lines, instrumentation and others are reported. (K.I.)

  19. SuperHILAC Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, B.; Brown, I.G.

    1986-06-01

    A high current MEtal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion source is to be installed in the third injector (Abel) at the SuperHILAC, representing the first accelerator use of this novel ion source. The MEVVA source has produced over 1 A of uranium in all charge states, with typically more than 100 electrical mA (emA) of U/sup 5 +/. A substantial fraction of this high current, heavy ion beam must be successfully transported to the entrance of the Wideroe linac to approach the 10 emA space-charge output limit of the Wideroe. Calculations show that up to 50 emA of U/sup 5 +/ can be transported through the present high voltage column. A bouncer will be added to the Cockcroft-Walton supply to handle the increased beam current. The Low Energy Beam Transport line vacuum will be improved to reduce charge exchange, and the phase matching between the 23 MHz Wideroe and the 70 MHz Alvarez linacs will be improved by the addition of two 70 HMz bunchers. The installation of the MEVVA source along with the modifications described above are expected to result in a five-fold increase in beam delivered to Bevatron experiments, increasing the extracted uranium beam to 5 x 10/sup 7/ ions/pulse.

  20. SuperKEKB Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, K

    2013-01-01

    SuperKEKB, which is an upgrade of the KEKB Bfactory (KEKB), is a next-generation high-luminosity electron-positron collider. Its design luminosity is 8.0× 10$^{35}$ cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$, which is about 40 times than the KEKB’s record. To achieve this challenging goal, bunches of both beams are squeezed extremely to the nanometer scale and the beam currents are doubled. To realize this, many upgrades must be performed including the replacement of beam pipes mainly in the positron ring (LER). The beam pipes in the LER arc section are being replaced with new aluminium-alloy pipes with antechambers to cope with the electron cloud issue and heating problem. Additionally, several types of countermeasures will be adopted in the LER to deal with the electron cloud issues. In the wiggler section, electrons will be attracted by the clearing electrode, which is mounted on the inner surface of the beam pipe. On the other hand, in the bending magnet, the effective secondary electron yield (SEY) will be structurally reduced ...

  1. Super-parallel MR microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Utsuzawa, Shin; Kurimoto, Takeaki; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Yamazaki, Yukako; Kose, Katsumi; Anno, Izumi; Marutani, Mitsuhiro

    2003-07-01

    A super-parallel MR microscope in which multiple (up to 100) samples can be imaged simultaneously at high spatial resolution is described. The system consists of a multichannel transmitter-receiver system and a gradient probe array housed in a large-bore magnet. An eight-channel MR microscope was constructed for verification of the system concept, and a four-channel MR microscope was constructed for a practical application. Eight chemically fixed mouse fetuses were simultaneously imaged at the 200 micro m(3) voxel resolution in a 1.5 T superconducting magnet of a whole-body MRI, and four chemically fixed human embryos were simultaneously imaged at 120 micro m(3) voxel resolution in a 2.35 T superconducting magnet. Although the spatial resolutions achieved were not strictly those of MR microscopy, the system design proposed here can be used to attain a much higher spatial resolution imaging of multiple samples, because higher magnetic field gradients can be generated at multiple positions in a homogeneous magnetic field. PMID:12815693

  2. Massive main-sequence stars evolving at the Eddington limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, D.; Grassitelli, L.; Langer, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Massive stars play a vital role in the Universe, however, their evolution even on the main-sequence is not yet well understood. Aims: Because of the steep mass-luminosity relation, massive main-sequence stars become extremely luminous. This brings their envelopes very close to the Eddington limit. We analyse stellar evolutionary models in which the Eddington limit is reached and exceeded, explore the rich diversity of physical phenomena that take place in their envelopes, and investigate their observational consequences. Methods: We use published grids of detailed stellar models, computed with a state-of-the-art, one-dimensional hydrodynamic stellar evolution code using LMC composition, to investigate the envelope properties of core hydrogen burning massive stars. Results: We find that the Eddington limit is almost never reached at the stellar surface, even for stars up to 500 M⊙. When we define an appropriate Eddington limit locally in the stellar envelope, we can show that most stars more massive than ~40 M⊙ actually exceed this limit, in particular, in the partial ionisation zones of iron, helium, or hydrogen. While most models adjust their structure such that the local Eddington limit is exceeded at most by a few per cent, our most extreme models do so by a factor of more than seven. We find that the local violation of the Eddington limit has severe consequences for the envelope structure, as it leads to envelope inflation, convection, density inversions, and, possibly to, pulsations. We find that all models with luminosities higher than 4 × 105L⊙, i.e. stars above ~40 M⊙ show inflation, with a radius increase of up to a factor of about 40. We find that the hot edge of the S Dor variability region coincides with a line beyond which our models are inflated by more than a factor of two, indicating a possible connection between S Dor variability and inflation. Furthermore, our coolest models show highly inflated envelopes with masses of up to

  3. Central regions of LIRGs: rings, hidden starbursts, Supernovae and star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisanen, Petri; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Reunanen, Juha; Ryder, Stuart; Zijlstra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We study star formation (SF) in very active environments, in luminous IR galaxies, which are often interacting. A variety of phenomena are detected, such as central starbursts, circumnuclear SF, obscured SNe tracing the history of recent SF, massive super star clusters, and sites of strong off-nuclear SF. All of these can be ultimately used to define the sequence of triggering and propagation of star-formation and interplay with nuclear activity in the lives of gas rich galaxy interactions and mergers. In this paper we present analysis of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of central regions of two interacting LIRGs. We detect a nuclear 3.3 um PAH ring around the core of NGC 1614 with thermal-IR IFU observations. The ring's characteristics and relation to the strong star-forming ring detected in recombination lines are presented, as well as a scenario of an outward expanding starburst likely initiated with a (minor) companion detected within a tidal feature. We then present NIR IFU observatio...

  4. Methyl Cyanide Observations Toward Massive Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Rosero, V; Kurtz, S; Bieging, J; Araya, E D

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a survey in the CH3CN J= 12-11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components however are always found to be compact with respect to our 36" beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH3CN column densities of about 10^14 cm^(-2), and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blue shift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared images from the SPI...

  5. Massive black holes in merging galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of massive black holes (BHs) in galaxy mergers is a rich field of research that has seen much progress in recent years. In this contribution we briefly review the processes describing the journey of BHs during mergers, from the cosmic context all the way to when BHs coalesce. If two galaxies each hosting a central BH merge, the BHs would be dragged towards the center of the newly formed galaxy. If/when the holes get sufficiently close, they coalesce via the emission of gravitational waves. How often two BHs are involved in galaxy mergers depends crucially on how many galaxies host BHs and on the galaxy merger history. It is therefore necessary to start with full cosmological models including BH physics and a careful dynamical treatment. After galaxies have merged, however, the BHs still have a long journey until they touch and coalesce. Their dynamical evolution is radically different in gas-rich and gas-poor galaxies, leading to a sort of "dichotomy" between high-redshift and low-redshift galaxi...

  6. Super-oscillation focusing lens based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhongquan; He, Yinghu; Li, Yuyan; Chen, Li; Chen, Gang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we numerically demonstrate the advantage of utilizing continuous amplitude and phase modulation in super-oscillation focusing lens design. Numerical results show that compared with simple binary amplitude modulation, continuous amplitude and phase modulation can greatly improve the super-oscillation focusing performance by increasing the central lobe intensity and the ratio of its energy to the total energy, reducing the sidelobe intensity, and substantially extending the field of view. Our study also reveals the role of phase distribution in reducing the spatial frequency bandwidth of the super-oscillation optical field on the focal plane. Based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation, a lens was designed with double layer metal slit array for wavelength of 4.6 µm. COMSOL is used to carry out the 2D simulation. The lens focal length is 40.18λ and the focal spot FWHM is 0.308λ. Two largest sidelobes are located right next to the central lobe with intensity about 40% of the central lobe intensity. Except for the two sidelobes, other sidelobes have intensity less than 25% of the central lobe intensity, which leads to a clear field of view on the whole focal plane. PMID:25321591

  7. The Formation of Very Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter I review theoretical models for the formation of very massive stars. After a brief overview of some relevant observations, I spend the bulk of the chapter describing two possible routes to the formation of very massive stars: formation via gas accretion, and formation via collisions between smaller stars. For direct accretion, I discuss the problems of how interstellar gas may be prevented from fragmenting so that it is available for incorporation into a single very massive st...

  8. On "New Massive" 4D Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional (4D) gauge theory that propagates, unitarily, the five polarization modes of a massive spin-2 particle. These modes are described by a "dual" graviton gauge potential and the Lagrangian is 4th-order in derivatives. As the construction mimics that of 3D "new massive gravity", we call this 4D model (linearized) "new massive dual gravity". We analyse its massless limit, and discuss similarities to the Eddington-Schroedinger model.

  9. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-06-04

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  10. Massive Star Formation : the Role of Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, I study three different evolutionary stages of the massive star formation process looking for supporting evidence for an accretion-based formation scenario of massive stars. The first source studied, the Infrared Dark Cloud IRDC 18223-3, is at one of the earliest observable phases of massive star formation. This source is characterized by a cone-shaped molecular outflow component which is used to establish the outflow orientation. A velocity gradient traced by the molecule ...

  11. A method of evaluating massive Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general method of evaluatin of the massive Feynman integrals is presented. It is based on the representation of massive denominators in the form of Mellin-Barnes integrals. Expressions for some classes of one-loop propagator and vertex-type massive Feynman integrals are obtained at arbitrary values of line indices and the space-time dimension. The results are given in the form of hypergeometric functions. This makes it possible to examine various regions of momenta. 32 refs

  12. Massive gravity with N=1 local supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, O.

    2013-09-01

    A consistent theory of massive gravity, where the graviton acquires mass by spontaneously breaking diffeomorphism invariance, is now well established. We supersymmetrize this construction using N=1 fields. Coupling to N=1 supergravity is done by applying the rules of tensor calculus to construct an action invariant under local N=1 supersymmetry. The supersymmetric action is shown, at the quadratic level, to be free of ghosts and have as its spectrum a massive graviton, two gravitinos (with different masses) and a massive vector.

  13. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)

  14. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: these can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes require an off-shell formalism.

  15. Super-Eight: The brightest z~8 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Calvi, V.; Illingworth, G.; Labbe, I.; Magee, D.; Oesch, P.; Roberts-Borsani, G.; Smit, R.

    2016-08-01

    What are the properties of the most massive z~8 galaxies ('Super-Eights') and how luminous can these galaxies become at that epoch? Answering these questions is challenging due to the rarity of luminous z~8 galaxies and the large field-to-field variations in their volume densities. Indeed, the full wide-area CANDELS program only shows 3 z~8 galaxy candidates brighter than 25.5 mag and all of these candidates conspicuously lie in the same CANDELS field (EGS). One of our strongest new probes for particularly luminous z~8 galaxies are the WFC3 Pure-Parallel (PP) programs. Particularly intriguing are 8 bright z~8 candidates in these observations. These candidates have similar luminosities as the 3 brightest z~8 candidates from CANDELS (all spectroscopically confirmed). However, the uncertain contamination levels at extreme bright end of z~8 selection mean that follow-up observations are critical. We propose highly-efficient pointed HST and Spitzer/IRAC observations to determine if these candidates are indeed at z~8. We estimate that anywhere from 50 to 100% of the targeted sources will be confirmed to be at z~8 based on our results from CANDELS. The estimate is very uncertain due to very large cosmic variance in the CANDELS result and contamination from rare low-redshift sources. When combined with CANDELS, our observations would provide us the strongest current constraints on the volume density of bright, massive galaxies in the early Universe (serving as a guide to models of their build-up) and also provide valuable targets for future spectroscopy (e.g. with JWST), useful for probing the ionization state of the IGM.

  16. Rotation and massive close binary evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, N; Yoon, S -C; Hunter, I; Brott, I; Lennon, D J; de Mink, S E; Verheijdt, M

    2008-01-01

    We review the role of rotation in massive close binary systems. Rotation has been advocated as an essential ingredient in massive single star models. However, rotation clearly is most important in massive binaries where one star accretes matter from a close companion, as the resulting spin-up drives the accretor towards critical rotation. Here, we explore our understanding of this process, and its observable consequences. When accounting for these consequences, the question remains whether rotational effects in massive single stars are still needed to explain the observations.

  17. Massive pericardial effusion in a hypothyroid child.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, L H; Jayatunga, R.; Scott, O

    1984-01-01

    A child with Down's syndrome and long standing severe hypothyroidism had a massive pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. The effusion completely resolved with medical treatment without pericardiocentesis.

  18. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwavelenghts studies of massive star formation regions in the LMC and SMC reveal that a second generation of stars is being formed in dense molecular clouds located in the surroundings of the massive clusters. These dense molecular clouds have survive the action of massive star UV radiation elds and winds and they appear as compact dense H2 knots in regions of weak CO emission. We present results of observations obtained towards massive star forming regions in the low metallicity molecular clouds in the Magellanic Clouds and investigate its implication on star formation in the early universe.

  19. Megaloblastic anemia presenting with massive reversible splenomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Vineet; Randive, Makarand; Sharma, Praveen; Nair, Velu

    2015-06-01

    Megaloblastic anemia (MA) is a common disorder with varied manifestations. It generally results in mild to moderate splenomegaly which is due to sequestration of macrocytic erythrocytes in spleen. Massive splenomegaly is generally seen in infections, myeloproliferative diseases, neoplasms, storage disorders or hematological conditions; but is not heard of and has rarely been reported in MA. We discuss a case of massive splenomegaly who presented with symptomatic anemia and was found to have MA. He was extensive evaluated for all other causes of massive splenomegaly which was normal. Further, after a therapeutic trial of MA he showed a regression in spleen size confirming that the massive splenomegaly was attributable to MA. PMID:25825577

  20. Massive relic galaxies challenge the co-evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; Bosch, Remco C E van den

    2015-01-01

    We study a sample of eight massive galaxies that are extreme outliers (3-5$\\sigma$) in the M$_{\\bullet}$-M$_\\mathrm{bulge}$ local scaling relation. Two of these galaxies are confirmed to host extremely large super massive black holes (SMBHs), whereas the virial mass estimates for the other six are also consistent with having abnormally large SMBHs. From the analysis of their star formation histories and their structural properties we find that all these extreme outliers can be considered as relic galaxies from the early (z$\\sim$2) Universe: i.e. they are compact (R$_{\\mathrm{e}}$$<$2 kpc) and have purely old stellar populations (t$\\gtrsim$10 Gyr). In order to explain the nature of such deviations from the local relations, we propose a scenario in which the hosts of these \\"uber-massive SMBHs are galaxies that have followed a different evolutionary path than the two-phase growth channel assumed for massive galaxies. Once the SMBH and the core of the galaxy are formed at z$\\sim$2, the galaxy skips the second...

  1. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  2. Massively parallel femtosecond laser processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Ito, Haruyasu; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2016-08-01

    Massively parallel femtosecond laser processing with more than 1000 beams was demonstrated. Parallel beams were generated by a computer-generated hologram (CGH) displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM). The key to this technique is to optimize the CGH in the laser processing system using a scheme called in-system optimization. It was analytically demonstrated that the number of beams is determined by the horizontal number of pixels in the SLM NSLM that is imaged at the pupil plane of an objective lens and a distance parameter pd obtained by dividing the distance between adjacent beams by the diffraction-limited beam diameter. A performance limitation of parallel laser processing in our system was estimated at NSLM of 250 and pd of 7.0. Based on these parameters, the maximum number of beams in a hexagonal close-packed structure was calculated to be 1189 by using an analytical equation. PMID:27505815

  3. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  4. The Clustering of Massive Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Wetzel, A R; White, M; Holz, D E; Warren, M S; Wetzel, Andrew R.; White, Martin; Holz, Daniel E.; Warren, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    The clustering properties of dark matter halos are a firm prediction of modern theories of structure formation. We use two large volume, high-resolution N-body simulations to study how the correlation function of massive dark matter halos depends upon their mass and formation history. We find that halos with the lowest concentrations are presently more clustered than those of higher concentration, the size of the effect increasing with halo mass; this agrees with trends found in studies of lower mass halos. The clustering dependence on other characterizations of the full mass accretion history appears weaker than the effect with concentration. Using the integrated correlation function, marked correlation functions, and a power-law fit to the correlation function, we find evidence that halos which have recently undergone a major merger or a large mass gain have slightly enhanced clustering relative to a randomly chosen population with the same mass distribution.

  5. Derivative couplings in massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the cosmological perturbations in massive bigravity in the presence of non-minimal derivative couplings. For this purpose we consider a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions that live on the unique composite effective metric. For the viability of the model both metrics have to be dynamical. Nevertheless, the number of allowed kinetic terms is crucial. We adapt to the restriction of having one single kinetic term. After deriving the full set of equations of motion for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker background, we study linear perturbations on top of it. We show explicitly that only four tensor, two vector and two scalar degrees of freedom propagate, one of which being the Horndeski scalar, while the Boulware-Deser ghost can be integrated out.

  6. Cosmological attractors in massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovsky, S; Tkachev, I I

    2005-01-01

    We study Lorentz-violating models of massive gravity which preserve rotations and are invariant under time-dependent shifts of the spatial coordinates. In the linear approximation the Newtonian potential in these models has an extra ``confining'' term proportional to the distance from the source. We argue that during cosmological expansion the Universe may be driven to an attractor point with larger symmetry which includes particular simultaneous dilatations of time and space coordinates. The confining term in the potential vanishes as one approaches the attractor. In the vicinity of the attractor the extra contribution is present in the Friedmann equation which, in a certain range of parameters, gives rise to the cosmic acceleration.

  7. USING A GRAPE HARVESTER IN SUPER-INTENSIVE OLIVE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellomo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. In this type of olive cultivation, trees were grown with a central axis mode and a tree distance of 4,00x1,50 m. A “Braud” grape harvesting machine for espalier vineyards was used in an experimental olive grove in Cassano delle Murge. On the basis of harvesting tests it was possible to verify that the harvesting machine is able to detach the almost all the product with an operative work capacity of 0,5 ha/h. An evaluation of harvesting cost was carried out to determine the minimum convenience growing surface, and also to estimate the increase in income per hectare which could be achieved using mechanised harvesting as opposed to manual harvesting. Moreover, in order to determine the economic limits of using the grape harvester, its performance was compared with that of other harvesting machines used in both super-intensive and traditional plantations.

  8. High temperature condensate clouds in super-hot Jupiter atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Wakeford, Hannah R; Lewis, Nikole K; Kataria, Tiffany; Marley, Mark S; Fortney, Jonathan J; Mandell, Avi M

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering the role of clouds is central to our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres, as they have a direct impact on the temperature and pressure structure, and observational properties of the planet. Super-hot Jupiters occupy a temperature regime similar to low mass M-dwarfs, where minimal cloud condensation is expected. However, observations of exoplanets such as WASP-12b (Teq ~ 2500 K) result in a transmission spectrum indicative of a cloudy atmosphere. We re-examine the temperature and pressure space occupied by these super-hot Jupiter atmospheres, to explore the role of the initial Al- and Ti-bearing condensates as the main source of cloud material. Due to the high temperatures a majority of the more common refractory material is not depleted into deeper layers and would remain in the vapor phase. The lack of depletion into deeper layers means that these materials with relatively low cloud masses can become significant absorbers in the upper atmosphere. We provide condensation curves for the initial ...

  9. Asteroseismology of Massive Stars : Some Words of Caution

    CERN Document Server

    Noels, A; Salmon, S; Gabriel, M; Montalban, J; Miglio, A

    2014-01-01

    Although playing a key role in the understanding of the supernova phenomenon, the evolution of massive stars still suffers from uncertainties in their structure, even during their "quiet" main sequence phase and later on during their subgiant and helium burning phases. What is the extent of the mixed central region? In the local mixing length theory (LMLT) frame, are there structural differences using Schwarzschild or Ledoux convection criterion? Where are located the convective zone boundaries? Are there intermediate convection zones during MS and post-MS phase, and what is their extent and location? We discuss these points and show how asteroseismology could bring some light on these questions.

  10. Massive intracranial calcifications in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system involvement is frequently reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies usually show brain atrophy, cerebral infarction and/or intracranial bleeding. Extensive intracranial calcification in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is rare. We report a case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with seizures and massive basal ganglia calcification and mild calcifications in the frontal lobes, seen on the brain computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintensity on FLAIR images and hypointense signals on T2* gradient echo images in the basal ganglia. (author)

  11. SuperAGILE Services at ASDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian Space Agency Science Data Center (ASDC) is a facility with several responsibilities including support to all the ASI scientific missions as for management and archival of the data, acting as the interface between ASI and the scientific community and providing on-line access to the data hosted. In this poster we describe the services that ASDC provides for SuperAGILE, in particular the ASDC public web pages devoted to the dissemination of SuperAGILE scientific results. SuperAGILE is the X-Ray imager onboard the AGILE mission, and provides the scientific community with orbit-by-orbit information on the observed sources. Crucial source information including position and flux in chosen energy bands will be reported in the SuperAGILE public web page at ASDC. Given their particular interest, another web page will be dedicated entirely to GRBs and other transients, where new event alerts will be notified and where users will find all the available informations on the GRBs detected by SuperAGILE

  12. Super-spinning compact objects generated by thick accretion disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: zilongli@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China)

    2013-03-01

    If astrophysical black hole candidates are the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, the value of their spin parameter must be subject to the theoretical bound |a{sub *}| ≤ 1. In this work, we consider the possibility that these objects are either non-Kerr black holes in an alternative theory of gravity or exotic compact objects in General Relativity. We study the accretion process when their accretion disk is geometrically thick with a simple version of the Polish doughnut model. The picture of the accretion process may be qualitatively different from the one around a Kerr black hole. The inner edge of the disk may not have the typical cusp on the equatorial plane any more, but there may be two cusps, respectively above and below the equatorial plane. We extend previous work on the evolution of the spin parameter and we estimate the maximum value of a{sub *} for the super-massive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei. Since measurements of the mean radiative efficiency of AGNs require η > 0.15, we infer the ''observational'' bound |a{sub *}|∼<1.3, which seems to be quite independent of the exact nature of these objects. Such a bound is only slightly weaker than |a{sub *}|∼<1.2 found in previous work for thin disks.

  13. Creating massive entanglement of Bose condensed atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Helmerson, Kristian; You, Li

    2001-01-01

    We propose a direct, coherent coupling scheme that can create massively entangled states of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms. Our idea is based on an effective interaction between two atoms from coherent Raman processes through a (two atom) molecular intermediate state. We compare our scheme with other recent proposals for generation of massive entanglement of Bose condensed atoms.

  14. Universal Resistivity from Holographic Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Mike; Tong, David

    2013-01-01

    Massive gravity provides a holographic model for theories exhibiting momentum dissipation. We provide an analytic expression for the DC conductivity. The result is universal, depending only on properties of the infra-red horizon, and holds at finite temperature and charge density. In addition, we provide a derivation of black hole thermodynamics in holographic massive gravity and show that the resulting physics is sensible.

  15. Stefan-Boltzmann Law for Massive Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, E. S.; Ribeiro, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the Stefan-Boltzmann law to include massive photons. A crucial ingredient to obtain the correct formula for the radiance is to realize that a massive photon does not travel at the speed of (massless) light. It follows that, contrary to what could be expected, the radiance is not proportional to the energy density times the speed of light.

  16. The most massive core collapse supernova progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Waldman, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of the extremely luminous supernova SN 2006gy, possibly interpreted as a pair instability supernova, renewed the interest in very massive stars. We explore the evolution of these objects, which end their life as pair instability supernovae or as core collapse supernovae with relatively massive iron cores, up to about $3 M_\\odot$.

  17. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are n

  18. The massive Kaluza-Klein monopole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Eyras, E; Lozano, Y

    1998-01-01

    We construct the (bosonic) effective worldvolume action of an M-theory Kaluza-Klein monopole in a background given by the bosonic sector of eleven-dimensional massive supergravity, i.e, a "massive Kaluza-Klein monopole". As a consistency check we show that the direct dimensional reduction along the

  19. A Dynamical Theory for Massive Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gates,, S James

    2013-01-01

    We present a new massive theory of superspin Y=3/2 which has non-minimal supergravity as it's massless limit. The new result will illuminate the underlying structure of auxiliary fields required for the description of arbitrary massive half-integer superspin systems.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESSURE-DEPENDENT VISCOSITY ON THE THERMAL EVOLUTION OF SUPER-EARTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Noack, Lena; Spohn, Tilman [Institute of Planetology, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Breuer, Doris, E-mail: Vlada.Stamenkovic@dlr.de, E-mail: Lena.Noack@dlr.de, E-mail: Doris.Breuer@dlr.de, E-mail: Tilman.Spohn@dlr.de [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-20

    We study the thermal evolution of super-Earths with a one-dimensional (1D) parameterized convection model that has been adopted to account for a strong pressure dependence of the viscosity. A comparison with a 2D spherical convection model shows that the derived parameterization satisfactorily represents the main characteristics of the thermal evolution of massive rocky planets. We find that the pressure dependence of the viscosity strongly influences the thermal evolution of super-Earths-resulting in a highly sluggish convection regime in the lower mantles of those planets. Depending on the effective activation volume and for cooler initial conditions, we observe with growing planetary mass even the formation of a conductive lid above the core-mantle boundary (CMB), a so-called CMB-lid. For initially molten planets our results suggest no CMB-lids but instead a hot lower mantle and core as well as sluggish lower mantle convection. This implies that the initial interior temperatures, especially in the lower mantle, become crucial for the thermal evolution-the thermostat effect suggested to regulate the interior temperatures in terrestrial planets does not work for massive planets if the viscosity is strongly pressure dependent. The sluggish convection and the potential formation of the CMB-lid reduce the convective vigor throughout the mantle, thereby affecting convective stresses, lithospheric thicknesses, and heat fluxes. The pressure dependence of the viscosity may therefore also strongly affect the propensity of plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the generation of a magnetic field of super-Earths.

  1. The Birth of a Super Star Cluster: NGC 5253

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J L; Turner, Jean L.; Beck, Sara C.

    2004-01-01

    We present images of the 7mm free-free emission from the radio "supernebula" in NGC 5253 made with the Very Large Array and the Pie Town link. The images reveal structure in the nebula, which has a <~ 1 pc (~50 mas radius) core requiring the excitation of 1200 O7 stars. The nebula is elongated, with an arc of emission curving to the northeast and to the south. The total ionizing flux within the central 1.2" (~20 pc) is 7 x 10^52 s^-1, corresponding to 7000 O7 stars. We propose that the radio source is coincident with a small, very red near-infrared cluster and apparently linked to a larger, optical source some 10 pc away on the sky. We speculate on the causes of this structure and what it might tell us about the birth of the embedded young super star cluster.

  2. Super-resolution microscopy of the synaptic active zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Nadine; Sauer, Markus; Kittel, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Brain function relies on accurate information transfer at chemical synapses. At the presynaptic active zone (AZ) a variety of specialized proteins are assembled to complex architectures, which set the basis for speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Calcium channels are pivotal for the initiation of excitation-secretion coupling and, correspondingly, capture a central position at the AZ. Combining quantitative functional studies with modeling approaches has provided predictions of channel properties, numbers and even positions on the nanometer scale. However, elucidating the nanoscopic organization of the surrounding protein network requires direct ultrastructural access. Without this information, knowledge of molecular synaptic structure-function relationships remains incomplete. Recently, super-resolution microscopy (SRM) techniques have begun to enter the neurosciences. These approaches combine high spatial resolution with the molecular specificity of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we discuss how SRM can be used to obtain information on the organization of AZ proteins.

  3. The twelve dimensional super (2+2)-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Hewson, S F

    1996-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in twelve dimensions and present a covariant supersymmetric action for a brane with worldsheet signature (2,2), called a super (2+2)-brane, propagating in the osp(64,12) superspace. This superspace is explicitly constructed, and is trivial in the sense that the spinorial part is a trivial bundle over spacetime, unlike the twisted superspace of usual Poincare supersymmetry. For consistency, it is necessary to take a projection of the superspace. This is the same as the projection required for worldvolume supersymmetry. Upon compactification of this superspace, a torsion is naturally introduced and we produce the membrane and type IIB string actions in 11 and 10 dimensional Minkowski spacetimes. In addition, the compactification of the twelve dimensional supersymmetry algebra produces the correct algebras for these theories, including central charges. These considerations thus give the type IIB string and M-theory a single twelve dimensional origin.

  4. XFEM for Thermal Crack of Massive Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking of massive concrete structures occurs as a result of stresses caused by hydration in real environment conditions. The extended finite element method that combines thermal fields and creep is used in this study to analyze the thermal cracking of massive concrete structures. The temperature field is accurately simulated through an equivalent equation of heat conduction that considers the effect of a cooling pipe system. The time-dependent creep behavior of massive concrete is determined by the viscoelastic constitutive model with Prony series. Based on the degree of hydration, we consider the main properties related to cracking evolving with time. Numerical simulations of a real massive concrete structure are conducted. Results show that the developed method is efficient for numerical calculations of thermal cracks on massive concrete. Further analyses indicate that a cooling system and appropriate heat preservation measures can efficiently prevent the occurrence of thermal cracks.

  5. The massive stellar population of W49: A spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Wei; Bik, Arjan; Bestenlehner, Joachim M.; Henning, Thomas; Pasquali, Anna; Brandner, Wolfgang; Stolte, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Context. Massive stars form on different scales that range from large, dispersed OB associations to compact, dense starburst clusters. The complex structure of regions of massive star formation and the involved short timescales provide a challenge for our understanding of their birth and early evolution. As one of the most massive and luminous star-forming region in our Galaxy, W49 is the ideal place to study the formation of the most massive stars. Aims: By classifying the massive young stars that are deeply embedded in the molecular cloud of W49, we aim to investigate and trace the star formation history of this region. Methods: We analyse near-infrared K-band spectroscopic observations of W49 from LBT/LUCI combined with JHK images obtained with NTT/SOFI and LBT/LUCI. Based on JHK-band photometry and K-band spectroscopy, the massive stars are placed in a Hertzsprung Russell diagram. By comparison with evolutionary models, their age and hence the star formation history of W49 can be investigated. Results: Fourteen O-type stars, as well as two young stellar objects (YSOs), are identified by our spectroscopic survey. Eleven O stars are main sequence stars with subtypes ranging from O3 to O9.5 and masses ranging from ~20 M⊙ to ~120 M⊙. Three of the O stars show strong wind features and are considered to be Of-type supergiants with masses beyond 100 M⊙. The two YSOs show CO emission, which is indicative of the presence of circumstellar disks in the central region of the massive cluster. The age of the cluster is estimated as ~1.5 Myr, with star formation continuing in different parts of the region. The ionising photons from the central massive stars have not yet cleared the molecular cocoon surrounding the cluster. W49 is comparable to extragalactic star-forming regions, and it provides us with a unique chance to study a starburst in detail. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among

  6. A Super-Resolution Method with EWA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG ZhongDing (姜忠鼎); LIN Hai (林海); BAO HuJun (鲍虎军); MA LiZhuang (马利庄)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a practical algorithm for super-resolution, the process of reconstructing a high-resolution image from low-resolution input ones. The emphasis of the work is to super-resolve frames from real-world image/video sequences which may contain significant object occlusion or scene changes. As the quality of super-resolved images highly relies on the correctness of image alignment between consecutive frames, the robust optical flow method is used to accurately estimate motion between the image pair. An efficient and reliable scheme is devised to detect and discard incorrect matchings which may degrade the output quality. The usage of elliptical weighted average (EWA) filter is also introduced to model the point spread function (PSF) of acquisition system in order to improve accuracy of the model. A number of complex video sequences are tested to demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Architectural Engineering to Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas

    with architectural engineering as a starting point. The thesis is based on a two stringed hypothesis: Architectural engineering gives rise to better architecture and Super-Light Structures support and enables a static, challenging architecture. The aim of the thesis is to clarify architectural engineering's impact...... on the work process between architects and engineers in the design development. Using architectural engineering, Super-Light Structures are examined in an architectural context, and it is explained how digital tools can support architectural engineering and design of Super-Light Structures. The experiences...... to be subjects of examination for this thesis. The research results show that architectural engineering has a significant impact on a design process. The projects illustrate that simple explanations, underpinned by visualisations of the challenges between shape versus structure, often creates a shared...

  8. Galactic Super-volcano in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  9. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs in Transitional Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Eve J

    2015-01-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1-4$R_\\oplus$, 2-20$M_\\oplus$) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after $\\sim$0.1-1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The picture --- that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not ga...

  10. The Disruptive Potential of the Massive Open Online Course: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is a rapidly evolving phenomenon which has stimulated discussion in universities around the world. A central theme of these discussions, and much of the published literature on the phenomenon, is the potential of the MOOC to disrupt the way universities do business. The aim of this narrative literature review…

  11. Massive haemorrhage in liver transplantation: Consequences, prediction and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Stuart; Corredor, Carlos; Ye, Jia Jia; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A

    2016-06-24

    From its inception the success of liver transplantation has been associated with massive blood loss. Massive transfusion is classically defined as > 10 units of red blood cells within 24 h, but describing transfusion rates over a shorter period of time may reduce the potential for survival bias. Both massive haemorrhage and transfusion are associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity (need for dialysis/surgical site infection) following liver transplantation although causality is difficult to prove due to the observational design of most trials. The blood loss associated with liver transplantation is multifactorial. Portal hypertension secondary to cirrhosis results in extensive collateral circulation, which can bleed during hepatectomy particular if portal pressures are increased. Avoiding volume loading and maintenance of a low central venous pressure together with the use of vasopressors have been shown to reduce blood loss and transfusion during liver transplantation, but may increase the risk of renal impairment post-operatively. Coagulation defects may be present pre-transplant, but haemostasis is often re-balanced due to a deficit in both pro- and anti-coagulation factors. Further derangement of haemostasis may develop in the anhepatic and neohepatic phases due to absent hepatic metabolic function, hyperfibrinolysis and platelet sequestration in the donor liver. Point-of-care tests of coagulation such as the viscoelastic tests rotation thromboelastometry/thromboelastometry allow and more accurate and rapid assessment of these derangements in coagulation and guide the use of factor replacement and antifibrinolytics. Transfusion protocols guided by these tests have been shown to reduce transfusion rates compared with conventional coagulation tests, but have not shown improvements in mortality or morbidity. Pre-operative factors associated with massive transfusion include previous surgery, re-do transplantation, the aetiology and severity of liver

  12. Evolution of Debris of a Tidally Disrupted Star by a Massive Black Hole Development of a Hybrid Scheme of the SPH and TVD Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H M; Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the stellar debris after tidal disruption due to the super massive black hole's tidal force is difficult to solve numerically because of the large dynamical range of the problem. We developed an SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) - TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) hybrid code in which the SPH is used to cover a widely spread debris and the TVD is used to compute the stream collision more accurately. While the code in the present form is not sufficient to obtain desired resoultion, it could provide a useful tool in studying the aftermath of the stellar disruption by a massive black hole.

  13. Evolution of Debris of a Tidally Disrupted Star by a Massive Black Hole: Development of a Hybrid Scheme of the SPH and TVD methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Mok; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    1996-10-01

    The evolution of the stellar debris after tidal disruption due to the super massive black hole's tidal force is difficult to solve numerically because of the large dynamical range of the problem. We developed an SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) - TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) hybrid code in which the SPH is used to cover a widely spread debris and the TVD is used to compute the stream collision more accurately. While the code in the present form is not sufficient to obtain desired resoultion, it could provide a useful tool in studying the aftermath of the stellar disruption by a massive black hole.

  14. Structural optimization of super-repellent surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    Micro-patterning is an effective way to achieve surfaces with extreme liquid repellency. This technique does not rely on chemical coatings and is therefore a promising concept for application in food processing and bio-compatibile coatings. This super-repellent behaviour is obtained by suspending...... the geometry of the posts that generate the super-repellent effect. We here present two different approaches to obtain optimal liquid repellent surfaces, addressing some fundamental aspects of the problem. First, we focus on the wetting aspect, and we apply topology optimization to search for an optimal...

  15. The SuperCDMS SNOLAB Detector Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Tsuguo

    2016-08-01

    The SuperCDMS collaboration is moving forward with the design and construction of SuperCDMS SNOLAB, where the initial deployment will include ˜ 30 kg of Ge and ˜ 5 kg of Si detectors. Here, we will discuss the associated cryogenic cold hardware required for the detector readout. The phonon signals will be read out with superconducting quantum interference device arrays and the ionization signals will use high electron mobility transistor amplifiers operating at 4 K. A number of design challenges exist regarding the required wiring complex impedance, noise pickup, vibration, and thermal isolation. Our progress to date will be presented.

  16. The Physics Programme at SuperB

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    SuperB is a next generation high luminosity $e^+e^-$ collider that will be built at the Cabibbo Laboratory, Tor Vergata, in Italy. The physics goals of this experiment are to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model through precision studies of rare or forbidden processes. While the name suggests that $B$ physics is the main goal, this experiment is a Super Flavour Factory, and precision measurements of $B_{u,d,s}$, $D$, $\\tau$, $\\Upsilon$, and $\\psi(3770)$ decays as well as spec...

  17. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  18. Covariant super reggeon calculus for superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously developed formalism for the bosonic string is extended to the Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond string using 2-d superspace techniques throughout. 3-string vertices for NS- and R-strings are constructed, sewing rules developed, and the technique of quasi-superconformal modes is set up for constructing the measure on super moduli space. Symmetries, such as superconformal invariance and BRST-invariance, are guaranteed ab initio. Picture changing and bosonization are avoided. Examples are given. The formalism should allow a superstring loop calculus based on supermoduli. Results concerning the ensuing super-Schottky description are given. (orig.)

  19. SuperCDMS Cold Hardware Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the current design of the cold hardware and cold electronics to be used in the upcoming SuperCDMS Soudan deployment. Engineering challenges associated with such concerns as thermal isolation, microphonics, radiopurity, and power dissipation are discussed, along with identifying the design changes necessary for SuperCDMS SNOLAB. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) employs ultrapure 1-inch thick, 3-inch diameter germanium crystals operating below 50 mK in a dilution cryostat. These detectors give an ionization and phonon signal, which gives us rejection capabilities regarding background events versus dark matter signals.

  20. Instabilities in the Envelopes and Winds of Very Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Owocki, Stanley P

    2014-01-01

    The high luminosity of Very Massive Stars (VMS) means that radiative forces play an important, dynamical role both in the structure and stability of their stellar envelope, and in driving strong stellar-wind mass loss. Focusing on the interplay of radiative flux and opacity, with emphasis on key distinctions between continuum vs. line opacity, this chapter reviews instabilities in the envelopes and winds of VMS. Specifically, we discuss how: 1) the iron opacity bump can induce an extensive inflation of the stellar envelope; 2) the density dependence of mean opacity leads to strange mode instabilities in the outer envelope; 3) desaturation of line-opacity by acceleration of near-surface layers initiates and sustains a line-driven stellar wind outflow; 4) an associated line-deshadowing instability leads to extensive small-scale structure in the outer regions of such line-driven winds; 5) a star with super-Eddington luminosity can develop extensive atmospheric structure from photon bubble instabilities, or from ...

  1. New method for making super-plastic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ It was a long-cherished dream for materials scientists to find a nearly ideal metallic alloy with high strength and super-plasticity concurrently as a super-material both extremely strong and exceptionally hard for human use.

  2. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra

    2003-10-01

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.

  3. Explosive Super-eruptions: Problems and Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, S.

    2010-12-01

    A super-eruption is defined as one with a magma yield > 10^15 kg (magnitude (M) 8). The term has mainly been applied to large-scale, caldera and ignimbrite-forming explosive eruptions, but it can be applied to all eruptions that released > 10^15 kg of magma. For effusive volcanism, evidence suggests that individual eruptions of this size ( > ~ 370 km^3 of typical basalt or > 450 km^3 of rhyolite flood lava) arise only during periods of LIP formation. The super-eruption concept raises interesting questions about genesis and storage of magmas that feed these vast events. Deposits of major explosive eruptions are Plinian fallout, ignimbrite sheets, and co-ignimbrite ash fall. Based on earlier suggestions and evidence, widespread outflow ignimbrite (O), co-ignimbrite ash (A), and inter-caldera ignimbrite (I) are all major components of the total super-eruption deposit and may tend towards being subequal. In super-eruption deposits, the reported volume of vent-derived Plinian eruption column fallout is often a minor component of the total volume, yet in several cases (Oruanui, Taupo, 26 ka ago, M 8.1; Bishop Tuff, 760 ka, M 8.2; Bandelier (Otowi) Tuff, 1.6 Ma, M8) it is now recognized that vent-derived columns persisted for most of the eruption. Thus, distally, the ash-fall derived from co-ignimbrite ash clouds may be mixed with contemporaneous fallout from a vertical column. Some major ignimbrites have no reported associated Plinian deposit; the huge Young Toba Tuff (YTT, 74 ka, M 8.8) is a significant example. However, the very widespread Toba ash-fall deposit constitutes ~ 40 % of the total mass of magma erupted and is presumed to be co-ignimbrite. Timing of the onset of column collapse probably controls whether a recognizable Plinian deposit is laid down. All super-eruptions probably produce extensive fallout deposits, and this is generally of vent-derived and pyroclastic-flow-derived origin. Establishing the relationships between large-scale ignimbrites and their

  4. Turmoil in Orion: The Nearest Massive Protostar

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Jonathan C

    2008-01-01

    I discuss different theories of massive star formation: formation from massive cores, competitive Bondi-Hoyle accretion, and protostellar collisions. I summarize basic features of the Turbulent Core Model (TCM). I then introduce the Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL) region, embedded in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and one of the nearest regions of massive star formation. The KL region contains three principal radio sources, known as "I", "n" and "BN". BN is known to be a runaway star, almost certainly set in motion by dynamical ejection within the ONC from a multiple system of massive stars, that would leave behind a recoiling, hard, massive, probably eccentric binary. I review the debate about whether this binary is Theta^1C, the most massive star in the ONC, or source "I", and argue that it is most likely to be Theta^1C, since this is now known be a recoiling, hard, massive, eccentric binary, with properties that satisfy the energy and momentum constraints implied by BN's motion. Source "n" is a relatively low-mas...

  5. Sigma-phase formation in weldments of cast super duplex stainless steel; Formacion de fase sigma en uniones soldadas de acero inoxidable super duplex fundido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, J. L.; Mannheim, R. L.; Camus, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the microstructural characteristics of weldments of cast super duplex stainless steel (J93404), being subjected to annealing processes to induce formation of sigma-phase at high temperatures. The influence of heating time at 1073 K, 1123 K and 1173 K upon precipitation of sigma in the heat affected zone, base metal and fusion zone of the weldments was analyzed. The experimental results revealed the formation of this intermetallic compound throughout decomposition of the ferritic phase into austenite and sigma. At earlier stages of the transformation the phase rapidly nucleates and growth along the ferrite-austenite grain boundaries, and then massively advances towards the bulk of the ferritic zone with greater effectiveness as temperature increases. The formation of sigma-phase in all weldments resembles the Johnson-Mehl-Avramis mechanism stated for nucleation and growth. (Author) 27 refs.

  6. Numerical Investigation of High Tide Level Due to A Super Typhoon in A Coastal Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A numerical model of the coupling between astronomical tide and storm surge based on Mike 21 is applied to the coastal regions of Zhejiang Province. The model is used to simulate high tide levels combined with storm surge during 5 typhoons, including two super typhoons, that landed in the Province. In the model, the atmospheric forcing fields are calculated with parametric wind and pressure models. The computational results, with average computed errors of 13 cm for the high astronomical tide levels and 20 cm for the high storm-tide levels, show that the model yields good simulations. Typhoon No. 5612, the most intense to land in China since 1949, is taken as the typical super typhoon for the design of 5 typhoon routes, each landing at a different location along the coast. The possible extreme storm-tide levels along the coast are calculated by the model under the conditions of the 5 designed typhoon routes when they coincide with the spring tide. Results are compared with the high storm-tide levels due to the increase of the central atmospheric pressure at the base of a typical super typhoon, the change of tidal type, and the behavior of a Saomai-type typhoon. The results have practical significance for forecasting and minimization of damage during super typhoons.

  7. Is Quantum Gravity a Super-Quantum Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2013-01-01

    We argue that quantum gravity should be a super-quantum theory, that is, a theory whose non-local correlations are stronger than those of canonical quantum theory. As a super-quantum theory, quantum gravity should display distinct experimentally observable super-correlations of entangled stringy states.

  8. Analyzing Black Hole super-radiance Emission of Particles/Energy from a Black Hole as a Gedankenexperiment to get bounds on the mass of a Graviton

    CERN Document Server

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Use of super-radiance in BH physics, so dE/dt < 0 specifies conditions for a mass of a graviton being less than or equal to 10^ - 65 grams, and also allows for determing what role additional dimensions may play in removing the datum that massive gravitons lead to 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury.The present document makes a given differentiation between super-radiance in the case of conventional BHs and Braneworld BH super-radiance, which may delineate if Braneworlds contribute to an admissible massive graviton in terms of removing the usual problem of the 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury which is normally associated with massive gravitons. This leads to a fork in the road, between two alternatives with the possibility of needing a multiverse containment of BH structure, or embracing what Hawkings wrote up recently, namely a re do of the Event Horizon hypothesis as we know it.

  9. Analyzing Black Hole Super-Radiance Emission of Particles/Energy from a Black Hole as a Gedankenexperiment to Get Bounds on the Mass of a Graviton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beckwith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of super-radiance in BH physics, so dE/dt<0 specifies conditions for a mass of a graviton being less than or equal to 1065 grams, allows for determing what role additional dimensions may play in removing the datum that massive gravitons lead to 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury. The present document makes a given differentiation between super-radiance in the case of conventional BHs and Braneworld BH super-radiance, which may delineate whether Braneworlds contribute to an admissible massive graviton in terms of removing the usual problem of the 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury which is normally associated with massive gravitons. This leads to a fork in the road between two alternatives with the possibility of needing a multiverse containment of BH structure or embracing what Hawkings wrote up recently, namely, a redo of the event horizon hypothesis as we know it.

  10. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Chen; J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We report the possible accretion from companion in the massive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 m emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system.

  11. Using massive digital libraries a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Some have viewed the ascendance of the digital library as some kind of existential apocalypse, nothing less than the beginning of the end for the traditional library. But Weiss, recognizing the concept of the library as a ""big idea"" that has been implemented in many ways over thousands of years, is not so gloomy. In this thought-provoking and unabashedly optimistic book, he explores how massive digital libraries are already adapting to society's needs, and looks ahead to the massive digital libraries of tomorrow, coveringThe author's criteria for defining massive digital librariesA history o

  12. Morganella morganii sepsis with massive hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Cho, Chong Rae; Um, Tae Hyun; Rhu, Ji Yoon; Kim, Eu Suk; Jeong, Jae Won; Lee, Hye Ran

    2007-12-01

    Morganella morganii is a facultative gram-negative and anaerobic rod. It may be a cause of devastating infections in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Some bacterial infections such as Clostridium and Vibrio are associated with hemolysis. However, massive hemolysis caused by M. morganii sepsis has not yet been reported. We observed a 59-yr-old man who had chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and was found to have massive hemolysis and metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. He died 6 hr after admission in spite of aggressive treatment. Two sets of blood cultures revealed the growth of M. morganii. We report here that M. morganii sepsis can cause fatal massive hemolysis leading to death.

  13. Massive gravity with N=1 local supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaeb, O. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-09-15

    A consistent theory of massive gravity, where the graviton acquires mass by spontaneously breaking diffeomorphism invariance, is now well established. We supersymmetrize this construction using N=1 fields. Coupling to N=1 supergravity is done by applying the rules of tensor calculus to construct an action invariant under local N=1 supersymmetry. The supersymmetric action is shown, at the quadratic level, to be free of ghosts and have as its spectrum a massive graviton, two gravitinos (with different masses) and a massive vector. (orig.)

  14. Geometric massive higher spins and current exchanges

    CERN Document Server

    Francia, Dario

    2008-01-01

    Generalised Fierz-Pauli mass terms allow to describe massive higher-spin fields on flat background by means of simple quadratic deformations of the corresponding geometric, massless Lagrangians. In this framework there is no need for auxiliary fields. We briefly review the construction in the bosonic case and study the interaction of these massive fields with external sources, computing the corresponding propagators. In the same fashion as for the massive graviton, but differently from theories where auxiliary fields are present, the structure of the current exchange is completely determined by the form of the mass term itself.

  15. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  16. Super ready: how a regional approach to Super Bowl EMS paid off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Terry; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-07-01

    The Super Bowl and its associated activities represent one of the largest special events in the world. Super Bowl XLVIII was geographically unique because the NFL's and Super Bowl Host Committee's activities, venues and events encompassed two states and fell across numerous jurisdictions within six counties (Bergen, Hudson, Morris, Essex, Middlesex, and Manhattan).This Super Bowl was the first to do this. EMS was one of the largest operational components during this event. Last and most important, it is the people and relationships that make any planning initiative and event a success. Sit down and have a cup a coffee with your colleagues, partners and neighbors in and out of state to discuss your planning initiatives. Do it early-it will make your efforts less painful should an event of this magnitude come to a city near you!

  17. Biomimetic Models for An Ecological Approach to Massively-Deployed Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2005-01-01

    Promises of ubiquitous control of the physical environment by massively-deployed wireless sensor networks open avenues for new applications that will redefine the way we live and work. Due to small size and low cost of sensor devices, visionaries promise systems enabled by deployment of massive numbers of sensors ubiquitous throughout our environment working in concert. Recent research has concentrated on developing techniques for performing relatively simple tasks with minimal energy expense, assuming some form of centralized control. Unfortunately, centralized control is not conducive to parallel activities and does not scale to massive size networks. Execution of simple tasks in sparse networks will not lead to the sophisticated applications predicted. We propose a new way of looking at massively-deployed sensor networks, motivated by lessons learned from the way biological ecosystems are organized. We demonstrate that in such a model, fully distributed data aggregation can be performed in a scalable fashion in massively deployed sensor networks, where motes operate on local information, making local decisions that are aggregated across the network to achieve globally-meaningful effects. We show that such architectures may be used to facilitate communication and synchronization in a fault-tolerant manner, while balancing workload and required energy expenditure throughout the network.

  18. Super Connectivity of Line Graphs and Digraphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Lü; Jun-Ming Xu

    2006-01-01

    The h-super connectivity κh and the h-super edge-connectivity λh are more refined network reliability indices than the connectivity and the edge-connectivity. This paper shows that for a connected balanced digraph D and its line digraph L, if D is optimally super edge-connected, then κ1(L) = 2λ1(D), and that for a connected graph G and its line graph L, if one of κ1(L) and λ2(G) exists, then κ1(L) = λ2(G). This paper determines that κ1 (B(d, n)) is equal to 4d - 8 for n = 2 and d ≥ 4, and to 4d - 4 for n ≥ 3 and d ≥ 3, and that κ1(K(d,n)) is equal to 4d- 4 for d ≥ 2 and n ≥ 2 except K(2,2). It then follows that B(d,n) and K(d,n) are both super connected for any d ≥ 2 and n ≥ 1.

  19. Super Voice Girl—Shang wenjie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志存

    2006-01-01

    On September 29,Shanghai’s Shang Wenjie,a 24-year-old girl took the top prize in the Super Voice Girl Contest. Shang,a graduate of Fudan University who majored in French, polled* nearly 5.2 million votes after

  20. Acoustic Design of Super-light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Ellehauge; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Brunskog, Jonas;

    aggregate (leca) along with a newly developed technology called pearl-chain reinforcement, which is a system for post-tensioning. Here, it is shown how to combine these technologies within a precast super-light slab element, while honoring the requirements of a holistic design. Acoustic experiments...

  1. Searching for Frozen Super Earth via Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Donatowicz, J.; Fouqué, P.; Kubas, D.; Marquette, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Microlensing planet hunt is a unique method to probe efficiently for frozen Super Earth orbiting the most common stars of our galaxy. It is nicely complementing the parameter space probed by very high accuracy radial velocity measurements and future space based detections of low mass transiting planets. In order to maximize the planet catch, the microlensing community is engaged in a total cooperation among the different groups (OGLE, MicroFUN, MOA, PLANET/RoboNET) by making the real time data available, and mutual informing/reporting about modeling efforts. Eight planets have been published so far by combinations of the different groups, 4 Jovian analogues, one Neptune and two Super Earth. Given the microlensing detection efficiency, it suggests that these Neptunes/Super Earths may be quite common. Using networks of dedicated 1-2m class telescopes, the microlensing community has entered a new phase of planet discoveries, and will be able to provide constraints on the abundance of frozen Super-Earths in the near future. Statistics about Mars to Earth mass planets, extending to the habitable zone will be achieved with space based wide field imagers (EUCLID) at the horizon 2017.

  2. Single Image Super Resolution via Sparse Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution sensors are required for recognition purposes. Low resolution sensors, however, are still widely used. Software can be used to increase the resolution of such sensors. One way of increasing the resolution of the images produced is using multi-frame super resolution algorithms. Limita

  3. Typhoon effects on super-tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q. S.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Wu, J. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Li, Z. N.

    2008-06-01

    Full-scale measurement is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating wind effects on buildings and structures. This paper presents selected results of wind characteristics and structural responses measured from four super-tall buildings, The Center (350 m high, 79 floors) in Hong Kong, Di Wang Tower (384 m high, 78 floors) in Shenzhen, CITIC Plaza Tower (391 m high, 80 floors) in Guangzhou and Jin Mao Building (421 m high, 88 floors) in Shanghai, during the passages of three typhoons. The field data such as wind speed, wind direction and acceleration responses, etc., were continuously measured from the super-tall buildings during the typhoons. Detailed analysis of the field data was conducted to investigate the characteristics of typhoon-generated wind and wind-induced vibrations of these super-tall buildings under typhoon conditions. The dynamic characteristics of the tall buildings were determined from the field measurements and comparisons with those calculated from the finite element (FE) models of the structures were made. Furthermore, the full-scale measurements were compared with wind tunnel results to evaluate the accuracy of the model test results and the adequacy of the techniques used in the wind tunnel tests. The results presented in this paper are expected to be of considerable interest and of use to researchers and professionals involved in designing super-tall buildings.

  4. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...... for fire, earthquake, and explosions. This moves the limits for resource economic buildings....

  5. SuperB A High-Luminosity Asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ Super Flavour Factory : Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bóna, M; Graugès-Pous, E; Colangelo, P; De Fazio, F; Palano, A; Manghisoni, M; Re, V; Traversi, G; Eigen, G; Venturini, M; Soni, N; Bruschi, M; De Castro, S; Faccioli, P; Gabrielli, A; Giacobbe, B; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Villa, M; Zoccoli, A; Hearty, C; McKenna, J; Soni, A; Khan, A; Barniakov, A Y; Barniakov, M Y; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kononov, S A; Koop, I A; Kravchenko, E A; Levichev, E B; Nikitin, S A; Onuchin, A P; Piminov, P A; Serednyakov, S I; Shatilov, D N; Shatunov, Yu M; Skovpen, Y I; Solodov, E P; Cheng, C H; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Porter, F C; Asner, D M; Pham, T N; Fleischer, Robert; Giudice, Gian Francesco; Hurth, Tobias; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Schwartz, A J; Sokoloff, M D; Soffer, A; Beard, C D; Haas, T; Mankel, R; Hiller, G; Ball, P; Pappagallo, M; Pennington, M R; Gradl, W; Playfer, S; Abada, A; Becirevic, D; Descotes-Genon, S; Penee, O; Andreotti, D; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Stancari, G; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Biagini, M E; Boscolo, M; Calcaterra, A; Drago, A; Finocchiaro, G; Guiducci, S; Isidori, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Preger, M A; Raimondi, P; Rama, M; Vaccarezza, C; Zallo, A; Zobov, M; De Sangro, R; Buzzo, A; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Matias, J; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Borzumati, F; Eyges, V; Prell, S A; Pedlar, T K; Korpar, S; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Neubert, M; Denig, A G; Nierste, U; Agoh, T; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Fry, J R; Touramanis, C; Wolski, A; Golob, B; Krizan, P; Flaecher, H; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; George, K A; Barlow, R; Lafferty, G; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Kaidalov, A; Buras, A J; Tarantino, C; Buchalla, G; Sanda, A I; D'Ambrosio, G; Ricciardi, G; Bigi, Ikaros I; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Honscheid, K; Arnaud, N; Chehab, R; Fedala, Y; Polci, F; Roudeau, P; Sordini, V; Soskov, V; Stocchi, A; Variola, A; Vivoli, A; Wormser, G; Zomer, F; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Bonneaud, G R; Lombardo, V; Calderini, G; Ratti, L; Speziali, V; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Servoli, L; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bosi, F; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Forti, F; Giannetti, P; Giorgi, M; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Massa, M; Mazur, M A; Morsani, F; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Raffaelli, F; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Braun, V; Lenz, A; Adams, G S; Danko, I Z; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P; Martinelli, G; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Silvestrini, L; Voena, C; Catani, L; Di Ciaccio, A; Messi, R; Santovetti, E; Satta, A; Ciuchini, M; Lubicz, V; Wilson, F F; Godang, R; Chen, X; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M; Trivedi, A; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Brodsky, S J; Cai, Y; Coleman, J; Convery, M R; De Barger, S; Dingfelder, J C; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Ecklund, S; Fisher, A S; Haller, G; Heifets, S A; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, N; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D; Messner, R; Müller, D R; Nosochkov, Y; Novokhatski, A; Pivi, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J; Snyder, A; Sullivan, M; Vavra, J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W; Stöck, H; Cheng, H Y; Li, H N; Keum, Yu Y; Gronau, M; Grossman, Y; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Gambino, P; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Mussa, R; Pelliccioni, M; Dalla Betta, G F; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Bernabeum, J; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Paradisi, P; Pich, A; Sanchis-Lozano, M A; Kowalewski, R; Roney, M; Back, J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Petrov, A A; Pierini, M; INFN

    2007-01-01

    The physics objectives of SuperB, an asymmetric electron-positron collider with a luminosity above 10^36/cm^2/s are described, together with the conceptual design of a novel low emittance design that achieves this performance with wallplug power comparable to that of the current B Factories, and an upgraded detector capable of doing the physics in the SuperB environment.

  6. Properties of Super-Poisson Processes and Super-Random Walks with Spatially Dependent Branching Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xia REN

    2008-01-01

    The global supports of super-Poisson processes and super-random walks with a branching mechanism ψ(z)=z2 and constant branching rate are known to be noncompact. It turns out that, for any spatially dependent branching rate, this property remains true. However, the asymptotic extinction property for these two kinds of superprocesses depends on the decay rate of the branching-rate function at infinity.

  7. Runaway massive stars from R136: VFTS 682 is very likely a "slow runaway"

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Oh, Seungkyung

    2011-01-01

    We conduct a theoretical study on the ejection of runaway massive stars from R136 --- the central massive, star-burst cluster in the 30 Doradus complex of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Specifically, we investigate the possibility of the very massive star (VMS) VFTS 682 being a runaway member of R136. Recent observations of the above VMS, by virtue of its isolated location and its moderate peculiar motion, have raised the fundamental question whether isolated massive star formation is indeed possible. We perform the first realistic N-body computations of fully mass-segregated R136-type star clusters in which all the massive stars are in primordial binary systems. These calculations confirm that the dynamical ejection of a VMS from a R136-like cluster, with kinematic properties similar to those of VFTS 682, is common. Hence the conjecture of isolated massive star formation is unnecessary to account for this VMS. Our results are also quite consistent with the ejection of 30 Dor 016, another suspected runaway VMS f...

  8. Super SI燃烧方式试验研究%Super SI Combustion Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈义涛; 吕世亮; 尹琪; 杨嘉林; 高卫民

    2011-01-01

    The super spark ignition (Super SI) combustion mode, which was the ignition combustion of lean mixture at the temperature of close spontaneous combustion, was researched and its combustion characteristic and feasibility were analyzed.The results indicate that the increase of intake temperature can reduce the cyclic variation of Pmi obviously, shorten the combustion duration and extend the lean limit of SI combustion under the condition of lean mixture. Accordingly, Super SI combustion has the advantages of high thermal efficiency and controllable combustion process.%研究了Super Spark Ignition(Super SI)燃烧方式,即稀薄混合气在近自燃温度状态下点燃燃烧,分析了这种燃烧方式的可行性和燃烧特性.研究结果表明,混合气稀薄时提高发动机的进气温度可显著降低平均指示压力(pmi)的循环波动,缩短燃烧持续期,拓展点燃燃烧的稀薄极限;Super SI燃烧方式具有热效率高、燃烧过程可控的优点.

  9. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-11-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  10. Symmetries of Massive and Massless Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Wigner's little groups are subgroups of the Lorentz group dictating the internal space-time symmetries of massive and massless particles. These little groups are like O(3) and E(2) for massive and massless particles respectively. While the geometry of the O(3) symmetry is familiar to us, the geometry of the flat plane cannot explain the E(2)-like symmetry for massless particles. However, the geometry of a circular cylinder can explain the symmetry with the helicity and gauge degrees of freedom. It is shown further that the symmetry of the massless particle can be obtained as a zero-mass limit of O(3)-like symmetry for massive particles. It is shown further that the polarization of massless neutrinos is a consequence of gauge invariance, while the symmetry of massive neutrinos is still like O(3).

  11. A cosmological study in massive gravity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study of the various cosmological aspects in massive gravity theory has been presented in the present work. For the homogeneous and isotropic FLRW model, the deceleration parameter has been evaluated, and, it has been examined whether there is any transition from deceleration to acceleration in recent past, or not. With the proper choice of the free parameters, it has been shown that the massive gravity theory is equivalent to Einstein gravity with a modified Newtonian gravitational constant together with a negative cosmological constant. Also, in this context, it has been examined whether the emergent scenario is possible, or not, in massive gravity theory. Finally, we have done a cosmographic analysis in massive gravity theory

  12. Massive Open Online Courses: Droom of nachtmerrie?

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2014-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2014, 9 april). Massive Open Online Courses: Droom of nachtmerrie? Presentatie tijdens een studiemiddag van iPROFS over innovatieve Liferay-toepassingen voor het onderwijs, Utrecht, Nederland

  13. Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved...

  14. Massive Stars: Their Environment and Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Garay, Guido; Lizano, Susana

    1999-01-01

    Cloud environment is thought to play a critical role in determining the mechanism of formation of massive stars. In this contribution we review the physical characteristics of the environment around recently formed massive stars. Particular emphasis is given to recent high angular resolution observations which have improved our knowledge of the physical conditions and kinematics of compact regions of ionized gas and of dense and hot molecular cores associated with luminous O and B stars. We w...

  15. Dipolar Dark Matter with Massive Bigravity

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alt...

  16. Massive Star Formation: The Power of Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    beuther, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This article presents recent work to constrain the physical and chemical properties in high-mass star formation based largely on interferometric high-spatial-resolution continuum and spectral line studies at (sub)mm wavelengths. After outlining the concepts, potential observational tests, a proposed evolutionary sequence and different possible definitions for massive protostars, four particular topics are highlighted: (a) What are the physical conditions at the onset of massive star formation...

  17. Scalable Transcriptome Preparation for Massive Parallel Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Stranneheim, Henrik; Werne, Beata; Sherwood, Ellen; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Background The tremendous output of massive parallel sequencing technologies requires automated robust and scalable sample preparation methods to fully exploit the new sequence capacity. Methodology In this study, a method for automated library preparation of RNA prior to massively parallel sequencing is presented. The automated protocol uses precipitation onto carboxylic acid paramagnetic beads for purification and size selection of both RNA and DNA. The automated sample preparation was comp...

  18. Massive Gravity in Ads and Minkowski Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Porrati, M.

    2004-01-01

    I review some interesting features of massive gravity in two maximally symmetric backgrounds: Anti de Sitter space and Minkowski space. While massive gravity in AdS can be seen as a spontaneously broken, UV safe theory, no such interpretation exists yet in the flat-space case. Here, I point out the problems encountered in trying to find such completion, and possible mechanisms to overcome them.

  19. Scalable Transcriptome Preparation for Massive Parallel Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Stranneheim; Beata Werne; Ellen Sherwood; Joakim Lundeberg

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tremendous output of massive parallel sequencing technologies requires automated robust and scalable sample preparation methods to fully exploit the new sequence capacity. METHODOLOGY: In this study, a method for automated library preparation of RNA prior to massively parallel sequencing is presented. The automated protocol uses precipitation onto carboxylic acid paramagnetic beads for purification and size selection of both RNA and DNA. The automated sample preparation was co...

  20. Guide to development of a scalar massive parallel programming on Paragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueshima, Yutaka; Arakawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Yokota, Hisasi

    1998-10-01

    Parallel calculations using more than hundred computers had begun in Japan only several years ago. The Intel Paragon XP/S 15GP256 , 75MP834 were introduced as pioneers in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to pursue massive parallel simulations for advanced photon and fusion researches. Recently, large number of parallel programs have been transplanted or newly produced to perform the parallel calculations with those computers. However, these programs are developed based on software technologies for conventional super computer, therefore they sometimes cause troubles in the massive parallel computing. In principle, when programs are developed under different computer and operating system (OS), prudent directions and knowledge are needed. However, integration of knowledge and standardization of environment are quite difficult because number of Paragon system and Paragon`s users are very small in Japan. Therefore, we summarized information which was got through the process of development of a massive parallel program in the Paragon XP/S 75MP834. (author)

  1. Electrically charged: An effective mechanism for soft EOS supporting massive neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, ZhenZhen; Wen, DeHua; Zhang, XiangDong

    2015-10-01

    The massive neutron star discoverer announced that strange particles, such as hyperons should be ruled out in the neutron star core as the soft Equation of State (EOS) can-not support a massive neutron star. However, many of the nuclear theories and laboratory experiments support that at high density the strange particles will appear and the corresponding EOS of super-dense matters will become soft. This situation promotes a challenge between the astro-observation and nuclear physics. In this work, we introduce an effective mechanism to answer this challenge, that is, if a neutron star is electrically charged, a soft EOS will be equivalently stiffened and thus can support a massive neutron star. By employing a representative soft EOS, it is found that in order to obtain an evident effect on the EOS and thus increasing the maximum stellar mass by the electrostatic field, the total net charge should be in an order of 1020 C. Moreover, by comparing the results of two kind of charge distributions, it is found that even for different distributions, a similar total charge: ~ 2.3 × 1020 C is needed to support a ~ 2.0 M ⊙ neutron star.

  2. Massive relic galaxies prefer dense environments

    CERN Document Server

    de Arriba, Luis Peralta; Trujillo, Ignacio; Cebrián, María; Balcells, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We study the preferred environments of z~0 massive relic galaxies (M_star > 10^10 M_sun galaxies with little or no growth from star formation or mergers since z~2). Significantly, we carry out our analysis on both a large cosmological simulation and an observed galaxy catalogue. Working on the Millennium I-WMAP7 simulation we show that the fraction of today massive objects which have grown less than 10 per cent in mass since z~2 is ~0.04 per cent for the whole massive galaxy population with M_star > 10^10 M_sun. This fraction rises to ~0.18 per cent in galaxy clusters, confirming that clusters help massive galaxies remain unaltered. Simulations also show that massive relic galaxies tend to be closer to cluster centres than other massive galaxies. Using the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue, and defining relics as M_star > 10^10 M_sun early-type galaxies with colours compatible with single-stellar population ages older than 10 Gyr, and which occupy the bottom 5-percentile in the stellar mass-size distribution, ...

  3. Topologically massive gravity and its conformal limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three dimensional gravity has been known for some time to be a playground for testing ideas and problems of higher dimensional gravitational theories. Nevertheless its status as a toy model for quantum gravity is still uncertain. Already in 1986 Brown and Henneaux discovered that three dimensional quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is dual to a two dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) in the sense that the Hilbert space must fall into unitary representation of two copies of the Virasoro algebra. They obtained, in quantizing this theory, an asymptotic Virasoro algebra with central charges cL=cR=(3 l)/(2 GN), where GN is Newton's constant and ℓ parameterizes the cosmological constant. Almost ten years later black hole solutions for this three dimensional theory were discovered by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli. In the same period of time further milestones of relevance for this work have been established: the AdS/CFT correspondence by Maldacena in 1997 and the proposal by Witten in 2007 to define three dimensional quantum gravity in terms of its dual CFT. Over the last few years many attempts have been made to construct gravitational theories in three dimensions that could serve as toy models for quantum gravity. Since a pure Einstein-Hilbert action with a negative cosmological constant lacks additional degrees of freedom one can remedy this by adding a gravitational Chern-Simons term. This results in a theory that exhibits black holes and gravitons and is called topologically massive gravity (TMG). The first part of this thesis deals with finding exact solutions of TMG. This is an interesting problem already at the classical level since non-trivial solutions to the equations of motion are hard to find and only few are known. An efficient way to find solutions is to dimensionally reduce the theory by using two commuting Killing vectors. This results in a (0+1)-dimensional model in which it is then possible to classify all stationary axi

  4. A Distant Echo of Milky Way Central Activity closes the Galaxy's Baryon Census

    CERN Document Server

    Nicastro, F; Krongold, Y; Mathur, S; Elvis, M

    2016-01-01

    We report on the presence of large amounts of million-degree gas in the Milky Way's interstellar and circum-galactic medium. This gas (1) permeates both the Galactic plane and the halo, (2) extends to distances larger than 60-200 kpc from the center, and (3) its mass is sufficient to close the Galaxy's baryon census. Moreover, we show that a vast, $\\sim 6$ kpc radius, spherically-symmetric central region of the Milky Way above and below the 0.16 kpc thick plane, has either been emptied of hot gas or the density of this gas within the cavity has a peculiar profile, increasing from the center up to a radius of $\\sim 6$ kpc, and then decreasing with a typical halo density profile. This, and several other converging pieces of evidence, suggest that the current surface of the cavity, at 6 kpc from the Galaxy's center, traces the distant echo of a period of strong nuclear activity of our super-massive black-hole, occurred about 6 Myrs ago.

  5. Potential Biosignatures in Super-Earth Atmospheres II. Photochemical Responses

    CERN Document Server

    Grenfell, J L; Godolt, M; Palczynski, K; Rauer, H; Stock, J; Paris, P v; Lehmann, R; Selsis, F

    2013-01-01

    Spectral characterization of Super-Earth atmospheres for planets orbiting in the Habitable Zone of M-dwarf stars is a key focus in exoplanet science. A central challenge is to understand and predict the expected spectral signals of atmospheric biosignatures (species associated with life). Our work applies a global-mean radiative-convective-photochemical column model assuming a planet with an Earth-like biomass and planetary development. We investigated planets with gravities of 1g and 3g and a surface pressure of one bar around central stars with spectral classes from M0 to M7. The spectral signals of the calculated planetary scenarios have been presented by Rauer et al. (2011). The main motivation of the present work is to perform a deeper analysis of the chemical processes in the planetary atmospheres. We apply a diagnostic tool, the Pathway Analysis Program, to shed light on the photochemical pathways that form and destroy biosignature species. Ozone is a potential biosignature for complex- life. An import...

  6. Mass Deformation of Super Yang-Mills in D=2+1

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    A mass-deformation of three euclidean dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SYM theory is carried out. The gluons of the theory are made massive using a non-local gauge and Poincare invariant mass term due to Nair, while fermion masses are introduced using standard gaussian terms. The underlying supersymmetry algebra is shown to be a non-central extension of the Poincare algebra by the spacetime rotation group $so(3)$. The incorporation of Chern-Simons couplings in the formalism is also presented. The dimensional reduction of the gauge theory and the SUSY algebra is related to a massive $\\mathcal{N}=2$ massive matrix quantum mechanics based on euclidean $Clifford_2(\\mathbb{R})$.

  7. Laboratory measurements of super-resolving Toraldo pupils for radio astronomical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Olmi, Luca; Cresci, Luca; D'Agostino, Francesco; Migliozzi, Massimo; Mugnai, Daniela; Natale, Enzo; Nesti, Renzo; Panella, Dario; Stefani, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The concept of super-resolution refers to various methods for improving the angular resolution of an optical imaging system beyond the classical diffraction limit. Although several techniques to narrow the central lobe of the illumination Point Spread Function have been developed in optical microscopy, most of these methods cannot be implemented on astronomical telescopes. A possible exception is represented by the variable transmittance filters, also known as "Toraldo Pupils" (TPs) since they were introduced for the first time by G. Toraldo di Francia in 1952. In the microwave range, the first successful laboratory test of TPs was performed in 2003. These first results suggested that TPs could represent a viable approach to achieve super-resolution in Radio Astronomy. We have therefore started a project devoted to a more exhaustive analysis of TPs and how they could be implemented on a radio telescope. In the present work we report on the results of extensive microwave measurements, using TPs with different ...

  8. High contrast imaging of exoplanets on ELTs using a super-Nyquist wavefront control scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Gerard, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    One of the key science goals for extremely large telescopes (ELTs) is the detailed characterization of already known directly imaged exoplanets. The typical adaptive optics (AO) Nyquist control region for ELTs is ~0.4 arcseconds, placing many already known directly imaged planets outside the DM control region and not allowing any standard wavefront control scheme to remove speckles that would allow higher SNR images/spectra to be acquired. This can be fixed with super-Nyquist wavefront control (SNWFC), using a sine wave phase plate to allow for wavefront control outside the central DM Nyquist region. We demonstrate that SNWFC is feasible through a simple, deterministic, non-coronagraphic, super-Nyquist speckle nulling technique in the adaptive optics laboratory at the National Research Council of Canada. We also present results in simulation of how SNWFC using the self coherent camera (SCC) can be used for high contrast imaging. This technique could be implemented on future high contrast imaging instruments t...

  9. Massive relic galaxies prefer dense environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta de Arriba, Luis; Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio; Cebrián, María; Balcells, Marc

    2016-09-01

    We study the preferred environments of z ˜ 0 massive relic galaxies (M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ galaxies with little or no growth from star formation or mergers since z ˜ 2). Significantly, we carry out our analysis on both a large cosmological simulation and an observed galaxy catalogue. Working on the Millennium I-WMAP7 simulation we show that the fraction of today massive objects which have grown less than 10 per cent in mass since z ˜ 2 is ˜0.04 per cent for the whole massive galaxy population with M⋆ > 1010 M⊙. This fraction rises to ˜0.18 per cent in galaxy clusters, confirming that clusters help massive galaxies remain unaltered. Simulations also show that massive relic galaxies tend to be closer to cluster centres than other massive galaxies. Using the New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue, and defining relics as M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ early-type galaxies with colours compatible with single-stellar population ages older than 10 Gyr, and which occupy the bottom 5-percentile in the stellar mass-size distribution, we find 1.11 ± 0.05 per cent of relics among massive galaxies. This fraction rises to 2.4 ± 0.4 per cent in high-density environments. Our findings point in the same direction as the works by Poggianti et al. and Stringer et al. Our results may reflect the fact that the cores of the clusters are created very early on, hence the centres host the first cluster members. Near the centres, high-velocity dispersions and harassment help cluster core members avoid the growth of an accreted stellar envelope via mergers, while a hot intracluster medium prevents cold gas from reaching the galaxies, inhibiting star formation.

  10. Maximal Flavor Violation in Super-GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses $m_0$ specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses $m_{1/2}$, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalization between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to $m_{1/2}$ and generation-independent. In this case, the input scalar masses $m_0$ may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity.

  11. Super-Sample Covariance in Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yin; Takada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Using separate universe simulations, we accurately quantify super-sample covariance (SSC), the typically dominant sampling error for matter power spectrum estimators in a finite volume, which arises from the presence of super survey modes. By quantifying the power spectrum response to a background mode, this approach automatically captures the separate effects of beat coupling in the quasilinear regime, halo sample variance in the nonlinear regime and a new dilation effect which changes scales in the power spectrum coherently across the survey volume, including the baryon acoustic oscillation scale. It models these effects at typically the few percent level or better with a handful of small volume simulations for any survey geometry compared with directly using many thousands of survey volumes in a suite of large volume simulations. The stochasticity of the response is sufficiently small that in the quasilinear regime, SSC can be alternately included by fitting the mean density in the volume with these fixed ...

  12. Super Phone时代来临?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小军

    2011-01-01

    3月31日,摩托罗拉在海南三亚一气推出了ATRIX ME860、XT882、MT870三款双核手机以及XOOM双核平板电脑。一周后,LG与三星齐聚,也分别祭出了Galaxy S Ⅱ与Optimus 2X擎天双核手机,一时间,“Super Phone”一词频频现身,SuperPhone这一原本只是概念的术语在双核的代言下,是否已经进入了自己的时代?

  13. Penrose Pixels for Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, M; Lin, Zhouchen; Wilburn, Bennett; Zhang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    We present a novel approach to reconstruction-based super-resolution that uses aperiodic pixel tilings, such as a Penrose tiling or a biological retina, for improved performance. To this aim, we develop a new variant of the well-known error back projection super-resolution algorithm that makes use of the exact detector model in its back projection operator for better accuracy. Pixels in our model can vary in shape and size, and there may be gaps between adjacent pixels. The algorithm applies equally well to periodic or aperiodic pixel tilings. We present analysis and extensive tests using synthetic and real images to show that our approach using aperiodic layouts substantially outperforms existing reconstruction-based algorithms for regular pixel arrays. We close with a discussion of the feasibility of manufacturing CMOS or CCD chips with pixels arranged in Penrose tilings.

  14. Formation of super-resolution spot through nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity structures: theory and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Rui; Yan, Hui; Fan, Yongtao

    2014-04-01

    This study explores how interference manipulation breaks through the diffraction limit and induces super-resolution nano-optical hot spots through the nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity structure. The theoretical analytical model is established, and the numerical simulation results show that when the thickness of the nonlinear thin film inside the nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity structure is adjusted to centain value, the constructive interference effect can be formed in the central point of the spot, which causes the nanoscale optical hot spot in the central region to be produced. The simulation results also tell us that the hot spot size is sensitive to nonlinear thin film thickness, and the accuracy is required to be up to nanometer or even subnanometer scale, which is very large challenging for thin film deposition technique, however, slightly changing the incident laser power can compensate for drawbacks of low thickness accuracy of nonlinear thin films. Taking As(2)S(3) as the nonlinear thin film, the central hot spot with a size of 40nm is obtained at suitable nonlinear thin film thickness and incident laser power. The central hot spot size is only about λ/16, which is very useful in super-high density optical recording, nanolithography, and high-resolving optical surface imaging.

  15. Super High Strength Steel for automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    CONFENTE, Mario; SCHNEIDER, Emmanuel; BOMONT, Olivier; LESCALIER, Christophe; BOMONT-ARZUR, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Intensive weight savings and out-sizing programs are developed in automotive industry and lead to increase the mechanical properties of the material of the automotive parts. ArcelorMittal has developed specific steel grades known as Super High Strength Steels which are designed for both high ductility and toughness and fatigue resistance. This paper investigates machinability for a drilling operation using an experimental methodology. One of the materials is a new low bainitic steel grade. Ex...

  16. The SuperNova Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Scholberg, K.

    2008-01-01

    A core collapse in the Milky Way will produce an enormous burst of neutrinos in detectors world-wide. Such a burst has the potential to provide an early warning of a supernova's appearance. I will describe the nature of the signal, the sensitivity of current detectors, and SNEWS, the SuperNova Early Warning System, a network designed to alert astronomers as soon as possible after the detected neutrino signal.

  17. Super public, a housing project in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yizhou

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays urbanization has been processing in a very fast speed in China. Meanwhile, urbanization also leads to many negative effects on Chinese cities. Public space is widely undermined in housing blocks, streets and communities. By researching urbanism design theories and space types, the thesis attempts to conclude the design thinking for public space and provide suggestions for architectural design based on China's realities. With the conditions of Super Public, a housing project would com...

  18. Super-pharm的生意经

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦少雯

    2006-01-01

    Super-pharm,这家可直译为“超级药店”的以色列最大的药品、化妆品及个人护理品零售企业,是由全球排名前几十位的亿万富翁、犹太人Murray Koffler创立的家族企业。

  19. The (Super)String Theories' Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Naboulsi, R

    2003-01-01

    (Super)String theories are theoretical ideas that go beyond the standard model of particle and high energy physics and show promise for unifying all forces in nature including the gravitational one. In this unification a prominent role is played by the duality symmetries which relate different theories. I present a review of these developements and discuss their problems and possible impact in low-energy physics. We explain and discuss some ideas concerning string field theories from noncommutative geometry.

  20. Calibration of the Super-Kamiokande Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, K.; Hayato, Y.; Iida, T; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.(University of Tokyo, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, Kamioka Observatory, Kamioka, Japan); Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Obayashi, Y.; Sekiya, H.

    2013-01-01

    Procedures and results on hardware level detector calibration in Super-Kamiokande (SK) are presented in this paper. In particular, we report improvements made in our calibration methods for the experimental phase IV in which new readout electronics have been operating since 2008. The topics are separated into two parts. The first part describes the determination of constants needed to interpret the digitized output of our electronics so that we can obtain physical numbers such as photon count...

  1. "Strange" occurrences in SuperEnalotto

    CERN Document Server

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a way is suggested for calculating the probability of consecutive numbers strings within a sequence of n numbers randomly drawn (without replacement) among the set of the first N consecutive numbers, with N >> n. An explicit derivation is carried out for the special case of SuperEnalotto, nowadays the most famous lottery in Italy, with N=90 and n=6. It turns out that, on average, one every three drawings presents one or more consecutive numbers strings inside.

  2. Super-resolution:A comprehensive survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research...

  3. SuperWASP Lightcurves of Subdwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Norton, A. J.; West, R. G.; Copperwheat, C.; Marsh, T. R.

    SuperWASP is a wide angle survey for transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanets around bright (V2333+3927 with a large reflection effect was recovered. We find that the hot subdwarf PG 1348+369 is variable with a period of 3.316days and a semi-amplitude of 13%. Follow-up spectroscopy shows that this variation is due to irradiation of a cool companion star in a binary system.

  4. A Massive Overdose of Dalfampridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Fil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immune mediated inflammatory disease that attacks myelinated axons in the central nervous system. Dalfampridine (4-aminopyridine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2010 for treatment of MS. Our patient was a 34-year-old male with a history of MS, who was brought to the emergency department after being found unresponsive. His current medications were valacyclovir, temazepam, dalfampridine (4-AP and a tysabri intravenous (IV infusion. Fifteen minutes after arrival the patient seized. The seizures were refractory to benzodiazepines, barbiturates and phenytoin. The 4-AP level was 530ng/mL (25ng/mL and 49ng/ mL. The patient stopped seizing on hospital day 3 and was discharged 14 days later with normal mental status and neurologic exam. 4-AP is a potassium channel blocker that blocks the potassium ion current of repolarization following an action potential. The blockade of the potassium channel at the level of the membrane widens the action potential and enhances the release of acetylcholine, thus increasing post-synaptic action potentials. The treatment of patients with 4-AP overdose is supportive. Animal data suggest that patients with toxic levels of 4-AP may respond to phenytoin. Our case illustrates the highest recorded level of 4-AP in an overdose. Our patient appeared to be refractory to a combination of high doses of anticonvulsants and only improved with time.

  5. The SuperNEMO tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cascella, M

    2015-01-01

    The SuperNEMO detector will search for neutrinoless double beta decay at the Modane Underground Laboratory on the French-Italian border. This decay mode, if observed, would be proof that the neutrino is its own antiparticle, would constitute evidence for total lepton number violation, and could allow a measurement of the absolute neutrino mass. The SuperNEMO experiment is designed to reach a half-life sensitivity of $10^{26}$ years corresponding to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of $50-100~$meV. The SuperNEMO detector design allows complete topological reconstruction of the double beta decay event enabling excellent levels of background rejection. In the event of a discovery, such topological measurements will be vital in determining the nature of the lepton number violating process. This reconstruction will be performed by a gaseous tracking detector, consisting of 2034 drift cells per module operated in Geiger mode. The tracker of the Demonstrator Module is currently under construction in the UK. This ...

  6. Polynomial super-gl(n) algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a class of finite-dimensional nonlinear superalgebras L L0-bar + L1-bar providing gradings of L0-bar = gl(n) ≅ sl(n) + gl(1). Odd generators close by anticommutation on polynomials (of degree >1) in the gl(n) generators. Specifically, we investigate 'type I' super-gl(n) algebras, having odd generators transforming in a single irreducible representation of gl(n) together with its contragredient. Admissible structure constants are discussed in terms of available gl(n) couplings, and various special cases and candidate superalgebras are identified and exemplified via concrete oscillator constructions. For the case of the n-dimensional defining representation, with odd generators Qa, Q-barb and even generators Eab, a, b = 1, ..., n, a three-parameter family of quadratic super-gl(n) algebras (deformations of sl(n/1)) is defined. In general, additional covariant Serre-type conditions are imposed in order that the Jacobi identities are fulfilled. For these quadratic super-gl(n) algebras, the construction of Kac modules and conditions for atypicality are briefly considered. Applications in quantum field theory, including Hamiltonian lattice QCD and spacetime supersymmetry, are discussed

  7. SuperB Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Baszczyk, M; Kolodziej, J; Kucewicz, W; Sapor, M; Jeremie, A; Pous, E Grauges; Bruno, G E; De Robertis, G; Diacono, D; Donvito, G; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giordano, F; Loddo, F; Loparco, F; Maggi, G P; Manzari, V; Mazziotta, M N; Nappi, E; Palano, A; Santeramo, B; Sgura, I; Silvestris, L; Spinoso, V; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Zhuo, Z; Jenkovszky, L; Balbi, G; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Cafaro, V; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Di Sipio, R; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Gabrielli, A; Galli, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giorgi, F M; Grandi, C; Lax, I; Meo, S Lo; Marconi, U; Montanari, A; Pellegrini, G; Piccinini, M; Rovelli, T; Cesari, N Semprini; Torromeo, G; Tosi, N; Travaglini, R; Vagnoni, V M; Valentinetti, S; Villa, M; Zoccoli, A; Caron, J -F; Hearty, C; Lu, P F -T; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y -C; Barnyakov, M Yu; Blinov, V E; Botov, A A; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Levichev, E B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Shtol, D A; Skovpen, Y I; Solodov, E P; Cardini, A; Carpinelli, M; Chao, D S -T; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Flood, K; Hanson, J; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Zhu, R Y; Randazzo, N; Burelo, E De La Cruz; Zheng, Y; Campos, P; De Silva, M; Kathirgamaraju, A; Meadows, B; Pushpawela, B; Shi, Y; Sokoloff, M; Castro, G Lopez; Ciaschini, V; Franchini, P; Giacomini, F; Paolini, A; Polania, G A Calderon; Laczek, S; Romanowicz, P; Szybinski, B; Czuchry, M; Flis, L; Harezlak, D; Kocot, J; Radecki, M; Sterzel, M; Szepieniec, T; Szymocha, T; Wójcik, P; Andreotti, M; Baldini, W; Calabrese, R; Carassiti, V; Cibinetto, G; Ramusino, A Cotta; Evangelisti, F; Gianoli, A; Luppi, E; Malaguti, R; Manzali, M; Melchiorri, M; Munerato, M; Padoan, C; Santoro, V; Tomassetti, L; Beretta, M M; Biagini, M; Boscolo, M; Capitolo, E; de Sangro, R; Esposito, M; Felici, G; Finocchiaro, G; Gatta, M; Gatti, C; Guiducci, S; Lauciani, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Raimondi, P; Rama, M; Sanelli, C; Tomassini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Delepine, D; Santos, M A Reyes; Chrzaszcz, M; Grzymkowski, R; Knap, P; Kotula, J; Lesiak, T; Ludwin, J; Michalowski, J; Pawlik, B; Rachwal, B; Stodulski, M; Wiechczynski, J; Witek, M; Zawiejski, L; Zdybal, M; Aushev, V Y; Ustynov, A; Arnaud, N; Bambade, P; Beigbeder, C; Bogard, F; Borsato, M; Breton, D; Brossard, J; Burmistrov, L; Charlet, D; Chaumat, V; Dadoun, O; Berni, M El; Maalmi, J; Puill, V; Rimbault, C; Stocchi, A; Tocut, V; Variola, A; Wallon, S; Wormser, G; Grancagnolo, F; Ben-Haim, E; Sitt, S; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; Deconto, J -M; Martinez, Y Gomez; Monseu, N; Muraz, J -F; Real, J -S; Vescovi, C; Cenci, R; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D; Twedt, E W; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Nderitu, S; Patel, P; Robertson, S H; Swersky, D; Warburton, A; Flores, E Cuautle; Sanchez, G Toledo; Biassoni, P; Bombelli, L; Citterio, M; Coelli, S; Fiorini, C; Liberali, V; Monti, M; Nasri, B; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Sabatini, F; Stabile, A; Berra, A; Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Lietti, D; Maino, M; Pessina, G; Prest, M; Martin, J -P; Simard, M; Starinski, N; Taras, P; Drutskoy, A; Makarychev, S; Nefediev, A V; Aloisio, A; Cavaliere, S; De Nardo, G; Della Pietra, M; Doria, A; Giordano, R; Ordine, A; Pardi, S; Russo, G; Sciacca, C; Bigi, I I; Jessop, C P; Wang, W; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Corvo, M; Crescente, A; Corso, F Dal; Dosselli, U; Fanin, C; Gianelle, A; Longo, S; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Morandin, M; Pengo, R; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Stroili, R; Gaioni, L; Manazza, A; Manghisoni, M; Ratti, L; Re, V; Traversi, G; Zucca, S; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Cecchi, C; Germani, S; Lebeau, M; Lubrano, P; Manoni, E; Papi, A; Rossi, A; Scolieri, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Fella, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M; Lilli, L; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paladino, A; Pantaleo, F; Paoloni, E; Perez, A L Perez; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Beck, G; Berman, M; Bevan, A; Gannaway, F; Inguglia, G; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Bocci, V; Capodiferro, M; Chiodi, G; Dafinei, I; Drenska, N V; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Gargiulo, C; Gauzzi, P; Luci, C; Lunadei, R; Martellotti, G; Pellegrino, F; Pettinacci, V; Pinci, D; Recchia, L; Ruggeri, D; Zullo, A; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; De Santis, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Felice, V; Di Palma, F; Di Simone, A; Marcelli, L; Messi, R; Moricciani, D; Sparvoli, R; Tammaro, S; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Bussino, S; Ciuchini, M; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Ruggieri, F; Spiriti, E; Wilson, F; Monzon, I Leon; Millan-Almaraz, J R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Aston, D; Dey, B; Fisher, A; Jackson, P D; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; MacFarlane, D; McCulloch, M; Metcalfe, S; Novokhatski, A; Osier, S; Prepost, R; Ratcliff, B; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M; Va'vra, J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W; Altschul, B D; Purohit, M V; Baudot, J; Ripp-Baudot, I; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Bezshyyko, O; Dolinska, G; Soffer, A; Bianchi, F; De Mori, F; Filippi, A; Gamba, D; Marcello, S; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cristaudo, P; Lanceri, L; Liberti, B; Rashevskaya, I; Stella, C; Vallazza, E S; Vitale, L; Auriemma, G; Satriano, C; Vidal, F Martinez; de Cos, J Mazorra; Oyanguren, A; Valls, P Ruiz; Beaulieu, A; Dejong, S; Franta, J; Lewczuk, M J; Roney, M; Sobie, R

    2013-01-01

    In this Technical Design Report (TDR) we describe the SuperB detector that was to be installed on the SuperB e+e- high luminosity collider. The SuperB asymmetric collider, which was to be constructed on the Tor Vergata campus near the INFN Frascati National Laboratory, was designed to operate both at the Upsilon(4S) center-of-mass energy with a luminosity of 10^{36} cm^{-2}s^{-1} and at the tau/charm production threshold with a luminosity of 10^{35} cm^{-2}s^{-1}. This high luminosity, producing a data sample about a factor 100 larger than present B Factories, would allow investigation of new physics effects in rare decays, CP Violation and Lepton Flavour Violation. This document details the detector design presented in the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2007. The R&D and engineering studies performed to arrive at the full detector design are described, and an updated cost estimate is presented. A combination of a more realistic cost estimates and the unavailability of funds due of the global economic ...

  8. Super Marx Generator for Thermonuclear Ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2008-01-01

    In ongoing electric pulse power driven inertial confinement fusion experiments, Marx generators are connected in parallel with the target in the center of a ring of the Marx generators. There the currents, not the voltages add up. Instead of connecting a bank of Marx generator in parallel, one may connect them in series, adding up their voltages, not the currents. If, for example, fifty 20 MV Marx generators are connected in series, they would add up to a gigavolt. But to prevent breakdown, the adding up of the voltages in such a super-Marx generator must be fast. For this reason, it is proposed that each of the Marx generators charges up a fast discharge capacitor, with the thusly charged fast capacitors becoming the elements of a second stage super Marx generator. In a super Marx generator, the Marx generators also assume the role of the resistors in the original Marx circuit. With a voltage of 10^9 Volt and a discharge current of 10^7 Ampere, the generation of a 10^16 Watt GeV proton beam becomes possible,...

  9. Predicting the occurrence of super-storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srivastava

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of five super-storms (Dst<-300 nT of the current solar cycle after the launch of SoHO, to identify solar and interplanetary variables that influence the magnitude of resulting geomagnetic storms, is described. Amongst solar variables, the initial speed of a CME is considered the most reliable predictor of the strength of the associated geomagnetic storm because fast mass ejections are responsible for building up the ram pressure at the Earth's magnetosphere. However, although most of the super-storms studied were associated with high speed CMEs, the Dst index of the resulting geomagnetic storms varied between -300 to -472 nT. The most intense storm of 20 November 2003, (Dst ~ -472 nT had its source in a comparatively smaller active region and was associated with a relatively weaker, M-class flare while all other super-storms had their origins in large active regions and were associated with strong X-class flares. However, this superstorm did not show any associated extraordinary solar and interplanetary characteristics. The study also reveals the challenge in the reliable prediction of the magnitude of a geomagnetic storm from solar and interplanetary variables.

  10. SuperB Simulation Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, L.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Del Prete, D.; Di Simone, A.; Donvito, G.; Fella, A.; Franchini, P.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Paolini, A.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a peak luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1. The SuperB Computing group is working on developing a simulation production framework capable to satisfy the experiment needs. It provides access to distributed resources in order to support both the detector design definition and its performance evaluation studies. During last year the framework has evolved from the point of view of job workflow, Grid services interfaces and technologies adoption. A complete code refactoring and sub-component language porting now permits the framework to sustain distributed production involving resources from two continents and Grid Flavors. In this paper we will report a complete description of the production system status of the art, its evolution and its integration with Grid services; in particular, we will focus on the utilization of new Grid component features as in LB and WMS version 3. Results from the last official SuperB production cycle will be reported.

  11. The spatial clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey Active Galactic Nuclei IV. More massive black holes reside in more massive dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Krumpe, Mirko; Husemann, Bernd; Fanidakis, Nikos; Coil, Alison L; Aceves, Hector

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this paper we investigate the cause of the X-ray luminosity dependence of the clustering of broad-line, luminous AGN at 0.16super-massive black hole (SMBH), M_BH, and infer the accretion rate relative to Eddington (L/L_EDD). Since M_BH and L/L_EDD are correlated, we create AGN subsamples in one parameter while maintaining the same distribution in the other parameter. In both the X-ray and optically-selected AGN samples we detect a weak clustering dependence with M_BH and no statistically significant dependence on L/L_EDD. We find a difference of up to 2.7sigma when comparing the objects that belong to the 30% least and 30% most massive M_BH subsamples,...

  12. Evolution and fate of very massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yusof, Norhasliza; Meynet, Georges; Crowther, Paul A; Ekstrom, Sylvia; Frischknecht, Urs; Georgy, Cyril; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Schnurr, Olivier; 10.1093/mnras/stt794

    2013-01-01

    There is observational evidence that supports the existence of Very Massive Stars in the local universe. First, very massive stars (Mini<=320 M) have been observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud . Second, there are observed SNe that bear the characteristics of Pair Creation Supernovae which have very massive stars as progenitors. The most promising candidate to date is SN2007bi. In order to investigate the evolution and fate of nearby very massive stars, we calculated a new grid of models for such objects, for solar, LMC and SMC metallicities, which covers the initial mass range from 120 to 500M. Both rotating and non-rotating models were calculated using the Geneva stellar evolution code and evolved until at least the end of helium burning and for most models until oxygen burning. Since very massive stars have very large convective cores during the Main-Sequence phase, their evolution is not so much affected by rotational mixing, but more by mass loss through stellar winds. Their evolution is never far fro...

  13. A Hunt for Massive Starless Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Shuo; Caselli, Paola; Fontani, Francesco; Liu, Mengyao; Butler, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We carry out an ALMA $\\rm N_2D^+$(3-2) and 1.3~mm continuum survey towards 32 high mass surface density regions in seven Infrared Dark Clouds with the aim of finding massive starless cores, which may be the initial conditions for the formation of massive stars. Cores showing strong $\\rm N_2D^+$(3-2) emission are expected to be highly deuterated and indicative of early, potentially pre-stellar stages of star formation. We also present maps of these regions in ancillary line tracers, including C$^{18}$O(2-1), DCN(3-2) and DCO$^+$(3-2). Over 100 $\\rm N_2D^+$ cores are identified with our newly developed core-finding algorithm based on connected structures in position-velocity space. The most massive core has $\\gtrsim70\\:M_\\odot$ (potentially $\\sim170\\:M_\\odot$) and so may be representative of the initial conditions for massive star formation. The existence and dynamical properties of such cores constrain massive star formation theories. We measure the line widths and thus velocity dispersion of six of the cores ...

  14. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Kedar Mohan [Queen' s U.

    2013-01-01

    SuperCDMS (Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) is a leading direct dark mat-ter search experiment which uses solid state detectors (Ge crystals) at milliKelvintemperatures to look for nuclear recoils caused by dark matter interactions in the de-tector. `Weakly Interacting Massive Particles' (WIMPs) are the most favoured darkmatter candidate particles. SuperCDMS, like many other direct dark matter searchexperiments, primarily looks for WIMPs. The measurement of both the ionizationand the lattice vibration (phonon) signals from an interaction in the detector allow itto discriminate against electron recoils which are the main source of background forWIMP detection.SuperCDMS currently operates about 9 kg of Ge detectors at the Soudan under-ground lab in northern Minnesota. In its next phase, SuperCDMS SNOLAB plansto use 100-200 kg of target mass (Ge) which would allow it to probe more of theinteresting and and as of yet unexplored parameter space for WIMPs predicted bytheoretical models. The SuperCDMS Queen's Test Facility is a detector test facilitywhich is intended to serve as detector testing and detector research and developmentpurposes for the SuperCDMS experiment.A modifed detector called the HiZIP (Half-iZIP), which is reduced in complex-ity in comparison to the currently used iZIP (interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon mediated) detectors, is studied in this thesis. The HiZIP detector designalso serves to discriminate against background from multiple scatter events occurringclose to the surfaces in a single detector. Studies carried out to compare the surfaceevent leakage in the HiZIP detector using limited information from iZIP data takenat SuperCDMS test facility at UC Berkley produce a highly conservative upper limitof 5 out of 10,000 events at 90% condence level. This upper limit is the best amongmany different HiZIP congurations that were investigated and is comparable to theupper limit calculated for an HiZIP detector in the same way

  15. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation into Neutrinos with Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Frankiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This work presents indirect searches for dark matter (DM) as WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) using neutrino data recorded by the Super-Kamiokande detector from 1996 to 2014. The results of the search for WIMP-induced neutrinos from the Sun and the Milky Way are discussed. We looked for an excess of neutrinos from the Sun/Milky Way direction compared to the expected atmospheric neutrino background. Event samples including both electron and muon neutrinos covering a wide range of neutrino energies (GeV to TeV) were used, with sensitivity to WIMP masses down to tens of GeV. Various WIMP annihilation modes were taken into account in the analyses.

  16. Recovering a stochastic process from super-resolution noisy ensembles of single-particle trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoze, N; Holcman, D

    2015-11-01

    Recovering a stochastic process from noisy ensembles of single-particle trajectories is resolved here using the coarse-grained Langevin equation as a model. The massive redundancy contained in single-particle tracking data allows recovering local parameters of the underlying physical model. We use several parametric and nonparametric estimators to compute the first and second moments of the process, to recover the local drift, its derivative, and the diffusion tensor, and to deconvolve the instrumental from the physical noise. We use numerical simulations to also explore the range of validity for these estimators. The present analysis allows defining what can exactly be recovered from statistics of super-resolution microscopy trajectories used for characterizing molecular trafficking underlying cellular functions.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Molecular Clouds Regulated by Reprocessed Radiation Feedback from Nascent Super Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, M Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Radiation feedback from young star clusters embedded in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) is believed to be important to the control of star formation. For the most massive and dense clouds, including those in which super star clusters (SSCs) are born, pressure from reprocessed radiation exerted on dust grains may disperse a significant portion of the cloud mass back into the interstellar medium (ISM). Using our radiaton hydrodynamics (RHD) code, Hyperion, we conduct a series of numerical simulations to test this idea. Our models follow the evolution of self-gravitating, strongly turbulent clouds in which collapsing regions are replaced by radiating sink particles representing stellar clusters. We evaluate the dependence of the star formation efficiency (SFE) on the size and mass of the cloud and $\\kappa$, the opacity of the gas to infrared (IR) radiation. We find that the single most important parameter determining the evolutionary outcome is $\\kappa$, with $\\kappa \\gtrsim 15 \\text{ cm}^2 \\text{ g}^{-1}$ needed ...

  18. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations and the search for {nu}{sub {tau} }appearance at Super-Kamiokande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell, R. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    In contrast to the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics, experimental data now indicate that neutrinos are massive and undergo flavor oscillations. Indeed, observations of atmospheric neutrinos have confirmed that the disappearance of high-energy muon-like events is well described by the conversion of {nu}{sub {mu} }into {nu}{sub {tau}.} Though the primary atmospheric neutrino flux at these energies is composed almost exclusively of {nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu},} this transition implies that it is also possible to observe {nu}{sub {tau}-}induced events. Recent results from the Super-Kamiokande {nu}{sub {mu} }disappearance analysis as well the search for the subsequent appearance of {nu}{sub {tau} }events in the data are presented.

  19. Discovery of a Massive Protostar near IRAS 18507+0121

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, D S; Bronfman, L

    2004-01-01

    We have observed the massive star forming region, IRAS 18507+0121, at millimeter wavelengths in 3 mm continuum emission and H13CO+(J=1-0) and SiO(v=0, J=2-1) line emission, and at near-infrared wavelengths between 1.2 and 2.1 microns. Two compact molecular cores are detected: one north and one south separated by about 40". The northern molecular core contains a newly discovered, deeply embedded, B2 protostar surrounded by several hundred solar masses of warm gas and dust, G34.4+0.23 MM. Based on the presence of warm dust emission and the lack of detection at near-infrared wavelengths, we suggest that G34.4+0.23 MM may represent the relatively rare discovery of a massive protostar (e.g. analogous to a low-mass "Class 0" protostar). The southern molecular core is associated with a near-infrared cluster of young stars and an ultracompact (UC) HII region, G34.4+0.23, with a central B0.5 star. The fraction of near-infrared stars with excess infrared emission indicative of circumstellar material is greater than 50%...

  20. Hot Molecular Cores and the Formation of Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mayra, O; Di Paola, A; Mayra, Osorio; Susana, Lizano

    1999-01-01

    It has been proposed that some hot molecular cores (HMCs) harbor a young embedded massive star, which heats an infalling envelope and accretes mass at a rate high enough to ``choke off'' an incipient HII region. This class of HMCs would mark the youngest phase known of massive star formation. In order to test this hypothesis, we model this type of object calculating the radiative transfer through a spherically symmetric dusty envelope infalling onto a central OB star, with accretion rates from 0.0006 to 0.001 solar masses per year. The dust thermal spectrum from infrared to radio wavelengths is derived and is compared with the observed fluxes of several hot cores which may be internally heated. We find that the data are best fitted using an envelope with the density distribution resulting from the collapse of a singular logatropic sphere, instead of that of a singular isothermal sphere. We conclude that several of these sources may be undergoing an intense accretion phase and find in all the cases that the ac...

  1. High-velocity molecular outflows hear massive young stellar objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月芳; 李月兴; 杨传义; 雷成明; 孙金江; 吕静; 韩溥

    1999-01-01

    By mapping the 12CO J=1—0 lines in IRAS 05391-0217, 06114+1745 and 06291+0421, three new high-velocity bipolar molecular outflows are found. Parameters of these outflows are derived, which suggest that they are massive and energetic outflows with total kinetic energies of about 1038 J and mass loss rates about 10-5 M⊙/a. The driving sources are identified by analyzing the positions, intensities and color temperatures of the associated infrared sources. These outflows are most likely driven by single sources which correspond to massive young stellar objects. In these regions H2O masers have been detected located near the embedded infrared sources, which indicates that their exciting mechanism may be correlated with that of the CO outflows. The relationship between the parameters of outflows and central sources shows that high-velocity outflow and thermal radiation of a star are two basic correlated but different features in the evolution of young stars.

  2. The first massive astronomical observation event in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Mariana; Hernandez, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    On the night of the 20th of February 2008 there was a total eclipse of the moon visible from Mexico City, with a total duration from 19:42 hrs to 23:09 hrs. At the Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, we took this opportunity to organise a massive astronomical party on the central plaza of the city, the Zocalo. Over a period of about 6 hrs. we set up a huge astro-party, with free use of over 100 telescopes, where we estimate over 40,000 persons looked through an astronomical telescope at the moon and Saturn, most for the first time in their lives. Numerous stands including a children's games, an Astronomy conference room, and the free distribution of Astronomical material were organised. Here we describe some of the issues associated with the planning and implementation of the event. Coordination issues were complex, involving interaction with divers and numerous authorities, city, national, police, traffic, medical assistance in readiness, aide from other universities, and amateur astronomical societies, which supplied most of the telescopes. An extensive publicity campaign was launched with several weeks of anticipation, and although we had no way of estimating the public response, we were ready with over 800 volunteers at the Zócalo on the 20th of February. The public response was massive and overwhelmingly positive, thousands swarmed the square in a completely peaceful and well organised interaction between Astronomy and society at large, over many complementary levels

  3. The origin of the $\\alpha$-enhancement of massive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Segers, Marijke C; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study the origin of the stellar $\\alpha$-element-to-iron abundance ratio, $[\\alpha/\\mathrm{Fe}]_{\\ast}$, of present-day central galaxies, using cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) project. For galaxies with stellar masses of $M_{\\ast} > 10^{10.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$, $[\\alpha/\\mathrm{Fe}]_{\\ast}$ increases with increasing galaxy stellar mass and age. These trends are in good agreement with observations of early-type galaxies, and are consistent with a `downsizing' galaxy formation scenario: more massive galaxies have formed the bulk of their stars earlier and more rapidly, hence from an interstellar medium (ISM) that was mostly $\\alpha$-enriched by massive stars. In the absence of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN), however, $[\\alpha/\\mathrm{Fe}]_{\\ast}$ in $M_{\\ast} > 10^{10.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$ galaxies is roughly constant with stellar mass and decreases with mean stellar age, extending the trends found for lower-mass galaxies in...

  4. A top-down scenario for the formation of massive Tidal Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, P.-A.; Bournaud, F.; Masset, F.

    2004-12-01

    Among those objects formed out of collisional debris during galaxy mergers, the prominent gaseous accumulations observed near the tip of some long tidal tails are the most likely to survive long enough to form genuine recycled galaxies. Using simple numerical models, \\citet{Bournaud03} claimed that tidal objects as massive as 109 M⊙ could only form, in these simulations, within extended dark matter (DM) haloes. We present here a new set of simulations of galaxy collisions to further investigate the structure of tidal tails. First of all, we checked that massive objects are still produced in full N-body codes that include feedback and a large number of particles. Using a simpler N-body code with rigid haloes, we noticed that dissipation and self-gravity in the tails, although important, are not the key factors. Exploiting toy models, we found that, for truncated DM haloes, material is stretched along the tail, while, within extended haloes, the tidal field can efficiently carry away from the disk a large fraction of the gas, while maintaining its surface density to a high value. This creates a density enhancement near the tip of the tail. Only later-on, self-gravity takes over; the gas clouds collapse and start forming stars. Thus, such objects were fundamentally formed following a kinematical process, according to a top-down scenario, contrary to the less massive Super Star Clusters that are also present around mergers. This conclusion leads us to introduce a restrictive definition for Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDGs) and their progenitors, considering only the most massive ones, initially mostly made of gas, that were able to pile up in the tidal tails. More simulations will be necessary to precisely determine the fate of these proto-TDGs and estimate their number.

  5. Massive Particle Reflection from Moving Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarti, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the reflection of massive particles from moving mirrors. The adoption of the formalism based on the energy-momentum allowed us to derive the most general set of formulas, valid for massive and, in the limit, also for massless particles. We show that the momentum change of the reflecting particle always lies along the normal to the mirror, independent of the mirror speed. The subject is interesting not only to physicists designing concentrators for fascicles of massive particles and electron microscopes but also to computer scientists working in raytracing operating in the photon sector. The paper, far from being only theoretical, has profound and novel practical applications in both domains of engineering design and computer science.

  6. Limited Feedback Precoding for Massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale array antenna system with numerous low-power antennas deployed at the base station, also known as massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO, can provide a plethora of advantages over the classical array antenna system. Precoding is important to exploit massive MIMO performance, and codebook design is crucial due to the limited feedback channel. In this paper, we propose a new avenue of codebook design based on a Kronecker-type approximation of the array correlation structure for the uniform rectangular antenna array, which is preferable for the antenna deployment of massive MIMO. Although the feedback overhead is quite limited, the codebook design can provide an effective solution to support multiple users in different scenarios. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed codebook outperforms the previously known codebooks remarkably.

  7. Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Karami, Asieh; Rostami, Tahereh

    2016-10-01

    We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.

  8. Primordial inhomogeneities from massive defects during inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Rostami, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    We consider the imprints of local massive defects, such as a black hole or a massive monopole, during inflation. The massive defect breaks the background homogeneity. We consider the limit that the physical Schwarzschild radius of the defect is much smaller than the inflationary Hubble radius so a perturbative analysis is allowed. The inhomogeneities induced in scalar and gravitational wave power spectrum are calculated. We obtain the amplitudes of dipole, quadrupole and octupole anisotropies in curvature perturbation power spectrum and identify the relative configuration of the defect to CMB sphere in which large observable dipole asymmetry can be generated. We observe a curious reflection symmetry in which the configuration where the defect is inside the CMB comoving sphere has the same inhomogeneous variance as its mirror configuration where the defect is outside the CMB sphere.

  9. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, Rolf [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J., E-mail: kuiper@mpia.de, E-mail: Harold.W.Yorke@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: Neal.J.Turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.

  10. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass

  11. Rotational Signatures of Disks in Massive Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallscheer, Cassandra L.; Beuther, H.; Zhang, Q.; Sridharan, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    We have obtained multiple data sets from the SMA, PdBI, and IRAM 30m telescope of the massive Infrared Dark Cloud IRDC18223-3 and High-Mass Protostellar Object IRAS18151-1208 in order to look for clues regarding the role of rotation and disks in high mass star formation. Because IRAS 18151-1208 is at a later evolutionary stage than IRDC 18223-3, these two objects allow us to compare the central-most regions surrounding the embedded continuum source at two different periods in the formation process. Toward both regions we see rotational structures perpendicular to molecular outflows. Similarities and differences will be discussed in the context of core and disk evolution.

  12. Massively parallelized replica-exchange simulations of polymers on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Groß, Jonathan; Bachmann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the advantages of parallelization by multithreading on graphics processing units (GPUs) for parallel tempering Monte Carlo computer simulations of an exemplified bead-spring model for homopolymers. Since the sampling of a large ensemble of conformations is a prerequisite for the precise estimation of statistical quantities such as typical indicators for conformational transitions like the peak structure of the specific heat, the advantage of a strong increase in performance of Monte Carlo simulations cannot be overestimated. Employing multithreading and utilizing the massive power of the large number of cores on GPUs, being available in modern but standard graphics cards, we find a rapid increase in efficiency when porting parts of the code from the central processing unit (CPU) to the GPU.

  13. The youngest massive protostars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Sewilo, M; Carlson, L R; Whitney, B; Chen, C -H R; Meixner, M; Robitaille, T; van Loon, J Th; Oliveira, J M; Churchwell, E; Simon, J D; Hony, S; Panuzzo, P; Sauvage, M; Roman-Duval, J; Gordon, K; Engelbracht, C; Misselt, K; Okumura, K; Beck, T; Hora, J; Woods, P M

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the unique capabilities of Herschel to study very young luminous extragalactic young stellar objects (YSOs) by analyzing a central strip of the Large Magellanic Cloud obtained through the HERITAGE Science Demonstration Program. We combine PACS 100 and 160, and SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 microns photometry with 2MASS (1.25-2.17 microns) and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS (3.6-70 microns) to construct complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of compact sources. From these, we identify 207 candidate embedded YSOs in the observed region, ~40% never-before identified. We discuss their position in far-infrared color-magnitude space, comparing with previously studied, spectroscopically confirmed YSOs and maser emission. All have red colors indicating massive cool envelopes and great youth. We analyze four example YSOs, determining their physical properties by fitting their SEDs with radiative transfer models. Fitting full SEDs including the Herschel data requires us to increase the size and mass of envelopes...

  14. Non-thermal emission from Massive Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, E R; Hoare, M G

    2009-01-01

    In the young stellar object (YSO) phase of their lives, massive stars drive bi-polar molecular outflows. These outflows produce beautiful, often hourglass shaped, cavities. The central star possesses a powerful stellar wind (v ~ 2000 km s^-1), and possibly a dense equatorial disk wind (v ~ 400 km s^-1), which collide with the inner surface of the bi-polar cavity and produces hot (T ~ 10^5 - 10^8 K) shocked plasma. A reverse shock is formed at the point where the ram pressure between the preshock flow balances the thermal pressure of the postshock flow and provides a site for the acceleration of non-thermal particles to relativistic energies. Hydrodynamical models of the wind interaction, coupled with calculations of the non-thermal energy spectrum, are used to explore the observable synchrotron and gamma-ray emission from these objects.

  15. SuperB: An opportunity to study baryons with beauty and bottom super-nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliciello, A., E-mail: Alessandro.Feliciello@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    SuperB is an INFN flagship project for a new high-luminosity heavy-flavor factory. Along with its companion detector, it is dedicated to the search for CP violation effects in the B meson sector with the aim of looking for direct and indirect signals of new physics, beyond the Standard Model. However it could offer as well the opportunity for a systematic, high-statistics study of b baryon properties and for a search for bottom super-nuclei, that is bound nuclear systems with an explicit content of beauty.

  16. RESEARCH NOTES On the support of super-Brownian motion with super-Brownian immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文明; 钟惠芳

    2001-01-01

    The support properties of the super Brownian motion with random immigration Xρ1 are considered,where the immigration rate is governed by the trajectory of another super-Brownian motion ρ. When both the initial state Xρo of the process and the immigration rate process ρo are of finite measure and with compact supports, the probability of the support of the process Xρi dominated by a ball is given by the solutions of a singular elliptic boundary value problem.

  17. Super-Resolution Imaging on Microfluidic Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Pei; TANG Lin; ZHANG Dou-Guo; LU Yong-Hua; JIAO Xiao-Jin; XIE Jian-Ping; MING Hai

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present a new concept of the microfluidic super-resolution near-field structure (MSRENS) based on a microfluidic structure and a super-resolution near-field structure. The near-field distance control, "nano-probe"and scanning can be realized simultaneously using the MSRENS, which is similar to a near-field scanning optical microscope. The design and simulation results are presented. Numerical simulation has demonstrated that the MSRENS with spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit could be applicable in chemistry, biologics, and many other fields.

  18. Nonlinear interactions for massive spin-2 fields

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-May, Angnis

    2016-01-01

    We give a basic introduction to ghost-free nonlinear theories involving massive spin-2 fields, focussing on bimetric theory. After motivating the construction of such models from field theoretical considerations, we review the linear theories for massive and massless spin-2 fluctuations propagating on maximally symmetric backgrounds. The structure of general nonlinear spin-2 interactions is explained before we specialise to the ghost-free case. We review the maximally symmetric solutions of bimetric theory, its mass spectrum and the parameter limit which brings the theory close to general relativity. Finally we discuss applications of bimetric theory to cosmology with particular emphasis on the role of the general relativity limit.

  19. Doubly coupled matter fields in massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    In the context of massive (bi-)gravity non-minimal matter couplings have been proposed. These couplings are special in the sense that they are free of the Boulware-Deser ghost below the strong coupling scale and can be used consistently as an effective field theory. Furthermore, they enrich the phenomenology of massive gravity. We consider these couplings in the framework of bimetric gravity and study the cosmological implications for background and linear tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. Previous works have investigated special branch of solutions. Here we perform a complete perturbation analysis for the general background equations of motion completing previous analysis.

  20. Olivier Chesneau's work on massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Millour, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    Olivier Chesneau challenged several fields of observational stellar astrophysics with bright ideas and an impressive amount of work to make them real in the span of his career, from his first paper on P Cygni in 2000, up to his last one on V838 Mon in 2014. He was using all the so-called high-angular resolution techniques since it helped his science to be made, namely study in details the inner structure of the environments around stars, be it small mass (AGBs), more massive (supergiant stars), or explosives (Novae). I will focus here on his work on massive stars.

  1. Topologically Massive Gauge Theory: A Lorentzian Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Saygili, K.

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a lorentzian solution for the topologically massive non-abelian gauge theory on AdS space by means of a SU(1, 1) gauge transformation of the previously found abelian solution. There exists a natural scale of length which is determined by the inverse topological mass. The topological mass is proportional to the square of the gauge coupling constant. In the topologically massive electrodynamics the field strength locally determines the gauge potential up to a closed 1-form via the (an...

  2. Gravity/Fluid Correspondence For Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Wen-Jian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the gravity/fluid correspondence in the framework of massive gravity. Treating the gravitational mass terms as an effective energy-momentum tensor and utilizing the Petrov-like boundary condition on a time-like hypersurface, we find that the perturbation effects of massive gravity in bulk can be completely governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation living on the cutoff surface under the near horizon and non-relativistic limit. Furthermore, in our models, we have concisely computed the ratio of dynamical viscosity to entropy density, and shown that it still satisfies KSS bound.

  3. A Massively Parallel Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahdenoja Olli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present methods for processing the LBPs (local binary patterns with a massively parallel hardware, especially with CNN-UM (cellular nonlinear network-universal machine. In particular, we present a framework for implementing a massively parallel face recognition system, including a dedicated highly accurate algorithm suitable for various types of platforms (e.g., CNN-UM and digital FPGA. We study in detail a dedicated mixed-mode implementation of the algorithm and estimate its implementation cost in the view of its performance and accuracy restrictions.

  4. A Massively Parallel Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Paasio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We present methods for processing the LBPs (local binary patterns with a massively parallel hardware, especially with CNN-UM (cellular nonlinear network-universal machine. In particular, we present a framework for implementing a massively parallel face recognition system, including a dedicated highly accurate algorithm suitable for various types of platforms (e.g., CNN-UM and digital FPGA. We study in detail a dedicated mixed-mode implementation of the algorithm and estimate its implementation cost in the view of its performance and accuracy restrictions.

  5. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau challenged several fields of observational stellar astrophysics with bright ideas and an impressive amount of work to make them real in the span of his career, from his first paper on P Cygni in 2000, up to his last one on V838 Mon in 2014. He was using all the so-called high-angular resolution techniques since it helped his science to be made, namely study in details the inner structure of the environments around stars, be it small mass (AGBs), more massive (supergiant stars), or explosives (Novae). I will focus here on his work on massive stars.

  6. Minimal Massive 3D Gravity Unitarity Redux

    OpenAIRE

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Townsend, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    A geometrical analysis of the bulk and anti-de Sitter boundary unitarity conditions of 3D "Minimal Massive Gravity" (MMG) (which evades the "bulk/boundary clash" of Topologically Massive Gravity) is used to extend and simplify previous results, showing that unitarity selects, up to equivalence, a connected region in parameter space. We also initiate the study of flat-space holography for MMG. Its relevant flat space limit is a deformation of 3D conformal gravity; the deformation is both non-l...

  7. Spin and helicity of massive particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Cheng-Yang

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that helicity is a Lorentz-invariant for massless but not for massive particles. Nevertheless, a satisfactory proof of this fact and a detailed analysis on the relative orientation between the spin and the momentum are not readily available. One such analysis was presented by Wigner where a formula for the angle between the spin and the momentum is derived for massive particle states undergoing two successive boosts in orthogonal directions. However, as we will show, this result is incorrect. Following a similar line of reasoning as presented by Wigner, a new formula is derived.

  8. CSW rules for a massive scalar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boels, Rutger Herman; Schwinn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We derive the analog of the Cachazo-Svrcek-Witten (CSW) diagrammatic Feynman rules for four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge theory coupled to a massive colored scalar. The mass term is shown to give rise to a new tower of vertices in addition to the CSW vertices for massless scalars in non-supersymm......We derive the analog of the Cachazo-Svrcek-Witten (CSW) diagrammatic Feynman rules for four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge theory coupled to a massive colored scalar. The mass term is shown to give rise to a new tower of vertices in addition to the CSW vertices for massless scalars in non...

  9. M32 Analogs? A Population of Massive Ultra Compact Dwarf Galaxies in intermediate redshift CLASH Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of relatively massive, M32-like Ultra Compact Dwarf (UCD) galaxy candidates in $0.2massive galaxy clusters imaged by the CLASH survey. Examining the nearly unresolved objects in the survey, we identify a sample of compact objects concentrated around the brightest cluster galaxies with colors similar to cluster red sequence galaxies. Their colors and magnitudes suggest stellar masses around $10^9 \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$. More than half of these galaxies have half-light radii smaller than 200pc, falling into the category of massive Ultra Compact Dwarfs (UCD), with properties similar to M32. The properties are consistent with a tidal stripping origin, but we can not rule out the possibility that they are early-formed compact objects trapped in massive dark matter halos. The 17 CLASH clusters studied in this work on average contain 2.7 of these objects in the their central 0.3 Mpc and 0.6 in their central 50 kpc. Our study demonstrates the possibility of statistically characteriz...

  10. Hyper-Eddington accretion flows on to massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Haiman, Zoltán; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2016-07-01

    We study very high rate, spherically symmetric accretion flows on to massive black holes (BHs; 102 ≲ MBH ≲ 106 M⊙) embedded in dense metal-poor clouds, performing one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations. We find solutions from outside the Bondi radius at hyper-Eddington rates, unimpeded by radiation feedback when (n∞/105 cm-3) > (MBH/104 M⊙)-1(T∞/104 K)3/2, where n∞ and T∞ are the density and temperature of ambient gas. Accretion rates in this regime are steady, and larger than 5000LEdd/c2, where LEdd is the Eddington luminosity. At lower Bondi rates, the accretion is episodic due to radiative feedback and the average rate is below the Eddington rate. In the hyper-Eddington case, the solution consists of a radiation-dominated central core, where photon trapping due to electron scattering is important, and an accreting envelope which follows a Bondi profile with T ≃ 8000 K. When the emergent luminosity is limited to ≲ LEdd because of photon trapping, radiation from the central region does not affect the gas dynamics at larger scales. We apply our result to the rapid formation of massive BHs in protogalaxies with a virial temperature of Tvir ≳ 104K. Once a seed BH forms at the centre of the galaxy, it can grow to a maximum ˜105(Tvir/104 K) M⊙ via gas accretion independent of the initial BH mass. Finally, we discuss possible observational signatures of rapidly accreting BHs with/without allowance for dust. We suggest that these systems could explain Lyα emitters without X-rays and nearby luminous infrared sources with hot dust emission, respectively.

  11. Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholl, M; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; McCrum, M; Kotak, R; Fraser, M; Wright, D; Chen, T -W; Smith, K; Young, D R; Sim, S A; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Tonry, J L; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Pastorello, A; Tomasella, L; Cappellaro, E; Benetti, S; Mattila, S; Kankare, E; Kangas, T; Leloudas, G; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Berger, E; Chornock, R; Narayan, G; Stubbs, C W; Foley, R J; Lunnan, R; Soderberg, A; Sanders, N; Milisavljevic, D; Margutti, R; Kirshner, R P; Elias-Rosa, N; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Taubenberger, S; Botticella, M T; Gezari, S; Urata, Y; Rodney, S; Riess, A G; Scolnic, D; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H A; Magnier, E A; Kaiser, N; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J; Price, P A; Sweeney, W; Waters, C

    2013-01-01

    Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10^44 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-30 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of 56Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to 56Fe via 56Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae...

  12. Gj 832c: A super-Earth in the habitable zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Marshall, J. P.; Bailey, J.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tuomi, Mikko; Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Butler, R. P.; Arriagada, P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Anglada-Escudé, Guillem [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Carter, B. D. [Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); O' Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Crane, J. D.; Schectman, S. A.; Thompson, I. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Minniti, D. [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Jenkins, J. S.; Diaz, M., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Casilla 36-D, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-08-20

    We report the detection of GJ 832c, a super-Earth orbiting near the inner edge of the habitable zone of GJ 832, an M dwarf previously known to host a Jupiter analog in a nearly circular 9.4 yr orbit. The combination of precise radial-velocity measurements from three telescopes reveals the presence of a planet with a period of 35.68 ± 0.03 days and minimum mass (m sin i) of 5.4 ± 1.0 Earth masses. GJ 832c moves on a low-eccentricity orbit (e = 0.18 ± 0.13) toward the inner edge of the habitable zone. However, given the large mass of the planet, it seems likely that it would possess a massive atmosphere, which may well render the planet inhospitable. Indeed, it is perhaps more likely that GJ 832c is a 'super-Venus', featuring significant greenhouse forcing. With an outer giant planet and an interior, potentially rocky planet, the GJ 832 planetary system can be thought of as a miniature version of our own solar system.

  13. Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M; Smartt, S J; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; McCrum, M; Kotak, R; Fraser, M; Wright, D; Chen, T-W; Smith, K; Young, D R; Sim, S A; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Tonry, J L; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Pastorello, A; Tomasella, L; Cappellaro, E; Benetti, S; Mattila, S; Kankare, E; Kangas, T; Leloudas, G; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Berger, E; Chornock, R; Narayan, G; Stubbs, C W; Foley, R J; Lunnan, R; Soderberg, A; Sanders, N; Milisavljevic, D; Margutti, R; Kirshner, R P; Elias-Rosa, N; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Taubenberger, S; Botticella, M T; Gezari, S; Urata, Y; Rodney, S; Riess, A G; Scolnic, D; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H A; Magnier, E A; Kaiser, N; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J; Price, P A; Sweeney, W; Waters, C

    2013-10-17

    Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10(44) ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of (56)Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to (56)Fe via (56)Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae, which are not powered by radioactivity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 × 10(-6) times that of the core-collapse rate. PMID:24132291

  14. Water cycling between ocean and mantle: Super-earths need not be waterworlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water partitioning on terrestrial planets. Critically, hydrostatic seafloor pressure is proportional to surface gravity, so super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store more water in the mantle. We conclude that a tectonically active terrestrial planet of any mass can maintain exposed continents if its water mass fraction is less than ∼0.2%, dramatically increasing the odds that super-Earths are habitable. The greatest source of uncertainty in our study is Earth's current mantle water inventory: the greater its value, the more robust planets are to inundation. Lastly, we discuss how future missions can test our hypothesis by mapping the oceans and continents of massive terrestrial planets.

  15. Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Inserra, C.; McCrum, M.; Kotak, R.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Chen, T.-W.; Smith, K.; Young, D. R.; Sim, S. A.; Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Tonry, J. L.; Huber, M. E.; Rest, A.; Pastorello, A.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Kangas, T.; Leloudas, G.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Narayan, G.; Stubbs, C. W.; Foley, R. J.; Lunnan, R.; Soderberg, A.; Sanders, N.; Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Gezari, S.; Urata, Y.; Rodney, S.; Riess, A. G.; Scolnic, D.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K.; Flewelling, H. A.; Magnier, E. A.; Kaiser, N.; Metcalfe, N.; Morgan, J.; Price, P. A.; Sweeney, W.; Waters, C.

    2013-10-01

    Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 1044 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of `pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of 56Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to 56Fe via 56Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae, which are not powered by radioactivity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 × 10-6 times that of the core-collapse rate.

  16. Super-Eddington stellar winds driven by near-surface energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quataert, Eliot; Fernández, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel; Klion, Hannah; Paxton, Bill

    2016-05-01

    We develop analytic and numerical models of the properties of super-Eddington stellar winds, motivated by phases in stellar evolution when super-Eddington energy deposition (via, e.g. unstable fusion, wave heating, or a binary companion) heats a region near the stellar surface. This appears to occur in the giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBVs), Type IIn supernovae progenitors, classical novae, and X-ray bursts. We show that when the wind kinetic power exceeds Eddington, the photons are trapped and behave like a fluid. Convection does not play a significant role in the wind energy transport. The wind properties depend on the ratio of a characteristic speed in the problem v_crit˜ (dot{E} G)^{1/5} (where dot{E} is the heating rate) to the stellar escape speed near the heating region vesc(rh). For vcrit ≳ vesc(rh), the wind kinetic power at large radii dot{E}_w ˜ dot{E}. For vcrit ≲ vesc(rh), most of the energy is used to unbind the wind material and thus dot{E}_w ≲ dot{E}. Multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations without radiation diffusion using FLASH and one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with radiation diffusion using MESA are in good agreement with the analytic predictions. The photon luminosity from the wind is itself super-Eddington but in many cases the photon luminosity is likely dominated by `internal shocks' in the wind. We discuss the application of our models to eruptive mass-loss from massive stars and argue that the wind models described here can account for the broad properties of LBV outflows and the enhanced mass-loss in the years prior to Type IIn core-collapse supernovae.

  17. Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M; Smartt, S J; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; McCrum, M; Kotak, R; Fraser, M; Wright, D; Chen, T-W; Smith, K; Young, D R; Sim, S A; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Tonry, J L; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Pastorello, A; Tomasella, L; Cappellaro, E; Benetti, S; Mattila, S; Kankare, E; Kangas, T; Leloudas, G; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Berger, E; Chornock, R; Narayan, G; Stubbs, C W; Foley, R J; Lunnan, R; Soderberg, A; Sanders, N; Milisavljevic, D; Margutti, R; Kirshner, R P; Elias-Rosa, N; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Taubenberger, S; Botticella, M T; Gezari, S; Urata, Y; Rodney, S; Riess, A G; Scolnic, D; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H A; Magnier, E A; Kaiser, N; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J; Price, P A; Sweeney, W; Waters, C

    2013-10-17

    Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10(44) ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of (56)Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to (56)Fe via (56)Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae, which are not powered by radioactivity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 × 10(-6) times that of the core-collapse rate.

  18. Water cycling between ocean and mantle: Super-earths need not be waterworlds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Large terrestrial planets are expected to have muted topography and deep oceans, implying that most super-Earths should be entirely covered in water, so-called waterworlds. This is important because waterworlds lack a silicate weathering thermostat so their climate is predicted to be less stable than that of planets with exposed continents. In other words, the continuously habitable zone for waterworlds is much narrower than for Earth-like planets. A planet's water is partitioned, however, between a surface reservoir, the ocean, and an interior reservoir, the mantle. Plate tectonics transports water between these reservoirs on geological timescales. Degassing of melt at mid-ocean ridges and serpentinization of oceanic crust depend negatively and positively on seafloor pressure, respectively, providing a stabilizing feedback on long-term ocean volume. Motivated by Earth's approximately steady-state deep water cycle, we develop a two-box model of the hydrosphere and derive steady-state solutions to the water partitioning on terrestrial planets. Critically, hydrostatic seafloor pressure is proportional to surface gravity, so super-Earths with a deep water cycle will tend to store more water in the mantle. We conclude that a tectonically active terrestrial planet of any mass can maintain exposed continents if its water mass fraction is less than ∼0.2%, dramatically increasing the odds that super-Earths are habitable. The greatest source of uncertainty in our study is Earth's current mantle water inventory: the greater its value, the more robust planets are to inundation. Lastly, we discuss how future missions can test our hypothesis by mapping the oceans and continents of massive terrestrial planets.

  19. The Robotic Super-LOTIS Telescope: Results & Future Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, G. G.; Milne, P. A.; Park, H.S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Hartmann, D. H.; Updike, A.; Hurley, K.

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the robotic Super-LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) telescope and present results from gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow observations using Super-LOTIS and other Steward Observatory telescopes. The 0.6-m Super-LOTIS telescope is a fully robotic system dedicated to the measurement of prompt and early time optical emission from GRBs. The system began routine operations from its Steward Observatory site atop Kitt Peak in April 2000 and currently operates ...

  20. From Super-Hyper nuclei to Strange Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both theoretical investigations of and experimental searches for not only super-hypernuclei (or long lived hyperstrange multiquark droplets,strangelets , or strange quark matter) consisting of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks, but also super-hypernuclear matter in bulk (or quark nuggetsor strange matter) (in the early Universe or inside neutron stars) and strange stars made of super-hypernuclear matter are reviewed and discussed in some detail