Sample records for central siberian pine

  1. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.


    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  2. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

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    N. M. Debkov


    Full Text Available A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of new Siberian stone pine forests near settlements is proposed.

  3. Factors Influencing Formation of the Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Northern Taiga

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    V. N. Sedykh


    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of seed productive Siberian stone pine stands near settlements, due to the total destruction of the living ground cover and forest litter, providing heat influx in the root-inhabited zone of the Siberian stone pine trees is discussed in the paper.

  4. Phytophagous insects in a siberian stone pine clone archive

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    S.A. Krivets


    Full Text Available This study was carried on in a Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour clone archive located in the south of the Tomsk Region. Fourteen species of phytophagous insect pests were found in this clonal archive.Pineus cembrae is the most frequent insect in the clone archive colonizing the buds, needles and the bark of the young shoots. Of allpolyphagues insects, the scarab beetle Melolontha hippocastani Fab. and summer chafer Rhizotrogus solstitialis L. have the most destructive effect in the clone archive. Their larvae eat the roots of young plants. The larvae of elaters Agrypnus murinus L. and Selatosomus aeneus L. and weevil Otiorhynchus ovatus L. are potentially dangerousfor the plant host roots. All found insect species in the clone archive are also widely spread in natural and man-made coniferous forests from the Tomsk Region. Their destructive activity in the clone archive may result in serious consequences. They should be controlled by means of pathological methods.

  5. [Efficiency of Siberian pine oil in complex treating of people ill with benign hypertension]. (United States)

    Bakhtin, Iu V; Budaeva, V V; Vereshchagin, A L; Egorova, E Iu; Zhukova, E Iu; Saratikov, A S


    For people ill with benign hypertension and going through basis hypotensive therapy, taking in Siberian pine nut oil as much as 17,5 g per day, is accompanied by cholesterol-lessening effect, normalization of lipid spectrum of blood, systolic (maximum) benign pressure and lessening of surplus body mass.

  6. Carbohydrate accumulation in the needles of Siberian stone pine seedlings

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    A. Panov


    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented is to study effects extracted from biologically active peat substances on carbohydrate accumulationprocesses. The study was carried out on 5-year-old Siberian stone pine seedlings grown in the nursery forest in the southern part of the Tomsk region. These seedlings were treated with a peat preparation, which was created in Tomsk. Four groups of experimental plants were organized on the analog principle. Each group consisted of 30 seedlings of average size and half of these seedlings were control. At the beginning of the vegetative season, a single treatment was applied to experimental plants with water solution peat preparation. The first group of plants was treated with a 0.1% solution; the dose was calculated by dry substance. For the second group, the dose was increased by 25%. For the third and fourth groups, the dose was decreased by 25% relative to the first group. Control plants were sprayed with water. Accumulation of carbohydrates and pigments as well as growth values in the 2-year- old needles were studied by standard methods. Glucose levels in the experimental plants existed within the limits 117-120%. On the whole, simple sugar quantity did not differs between experimental variants.Glucose synthesis was accompanied by changes in quantitative values of fructose. This, connected with glucose being a more stable compound, and compulsory conversion from glucose to labile form fructose was necessary. The amount of fructose in the experimental seedlings had a very wide range. This process was accompanied by shoot elongationin Siberian stone pine in the first year after treatment, with the fructose amount of 14% exceeding control values in the first and fourth group. Shoot growth was accompanied by increased fructose amount to 20% relative to control. A similar situation was observed afterwinter with respect to buds. Experimental plants dominated by number of buds

  7. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles]. (United States)

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V


    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine.

  8. Development of Cytoplasmatic SSR-Markers for Population Genetic Studies of the Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus Sibirica Du Tour

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    Е. А. Shilkina


    Full Text Available Three chloroplast and one mitochondrial DNA markers were developed and used for genotyping of 60 trees in two populations of the Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour. Two chloroplast loci were monomorphic in both populations, and one polymorphic with two alleles. Therefore, four chloroplast haplotypes were revealed totally. A mitochondrial DNA marker had two alleles or haplotypes (mitotypes.

  9. Variability of needle structure in Siberian stone pine in provenance plantations

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    O. Bender


    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour is one of the most common trees in Siberia. Its natural range is from the Ural Mountains to the Aldan river and from the Arctic Circle to northern Mongolia. The climate in natural Siberian stone pine sites influences the whole plant organism, particularly its needle structure, and the response to thisoccurs at specific morphological and anatomical levels. The genotypical and environmental effects on needle structure in different Siberianstone pine ecotypes are very little known. One effective way to examine and to separate genotypical effects from environmental ones is byusing a common garden experiment. The purpose is to analyze morphological and anatomical needle variability in Siberian stone pinemarginal populations that have been grown in provenance plantations in southern West Siberia, Russia. The needle samples were collectedin the provenance plantation located 30 km south of Tomsk (the southeastern West Siberian Plain, southern limit of the taiga zone,optimum site conditions for Siberian stone pine. We investigated the grafts of mother trees taken from natural sites. Four ecotypeswere selected for the study. Three ecotypes originated from northern (Urengoy, western (Neviyansk, and eastern (Severobaikalskmarginal populations. The fourth, the Tomsk ecotype, was a local control. The local Tomsk ecotype grows on a site where natural conditions are worse due to reduction of mean annual temperature and increase of the humid factor northward, humidity reduction eastward and its rise westward. Variability of 10 needle morphologicaland anatomical characteristics was studied. The northern ecotype had smaller needle length (28%, leaf cross-section area (21%, mesophyll area (29%, mesophyll cell size (27%, and conducting bundle area (16% but the number of stomata per unit leaf area increased by 16% over the local Tomsk ecotype. The resin canal area, epidermal andhypodermal

  10. Resistance to Fungal Diseases of the Siberian (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Korean (Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. Stone Pines in the Provenance Trails at the South of Krasnoyarsk Territory

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    I. D. Grodnitskaya


    Full Text Available The reason of the epiphytoty in the provenance trials of the Siberian (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Korean (Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. stone pines in the foothills of the Western Sayan (south of Krasnoyarsk territory was established. The cause of stone pine needles drying was disease – grey pine-leaf cast (grey Schutte. The causative agent was pathogenic fungus Lophodermella sulcigena. The Siberian stone pine trees of Tashtagolskii climate type were drying (fatally to the greatest extent (21 %. The populations of the Korean stone pine showed higher resistance to fungal infections comparing to the Siberian stone pine climate type.

  11. Climate-Induced Mortality of Siberian Pine and Fir in the Lake Baikal Watershed, Siberia (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrova, IIya A.; Golyukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Yagunov, Mikhail N.


    Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and fir (Abies sibirica) (so called "dark needle conifers", DNC) showed decreased radial growth increment within the Lake Baikal watershed since the 1980s with increasing mortality recorded since the year 2000. Tree ring width was strongly correlated with vapor pressure deficit, aridity and root zone moisture. Water stress from droughts made trees more susceptible to insect attacks causing mortality in about 10% of DNC stands within the Lake Baikal watershed. Within Siberia DNC mortality increased in the southern part of the DNC range. Biogeographically, tree mortality was located within the DNC - forest-steppes transition. Tree mortality was significantly correlated with drought and soil moisture anomalies. Within the interior of the DNC range mortality occurred within relief features with high water stress risk (i.e., steep convex south facing slopes with shallow well-drained soils). In general, DNC mortality in Siberia was induced by increased aridity and severe drought (inciting factors) in synergy with biotic attacks (contributing factor). In future climate scenarios with predicted increase in aridity DNC could be eliminated from the southern part of its current range and will be replaced by drought-resistant conifers and broadleaf species (e.g., Larix sibirica, Pinus silvestris, and Betula pubescence).

  12. Preliminary Results of De Novo Whole Genome Sequencing of the Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. and the Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour

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    K. V. Krutovsky


    Full Text Available The Illumina HiSeq2000 DNA sequencing generated 2 906 977 265 high quality paired-end nucleotide sequences (reads and 576 Gbp for Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb. that corresponds to 48X coverage of the larch genome (12.03 Gbp, and 3 427 566 813 reads and 679 Gbp for Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour that corresponds to 29X coverage of its genome (23.6 Gbp. These data are not enough to assemble and annotate whole genomes, but the obtained nucleotide sequences have allowed us to discover and develop effective highly polymorphic molecular genetic markers, such as microsatellite loci that are required for population genetic studies and identification of the timber origin. Sequence data can be used also to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genomic studies of Russian boreal forests and major phytopathogens associated with them will also allow us to identify biomarkers that can be used for solving important scientific and economic problems related to the conservation of forest genetic resources and breeding more resilient and fast growing trees with improved timber and resistance to diseases and adverse environmental factors.

  13. Variability of Growth Indicators and Generative Development of the Siberian and Korean Stone Pines at the Plantation in the «Green Zone» of Krasnoyarsk City

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    R. N. Matveeva


    Full Text Available The growth and seed production of Siberian and Korean stone pines at the age of 24–41 years in the «Izvestkovaya» plantation, located in the area of educational and experimental forest enterprise of the Siberian State Technological University (so-called «Green Zone» of Krasnoyarsk City were analyzed. It has been found that Korean stone pine (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. is behind of Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour in growth rate, the formation of cones and microstrobiles. Inter-and intraspecific variation in the formation of tree crown, cones and seeds size were significant, which allowed selection of individual trees with better reproduction characteristics.

  14. Long-term trends in radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in Komi Republic (northwestern Russia)

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    Lopatin, E. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)); Kolstroem, T. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)); Spiecker, H. (Univ. of Freiburg (Germany))


    Komi is situated on the eastern boundary of the European part of Russia, in the boreal region where large areas of natural forest still exist. Using radial growth measurements it was possible to attain positive long-term trends of growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) in the Komi Republic. Increases in the radial growth of Siberian spruce in the forest-tundra were 134% and in the northern taiga zone 35% over successive 50-year periods from 1901 to 1950 and from 1951 to 2000. Respectively, in the middle taiga zone a 76% increase in radial growth was found (over 100 years), whilst in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The increase in radial growth of Scots pine in the northern taiga zone was 32%. In the middle taiga zone the radial growth increase in Scots pine was 55% and in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The long-term growth trends of Komi were compared with those in other parts of Europe. (orig.)

  15. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

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    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056


    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.



    D. P. Gladkochub; T. V. Donskaya; Shihong Zhang; S. A. Pisarevsky; A. M. Stanevich; A. M. Mazukabzov; Z. L. Motova


    The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC) is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO). Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB) on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan ...

  17. Dipole low at the Permo-Triassic boundary? New paleomagnetic data from the central Siberian Traps (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Qin, H.; He, H.; Ivanov, A.; Cai, S.; Liu, C.; Paterson, G. A.; Zhu, R.


    Variations of the Earth's magnetic field throughout geological time provide important constraints on the dynamics of Earth's core, mantle convection and the thermal structure of core-mantle boundary of the planet. Plume formation at the core-mantle boundary and upwelling can dramatically alter thermo-chemical conditions at the boundary layer and may lead to changes in the geodynamo and hence the geomagnetic field. The Siberian Trap large igneous province (LIP), one of the largest LIPs in the world with an enormous size of ~7*10^6 km^2 and volume of ~4*10^6 km^3, is recognized as the product of a mantle plume that originated at the core-mantle boundary and was emplaced around 250 Ma. Paleomagnetic study of the Siberian Traps provides us great opportunities for probing the behavior of the geomagnetic field and various related geological processes around the Permo-Traissic boundary. We have carried out a comprehensive paleomagnetic and geochronologic investigation on a lava sequence near the Tura settlement in the central Siberian Traps. More than 240 oriented paleomagnetic cores were collected from 27 sites/flows. Rock magnetic experiments indicate low-T titanomagnetites are main remanent carriers. Paleodirections obtained by thermal demagnetization are relatively scattered, but yield a normal polarity with a paleomagentic pole that is consistent with previous reported poles from the Siberian Traps. Custom made mini-sample holders were used for paleointensity determination, which significantly enhance the experimental efficiency. Preliminary results of absolute paleointensity experiments using the Thellier-Coe method indicate that the strength of geomagnetic field recorded is only about one-third of the present-day field value at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Paleointensity determinations using the IZZI protocol are pending. Some petrologic alteration influences are discussed. Together with available direction and intensity data in the Siberian Traps as well as our

  18. Intra-stand variation of cone structure and seed production in Siberian stone pine: pattern and use for breeding

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    V.S. Akimov


    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour in Russia is primarily valued as a nut-bearing species. Therefore, intra-standvariation in its cone structure and seed production have been actively studied during the last 50 years. However, these studies arepoorly related to practical breeding. We used a novel system of traits to characterize yearly seed crops at the different levels of itsstructural organization. The purpose is to analyze the results of long-term observations of the intra-stand variation of the reproductivefeatures complex, and to reveal the pattern and character of its diversity. This information would be useful to develop the method ofsearching the initial material for breeding. The research plot is established in the Nizhne-Sechenovo forest located 25 km fromTomsk in the south part of the boreal zone (170 years old, mean height 22 m, mean d.b.h. 60 cm. The number of sampled trees variedbetween 40-120 among years. The registration of seed crop and analysis of its structure was conducted every year from 1990 to 2005. Theintra-stand variation of the traits' level was determined as a standard deviation in percent from the simple average. The level ofvariability rose sharply and the correlations between them decreased in the years of the low crops. The results concerning variation in seedand cone traits are listed in the next table. The number of full seeds depended rather on losses in the processes of development (r =0.80*-0.85* than on their starting number (r =0.55*-0.60*. The mass of one seed with sound endosperm rose with an increase in the ratio ofthe ovules, which were lost at the earlier stagesof development (r = 0.20-0.25* and the flat seed ratio (r = 0.35*-0.40*. In year-to-year dynamics, the number of cones per tree ispositively connected with the number of filled seeds per cone (r = 0.78* and with other indices characterizing 'the crop quality'.The breeding rank of trees by all important


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    D. P. Gladkochub


    Full Text Available The origin of the Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, especially of its northern segment nearby the southern margin of the Siberian craton (SC is directly related to development and closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (PAO. Signatures of early stages of the PAO evolution are recorded in the Late Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Sayan-Baikal-Patom Belt (SBPB on the southern edge of SC. These successions are spread over 2000 km and can be traced along this edge from north-west (Sayan area to south-east (Baikal area and further to north-east (Patom area. Here we present the synthesis of all available and reliable LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronological studies of detrital zircons from these sedimentary successions.

  20. [Specific features of development of the male generative organs in clones of the Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica De Tour) of different origins in the Krasnoiarsk forest-steppe]. (United States)

    Kuznetsova, G V


    The development of male generative organs of the Siberian stone pine clones of different origin was analyzed in the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe for many years. Geographical and individual variability was described as concerns the number of microstrobils and pollen variability. The beginning of "flowering", abundance of microstrobils, and their regular formation were shown to markedly vary and, all other conditions being equal, be determined by the presence of clones, their hereditary features, and environmental conditions, as well by the influence of stock.

  1. Protected areas of the central Siberian Arctic: History, status, and prospects (United States)

    Andrei P. Laletin; Dmitry V. Vladyshevskii; Alexei D. Vladyshevskii


    Before the Siberian Arctic was incorporated into the Russian Empire, it had been inhabited by small numbers of indigenous peoples. The first Russian settlers came to Siberia in the 16th century. The northern areas of Siberia had not been subjected to extreme anthropogenic influences before the Norilsk Industrial Complex started to be built in 1935. Negative...

  2. Southern pine beetles in central hardwood forests: frequency, spatial extent, and changes to forest structure (United States)

    John Nowak; Kier Klepzig; D R Coyle; William Carothers; Kamal J K Gandhi


    EXCERPT FROM: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range Variation 2015. The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a major disturbance in pine forests throughout the range of southern yellow pines, and is a significant influence on forests throughout several Central Hardwood Region (CHR) ecoregions...

  3. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Afforestation at the South of Central Siberia (To 55 Years of Foundation of Khakass Erosion Preventive Station of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch

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    A. I. Lobanov


    Full Text Available Results of fundamental and applied studies of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch and the Research Institute for Agrarian Problems of Khakassia, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations of Russia in soil deflation control using management, also agrotechnological and agroafforestation measures, have been given in this scientific review. These activities were undertaken for 55 years. It was established that an average annual humus loss on arable lands in the south of Central Siberia made 1.6 t per 1 ha in the result of soil erosion. The system of usage and protection of soils subjected to erosion has been considered which covers the net of forest shelter belts, strip planting of agricultural crops, application of soil protective farming equipment and fertilizing. In the result of complex studies of soils prone to erosion the following activities were worked out: the way for fertility increase of sandy-loam soils by deep application of organic fertilizers; the way for growing the Siberian larch shelter forests; the way for growing the shelter stands using diagonally- wide meshed construction; the way for growing stands on slope pastures; the technology for growing the two-row shelter forests with a wide row- spacing; ways for growing stands for cattle-breeding purpose; ways for growing massive Scots pine stands; principles of choice of trees and bushes for shelter forests; the main standards for evaluation of linear steppe stands in the south of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Khakass Republic and the Republic of Tyva; concept for growing a new generation of shelter forests ect. Protective forest stands established in the south of Central Siberia in the area more than 50 thousand ha are shown to give a new environmental effect resulting in an increase of soil fertility and crop capacity. Studies of tactical and perspective levels have been shown in the paper, realization of which will promote solving the problems of

  4. Siberian Ginseng (United States)

    ... hardening of the arteries," rheumatic heart disease, or history of heart attack) should use Siberian ginseng only ... Elavil), clozapine (Clozaril), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac), meperidine (Demerol), methadone ( ...

  5. The Central Pine Barrens of Long Island, New York - Steps to improve community preparedness for wildfire (United States)

    Rachel Hudson; Kristen Nelson; Erika Lang


    This handout provides cooperators and high fire risk communities in the area in and around the central pine barrens of Long Island, New York examples of steps to take to increase wildfire preparedness.

  6. Singly applied herbicides for site preparation and release of loblolly pine in central Georgia (United States)

    James H. Miller; M. Boyd Edwards


    Abstract.Separate studies were installed to evaluate site-preparation and release herbicide treatments for loblolly pine.(Pinus taeda L.).Tests were at four locations each on the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of central Georgia.

  7. Analysis of genetic relationships of Central American and Mexican pines using RAPD markers that distinguish species


    Furman, Burford J.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Dvorak, William S.; O'Malley, David M.


    Phylogenetic relationships were inferred for six Central American and Mexican pine species by analysing RAPD marker differences among pooled DNA samples. This population level pooling strategy discounts low-frequency allelic variation within taxa, thus obtaining a ‘cumulative genotype’ to compare among taxa. We used the morphologically based taxonomy of pines as the basis for inference concerning molecular marker divergence. Only RAPD polymorphisms that were repeatable and inte...

  8. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

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    Amalesh Dhar


    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  9. Witches' brooms in Siberian stone pine as somatic mutations and initial genetic material for breeding of nut-bearing and ornamental cultivars

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    M. S. Yamburov


    Full Text Available For the raising of the Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour nut-bearing and ornamental cultivars, the most important traits are adense crown, slow growth and precocity. Generative mutations of this kind are eliminated by natural selection, therefore, somatic mutationrsearch is important. Among somatic mutations, the most promising one is the so-called 'witches' brooms' (WB where crown fragments demonstrate slowed growth and intensive branching. WB occasionally occurs in native populations. According to phytopathology textbooks, WB are caused by various pathogen species (viruses, mycoplasmas, fungi. The WB of this kind are characterized by a sickly look, full suppression of reproductive functions, a short life and a nidus patternof distribution. There are also WB of different types: with a high vitality and fertility, a long life and sporadic distribution. They occur very rarely(about 1 per 10 000 trees across the species' range. We investigated 18 trees with WB of this type. The size of WB ranged from 0.3 to 30 m, age varied from 30 to 300 years. Male cones were absent inall WB. Female cone initiation was normal if the WB was located in the top part of a crown. Scions from WB and a normal crown (NC of the same tree were grafted on identical rootstocks. On average,the height of 7-year-old WB grafts (WBG was 2 times lower, and the stem diameter was 2 times higher than in the NC grafts (NCG. It wasachieved due to the fundamental differences in the shoot system morphogenesis. Here are three principal differences in decreasing order of importance: (i WBGs were characterized by the absence or near absence of apical dominance. The NCG had no more than 3 orders of branching, and the length of the 1st order axis was on average 5times larger than the axis of the 3rd order. The WBG had 6-7 orders of branching, and the length of shoots of 5-6th orders averaged 80-90% of the length of the first orders. (ii At an

  10. Fire history reflects human history in the Pine Creek Gorge of north-central Pennsylvania (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Richard P. Guyette; Joseph M. Marschall; Michael C. Stambaugh


    Fire history studies are important tools for understanding past fire regimes and the roles humans played in those regimes. Beginning in 2010, we conducted a fire history study in the Pine Creek Gorge area of north-central Pennsylvania to ascertain the number of fires and fire-free intervals, their variability through time, and the role of human influences. We collected...

  11. Twenty-year growth of ponderosa pine saplings thinned to five spacings in central Oregon. (United States)

    Barrett James W.


    Diameter, height, and volume growth and yield are given for plots thinned to 1000, 500, 250, 125, and 62 trees per acre in a 40- to 70-year-old stand of suppressed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) saplings in central Oregon. Trees averaged about 1-inch in diameter and 8 feet in height at the time of thinning. Considerations for...

  12. Ponderosa pine growth response to soil strength in the volcanic ash soils of central Oregon. (United States)

    R.T. Parker; D.A. Maguire; D.D. Marshall; P. Cochran


    Mechanical harvesting and associated logging activities have the capacity to compact soil across large portions of harvest units. Two thinning treatments (felled only versus felled and skidded) in 70- to 80-year-old ponderosa pine stands were replicated at three sites with volcanic soils in central Oregon. Growth in diameter, height, and volume of residual trees were...

  13. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.


    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  14. Effects of Dwarf Mistletoe on Stand Structure of Lodgepole Pine Forests 21-28 Years Post-Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Central Oregon (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C.; Shaw, David C.; Woolley, Travis J.; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E.


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21–28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  15. Comparison of planted loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine development through 10 growing seasons in central Louisiana--an argument for longleaf pine (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Mary Anne S. Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung


    Two studies were established in central Louisiana to compare development of planted loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), longleaf (P. palustris Mill.), and slash (P. elliottii Engelm.) pine. Study 1 was on a Beauregard silt loam, and Study 2 was on Ruston and McKamie fine sandy loams. After 10 growing seasons,...

  16. Comparison of CO2 fluxes in a larch forest on permafrost and a pine forest on non-permafrost soils in Central Siberia (United States)

    Zyryanov, V.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Nakai, Y.; Zyryanova, O.; Parfenova, E. I.; Matsuura, Y.; Vygodskaya, N.


    Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy, water and carbon fluxes and associated climate variables in a middle taiga pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest on warm sandy soils and a northern taiga larch (Larix gmelini) forest on permafrost in Central Siberia were studied from eddy covariance measurements obtained during growing seasons of 1998-2000 and 2004-2008 (except 2006) respectively. Both naturally regenerated after fire forests grew in different environments and differed by their tree stand characteristics. The pure Gmelin larch stand was 105 yr old, stem density of living trees was about 5480 trees/ha, LAI was 0.6 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 0.0044 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 7.1 cm and mean tree height 6.8 m. The pure Scots pine stand was 215 yr old, stand structure was relatively homogenous with a stem density of 468 living trees/ha, LAI was 1.5 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 10.7 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 28 cm and mean tree height 23 m. The climatic and soil conditions of these ecosystems were very distinctive. The habitat of the larch forest was much colder and dryer than that of the pine forest: the growing season was 1 month shorter and growing-degree days 200°C less and winters were about one month longer and colder with January temperature -37°C versus -23°C; annual precipitation was 400 mm in the larch versus 650 mm in the pine forest and maximal snow pack was 40 cm vs 70 cm. The soils were Gelisols with permafrost table within the upper 1 m in the larch stand and Pergelic Cryochrept, alluvial sandy soil with no underlying permafrost. Average daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was significantly smaller in the larch ecosystem - (-3-6) μmol/m2s compared to that in the pine forest (-7-8) μmol/m2s, however daily maximal NEE was about the same. Seasonal NEE in the larch forest on continuous permafrost varied from -53 to -107 and in the pine forest on non-permafrost from -180 to

  17. Paleomagnetic study of Cenozoic sediments from the Zaisan basin (SE Kazakhstan) and the Chuya depression (Siberian Altai): tectonic implications for central Asia (United States)

    Thomas, J. C.; Lanza, R.; Kazansky, A.; Zykin, V.; Semakov, N.; Mitrokhin, D.; Delvaux, D.


    This paper presents new paleomagnetic results on Cenozoic rocks from northern central Asia. Eighteen sites were sampled in Pliocene to Miocene clays and sandy clays of the Zaisan basin (southeastern Kazakhstan) and 12 sites in the upper Oligocene to Pleistocene clays and sandstones of the Chuya depression (Siberian Altai). Thermal demagnetization of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) showed that hematite and magnetite are the main ferromagnetic minerals in the deposits of the Zaisan basin. Stepwise thermal demagnetization up to 640-660 °C isolated a characteristic (ChRM) component of either normal or reverse polarity at nine sites. At two other sites, the great circles convergence method yielded a definite direction. Measurements of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility showed that the hematite-bearing sediments preserved their depositional fabric. These results suggest a primary origin of the ChRM and were substantiated by positive fold and reversal tests. The mean paleomagnetic direction for the Zaisan basin ( D=9°, I=59°, k=19, α95=11°) is close to the expected direction derived from the APW path of Eurasia [J. Geophys. Res. 96 (1991) 4029] and shows that the basin did not rotated relative to stable Asia during the Tertiary. In the upper Pliocene-Pleistocene sandstones of the Chuya depression, a very stable ChRM carried by hematite was found. Its mean direction ( D=9°, I=46°, k=25, α95=7°) is characterized by declination close to the one excepted for early Quaternary, whereas inclination is lower. In the middle Miocene to lower Pliocene clays and sandstones, a stable ChRM of both normal and reverse polarities carried by magnetite was isolated. Its mean direction ( D=332°, I=63°, k=31, α95=4°) is deviated with respect to the reference direction and implies a Neogene, 39±8° counterclockwise rotation of the Chuya depression relative to stable Asia. These results and those from the literature suggest that the different amount of rotation

  18. Sea-air exchange patterns along the central and outer East Siberian Arctic Shelf as inferred from continuous CO2, stable isotope, and bulk chemistry measurements (United States)

    Humborg, Christoph; Geibel, Marc C.; Anderson, Leif G.; Björk, Göran; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Sundbom, Marcus; Thornton, Brett F.; Deutsch, Barbara; Gustafsson, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo; Ek, Jörgen; Semiletov, Igor


    This large-scale quasi-synoptic study gives a comprehensive picture of sea-air CO2 fluxes during the melt season in the central and outer Laptev Sea (LS) and East Siberian Sea (ESS). During a 7 week cruise we compiled a continuous record of both surface water and air CO2 concentrations, in total 76,892 measurements. Overall, the central and outer parts of the ESAS constituted a sink for CO2, and we estimate a median uptake of 9.4 g C m-2 yr-1 or 6.6 Tg C yr-1. Our results suggest that while the ESS and shelf break waters adjacent to the LS and ESS are net autotrophic systems, the LS is a net heterotrophic system. CO2 sea-air fluxes for the LS were 4.7 g C m-2 yr-1, and for the ESS we estimate an uptake of 7.2 g C m-2 yr-1. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC and δ13CCO2) in the water column indicates that the LS is depleted in δ13CDIC compared to the Arctic Ocean (ArcO) and ESS with an offset of 0.5‰ which can be explained by mixing of δ13CDIC-depleted riverine waters and 4.0 Tg yr-1 respiration of OCter; only a minor part (0.72 Tg yr-1) of this respired OCter is exchanged with the atmosphere. Property-mixing diagrams of total organic carbon and isotope ratio (δ13CSPE-DOC) versus dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration diagram indicate conservative and nonconservative mixing in the LS and ESS, respectively. We suggest land-derived particulate organic carbon from coastal erosion as an additional significant source for the depleted δ13CDIC.

  19. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen


    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  20. Forest herbicide influences on floristic diversity seven years after broadcast pine release treatments in central Georgia, USA (United States)

    Robert S. Boyd; John D. Freeman; James H. Miller; M. Boyd. Edwards


    Abstract. Maintenance of biodiversity is becoming a goal of forest management. This study determined effects of broadcast pine release herbicide treatments on plant species richness, diversity, and structural proportions seven years after treatment. Three study blocks were established in central Georgia. Plots 0.6-0.8 ha in size were planted to...

  1. Garlic mustard and its effects on soil microbial communities in a sandy pine forest in central Illinois (United States)

    Alexander B. Faulkner; Brittany E. Pham; Truc-Quynh D. Nguyen; Kenneth E. Kitchell; Daniel S. O' Keefe; Kelly D. McConnaughay; Sherri J. Morris


    This study evaluated the impacts of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), an invasive species, on soil microbial community dynamics in a pine plantation on sandy soils in central Illinois. In situ soil carbon dioxide efflux was significantly greater in invaded sites. Similarly, in vitro carbon mineralization was significantly greater for soils...

  2. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests (United States)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.


    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  3. Topomineralogy of the Siberian diamonds (United States)

    Afanasyev, Valentin; Lobanov, Sergey; Vasiliy, Koptil; Bogdan, Pomazanskiy; Alexander, Gerasimchuk; Nikolay, Pokhilenko


    nearby Eastern Sayan (south-west of the Siberian craton). Parasteresis 3 (unknown host rock type) includes yellow-orange cuboids (II type according to Orlov's classification), which occur in kimberlites in small quantities, but most common in the north-east placers of the Siberian craton. Parasteresis 4 (unknown host rock type) includes diamonds of V and VII types according to Orlov, which are entirely absent in kimberlites. Parasteresis 5 involves the so called yacutites - microcrystalline substance with the add of lonsdaleite phase, typical for diamonds from impact craters. Comparison of yacutites with diamonds from Popigay astrobleme showed up their complete similarity. This fact is evident for the relation of yacutites to the Popigay astrobleme. Thus, in the placers of the Siberian craton there are at least three groups of diamonds with the unknown host rock type. The distribution of the discriminated types of diamonds among the craton is higly uneven. Diamonds of 2,3,4 and 5 parasteresis type (supposed to be from lamprophyres, unknown sources and yacutites) predominate in the north-eastern placers of the Siberian craton, whereas the part of the kimberlitic diamonds is less then a half, in some areas they are completely absent. Early- carboniferous deposits of the Kjutungdinskij graben is the only area where kimberlitic diamonds strongly predominate. That was the case to predict mid-paleozoic kimberlitic field there. In the central part of the province the major role goes to the kimberlitic diamonds associated with the mid-paleozoic kimberlites. Roundish diamonds of the second parasteresis type are in lead on the south of the Siberian craton, and may probably associate with the lamprophyres such as Ingash complex. Mapping of distribution of the distinguished diamond parasteresises among the Siberian craton reveals the tendency of diamonds hypothetically from lamprophyres and unknown sources to associate with the precambrian protrusions - Anabar shield, Olenek rise

  4. Variability and ecology of Siberian larch species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaimov, A.P.; Milyutin, L.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Sukachev Inst. of Forest, Siberian Branch; Lesinski, J.A.; Martinsson, Owe [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture


    There are at least four larch taxons distinguished in Siberia that occupy almost 37 percent of the the Russian forests. The natural distribution of the taxons is clinal from the west to the east with L. sibirica Ledeb. in the west followed by L. x czekanowskii Szafer, L. gmelinii Rupr. and L. cajanderi Mayr. L. sibirica and L. x czekanowskii are phytocenosis builders only at the northern timberline and in the South-Siberian mountains whereas L. gmelinii and L. cajanderi are the main species over the vast territory within and beyond the permafrost zone of East Siberia. Due to large variety of growing conditions, the main features of the larch forests in terms of age structure and growth rates are also enormously variable. Thanks to specific life strategies with respect to seed dispersion patterns and very high adaptability to fires that often affect Siberian forests, these larch species regenerate very well being only seldom temporary replaced by Betula sp. forming secondary forest associations. Larch forests of different categories (protective and commercial) are exploited and regenerated in the same way as it is applied for Scots pine in Siberia. There is a growing interest in Siberian larch species among researchers and practitioners from abroad, mainly due to their fast growth and excellent wood properties. Some attempts of introducing Siberian larch species as commercial plantations have already been initiated in western countries. However, the knowledge of botanical, ecological and silvicultural features of Siberian larch species is rather poor outside of Russia. Because of its economic importance for Russian forestry the Siberian larch species have been comprehensively studied for many years and many papers as well as a number of monographs have been published, most of them in Russian. The large Russian expertise concerning regionalisation of seed sources, seed crop and quality, seed orchards, seedling production in nurseries and silvicultural practices in

  5. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kuzmin


    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  6. Coastal plain pond water quality and mercury contend of biota of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens and Mashomack Preserve: Effects of atmospheric deposition and human development (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Siemion, Jason; Lane, Oksana P.


    Pine barrens are considered an imperiled ecosystem in the northeastern U.S. The Suffolk County Pine Barrens, once the second largest in the Northeast, were substantially reduced and fragmented by development during the 20th century. The coastal plain ponds being considered in this study occur in central Suffolk County within the Long Island Central Pine Barrens region. This highly unique natural environment, embedded with forests and woodlands, resulted from its glacial origins and a land use history that predates European colonization. Included in this study was The Nature Conservancy’s Mashomack Preserve, located on Shelter Island between Peconic Bay and Gardiner’s Bay. There are no freshwater ponds in the Mashomack Preserve, but this area was included with the Central Pine Barrens investigation, because Shelter Island has a similar geologic and land-use history that has resulted in a similarly unique low-nutrient forest and woodland ecosystem with extremely coarse-textured soils.

  7. Factors influencing mercury uptake by leaves of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Almadén (Central Spain). (United States)

    Barquero, José Ignacio; Rojas, Sofía; Esbrí, José María; García-Noguero, Eva M; Higueras, Pablo


    The use of trees for biomonitoring of mercury (Hg) and other atmospheric pollutants is of increasing importance today. Leaves from different species have been the most widely used plant organ for this purpose, but only pine bark, and not leaves, was used to monitor Hg pollution. In Almadén (South Central Spain), the largest cinnabar (HgS) deposits in the world have been mined for over 2000 years to obtain metallic Hg and this activity has caused the widespread dispersion of this toxic element in the local environment. A strip of pine trees, 2750 m in length, adjacent and to the South of the mining town has been studied in order to evaluate pine tree needles as monitors for Hg contamination in this heavily polluted area. The study involved the collection of pine tree leaves from several discrete sites along the strip, as well as samples from other nearby locations, together with soil samples and monitoring of atmospheric Hg in the area during both the day and night. Leaves and soils were analyzed for total Hg concentration by means of atomic absorption spectrometry; the leachable fraction of soil Hg was also analyzed by the CV-AFS technique. The results indicate that soils from the investigated area were not directly affected by mining related pollution, with low total Hg levels (3-280 mg kg-1) found in comparison with the nearby Almadén metallurgical precinct and very low leachable Hg contents (0.27-59.65 mg kg-1) were found. Moreover, pine tree needles have a low uptake capacity, with lower THg levels (0.03-6.68 mg kg-1) when compared to those of olive trees in Almadén. However, pine needles do show significant variability with regard to the distance from the source. Gaseous Hg exhibits a similar pattern, with higher levels close to the source, especially during night time (225 ng m-3). A multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) revealed that gaseous Hg in the nocturnal period is the prime factor that influences the amount of Hg uptake by pine tree

  8. Ice sheet retreat dynamics inferred from glacial morphology of the central Pine Island Bay Trough, West Antarctica (United States)

    Jakobsson, Martin; Anderson, John B.; Nitsche, Frank O.; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Kirshner, Alexandra E.; Kirchner, Nina; O'Regan, Matthew; Mohammad, Rezwan; Eriksson, Björn


    in central Pine Island Trough where a high in dipping bedrock strata exists and the glacial trough is narrow, forming a bathymetric "bottle neck".

  9. Evaluating potential fire behavior in lodgepole pine-dominated forests after a mountain pine beetle epidemic in north-central Colorado (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Mike A. Battaglia; Daniel R. West; Sheryl L. Costello; Jose F. Negron


    A mountain pine beetle outbreak in Colorado lodgepole pine forests has altered stand and fuel characteristics that affect potential fire behavior. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator, potential fire behavior was modeled for uninfested and mountain pine beetle-affected plots 7 years after outbreak initiation and 10 and 80% projected...

  10. Southwestern Pine Tip Moth (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings; Robert E. Stevens


    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar), injures young ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Southwest, central Rockies, and midwestern plains. Larvae feed on and destroy new, expanding shoots, often seriously reducing terminal growth of both naturally regenerated and planted pines. The tip moth is especially damaging to trees on...

  11. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif


    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  12. Resistance of ponderosa pine to western dwarf mistletoe in central Oregon (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Lewis F. Roth


    Ponderosa pines with little or no dwarf mistletoe in infested stands on the Deschutes, Ochoco, and Rogue River National Forests in Oregon were tested for resistance to dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum). Small trees produced by grafting scions from the resistant and susceptible candidates onto seedling rootstock were planted in 1967-69...

  13. Developing resilient ponderosa pine forests with mechanical thinning and prescribed fire in central Oregon's pumice region (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; P.H. Cochran; William E. Hopkins; William H. Johnson; Gregg M. Riegel; Gary O. Fiddler; Alice W. Ratcliff; Carol J. Shestak


    Thinning and prescribed burning are common management practices for reducing fuel buildup in ponderosa pine forests. However, it is not well understood if their combined use is required to lower wildfire risk and to help restore natural ecological function. We compared 16 treatment combinations of thinning, prescribed fire, and slash retention for two decades...

  14. Self-fertility of a central Oregon source of ponderosa pine. (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen


    This report will describe the effect of self-, cross-, and open- or wind-pollination on seed and seedling production of 19 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) trees in the eastern foothills of the Cascade Mountains south of Bend, Oreg. The study is part of a continuing investigation of self-fertility in several conifers growing in the Pacific...

  15. Seven chemicals fail to protect Ponderosa pine from Armillaria root disease in central Washington. (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Lewis F. Roth


    Chemicals were applied once to the root collars of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) to prevent mortality caused by Armillaria obscura (Pers.) Herink Roll-Harisen (A. meilea sensu lato). After 10 years, none of the 15 treatments appeared to reduce mortality in treated trees vs. untreated trees....

  16. The Multifrequency Siberian Radioheliograph (United States)

    Lesovoi, S. V.; Altyntsev, A. T.; Ivanov, E. F.; Gubin, A. V.


    The ten-antenna prototype of the multifrequency Siberian radioheliograph is described. The prototype consists of four parts: antennas with broadband front-ends, analog back-ends, digital receivers and a correlator. The prototype antennas are mounted on the outermost stations of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) array. A signal from each antenna is transmitted to a workroom by an analog fiber optical link, laid in an underground tunnel. After mixing, all signals are digitized and processed by digital receivers before the data are transmitted to the correlator. The digital receivers and the correlator are accessible by the Local Area Network (LAN). The frequency range of the prototype is from 4 to 8 GHz. Currently the frequency switching observing mode is used. The prototype data include both circular polarizations at a number of frequencies given by a list. This prototype is the first stage of the multifrequency Siberian radioheliograph development. It is assumed that the radioheliograph will consist of 96 antennas and will occupy stations of the West-East-South subarray of the SSRT. The radioheliograph will be fully constructed in the autumn of 2012. We plan to reach the brightness temperature sensitivity of about 100 K for the snapshot image, a spatial resolution up to 13 arcseconds at 8 GHz and a polarization measurement accuracy about a few percent. First results with the ten-antenna prototype are presented of observations of solar microwave bursts. The prototype's abilities to estimate source size and locations at different frequencies are discussed.

  17. Caragana arborescens Lam.: Siberian peashrub (United States)

    Donald R. Dietz; Paul E. Slabaugh; Franklin T. Bonner


    Siberian peashrub - Caragana arborescens Lam. - is one of the most hardy small deciduous trees or shrubs planted on the northern Great Plains (George 1953; Rehder 1940). Introduced into North America in 1752 (Rehder 1940), Siberian peashrub is native to Siberia and Manchuria and occurs from southern Russia to China (Graham 1941). Varieties include the dwarf (C. a. nana...

  18. Analysis of energy wood supply chain in thinning operations: a case study in a pine stand of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini S


    Full Text Available Thinning is an essential practice in Mediterranean pine forests management but is rarely applied because of the high harvesting costs. The new market of bioenergy products could give a profit to wood biomass harvesting activities, though the drawbacks of elevated supply chain costs, related to technical problems and lack of knowledge about the wood quality have to be overcome in advance. This study analyzed technical, economic, energy and environmental factors of a pine stand thinning in Central Italy, where collected biomass was directed to energy, in order to give a decisional support to reach economical profitability and environmental sustainability in thinning practices. The introduction of Full Tree System maximized the recovery of available biomass, full tree chipping produced material with Heating Value superior than single tree components. The use of a felling frame in motor-manual felling in comparison with the traditional chainsaw reduced operator effort, increasing the number of felled trees per hour, when the stump diameter remained under 15 cm. The energy wood supply chain is not sustainable from an economic point of view, the profitability could be reached only acting on suggested technical levers and particularly reducing costs of hauling operation. The estimation of output/input energy ratio in the supply chain underlined the feasibility of thinning practices for energy. The assessment of CO2 emissions confirmed the environmental sustainability of biomass supply chain in energy when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Study conclusions provide the guidelines for thinning treatment in Mediterranean pine stands, in order to reach environmental and economic sustainability of these practices.

  19. Capturing forest dependency in the central Himalayan region: Variations between Oak (Quercus spp.) and Pine (Pinus spp.) dominated forest landscapes. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anusheema; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Sachdeva, Kamna


    Our study explores the nexus between forests and local communities through participatory assessments and household surveys in the central Himalayan region. Forest dependency was compared among villages surrounded by oak-dominated forests (n = 8) and pine-dominated forests (n = 9). Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate variations in the degree of dependency based on proximity to nearest forest type. Households near oak-dominated forests were more dependent on forests (83.8%) compared to households near pine-dominated forests (69.1%). Forest dependency is mainly subsistence-oriented for meeting basic household requirements. Livestock population, cultivated land per household, and non-usage of alternative fuels are the major explanatory drivers of forest dependency. Our findings can help decision and policy makers to establish nested governance mechanisms encouraging prioritized site-specific conservation options among forest-adjacent households. Additionally, income diversification with respect to alternate livelihood sources, institutional reforms, and infrastructure facilities can reduce forest dependency, thereby, allowing sustainable forest management.

  20. Effects of stratification and temperature on seed germination speed and uniformity in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen


    Effects of stratification period and incubation temperature on seed germination speed and uniformity were investigated in a bulked seed lot of 200 ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) sampled from 149 locations in central Oregon. Mean rate of embryo development towards germination (l/days to 50 percent germination) and standard...

  1. Disturbance from southern pine beetle, suppression, and wildfire affects vegetation composition in central Louisiana: a case study (United States)

    T.W. Coleman; Alton Martin; J.R. Meeker


    We assessed plant composition and forest succession following tree mortality from infestation of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), associated suppression, and wildfire in two forest types, pine (Pinus spp.) with mixed hardwood and longleaf pine (P. palustris). In this case study, vegetation was...

  2. Forest structure and plant diversity in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, L. F.; Bravo, F.; Zaldivar, P.; Pando, V.


    The relationship between forest structure and plant diversity in Mediterranean Maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in the Iberian Range (Spain) was studied. Forty eight stands were sampled. In each, a circular plot (15 m radius) and a transect (25*1 m{sup 2}) were established to estimate stand variables and record presence and abundance of vascular species respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), simple correlations and multiple stepwise linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between plant diversity and forest structure. Correlation between diversity measurements and stand variables is very weak, but significant correlations were found when evaluating each set of variables separately. Presence and cover of some species (for instance, Veronica arvensis L. or Micropyrum tenellum (L.) Link) is correlated with stand variables; however, determination coefficients found in step-by-step regression are not significant. (Author) 34 refs.

  3. Analysis of Scots pine climatypes growth dynamics in the provenance trial in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kuzmina


    Full Text Available Differentiation of 83 Scots pine climatypes by height growth at the age of 37 years in the provenance trial was done. Three groups of climatypes were distinguished as: fast-growing, moderate-growing and slow-growing. The research at the age of 20–25 revealed 13 climatypes of 27 from the fast-growing group as candidates to breed-populations. These climatypes are from Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Karelia, and the Republic of Komi. At the age of 37 years they confirm the status of perspective climatypes in height growth, survival, and resistance to fungal pathogens as it was noted earlier (Kuzmina, Kuzmin, 2007, 2008. The average height of trees of these climatypes exceeds control height by 32 %. The moderate-growing group consists of 18 climatypes, five of them are candidates to breed-populations. The intensity of their growth was reduced but average height is at the level of control average value. The third group has the largest number of climatypes. After the inventory in 2013 two climatypes previously marked as perspective were added into the third group. Last years the intensity of their growth was significantly reduced because of disease caused by cenangium dieback at the 22–24 years old. So the rank status of studied climatypes in different age periods is significantly changeable because of different reaction to ecological factors. The analysis of annual height increments growth confirms that objective conclusions about selection of perspective climatypes could be possible only after 25 years old of pine.

  4. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Ribes inerme in north-central Utah (United States)

    D. R. Vogler; B. W. Geils; K. Coats


    Cronartium ribicola Fisch. has not been found infecting any of the five-needle white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) in Utah, despite being established on both white pine and Ribes hosts in the other 10 western states, defined as those west of the 102° meridian.

  5. Influence of Siberian High on temperature variability over northern areas of South Asia (United States)

    Riaz, Syed Muhammad Fahad; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed; Baig, Mirza Jawwad


    Siberian High pressure plays a significant role in wintertime climate variability over South Asia. It brings coldest air masses in the region. The available literature has linked Siberian High with climate of East Asia, central Asia, and Eurasia. This paper examines the linkage between Siberian High pressure and inter-annual variations in temperature over the region of South Asia during winters. The methods employed in this study are that of centers of action approach, maximum covariance, and canonical correlation analyses. The wintertime temperature is not only significantly influenced by the intensity of Siberian High pressure, but it is also significantly correlated with zonal movement of Indian Ocean High. The intensity of Siberian High pressure explains more variance of the temperature during winters over the South Asian region than that of large-scale circulation phenomena, namely, Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and El-Nino-Southern Oscillation. A linear model of wintertime temperature has also been constructed using the Siberian High pressure index and the Indian Ocean High longitudinal index, which explains 28% variability of wintertime temperature for the Northern part of South Asia. We have also presented the justification that this statistical evidence is supported by the circulations and changes in the atmosphere. The modes having maximum possible covariance between the regional wintertime temperature and sea-level pressure of Siberian High have been isolated using the method of maximum covariance analysis and the modes having maximum possible correlations between the two fields have been isolated using canonical correlation analysis.

  6. Merging IceSAT GLAS and Terra MODIS Data in Order to Derive Forest Type Specific Tree Heights in the Central Siberian Boreal Forest (United States)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Kimes, Daniel; Kovacs, Katalin; Kharuk, Viatscheslav


    Mapping of boreal forest's type, biomass, and other structural parameters are critical for understanding of the boreal forest's significance in the carbon cycle, its response to and impact on global climate change. We believe the nature of the forest structure information available from MISR and GLAS can be used to help identify forest type, age class, and estimate above ground biomass levels beyond that now possible with MODIS alone. The ground measurements will be used to develop relationships between remote sensing observables and forest characteristics and provide new information for understanding forest changes with respect to environmental change. Lidar is a laser altimeter that determines the distance from the instrument to the physical surface by measuring the time elapsed between the pulse emission and the reflected return. Other studies have shown that the returned signal may identify multiple returns originating from trees, building and other objects and permits the calculation of their height. Studies using field data have shown that lidar data can provide estimates of structural parameters such as biomass, stand volume and leaf area index and allows remarkable differentiation between primary and secondary forest. NASA's IceSAT Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) was launched in January 2003 and collected data during February and September of that year. This study used data acquired over our study sites in central Siberia to examine the GLAS signal as a source of forest height and other structural characteristics. The purpose of our Siberia project is to improve forest cover maps and produce above-ground biomass maps of the boreal forest in Northern Eurasia from MODIS by incorporating structural information inherent in the Terra MISR and ICESAT Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instruments. A number of forest cover classifications exist for the boreal forest. We believe the limiting factor in these products is the lack of structural

  7. Soil CO2 Efflux in a Mixed Pine-Oak Forest in Valsaín (Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Inclán


    Full Text Available Soil-surface CO2 efflux and its spatial and temporal variation were investigated in a southern Mediterranean, mixed pine-oak forest ecosystem on the northern slopes of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Spain from February 2006 to July 2006. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux, soil temperatures, and moisture were conducted in nine 1963-m2 sampling plots distributed in a gradient around the ecotone between Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pyrenaica Lam. forest stands. Total soil organic matter, Walkey-Black C, particulate organic matter, organic matter fraction below 53 μm, total soil nitrogen content, total soil organic carbon content, and pH were also measured under three representative mature oak, pine, and mixed pine-oak forest stands. Soil respiration showed a typical seasonal pattern with minimums in winter and summer, and maximums in spring, more pronounced in oak and oak-pine stands. Soil respiration values were highest in pine stands during winter and in oak stands during spring and summer.

  8. Selective and traditional forest management options for black pine forests in Central Italy: effects on ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto


    Full Text Available Sustainable Forest Management (SFM should be able to produce an optimal level of bundle of Ecosystem Services (ES, thus ensuring more resilient forest ecosystems also creating benefits for local population and human well-being. Yet, choosing between alternative forest management practices is not straightforward as it necessarily involves ES trade-offs. Forest management decisions have to reconcile the socio-economic and ecological contributions of forest ecosystems by fostering a synergistic relation between multiple ES while lowering ES trade-offs. The aim of the study is to analyze different forest management practices (selective and traditional thinning in black pine peri-urban forest in Central Italy, by investigating their contribution in terms of provisioning (wood production, cultural (recreational benefits, regulating (climate change mitigation ES. For each management option was performed: (1 the biophysical assessment of selected ES by using primary data and calculating indicators for wood production with special regard to biomass for energy use (living trees and deadwood volume harvested, recreational benefits (tourists’ preferences for each forest management practice, climate change mitigation (carbon sequestration in above-ground and below-ground biomass, and (2 the economic valuation of wood production, recreational benefits and climate change mitigation ES using direct and indirect methods (environmental evaluation techniques. The results show that the effects of the selective thinning on ES is higher that the effects of the traditional thinning. The economic value of the three ES provided by traditional and selective thinning are respectively: bioenergy production 154.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 223.3 € ha-1 yr-1; recreational benefits 193.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 231.9 € ha-1 yr-1; carbon sequestration 29.0 € ha-1 yr-1and 36.2 € ha-1 yr-1. The integrated (biophysical and economic assessment of ES in addition to the trade

  9. Biogenic emissions and ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons, carbonyl compounds and organic acids from ponderosa pine and cottonwood trees at rural and forested sites in Central New Mexico (United States)

    Villanueva-Fierro, Ignacio; Popp, Carl J.; Martin, Randal S.

    Direct emission rates of carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons from Populus fremontil (cottonwood) and Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) trees were studied during the summer of 1997. Ambient air concentrations of these compounds in the vicinity of the sampled trees were also identified and quantified. Study sites were Socorro, NM and Langmuir Laboratory, NM a rural and forested, high mountain site, respectively, located in Central New Mexico. A dynamic branch enclosure method was used to perform the sampling of tree emissions, that are given at standard atmospheric temperature of 303 K, and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR. Average emission rates of acetic and formic acid, respectively, from cottonwood were 470±540 and 310±300 ng g -1 h -1 and from ponderosa pine were 170±180 and 210±210 ng g -1 h -1. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average emission rates, respectively, from ponderosa pine were 500±400 and 250±190 ng g -1 h -1, and from cottonwood were 4070±3570 and 1190±1360 ng g -1 h -1. Cottonwood had an average isoprene emission rate of 9050±10700 ng g -1 h -1, while ponderosa pine had emission rates of α-pinene and β-pinene of 450±1100 and 520±1050 ng g -1 h -1, respectively. Total mass emissions of carbon compounds measured from cottonwood were four times larger than from ponderosa pine. Seasonal, diurnal, and temperature dependence of concentrations in ambient air and emission rates from trees are also discussed. Average ambient air concentrations of acetic and formic acid, respectively, were 2.7±3.8 and 0.7±0.9 ppbv for the rural site, and 1.7±2.0 and 0.6±0.5 ppbv for the mountain site. The average range of carbonyl compound concentrations in ambient air was from 0.3 to 3.4 ppbv for various carbonyl compounds with about 60% of the ambient carbonyls consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone. Isoprene and monoterpene concentrations in ambient air were usually below the detection limit.

  10. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona. (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A


    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  11. Plant biodiversity and soil nitrogen and carbon pools changes as a result of nitrogen deposition at permanent pine plots in Central Russia (United States)

    Komarov, Alexander; Priputina, Irina; Zubkova, Elena; Shanin, Vladimir


    We present results of analysis of increased rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition observed in Central Russia between 1960 and 2010, and dealt with air pollution by NOx, on a biodiversity and main pools of C and N in pine forests of Moscow region, Russia. Shifts in nitrogen availability of three pine plots have been analyzed using presence/absence records on dynamics of understory plant communities (chronosequence consisting of four surveys from 1959-61 up to 2003) and a set of specialist plant species as bioindicators of soil richness. Atmospheric N loads received by ecosystems in 1950-1960 were estimated equal 5-7 kg ha-1 yr-1 with N-NH4 prevalence. In 1975-1990, NOx were more severe air contaminants that increased the N loads up to 15-20 kg ha-1 yr-1. Because of the economic decline of soon after 1990, general air pollution and the N deposition rates in Moscow region reduced, but a short time later started to increase again. We assume that those changes might be caused by atmospheric N input rates and to examine this assumption (i) analyze of species composition in understory has been done using Ellenberg indicator values and Tsyganov interval ecological scales developed for European Russia, and (ii) modeling of dynamics of main C and N pools in forest have been additionally carried out using EFIMOD and ROMUL models. Two nitrogen deposition scenarios have been simulated: (i) the steady background rate of N deposition equal to the one in the middle of last century, and (ii) the real ambient level of N depositions in last 50 yrs. Results have confirmed changes of understory species composition sustaining an eutrophication have been revealed in all plots. Number of specialists which mark rich soil conditions increases from 1950 and reaches maximum at 1990 for all plots. There is a difference between sample plots. Increasing number of specialists for rich conditions is very expressed for the richest mixed pine-lime stand and mixed pine-oak stand. Number of

  12. Health, reproduction, and fuels in whitebark pine in the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness Area in central Idaho (Project INT-F-05-02) (United States)

    Lauren Fins; Ben Hoppus


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) is in serious decline across its range, largely due to the combined effects of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch (an introduced fungal pathogen that causes white pine blister rust), replacement by late successional species, and widespread infestation of mountain pine beetle (...

  13. The Potential Impact of CO2 and Air Temperature Increases on Krummholz's Transformation into Arborescent Form in the Southern Siberian Mountains (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Im, S. T.; Ranson, K. J.


    Trees in the southern Siberian Mountains forest-tundra ecotone have considerably increased their radial and apical growth increments during the last few decades. This leads to the widespread vertical transformation of mat and prostrate krummholz forms of larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb) and Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour). An analysis of the radial growth increments showed that these transformations began in the mid-1980s. Larch showed a greater resistance to the harsh alpine environment and attained a vertical growth form in areas where Siberian pine is still krummholz. Upper larch treeline is about 10 m higher than Siberian pine treeline. Observed apical and radial growth increment increases were correlated with CO2 concentration (r = 0.83-0.87), summer temperatures (r = 0.55-0.64), and "cold period" (i.e. September-May) air temperatures (r = 0.36-0.37). Positive correlation between growth increments and winter precipitation was attributed to snow cover protection for trees during wintertime.

  14. Spin flipping in rings with Siberian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S.R. [Convergent Computing Inc., P.O. Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)], E-mail:


    I display numerical spin tracking simulations for spin flippers in model storage rings with full or nearly full Siberian Snakes. In many cases, the results differ from the predictions using the Froissart-Stora formula.

  15. A latitudinal gradient in tree growth response to climate warming in the Siberian taiga (United States)

    Andrea H. Lloyd; Andrew G. Bunn; Logan. Berner


    We investigated the climate response of three Siberian taiga species, Larix cajanderi, Picea obovata, and Pinus sylvestris, across a latitudinal gradient in central Siberia. We hypothesized that warming is more frequently associated with increased growth for evergreen conifers (P. obovata and P....

  16. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia. (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Huber, Dezene P W; Lewis, Kathy J


    Lodgepole pines, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. This tree species counters these threats by producing secondary metabolites, including phenolics and terpenoids. We examined foliar levels of lignin, soluble phenolics, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids in 12 stands in British Columbia, Canada. We used these data to assess associations among foliar secondary metabolite levels and ecosystem, geographic, and climatic variables. Regressions were also performed to observe which combinations of variables best explained secondary metabolite variance. Stands of P. c. latifolia in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Interior Cedar/Hemlock biogeoclimatic zones had consistently greater foliar levels of almost all measured secondary metabolites than did other stands. Lignin was present in greater amounts in Boreal White/Black Spruce ecosystem (i.e., northern) stands than in southern stands, suggesting a role for this metabolite in pine survival in the boreal forest. Attempts to develop regression models with geographic and climatic variables to explain foliar secondary metabolite levels resulted in multiple models with similar predictive capability. Since foliar secondary metabolite levels appeared to vary most between stand ecosystem types and not as much due to geographic and climatic variables, metabolic profiles appeared best matched to the stress levels within local environments. It is unknown if differences in secondary metabolite levels are the result of genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, but results from this and other studies suggest that both are important. These results are interpreted in light of ongoing efforts to assist in the migration of certain populations of P. c. latifolia northward in an effort to counter predicted effects of climate change.

  17. Fire Monitoring: Effects of Scorch in Louisiana's Pine Forests (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Mary Anne Sword; Finis L. Harris


    Frequent growing-season burning is essential for restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plant communities to open parklike landscapes. However, fire can be a destructive force, reducing productivity and causing mortality among overstory longleaf pine trees. On two central Louisiana sites, severe crown scorch reduced longleaf pine diameter...

  18. Modeling Forest Structural Parameters in the Mediterranean Pines of Central Spain using QuickBird-2 Imagery and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Delgado


    Full Text Available Forest structural parameters such as quadratic mean diameter, basal area, and number of trees per unit area are important for the assessment of wood volume and biomass and represent key forest inventory attributes. Forest inventory information is required to support sustainable management, carbon accounting, and policy development activities. Digital image processing of remotely sensed imagery is increasingly utilized to assist traditional, more manual, methods in the estimation of forest structural attributes over extensive areas, also enabling evaluation of change over time. Empirical attribute estimation with remotely sensed data is frequently employed, yet with known limitations, especially over complex environments such as Mediterranean forests. In this study, the capacity of high spatial resolution (HSR imagery and related techniques to model structural parameters at the stand level (n = 490 in Mediterranean pines in Central Spain is tested using data from the commercial satellite QuickBird-2. Spectral and spatial information derived from multispectral and panchromatic imagery (2.4 m and 0.68 m sided pixels, respectively served to model structural parameters. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART was selected for the modeling of attributes. Accurate models were produced of quadratic mean diameter (QMD (R2 = 0.8; RMSE = 0.13 m with an average error of 17% while basal area (BA models produced an average error of 22% (RMSE = 5.79 m2/ha. When the measured number of trees per unit area (N was categorized, as per frequent forest management practices, CART models correctly classified 70% of the stands, with all other stands classified in an adjacent class. The accuracy of the attributes estimated here is expected to be better when canopy cover is more open and attribute values are at the lower end of the range present, as related in the pattern of the residuals found in this study. Our findings indicate that attributes derived from

  19. Influence of ecological and botanical factors on the culture of black pine (Pinus nigra and proposed future management in Šumadija region (Central Serbia

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    Šikanja Severin


    Full Text Available All ecological aspects have been analysed and studied: botanical factors at black pine cultures in the area of Šumadija. Cultures of black pine of age 33 and 55−60 years within five experimental fields can be found in (1 good habitats, (2 medium habitats and (3 bad habitats were analysed in order to see how the same aged cultures act in different habitats. We analysed all the plants that appear as terrestrial flora, all the plants that occur as a shrub vegetation and, finally, floor trees. We analysed all the biotic and abiotic factors. The measures for most appropriate care for the cultures of black pine. Black pine in Serbia reaches its highest elevation amplitude in Europe and covers most diverse habitats and soil, mainly because of its visibly pronounced ecological modesty. For this reason, the black pine is one of the most usable kinds of artificial afforestation in the Republic of Serbia at all devastated, treeless terrain in the oak belt, where there is a danger that through the action of erosion, soil degradation occurs. That in the management unit, Gružansko Lepeničke, Jaseničke forests, to answer all the questions, the pine, when it comes to artificially established black lines on the same or on different sites and the same and the various soils, as when it comes to tending these crops. It should be noted that of the 125,000 ha conifer cultures in the Republic of Serbia, 86 000 ha of trees were all pines, roughly 70% of all conifer cultures. Of the 86 000 ha pine, 65,200 ha was occupied by black pine, which is about 70%. In the above,Management Unit separate the five sample plots of 25 acres in size.

  20. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03) (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie


    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  1. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands. (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L; Tsao, Jean I; Ginsberg, Howard S


    The eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus , is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (prevalence = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white-footed mice and other small mammals (prevalence = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi , compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey, S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  2. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.


    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  3. [Identification and production of monoclonal antibody of Siberian tiger's immunoglobulin]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yaonglong; Zhang, Duanling; Zhou, Ming; Xue, Yuan; Hua, Yuping; Ma, Jianzhang


    To purify immunoglobulin (Ig) of Siberian Tiger and prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the Ig,which can be used to develop immunological diagnostic kits for diagnosing infectious disease in Siberian Tiger. The Ig of Siberian tigers was purified with saturated ammonium sulfate combined with recombinant Protein G. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the purified Ig. Spleno-cytes of the mice immunized were collected and fused with the mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14). The positive hybridoma clones were selected by ELISA and were identified by western blot. The sandwich ELISA was used to detect immunocompetence of the purified Ig and the mAb. We obtained three mouse hybridoma clones that produced mAbs against Ig of Siberian Tiger. The derived McAbs could recognize Ig heavy chain of Siberian Tiger specifically. The biological activity of the Ig and obtained McAbs also could be identified by detecting the antibody induced by panleukopenia virus (FPV-HLJ) vaccine in Siberian Tiger. The antibody also would be useful for assess the vaccine efficacy against the infectious disease on the Siberian Tiger. Protein G can be used in Ig purification of Siberian Tiger. The obtained McAbs from the hybridoma ADT11 in this study owned strong ability to bind Ig of Siberian Tiger and have a stable immunocompetence. They can be used to develop diagnostic methods for detecting infectious disease in Siberian Tiger and vaccine research.

  4. European Pine Shoot Moth (United States)

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten


    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  5. Fire Regimes of Remnant Pitch Pine Communities in the Ridge and Valley Region of Central Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Marschall


    Full Text Available Many fire-adapted ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. are converting to fire-intolerant vegetation communities due to fire suppression in the 20th century. Prescribed fire and other vegetation management activities that increase resilience and resistance to global changes are increasingly being implemented, particularly on public lands. For many fire-dependent communities, there is little quantitative data describing historical fire regime attributes such as frequency, severity, and seasonality, or how these varied through time. Where available, fire-scarred live and remnant trees, including stumps and snags, offer valuable insights into historical fire regimes through tree-ring and fire-scar analyses. In this study, we dated fire scars from 66 trees at two sites in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania, and described fire frequency, severity, and seasonality from the mid-17th century to 2013. Fires were historically frequent, of low to moderate severity, occurred mostly during the dormant season, and were influenced by aspect and topography. The current extended fire-free interval is unprecedented in the previous 250–300 years at both sites.

  6. Singular value decomposition analysis for examining the impact of Siberian High on winter precipitation variability over South Asia (United States)

    Riaz, Syed Muhammad Fahad; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed


    The relationship and linkage of Siberian High (SH) with winter climate over central Asia, East Asia, and Eurasia have been focused in the available literature. The effect of Siberian High over the South Asian region has received little attention. Thus, this article examines the possible teleconnection of SH pressure on winter precipitation variability over the region of South Asia. Moreover, the recent research studies focused on large-scale circulation phenomena: El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and regarded them as responsible for variability of winter rainfall. This paper gives the evidence that the winter rainfall variability is strongly influenced by Siberian High pressure. The effect of Siberian High pressure on winter precipitation over the South Asian region (65-76° E, 33-40° N) has been investigated using singular value decomposition analysis (SVDA) that is performed on gridded datasets of NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and Climate Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia, UK. SVDA isolates the leading pairs of the coupled signals that mainly explain the relationship between the coupled fields. By employing SVDA, it is found that the Siberian High has dominant impact on precipitation variability during winter season over Northern areas of South Asia.

  7. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s. (United States)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E


    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental

  8. Condition of Stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour clonal stands in the Republic of Altai: conservation and breeding prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Il’ichev


    Full Text Available Most productive populations of Siberian stone pine trees were revealed as a result of many years study of the selection structure of the Siberian stone pine forests in the Republic of Altai. Based on the analysis of archive materials and ground inventory of the selection and genetic objects, the information about their quantity and preservation is provided. Currently, in the Republic of Altai, 320 elite trees have beenregistered, and on this basis 60.9 ha of forest seed plantations and 13.7 ha clone archives have been established. In the period of 2005–2014, the number of elite trees was reduced from 438 to 320. Experimental elite tree crops not presented. According to the inventory, as of 2014, at forest seed plantations and at the archives of clones grow 4.837 grafted trees of 282 clones, 139 of whichare progenies of the elite trees, selected for seed production, 124 – for resin production, and 19 – for the productivity and quality of stem wood. All clonal facilities are concentrated on breeding nursery of the Teletskoe forestry district area of about 75 ha. Unique clonal objects of the Siberian stone pine in Teletskoe forestry district play a crucial role in the preservation, study and rational use of the gene pool of this tree species and require continuous monitoring of their condition and protection. Visual forest pathology inspections and molecular genetic diagnostics revealed that on clonal plantations of the Siberian stone pine, progressive needle disease developed, caused by new for Western Siberia an extremely dangerous pathogen – Dothistroma septosporum (Dorog. M. Morelet. In this connection it is necessary to conduct appropriate sanitary measures and to carry out additional studies of population genetic features and pathways for this pathogen. The priority activities have been outlined to further development of the unified genetic and breeding complex of the Siberian stone pine in the Republic of Altai.

  9. Climate constraints for siberian moth distribution in Europe (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Nadezda Tschebakova; Elena Parfenova; Natalia. Kirichenko


    A simplistic bioclimatic model of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtvrk. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is based on the moth's basic biological requirements, expressed through summer thermal conditions...

  10. Contrasting impacts of climate and competition on large sugar pine growth and defense in a fire-excluded forest of the Central Sierra Nevada (United States)

    Andrew Slack; Jeffrey Kane; Eric Knapp; Rosemary Sherriff


    Many forest ecosystems with a large pine component in the western United States have experienced environmental stress associated with climate change and increased competition with forest densification in the absence of fire. Information on how changes in climate and competition affect carbon allocation to tree growth and defense is needed to anticipate changes to tree...

  11. Adaptive evolution of Mediterranean pines. (United States)

    Grivet, Delphine; Climent, José; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Neale, David B; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C


    Mediterranean pines represent an extremely heterogeneous assembly. Although they have evolved under similar environmental conditions, they diversified long ago, ca. 10 Mya, and present distinct biogeographic and demographic histories. Therefore, it is of special interest to understand whether and to what extent they have developed specific strategies of adaptive evolution through time and space. To explore evolutionary patterns, the Mediterranean pines' phylogeny was first reconstructed analyzing a new set of 21 low-copy nuclear genes with multilocus Bayesian tree reconstruction methods. Secondly, a phylogenetic approach was used to search for footprints of natural selection and to examine the evolution of multiple phenotypic traits. We identified two genes (involved in pines' defense and stress responses) that have likely played a role in the adaptation of Mediterranean pines to their environment. Moreover, few life-history traits showed historical or evolutionary adaptive convergence in Mediterranean lineages, while patterns of character evolution revealed various evolutionary trade-offs linking growth-development, reproduction and fire-related traits. Assessing the evolutionary path of important life-history traits, as well as the genomic basis of adaptive variation is central to understanding the past evolutionary success of Mediterranean pines and their future response to environmental changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mountain Pine Beetle (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  13. Part I: Neoacadian to Alleghanian foreland basin development and provenance in the central appalachian orogen, pine mountain thrust sheet Part II: Structural configuration of a modified Mesozoic to Cenozoic forearc basin system, south-central Alaska (United States)

    Robertson, Peter Benjamin

    Foreland and forearc basins are large sediment repositories that form in response to tectonic loading and lithospheric flexure during orogenesis along convergent plate boundaries. In addition to their numerous valuable natural resources, these systems preserve important geologic information regarding the timing and intensity of deformation, uplift and erosion history, and subsidence history along collisional margins, and, in ancient systems, may provide more macroscopic information regarding climate, plate motion, and eustatic sea level fluctuations. This thesis presents two studies focused in the Paleozoic Appalachian foreland basin system along the eastern United States and in the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Matanuska forearc basin system in south-central Alaska. Strata of the Appalachian foreland basin system preserve the dynamic history of orogenesis and sediment dispersal along the east Laurentian margin, recording multiple episodes of deformation and basin development during Paleozoic time. A well-exposed, >600 m thick measured stratigraphic section of the Pine Mountain thrust sheet at Pound Gap, Kentucky affords one of the most complete exposures of Upper Devonian through Middle Pennsylvanian strata in the basin. These strata provide a window into which the foreland basin's development during two major collisional events known as the Acadian-Neoacadian and the Alleghanian orogenies can be observed. Lithofacies analysis of four major sedimentary successions observed in hanging wall strata record the upward transition from (1) a submarine deltaic fan complex developed on a distal to proximal prodelta in Late Devonian to Middle Mississippian time, to (2) a Middle to Late Mississippian carbonate bank system developed on a slowly subsiding, distal foreland ramp, which was drowned by (3) Late Mississippian renewed clastic influx to a tidally influenced, coastal deltaic complex to fluvial delta plain system unconformably overlain by (4) a fluvial braided river complex

  14. Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations in south-central Chile (United States)

    P. Garcia-Chevesich; R. Pizarro; C. L. Stropki; P. Ramirez de Arellano; P. F. Ffolliott; L. F. DeBano; Dan Neary; D. C. Slack


    A wildfire burned about 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and...

  15. Growth dynamics of tree-line and lake-shore Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in the central Scandinavian Mountains during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the early Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W Linderholm


    Full Text Available Trees growing at their altitudinal or latitudinal distribution in Fennoscandia have been widely used to reconstruct warm season temperatures, and the region hosts some of the world’s longest tree-ring chronologies. These multi-millennial long chronologies have mainly been built from tree remains found in lakes (subfossil wood from lake-shore trees. We used a unique dataset of Scots pine tree-ring data collected from wood remains found on a mountain slope in the central Scandinavian Mountains, yielding a chronology spanning over much of the last 1200 years. This data was compared with a local subfossil wood chronology with the aim to 1 describe growth variability in two environments during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA and the early Little Ice Age (LIA, and 2 investigate differences in growth characteristics during these contrasting periods. It was shown that the local tree-line during both the MCA and early LIA was almost 150 m higher that at present. Based on living pines from the two environments, tree-line pine growth was strongly associated with mid-summer temperatures, while the lake-shore trees showed an additional response to summer precipitation. During the MCA, regarded to be a period of favourable climate in the region, the tree-ring data from both environments showed strong coherency and moderate growth variability. In the early LIA, the two chronologies were less coherent, with the tree-line chronology showing more variability, suggesting different growth responses in the two environments during this period of less favourable growing conditions. Our results indicate that tree-ring width chronologies mainly based on lake-shore trees may need to be re-evaluated.

  16. Somatostatin Agonist Pasireotide Inhibits Exercise-Stimulated Growth in the Male Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Dumbell, R; Petri, I; Scherbarth, F; Diedrich, V; Schmid, H A; Steinlechner, S; Barrett, P


    The Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is a seasonal mammal, exhibiting a suite of physiologically and behaviourally distinct traits dependent on the time of year and governed by changes in perceived day length (photoperiod). These attributes include significant weight loss, reduced food intake, gonadal atrophy and pelage change with short-day photoperiod as in winter. The central mechanisms driving seasonal phenotype change during winter are mediated by a reduced availability of hypothalamic triiodothyronine (T3), although the downstream mechanisms responsible for physiological and behavioural changes are yet to be fully clarified. With access to a running wheel (RW) in short photoperiod, Siberian hamsters that have undergone photoperiod-mediated weight loss over-ride photoperiod-drive for reduced body weight and regain weight similar to a hamster held in long days. These changes occur despite retaining the majority of hypothalamic gene expression profiles appropriate for short-day hamsters. Utilising the somatostatin agonist pasireotide, we recently provided evidence for an involvement of the growth hormone (GH) axis in the seasonal regulation of bodyweight. In the present study, we employed pasireotide to test for the possible involvement of the GH axis in RW-induced body weight regulation. Pasireotide successfully inhibited exercise-stimulated growth in short-day hamsters and this was accompanied by altered hypothalamic gene expression of key GH axis components. Our data provide support for an involvement of the GH axis in the RW response in Siberian hamsters. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  17. Adaptation of stone pines Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. to various environmental factors in the testing sites

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    G. V. Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available Provenance trials of Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. (here after «studied species» were studied. In our study we assessed the growth parameters as well as anatomical and morphological parameters of the studied species corresponding to different provenances of their testing in the south of the Krasnoyarsk and Khabarovsk territories.We determined that the growth rate of trees corresponding to different provenances is determined not only by the inherited characteristics, but also by adaptation. At both experimental regions the offspring of trees corresponding to local provenance are clearly better adapted. Nevertheless, at Krasnoyarsk Krai provenance trials, we found that the phenotypic indicators and degree of preservation of the offspring of two Korean pine corresponding to Obluchensky and Chuguevsky provenances are at the same level as for the local Siberian pine. Tree rings widths have been measured for the Siberian pine corresponding to different provenances at both plantations. We conclude that at the Ermakovskoe plantation there is a positive impact of the environmental conditions on tree-ring width for Korean pine corresponding to different provenances, and in Khabarovsk Krai there is a negative impact of the environmental conditions on tree-ring width for the Siberian pine corresponding to different provenances.

  18. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz


    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...

  19. Mapping pine mortality by aerial photography, Umstead State Park, North Carolina (United States)

    Clarence J. DeMars; Garey W. Slaughter; Lnla E. Greene; John H. Ghent


    In 1975-1976, pine trees killed by the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) in a 2l70-hectare (5362-acre) area at the William B. Umstead State Park in central North Carolina, were monitored by sequential color infrared aerial photography. From 1973 through summer 1975, beetles in 350 infestation spots killed more than 20,500 pines on...

  20. Methane from the East Siberian Arctic shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko...[], Vasilii V.; Etheridge, David M.


    In their Report “Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf” (5 March, p. 1246), N. Shakhova et al. write that methane (CH4) release resulting from thawing Arctic permafrost “is a likely positive feedback to climate warming.” They add...... that the release of Arctic CH4 was implied in previous climate shifts as well as in the recently renewed rise in atmospheric CH4. These claims are not supported by all the literature they cite. Their reference 5 (1) presents measurements of emissions only of carbon dioxide, not CH4. Their reference 8 (2), a study...... the Report and in (6)] add to our understanding of the atmospheric CH4 budget, but they do not show that Arctic warming has produced a positive feedback in radiative forcing by causing these emissions to increase recently. A newly discovered CH4 source is not necessarily a changing source, much less a source...

  1. New geological data of New Siberian Archipelago (United States)

    Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeniy


    The area of New Siberian Archipelago (NSA) encompasses different tectonic blocks is a clue for reconstruction of geological structure and geodynamic evolution of East Arctic. According to palaeomagnetic study two parts of the archipelago - Bennett and Anjou Islands formed a single continental block at least from the Early Palaeozoic. Isotope dating of De Long Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks suggests Neoproterozoic (Baikalian) age of its basement. The De Long platform sedimentary cover may be subdivided into two complexes: (1) intermediate of PZ-J variously deformed and metamorphosed rocks and (2) K-KZ of weakly lithified sediments. The former complex comprises the Cambrian riftogenic volcanic-clastic member which overlain by Cambrian-Ordovician turbiditic sequence, deposited on a continental margin. This Lower Palaeozoic complex is unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous (K-Ar age of c.120 Ma) basalts with HALIP petrochemical affinities. In Anjou Islands the intermediate sedimentary complex encompasses the lower Ordovician -Lower Carboniferous sequence of shallow-marine limestone and subordinate dolomite, mudstone and sandstone that bear fossils characteristic of the Siberian biogeographic province. The upper Mid Carboniferous - Jurassic part is dominated by shallow-marine clastic sediments, mainly clays. The K-KZ complex rests upon the lower one with angular unconformity and consists mainly of coal-bearing clastic sediments with rhyolite lavas and tuffs in the bottom (117-110 Ma by K-Ar) while the complexe's upper part contains intraplate alkalic basalt and Neogene-Quaternary limburgite. The De-Long-Anjou block's features of geology and evolution resemble those of Wrangel Island located some 1000 km eastward. The Laptev Sea shelf outcrops in intrashelf rises (Belkovsky and Stolbovoy Islands) where its geology and structure may be observed directly. On Belkovsky Island non-dislocated Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary cover of littoral-marine coal

  2. Uneven-aged management for longleaf pine: freedom to choose (United States)

    David Dyson


    Longleaf pine once was present on 90 million acres of the southern landscape, ranging from coastal Virginia to east Texas and from central Florida to the mountains of Alabama. On nearly two-thirds of that area, longleaf pine grew in nearly pure (single-species) stands maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires of both natural and human origin. The remaining...

  3. Overcoming an intrinsic depolarizing resonance with a partial Siberian snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang


    Full Text Available An 11.4% partial Siberian snake was used to successfully accelerate polarized protons through a strong intrinsic depolarizing spin resonance in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS. No noticeable depolarization was observed. This opens up the possibility of using a 20% to 30% partial Siberian snake in the AGS or other medium energy proton synchrotrons to overcome all weak and strong depolarizing spin resonances.

  4. Deriving special laquer bitumens from West Siberian oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryazinov, V.V.; Akhmetova, R.S.; Torbeyeva, L.R.


    A technique has been developed for deriving laquer bitumens that satisfy GOST (Govt. Standard) requirements 21822-76 from West Siberian oil via propane deasphalization of sludge with a subsequent oxidation of the deasphaltization asphalt to a softening temperature of 125-135/sup 0/. Laboratory, industrial and semi-industrial tests of bitumen at various production sites gave positive results. Recommendations have been developed for users with respect to organizing production of this special bitumen from West Siberian oil.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of a wild Siberian tiger. (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Zhaohui; Guan, Weijun; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Yuehui


    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. The genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other Siberian tigers and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  6. Content of chemical elements in tree rings of lodgepole pine and whitebark pine from a subalpine Sierra Nevada forest (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Darren R. Anderson


    The wood of lodgepole pines and whitebark pines from a high elevation site in the east central Sierra Nevada of California was analyzed for chemical content to determine whether there were any temporal patterns of chemical distribution in tree rings. Cores were taken from 10 trees of each species and divided into 5-year increments for chemical analysis. Correlation...

  7. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest? (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L


    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  8. Study of Siberian forest genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Milyutin


    Full Text Available Forest genetic resources are the aggregate of genofonds of native and cultivar populations of forest woody plants, valuable really or potential for specific territory (A brief dictionary… 2014. Forest genetic resources are studied in practice in most cases on example of forest-forming woody plants. It is necessary to consider of study of these resources in two positions: taxonomic and geographic. Forest forming coniferous species are studied best of all from the taxonomic point of view taking into account biodiversity. Genetic polymorphism is studied most in detail with such species as Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica, Larix sukaczevii, Picea obovata, Abies sibirica. Populations of Larix gmelinii, Larix cajanderi, Picea ajanensis are studied considerable worse. Materials about genetic polymorphism of forest forming foliage species – representative of genera Betula and Populus are absent. Caryological polymorphism is studied sufficiently well in all Siberian conifer species. It should be noted especially attached to examination of this problem, that individuals with B-chromosome were discovered first by gymnosperms as an example Picea obovata. Discovery in Siberia of triploid asp deserve special attention. Geographic variability is shown most broadly in the investigations of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica. These investigations were conducted both in natural populations and in provenance trials. Such investigations of another conifer and foliage species either are shown by separate fragments or are absent at all Geographic variability is shown in a large measure in the operative forest seed sources regionalization. Numerous investigations directed to the analysis of morphological variability are conducted by all forest forming species in the first place by conifers. Questions of hereditary determination of either signs remain in this problem. Similar questions concern the variability of other signs

  9. Net ecosystem exchange and energy fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique in a western Siberian bog

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    P. Alekseychik


    Full Text Available Very few studies of ecosystem–atmosphere exchange involving eddy covariance data have been conducted in Siberia, with none in the western Siberian middle taiga. This work provides the first estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2 and energy budgets in a typical bog of the western Siberian middle taiga based on May–August measurements in 2015. The footprint of measured fluxes consisted of a homogeneous mixture of tree-covered ridges and hollows with the vegetation represented by typical sedges and shrubs. Generally, the surface exchange rates resembled those of pine-covered bogs elsewhere. The surface energy balance closure approached 100 %. Net CO2 uptake was comparatively high, summing up to 202 gC m−2 for the four measurement months, while the Bowen ratio was seasonally stable at 28 %. The ecosystem turned into a net CO2 source during several front passage events in June and July. The periods of heavy rain helped keep the water table at a sustainably high level, preventing a usual drawdown in summer. However, because of the cloudy and rainy weather, the observed fluxes might rather represent the special weather conditions of 2015 than their typical magnitudes.

  10. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Erin L. Clark


    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  11. White oil production from western Siberian petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenkov, L.A.; Potanina, V.A.; Popova, L.V.; Marcheva, Y.N.; Radchenko, K.A.


    The technology of producing white oils was investigated in multistage sulfonization of the initial raw material by oleum or gaseous sulphuranhydride (SO/sub 3/) with subsequent neutralization and contact prepurification. The use of gaseous sulphuranhydride instead of oleum has the advantage of lower consumption of the sulfonating agent, lower volume of acid tar formed and an increase of the yield of sulfonic acids which are used as a raw material to produce sulfonate additives. White oils are used to produce medical vaseline, perfume bases, a solvent of the ethylene polymerization reaction initiator, lubricating oil for high-pressure compressors and as cable lubricant. The technology of producing a variety of white oils based on neutral oil from a mixture of low-sulphur Fergana and Turkemen oils from sulfonate additive production was developed to expand the raw material resources produced from other oil fields. The yield of low-soluble sulfonic acids increases as SO/sub 3/ consumption increases in sulphurization of the fourth oil fraction of Western Siberian oils; yield decreases as SO/sub 3/ consumption increases during sulphurization of neutral oil of first degree of sulphurization, while the yield of acid tar increases. (JMT)

  12. Pyometra in a Siberian Polecat (Mustela eversmanni) (United States)

    Johnson, J.D.; Biggins, D.E.; Wrigley, R.H.; Mangone, B.A.; Wimsatt, J.


    A 2-year-old Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni) from a breeding colony presented for ultrasound evaluation for pregnancy. It was paired with a male for 2.75 months and had remained absent of pregnancy signs when it was anesthetized and clinically evaluated. Until this time, the animal had eaten well and shown no outward signs of debility. On palpation, the animal had a fluid-filled tubular structure in the caudal abdomen, consistent in location and size with the uterus. No sign of vaginal discharge was present. Ultrasonography revealed 10 fluid-filled evaginations (approximately 12 mm in diameter) of the uterine horns. A presumptive diagnosis of a fluid-filled reproductive tract and likely reproductive failure was made in light of the animal's history, its clinical signs, and the ultrasound findings. Euthanasia was performed because the animal was nonreproductive and might yield information relevant to the breeding colony as a whole. Necropsy of the polecat revealed a distended fluctuant uterus containing mildly odiferous, thick, yellow-green, purulent material. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of pyometra. A pure and heavy growth of Enterococcus fecalis was cultured from the uterine contents. In light of results from routine minimal inhibitory concentration antibiotic sensitivity screening, this isolate was resistant to all antibiotics tested in the standard teaching hospital screen.

  13. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China. (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei


    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (Ptigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exhuming the Meso–Cenozoic Kyrgyz Tianshan and Siberian Altai-Sayan: A review based on low-temperature thermochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn Glorie


    Full Text Available Thermochronological datasets for the Kyrgyz Tianshan and Siberian Altai-Sayan within Central Asia reveal a punctuated exhumation history during the Meso–Cenozoic. In this paper, the datasets for both regions are collectively reviewed in order to speculate on the links between the Meso–Cenozoic exhumation of the continental Eurasian interior and the prevailing tectonic processes at the plate margins. Whereas most of the thermochronological data across both regions document late Jurassic–Cretaceous regional basement cooling, older landscape relics and dissecting fault zones throughout both regions preserve Triassic and Cenozoic events of rapid cooling, respectively. Triassic cooling is thought to reflect the Qiangtang–Eurasia collision and/or rifting/subsidence in the West Siberian basin. Alternatively, this cooling signal could be related with the terminal terrane-amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. For the Kygyz Tianshan, late Jurassic–Cretaceous regional exhumation and Cenozoic fault reactivations can be linked with specific tectonic events during the closure of the Palaeo-Tethys and Neo-Tethys Oceans, respectively. The effect of the progressive consumption of these oceans and the associated collisions of Cimmeria and India with Eurasia probably only had a minor effect on the exhumation of the Siberian Altai-Sayan. More likely, tectonic forces from the east (present-day coordinates as a result of the building and collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogen and rifting in the Baikal region shaped the current Siberian Altai-Sayan topography. Although many of these hypothesised links need to be tested further, they allow a first-order insight into the dynamic response and the stress propagation pathways from the Eurasian margin into the continental interior.

  15. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) (United States)

    S. Little


    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  16. Siberian Apparent Polar Wander Path for the Phanerozoic Eon: towards finding Siberian place on Earth (United States)

    Blanco, D.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Kabin, K.


    The existence of Siberia as an independent stable platform can be traced back with accuracy from the breakup of Rodinia (~800 Ma) until the end of the Paleozoic Eon when it became part of Eurasia. Different continental blocks accreted to Siberia since Precambrian forming one of the largest tectonic structures on Earth - Siberian continent. At the same time Siberian apparent polar wander path (APWP), which is crucial for global tectonic reconstructions, still contain long unresolved segments. Cocks and Torsvik (2007) compiled the available paleomagnetic poles from Siberia and applied smoothing methods to construct the APWP. We updated the available paleomagnetic pole list with recently published poles for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. In order to ensure the reliability of the data, we considered only poles available in international journals and followed the Van der Voo's (1993) selection criteria. We excluded the poles that did not have well described age constrains or acceptable experimental procedures. In terms of the APWP construction, we applied several techniques that enabled us to reconstruct the APWP segments where paleomagnetic poles were absent from the database. As a first approach, we approximated APWP using a least-squares fit computed through singular value decomposition. The advantage of the method was in its numerical stability and ease of application to either dense or sparse data sets. The second technique we used was based on smoothing techniques, similar to those by Cocks and Torsvik (2007). However, the large number of degrees of freedom for the smoothing method might lead to excessively effective approximation and thus transcribe the noise (De Boor, 2001). The effectiveness of both approaches was demonstrated by excellent comparison with very well resolved APWP for Europe (Torsvik et al., 2001). Subsequently we reconstructed the APWP for Siberia applying and comparing both of our techniques for the Phanerozoic Eon. Two sets of

  17. Siberian Intelligentsia in Socio-Cultural Space of Russia at the Turn of XIX–XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Gryaznukhin


    Full Text Available The article dwells upon the problems of formation and development of the Siberian intelligentsia at the turn of XIX - XX centuries and the sources of its formation are mentioned as well. The views of representatives of regionalism on the questions of formation of the Siberian intelligentsia. The impossibility of a full-fledged cultural development of the region only by the visiting intellectuals from among political exile and came to Siberia to work temporarily. Substantiates the dependence of the level of cultural development of Siberia from the quantitative and qualitative composition of the Siberian intelligentsia, came directly from the people of the region. The leading role of the creative intelligentsia in the development of the cultural life of the region, an analysis of its theatrical, musical, and artistic activities. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the social and educational activities of the intelligentsia of Russia and Siberia, revealed distinctive features in the character of its creative development. The dependence of the cultural life of Siberia from the socio-cultural processes in Central Russia. The article dwells upon the cultural contacts between the two regions.

  18. Glacier changes in the Siberian Altai Mountains, Ob river basin (1952-2006) estimated with high resolution imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surazakov, A B [Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3025 (United States); Aizen, V B [Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3025 (United States); Aizen, E M [Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3025 (United States); Nikitin, S A [Glacio-Climatological Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Lenina 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)


    The Siberian Altai covers about 70% of the area of all south Siberian glaciers, which provide fresh water to the upper tributaries of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The observed air temperature has increased by 1.2 deg. C over northern Eurasia during the last 120 years, affecting the degradation of the Siberian Altai glaciers. In this study, we estimated glacier area changes in the Aktru River basin (44.8 km{sup 2}), located in the central Altai mountains. We used the 1952, 1966, 1975 and 2006 remote sensed images with 0.6-3.0 m spatial resolution (aerial photographs, Corona and PRISM satellite images) and differential GPS (DGPS) data. From 1952 to 2006, the total glacier area in the Aktru basin shrank by 7.2% (1.2 km{sup 2}). During the last three decades, the rate of glacier area loss increased by a factor of 1.8, thus resembling trends in other mountain systems of Eurasia (Alps, Tien Shan). The glacier area changes were caused mainly by increase of summer air temperature by 1.03 deg. C (from 1951 to 2000) at elevations below 2500 m, which intensified the melt of the glacier's ice in the ablation zone. At elevations above 2500 m (upper accumulation zone), the summer air temperature increased by only 0.83 deg. C.

  19. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson


    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  20. Crustal structure of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian basin: An appraisal of existing seismic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina M.; Thybo, Hans


    We present a digital model SibCrust of the crustal structure of the Siberian craton (SC) and the West Siberian basin (WSB), based on all seismic profiles published since 1960 and sampled with a nominal interval of 50 km. Data quality is assessed and quantitatively assigned to each profile based...... on acquisition and interpretation method and completeness of crustal model. The database represents major improvement in coverage and resolution and includes depth to Moho, thickness and average P-wave velocity of five crustal layers (sediments, and upper, middle, lower, and lowermost crust) and Pn velocity...

  1. Red Pine Shoot Moth (United States)

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  2. Sugar pine and its hybrids (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch


    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  3. Intra- and interspecific hybridization in invasive Siberian elm (United States)

    Although numerous studies have examined the invasion history of herbaceous plants, few studies have investigated the invasion biology of woody plants. In this study, we determined whether inter-specific hybridization was necessary before invasiveness could evolve in the Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila. P...

  4. Optimal axes of Siberian snakes for polarized proton acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg H. Hoffstaetter


    Full Text Available Accelerating polarized proton beams and storing them for many turns can lead to a loss of polarization when accelerating through energies where a spin rotation frequency is in resonance with orbit oscillation frequencies. First-order resonance effects can be avoided by installing Siberian snakes in the ring, devices which rotate the spin by 180° around the snake axis while not changing the beam’s orbit significantly. For large rings, several Siberian snakes are required. Here a criterion will be derived that allows one to find an optimal choice for the orientation of the snake axes. Rings with superperiod four are analyzed in detail, and the HERA proton ring is used as an example for approximate fourfold symmetry. The proposed arrangement of Siberian snakes matches their effects so that all spin-orbit coupling integrals vanish at all energies and therefore there is no first-order spin-orbit coupling at all for this choice, which I call snake matching. It will be shown that in general at least eight Siberian snakes are needed and that there are exactly four possibilities to arrange their axes. When the betatron phase advance between snakes is chosen suitably, four Siberian snakes can be sufficient. Since the spin motion depends on a particle’s trajectory, protons at different phase space positions generally have different spin directions. The time averaged polarization at each phase space point is parallel to the invariant spin field, and the spread of this spin field limits the polarization that can be stored. By the here presented choice of Siberian snakes this limit is completely eliminated up to first order in the transverse phase space coordinates. The invariant spin field and the amplitude-dependent spin tune are also computed without linearization to show the advantages of this choice of snakes. Ultimately, the goal of snake matching is to reduce the loss of polarization during the acceleration of the beam. To show that a favorable

  5. NPP Boreal Forest: Siberian Scots Pine Forests, Russia, 1968-1974, R1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two files (comma-separated-value format). One file provides components of net primary productivity, standing biomass, age and stand...

  6. NPP Boreal Forest: Siberian Scots Pine Forests, Russia, 1968-1974, R1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two files (comma-separated-value format). One file provides components of net primary productivity, standing biomass, age and stand structure,...

  7. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed? (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  8. Regeneration patterns in boreal Scots pine glades linked to cold-induced photoinhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.; Wirth, C.; Schumacher, J.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Shibistova, O.; Lloyd, J.; Ensminger, I.


    Summary Regeneration patterns of Pinus sylvestris L. juveniles in central Siberian glades were studied in relation to cold-induced photoinhibition. Spatial distribution of seedlings in different height classes revealed higher seedling densities beneath the canopy than beyond the canopy, and

  9. Hydrological modelling for siberian crane Grus Leucogeranus stopover sites in northeast China. (United States)

    Jiang, Haibo; He, Chunguang; Sheng, Lianxi; Tang, Zhanhui; Wen, Yang; Yan, Tingting; Zou, Changlin


    Habitat loss is one of the key factors underlying the decline of many waterbird species, including Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus), a threatened species worldwide. Wetlands are the primary stopover for many waterbirds and restoration of these wetlands involves both hydrological restoration and water resource management. To protect the stopover sites of Siberian Cranes, we collected Siberian Crane stopover numbers, meteorological and hydrological data, and remote sensing data from 2008 to 2011 in Momoge National Nature Reserve, one of the largest wetlands in northeastern China. A model was developed to estimate the suitability of Siberian Crane stopover sites. According to our results, the most suitable daily water level for Siberian Cranes between 2008 and 2012 occurred in the spring of 2008 and in the Scirpus planiculmis growing season and autumn of 2010. We suggest a season-dependent water management strategy in order to provide suitable conditions at Siberian Crane stopover sites.

  10. The biogeochemistry of the Laptev and East Siberian Sea. (United States)

    Wâhlström, Iréne; Anderson, Leif; Björk, Göran; Hjalmarsson, Sofia; Jutterström, Sara


    The biogeochemistry of the Laptev and East Siberian Sea. Iréne Wåhlström1, Leif G. Andersen1, Göran Björk2, Sofia Hjalmarsson1, Sara Jutterström1 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden 2 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30, Göteborg, Sweden, The Siberian shelf seas are a very biogeochemical dynamic region. They receive a lot of river runoff containing nutrients and dissolved and particulate organic matter; exchange waters with the deep Arctic Ocean; exchange gases with the atmosphere and have an extensive biological activity. These processes impact the concentrations of chemical constituents that set the frame for the magnitude of the fluxes. In the summer 2008 we studied the biogeochemistry of the waters in the eastern Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the western Chukchi Sea during the International Siberian Shelf Study 2008 (ISSS-08). The findings reveal substantial differences from close to the coast and northwards as well as between the western and eastern regions. Close to the coast the signature is influenced by mixing between the river runoff and the seawater, while the outer regions show a more typical marine signature. Overlaying this pattern is the impact by microbial decay of organic matter, in the west dominated by terrestrial OM and in the east by marine OM. The microbial decay results in low oxygen levels, reaching as low as 40 % in the shallow areas. Corresponding author, I. Wåhlström, email:

  11. Fire and longleaf pine physiology - Does timing affect response? In: Proc (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood


    Southern pines vary in their response to the loss of leaf area by crown scorch. We hypothesize that they tolerate crown scorch by at least three recovery mechanisms, but the function of these mechanisms is season-dependent. Using sapling longleaf pine as a model and experimental results from central Louisiana, U.S.A., our objective is to present examples recovery from...

  12. Fire history in interior ponderosa pine communities of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA (United States)

    Peter M. Brown; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    Chronologies of fire events were reconstructed from crossdated fire-scarred ponderosa pine trees for four sites in the south-central Black Hills. Compared to other ponderosa pine forests in the southwest US or southern Rocky Mountains, these communities burned less frequently. For all sites combined, and using all fires detected, the mean fire interval (MFI), or number...

  13. Effects of salvage logging on fire risks after bark beetle outbreaks in Colorado lodgepole pine forests (United States)

    Bryon J. Collins; Chuck C. Rhoades; Michael A. Battaglia; Robert M. Hubbard


    Most mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) forests in the central and southern Rocky Mountains originated after stand-replacing wildfires or logging (Brown 1975, Lotan and Perry 1983, Romme 1982). In recent years, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have created a widespread, synchronous disturbance (i.e.,...

  14. Interpopulation variability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary studies (genetic and phytocoenological of 4 populations of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold were carried out in western and central Serbia. The obtained results gave the same inter-population arrangement in both methods. Dendograms (NTSYS differentiate at the greatest genetic distance the population of Austrian pine in Šargan compared to other populations: Crni Vrh, Goč and Studenica. Using phytocoenological analysis it was determined that population of Austrian pine in Šargan forms a community Erico-Pinetum gocensis, while the other populations form a community Seslerio rigidae-Pinetum gocensis. Multidisciplinary approach that was demonstrated within this paper presents the first studies of Austrian pine that directly link genotype dependence and environmental conditions manifested through the phytocoenological affiliation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31070

  15. Report of a Continuator of Ötemish Hajji’s “Chingiz-name” as a Source on the History of the Siberian Shibanids »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Maslyuzhenko


    Full Text Available In 2014, I.M. Mirgaleev published a part of the work of Ötemish Hajji’s Continuator. This part is devoted to the history of the Siberian Shibanid dynasty whose activity is known only by very few written sources. So, the introduction of a new work requires a source analysis undertaken in this article. A significant part of this work is devoted to the genealogy of the Shibanids, where special attention is paid to descendants of Bek Konda oglan. All rulers of Tyumen and Siberian Yurts originated exactly from these descendants. The author often confuses the degree of relationship, and also distorts the names of some representatives of the dynasty. Despite this, the majority of these names correspond to other sources on this issue. At the same time, Continuator leads a genealogical list not only up to the children of Tyumen khan Ibrahim but also includes his grandchildren and great grandchildren. A detailed listing of the recent descendants indicates that Continuator got information from one of the representatives of the dynasty. His informants could be the descendants of khan Kuchum, who proved to be on the territory of the Moscow State in the beginning of the 17th century. Continuator’s narrative is also similar to the content of Siberian chronicles in relation to such details as the reign in Kazan of khan Ibrahim and the degree of relationship between Kuchum and Muhammad Kul. At the same time, the author does not always adequately describe the specific borders of Shibanid uluses. He attributes the power in the territory of Volga-Oka interfluve to both khan Haji Muhammad (ruled in 1420s and his distant descendant Kuchum. In general, Continuator was not familiar with the history of Siberian possessions of this dynasty and the events of the 15th century paying special attention to the affairs of the Volga region and Central Asian. Simultaneously, the author reports such unknown historical events as the Hajji Muhammad’s capture of the city of

  16. Characteristic of composite pine forests on Volga terraces of Tatarstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Prokhorenko


    Full Text Available The structure of pine forests in various natural areas of European Russia depends on environmental conditions, specifics of soil and underlying parent rock. Types of pine forests are distinguished by such features as their species composition of the lower layers, structure of grass-shrub layer and the nature of its mosaic. The purpose of the study are regional features of the composite pine forests, distributed on ancient terraces of left bank of the Volga River in north-western Tatarstan, considering specifics of their position in the contact zone of coniferous-deciduous forests with steppes. The structure of the communities of the pine forests on such indicators as species richness, quantitative participation of species, their occurrence and horizontal structure of grass cover were analyzed, and detailed description of the stand and of its renewal was given. In addition, ecological and coenotic structure of communities of pine forests was investigated. It was found that group of types of composite pine forests on the slopes and flat sections of high Volga terraces in northwest of Tatarstan are distinguished by age and completeness of the stand, but is characterized by similar composition of dominant species of lower layer and microgroups in grass layer composition. These communities are characterized by high participation of meadow-steppe plants. This feature distinguishes them from composite pine forests that are found in the central part of the European Russia. This is due to the fact that the area of our study takes position of a buffer, with broad invasion of meadow and meadow-steppe species in the communities of pine forests, especially when anthropogenic disturbances take place. The probability of further transformation of pine stands in the direction of their xerophytization has been identified.

  17. Using forest inventory data along with spatial lag and spatial error regression to determine the impact of southern pine plantations on species diversity and richness in the central Gulf Coastal Plain (United States)

    Andrew J. Hartsell


    This study investigates the impacts of southern yellow pine plantations on species evenness and richness in the gulf coastal plain. This process involves using spatial lag and spatial error regression techniques using GeoDa software and U.S. Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis data. The results indicate that increasing plantation area is negatively...

  18. The study of forest dynamics in the pergumid climate of Western Sayan mountains (Ermakovsky research station of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Nazimova


    Full Text Available The Ermakovsky territory research station (53°17´–52°28´ N, 92°49´–93°20´ E has served as a long-term site for studies of mountain forest ecosystem structure and its dynamics during the last 50 years. The most interesting results of study in 2000–2014 are presented in the paper concerning biodiversity and forest succession in primary and secondary forest types forming the chern forest formation with Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Siberian fir (Abies sibirica L.. The data of remote sensing confirm differentiation of landscapes into altitudinal belt complexes (ABC that are characteristic for windward macroslopes of the West and East Sayans: Scotch pine-Birch-Aspen subtaiga (Pinus sylvestris L., Betula pendula Roth., Populus tremula L., chern forest with (Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica, mountain Siberian fir (Abies sibirica taiga within perhumid climate, subalpine open woodlands with (Pinus sibirica and Abies sibirica. They were singled out earlier with traditional methods. Position of the mountain polygon-transect (study area in the system of natural zonation of Altai-Sayan ecoregion and its belonging to barrier-rain mountain landscapes of South Siberia are defined more exactly with help of forest inventory and remote sensing data. Initial phases of forest successions by the above mentioned four ABCs are considered with special attention to regeneration of Pinus sibirica. In contrast to Abies sibirica it remains weak or absent for more than 50 years. It shows unstable positions of Siberian pine in all ABCs due to high general humidity and well developed herb layers. For chern ABC, the dynamics of primary and secondary stands structure are researched on a number of representative plots with the use of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer 1:100 mapping three times in a 45 year period. It is shown that species number and composition remain stable on permanent plots whereas synuzial diversity and the share of their

  19. Low-Ti melts from the southeastern Siberian Traps Large Igneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (STLIP) is one of the most voluminous volcanic provinces on Earth. The dominant erupted rocks are low-Ti basalts, which make up 80% by volume of the classical Noril'sk lava sequence. In the west Siberian basin and Maymecha-Kotuy area, the low- Ti basalts make up about 99% ...

  20. Analytical solutions for spin response functions in model storage rings with Siberian Snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S.R. [Convergent Computing Inc., P.O. Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)], E-mail:


    I present analytical solutions for the spin response functions for radial field rf dipole spin flippers in models of storage rings with one Siberian Snake or two diametrically opposed orthogonal Siberian Snakes. The solutions can serve as benchmarks tests for computer programs. The spin response functions can be used to calculate the resonance strengths for radial field rf dipole spin flippers in storage rings.

  1. The thalamic intergeniculate leaflet modulates photoperiod responsiveness in Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Freeman, David A; Dhandapani, Krishnan M; Goldman, Bruce D


    Siberian hamsters are seasonal breeders that use changes in day length to synchronize their reproductive effort with those times of the year most favorable for successful reproduction. The ability of Siberian hamsters to measure and respond to changes in day length depends upon accurate photoentrainment of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Two pathways have been characterized through which entraining stimuli reach the SCN: the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), which transmits light information from the retinae, and the geniculohypothalamic tract (GHT) from the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus (IGL), which is involved in transmitting both photic and nonphotic cues. Ablating the IGL/GHT results in only modest alterations in entrainment to static day lengths and fails to interfere with seasonal responses induced by transfer from static long day to static short day lengths. Because several studies suggest that the IGL may be involved in tracking the time of dusk and dawn, we sought to determine whether an intact IGL is necessary for hamsters to respond to a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP) in which the time of dusk and dawn gradually changes in a pattern approximating the rate of change in day length that occurs during autumn at the latitude this species inhabits in nature. The results indicate that neurochemical lesions of the IGL alter both the pattern of circadian entrainment and photoperiodic responsiveness of Siberian hamsters to an SNP. Both intact and IGL-lesioned hamsters exhibited testicular regression in shortening day lengths, but only IGL-intact hamsters exhibited seasonal pelage molt.

  2. Wildfires Dynamics in Siberian Larch Forests

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    Evgenii I. Ponomarev


    Full Text Available Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45°–73° N were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data and field measurements for the period 1996–2015. In addition, fire return interval (FRI along the south-north transect was analyzed. Both the number of forest fires and the size of the burned area increased during recent decades (p < 0.05. Significant correlations were found between forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5 and drought index (The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI (r = −0.43. Within larch stands along the transect, wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91. Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect.  Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62° N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (66°33’ N, and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands (about 71°+ N. That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = −0.95.

  3. Pinus L. Pine (United States)

    Stanley L. Krugman; James L. Jenkinson


    Growth habit, occurrence, and use. The genus Pinus, one of the largest and most important of the coniferous genera, comprises about 95 species and numerous varieties and hybrids. Pines are widely distributed, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere from sea level (Pinus contorta var. contorta) to timberline (P...

  4. Jack Pines and Walleyes. (United States)

    Lakes, Glendon


    Secondary school students in Pine River, Minnesota, need enough common knowledge to compete with graduates of other schools, but educators must keep in mind--as they move toward a more uniform curriculum--that each community is unique. (Author/RW)

  5. Modelling of the spread of a potential invasive pest, the Siberian moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus in Europe

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    Timo Möykkynen


    Full Text Available Background The Siberian moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus (SM defoliates several tree species from the genera Larix, Picea and Abies in northern Asia, east of the Urals. The SM is a potential invasive forest pest in Europe because Europe has several suitable host species and climatic conditions of central and northern Europe are favourable for the SM. Methods This study developed a grid-based spatio-temporal model for simulating the spread of the SM in case it enters Europe from Russia via border stations. The spread rate was modeled as a function of the spatial distribution of host species, climatic suitability of different locations for the SM, human population density, transportation of moth-carrying material, and flying of moths from tree to tree. Results and conclusions The simulations showed that the SM is most likely to spread in the forests of northeast Belarus, the Baltic countries, and southern and central Finland. Climatic conditions affected the occurrence of the SM more than human population density and the coverage of suitable host species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich


    divergence events, which most probably occurred in the period of 1000–850 mln years in the east, and in the interval of 780–730 mln years in the west of the territory. The latest period is logically aligned with disintegration of Rodini, the super-continent. The period of 780–680 mln years in the eastern part of the region can defined by the beginning of convergency processes, formation and evolution of the island arc and the back-arc basin. It is supposed that basal layers of the Baikalskaya and Oselokskaya suites and their analogues occurred 730 mln years ago, and evidences of glacial processes in these series correlate with the global Sturtian glaciations. The period of 680–630 mln years was characterized by formation of the foreland-type peripheral basin which was then replaced by a system of orogen-type submontain troughs in the Early Vendian (from 630 mln years, see Fig. 3Г. The second half of the Vendian in various zones of SSC was distinguished by shallow-water carbonate-terrigenous sediments of a similar type. Compensatory sedimentation occurred in residual valleys of the basin. Fast infill of the basin and leveling of the relief resulted in the stationary regime of the relatively shallow, yet vast basin. In the Early Cambrian, carbonate sedimentation occurred throughout the Siberian Platform and in the area adjacent to the SSC (see Fig. 3Д.The Paleozoic sediments preserved mainly in the central and northern regions of the Siberian Platform reflect a complex evolution of internal and epicontinental seas and shallower basins of the Siberian continent named Angarida. In the Ordovician, predominating were carbonate rocks with marine fauna. In the Silurian was characterized by a variety of sediments formed in different marine environments, ranging from distal shelf to shallow water and salted gulfs. In the Late Silurian and the Early Devonian, the territory of Angarida was land. Local volcanism with mafic lava eruptions through fractures took place at the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich


    divergence events, which most probably occurred in the period of 1000–850 mln years in the east, and in the interval of 780–730 mln years in the west of the territory. The latest period is logically aligned with disintegration of Rodini, the super-continent. The period of 780–680 mln years in the eastern part of the region can defined by the beginning of convergency processes, formation and evolution of the island arc and the back-arc basin. It is supposed that basal layers of the Baikalskaya and Oselokskaya suites and their analogues occurred 730 mln years ago, and evidences of glacial processes in these series correlate with the global Sturtian glaciations. The period of 680–630 mln years was characterized by formation of the foreland-type peripheral basin which was then replaced by a system of orogen-type submontain troughs in the Early Vendian (from 630 mln years, see Fig. 3Г. The second half of the Vendian in various zones of SSC was distinguished by shallow-water carbonate-terrigenous sediments of a similar type. Compensatory sedimentation occurred in residual valleys of the basin. Fast infill of the basin and leveling of the relief resulted in the stationary regime of the relatively shallow, yet vast basin. In the Early Cambrian, carbonate sedimentation occurred throughout the Siberian Platform and in the area adjacent to the SSC (see Fig. 3Д.The Paleozoic sediments preserved mainly in the central and northern regions of the Siberian Platform reflect a complex evolution of internal and epicontinental seas and shallower basins of the Siberian continent named Angarida. In the Ordovician, predominating were carbonate rocks with marine fauna. In the Silurian was characterized by a variety of sediments formed in different marine environments, ranging from distal shelf to shallow water and salted gulfs. In the Late Silurian and the Early Devonian, the territory of Angarida was land. Local volcanism with mafic lava eruptions through fractures took place at the

  8. Acute melatonin treatment alters dendritic morphology and circadian clock gene expression in the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Nelson, Randy J


    In the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters, dendritic length and dendritic complexity increase in the CA1 region whereas dendritic spine density decreases in the dentate gyrus region at night. However, the underlying mechanism of the diurnal rhythmicity in hippocampal neuronal remodeling is unknown. In mammals, most daily rhythms in physiology and behaviors are regulated by a network of circadian clocks. The central clock, located in the hypothalamus, controls melatonin secretion at night and melatonin modifies peripheral clocks by altering expression of circadian clock genes. In this study, we examined the effects of acute melatonin treatment on the circadian clock system as well as on morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. Male Siberian hamsters were injected with melatonin in the afternoon; 4 h later, mRNA levels of hypothalamic and hippocampal circadian clock genes and hippocampal neuron dendritic morphology were assessed. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment did not alter Period1 and Bmal1 expression. However, melatonin treatment increased both Period1 and Bmal1 expression in the hippocampus, suggesting that melatonin affected molecular oscillations in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment also induced rapid remodeling of hippocampal neurons; melatonin increased apical dendritic length and dendritic complexity in the CA1 region and reduced the dendritic spine density in the dentate gyrus region. These data suggest that structural changes in hippocampal neurons are regulated by a circadian clock and that melatonin functions as a nighttime signal to coordinate the diurnal rhythm in neuronal remodeling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation (United States)

    Winiger, Patrik; Andersson, August; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Charkin, Alexander; Shakhova, Natalia; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris; Gustafsson, Örjan


    Black carbon (BC) in haze and deposited on snow and ice can have strong effects on the radiative balance of the Arctic. There is a geographic bias in Arctic BC studies toward the Atlantic sector, with lack of observational constraints for the extensive Russian Siberian Arctic, spanning nearly half of the circum-Arctic. Here, 2 y of observations at Tiksi (East Siberian Arctic) establish a strong seasonality in both BC concentrations (8 ngṡm-3 to 302 ngṡm-3) and dual-isotope-constrained sources (19 to 73% contribution from biomass burning). Comparisons between observations and a dispersion model, coupled to an anthropogenic emissions inventory and a fire emissions inventory, give mixed results. In the European Arctic, this model has proven to simulate BC concentrations and source contributions well. However, the model is less successful in reproducing BC concentrations and sources for the Russian Arctic. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that, in contrast to earlier studies, contributions from gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%), and open fires (12%) are relatively small, with the major sources instead being domestic (35%) and transport (38%). The observation-based evaluation of reported emissions identifies errors in spatial allocation of BC sources in the inventory and highlights the importance of improving emission distribution and source attribution, to develop reliable mitigation strategies for efficient reduction of BC impact on the Russian Arctic, one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth.

  10. Siberian Chemical Combine laboratory project work plan, fiscal year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Acobyan, R.; Shropsire, R.


    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK), Laboratory Project Work Plan (Plan) is intended to assist the US Laboratory Project Team, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff with the management of the FY99 joint material protection control and accounting program (MPC and A) for enhancing nuclear material safeguards within the Siberian Chemical Combine. The DOE/Russian/Newly Independent States, Nuclear Material Task Force, uses a project work plan document for higher-level program management. The SKhK Plan is a component of the Russian Defense related Sites` input to that document. In addition, it contains task descriptions and a Gantt Chart covering the FY99 time-period. This FY99 window is part of a comprehensive, Project Status Gantt Chart for tasking and goal setting that extends to the year 2003. Secondary and tertiary levels of detail are incorporated therein and are for the use of laboratory project management. The SKhK Plan is a working document, and additions and modifications will be incorporated as the MPC and A project for SKhK evolves.

  11. Chemical analysis of bioactive substances in seven siberian Saussurea species (United States)

    Avdeeva, Elena; Reshetov, Yaroslav; Shurupova, Margarita; Zibareva, Larisa; Borisova, Evgeniia; Belousov, Mikhail


    Main groups of biologically active substances of seven siberian Saussurea species (S. controversa DC., S. latifolia Ledeb., S. parviflora (Poir.) DC., S. frolowii Ledeb, S. amara (L.) DC., S. salicifolia (L.) DC. and S. daurica Adams) have been studied using paper, thin-layer, performance liquid chromatography, IR spectroscopy, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Siberian Saussurea species have a rich elemental composition and contain a variety of phenolic compounds, amino acids, polysaccharides. The majority of polysaccharides are accumulated by S. controversa, S. salicifolia and S. frolowii. These plants contain a significant amount of calcium that may be a species characteristic. All plants contain quercetin and its glycosides, in some species luteolin, kaempferol, glycosides of apigenin and myricetin were revealed. Phenolic acids with predominant content of caffeic, chlorogenic and cinnamic acids were found in all the species. The maximum amount of phenolic acids and flavonoids was determined in the grass of S. latifolia, S. controversa and S. daurica. Characteristic absorption bands of lactone carbonyl of sesquiterpenoids in IR spectrum found in S. latifolia, S. controversa, S. daurica, S. amara and S. salicifolia. HPLC / UV analysis showed that peaks with absorption maxima of 242-246 nm due to the presence of α,β-unsaturated ketone group in the structure of ecdysteroids were found in S. salicifolia, S. controversa, S. daurica and S. latifolia.

  12. Biodiversity and endemism of the Silurian vertebrates in the Siberian palaeocraton (United States)

    Žigaitä-, Živilä--


    Vertebrate fossil record in the Silurian successions of northwestern Mongolia, Tuva, central and southern parts of the East Siberia between Yenisey and Lena rivers (Siberian platform) comprises large diversity of endemic fish species and genera. All this present day terrirories are infered to have been existed as united Siberian palaeocraton, an independent geological terrane in the Palaeozoic. Comparative isolation of the Siberian palaeocontinent throughout the Palaeozoic also meant that the area was colonised by marine faunas, which are not found elsewhere on Earth (Cocks & Torsvik, 2007). A separate palaeobiogeographical province has been suggested, and can be confirmed by the abundance, content, and distribution of early fish. Majority of vertebrate groups, such as thelodonts and acanthodians, reported from the region (Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1978; Karatajūtė-Talimaa & Smith, 2003; Žigaitė, in press) are diverse, abundant and restricted to the province, showing palaeobiogeographical unity of the territory. Distinct in their taxonomic content, but less common are chondrichthyans (Žigaitė & Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 2008). Finally, the most peculiar types of early vertebrates as mongolepids, tesakoviaspids, and tesserated galeaspids (Afanasieva & Janvier, 1985; Karatajūtė-Talimaa et al., 1990; Karatajūtė-Talimaa & Smith, 2004; Karatajūtė-Talimaa & Žigaitė, 2005), also specific heterostracans refer the region to strong faunal endemism and favours consideration of the separate palaeobiogeographical province. The biodiversity of vertebrates indicates warm and productive palaeobasins, which most likely have been existed as well connected epeiric seas on the integral Siberian palaeocraton. It might have been a proper place for origin and radiation of at least some early vertebrates in the Silurian (Žigaitė & Blieck, 2006). Nevertheless, recent palaeogeographical studies place Siberia at high northern latitudes, inferring the inherent endemic brachiopod

  13. Freeze injury to southern pine seedlings (United States)

    David B. South


    Freeze injury to roots and shoots of pines is affected by genotype and nursery practices. Local sources of shortleaf pine and Virginia pine that are grown in nurseries in USDA hardiness Zones 6 and 7a are relatively freeze tolerant. However, loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine seedlings have been injured by a number of freeze events (0 to 24 °F) in hardiness...

  14. Camcore: Thirty-five years of Mesoamerican pine gene conservation (United States)

    J.L. Lopez; W.S. Dvorak; G.R. Hodge


    Camcore is an international tree breeding and conservation program with headquarters at North Carolina State University. Camcore was founded in 1980 as a cooperative, non-profit organization to identify and save the dwindling natural populations of pines in the highland regions of Guatemala in Central America. Funded by the private sector, the program has played an...

  15. Growth of Planted Slash Pine Under Several Thinning Regimes (United States)

    W.F. Mann; Hans G. Enghardt


    Three intensities of thinning, each started at 10, 13, and 16 years, were applied to slash pine planted on a highly productive, cutover site in central Louisiana. Over a 9-year period, early and heavy thinnings increased diameter growth but reduced volume growth. The longer initial thinnings were deferred, the slower was the response in diameter growth. Growth on...

  16. Performance of Ponderosa Pine on Bituminous Mine Spoils in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Walter H. Davidson


    Seedlings from 40 seed sources of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) were planted on a strip-mine spoil in central Pennsylvania in 1969. Survival of seedlings from different sources ranged from 23 to 90 percent after six growing seasons. The average height of the seedlings ranged from 67 to 140 cm for the same period. Eight sources produced...

  17. Growth and yield of red pine in the Lake States (United States)

    Robert E. Buckman; Badege Bishaw; T.J. Hanson; Frank A. Benford


    This review examines the entire portfolio of active and inactive red pine growth and yield studies maintained by the USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station and several of its cooperators. The oldest studies date back to the mid-1920s. Available for analysis are 31 experiments and sets of monitoring plots in both planted and natural forests. These contain 3...

  18. Variations in the monoterpene composition of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin (United States)

    Richard H. Smith


    A wide range in quantitative composition of the wood oleoresin monoterpenes was found among 64 ponderosa pines in the central Sierra Nevada by gas chromatographic analysis. An inverse relationship was found in the amount of β-pinene and Δ3-carene. Practically no difference in composition could be associated with (a) type of...

  19. Dwarf Mistletoe of Ponderosa Pine in the Southwest (FIDL) (United States)

    Paul C. Lightle; Melvyn J. Weiss


    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobuim vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum) occurs essentially throughout the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) from northern Mexico through western Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico into Colorado and central Utah. In Arizona and New Mexico it is present on more than one-third of the commercial forest acreage and is...

  20. Soil compaction and initial height growth of planted ponderosa pine. (United States)

    P. H. Cochran; Terry. Brock


    Early height growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings planted in clearcuts in central Oregon was negatively correlated with increasing soil bulk density. Change in bulk density accounted for less than half the total variation in height growth. Although many other factors affect the development of seedlings, compaction...

  1. The Function of a Trade of a Post-Reform Siberian Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery A. Skubnevsky


    Full Text Available The second half of the 19th Century saw the development of capitalism in Russia and formation of all-national market. The role of towns as centers of economy was growing, including trade-related ones. In Siberia before construction of Siberian railway in the 90s of the 19th cent. these processes were slow. The article shows peculiarities of Siberian trade, in particular, the role of town fairs and the ratio of fair and stationary trade in towns; it points out the main centers of trade and hierarchy of Siberian towns with regard to trade turnover. The author uses mainly pre-revolutionary statistical and reference works.

  2. Stand characteristics and downed woody debris accumulations associated with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in Colorado (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Jose F. Negron; Sheryl L. Costello; Charles C. Rhoades; Daniel R. West; John Popp; Rick Caissie


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.)-dominated ecosystems in north-central Colorado are undergoing rapid and drastic changes associated with overstory tree mortality from a currentmountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak. To characterize stand characteristics and downed woody debris loads during...

  3. Influence of herbicides and felling, fertilization, and prescribed fire on longleaf pine establishment and growth through six growing seasons (United States)

    James D. Haywood


    Recovery of longleaf pine (Pinus palutris. Mill.) is necessary to arrest the decline of many associated plants and animals, and the establishment of longleaf pine on much of its original range requires artificial regeneration and diligence. In central Louisiana, USA, two fertilization levels (No [NF] or Yes [F-36 kg/ha N and 40 kg/ha PI) in...

  4. Growth and Fusiform Rust Responses of Piedmont Loblolly Pine After Severa1 Site Preparation and Regeneration Methods (United States)

    W. Henry McNab


    Cutover pine-hardwood sites in the Piedmont of central Georgia were prepared by prescribed burning or drum chopping and regenerated to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) by planting or direct-seeding. Site preparation had little effect on soil physical properties. After an average of 12 years, trees were larger in dbh and total height, the merchantable...

  5. Loblolly pine SSR markers for shortleaf pine genetics (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; Sedley Josserand; Craig S. Echt; Jeff Koppelman


    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are highly informative DNA-based markers widely used in population genetic and linkage mapping studies. We have been developing PCR primer pairs for amplifying SSR markers for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using loblolly pine DNA and EST sequence data as starting materials. Fifty primer pairs known to reliably amplify...

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine × slash pine) × slash pine BC1 family (United States)

    C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; C. Dana. Nelson; M. Stine


    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F1 tree (Pinus palustris Mill. × P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree (P. ellottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine × slash pine...

  7. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  8. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Noli

    Full Text Available VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  9. Simultaneous Occurrence of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma and Brunner's Gland Adenoma in a Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). (United States)

    Gombač, M; Dolenšek, T; Jaušovec, D; Kvapil, P; Švara, T; Pogačnik, M


    We describe a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and Brunner's gland adenoma in an 18-year-old male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) from the Ljubljana Zoo. The tiger was humanely destroyed due to weakness and progressive weight loss. Necropsy examination revealed a large, grey, predominantly necrotic mass replacing the major part of the pancreatic body. Microscopically, the mass was unencapsulated, poorly demarcated, highly cellular and composed of highly pleomorphic, cuboidal to tall columnar cells with basal, round or oval, moderately anisokaryotic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and moderate to large amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm. The tumour was diagnosed as pancreatic tubular adenocarcinoma with infiltration into the duodenum and mesentery. There were tumour emboli in mesenteric blood vessels and hepatic metastases. The non-affected part of the pancreas exhibited severe chronic pancreatitis. In addition, one firm white neoplastic nodule was observed in the duodenal wall. The nodule was set in the tunica muscularis and was unencapsulated, well demarcated and highly cellular, and consisted of a closely packed layer of normal Brunner's glands and a centrally positioned group of irregularly branched tubules with small amounts of debris in the lumen. The neoplastic nodule was diagnosed as Brunner's gland adenoma. The present case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of concurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma and Brunner's gland adenoma, most probably induced by chronic pancreatitis, either in man or animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flowering of siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam. and its forage value to pollinating insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Stawiarz


    Full Text Available Under the conditions of Lublin (central-eastern Poland, observations were conducted on the flowering of Caragana arborescens shrubs for two growth seasons as well as nectar and pollen production by the flowers of this species was investigated. The flowering period of Caragana arborescens began at the turn of April and May and lasted for 24 days, while for a single flower it was 6.30 ± 0.79 days. The average weight of nectar, sugars and pollen produced by 10 Siberian peashrub flowers was, respectively: 46.70 ± 8.39 mg, 22.79 ± 6.10 mg, and 4.45 ± 0.34 mg. The nectar sugar concentration amounted 49.60 ± 10.08%. Pollen grains reached average dimensions of 21.94 ± 0.76 µm x 21.52 ± 0.71 µm. During a growing season, one Caragana arborescens shrub can provide on average 101.8 g of nectar, 49.7 g of sugars, and 9.7 g of pollen.

  11. Spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural land-use intensity across the Western Siberian grain belt. (United States)

    Kühling, Insa; Broll, Gabriele; Trautz, Dieter


    The Western Siberian grain belt covers 1millionkm² in Asiatic Russia and is of global importance for agriculture. Massive land-use changes took place in that region after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the state farm system. Decreasing land-use intensity (LUI) in post-Soviet Western Siberia was observed on grassland due to declining livestock whilst on cropland trends of land abandonment reversed in the early 2000s. Recultivation of abandoned cropland as well as increasing fertilizer inputs and narrowing crop rotations led to increasing LUI on cropland during the last two decades. Beyond that general trend, no information is available about spatial distribution and magnitude but a crucial precondition for the development of strategies for sustainable land management. To quantify changes and patterns in LUI, we developed an intensity index that reflects the impacts of land-based agricultural production. Based on subnational yearly statistical data, we calculated two separate input-orientated indices for cropland and grassland, respectively. The indices were applied on two spatial scale: at seven provinces covering the Western Siberian grain belt (Altay Kray, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Sverdlovsk and Tyumen) and at all districts of the central province Tyumen. The spatio-temporal analysis clearly showed opposite trends for the two land-use types: decreasing intensity on grassland (-0.015 LUI units per year) and intensification on cropland (+0.014 LUI units per year). Furthermore, a spatial concentration towards intensity centres occurred during transition from a planned to a market economy. A principal component analysis enabled the individual calculations of both land-use types to be combined and revealed a strong link between biophysical conditions and LUI. The findings clearly showed the need for having a different strategy for future sustainable land management for grassland (predominantly used by livestock of households

  12. Differentiation of Siberian Miners’ Salaries in Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev


    Full Text Available The work considers seasonal variations and differentiation of Siberian miners’ salaries in late XIX – early XX centuries, proves that seasonal variations of salaries depended on the excess demand on labor in summer and the contraction of demand in winter, detects that salary differentiated, depending on workers’ qualification, sex, age, nationality, industry, location of an enterprise. Such differences in Siberian miners’ salaries were typical for early industrial period of the development of the society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ercan ALKAYA


    Full Text Available This study deals with Siberian Tatar Turks wholive in some regions of the west Siberia such as Tumen,Baraba, Omsk with a population increased up to threehundred thousand people today. The historicaldevelopment of Siberian Tatar Turks, their position in theTurkic world and Tatarian Turkic, their population andcultural values are explicated; and some informationabout their language properties( phonology, morphologyand vocabulary are given substantially.

  14. Hydrocarbon potential of hydrocarbon source rocks of the New Siberian Islands, Russian Arctic (United States)

    Gaedicke, Christoph; Sobolev, Peter; Franke, Dieter; Piepjohn, Karsten; Brandes, Christian; Kus, Jolanta; Scheeder, Georg


    The New Siberian Islands are bridging the Laptev Sea with the East Siberian Sea. The Laptev and East Siberian Seas cover large areas of the continental margin of northeastern Arctic Russia. The East Siberian Shelf encompassing an area of 935.000 km2 is still virtually unexplored and most of the geological models for this shelf are extrapolations of the geology of the New Siberian Islands, the Wrangel Island and the northeast Siberian landmass. Apart from few seismic reflection lines, airborne magnetic data were the primary means of deciphering the structural pattern of the East Siberian Shelf. The Laptev Shelf covers an area of about 66.000 km2 and occupies a shelf region, where the active mid-oceanic spreading ridge of the Eurasian Basin hits the slope of the continental margin. During the joint VSEGEI/BGR field expedition CASE 13 (Circum Arctic Structural Events) in summer 2011 we sampled outcrops from the New Siberian Archipelago including the De Long Islands. 102 samples were collected and the Upper Palaeozoic to Lower Cenozoic units are found to be punctuated by several organic-rich intervals. Lithology varies from continental dominated clastic sedimentary rocks with coal seams to shallow marine carbonates and deep marine black shales. Rock-Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and organic petrography studies were performed to estimate organic matter contents, composition, source, and thermal maturity. According to the results of our analyses, samples from several intervals may be regarded as potential petroleum source rocks. The Lower Devonian shales have the highest source rock potential of all Paleozoic units. Triassic samples have a good natural gas potential. Cretaceous and Cenozoic low-rank coals, lignites, and coal-bearing sandstones display some gas potential. The kerogen of type III (humic, gas-prone) dominates. Most of the samples (except some of Cretaceous and Paleogene age) reached the oil generation window.

  15. Outbreak and genotyping of canine distemper virus in captive Siberian tigers and red pandas


    Zhang, He; Shan, Fen; Zhou, Xia; Li, Bing; Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Luo, Man-Lin


    In this study, four canine distemper virus (CDV) strains were isolated from captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) during two separate CDV outbreaks in a zoo in Guangdong province, China. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype Asia-1. Prior to confirmation of CDV in Siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenu...

  16. Cronartium ribicola resistance in whitebark pine, southwestern white pine, limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine - preliminary screening results from first tests at Dorena GRC (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Robert Danchok; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns; Dave Conklin


    All nine species of white pines (five-needle pines) native to the United States are highly susceptible to Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust. The presence of genetic resistance will be the key to maintaining or restoring white pines in many ecosystems and planning gene conservation activities. Operational genetic...

  17. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) (United States)

    Valli Peacher


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  18. The Austrian x red pine hybrid (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield


    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  19. Polymorphism Analysis of Ch1 and Ch2 Genes in the Siberian Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sartore


    Full Text Available Cats are usually spreaders of allergens that are critical for sensitive people; the Siberian cat is a breed supposed to be low level allergenic, according to some breeders’ statements. The sequence of the two genes, namely Ch1 and Ch2, that code for the allergen Fel d 1, the major allergen responsible for outbreaks of allergy symptoms, is not yet known in the Siberian cat, and finding this was the aim of our investigation. Notably, our work is the first survey of the genetic structure of these genes in Siberian cats. The comparison of the sequences of Siberian cats, non-Siberian cats, and sequences present in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database revealed a considerable number of mutations; some of those detected in the Siberian cat, due to their position in exon regions, could affect the Fel d 1 allergenic properties. Therefore, further investigations are recommended to assess if the identified mutations can be responsible for a reduced-allergen synthesis and can be used as markers for selection of low level allergenic cats.

  20. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.


    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  1. Correlation of multi-channel seismic data from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas to onshore geology of the New Siberian Islands, Russian Arctic (United States)

    Gaedicke, C.; Franke, D.; Piepjohn, K.; Brandes, C.; Sobolev, N.; Tolmacheva, T.; Mouly, B.


    The Laptev and East Siberian Seas cover large areas of the continental margin of North-Eastern Siberia and are separated by the New Siberian Islands. The East Siberian Shelf covering an area of 935.000 km2 is a virtually unexplored area and most geological models for this shelf are extrapolations of the geology of the New Siberian Islands, the Wrangel Island and the northeast Siberia landmass. Apart from few seismic reflection lines airborne magnetic data were the primary means of deciphering the structural pattern of the East Siberian Shelf. The Laptev Shelf covers an area of about 66.000 km2 and occupies a shelf region, where the active mid-oceanic spreading ridge meets the slope of a continental margin. Since no deep wells have been drilled so far on the shelves surrounding the New Siberian Islands, the precise age and nature of seismic horizons remain uncertain. All interpretations base on different evolution scenarios for the shelf areas resulting in a wide variety of interpretations available for the sedimentary cover of the Laptev Shelf where the interpretations range from Proterozoic to Cenozoic. During the joint VSEGEI/BGR field expedition CASE 13 (Circum Arctic Structural Events) in summer 2011 we sampled outcrops from the New Sibirian Archipelago including the DeLong Islands. Main purposes of the field work were: deciphering the structural evolution, paleo-stress analysis, stratigraphy and paleo-environmetal studies, and collection of potential hydrocarbon source rocks and host rocks. Here we present correlations from onshore to offshore based on multichannel reflection seismic data acquired by BGR in the 1990th and the field campaign CASE 13. Key marker horizons in the offshore data will be linked to major hiatuses in the onshore region. Well information is available close by the Lena delta in the form of sketched stratigraphy ranging from Proterozoic to Cretaceous. Both informations can be reconciled on a cross section despite a gap of approximately 25

  2. Red Pine in the Northern Lake States (United States)

    Thomas L. Schmidt


    Red pine is an important tree species for the Northern Lake States. About 4 percent of the total area of timberland is dominated by red pine but most other forest types also have red pine as a component. The red pine forest type in the region has dramatically increased in area since the 1930s. Stand-size class distribution of the red pine forest type has changed over...

  3. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.


    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which

  4. Mid-term successional patterns after fire of mixed pine oak forests in NE Spain (United States)

    Gracia, Marc; Retana, Javier; Roig, Pere


    This study analyzes the factors affecting the current variability in density and age and size structure of mixed pine-oak forests of Pinus nigra and Quercus faginea in Central Catalonia (NE Spain), 37 years after a wildfire. The objective is to determine whether different post-disturbance responses may be obtained from the same pre-fire community and which factors can determine these different potential responses. The two factors analyzed were the distance to the unburned forest and site conditions (represented in this case by different aspects). The response of pines and oaks was different to the pattern expected for the Mediterranean Basin. Oaks resprouted immediately from stools already present before the fire and dominated during the first years, independent of both disturbance and site conditions. Pines established later, and their response depended on both factors: pine density decreased sharply from the forest edge to the burned area, and the number of pines was also higher in the more mesic than in the more xeric conditions. The age structure analysis for pines and oaks in the different aspects also revealed site-dependent rates of succession manifested by initial differences in post-fire establishment. In mesic plots, the establishment of pines occurred quite early, while in xeric plots, pine recruitment was delayed several years. These different patterns of post-fire recovery have led to pine dominance in more mesic sites and codominance of pines and oaks in more xeric ones, suggesting that different mid-term post-fire patterns can be identified for the same pre-fire forest type, depending on variations in environmental conditions.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the mechanism of oil dynamic accumulation during developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernels for the development of woody biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niu, Jun; An, Jiyong; Wang, Libing; Fang, Chengliang; Ha, Denglong; Fu, Chengyu; Qiu, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Zhao, Haiyan; Hou, Xinyu; Xiang, Zheng; Zhou, Sufan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Feng, Xinyi; Lin, Shanzhi


    Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) has emerged as a novel potential source of biodiesel in China, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of oil accumulation in Siberian apricot seed kernels (SASK...

  6. Circadian rhythms accelerate wound healing in female Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Cable, Erin J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Prendergast, Brian J


    Circadian rhythms (CRs) provide temporal regulation and coordination of numerous physiological traits, including immune function. CRs in multiple aspects of immune function are impaired in rodents that have been rendered circadian-arrhythmic through various methods. In Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia can be induced by disruptive light treatments (DPS). Here we examined CRs in wound healing, and the effects of circadian disruption on wound healing in DPS-arrhythmic hamsters. Circadian entrained/rhythmic (RHYTH) and behaviorally-arrhythmic (ARR) female hamsters were administered a cutaneous wound either 3h after light onset (ZT03) or 2h after dark onset (ZT18); wound size was quantified daily using image analyses. Among RHYTH hamsters, ZT03 wounds healed faster than ZT18 wounds, whereas in ARR hamsters, circadian phase did not affect wound healing. In addition, wounds healed slower in ARR hamsters. The results document a clear CR in wound healing, and indicate that the mere presence of organismal circadian organization enhances this aspect of immune function. Faster wound healing in CR-competent hamsters may be mediated by CR-driven coordination of the temporal order of mechanisms (inflammation, leukocyte trafficking, tissue remodeling) underlying cutaneous wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.


    Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

  8. Inhibition of melanin production by a combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts. (United States)

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Scholten, Jeffrey D


    In an effort to find botanicals containing polyphenolic compounds with the capacity to inhibit melanin biosynthesis, we identified a novel combination of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) extract, standardized to 80% taxifolin, and pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract, containing 20% punicalagins, that demonstrates a synergistic reduction of melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells. The combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts (1:1) produced a 2-fold reduction in melanin content compared to Siberian larch or pomegranate extracts alone with no corresponding effect on cell viability. Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts inhibited expression of melanocyte specific genes, tyrosinase (Tyr), microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf), and melanosome structural proteins (Pmel17 and Mart1) but did not inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity. These results suggest that the mechanism of inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts, alone and in combination, is through downregulation of melanocyte specific genes and not due to inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lithostratigraphic, conodont, and other faunal links between lower Paleozoic strata in northern and central Alaska and northeastern Russia (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Gagiev, Mussa; Bradley, Dwight C.; Repetski, John E.


    Lower Paleozoic platform carbonate strata in northern Alaska (parts of the Arctic Alaska, York, and Seward terranes; herein called the North Alaska carbonate platform) and central Alaska (Farewell terrane) share distinctive lithologic and faunal features, and may have formed on a single continental fragment situated between Siberia and Laurentia. Sedimentary successions in northern and central Alaska overlie Late Proterozoic metamorphosed basement; contain Late Proterozoic ooid-rich dolostones, Middle Cambrian outer shelf deposits, and Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian shallow-water platform facies, and include fossils of both Siberian and Laurentian biotic provinces. The presence in the Alaskan terranes of Siberian forms not seen in wellstudied cratonal margin sequences of western Laurentia implies that the Alaskan rocks were not attached to Laurentia during the early Paleozoic.The Siberian cratonal succession includes Archean basement, Ordovician shallow-water siliciclastic rocks, and Upper Silurian–Devonian evaporites, none of which have counterparts in the Alaskan successions, and contains only a few of the Laurentian conodonts that occur in Alaska. Thus we conclude that the lower Paleozoic platform successions of northern and central Alaska were not part of the Siberian craton during their deposition, but may have formed on a crustal fragment rifted away from Siberia during the Late Proterozoic. The Alaskan strata have more similarities to coeval rocks in some peri-Siberian terranes of northeastern Russia (Kotelny, Chukotka, and Omulevka). Lithologic ties between northern Alaska, the Farewell terrane, and the peri-Siberian terranes diminish after the Middle Devonian, but Siberian afµnities in northern and central Alaskan biotas persist into the late Paleozoic.

  10. The ponderosa pine ecosystem and environmental stress: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waring, R. H.; Law, B. E. [Oregon State Univ., College of Forestry, Corwallis, OR (United States)


    This introductory paper provides a summary of contributions presented at a one-day special workshop on the past, present and future of ponderosa pine ecosystems, held in conjunction with the 1999 air pollution workshop at Oregon State University. The objective of the special workshop was to foster a better understanding of the interaction of stresses with processes impacting on ponderosa pine ecosystems which are currently experiencing changes in climatic conditions and atmospheric chemistry greater than any to which they have been exposed in the past. Contributions published in this issue of 'Tree Physiology' range from papers discussing ponderosa pine seedlings growing with or without grass competition and with or without ozone stress, to field studies which demonstrate assimilation rates during summer drought, the effects of ozone exposure and radiation characteristic of high elevations on leaf pigments and anti-oxidative protective compounds, response of ponderosa pine to irrigation during extended drought conditions, diurnal and seasonal variation in ponderosa pine stomatal conductance and total ecosystem respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation, and a comparative study of carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange at a young plantation in the Sierra Mountains in California and at an older forest situated on the eastern flank of the Cascade Mountains in central Oregon. Results of these studies give evidence of opportunities and challenges for both clarifying underlying processes, and for expanding the scope of analyses to include possible shifts in competition, climate and atmospheric chemistry across the entire ponderosa pine range. 9 refs.

  11. Ice Core Reconnaissance in Siberian Altai for Mid-Latitudes Paleo-Climatic and Environmental Reconstruction (United States)

    Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.; Kreutz, K.; Nikitin, S.; Fujita, K.; Cecil, D.


    Investigations in Siberian Altai permits to expand our scope from Tibet, Himalayas, Tien Shan and Pamir to the area located at the northeastern edge of the Central Asia Mountain System. Altai forms a natural barrier to the northern and western air masses and therefore affords an opportunity to develop modern paleo-climate records relating to the westerly jet stream, the Siberian High and Pacific monsoon. Moreover, Altai alpine snowice accumulation areas are appropriative for studying air pollution dynamics at the center of Eurasia, eastward from the major Former USSR air pollutants in Kazakhstan, South Siberia and Ural Mountains. During the last century Altai Mountains became extremely contaminated region by heavy metal mining, metallurgy, nuclear test in Semipalatinsk polygon and Baikonur rocket site. Our first field reconnaissance on the West Belukha snow/firn plateau at the Central Altai was carried out in July 2001. Dispute of the large Alatai Mountains glaciation, the West Belukha Plateau (49o48' N, 86o32'E, 4000-4100 m a.s.l.) is only one suitable snow accumulation site in Altai to recover ice-core paleo-climatic and environmental records that is not affected by meltwater percolation. The objective of our first reconnaissance was to find an appropriate deep drilling site by radio-echo sounding survey, to recover shallow ice-core, to identify the annual snow accumulation rate, major ions, heavy metals, radio nuclides and oxygen isotopes level distribution. During 6 days of work on the Plateau, a 22 m shallow firn/ice core has been recovered by PICO hand auger at elevation 4050 m where the results of radio-echo sounding suggests about 150 m ice thickness. In addition to the firn/ice core recovery, five 2.5 meter snow pits were sampled for physical statigraphy, major ions, trace element, and heavy metals analysis to assess spatial variability of the environmental impact in this region. Four automatic snow gauges were installed near proposed deep ice coring site

  12. The crust and mantle beneath the Siberian provinces: a preliminary model based on new receiver function analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    The new receiver function (RF) study complements the existing seismic data on the crustal and upper mantle structure at the margins of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin. So far, RF studies of Siberia have been largely restricted to the Baikal rift zone (Gao et al., 2004; Liu and Gao...

  13. Being at the right time at the right place: interpreting the annual life cycle of Afro-Siberian red knots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyrer, J.


    This thesis describes the possible selection pressures acting on survival and, indirectly, on reproduction of Afro-Siberian red knots Calidris canutus canutus while wintering and migrating. Afro-Siberian red knots are long-distance migrants. They travel between the West African wintering areas and

  14. Physical and chemical properties of slash pine tree parts (United States)

    E. T. Howard


    In three 22-year-old slash pines from an unthinned plantation in central Louisiana, stemwood comprised 58.5 percent of total ovendry tree weight. Stumps and main roots made up 16.5 percent, bark 12.5, top of bole 5.0, needles 4.0, and branches 3.5. This material now is largely wasted when a tree is harvested; methods of utilizing it would extend fiber supplies by 70...

  15. Old Black Hills ponderosa pines tell a story (United States)

    Matthew J. Bunkers; L. Ronald Johnson; James R. Miller; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    A single ponderosa pine tree found in the central Black Hills of SouthDakota revealed its age of more than 700 years by its tree rings taken from coring in 1992. The purpose of this study was to examine historic climatic patterns from the 13th century through most of the 20th century as inferred from ring widths of this and other nearby trees. The steep, rocky site...

  16. Influence of pine straw harvesting, prescribed fire, and fertilization on a Louisiana longleaf pine site (United States)

    James D. Haywood


    This research was initiated in a 34-year-old, direct-seeded stand of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to study how pine straw management practices (harvesting, fire, and fertilization) affected the longleaf pine overstory and pine straw yields. A randomized complete block split-plot design was installed with two main plot treatments...

  17. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley


    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  18. Export of calcium carbonate corrosive waters from the East Siberian Sea (United States)

    Anderson, Leif G.; Ek, Jörgen; Ericson, Ylva; Humborg, Christoph; Semiletov, Igor; Sundbom, Marcus; Ulfsbo, Adam


    The Siberian shelf seas are areas of extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter, both of marine and terrestrial origin. This in combination with brine production from sea ice formation results in a cold bottom water of relative high salinity and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition compiled on the icebreaker Oden in July to September 2014 show the distribution of such waters at the outer shelf, as well as their export into the deep central Arctic basins. Very high pCO2 water, up to ˜ 1000 µatm, was observed associated with high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations. Consequently, this water had low saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate down to less than 0.8 for calcite and 0.5 for aragonite. Waters undersaturated in aragonite were also observed in the surface in waters at equilibrium with atmospheric CO2; however, at these conditions the cause of under-saturation was low salinity from river runoff and/or sea ice melt. The calcium carbonate corrosive water was observed all along the continental margin and well out into the deep Makarov and Canada basins at a depth from about 50 m depth in the west to about 150 m in the east. These waters of low aragonite saturation state are traced in historic data to the Canada Basin and in the waters flowing out of the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland and in the western Fram Strait, thus potentially impacting the marine life in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Manganese carbonates in the Upper Jurassic Georgiev Formation of the Western Siberian marine basin (United States)

    Eder, Vika G.; Föllmi, Karl B.; Zanin, Yuri N.; Zamirailova, Albina G.


    Manganese (Mn) carbonate rocks are a common lithological constituent of the Upper Oxfordian to Lower Tithonian (Volgian) Georgiev Formation of the Western Siberian marine basin (WSMB). The Mn carbonates in the Georgiev Formation are present in the form of massive sediments, stromatolites, and oncolites, and are associated with glauconite and partly also phosphate-rich clay- and siltstones. Unlike most Mn carbonates, they are not directly associated with organic-rich sediments, but occur below an organic-rich succession (Bazhenov Formation). The Mn carbonate occurrences can be traced from the western central area of the WSMB to its center along a distance of at least 750 km. The thickness of the Mn carbonates and their Mn contents becomes reduced in an eastward direction, related to increased detrital input. The geochemical and mineralogical heterogeneity within the Mn carbonates indicates that they were deposited stepwise in a diagenetic regime characterized by steep gradients in Mn, Ca, and Mg. A first step consisted in the replacement of initial sediments within the microbialites during an early diagenetic stage, followed by a second step where massive sediments were transformed into Mn carbonate. During both steps, the decomposition of organic matter was an important source of the newly formed carbonate. During a further step, voids were cemented by Mn carbonates, which are rich in pyrite. This last generation may only have formed once the organic-rich sediments of the overlying Bazhenov Formation were deposited. Accumulation of the Mn carbonates in the Upper Jurassic WSMB was controlled by the proximity of Mn-enriched parent rocks, likely in the Ural, which were subjected to intense geochemical weathering during the Late Jurassic.

  20. Widespread release of old carbon across the Siberian Arctic echoed by its large rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Gustafsson


    Full Text Available Over decadal-centennial timescales, only a few mechanisms in the carbon-climate system could cause a massive net redistribution of carbon from land and ocean systems to the atmosphere in response to climate warming. The largest such climate-vulnerable carbon pool is the old organic carbon (OC stored in Arctic permafrost (perennially frozen soils. Climate warming, both predicted and now observed to be the strongest globally in the Eurasian Arctic and Alaska, causes thaw-release of old permafrost carbon from local tundra sites. However, a central challenge for the assessment of the general vulnerability of this old OC pool is to deduce any signal integrating its release over larger scales. Here we examine radiocarbon measurements of molecular soil markers exported by the five Great Russian-Arctic Rivers (Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka and Kolyma, employed as natural integrators of carbon release processes in their watersheds. The signals held in estuarine surface sediments revealed that average radiocarbon ages of n-alkanes increased east-to-west from 6400 yr BP in Kolyma to 11 400 yr BP in Ob. This is consistent with westwards trends of both warmer climate and more degraded organic matter as indicated by the ratio of high molecular weight (HMW n-alkanoic acids to HMW n-alkanes. The dynamics of Siberian permafrost can thus be probed via the molecular-radiocarbon signal as carried by Arctic rivers. Old permafrost carbon is at present vulnerable to mobilization over continental scales. Climate-induced changes in the radiocarbon fingerprint of released permafrost carbon will likely depend on changes in both permafrost coverage and Arctic soil hydraulics.

  1. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine. (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D


    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  2. The Pine Mountain Observatory Outreach Program (United States)

    Bothun, G. D.; Kang, R.


    The Pine Mountain Observatory is located in Central Oregon at an elevation of 6700 feet. Three scopes of size 16, 24 and 32 inches are located there. Throughout the last decade we have run a robust summer visitors program which educates about 3000 people per year. Recently we have finished a Prime Focus CCD system for the 32-inch telescope. This system reads out in 5 seconds and has a shutter that can time as short as 10 milliseconds. The field of view is 36 x 36 arcminutes. We are currently engaged in a number of K12 teacher education projects. The biggest obstacle facing these teachers was their ability to handle FITS data. To solve this problem we have developed a robust JAVA applet for doing image analysis and automatic photometry on FITS data. In this talk we will demonstrate how a teacher can construct an HR diagram for the open cluster M39 where the root data are Blue and Red filter exposures each of duration 10 milliseconds. In such exposures, only the stars that are actually in M39 register on the detector. This flexibility allows Pine Mountain to be a unique resource for teachers as we can take custom data through a variety of filters which can then all be reduced inside a Web browser.


    Grigoriev, Yu A; Soboleva, S V; Baran, O I


    The research institute of complex problems of hygiene and occupational diseases of the Siberian branch of of the Russian academy of medical sciences, 654041 Novokuznetsk, Russia; 2The institute of economics and organization of industrial manufacture of the Siberian branch of the Russian academy of sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia The maternal capital as a measure of stimulation of birth (adoption) of second child functions in Russia since 2007. During following years the local subventions were introduced in the form of maternal capital for birth (adoption) of third child or subsequent children. The article considers characteristics of this measure of social support in the Siberian federal okrug and possible ways of extension of practice of its application as well.

  4. Culture, characteristics and chromosome complement of Siberian tiger fibroblasts for nuclear transfer. (United States)

    Song, Jimei; Hua, Song; Song, Kai; Zhang, Yong


    Tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) is a characteristic species of Asia, which is in severe danger. Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest one of the five existent tiger subspecies. It is extremely endangered. One new way for tiger protection and rescue is to study interspecies cloning. But there is few research data about Siberian tiger. In this study, we cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro, analyzed their biological characteristics, chromosomes, and cell cycles, to provide not only nuclear donors with good morphology, normal biological characteristics, and chromosome quantity for tiger interspecies cloning, but also reliable data for further studying Siberian tiger. The results indicated that Siberian tiger ear fibroblasts can be successfully obtained by tissue culture either with or without overnight cold digestion, the cultured cells were typical fibroblasts with normal morphology, growth curve, and chromosome quantity; G0/G1 percentage increased and S percentage decreased with the confluence of cells. G0/G1 and S stage rate was significantly different between 40-50% and 80-90%, 95-100% confluence; there is no distinct difference between 80-90% and 95-100% confluence. The cells at the same density (80-90% confluence) were treated with or without 0.5% serum starving, GO/G1 rate of the former was higher than the latter, but the difference was not significant. GO/G1 proportion of 95-100% confluence was slightly higher than serum starving (80-90% confluence), but no significant difference. Therefore, the Siberian tiger fibroblasts we cultured in vitro can be used as donor cells, and the donor cells do not need to be treated with normal serum starvation during nuclear transfer; if we will just consider the rate of the G0/G1 stage cells, serum starvation can be replaced by confluence inhibition when cultured cells were more than 80-90% confluence.

  5. Extensive degradation of terrestrial POC and DOC over the Eastern Arctic Siberian Shelf (United States)

    Alling, V.; Sanchez-García, L.; Pugach, S.; Porcelli, D.; Humborg, C.; Mörth, C.-M.; van Dongen, B.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.


    The Eastern part of the Siberian Arctic is predicted to experience the highest increase in temperature on Earth as climate changes, and now observations indicate that the region is warming even faster than predicted. It has been suggested that these changes will lead to increased export of terrestrial organic carbon (particulate OC and dissolved OC). However, the fate of terrestrial OC in the Arctic Ocean is debated, and data from the eastern part of the Siberian Shelves are limited. During the International Siberian Shelf Study 2008 (ISSS-08), a 50-day research expedition onboard the Russian vessel Yakob Smirnitskiy, 260 samples were measured for POC and DOC concentrations and optical parameters in the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas. The results demonstrate that extensive removal of terrestrial derived carbon occurs over these shelves. For DOC, this was most pronounced in areas where the residence time of the freshwater exceeded one year, while the removal of POC was rapid in the low salinity zones. However, the POC shows several sources and degradation patterns along the Eastern Siberian coastline, and the degradation rate was much higher than previous estimates. Our findings suggest that a large proportion of riverine DOC is removed in the surface waters of the Eastern Siberian Arctic Shelves and that increased river discharge of DOC might cause a stronger positive feedback to global warming than expected. They also suggest that even though the riverine concentration of POC is only 10-15% of the DOC concentration, up to half of the inorganic carbon produced from degradation of terrestrial OC is due to degradation of POC.

  6. International Siberian Shelf Study 2008 (ISSS-08): towards establishing a geographically distributed picture of the bulk geochemical composition of surface sediments on the East Siberian Sea (United States)

    Vonk, J.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I.; Charkin, A.; Andersson, P.; Sánchez-García, L.; Kruså, M.; van Dongen, B.; Porcelli, D.; Gustafsson, Ö.


    The Arctic Ocean has unusually large and shallow continental shelves, covering more than 50% of its total area. Large amounts of fluvially transported terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC) are delivered to the East Siberian Arctic Shelves (ESAS; Laptev, East Siberian and Chuckchi Seas), in addition to input of coastally eroded material that, based on very limited data, is estimated to be equally large. The fate of these large-scale releases of terrOC into the ESAS seas is still poorly understood. The urgency of this question is underscored by the fact that the East-Siberian Arctic landmass is expected to experience the strongest climate warming on Earth, with potential for various carbon-climate feedback links. Improving our understanding of terrOC processing on the Eurasian Arctic shelves was one of the main objectives of the International Siberian Shelf Study (ISSS-08), a 42-day ship-based research expedition onboard the Russian vessel Yakob Smirnitskiy in August/September 2008. The East Siberian Sea (ESS) was the main geographical focus as it is not only the largest Arctic shelf sea but also the least studied. The ISSS-08 campaign obtained surface sediments from over 60 locations and is here combined with results obtained from campaigns in 2003, 2004 and 2007 to facilitate a comprehensive investigation of the ESS sediment composition. The ISSS-08 sediments were obtained both from near coast, as were earlier samples, but also had coverage out to the mid-shelf region. Analyses of ESS surface sediments from 2003 and 2004 show sedimentary organic carbon contents between 0.5 and 1.5% with highest values, locally up to 2.5-3% near the Indigirka and Kolyma river mouths and in Long Strait. Stable carbon isotope values were mostly in the range of -27 to -25 per mille, with more depleted values close to the coast. A clear transition was observed east from 170° E towards Long Strait with more enriched values, signalling a regime shift with stronger influence of the Pacific

  7. Photoperiodic Influences on Ultradian Rhythms of Male Siberian Hamsters (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Zucker, Irving


    Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L) and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR) robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ≤14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs) were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (τ’), amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ≤13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders), τ’ of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L–13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters. PMID:22848579

  8. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Onishi, Kenneth G.; Patel, Priyesh N.; Stevenson, Tyler J.


    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1β and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1β and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors. PMID:24333374

  9. Shelf-Basin interaction along the East Siberian Sea (United States)

    Anderson, Leif G.; Björk, Göran; Holby, Ola; Jutterström, Sara; Magnus Mörth, Carl; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Semiletov, Igor; Stranne, Christian; Stöven, Tim; Tanhua, Toste; Ulfsbo, Adam; Jakobsson, Martin


    Extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter takes place in the shallow continental shelf seas of Siberia. This, in combination with brine production from sea-ice formation, results in cold bottom waters with relatively high salinity and nutrient concentrations, as well as low oxygen and pH levels. Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden, from July to September 2014, show the distribution of such nutrient-rich, cold bottom waters along the continental margin from about 140 to 180° E. The water with maximum nutrient concentration, classically named the upper halocline, is absent over the Lomonosov Ridge at 140° E, while it appears in the Makarov Basin at 150° E and intensifies further eastwards. At the intercept between the Mendeleev Ridge and the East Siberian continental shelf slope, the nutrient maximum is still intense, but distributed across a larger depth interval. The nutrient-rich water is found here at salinities of up to ˜ 34.5, i.e. in the water classically named lower halocline. East of 170° E transient tracers show significantly less ventilated waters below about 150 m water depth. This likely results from a local isolation of waters over the Chukchi Abyssal Plain as the boundary current from the west is steered away from this area by the bathymetry of the Mendeleev Ridge. The water with salinities of ˜ 34.5 has high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations as well as low pH, typically indicating decay of organic matter. A deficit in nitrate relative to phosphate suggests that this process partly occurs under hypoxia. We conclude that the high nutrient water with salinity ˜ 34.5 are formed on the shelf slope in the Mendeleev Ridge region from interior basin water that is trapped for enough time to attain its signature through interaction with the sediment.

  10. Soil respiration dynamics in the middle taiga of Central Siberia region (United States)

    Makhnykina, Anastasia; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Polosukhina, Daria


    A large amount of carbon in soil is released to the atmosphere through soil respiration, which is the main pathway of transferring carbon from terrestrial ecosystems (Comstedt et al., 2011). Considering that boreal forests is a large terrestrial sink (Tans et al., 1990) and represent approximately 11 % of the Earth's total land area (Gower et al., 2001), even a small change in soil respiration could significantly intensify - or mitigate - current atmospheric increases of CO2, with potential feedbacks to climate change. The objectives of the present study are: (a) to study the dynamic of CO2 emission from the soil surface during summer season (from May to October); (b) to identify the reaction of soil respiration to different amount of precipitation as the main limiting factor in the region. The research was located in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. Sample plots were represented by the lichen pine forest, moss pine forest, mixed forest and anthropogenic destroyed area. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system based on the infrared gas analyzer -LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths -5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. The presence and type of ground cover substantially affects the value of soil respiration fluxes. The carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface averaged 5.4 ±2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The destroyed area without plant cover demonstrated the lowest soil respiration (0.1-5.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The lowest soil respiration among forested areas was observed in the feathermoss pine forest. The lichen pine forest was characterized by the intermediate values of soil respiration. The maximum soil respiration values and seasonal fluctuations were obtained in the mixed forest (2.3-29.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The analysis of relation between soil CO2 efflux and climatic conditions identified the parameters with

  11. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  12. Siberian subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus in a newly emerged focus, Finland. (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anu; Tonteri, Elina; Pieninkeroinen, Ilkka; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Kuusi, Markku; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli


    The first tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases in Kotka, Finland appeared in 2010. Altogether ten human cases have been diagnosed by 2014. Four had long-lasting sequelae. We collected 195 Ixodes ricinus ticks, nine rodents, and eleven shrews from the archipelago of Kotka in 2011. Three Siberian subtype TBE virus (TBEV) strains were isolated from the ticks and three mammals were positive for TBEV antibodies. The archipelago of Kotka is a newly emerged TBE focus of Siberian subtype TBEV circulating notably in I. ricinus. The patients had on average longer hospitalization than reported for the European subtype infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecology of southwestern ponderosa pine forests (United States)

    William H. Moir; Brian W. Geils; Mary Ann Benoit; Dan Scurlock


    Ponderosa pine forests are important because of their wide distribution, commercial value, and because they provide habitat for many plants and animals. Ponderosa pine forests are noted for their variety of passerine birds resulting from variation in forest composition and structure modified by past and present human use. Subsequent chapters discuss how ponderosa pine...

  14. Crossing the western pines at Placerville, California (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; S. L. Krugman


    The results of hybridizing the western pine species by the Institute of Forest Genetics are described and discussed. It has been found that the hard, (yellow) pines can generally be crossed successfully only with similar species native to the same part of the world. In contrast, the soft (white) pines of the Western Hemisphere have been crossed successfully with soft...

  15. Shortleaf pine: a species at risk? (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; Shiqin Xu; C. Dana Nelson; James M. Guldin


    Since the 1950s the existence of natural hybrids between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine has been recognized and reported in the literature. In a range-wide study of isoenzyme diversity in shortleaf pine, we found 16 percent of the trees from western populations were hybrids, based on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) locus. In stands thought to be pure shortleaf...

  16. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow


    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  17. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  18. Magmatism evolution on the last Neoproterozoic development stage of the western Siberian active continental margin (United States)

    Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.; Kadilnikov, Pavel I.; Romanova, Irina V.


    Rocks from active continental margin complexes are characterized by a wide variety of chemical compositions from depleted in alkali to alkali differentiates. When addressing issues of geodynamic settings in which such rocks form, it is important to understand the evolution of the host tectonic structure, as well as the chemical affiliation of the various rocks composing it. The Yenisey Ridge orogen located in the south-western framing of Siberia is one of the more studied regions with a long history of Neoproterozoic magmatic events. This orogen was formed during the collision of the Central Angara terrane with Siberia, which took place 761-718 Ma. Subsequent subduction-related events in the orogen have been recorded in the coeval magmatism (711-629 Ma) of two complexes: one is the active continental margin complex (Nb enriched igneous rocks - gabbroids, trachybasalts, A-type granites and carbonatites, including contact metasomatites zones with Nb mineralization), and the other one is an island arc complex (differentiated series volcanics, gabbroids and plagiogranites). The rocks of these complexes are respectively located in two suture zones: the Tatarka-Ishimba zone that formed due to the collision mentioned above, and the Yenisei suture marking the subduction zone [Vernikovsky et al., 2003; 2008]. The final Neoproterozoic stage in the evolution of the active margin of Siberia is manifested as adakite-gabbro-anorthosite magmatism in the 576-546 Ma interval. Our results indicate a genetic relationship between the adakites and their host NEB-type metabasites of the Zimovey massif. These Neoproterozoic adakites could have formed in a setting of transform-strike-slip drift of lithospheric plates after the subduction stopped, both from a crustal and mantle-crustal source, similarly to the Cenozoic magmatic complexes of the transform margin in the eastern framing of Eurasia [Khanchuk et al., 2016]. Vernikovsky V.A., Vernikovskaya A.E., Kotov A.B., Sal'nikova E

  19. Wide occurrence of self-reversal of magnetization in the Siberian traps and in other basic rocks of the northern Siberian platform (United States)

    Kurochkina, Evgeniia; Pavlov, Vladimir


    Detailed paleomagnetic studies indicate that numerous Siberian trap basalt flows (especially, from the Maymecha-Kotuy area) contain often 2-3 and, sometimes, even 4 nearly antipodal ancient magnetization components. Whereas the component with lowest unblocking temperatures (100-300°C) can be interpreted as recent one of probably viscous origin, the other three components are clearly different from modern dipole field and their mean directions correspond to expected permo-triassic one for the Siberian platform. These three components are destroyed in temperature intervals 300-550°C, 420- 590°C and (only several samples) 600-660°C. The paleomagnetic and geological context demonstrates that these components unlikely to be attributed to subsequent thermal or chemical overprint, therefore we consider self-reversal as a probable cause for observed antipodal magnetization components. In our report we discuss evidences for occurrence of self-reversal of magnetization in studied samples, their magnetic mineralogy and possible mechanism of the self-reversal. Our detailed paleomagnetic study carried out on tens of mesoproterozoic basic sills and dykes from Anabar uplift (northern Siberian platform) reveals often the similar paleomagnetic record indicating that self-reversal of magnetization in the basic rocks may be much more spread in the nature than it is usually regarded.

  20. Nature of peripheral and central hemodynamics in vibration disease of miners of Eastern Siberian coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesov, V.G.; Perminov, N.Kh.; Blankova, I.A.; Baldakova, V.P.


    Simultaneous influence of vibration and cold on cardiovascular system of miners of Eastern Siberia and Yakutia is investigated. Drillers subjected to vibration of manual perforators and low temperatures (minus 20 C to 11 C) of air in mines are studied. Leading clinical symptoms of this group of miners with vibration disease (VD) are polyneuropathy, acrospasm, degenerative inflammation of elbow joints and polymialgia. Study showed in VD hemodynamics of upper extremities is damaged. Measurements were made with the capillaryscope, thermometry, venous occulusion plethysmography of fingers, rheovasography of wrists, forearms and feet. Testing reveals venous stagnation and reduced capillary exchange of peripheral circulation. Among miners examined, most widespread clinical symptom was angiospasm, attacks of white or cyanotic fingers, due to VD and exposure to excessive cold. Simultaneous action of these factors facilitates a generalized spasm in the precapillary system that is manifested by increased peripheral resistance in the vascular bed, and is accompaned by a compensatory slowing of systolic ejection by the heart to prevent overfilling of vascular bed with blood. Thus, an optimal arterial pressure is maintained in miners with VD exposed to severe cold. 10 references.

  1. Reconstruction of the putative cervidae ancestral karyotype by chromosome painting of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) with dromedary probes. (United States)

    Dementyeva, P V; Trifonov, V A; Kulemzina, A I; Graphodatsky, A S


    The Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is one of a few deer species presumably preserving the ancestral cervid karyotype. The comparative genomic data of the Siberian roe deer are critical for our understanding of the karyotypic relationships within artiodactyls. We have established chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) by cross-species chromosome painting with dromedary chromosome-specific painting probes. Dromedary chromosome paints detected 53 autosomal homologies in the genome of the Siberian roe deer. The identification of chromosomal homologies between the Siberian roe deer and cattle resulted from previously detected cattle-dromedary homologies. We have found 8 chromosomal rearrangements (6 fissions in the Siberian roe deer, 1 fission in the cattle and 1 inversion on the CPY11) that have separated the karyotypes of the cattle and the Siberian roe deer. The inversion on CPY11 might be an apomorphic trait of cervids, since we detected its presence in the gray brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira). Thus our data further prove the scenario of chromosomal rearrangements that was previously proposed and add some new data. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees (United States)

    Kajos, M. K.; Hakola, H.; Holst, T.; Nieminen, T.; Tarvainen, V.; Maximov, T.; Petäjä, T.; Arneth, A.; Rinne, J.


    While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E) located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3-24 June, 8-26 July, and 14-30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw-1 h-1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3-37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C-1 for monoterpenes and 0.143 °C-1 for

  3. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Kajos


    Full Text Available While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3–24 June, 8–26 July, and 14–30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw−1 h−1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3–37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C−1 for monoterpenes

  4. Volatiles and trace elements in melt inclusions from Siberian Traps (United States)

    Novikova, S.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Svensen, H.


    The eruption of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (LIP) was synchronous with the largest known mass extinction, at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Understanding the volatile budget of the eruptions and hence their potential effects on climate is of critical importance. The volcanism spanned an enormous territory (5 million km2) over 0.8 Ma and the magmas feeding the eruptions were heterogeneous in their chemistry in space and time. In terms of volatiles in pre-eruptive magmas, there are multiple possible sources: the mantle (including metasomatized lithosphere) and crustal rocks and sediments. Discriminating between these sources requires not only microanalysis of volatiles in melt inclusions, but also analysis of trace elements. Crucially, the magmas sampled for this study did not intersect and assimilate evaporite deposits or brines prior to emplacement as sills or eruption as lavas, in contrast to previous studies, which might allow mantle-derived volatile heterogeneity to be preserved in the melts. We present a new dataset of clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusion geochemistry. Crystalline inclusions in clinopyroxene with Mg# from 69.2 to 82.6 were homogenized at temperatures of 1190°C and fO2 of FMQ-1 in a high temperature gas mixing furnace. We show that, for this particular suite of lavas, considerable variability exists in trace and volatile element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Nb/Y, Ba/La, F/Nd, Cl/K) that may be explained entirely by mantle heterogeneity. The most depleted melts (e.g. low La/Yb) have the highest range and values of S/Dy, Cl/K and F/Nd ratios; and the most "enriched" melts (highest La/Yb) exhibit low volatile/trace element ratios. These trends are consistent with mixing between end member sources: low degrees of melting of a volatile-poor source and high degrees of melting of a volatile-rich component with a depleted trace element signature (which might be consistent with minimally devolatilised recycled oceanic crust). There is no clear

  5. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Regan


    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  6. Evapotranspiration from understory vegetation in an eastern Siberian boreal larch forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, S.; Ohta, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakai, T.; Kuwada, T.; Konovov, A.V.; Maximov, T.C.; van der Molen, M.K.; Dolman, A.J.; Tanaka, H.; Yabuki, H.


    We measured evapotranspiration in an eastern Siberian boreal forest, in which the understory was cowberry and the overstory was larch, during the entire growing seasons of 2005 and 2006. We compared evapotranspiration from the understory vegetation above the forest floor E

  7. Plant metabolites of the Siberian flora. Chemical transformations and the scope of practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, Elvira E; Raldugin, Victor A; Volcho, Konstantin P; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F; Tolstikov, Genrikh A [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    The results of studies of some terpenoids, alkaloids and phenolic derivatives isolated from Siberian plants are summarised. The structures of the compounds studied are presented and the chemical transformations of the available terpenoids and alkaloids are considered. Examples of practical application of natural compounds and their derivatives are given.

  8. High fidelity--no evidence for extra-pair paternity in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). (United States)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Merilä, Juha


    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus) breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n=1029 offspring) covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living) in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity.

  9. High fidelity--no evidence for extra-pair paternity in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available Extra-pair paternity (EPP in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n=1029 offspring covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity.

  10. High Fidelity – No Evidence for Extra-Pair Paternity in Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus) (United States)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Merilä, Juha


    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus) breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n = 1029 offspring) covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living) in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity. PMID:20711255

  11. Preferential burial of permafrost-derived organic carbon in Siberian-Arctic shelf waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Jorien E.; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Andersson, August; Shakhova, Natalia; Charkin, Alexander; Heim, Birgit; Gustafsson, Örjan


    The rapidly changing East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) receives large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OC) from coastal erosion and Russian-Arctic rivers. Climate warming increases thawing of coastal Ice Complex Deposits (ICD) and can change both the amount of released OC, as well as its

  12. A Loblolly Pine Management Guide: Natural Regeneration of Loblolly Pine (United States)

    M. Boyd Edwards


    For many landowners, low cost makes natural regeneration an attractive alternative to planting when loblolly pine stands are harvested. Clearcutting, seed-tree, shelterwood, and selection methods can be used. Keys to success are a suitable adequate seed supply, sufficient moisture. and freedom from excessive competition.

  13. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  14. Underplanting shortleaf pine at Coldwater Conservation Area in Missouri (United States)

    Jason Jensen; David Gwaze


    Restoring shortleaf pine throughout its native range in the Ozark Highlands is a high priority in Missouri. Restoring shortleaf pine on former pine and oak-pine sites is a longterm strategy for mitigating chronic oak decline (Law et al. 2004). Underplanting or preharvest planting is one method that has potential for restoring shortleaf pine.

  15. Successional trends of six mature shortleaf pine forests in Missouri (United States)

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Rose-Marie Muzika


    Many of Missouri's mature oak-shortleaf pine (Quercus-Pinus echinata) forests are in a mid-transition stage characterized by partial pine overstory, limited pine recruitment, and minimal pine regeneration. Restoration of shortleaf pine communities at a large scale necessitates the understanding and management of natural regeneration. To...

  16. Impact of Siberian forest fires on the atmosphere over the Korean Peninsula during summer 2014 (United States)

    Jung, Jinsang; Lyu, Youngsook; Lee, Minhee; Hwang, Taekyung; Lee, Sangil; Oh, Sanghyub


    Extensive forest fires occurred during late July 2014 across the forested region of Siberia, Russia. Smoke plumes emitted from Siberian forest fires underwent long-range transport over Mongolia and northeast China to the Korean Peninsula, which is located ˜ 3000 km south of the Siberian forest. A notably high aerosol optical depth of ˜ 4 was observed at a wavelength of 500 nm near the source of the Siberian forest fires. Smoke plumes reached 3-5 km in height near the source and fell below 2 km over the Korean Peninsula. Elevated concentrations of levoglucosan were observed (119.7 ± 6.0 ng m-3), which were ˜ 4.5 times higher than those observed during non-event periods in July 2014. During the middle of July 2014, a haze episode occurred that was primarily caused by the long-range transport of emission plumes originating from urban and industrial complexes in East China. Sharp increases in SO42- concentrations (23.1 ± 2.1 µg m-3) were observed during this episode. The haze caused by the long-range transport of Siberian forest fire emissions was clearly identified by relatively high organic carbon (OC) / elemental carbon (EC) ratios (7.18 ± 0.2) and OC / SO42- ratios (1.31 ± 0.07) compared with those of the Chinese haze episode (OC / EC ratio: 2.4 ± 0.4; OC / SO42- ratio: 0.21 ± 0.05). Remote measurement techniques and chemical analyses of the haze plumes clearly show that the haze episode that occurred during late July 2014 was caused mainly by the long-range transport of smoke plumes emitted from Siberian forest fires.

  17. Effects of climate and land-use change on establishment and growth of cembran pine (Pinus cembra L.) over the timberline-treeline ecotone in the Central Swiss Alps


    Vittoz, P.; Rulence, B.; Largey, T.; Freléchoux, F.


    Tree growth is generally limited by temperature in cold climates and by water availability in and zones. Establishment in altitudinal treeline ecotones depends on the temperature, but may be very sensitive to water availability as well. We studied the effect of climate and land use on the colonization and growth of Pinus cembra in the treeline ecotone of the dry Central Swiss Alps; one site was influenced by timber harvest and cattle activity and another one was undisturbed. Stands were sampl...

  18. Genetic diversity within and among populations of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson


    Shortleaf pine (n=93) and loblolly pine (n=112) trees representing 22 seed sources or 16 physiographic populations were sampled from Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings located in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Mississippi. The sampled trees were grown from shortleaf pine and loblolly pine seeds formed in 1951 and 1952, prior to the start of intensive forest...

  19. Participatory genetic improvement: longleaf pine (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; Gwendolyn Boyd; Randall J. Rousseau; Barbara S. Crane; Craig S. Echt; Kurt H. Johnsen


    University-industry-state cooperative tree improvement has been highly successful in the southern United States. Over nearly 60 years, three cooperative programs have led the way in developing and deploying genetically improved planting stocks for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and slash (P. elliottii Engelm.) pines. However, much lower levels of success have been achieved...

  20. Pine Ridge Fire summary report (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie. Stidham


    In July 2012, immediately after the Pine Ridge Fire burned outside De Beque, Colorado, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local government officials, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness in order to identify contributors to success and areas for improvement. Although the fire had...

  1. The 2002 Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire's impacts on southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems, hydrology, and fuels (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Cody L. Stropki; Hui Chen; Daniel G. Neary


    The Rodeo-Chediski Wildfire burned nearly 462,600 acres in north-central Arizona in the summer of 2002. The wildfire damaged or destroyed ecosystem resources and disrupted the hydrologic functioning within the impacted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in a largely mosaic pattern. Impacts of the wildfire on ecosystem resources, factors important to hydrologic...

  2. Delamination of Southern Pine plywood during three years of exterior exposure (United States)

    Peter Koch


    Plywood was made from eight loblolly pine trees selected to exhibit a range of specific gravity and growth rate. three-ply, 3/8-inch specimens were exposed outdoors for 3 years in central Louisiana; percentage of delamination was measured annually. Rings per inch and tightness of peel had minor effects. A low gluespread resulted in rapid delamination, particularly with...

  3. Interactions of Hylastes Species (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with Leptographium Species Associated with Loblolly Pine Decline (United States)

    Lori G. Eckhardt; Richard A. Goyer; Kier Klepzig; John P. Jones


    Abstract Hylastes spp. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)were evaluated as potential vectors of Leptographium spp. fungi. Bark beetles were trapped from stands of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., exhibiting a range of decline symptoms in central Alabama. Under controlled conditions, field-collected adult...

  4. Foliar nitrogen content and tree growth after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine. (United States)

    J.D. Landsberg; P.H. Cochran; M.M. Finck; R.E. Martin


    This initial study of prescribed burning in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Laws.) stands in central Oregon showed that all periodic annual growth increments were reduced for trees alive four growing seasons later. Height growth was reduced 8 percent in areas burned by fires with moderate fuel consumption and 18 percent in areas with high...

  5. Mountain Pine Beetles and Invasive Plant Species Findings from a Survey of Colorado Community Residents (United States)

    Courtney Flint; Hua Qin; Michael Daab


    The US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station funded research to assess community responses to forest disturbance by mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and public reaction to invasive plants in north central Colorado. In the Spring of2007, 4,027 16-page questionnaires were mailed to randomly selected households with addresses in Breckenridge,...

  6. Patterns of resistance to Cronartium ribicola in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; K. S. Burns


    The core distribution of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., extends from central Colorado into northern New Mexico, with a disjunct population on the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Populations are primarily at high elevations and often define the alpine treeline; however, the species can also be found in open mixed conifer stands with...

  7. Synthesis of lower treeline limber pine (Pinus flexilis) woodland knowledge, research needs, and management considerations (United States)

    Robert E. Means


    Lower treeline limber pine woodlands have received little attention in peer-reviewed literature and in management strategies. These ecologically distinct systems are thought to be seed repositories between discontinuous populations in the northern and central Rocky Mountains, serving as seed sources for bird dispersal between distinct mountain ranges. Their position on...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Astrahancev


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of repressions in the Red Army, particularly, at military educational establishments of Siberian Air Force Command as well as in Siberian aeroclubs training personnel for military aviation. Having analysed archive documents the author concludes how personnel purges were performed as well as who and for what reasons was exposed to repressions of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs.

  9. Extensive survey of terrestrial organic carbon in surface sediments of the East Siberian Sea (United States)

    Vonk, Jorien; Gustafsson, Örjan; Alling, Vanja; Sánchez-García, Laura; van Dongen, Bart; Andersson, Per; Dudarev, Oleg; Semiletov, Igor; Eglinton, Tim


    The East Siberian Sea (ESS) is the largest and shallowest continental shelf sea of the Arctic Ocean, yet it is the least explored. The perenially frozen tundra and taiga of the circum-Arctic coastal area holds approximately half of the global belowground carbon pool. Significant amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC) are exported with the Great Siberian Arctic rivers to the shelf seas. In addition, the carbon-rich, ice-bound Yedoma coasts in East Siberia release significant amounts of Pleistocene carbon through thermal degradation and coastal erosion. The fate of these large-scale releases of terrOC in the East Siberian Shelf Sea is still poorly understood. The urgency of this research is accentuated by the fact that the East-Siberian Arctic landmass is experiencing the strongest climate warming on Earth, with a great potential for various carbon-climate feedback links. During the International Siberian Shelf Study 2008 (ISSS-08), a 50-day research expedition onboard the Russian vessel Yakob Smirnitskiy in late summer 2008, we obtained surface sediments from over 60 ESS locations. The data obtained after bulk analyses of these sediments are combined with results obtained from previous ESS campaigns in 2003 and 2004 to facilitate a comprehensive investigation of the ESS surface sediment composition. Sedimentary OC contents were between 0.13 and 3.7% (median 1.02%, interquartile range 0.563) with the highest values near the Indigirka and Kolyma river mouths and in the Long Strait. Stable carbon isotope values were in the range of -27.4 to -21.2 per mill (median -25.3 per mill, interquartile range 2.04), with more depleted values close to the coast. A clear transition was observed east of 170° E with more enriched values, signalling a regime shift with stronger influence of the Pacific Ocean. The terrOC fraction in the surface sediments was estimated from the 13C data to be on average 70% for ESS as a whole, with maximal values of 90-100% (along most of the

  10. Carbon mineralization in Laptev and East Siberian sea shelf and slope sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brüchert


    Full Text Available The Siberian Arctic Sea shelf and slope is a key region for the degradation of terrestrial organic material transported from the organic-carbon-rich permafrost regions of Siberia. We report on sediment carbon mineralization rates based on O2 microelectrode profiling; intact sediment core incubations; 35S-sulfate tracer experiments; pore-water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; δ13CDIC; and iron, manganese, and ammonium concentrations from 20 shelf and slope stations. This data set provides a spatial overview of sediment carbon mineralization rates and pathways over large parts of the outer Laptev and East Siberian Arctic shelf and slope and allows us to assess degradation rates and efficiency of carbon burial in these sediments. Rates of oxygen uptake and iron and manganese reduction were comparable to temperate shelf and slope environments, but bacterial sulfate reduction rates were comparatively low. In the topmost 50 cm of sediment, aerobic carbon mineralization dominated degradation and comprised on average 84 % of the depth-integrated carbon mineralization. Oxygen uptake rates and anaerobic carbon mineralization rates were higher in the eastern East Siberian Sea shelf compared to the Laptev Sea shelf. DIC ∕ NH4+ ratios in pore waters and the stable carbon isotope composition of remineralized DIC indicated that the degraded organic matter on the Siberian shelf and slope was a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter. Based on dual end-member calculations, the terrestrial organic carbon contribution varied between 32 and 36 %, with a higher contribution in the Laptev Sea than in the East Siberian Sea. Extrapolation of the measured degradation rates using isotope end-member apportionment over the outer shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian seas suggests that about 16 Tg C yr−1 is respired in the outer shelf seafloor sediment. Of the organic matter buried below the oxygen penetration depth, between 0.6 and 1.3

  11. Trace gas measurements along the Trans-Siberian railroad: The TROICA 5 expedition (United States)

    Oberlander, Eva A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Crutzen, P. J.; Elansky, N. F.; Golitsyn, G. S.; Granberg, I. G.; Scharffe, D. H.; Hofmann, R.; Belikov, I. B.; Paretzke, H. G.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.


    The chemical composition of the surface boundary layer over the Eurasian continent is still an area of high uncertainty. In the framework of the Trans-Siberian Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (TROICA) project, measurements of O3, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, CH4, 222Rn, J(NO2), and black carbon aerosol were carried out on the Trans-Siberian railroad during June-July 1999. Boundary layer data over more than 16,000 km, from Kirov (~58°N, 49°E 972 km east of Moscow) to Khabarovsk (~48°N, 135°E) and back to Moscow, were obtained without significant contamination, emphasizing the potential of using the Trans-Siberian railroad system for atmospheric measurements. The 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were determined for the first time using our laboratory wagon. The diurnal variations of these gases and of CH4 due to micrometeorological conditions, as well as their dependence on various soil sources and vegetation types, were used to estimate ecosystem fluxes of CO2 and CH4. The highest soil flux of CH4 was 70 +/- 35 μ mol m-2 h-1 for the wet habitats of the West Siberian lowlands, and the lowest CH4 flux was 3.2 +/- 1.6 μ mol m-2 h-1 for drier habitats of eastern Siberia. Although the wet tundra emissions found between 67° and 77°N are higher than in comparable environments at much lower latitudes [Christensen et al., 1995], boreal wetlands in Siberia at 50°-60°N represent a very important player in the global methane budget. The CO2 density fluxes exhibited the opposite to CH4 fluxes tendency. Ozone mixing ratios varied from a few nmol/mol during nighttime inversions to more than 60 nmol/mol during the day. These values were generally higher than during the 1996 summer campaign (TROICA 2). CH4 and CO levels followed the pattern observed during TROICA 2; elevated levels of CH4 with a mean mixing ratio of 1.97 +/- 0.009 μmol/mol were found over the West Siberian lowlands, decreasing to 1.88 +/- 0.13 μmol/mol toward East Siberia. Conversely, while background

  12. HOW to Manage Jack Pine to Reduce Damage from Jack Pine Budworm (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Steven Katovich; Robert L. Heyd; Shane Weber


    Jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, is a needle feeding caterpillar that is generally considered the most significant pest of jack pine. Vigorous young jack pine stands are rarely damaged during outbreaks. The most vigorous stands are well stocked, evenly spaced, fairly uniform in height, and less than 45 years old. Stands older than 45 years that are...

  13. Species composition influences management outcomes following mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine-dominated forests (United States)

    Kristen Pelz; C. C. Rhoades; R. M. Hubbard; M. A. Battaglia; F. W. Smith


    Mountain pine beetle outbreaks have killed lodgepole pine on more than one million hectares of Colorado and southern Wyoming forest during the last decade and have prompted harvest operations throughout the region. In northern Colorado, lodgepole pine commonly occurs in mixed stands with subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce, and aspen. Variation in tree species composition...

  14. Determining fire history from old white pine stumps in an oak-pine forest (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Chris McDonell


    Fire scars on stumps of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in a red oak (Quercus rubra L.) white pine forest near Bracebridge, Ontario, were dated using dendrochronological methods. A chronological record of fires that caused basal scarring is preserved in the remnant white pine stumps, which were estimated to be up to 135 years old...

  15. Shortleaf pine reproduction abundance and growth in pine-oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; Doyle Henken; John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; David R. Larsen; David Gwaze


    We conducted an operational study to evaluate effect of site preparation treatments on pine reproduction density and the impact of overstory basal area and understory density on pine reproduction height and basal diameter in pine-oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks. Stands were harvested to or below B-level stocking, but patchiness of the oak decline lead to some plots...

  16. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz


    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  17. Timber management guide for shortleaf pine and oak-pine types in Missouri. (United States)

    K.A. Brinkman; N.F. Rogers


    Summarizes recommended management practices for the shortleaf pine and oak-pine types in Missouri. Describes sites and soils, and silvical characteristics of pine; discusses rotations, cutting cycles, stocking levels, growing space requirements, and regeneration techniques; and prescribes treatments for stands with specified characteristics to maximize returns from...

  18. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  19. The impact of political decisions on sustainable urban development (case study of Siberian cities during the Russo-Japanese war) (United States)

    Ageev, Ilya A.; Ageeva, Vera V.; Bleikher, Oksana V.; Larionova, Alyona V.


    The paper examines the impact of public-political factors on the regional sustainable development in the light of the historical experience of the Siberian cities during the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905). Based on the analysis of archival materials and publications in the Siberian printed press at the beginning of the 20th century, the authors have identified the reasons why the sustainable development of the largest Siberian cities was hindered at that period. The construction of the railway eliminated the problem of transport links with Siberian cities; however it made them dependent on external supply of goods. Local Siberian production declined with the advent of cheap imported goods; warehouse infrastructure reduced due to the uselessness; the alternative modes of transport could not compete with the railroad and left the main traffic directions. The Russo-Japanese war began in 1904 and left Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk without transport service for nearly eighteen months, since cargo railway transportation which was not related to the supply of the army, was discontinued. Siberian cities were in catastrophic conditions: food prices increased several times, hospitals worked without pharmaceuticals, urban construction was stopped. Historical examples of unsatisfactory supply of cities under the influence of intense public and political factors demonstrate that sustainable urban development is impossible without the diversification of the sources and means of subsistence. Diversification is proved to be necessary, it can guarantee the use of the transport and economic infrastructure in the interests of the city in unexpected situations.

  20. Patterns of forest use and endemism in resident bird communities of north-central Michoacan, Mexico (United States)

    Santiago Garcia; Deborah M. Finch; Gilberto Chavez. Leon


    We compared breeding avian communities among 11 habitat types in north-central Michoacan, Mexico, to determine patterns of forest use by endemic and nonendemic resident species. Point counts of birds and vegetation measurements were conducted at 124 sampling localities from May through July, in 1994 and 1995. Six native forest types sampled were pine, pine-oak, oak-...

  1. New data on the age of the glaciation in the New Siberian Islands (Russian Eastern Arctic) (United States)

    Nikolskiy, P. A.; Basilyan, A. E.; Zazhigin, V. S.


    To estimate the age of the glaciation in the New Siberian Islands, fossils of small mammals from the Sana-Balagan site (Faddeevsky Island, Russian Eastern Arctic) have been studied. The evolutionary degree of this fauna, which indicates the age of the sediments underlying the glacial deposits, suggests that the glaciation of the New Siberian Islands began no earlier than 190-210 thousand years ago. The new biochronological data in combination with 230Th/234U dates show that the geological event in question was synchronous with the Moscow glaciation or the Moscow stage of the Dnieper glaciation (the Vychegda glaciation, the final stage of the Saalian, the final stage of the Riss, the end of the MIS 6, 180-140 thousand years ago).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Grischenko


    Full Text Available The pool of TB infection in Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts is still full of complicated cases: among those being followed up by TB dispensaries, there are many patients suffering from fibrous cavernous TB as well as any clinical forms of tuberculosis with multiple drug resistance.The situation can be improved through activated use of surgical treatment (along with the other interventions, first of all among those mentioned above. There is significant international and Russian experience of managing tuberculosis patients using surgery as a part of comprehensive treatment.Surgical services of special medical units in the regions of Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts possess certain potential to increase the number surgeries for such complicated cases. 

  3. Spin flipping with an rf dipole and a full Siberian snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Blinov


    Full Text Available We recently used an rf dipole magnet to study the spin flipping of a 120 MeV horizontally polarized proton beam stored in the presence of a nearly full Siberian snake in the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility Cooler Ring. We flipped the spin by ramping the rf dipole's frequency through an rf-induced depolarizing resonance. After optimizing the frequency ramp parameters, we used multiple spin flips to measure a spin-flip efficiency of 86.5±0.5%. The spin-flip efficiency was apparently limited by the field strength in the rf dipole. This result indicates that spin flipping a stored polarized proton beam should be possible in high energy rings such as the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and HERA where Siberian snakes are certainly needed and only dipole rf-flipper magnets are practical.

  4. Short Communication. Resin tapping activity as a contribution to the management of maritime pine forest


    Amélia Palma; João Miguel Pereira; Paula Soares


    Aim of the study: In this work potential resin yield in a region of high forest ability where maritime pine is the main species was estimated in order to understand the viability of promoting resin exploitation. Area of study: This study was conducted in Castro Daire County in central region of Portugal. Material and methods: To quantify the resin yield of trees tapped for the first time two plots were installed in a maritime pine stand with average tree age 65 years. Before the begin...

  5. Resin tapping activity as a contribution to the management of maritime pine forest


    Palma, Amélia; Pereira, João Miguel; Soares, Paula


    Aim of the study: In this work potential resin yield in a region of high forest ability where maritime pine is the main species was estimated in order to understand the viability of promoting resin exploitation. Area of study: This study was conducted in Castro Daire County in central region of Portugal. Material and methods: To quantify the resin yield of trees tapped for the first time two plots were installed in a maritime pine stand with average tree age 65 years. Before the b...

  6. Longleaf Pine Ground-Layer Vegetation in Francis Marion National Forest: Reintroduction, Restoration, and Vegetation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzenstein, J.; Streng, D.; Wade, D.


    Study represents significant progress in understanding of compositional gradients in longleaf pine plant communities of Central South Carolina. Study shows the importance of water table depths as a controlling variable with vegetation patterns in the field and similar effects in a garden experiment. Grass planting study suggests that observed field distributions of dormant pine savannah grasses derive from complex interactive effects of fire history, hydrology and light environments. Use of regional longleaf data set to identify candidate species for introduction also appears to be a pioneering effort.


    Walker, George W.; Denton, David K.


    Examination of the Pine Creek Roadless Area, Oregon indicates that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of energy or metallic mineral resources in the area. No mines or mineral prospects were identified during the investigation. Although nearby parts of Harney Basin are characterized by higher than normal heat flow, indicating that the region as a whole may have some as yet undefined potential for the occurrence of the geothermal energy resources, no potential for this resource was identified in the roadless area.

  8. Architectural Trend of the Epoch: Architect Chernyshev as a bright representative of the Siberian Modern


    Olga Uspenskaya


    The article is about a bright representative of the Siberian Modern, Leonid Alexandrovich Chernyshev, who made a great contribution to the development of Krasnoyarsk city architecture. On the initiative of the Board of the Krasnoyarsk regional organization of the Union of Architects of Russia the year 2015 in Krasnoyarsk was announced the Year of the Architect Chernyshev to commemorate his 140th anniversary. During the anniversary year several important events will be held to demonstrate the ...

  9. Histopathological effects of silver and copper nanoparticles on the epidermis, gills, and liver of Siberian sturgeon. (United States)

    Ostaszewska, Teresa; Chojnacki, Maciej; Kamaszewski, Maciej; Sawosz-Chwalibóg, Ewa


    The influence of nanoparticles (NPs) on aquatic environments is still poorly documented. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of silver (AgNPs) and copper (CuNPs) nanoparticles on larval Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) after 21 days of exposure. Acute toxicity of AgNPs on Siberian sturgeon was investigated in a 96-h static renewal study and compared with the toxicity of CuNPs. The AgNPs and CuNPs 96 h mean lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) were 15.03 ± 2.91 and 1.41 ± 0.24 mg L(-1), respectively. Toxicity tests were done in triplicates for each concentration of AgNPs 0.1, 0.5, 1.5 mg L(-1) and CuNPs 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 mg L(-1). The control group was exposed in freshwater. The results indicate that AgNPs and CuNPs exposure negatively influenced survival; body length and mass; and morphology and physiology of the epidermis, gills, and liver of Siberian sturgeon larvae. Fish exposed to AgNPs and CuNPs showed similar pathological changes: irregular structure and pyknotic nuclei of epidermis, aplasia and/or fusion of lamellae, telangiectasis, epithelial necrosis and lifting of the gills, dilation of sinusoidal space, overfilled blood vessels, and pyknotic nuclei of the liver. Fish exposed to CuNPs only demonstrated hyaline degeneration in the gills epithelium and liver. The study shows that CuNPs were more toxic to Siberian sturgeon larvae than AgNPs.

  10. Optical properties of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) on the East Siberian shelf (United States)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Pugach, S.; Pipko, I.


    The Great Siberian Rivers integrate meteorological and hydrological changes in their watersheds and play a significant role in the physical and biogeochemical regime of the Arctic Ocean. Given the magnitude of Siberian Arctic dissolved organic matter (DOM) export and the uncertain extent to which it is degraded to greenhouse gases, intensified studies to better quantify and understand this large carbon pool and processes acting on it are urgently needed. The East Siberian Arctic shelf is characterized by the highest rate of coastal erosion and significant volume of the riverine discharge which derived terrigenous DOM in the Arctic Ocean. DOM plays a significant role in freshwater and marine aquatic ecosystems including its effects on nutrients and carbon cycling. The colored fraction of DOM, CDOM, directly affects the quantity and spectral quality of available light, thereby impaction both primary production and UV exposure in aquatic ecosystems. Since 2003 we measure CDOM in the East Siberian Arctic Seas (ESAS) in situ using the WETStar fluorometer which doesn't require prefiltration of sample. Combined analysis of CDOM and DOC data obtained at near-annual basis in (2003-2011) demonstrate a high degree of correlation between these parameters. For all the measured samples taken during the ISSS cruises (2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2011), there is an overall linear relationship between DOC concentration, CDOM, and salinity. Here we report the spatial-time variability of river-borne DOM in the ESAS using CDOM as a proxy parameter. Higher absorption coefficients (a254), spectral slope parameter over range 275-295 nm (S275-295) and CDOM concentrations reflect the dominant contribution of terrigenous DOM. It is shown that the attenuation light coefficient in the shallow ESAS is mostly determined by riverine CDOM.

  11. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin


    Archer, D.


    A two-dimensional model of a passive continental margin was adapted to the simulation of the methane cycle on Siberian continental shelf and slope, attempting to account for the impacts of glacial/interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to freezing conditions with deep permafrost formation during glacial times, and immersion in the ocean in interglacial times. The model is used to gauge the impact of the glacial cycles, a...

  12. Calculations of spin response functions in rings with Siberian Snakes and spin rotators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Shatunov


    Full Text Available The so-called spin response formalism, which is linear response theory applied to spin dynamics in storage rings, can calculate the resonance strengths for spin flippers in storage rings of arbitrary structure, including rings with Siberian Snakes and spin rotators. We calculate so-called spin response functions for a model of the RHIC lattice, for various scenarios of spin rotator settings.

  13. Siberian Regional Identity in the Context of Historical Consciousness (Content Analysis of Tomsk Regional Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Bocharov


    Full Text Available The article presents a model to study the Siberian regional identity in the context of historical consciousness, as well as the results of its practical application in the content analysis of the publications by the Tomsk regional media. On the basis of the content analysis procedures the author demonstrates how, through historical memory, the regional identity is formed and manifested in the regional media in various spheres of society.

  14. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng. (United States)

    Abbai, Ragavendran; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Singh, Priyanka; Ahn, Sungeun; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun


    Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs) and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs). First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E), total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line) and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line) at 10 µg⋅mL(-1). However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844), and Escherichia coli (BL21) treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay demonstrated that both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs possess strong antioxidant activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report unraveling the potential of Eleutherococcus senticosus for silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis along with its biological applications, which in turn would promote widespread usage of the endemic Siberian ginseng.

  15. [ATP content in cryopreserved sperm of Siberian white cranes Grus leucogeranus (Aves: Gruiformes)]. (United States)

    Maksudov, G Iu; Erokhin, A S; Nesterenko, O N; Panchenko, V G


    ATP contents were studied in the native and cryoconserved sperm of Siberian white cranes Grus leucogeranus using bioluminescence analysis. The ATP content in freshly obtained spermatozoa was 12.7 nmol/10(8) cells. No ATP was found in the seminal plasma. In the process of freezing-thawing, the ATP concentration in the spermatozoa decreased by 30%. The differences in the dynamics of ATP content during cryoconservation of sperm of white cranes and other birds and mammals are discussed.

  16. Cholecystokinin-33 acutely attenuates food foraging, hoarding and intake in Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Teubner, Brett J W; Bartness, Timothy J


    Neurochemicals that stimulate food foraging and hoarding in Siberian hamsters are becoming more apparent, but we do not know if cessation of these behaviors is due to waning of excitatory stimuli and/or the advent of inhibitory factors. Cholecystokinin (CCK) may be such an inhibitory factor as it is the prototypic gastrointestinal satiety peptide and is physiologically important in decreasing food intake in several species including Siberian hamsters. Systemic injection of CCK-33 in laboratory rats decreases food intake, doing so to a greater extent than CCK-8. We found minimal effects of CCK-8 on food foraging and hoarding previously in Siberian hamsters, but have not tested CCK-33. Therefore, we asked: Does CCK-33 decrease normal levels or food deprivation-induced increases in food foraging, hoarding and intake? Hamsters were housed in a wheel running-based foraging system with simulated burrows to test the effects of peripheral injections of CCK-33 (13.2, 26.4, or 52.8 microg/kg body mass), with or without a preceding 56 h food deprivation. The highest dose of CCK-33 caused large baseline reductions in all three behaviors for the 1st hour post-injection compared with saline; in addition, the intermediate CCK-33 dose was sufficient to curtail food intake and foraging during the 1st hour. In food-deprived hamsters, we used a 52.8 microg/kg body mass dose of CCK-33 which decreased food intake, hoarding, and foraging almost completely compared with saline controls for 1h. Therefore, CCK-33 appears to be a potent inhibitor of food intake, hoarding, and foraging in Siberian hamsters. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Air Pollution in Siberia. A Volume and Risk-Weighted Analysis of a Siberian Pollution Database


    N.K. Warner-Merl


    Air pollution from industrial centers in Siberia pose observable environmental threats. Siberian ecosystems have begun to show stress from the accumulation of pollution depositions that come from cities and industrial plants. While some uncertainty exists as to the long-term effects of air pollution upon forests, in measurable terms such as human mortality and incidence of disease, forest species decline or forest dieback, observable impacts indicate that there is a cause for concern. Industr...

  18. Geological Structure of the Basement of Western and Eastern Parts of the West-Siberian Plain (United States)

    Ivanov, Kirill S.; Erokhin, Yuriy V.; Ponomarev, Vladimir S.; Pogromskaya, Olga E.; Berzin, Stepan V.


    The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP-II on zircon) was obtained for the first time from the basement of the West Siberian Plain in the Western half of the region. It is established that a large part of the protolith of the metamorphic depth in the Shaim-Kuznetsov meganticlinorium contained sedimentary late- and middle-Devonian rocks (395-358 million years).…

  19. Geochemistry of Sulfur and Sulfur Compounds of the Cambrian Kuonamka Complex (Eastern Siberian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Parfenova


    Full Text Available New results of research of sulfur from rocks and organic matter (OM for the Kuonamka complex of the Lower and Middle Cambrian in the eastern Siberian platform have been demonstrated. It has been shown that in the rocks enriched in organic matter the amount of organic carbon controls not only the total content of sulfur and sulfide sulfur, but also the content of sulphate sulfur. It has been revealed that the sulfur content in bitumen extracts of Cambrian black shales in the northeastern Siberian platform decreases with increasing carbon and hydrogen. It was hypothesized that during diagenesis the introduction of sulfur in the OM structure led to dehydrogenation and decarboxylation. The intensity of these processes is associated neither with the mineral composition of the sediment nor with its enrichment in OM. The paper discusses the structure and patterns of distribution of OM sulfur compounds in the rocks of the Kuonamka complex in the sections of the northern and southeastern Siberian platform.

  20. Sources and characteristics of terrestrial carbon in Holocene-scale sediments of the East Siberian Sea (United States)

    Keskitalo, Kirsi; Tesi, Tommaso; Bröder, Lisa; Andersson, August; Pearce, Christof; Sköld, Martin; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan


    Thawing of permafrost carbon (PF-C) due to climate warming can remobilise considerable amounts of terrestrial carbon from its long-term storage to the marine environment. PF-C can be then be buried in sediments or remineralised to CO2 with implications for the carbon-climate feedback. Studying historical sediment records during past natural climate changes can help us to understand the response of permafrost to current climate warming. In this study, two sediment cores collected from the East Siberian Sea were used to study terrestrial organic carbon sources, composition and degradation during the past ˜ 9500 cal yrs BP. CuO-derived lignin and cutin products (i.e., compounds solely biosynthesised in terrestrial plants) combined with δ13C suggest that there was a higher input of terrestrial organic carbon to the East Siberian Sea between ˜ 9500 and 8200 cal yrs BP than in all later periods. This high input was likely caused by marine transgression and permafrost destabilisation in the early Holocene climatic optimum. Based on source apportionment modelling using dual-carbon isotope (Δ14C, δ13C) data, coastal erosion releasing old Pleistocene permafrost carbon was identified as a significant source of organic matter translocated to the East Siberian Sea during the Holocene.

  1. Ice export from the Laptev and East Siberian Sea derived from δ18O values (United States)

    Rosén, Per-Olov; Andersson, Per S.; Alling, Vanja; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Björk, Göran; Semiletov, Igor; Porcelli, Don


    Ice export from the vast Arctic Siberian shelf is calculated using δ18O values and salinity data for water samples collected during the International Siberian Shelf Study between August and September 2008 (ISSS-08). The samples represent a wide range of salinities and δ18O values due to river water inputs and sea ice removal. We estimate the fraction of water that has been removed as ice by interpreting observed δ18O values and salinities as a result of mixing between river water and sea water end-members as well as to fractional ice removal. This method does not assume an ice end-member of fixed composition, which is especially important when applied on samples with large differences in salinity. The results show that there is net transport of ice from both the Laptev and the Eastern Siberian Seas, and in total 3000 km3 of sea ice is exported from the shelf. The annual total export of ice from the entire region, calculated from the residence time of water on the shelf, is estimated to be 860 km3 yr-1. Thus, changes in ice production on the shelf may have great impact on sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Evaluation of methane emissions from West Siberian wetlands based on inverse modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H-S; Inoue, G [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Maksyutov, S; Machida, T [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Glagolev, M V [Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Patra, P K [Research Institute for Global Change/JAMSTEC, 3173-25 Showa-cho, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Sudo, K, E-mail: [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)


    West Siberia contains the largest extent of wetlands in the world, including large peat deposits; the wetland area is equivalent to 27% of the total area of West Siberia. This study used inverse modeling to refine emissions estimates for West Siberia using atmospheric CH{sub 4} observations and two wetland CH{sub 4} emissions inventories: (1) the global wetland emissions dataset of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (the GISS inventory), which includes emission seasons and emission rates based on climatology of monthly surface air temperature and precipitation, and (2) the West Siberian wetland emissions data (the Bc7 inventory), based on in situ flux measurements and a detailed wetland classification. The two inversions using the GISS and Bc7 inventories estimated annual mean flux from West Siberian wetlands to be 2.9 {+-} 1.7 and 3.0 {+-} 1.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively, which are lower than the 6.3 Tg yr{sup -1} predicted in the GISS inventory, but similar to those of the Bc7 inventory (3.2 Tg yr{sup -1}). The well-constrained monthly fluxes and a comparison between the predicted CH{sub 4} concentrations in the two inversions suggest that the Bc7 inventory predicts the seasonal cycle of West Siberian wetland CH{sub 4} emissions more reasonably, indicating that the GISS inventory predicts more emissions from wetlands in northern and middle taiga.

  3. Global nickel anomaly links Siberian Traps eruptions and the latest Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R; Rodriguez, Sedelia; Baransky, Eva; Cai, Yue


    Anomalous peaks of nickel abundance have been reported in Permian-Triassic boundary sections in China, Israel, Eastern Europe, Spitzbergen, and the Austrian Carnic Alps. New solution ICP-MS results of enhanced nickel from P-T boundary sections in Hungary, Japan, and Spiti, India suggest that the nickel anomalies at the end of the Permian were a worldwide phenomenon. We propose that the source of the nickel anomalies at the P-T boundary were Ni-rich volatiles released by the Siberian volcanism, and by coeval Ni-rich magma intrusions. The peaks in nickel abundance correlate with negative δ13C and δ18O anomalies, suggesting that explosive reactions between magma and coal during the Siberian flood-basalt eruptions released large amounts of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere, causing severe global warming and subsequent mass extinction. The nickel anomalies may provide a timeline in P-T boundary sections, and the timing of the peaks supports the Siberian Traps as a contributor to the latest Permian mass extinction.

  4. Geochemistry and alteration of a Siberian crater lake coeval with the end-Permian mass extinction (United States)

    Fristad, Kirsten; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Polozov, Alexander


    Hundreds of phreatomagmatic breccia pipes formed contemporaneously with the Siberian Traps are located in the Tunguska Basin, Siberia. These pipes are believed to be formed by sill intrusions into organic rich sediments, which caused the violent release of gigatonnes of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere with serious implications for the end-Permian environment (Svensen et al., EPSL, 2009). Crater lake deposits overlying the pipes are preserved in some cases and contain a record of the local biology and sedimentation during formation of the Siberian Traps. We are studying the upper 550m of a core drilled through the center of a former crater lake and underlying brecciated pipe in the southern reaches of the Tunguska Basin. The core consists of fine to coarse-grained volcanoclastic sediments cemented by calcite and interspersed with tuff. We report on the bulk geochemistry and the nature of alteration throughout the sequence of crater lake sediments. We propose a model for lake formation, subsequent diagenesis, and the influence of degassing from the underlying breccia pipe. The development of the crater lake is explored in the context of the Siberian Trap flood basalts, phreatomagmatic deposits and the end-Permian environmental crisis.

  5. Visual landmark-directed scatter-hoarding of Siberian chipmunks Tamias sibiricus. (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyuan; Li, Jia; Wang, Zhenyu; Yi, Xianfeng


    Spatial memory of cached food items plays an important role in cache recovery by scatter-hoarding animals. However, whether scatter-hoarding animals intentionally select cache sites with respect to visual landmarks in the environment and then rely on them to recover their cached seeds for later use has not been extensively explored. Furthermore, there is a lack of evidence on whether there are sex differences in visual landmark-based food-hoarding behaviors in small rodents even though male and female animals exhibit different spatial abilities. In the present study, we used a scatter-hoarding animal, the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus to explore these questions in semi-natural enclosures. Our results showed that T. sibiricus preferred to establish caches in the shallow pits labeled with visual landmarks (branches of Pinus sylvestris, leaves of Athyrium brevifrons and PVC tubes). In addition, visual landmarks of P. sylvestris facilitated cache recovery by T. sibiricus. We also found significant sex differences in visual landmark-based food-hoarding strategies in Siberian chipmunks. Males, rather than females, chipmunks tended to establish their caches with respect to the visual landmarks. Our studies show that T. sibiricus rely on visual landmarks to establish and recover their caches, and that sex differences exist in visual landmark-based food hoarding in Siberian chipmunks. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Sources and characteristics of terrestrial carbon in Holocene-scale sediments of the East Siberian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Keskitalo


    Full Text Available Thawing of permafrost carbon (PF-C due to climate warming can remobilise considerable amounts of terrestrial carbon from its long-term storage to the marine environment. PF-C can be then be buried in sediments or remineralised to CO2 with implications for the carbon–climate feedback. Studying historical sediment records during past natural climate changes can help us to understand the response of permafrost to current climate warming. In this study, two sediment cores collected from the East Siberian Sea were used to study terrestrial organic carbon sources, composition and degradation during the past  ∼ 9500 cal yrs BP. CuO-derived lignin and cutin products (i.e., compounds solely biosynthesised in terrestrial plants combined with δ13C suggest that there was a higher input of terrestrial organic carbon to the East Siberian Sea between  ∼ 9500 and 8200 cal yrs BP than in all later periods. This high input was likely caused by marine transgression and permafrost destabilisation in the early Holocene climatic optimum. Based on source apportionment modelling using dual-carbon isotope (Δ14C, δ13C data, coastal erosion releasing old Pleistocene permafrost carbon was identified as a significant source of organic matter translocated to the East Siberian Sea during the Holocene.

  7. Construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from Siberian tiger (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Qing; Lu, Tao-Feng; Feng, Bao-Gang; Liu, Dan; Guan, Wei-Jun; Ma, Yue-Hui


    In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×106 pfu/ml and 1.62×109 pfu/ml respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. A total of 282 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 328 to 1,142bps were then analyzed the BLASTX score revealed that 53.9% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.6% as nominal and 7.4% as weak match. 28.0% of them were found to be related to enzyme/catalytic protein, 20.9% ESTs to metabolism, 13.1% ESTs to transport, 12.1% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.9% ESTs to structure protein, 3.9% ESTs to immunity protein/defense metabolism, 3.2% ESTs to cell cycle, and 8.9 ESTs classified as novel genes. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genomic research of Siberian tigers. PMID:20941376

  8. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.


    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  9. Whitebark pine stand condition, tree abundance, and cone production as predictors of visitation by Clark's nutcracker. (United States)

    Barringer, Lauren E; Tomback, Diana F; Wunder, Michael B; McKinney, Shawn T


    Accurately quantifying key interactions between species is important for developing effective recovery strategies for threatened and endangered species. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) for seed dispersal. As whitebark pine succumbs to exotic disease and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae), cone production declines, and nutcrackers visit stands less frequently, reducing the probability of seed dispersal. We quantified whitebark pine forest structure, health metrics, and the frequency of nutcracker occurrence in national parks within the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains in 2008 and 2009. Forest health characteristics varied between the two regions, with the northern region in overall poorer health. Using these data, we show that a previously published model consistently under-predicts the proportion of survey hours resulting in nutcracker observations at all cone density levels. We present a new statistical model of the relationship between whitebark pine cone production and the probability of Clark's nutcracker occurrence based on combining data from this study and the previous study. Our model clarified earlier findings and suggested a lower cone production threshold value for predicting likely visitation by nutcrackers: Although nutcrackers do visit whitebark pine stands with few cones, the probability of visitation increases with increased cone production. We use information theoretics to show that beta regression is a more appropriate statistical framework for modeling the relationship between cone density and proportion of survey time resulting in nutcracker observations. We illustrate how resource managers may apply this model in the process of prioritizing areas for whitebark pine restoration.

  10. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos


    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Heat sterilization times of red pine boards (United States)

    William T. Simpson


    The objective of this study was to determine the time required to heat the center of red pine boards to various temperatures for sterilization. This information will serve as a guideline for those concerned with heat sterilizing wood pallets and other wood shipping containers to meet heat treatment requirements for protection against invasive pests. Red pine boards, 4...

  12. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps (United States)

    I. Skrzecz


    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  13. Many ways to manage lodgepole pine forests (United States)

    Lucia Solorzano


    Research underway at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest near White Sulphur Springs will provide insights on how to sustain lodgepole pine forests and water flow patterns over large areas. Lodgepole pine dominates a high percentage of forests in the northern Rocky Mountains. including the Bitterroot National Forest. About half the stands at Tenderfoot are two-aged...

  14. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England (United States)

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk


    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  15. Financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine. (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; Natalie A. Bolon; James M. Cahill


    A recent lumber recovery study of pruned and unpruned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) was used to project the financial return from pruning ponderosa pine in the Medford District of the Bureau of Land Management and in the Ochoco and Deschutes National Forests. The cost of pruning at which the investment would yield an expected 4-...

  16. Ecological Impacts of Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Maria D. Tchakerian; Robert N. Coulson


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most important biotic disturbance in southern pine forests and causes extensive changes to the forest environment. In this chapter we provide an overview of the ecological impacts of the SPB on forest conditions (the state of the forest) and on forest resources (uses and values associated with the forest). We define ecological...

  17. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.


    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  18. Sequence of the Sugar Pine Megagenome (United States)

    Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Aleksey Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Marc Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Maxim Koriabine; Ann E. Holtz-Morris; Pedro J. Martínez-García; Uzay U. Sezen; Guillaume Marçais; Kathie Jermstad; Patrick E. McGuire; Carol A. Loopstra; John M. Davis; Andrew Eckert; Pieter de Jong; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley


    Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group...

  19. High elevation white pines educational website (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski


    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website ( serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  20. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Andrew Birt


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  1. Methane oxidation associated to submerged brown-mosses buffers methane emissions from Siberian polygonal peatlands (United States)

    Liebner, Susanne; Zeyer, Josef; Knoblauch, Christian


    Circumpolar peatlands store roughly 18 % of the globally stored carbon in soils [based on 1, 2]. Also, northern wetlands and tundra are a net source of methane (CH4), an effective greenhouse gas (GHG), with an estimated annual CH4 release of 7.2% [3] or 8.1% [4] of the global total CH4 emission. Although it is definite that Arctic tundra significantly contributes to the global methane emissions in general, regional variations in GHG fluxes are enormous. CH4 fluxes of polygonal tundra within the Siberian Lena Delta, for example, were reported to be low [5, 6], particularly at open water polygonal ponds and small lakes [7] which make up around 10 % of the delta's surface. Low methane emissions from polygonal ponds oppose that Arctic permafrost thaw ponds are generally known to emit large amounts of CH4 [8]. Combining tools of biogeochemistry and molecular microbiology, we identified sinks of CH4 in polygonal ponds from the Lena Delta that were not considered so far in GHG studies from Arctic wetlands. Pore water CH4 profiling in polygonal ponds on Samoylov, a small island in the central part of the Lena Delta, revealed a pronounced zone of CH4 oxidation near the vegetation surface in submerged layers of brown-mosses. Here, potential CH4 oxidation was an order of magnitude higher than in non-submerged mosses and in adjacent bulk soil. We could additionally show that this moss associated methane oxidation (MAMO) is hampered when exposure of light is prevented. Shading of plots with submerged Scorpidium scorpioides inhibited MAMO leading to higher CH4 concentrations and an increase in CH4 fluxes by a factor of ~13. Compared to non-submerged mosses, the submerged mosses also showed significantly lower δ13C values indicating that they use carbon dioxide derived from methane oxidation for photosynthesis. Applying stable isotope probing of DNA, type II methanotrophs were identified to be responsible for the oxidation of CH4 in the submerged Scorpidium scorpioides. Our

  2. Biogeography and diversity of pines in the Madrean Archipelago (United States)

    George M. Ferguson; Aaron D. Flesch; Thomas R. Van Devender


    Pines are important dominants in pine-oak, pine and mixed-conifer forests across the Colorado Plateau, southern Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, and in the intervening Sky Islands of the United States-Mexico borderlands. All 17 native species of pines in the Sky Islands region or their adjacent mountain mainlands reach the northern or southern margins of their...

  3. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  4. Western yellow pine in Arizona and New Mexico (United States)

    Theodore S. Woolsey


    Western yellow pine is to the Southwest what white pine is to the Northeast, or longleaf pine to the Southeast. The commercial forests of Arizona and New Mexico are three-fourths western yellow pine, which furnishes by far the greater part of the lumber used locally as well as that shipped to outside markets. To describe the characteristics of the species and to...

  5. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle


    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  6. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike


    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  7. Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (United States)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel


    Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

  8. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine (United States)

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley


    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  9. Natural hybridization within seed sources of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson


    Shortleaf and loblolly pine trees (n=93 and 102, respectively) from 22 seed sources of the Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings or equivalent origin were evaluated for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) variation. These sampled trees represent shortleaf pine and loblolly pine, as they existed across their native geographic ranges before...

  10. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle


    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  11. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine (United States)

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook. Kim


    From early to present-day outbreaks, white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, in combination with mountain pine beetle outbreaks and fire exclusion has caused ecosystem-wide effects for all five-needled pines (McDonald and Hoff 2001). To be successful, efforts to restore whitebark pine will require sound management decisions that incorporate an...

  12. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson


    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  13. Will the Three Gorges Dam affect the underwater light climate of Vallisneria spiralis L. and food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Leeuw, de J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Prins, H.H.T.; Best, E.P.H.; Liu, Y.


    Almost 95% of the entire population of the Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) winter in Poyang Lake, China, where they forage on the tubers of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River may possibly affect this food source of the Siberian crane

  14. Modeling plumes containing black-carbon from Siberian sources to the Arctic (United States)

    Raut, J.; Fast, J. D.; Law, K.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Kim, J.; Thomas, J. L.; Marelle, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Reiter, A.; Quennehen, B.; Ma, P.; Singh, B.; Rasch, P. J.


    There are currently large uncertainties in global climate model predictions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic. These differences are in part due to uncertainties in anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, errors arising from model parameterizations, and inadequate spatial resolution in large scale models. In addition to the contribution to aerosol radiative forcing, black carbon deposited on snow alters its albedo and consequently the rate of melting. Our study presents the main pollution transport pathways from Siberia to the Arctic and how they impact the Arctic air composition in summer and spring. We focus on two periods (summer 2012 and spring 2008) when field campaigns took place in the Arctic. As part of the Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS) project, an aircraft campaign was conducted in July 2012 in Andøya, Norway. The main focus of the campaign was to investigate the role of current and future anthropogenic activities in and near the Arctic on regional air pollution and to analyze potential connections to Arctic climate. To put the emerging local pollution within a broader context, biomass burning plumes containing black carbon imported from Siberian wildfires were sampled during the campaign. Two flights north of Norway into the Arctic, with a refueling stop in Spitsbergen focused specifically on biomass burning pollution transported across the North Pole from Siberia. To simulate the emission, transport, and fate of black carbon, we use a regional chemical transport model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem), with a model domain that encompasses most of the northern hemisphere. The model is able to represent the most intense plumes sampled during the flights in the North of Spitsbergen, with ~120 ppb CO enhancement. The simulations show a clear connection of these plumes to fires in Siberia and Central Russia and are complemented by a more detailed comparison to airborne observations and satellite

  15. Rapid Induction of Hypothalamic Iodothyronine Deiodinase Expression by Photoperiod and Melatonin in Juvenile Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Pyter, Leah M.; Kampf-Lassin, August; Patel, Priyesh N.


    Production of T3 in the mediobasal hypothalamus is critical for regulation of seasonal reproductive physiology. Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) and DIO3 enzymes catalyze the prohormone T4 into biologically-active T3 and biologically-inactive rT3, respectively. In several seasonally-breeding vertebrates, DIO2 and DIO3 expression is implicated in photoperiod signal transduction in adulthood. These experiments tested the hypothesis that juvenile Siberian hamsters, which are highly responsive to photoperiod at weaning (postnatal day [PND]18), exhibit rapid and sustained changes in hypothalamic dio3 mRNA expression during photoperiod-induced and photoperiod-inhibited puberty. Hypothalamic dio2 and dio3 expression was measured via quantitative PCR in hamsters born and reared in a long-day photoperiod (15L:9D) and weaned on PND18 into short-day photoperiods (9L:15D). In SD males, hypothalamic dio3 mRNA was elevated 2.5-fold within 3 days (PND21) and continued to increase (>20-fold) through PND32; changes in dio3 mRNA preceded inhibition of gonadotropin (FSH) secretion and gonadal regression in SD. Females exhibited comparable dio3 responses to SD. In LD males, dio3 remained low and invariant from PND18–PND32. In contrast, dio2 mRNA rose conspicuously on PND21, independent of photoperiod, returning to basal levels thereafter. In LD, a single afternoon melatonin (MEL) injection on PND18 or PND20 was sufficient to increase hypothalamic dio3 mRNA, and dio3 increased in proportion to the number of successive days of MEL treatment. SD photoperiods and MEL exert rapid, sustained, and additive effects on hypothalamic dio3 mRNA, which may play a central role in inhibiting maturation of the peripubertal hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:23295738

  16. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone (United States)

    Maria O. Garcia; Jane E. Smith; Daniel L. Luoma; Melanie D. Jones


    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic ...

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of Cold Adaptation in Indigenous Siberian Populations (United States)

    Cardona, Alexia; Pagani, Luca; Antao, Tiago; Lawson, Daniel J.; Eichstaedt, Christina A.; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Shwe, Ma Than Than; Wee, Joseph; Romero, Irene Gallego; Raj, Srilakshmi; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Willerslev, Eske; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Malyarchuk, Boris A.; Derenko, Miroslava V.; Kivisild, Toomas


    Following the dispersal out of Africa, where hominins evolved in warm environments for millions of years, our species has colonised different climate zones of the world, including high latitudes and cold environments. The extent to which human habitation in (sub-)Arctic regions has been enabled by cultural buffering, short-term acclimatization and genetic adaptations is not clearly understood. Present day indigenous populations of Siberia show a number of phenotypic features, such as increased basal metabolic rate, low serum lipid levels and increased blood pressure that have been attributed to adaptation to the extreme cold climate. In this study we introduce a dataset of 200 individuals from ten indigenous Siberian populations that were genotyped for 730,525 SNPs across the genome to identify genes and non-coding regions that have undergone unusually rapid allele frequency and long-range haplotype homozygosity change in the recent past. At least three distinct population clusters could be identified among the Siberians, each of which showed a number of unique signals of selection. A region on chromosome 11 (chr11:66–69 Mb) contained the largest amount of clustering of significant signals and also the strongest signals in all the different selection tests performed. We present a list of candidate cold adaption genes that showed significant signals of positive selection with our strongest signals associated with genes involved in energy regulation and metabolism (CPT1A, LRP5, THADA) and vascular smooth muscle contraction (PRKG1). By employing a new method that paints phased chromosome chunks by their ancestry we distinguish local Siberian-specific long-range haplotype signals from those introduced by admixture. PMID:24847810

  18. Feedbacks between tall shrubland development and active layer temperatures in northwest Siberian arctic tundra (United States)

    Epstein, H. E.; Frost, G. V.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.


    Permafrost soils are a globally significant carbon store, but changes in permafrost thermal regime observed in recent decades across much of the Arctic suggest that permafrost carbon balance is likely to change with continued climate warming. Critical to changes in permafrost carbon balance in a warmer world, however, are feedbacks between changes in the composition and density of surface vegetation, and the thermal state of permafrost. Shrub expansion has been widely observed in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, but the magnitude and direction of shrub-induced impacts to permafrost temperature and stability remain poorly understood. Here we evaluate changes to active layer properties and thermal regime that occur during tall shrubland development (shrubs > 1.5 m height) within a northwest Siberian landscape dominated by well-developed, small-scale patterned ground features (e.g., non-sorted circles). We measured the annual time-series of soil temperature at 5 cm and 20 cm depth, and the structural attributes of vegetation at patterned-ground microsites across four stages of tall shrubland development: low-growing tundra lacking erect shrubs, newly-developed shrublands, mature shrublands, and paludified shrublands. Mean summer soil temperatures declined with increasing shrub cover and moss thickness, but winter soil temperatures increased with shrub development. Shrubland development strongly attenuated cryoturbation, promoting the establishment of complete vegetation cover and the development of a continuous organic mat. Increased vegetation cover, in turn, led to further reduced cryoturbation and an aggrading permafrost table. These observations indicate that tall shrub expansion that is now occurring in patterned-ground landscapes of the northwest Siberian Arctic may buffer permafrost from atmospheric warming, and increase carbon storage in these systems at least in the short term.

  19. Mapping post-disturbance stand age distribution in Siberian larch forest based on a novel method (United States)

    Chen, D.; Loboda, T. V.; Krylov, A.; Potapov, P.


    The Siberian larch forest, which accounts for nearly 20% of the global boreal forest biome, is unique, important, yet significantly understudied. These deciduous needleleaf forests with a single species dominance over a large continuous area are not found anywhere except the extreme continental zones of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Most of these forests are located in remote and sparsely populated areas and, therefore, little is known about spatial variability of their structure and dynamics. Wall-to-wall repeated observations of this area are available only since the 2000s. Previously, we developed methods for reconstruction of stand-age distribution from a sample of 1980-2000 disturbances in Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. However, availability of those images in Siberian larch forests is particularly limited. Built upon the hypothesis that the spectral characteristics of the disturbed forest in the region change with time consistently, this paper proposes a novel method utilizing the newly released Global Forest Change (GFC) 2000-2012 dataset. We exploit the data-rich era of annual forest disturbance samples identified between 2000 and 2012 in the Siberian larch forest by the GFC dataset to build a robust training set of spectral signatures from regrowing larch forests as they appear in Landsat imagery in 2012. The extracted statistics are ingested into a random forest, which predicts the approximate stand age for every forested pixel in the circa 2000 composite. After merging the estimated stand age distribution for 1989-2000 with the observed disturbance records for 2001-2012, a gap-free 30 m resolution 24-year long record of stand age distribution is obtained. A preliminary accuracy assessment against the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) burned area product suggested satisfactory performance of the proposed method.

  20. Inventories and behavior of particulate organic carbon in the Laptev and East Siberian seas (United States)

    SáNchez-GarcíA, Laura; Alling, Vanja; Pugach, Svetlana; Vonk, Jorien; van Dongen, Bart; Humborg, Christoph; Dudarev, Oleg; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan


    Fluvial and erosional release processes in permafrost-dominated Eurasian Arctic cause transport of large amounts of particulate organic carbon (POC) to coastal waters. The marine fate of this terrestrial POC (terr-POC), water column degradation, burial in shelf sediments, or export to depth, impacts the potential for climate-carbon feedback. As part of the International Siberian Shelf Study (ISSS-08; August-September 2008), the POC distribution, inventory, and fate in the water column of the extensive yet poorly studied Eurasian Arctic Shelf seas were investigated. The POC concentration spanned 1-152 μM, with highest values in the SE Laptev Sea. The POC inventory was constrained for the Laptev (1.32 ± 0.09 Tg) and East Siberian seas (2.85 ± 0.20 Tg). A hydraulic residence time of 3.5 ± 2 years for these Siberian shelf seas yielded a combined annual terr-POC removal flux of 3.9 ± 1.4 Tg yr-1. Accounting for sediment burial and shelf-break exchange, the terr-POC water column degradation was ˜2.5 ± 1.6 Tg yr-1, corresponding to a first-order terr-POC degradation rate constant of 1.4 ± 0.9 yr-1, which is 5-10 times faster than reported for terr-DOC degradation in the Arctic Ocean. This terr-POC degradation flux thus contributes substantially to the dissolved inorganic carbon excess of 10 Tg C observed during ISSS-08 for these waters. This evaluation suggests that extensive decay of terr-POC occurs already in the water column and contributes to outgassing of CO2. This process should be considered as a geographically dislocated carbon-climate coupling where thawing of vulnerable permafrost carbon on land is eventually adding CO2 above the ocean.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of cold adaptation in indigenous Siberian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Cardona

    Full Text Available Following the dispersal out of Africa, where hominins evolved in warm environments for millions of years, our species has colonised different climate zones of the world, including high latitudes and cold environments. The extent to which human habitation in (sub-Arctic regions has been enabled by cultural buffering, short-term acclimatization and genetic adaptations is not clearly understood. Present day indigenous populations of Siberia show a number of phenotypic features, such as increased basal metabolic rate, low serum lipid levels and increased blood pressure that have been attributed to adaptation to the extreme cold climate. In this study we introduce a dataset of 200 individuals from ten indigenous Siberian populations that were genotyped for 730,525 SNPs across the genome to identify genes and non-coding regions that have undergone unusually rapid allele frequency and long-range haplotype homozygosity change in the recent past. At least three distinct population clusters could be identified among the Siberians, each of which showed a number of unique signals of selection. A region on chromosome 11 (chr11:66-69 Mb contained the largest amount of clustering of significant signals and also the strongest signals in all the different selection tests performed. We present a list of candidate cold adaption genes that showed significant signals of positive selection with our strongest signals associated with genes involved in energy regulation and metabolism (CPT1A, LRP5, THADA and vascular smooth muscle contraction (PRKG1. By employing a new method that paints phased chromosome chunks by their ancestry we distinguish local Siberian-specific long-range haplotype signals from those introduced by admixture.

  2. Architectural Trend of the Epoch: Architect Chernyshev as a bright representative of the Siberian Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Uspenskaya


    Full Text Available The article is about a bright representative of the Siberian Modern, Leonid Alexandrovich Chernyshev, who made a great contribution to the development of Krasnoyarsk city architecture. On the initiative of the Board of the Krasnoyarsk regional organization of the Union of Architects of Russia the year 2015 in Krasnoyarsk was announced the Year of the Architect Chernyshev to commemorate his 140th anniversary. During the anniversary year several important events will be held to demonstrate the architect’s creative heritage both to architects and citizens.

  3. Pentalogy of Fallot in a captive Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). (United States)

    Scaglione, Frine E; Tursi, Massimiliano; Chiappino, Laura; Schröder, Cathrin; Triberti, Orfeo; Bollo, Enrico


    A 2-yr-old male Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) died during a fight with a conspecific. At necropsy, significant abnormalities included severe cardiomegaly with cardiac malformations consisting of a large atrial septal defect, a membranous ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and stenosis of the pulmonary valve with secondary concentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Endocardiosis of the mitral valve was also noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a pentalogy of Fallot in a large felid that resulted in sudden death.

  4. Endogenous lipid (cholesterol) pneumonia in three captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). (United States)

    Bollo, Enrico; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Chiappino, Laura; Sereno, Alessandra; Triberti, Orfeo; Schröder, Cathrin


    During the years 2009-2011, 7 Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), aged between 2 and 14 years, from the Safaripark of Pombia were referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). Three tigers, aged 10 (2 animals) and 14 years, had multifocal, irregularly distributed, white, soft, subpleural, 3-mm nodules scattered throughout the lungs. Histologically, there was a marked infiltration of macrophages, with foamy cytoplasm, and multinucleate giant cells interspersed with numerous clusters of cholesterol clefts. A mild lymphocytic infiltration was localized around the lesion. The findings were consistent with endogenous lipid pneumonia, which was considered an incidental finding of no clinical significance.

  5. Geochemistry of Sulfur and Sulfur Compounds of the Cambrian Kuonamka Complex (Eastern Siberian Platform)


    T.M. Parfenova


    New results of research of sulfur from rocks and organic matter (OM) for the Kuonamka complex of the Lower and Middle Cambrian in the eastern Siberian platform have been demonstrated. It has been shown that in the rocks enriched in organic matter the amount of organic carbon controls not only the total content of sulfur and sulfide sulfur, but also the content of sulphate sulfur. It has been revealed that the sulfur content in bitumen extracts of Cambrian black shales in the northeastern Sibe...

  6. Spin flipping in rings with Siberian Snakes II: Simulations with localized orbit excursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S.R., E-mail: [Convergent Computing Inc., P.O. Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)


    A new program EILMS is used to perform spin tracking simulations, for spin flippers in model rings with full strength Siberian Snakes, at a spin tune of 1/2 . EILMS employs canonical variables and symplectic-unitary integrators for all beamline elements. In particular, tracking studies are presented for a new design of a spin flipper proposed for stored polarized proton beams in RHIC. The induced coherent vertical betatron oscillations are localized within the flipper system. Points of detail which require further study are elucidated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Alekseeva


    Full Text Available The article describes changes in the main tuberculosis epidemiological indicators in Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts over the last decade. The rate of changes was analyzed for 21 regions within two districts, total number and structure of those followed up by phthisiologists in 2007-2016 were compared. TB situation has not significantly improved since the drug resistance and HIV infection become more and more frequent, providing an indirect impact on the epidemiological indicators. It is very difficult to treat such categories of patients and these difficulties do not allow enhancing treatment efficiency and cause an abrupt growth of the costs per one patient, both financial and organizational ones.

  8. Did the Siberian Traps eruptions emit enough halogens to have an impact on ozone geochemistry? (United States)

    Sibik, Svetlana; Edmonds, Marie; Villemant, Benoit; Thierry, Pauline; Polozov, Alexander


    The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province is thought to have formed over 1 Ma at the end of the Permian, synchronous with the largest mass extinction in Earth's history. There remains much controversy as to the exact mechanism of the mass extinction, but all hypotheses revolve around the emission of volatiles in various forms. The research to date has tended to focus on sulfur and carbon rather than halogen degassing, despite this being probably critical in terms of environmental impact as they might have been played a crucial role in ozone layer depletion and therefore promote mass extinction. Current study aims to look at the behaviour of chlorine, bromine, iodine and fluorine to evaluate the halogen budget contribution from heterogeneous mantle source and from evaporates, which dominate in the south (Cambrian evaporites) and north (Devonian evaporites) of Siberian platform. For this study we use basaltic sills and lava flows emplaced in the area with no volatile-rich sediments south-east from Norilsk (Dyupkin lake and Lower Tunguska river regions) and a sill intruded into evaporates in Nepa location in the south of the platform, originally aimed at prospecting for potassium salts. Borehole samples of basalts intruded into evaporites might have been penetrated by salts and anhydrite. In order to eliminate this effect and ensure that we analyse halogen contents in pure basalts prior to any further analysis the samples were specifically treated so that penetrated material was removed as leachates. Whole rock fine powders of basalts were analysed for halogens, major and trace elements. The solutions obtained by basalt pyrohydrolysis extraction, leachates of basaltic powders and dissolved evaporites were analysed by ion chromatography for chlorine and fluorine and by ICP-MS for bromine and iodine. Basalts intruded into evaporites demonstrate predicted pronounced chlorine, bromine and iodine enrichments associated with salt assimilation. The results show that bromine

  9. About Characteristics of Diamonds of Perspective Areas of the Siberian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N N Zinchuk


    Full Text Available As a result of carried out research and summarized materials on specific features of diamonds of the Siberian platform, conclusions were made that indications exist at all the levels of their occurrence: from diamondiferous provinces, sub-provinces, fields, diatremes, to ore columns. All the diamond varieties in kimberlite rocks forms not paragenetic, but parasteric associations based on the similarity of their coexistence in the kimberlites. Morphological criteria of kimberlite diamondiferousness according the quantitative content of rounded diamonds were formulated. Sufficient differences in diamondiferousness of kimberlites through all the explored depth of diatremes (up to 1200 m were not revealed.

  10. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng (United States)

    Abbai, Ragavendran; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Markus, Josua; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Wang, Chao; Singh, Priyanka; Ahn, Sungeun; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun


    Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs) and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs). First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E), total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line) and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line) at 10 µg⋅mL−1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844), and Escherichia coli (BL21) treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay demonstrated that both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs possess strong antioxidant activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report unraveling the potential of Eleutherococcus senticosus for silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis along with its biological applications, which in turn would promote widespread usage of the endemic Siberian ginseng. PMID:27468232

  11. Exploration of horizontal intrinsic spin resonances with two partial Siberian snakes

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    F. Lin


    Full Text Available Two partial Siberian snakes were used to avoid all the spin imperfection and vertical intrinsic resonances in the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, the horizontal betatron motion can cause polarization loss resulting from the nonvertical stable spin direction in the presence of two partial snakes. This type of resonance, called a horizontal intrinsic spin resonance, was observed and systematically studied in the AGS. A simplified analytic model and numerical simulation have been developed to compare with experimental data. Properties of the horizontal intrinsic resonance are discussed.

  12. Spin Transparency Mode in the NICA Collider with Solenoid Siberian Snakes for Proton and Deuteron Beam (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.


    Two solenoid Siberian Snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in spin transparency mode of the NICA collider. The snake solenoids with a total field integral of 2×50 T·m are placed into the straight sections of the NICA collider. It allows one to control polarization of protons and deuterons up to 13.5 GeV/c and 4 GeV/c respectively. The snakes introduce a strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Snakes are presented.

  13. Isker as a Mythologeme in the Study of Siberian Khanate History »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Maslyuzhenko


    Full Text Available Research literature on the history of Siberian Khanate consider Isker not only as a metropolitan center but also as a large and well-fortified town. The analysis of written and archaeological sources shows that such an assumption in many respects developed under the influence of the authors, who described it later, a long time after the abandonment of Isker. They were influenced to a large extent by ideas about how Tatar city might have looked as an ideal model, the embodiment of which they searched on the ruins of the Siberian cities of the 15th–16th centuries. Authors of this work consider that conditions of a fortress location, as well as artifacts, found there, do not confirm this traditional version. Isker came under the authority of Siberian Shibanids (with a throne place situated in Chimgi-Tura (Tyumen not earlier than in 1563, after the Siberian people had invited Kuchum ibn Murtaza to become their khan. At the same time, representatives of a dynasty controlled not only the lands in the south of Western Siberia, but also across the Syr Darya. Being natives of a nomadic environment, their center of power was situatetd in nomadic khan’s encampment, from which they moved from summering in the north to wintering grounds in the south. Exactly in this encampment, but not in geopolitically and ecologically uncomfortably located Isker, it is supposed to be the khan’s treasury and the place for his family as well as seyyids and other Muslim preachers. Isker was only a place of collecting the yasak from Ugrian groups of local population during the autumn and spring periods. For these reasons, its protection during Yermak’s attack was not the khan’s priority task. The town was abandoned easily. Isker is not so important for the history of Siberia as for Russian history during the period of incorporation of Siberia into the Muscovy. For the Russian tsars, Isker became a symbol of the legitimacy of power of Ivan the Terrible in Siberia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Davidova


    Full Text Available A dynamics of the number of medical personnel Siberian cities in the Great Patriotic war is analyzed in the article. The author studies quantity and structure of senior and low-grade medical personnel of healthcare institutions, shows its impact on medical and sanitarian anti-epidemic work, as well as considers methods of decision of personnel problem in the region. The study is based on analysis of documents of the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, the Russian State Archive of Economy and the Regional Archives of the Siberian cities.

  15. Modeling the Differential Sensitivity of Loblolly Pine to Climatic Change Using Tree Rings (United States)

    Edward R. Cook; Warren L. Nance; Paul J. Krusic; James Grissom


    The Southwide Pine Seed Source Study (SPSSS) was undertaken in 1951 to determine to what extent inherent geographic variation in four southern pine species (loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L.; slash pine, P. elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii; longleaf pine, P. palutris Mill.; and shortleaf pine,

  16. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type. (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg


    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  17. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  18. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  19. Current-year flush and needle development in longleaf pine saplings after a dormant season prescribed fire (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; James D. Haywood; Mary Anne S. Sayer


    A longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) field performance study was established in central Louisiana in 2004. The study has received three prescribed burns (February 2006, May 2009, and February 2012) since establishment. In late April 2012, 35 saplings were selected and classified based on ocular estimates of needle mass scorch percentages. Mean...

  20. Determining Nutrient Requirements For Intensively Managed Loblolly Pine Stands Using the SSAND (Soil Supply and Nutrient Demand) Model (United States)

    Hector G. Adegbidi; Nicholas B. Comerford; Hua Li; Eric J. Jokela; Nairam F. Barros


    Nutrient management represents a central component of intensive silvicultural systems that are designed to increase forest productivity in southern pine stands. Forest soils throughout the South are generally infertile, and fertilizers may be applied one or more times over the course of a rotation. Diagnostic techniques, such as foliar analysis and soil testing are...

  1. Effects of reproduction cutting method and hardwood retention on shortleaf pine seed production in natural stands of the Ouachita Mountains (United States)

    Robert F. Wittwer; Micahel G. Shelton; James M. Guldin


    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seed production was monitored for 4 yr in stands harvested by a range of even- and uneven-aged reproduction cutting methods. The fifty-two 35–40 ac stands were distributed throughout the Ouachita Mountains from central Arkansas to eastern Oklahoma. Seed crops were characterized as good, poor, poor, and bumper,...

  2. Recovering lost ground: effects of soil burn intensity on nutrients and ectomycorrhiza communities of ponderosa pine seedlings (United States)

    Ariel D. Cowan; Jane E. Smith; Stephen A. Fitzgerald


    Fuel accumulation and climate shifts are predicted to increase the frequency of high-severity fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of central Oregon. The combustion of fuels containing large downed wood can result in intense soil heating, alteration of soil properties, and mortality of microbes. Previous studies show ectomycorrhizal...

  3. Habitat use of two songbird species in pine-hardwood forests treated with prescribed burning and thinning: first year results (United States)

    Jill M. Wick; Yong Wang


    We evaluated habitat use and home range size of hooded warblers (Wilsonia citrine) and worm-eating warblers (Helmitheros vermivorus) in six treated mixed oak-pine stands on the Bankhead National Forest in north-central AL. Study design is a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of three thinning levels (no thin, 11...

  4. Methodology and preliminary results of evaluating stem displacement and assessing root system architecture of longleaf pine saplings (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Daniel J. Leduc; James D. Haywood; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    A field experiment of the effects of container cavity size and root pruning type on longleaf pine was established in November, 2004, in central Louisiana. Sapling stems were first observed to be leaning after hurricane Gustav (September, 2008) and again in August, 2009. To examine the relationship between stem displacement and root system architecture, a stem-displaced...

  5. Shortleaf pine-bluestem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers in the Ouachita Mountains: Implications for other taxa (United States)

    Ronald E. Thill; D. Craig Rudolph; Nancy E. Koerth


    The more xeric south- and west-facing slopes of the Ouachita Mountains of west-central Arkansas once supported fire-maintained shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) forests with a well-developed herbaceous understory. Fire suppression following the original harvest of these forests resulted in forests with increasingly abundant woody vegetation in the...

  6. Movement patterns and habitat selection by native and repatriated Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni): implications for conservation (United States)

    John G. Himes; Laurence M. Hardy; D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf


    The Louisiana pine snake, Pituophis ruthveni, is an uncommon and poorly known snake that currently lacks federal protection. To learn more about the natural history of P. ruthveni, ten adults and one juvenile were studied by radiotelemetry during 1995-97 in north-central Louisiana. In addition, one adult and seven juvenile captive-...

  7. Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Fred P. Hain; Adrian J. Duehl; Micah J. Gardner; Thomas L. Payne


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a tree killer of southern yellow pines. All life stages—eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults—infest the inner bark or phloem tissue of the host tree. Adult beetles overcome the tree’s defenses through a mass-attack phenomenon. They are attracted to the tree by a pheromone system consisting of volatiles produced by the beetles and the host....

  8. Southern Pine Beetle Population Dynamics in Trees (United States)

    Fred M. Stephen


    Successful mass attack of a pine tree by the southern pine beetle (SPB) results in the tree’s death and provides opportunity for colonization of the new phloem resource and reproduction by a new generation of SPBs plus hundreds of associated species of insects, mites, fungi, and nematodes. The within-tree portions of the SPB life history can be divided into component...

  9. Histiocytic Sarcoma and Bilateral Facial Vein Thrombosis in a Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Coble, Dondrae J; Shoemaker, Margaret; Harrington, Bonnie; Dardenne, Adrienne D; Bolon, Brad


    A 21-mo-old, male Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) presented with left-sided facial swelling, proptosis of the left eye, and blepharospasm of the right eye. The hamster had been used only for breeding. Because of the poor prognosis, the hamster was euthanized without additional diagnostic assays or treatments. Routine gross pathologic evaluation demonstrated exophthalmos and presumptive hyphema of the left eye, bilateral facial edema, freely movable nodules within the mesentery, white foci within the liver, and a large mass effacing the cranial pole of the right kidney. On histologic evaluation, the mesenteric nodules and liver foci expressed histiocytic marker CD163 and thus were diagnosed as sites of histiocytic sarcoma, whereas the kidney mass was a well-differentiated renal cell carcinoma. The facial swelling resulted from bilateral, chronic, severe, branching thrombi in many facial veins. Additional age-related histopathologic findings were observed in other organs, including diffuse glomerulopathy, nesidioblastosis (pancreatic islet neoformation), and multiple foci of severe cartilage degeneration in the axial skeleton. To our knowledge, this report provides the first description of histiocytic sarcoma in a Siberian hamster.

  10. Evaluation of four suture materials for surgical incision closure in Siberian sturgeon (United States)

    Boone, S. Shaun; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Peterson, Douglas C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Shelton, James L.; Divers, Stephen J.


    The visual and microscopic tissue reactions to the absorbable monofilament Monocryl, absorbable monofilament triclosan-coated Monocryl-Plus, absorbable multifilament Vicryl, and nonabsorbable monofilament Prolene were evaluated for their use of surgical closure in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Postoperative assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 8, 12, and 26 and 55 weeks to visually evaluate the surgical incision for suture retention, incision healing, erythema, and swelling. Incisions were also assessed microscopically at 1, 2, and 8 weeks for necrosis, inflammation, hemorrhage, and fibroplasia. The results indicated that incisions closed with either Vicryl or Prolene suture materials were more likely to exhibit more erythema or incomplete healing compared with those closed with Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus. The surgical implantation of a transmitter in the coelomic cavity did not significantly affect the response variables among the four suture materials. Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus were equally effective and superior to other suture materials used for closing surgical incisions in Siberian Sturgeon or closely related species of sturgeon. Furthermore, Monocryl or Monocryl-Plus may decrease the risk of transmitter expulsion through the incision, as surgical wounds appear to heal faster and exhibit less erythema compared with those closed with Vicryl.

  11. Black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats as ecological surrogates and ecological equivalents (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Hanebury, L.R.; Miller, B.J.; Powell, R.A.


    Ecologically equivalent species serve similar functions in different communities, and an ecological surrogate species can be used as a substitute for an equivalent species in a community. Siberian polecats (Mustela eversmanii) and black-footed ferrets (M. nigripes) have long been considered ecological equivalents. Polecats also have been used as investigational surrogates for black-footed ferrets, yet the similarities and differences between the 2 species are poorly understood. We contrasted activity patterns of radiotagged polecats and ferrets released onto ferret habitat. Ferrets tended to be nocturnal and most active after midnight. Polecats were not highly selective for any period of the day or night. Ferrets and polecats moved most during brightly moonlit nights. The diel activity pattern of ferrets was consistent with avoidance of coyotes (Canis latrans) and diurnal birds of prey. Similarly, polecat activity was consistent with avoidance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in their natural range. Intraguild predation (including interference competition) is inferred as a selective force influencing behaviors of these mustelines. Examination of our data suggests that black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats might be ecological equivalents but are not perfect surrogates. Nonetheless, polecats as surrogates for black-footed ferrets have provided critical insight needed, especially related to predation, to improve the success of ferret reintroductions. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  12. Adult wheel access interaction with activity and boldness personality in Siberian dwarf hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Kanda, L Leann; Abdulhay, Amir; Erickson, Caitlin


    Individual animal personalities interact with environmental conditions to generate differences in behavior, a phenomenon of growing interest for understanding the effects of environmental enrichment on captive animals. Wheels are common environmental enrichment for laboratory rodents, but studies conflict on how this influences behavior, and interaction of wheels with individual personalities has rarely been examined. We examined whether wheel access altered personality profiles in adult Siberian dwarf hamsters. We assayed animals in a tunnel maze twice for baseline personality, then again at two and at seven weeks after the experimental group was provisioned with wheels in their home cages. Linear mixed model selection was used to assess changes in behavior over time and across environmental gradient of wheel exposure. While animals showed consistent inter-individual differences in activity, activity personality did not change upon exposure to a wheel. Boldness also varies among individuals, and there is evidence for female boldness scores converging after wheel exposure, that is, opposite shifts in behavior by high and low boldness individuals, although sample size is too small for the mixed model results to be robust. In general, Siberian dwarf hamsters appear to show low behavioral plasticity, particularly in general activity, in response to running wheels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Outbreak and genotyping of canine distemper virus in captive Siberian tigers and red pandas. (United States)

    Zhang, He; Shan, Fen; Zhou, Xia; Li, Bing; Zhai, Jun-Qiong; Zou, Shu-Zhan; Wu, Meng-Fan; Chen, Wu; Zhai, Shao-Lun; Luo, Man-Lin


    In this study, four canine distemper virus (CDV) strains were isolated from captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) during two separate CDV outbreaks in a zoo in Guangdong province, China. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype Asia-1. Prior to confirmation of CDV in Siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuated combination CDV vaccine was used among almost all carnivore animals except for red pandas in which another recombinant combination CDV vaccine was used. However, about two months later, CDV re-emerged and caused the death among red pandas. Based on the vaccination records, the live combination vaccine could be considered an ideal weapon against CDV in zoo carnivore animals. Although the recombinant combination CDV vaccine was safe for red pandas, its protection effectiveness remains to be further investigated. Moreover, according to the outbreak interval time and sequence characterization, we suspected that stray cats circulating in the zoo were the intermediate host, which contributed to CDV spread from stray dogs to zoo animals. This study revealed the importance of vaccination and biosecurity for zoo animals.

  14. Allozyme evidence for crane systematics and polymorphisms within populations of Sandhill, Sarus, Siberian and Whooping Cranes (United States)

    Dessauer, H.C.; Gee, G.F.; Rogers, J.S.


    Electrophoretic analysis of proteins yielded evidence on the relationships of species of cranes and on genetic diversity within populations of some species. Diversity within the Greater Sandhill crane and a Florida population of the Florida Sandhill crane was similar to that of most other vertebrates, but diversity was low in the Mississippi Sandhill crane, in the Okefenokee population of the Florida Sandhill crane, and within the Siberian and Sarus cranes. Diversity was surprisingly high among whooping cranes, whose number dropped to less than 25 early in this century. Phylogenetic analysis, using both character state and distance algorithms, yielded highly concordant trees for the 15 species. The African crowned cranes (Balearica) were widely divergent from all other cranes. Species of Anthropoides, Bugeranus, and Grus clustered closely but sorted into two lineages: a Whooper Group consisted of the whooping, common, hooded, black-necked, white-naped, and red-crowned cranes of genus Grus; and a Sandhill Group included the Sandhill, Siberian, Sarus, and Brolga cranes of genus Grus, the wattled crane of genus Bugeranus, and the Demoiselle and blue cranes of genus Anthropoides.

  15. Morphological structure and peripheral innervation of the lateral line system in the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). (United States)

    Song, Wei; Song, Jiakun


    Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the epidermal lateral line system of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869). This system consists of mechanoreceptive neuromasts, ampullae and the electroreceptive organ. The neuromasts are located in 5 pairs of cephalic and 1 pair of trunk canals and superficially in the middle and posterior pit lines that lie dorsomedially along the top of the skull immediately adjacent to the otic ampullae field. Both canal neuromasts and pit organ superficial neuromasts have opposite polarized hair cells that are parallel along the axis of the canal and pit line, respectively. However, they differ in both size and shape and in the density and length of the hair bundles. The ampullae are confined on the head, adjacent to the neuromast lines. The morphological structure of the ampullae in the Siberian sturgeon is similar to the ampullae in elasmobranchs and other primitive fish. Nevertheless, it has a relatively large mucus-filled ampulla, and a shorter and narrower canal leading to a small opening to the outer epidermal surface. We also present new information concerning the peripheral innervation of lateral line receptors in sturgeons. The receptors of the lateral line system are innervated by 2 pairs of cranial nerves: anterior and posterior lateral line nerves. The peripheral processes of the anterior lateral line nerve form superficial ophthalmic, buccal, otic and anteroventral rami. The peripheral processes of the posterior lateral line nerve form middle, supratemporal and lateral rami. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  16. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand


    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  17. Preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials from mountain pine beetle-killed pine wood (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang


    The mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) wood treated with iron (III) nitrate solution was used for the preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials (Fe-CNs) under various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization yield of Fe-treated sample (5% as Fe) was always 1–3% higher (after ash compensation) than that of the non-...

  18. Threats, status & management options for bristlecone pines and limber pines in Southern Rockies (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; K. S. Burns; F. Freeman; R. A. Sniezko


    High-elevation white pines define the most remote alpine-forest ecotones in western North America yet they are not beyond the reach of a lethal non-native pathogen. The pathogen (Cronartium ribicola), a native to Asia, causes the disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) and was introduced into western Canada in 1910. Whitebark (Pinus albicaulis) and...

  19. Biology of a Pine Needle Sheath Midge, Contarinia Acuta Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on Loblolly Pine (United States)

    Julie C. Weatherby; John C. Moser; Raymond J. Gagné; Huey N. Wallace


    The biology of a pine needle sheath midge, Contarinia acuta Gagné is described for a new host in Louisiana. This midge was found feeding within the needle sheath on elongating needles of loblolly pine, P. taeda L. Needle droop and partial defoliation were evident on heavily infested trees. Overwintering C. acuta...

  20. Strong partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr.; Deems Burton; Dean A. Davis; Robert D. Westfall; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler


    Quantitative resistance to white pine blister rust in 128 controlled- and open-pollinated sugar pine families was evaluated in a “disease garden”, where alternate host Ribes bushes were interplanted among test progenies. Overall infection was severe (88%), but with great variation among and within families: a 30-fold range in numbers of infections...

  1. Genetic and phenotypic resistance in lodgepole pine to attack by mountain pine beetle (United States)

    Alvin Yanchuk; Kimberly Wallin


    The recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in British Columbia provided an opportunity to examine genetic variation of differential attack and resistance in a 20-year old lodgepole pine open-pollinated (OP) family trial. Approximately 2,500 individuals from 180 OP parent-tree collections (~14 trees per parent), from...

  2. An old-growth definition for xeric pine and pine-oak woodlands (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy; Gregory J. Nowacki


    The old-growth characteristics of xeric pine and pine-oak woodlands are summarized from a survey of the available scientific literature. This type occurs throughout the South and is usually found as small inclusions on ridgetops and south-facing slopes in the mountains or on excessively drained, sandy uplands in gentle terrain. Historically, this type has had frequent...

  3. Oleoresin characteristics of progeny of loblolly pines that escaped attack by southern pine beetle (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; L.L. Ingram; G.D.L. Boyd; L.H. Lott


    Oleoresin characteristics of first-generation (F1) progeny of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) that escaped mortality from the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), despite heavy mortality of neighbors, were evaluated and compared to trees from a general (i.e., trees...

  4. Local and general above-stump biomass functions for loblolly pine and slash pine trees (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Beneke; Salvador Gezan; Tmothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas R. Fox; Eric J. Jokela; Christopher Maier; Timothy A. Martin; Rafael A. Rubilar; Lisa J. Samuelson


    There is an increasing interest in estimating biomass for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii), two of the most ecologically and commercially important tree species in North America. The majority of the available individual-tree allometric models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh)...

  5. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David


    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  6. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu


    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  7. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp


    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  8. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback


    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  9. Siberian Origins of Neoproterozoic to Upper Triassic Rocks of Arctic Alaska (United States)

    Clough, J. G.; Blodgett, R. B.


    Evidence for a connection of the Arctic Alaska plate (including Chukotka) with Siberia from Cambrian until Late Triassic time can be made on the basis of paleobiogeography. Arctic Alaska contains a number of biogeographically distinctive megafossils for select time intervals, notably the Middle Cambrian, Early and Late Ordovician, Early and Middle Devonian, Mississippian, and Late Triassic. Middle Cambrian trilobites are strictly Siberian in affinity, but also show close affinities with coeval trilobites from the Farewell terrane of SW Alaska. Late Ordovician brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and ostracodes are known from the Shublik Mountains, NE Brooks Range and York Mountains of the Seward Peninsula. Affinities are likewise primarily with Siberia (sharing the primarily Siberian pentameroid brachiopod genera Tcherskidium and Eoconchidium and the strictly Siberian trilobite genus Monorakos), but also with the Farewell terrane. Late Early Devonian and Middle Devonian brachiopods and calcareous green algae from Arctic Alaska are similarly allied with Siberia and the Farewell and Alexander terranes of southern Alaska. Early Mississippian faunas from the lower part of the Lisburne Group and underlying Endicott Group contain relatively widespread fauna, including taxa recognized both in North America and Eurasia, consistent with the relatively cosmopolitan paleobiogeographic conditions of this interval. However, Late Mississippian brachiopod fauna from the upper part of the Lisburne Group contain many brachiopods of strictly Eurasian affinities, notably the gigantoproductids, which are unknown in cratonic North America, but widespread across Eurasia and even North Africa. Late Mississippian lycopods from this terrane have previously been noted as demonstrating strong Angaran affinities. Permian faunas of Arctic Alaska show strong affinities as well with the Siberian Arctic, virtually lacking any fusilinids and reefal buildups, which in contradistinction are commonly

  10. Mechanical properties of stemwood and limbwood of seed orchard loblolly pine (United States)

    R. H. McAlister; H. R. Powers; W. D. Pepper


    Tests were made on micro-bending specimens prepared from stem and limb sections of 11 rust-resistant loblolly pines from a central Georgia seed orchard. A fair correlation (|r| = 0.45 to 0.55) emerged between the stemwood and limbwood modulus of elasticity (MOE) and stemwood and limbwood modulus ofrupture (MOR) values. An excellent correlation (|r| = 0.8 to 0.9)...

  11. Wildfire effects on a ponderosa pine ecosystem: An Arizona case study (United States)

    R. E. Campbell; Jr. Baker; P. F. Ffolliott; F. R. Larson; C. C. Avery


    A wildfire of variable severity swept through 717 acres (290 ha) of ponderosa pine forest in north-central Arizona in May 1972. Where the fire was intense it killed 90% of the small trees and 50% of the sawtimber, burned 2.6 in (6.5 cm) of forest floor to the mineral soil, and induced a water-repellent layer in the sandier soils. The reduced infiltration rates, which...

  12. Root system architecture: The invisible trait in container longleaf pine seedlings (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; R. Kasten Dumroese


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings cultured in four cavity volumes (60 to 336 ml [3.7 to 20.5 cubic inches]), two root pruning treatments (with or without copper coating), and 3 nitrogen levels (low to high) were grown for 29 weeks before they were outplanted into an open area in central Louisiana. Twenty-two months after outplanting, 3 seedlings were...

  13. The west-wide ponderosa pine levels-of-growing-stock study at age 40 (United States)

    William W. Oliver


    In the 1960s a series of levels-of-growing-stock studies was established in young, even-aged stands throughout the range of ponderosa pine in the western United States. Using a common study plan, installations were begun in the Black Hills of South Dakota, eastern and central Oregon, the Coconino Plateau of Arizona and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada in California...

  14. Morphological Characteristics and Water-Use Efficiency of Siberian Elm Trees (Ulmus pumila L. within Arid Regions of Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Eun Park


    Full Text Available The Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L. is one of the most commonly found tree species in arid areas of northeast Asia. To understand the morphological and physiological characteristics of Siberian elms in arid regions, we analyzed leaves from seven study sites (five arid or semi-arid and two mesic in China, Mongolia and the Republic of Korea, which covered a wide range of average annual precipitation (232 mm·year−1 to 1304 mm·year−1 under various aridity indexes (AI and four different microenvironments: sand dune, steppe, riverside and forest. The traits of Siberian elms varied widely along different annual precipitation (P and AI gradients. Tree height (H, leaf size (LS and stomatal area per unit leaf area (AS/AL decreased with increasing AI, whereas leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA and water-use efficiency (WUE increased significantly. In addition, trees at the five arid sites showed significant differences in LS, LMA and AS/AL but not in H and WUE. Thus, our study indicated that indigenous Siberian elm trees in arid areas have substantially altered their morphological and physiological characteristics to avoid heat stress and increase water conservation in comparison to mesic areas. However, their changes differed depending on the surrounding microenvironment even in arid areas. Trees in sand dunes had a smaller LS, higher LMA, thicker leaf cuticle layer and higher stomatal density and AS than those in steppes and near a riverside.

  15. Initial assessment of multi-scale measures of C02 and H20 flux in the Siberian taiga (United States)

    D.Y. Hollinger; F.M. Kelliher; E.-D. Schulze; N.N. Vygodskaya; A. Varlagin; I. Milukova; J.N. Byers; A. Sogachov; J.E. Hunt; T.M. McSeveny; K.I. Kobak; G. Bauer; A. Arneth


    We measured CO2 and H2O fluxes between undisturbed Larix gmelinii forest and the atmosphere at a remote Eastern Siberian site in July 1993. Scaled-up leaf-level porometer measurements agreed with those derived from the eddy correlation technique for the canopy fluxes of CO2 and H...

  16. [50 years anniversary of Research Institute for Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc]. (United States)

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Shaiakhmetov, S F; Gus'kova, T M


    The article covers main steps of establishment and development of Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc over 50 years of activities, major results of research, contribution of the Institute personnel into development of hygienic science and practical medicine in Siberia.

  17. Reconsidering the classification of tick-borne encephalitis virus within the Siberian subtype gives new insights into its evolutionary history. (United States)

    Kovalev, S Y; Mukhacheva, T A


    Tick-borne encephalitis is widespread in Eurasia and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Classification of its causative agent, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), includes three subtypes, namely Far-Eastern, European, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib), as well as a group of 886-84-like strains with uncertain taxonomic status. TBEV-Sib is subdivided into three phylogenetic lineages: Baltic, Asian, and South-Siberian. A reason to reconsider TBEV-Sib classification was the analysis of 186 nucleotide sequences of an E gene fragment submitted to GenBank during the last two years. Within the South-Siberian lineage, we have identified a distinct group with prototype strains Aina and Vasilchenko as an individual lineage named East-Siberian. The analysis of reclassified lineages has promoted a new model of the evolutionary history of TBEV-Sib lineages and TBEV-Sib as a whole. Moreover, we present arguments supporting separation of 886-84-like strains into an individual TBEV subtype, which we propose to name Baikalian (TBEV-Bkl). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing Whitebark Pine Distribution in the Northern Rocky Mountains in Support of Grizzly Bear Recovery (United States)

    Lawrence, R.; Landenburger, L.; Jewett, J.


    Whitebark pine seeds have long been identified as the most significant vegetative food source for grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and, hence, a crucial element of suitable grizzly bear habitat. The overall health and status of whitebark pine in the GYE is currently threatened by mountain pine beetle infestations and the spread of whitepine blister rust. Whitebark pine distribution (presence/absence) was mapped for the GYE using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery and topographic data as part of a long-term inter-agency monitoring program. Logistic regression was compared with classification tree analysis (CTA) with and without boosting. Overall comparative classification accuracies for the central portion of the GYE covering three ETM+ images along a single path ranged from 91.6% using logistic regression to 95.8% with See5's CTA algorithm with the maximum 99 boosts. The analysis is being extended to the entire northern Rocky Mountain Ecosystem and extended over decadal time scales. The analysis is being extended to the entire northern Rocky Mountain Ecosystem and extended over decadal time scales.

  19. Distribution, densities, and ecology of Siberian cranes in the Khroma River region of northern Yakutia in northeastern Russia (United States)

    Bysykatova, Inga P.; Krapu, Gary L.; Germogenov, Nicolai I.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Aborn, David


    The Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) is the third rarest crane species in the world with a breeding range now centered on 3 core areas and a buffer zone in the arctic of northern Yakutia in northeastern Russia. During 16 July-2 August 2009, we undertook ground surveys within the Khroma River core breeding area, surrounding buffer zone, and lands lying to the west of the known rbeeding range to estimate densities and determine habitat use and social status of Siberian cranes. A total of 142 Siberian cranes were sighted (including 55 pairs) at 54 locations with 32 cranes (including 13 pairs) sighted outside the currently known breeding range in the lower drainages of the Syalakh and Syuryuktyakh Rivers. After adjusting for a probability of detection of 0.484 (95% CI = 0.281-0.833), Siberian crane densities in the Khroma core area and the buffer zone averaged 0.0921 cranes/km2 and 0.0363 cranes/km2, respectively. A majority of cranes (n = 93 [65%]) occurred in complexes of large basin wetlands, with use centered in those having extensive beds of pendant grass (Arctophila fulva). Of the 142 cranes seen, 110 (77%) were paired, 21 (15%) were singles, and 11 (8%) were in groups of 3-5. The Khroma core supports 1 of 2 large concentrations of breeding Siberian cranes remaining in the wild; therefore, we recommend that consideration be given to designating a nature reserve that would encompass the Khroma core, adjacent buffer zone, and lands to the west (including coastal tundra areas along the lower drainages of the Syalah and Syuryuktyah Rivers). Further research is needed to gain additional insight into Siberian crane distribution and numbers on lands beyond the currently delineated western boundary of the Siberian crane breeding range in the Ust-Yana District of northern Yakutia. Important gaps remain in information needed to effectively guide conservation efforts for the Eastern Population, and recent advances in remote tracking technology offer potential

  20. Pine Savannah restoration monitoring –Tammany Holding Tract (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitor the response of pine flatwood/savannah to restoration and management actions including brush removal, prescribed burning and planting longleaf pine...

  1. The pine-oak rusts: How forest tree species connect (United States)

    D. R. Vogler


    The pine-oak rust fungi, which live out their lives as pathogens on pines and oaks, have multiple spore states and complex life cycles. Because they can be severe pathogens of pines, much of what we know about them depends on how damaging they are to management of pine forests for timber, recreation, and ecosystem values. Widely distributed in North America, they are...

  2. Simulating the impacts of southern pine beetle and fire on the dynamics of xerophytic pine landscapes in the southern Appalachians (United States)

    J.D. Waldron; C.W. Lafon; R.N. Coulson; D.M. Cairns; M.D. Tchakerian; A. Birt; K.D. Klepzig


    Question: Can fire be used to maintain Yellow pine (Pinus subgenus Diploxylon) stands disturbed by periodic outbreaks of southern pine beetle?Location: Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.Methods: We used LANDIS to model vegetation disturbance and succession...

  3. Copper Deficiency in Pine Plantations in the Georgia Coastal Plain (United States)

    David B. South; William A. Carey; Donald A. Johnson


    Copper deficiencies have been observed on several intensively managed pine plantations in the Georgia Coastal Plain. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) displayed plagiotropic growth within a year after planting on very acid, sandy soils. Typically, symptoms show...

  4. Top Grafting Loblolly Pine in the Western Gulf Region (United States)

    Geoffrey D. Goading; Floyd E. Bridgwater; David L. Bramlett; William J. Lowe


    Flowering data were collected from top grafts made in 1996 and 1997 at the Mississippi Forestry Commission's Craig Seed Orchard near Lumberton, MS. Scion material from twenty loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) second-generation selections was grafted onto five loblolly pine and five slash pine (P. elliottii) interstocks. All...

  5. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes


    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  6. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson


    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  7. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe (United States)

    Jose Negron


    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  8. Natural regeneration of whitebark pine: Factors affecting seedling density (United States)

    S. Goeking; D. Izlar


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is an ecologically important species in high-altitude areas of the western United States and Canada due to the habitat and food source it provides for Clark’s nutcrackers, red squirrels, grizzly bears, and other animals. Whitebark pine stands have recently experienced high mortality due to wildfire, white pine blister rust, and a...

  9. Examining possible causes of mortality in white pine seedlings (United States)

    Elizabeth Gilles; Ronald Reitz; Greg Hoss; David. Gwaze


    White pine (Pinus strobus L.) is one of the most important timber trees in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada (Demeritt and Garrett 1996). White pine is not native to Missouri; it is commonly planted for wind breaks and erosion control and as an ornamental. Unusual mortality of bare-root seedlings of white pine purchased from the...

  10. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss


    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  11. Limber pine conservation strategy: Recommendations for Rocky Mountain National Park (United States)

    Christy M. Cleaver; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns; J. Jeff Connor


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis), designated by Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) as a Species of Management Concern, is a keystone species that maintains ecosystem structure, function, and biodiversity in the park. In RMNP, limber pine is declining due to the interacting effects of recent severe droughts and the climate-exacerbated mountain pine beetle (...

  12. Repeatability for oleoresin yield determinations in southern pines (United States)

    J. H. Roberds; Brian L. Strom


    Flow of constitutive oleoresin is believed to be a major component of tree defense against attack by the southern pine pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann). Pines that exude large quantities of oleoresin are considered to be most capable of preventing or obstructing colonization by this destructive insect herbivore (Hodges et al. 1979;...

  13. A race against beetles: Conservation of limber pine (United States)

    Anna Schoettle; Kelly Burns; Sheryl Costello; Jeff Witcosky; Brian Howell; Jeff Connor


    The Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forest Health Management, Rocky Mountain National Park, Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, and the Medicine Bow NF are coordinating efforts to conserve limber pine along the Front Range of the southern Rockies. Mountain pine beetle (MPB) populations are increasing dramatically in the area and killing limber pines in their...

  14. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer


    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  15. Early Results of Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Pine in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe


    Despite the presence of more than 500 native tree species in Puerto Rico, many efforts have been made to introduce pine. These attempts have been made because, compared to the native species, pine has a much wider accepted market and has the longer fiber necessary as a component of kraft papers. In addition pine produces higher yields on poor sites, and its...

  16. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor


    Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  17. The nature of colored dissolved organic matter in the southern Canada Basin and East Siberian Sea (United States)

    Guéguen, C.; McLaughlin, F. A.; Carmack, E. C.; Itoh, M.; Narita, H.; Nishino, S.


    Distributions of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the upper 400 m of the southern Canada Basin and East Siberian Sea were determined using an in situ WETStar fluorometer and fluorescence spectroscopy during cruises in 2008 as part of the Canada/US Joint Ocean Ice Study and Japan's International Polar Year program. Despite the low CDOM range (0.009-0.069 r.u.) observed in the upper 400 m of the study area, our results show that CDOM can be quantified from in situ DOM fluorescence sensor measurements. Unlike DOC concentrations, which are known to decrease with increasing depth, a pronounced mid-depth CDOM maximum was associated with the Pacific-derived winter water throughout our study area. Using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to resolve dominant fluorophore components in fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM), we identified three humic-like and two proteinaceous components. The nature and origin of these five fluorophores were investigated based on their fluorescent characteristics as well as their vertical and geographical distributions. The lowest terrestrial humic-like signals in the surface waters were mostly due to photochemical processes, whereas the highest microbial/marine humic-like signal revealed interactions with sediment during the formation of Pacific-origin haloclines over the Arctic shelves. The humic-like fluorophores dominated DOM fluorescence in the Westernmost region in the East Siberian Sea whereas the contribution of protein-like fluorophores was predominant elsewhere. The significant difference in CDOM composition between East and West of the 180° meridian suggests the presence of a front that divides our study area into the Eastern Chukchi—Beaufort and East Siberian sides. This indicates a change in water circulation, and that more than one DOM source affects our study area. Unlike proteinaceous material, the humic-like compounds varied significantly in the halocline. Ten to 20 percent enrichment was observed in

  18. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; O'Regan, Matt; Pearce, Christof; Gemery, Laura; Toomey, Michael; Semiletov, Igor; Jakobsson, Martin


    Deglacial (12.8-10.7 ka) sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1) and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1), and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1). Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM; ˜ 24 kiloannum or ka) minimum sea level of ˜ 125-130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.). Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1) followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal) period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ˜ 400 cm of core depth) is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42-47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  19. Burned and buried by the Siberian traps: tree trunks in volcaniclastics and lavas (United States)

    Polozov, Alexander G.; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik H.; Jerram, Dougal A.; Looy, Cindy


    Major Phanerozoic mass extinctions could be explained by intense volcanic activity related to the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). The Siberian Traps LIP possibly caused the most severe mass extinction on the Earth, the end-Permian extinction. This event is documented by global data showing the extinction of floral and faunal species and by stable isotope excursions. Information about the direct impact of the Siberian Traps on the local flora and fauna is scarce. By our knowledge, no detailed description has been done on the faith of trees in Siberia. However, the story of Late Permian giant trees like Cordaites and wood ferns, could shed light on the impact of the onset of the LIP magmatism and the related mass extinction. For the first time we describe that Late Permian tree trunks were buried in volcaniclastic deposits and at the footwall contact of the oldest lava flows of the Siberian Traps, and despite that this phenomenon is known by local geologists it is not well described in the literature. Tree trunks in volcaniclastic deposits were compressed during consolidation of the volcaniclastic material originated from pyroclastic density currents from nearby volcanic centers. Tree petrification is presented by quartz with minor sulphides, zeolite, calcite and sulphates. Tree trunks at the footwall contact of the lava flows have a better preserved year rings structure and late permineralization presented by calcite with minor quartz and sulphides. Our results demonstrate that intensive magmatic activity related with LIP formation affects land vegetation at various grades. Lavas have had a local violent impact, but burned and buried tree trunks have a better preserved structure reflecting single dominated permineralization processes than the tree trunks buried by pyroclastics that have covered extensive areas and followed by trees compression and later multistage permineralization. In a global context, such type of volcanic activity has a variable

  20. Deglacial sea level history of the East Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cronin


    Full Text Available Deglacial (12.8–10.7 ka sea level history on the East Siberian continental shelf and upper continental slope was reconstructed using new geophysical records and sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The focus of this study is two cores from Herald Canyon, piston core SWERUS-L2-4-PC1 (4-PC1 and multicore SWERUS-L2-4-MC1 (4-MC1, and a gravity core from an East Siberian Sea transect, SWERUS-L2-20-GC1 (20-GC1. Cores 4-PC1 and 20-GC were taken at 120 and 115 m of modern water depth, respectively, only a few meters above the global last glacial maximum (LGM;  ∼  24 kiloannum or ka minimum sea level of  ∼  125–130 meters below sea level (m b.s.l.. Using calibrated radiocarbon ages mainly on molluscs for chronology and the ecology of benthic foraminifera and ostracode species to estimate paleodepths, the data reveal a dominance of river-proximal species during the early part of the Younger Dryas event (YD, Greenland Stadial GS-1 followed by a rise in river-intermediate species in the late Younger Dryas or the early Holocene (Preboreal period. A rapid relative sea level rise beginning at roughly 11.4 to 10.8 ka ( ∼  400 cm of core depth is indicated by a sharp faunal change and unconformity or condensed zone of sedimentation. Regional sea level at this time was about 108 m b.s.l. at the 4-PC1 site and 102 m b.s.l. at 20-GC1. Regional sea level near the end of the YD was up to 42–47 m lower than predicted by geophysical models corrected for glacio-isostatic adjustment. This discrepancy could be explained by delayed isostatic adjustment caused by a greater volume and/or geographical extent of glacial-age land ice and/or ice shelves in the western Arctic Ocean and adjacent Siberian land areas.

  1. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.


    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  2. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo


    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  3. Historic Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) Abundance and Fire Frequency in a Mixed Oak - Pine Forest (MOFEP, Site 8) (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey


    Historic and present day shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) abundance was measured and compared using 84 plots along 16 transects in site 8 of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project. Remnant pine stumps were used to estimate historic pine density and to construct a dendrochronological record of fire frequency. There has been a 66-percent...

  4. Growth performance of loblolly shortleaf, and pitch X loblolly pine hybrid growing along the western margin of commercial pine range (United States)

    K.C. Dipesh; Rodney E. Will; Thomas C Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman


    Expansion of the commercial pine range is one of the opportunities to improve forest production and counterbalance the loss of forest land to other uses. The potential genotypes for the purpose are fast-growing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the slower growing, but more drought tolerant shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.), and the more cold tolerant pitch x loblolly...

  5. Fertilizer responses of longleaf pine trees within a loblolly pine plantation: separating direct effects from competition effects (United States)

    Peter H Anderson; Kurt H. Johnsen


    Evidence is mixed on how well longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) responds to increased soil nitrogen via fertilization. We examined growth and physiological responses of volunteer longleaf pine trees within an intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertilization experiment. Fertilizer was applied annually following thinning at age 8 years (late 1992) at rates...

  6. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta


    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  7. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species (United States)

    J. Dunlap


    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  8. Siberian Syrphidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violovitsh, N.A.


    The Syrphidae constitute one of the most representative families in the sub-order of Diptera Brachycera, the fauna of Siberia numbering about 600-700 species (the whole of the U.S.S.R. numbering about 1100). They occur practically everywhere and are of considerable economic importance, chiefly as

  9. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  10. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia


    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  11. Mechanical fasteners used in historical Siberian shipbuilding: perspectives for metallurgical analysis (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.


    Recent discoveries of shipwrecked vessels in the northern reaches of the river Yenisei led to a number of questions concerning the history of shipbuilding in Siberia and the technical features of the first vessels of the industrial era to navigate the Northern Sea Route and the Yenisei. One of these questions addresses the features of mechanical fasteners used in the construction of the Siberian vessels. The answer to this question may provide information on how the first vessels, constructed in Siberia during the 1870’s, were able to sail the high seas of the Arctic Ocean and reach European ports. In this paper, we provide a description of iron mechanical fasteners obtained from one shipwrecked vessel and discuss on the perspectives of a metallurgical analysis This research has been funded by a grant of the Russian Fund of Humanities Research (Russian Fund of Fundamental Research) and the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Fund under Grant number 16-11-24010.

  12. Sterile nodular panniculitis with lung and lymph node involvement in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altica). (United States)

    Hu, Shou-Ping; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Jiao-Er; Cai, Xue-Hui; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; He, Xi-Jun


    A 2- to 4-year-old uncastrated male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altica) bred in a local wild animal park presented with generalized clinical signs including abdominal pain, fever, lethargy, and anorexia, along with subcutaneous nodules along the trunk. The patient subsequently died of chronic, progressive dyspnea despite 45 days of antibiotic treatment. At necropsy, mesenteric fat inflammation and multiple subcutaneous, peritoneal, and intraabdominal nodules were observed. The lungs demonstrated congestion and heavy coagulation, and necrotic foci were observed on the cut surface. Histopathologically, the nodules were identified as granulomatous fatty tissue with numerous lymphocytes, infiltration with lipid-laden macrophages, and fibrosis. These changes were also noted in the lung. The etiology of this condition remains undetermined.

  13. Clinical course of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). (United States)

    Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Rütten, Maja; Ruess-Melzer, Katja; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Lischer, Christoph; Oevermann, Anna; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Hatt, Jean-Michel


    A 14-year-old male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was admitted with an ulcerating mass on the right thoracic wall. Radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation indicated 2 isolated cutaneous masses without any signs of metastasis. Histology of a Tru-Cut biopsy revealed an anaplastic sarcoma with giant cells. Both tumors were resected with appropriate normal tissue margins. The size of the defect did not allow primary closure of the wound; therefore, a mesh expansion technique was attempted. Three months later, the tiger had to be euthanized due to extensive metastasis to the lungs. Histomorphological features and immunohistochemical results confirmed the diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. In contrast to domestic animal experience, the tumor had spread extensively to the lungs without local reccurrence in a short period of time. Correct diagnosis requires various immunohistochemical evaluations of the tumor tissue.

  14. T-lymphocyte-rich thymoma and myasthenia gravis in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). (United States)

    Allan, K; Masters, N; Rivers, S; Berry, K; Routh, A; Lamm, C


    A 10-year-old captive male Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) presented with acute onset collapse, vomiting and dyspnoea, preceded by a 6-month period of progressive muscle wasting. Following humane destruction, post-mortem examination revealed a large multilobulated mass in the cranial mediastinum, which was diagnosed as a T-lymphocyte-rich thymoma with the aid of immunohistochemistry. Retrospective serology for acetylcholine receptor antibodies (titre 3.90 nmol/l) confirmed a diagnosis of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis. Thymomas are reported rarely in wild carnivores, but when detected they appear to be similar in morphology to those seen in domestic carnivores and may also be accompanied by paraneoplastic syndromes. The clinical signs of myasthenia gravis in the tiger were consistent with those reported in cats and dogs and the condition is proposed as an important differential diagnosis for generalized weakness in captive Felidae. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Альберт Станиславович Милевич


    Full Text Available The actuality of this article confirms the mainest idea: determination of basic factors of victimization businessmen in small business in Siberian District(SD. This article consider field and main explorations in victimization of entrepreneurs of small business at 5 regions SD. The representativeness of exploration shows sociological choice. In field study took part 100 respondents, all in all 487 reprenteurs.The primary research method had chosen in the way of survey. By the results were identified over 14 organizations and instances which were given bribes over 10 times. Moreover the exploration showed causes why businessmen forced to solve problems by not legal way.It is necessary to eliminate this victimization factors and program of victimological prophylaxis for successful development of small business of SD and it’s regions concretely. Decision of this problem would be showed in the next article.DOI:

  16. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey


    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  17. Lateral heterogeneity and vertical stratification of cratonic lithospheric keels: a case study of the Siberian craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Cherepanova, Yulia; Herceg, Matija


    We present geophysical models for the lithospheric mantle of the Siberian craton, with focus on its structureand thermo-compositional heterogeneity as constrained by various geophysical data. The latter include thermalstructure of the lithosphere based on surface heat flow data and supported...... constrained independently by free-board and satellite gravityshows significant lateral variations, that are well correlated with crustal structure, surface tectonics, and regionalxenolith data. Proterozoic sutures and intracratonic basins are manifested by an increase in mantle density as comparedto light...... and lateralheterogeneity of the cratonic lithospheric mantle, with a pronounced stratification in many Precambrian terranes.We discuss lateral and vertical heterogeneity of the cratonic lithosphere discussed in connection to regionaltectono-thermal evolution....

  18. Half-length model of a Siberian Snake magnet for RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Okamura, M; Kawaguchi, T; Katayama, T; Jain, A; Muratore, J; Morgan, G; Willen, E


    For the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Spin Project, super-conducting helical dipole magnets are being constructed. These magnets will be used in 'Siberian Snakes' and 'Spin Rotators', which manipulate spin direction of proton beams in RHIC. The dipole field in these magnets rotates 360 deg. and is required to reach a magnetic field strength of more than 4.0 T. The bore radius of the coils and the magnetic length of the magnets are 50 and 2400 mm, respectively. To ascertain the performance of these magnets, which are built using a new 'coil in a slot' technique, a half-length model has been fabricated and tested. The quench performance, field uniformity and rotation angle have been investigated. The measured values in the model magnet agreed well with field calculations. These results demonstrate the adequacy of the fabrication method adopted in the model magnet. (authors)

  19. The Last Expedition of the Siberian A.V. Adrianov (Tuva, 1915–1916

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    Olga B. Belikova


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the examination of archaeological activity of Siberian public figure and scientist A.V. Adrianov (1854–1920 in his last expedition. It took place in the upstream basin of the Yenisei River – in Tuva (Uryankhaysky Kray / Tannu Uryankhay in 1915–1916. The archaeologist could not summarize and publish the results of his successful field research – he died in 1920 due to the unjustified sentence of the Bolsheviks. The expedition prehistory, the content of the archaeological excavations and exploration, the history of the materials deposition to the storage, scientist's last years have been restored. The information, concerning 23 ancient Old Turkic manuscripts, examined by A.V. Adrianov has been identified and summarized. The data on new sources have been introduced into scientific use.

  20. Specific features of sedimentology in the outer part of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (United States)

    Dudarev, O.; Gustafsson, O.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.; Shakhova, N. E.; Tesi, T.; Ruban, A.; Charkin, A. N.


    Lithological investigations performed in the outer part of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) revealed specific features in the structure and distribution of bottom sediments in the studied area. Predominant type of sediments found in the uppermost layers of sediments was mud (that is silt and clay) with particle size 1 mm (coarse sand). Some authors described existence of such areas in the outer part of the Laptev Sea shelf earlier without attributing such variability in sediment grain size to any processes. We hypothesize three possible mechanisms to explain intrusion of high energy processes into the low energy environment: 1) effect of geo-fluid and/or gas (methane) escape through open/deep taliks forming within subsea permafrost due to long-lasting warming by seawater and underlying fault zones (southern end of the Gakkel Ridge); 2) release of underground water through intra-permafrost hydraulic system; and 3) bottom erosion caused by ice-scouring.

  1. Generalized AA-amyloidosis in Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) with predominant renal medullary amyloid deposition. (United States)

    Schulze, C; Brügmann, M; Böer, M; Brandt, H P; Pohlenz, J; Linke, R P


    Generalized amyloidosis with predominant renal medullary amyloid deposition was found in four closely related Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) suffering from end stage kidney diseases. Only minimal to mild amounts of amyloid were deposited in various organs outside the kidneys with individually variable organ involvement. The Congo red staining affinity of amyloid deposits was sensitive to potassium permanganate oxidation. The deposits were further characterized as being of the amyloid-A (AA) type by immunohistochemistry using the mouse monoclonal antibody mc4 directed against a conserved region of the human AA-protein. A combination of immunohistochemistry and Congo red staining was much more sensitive for the diagnosis of amyloid deposits than Congo red staining alone. With this combination, even minimal amyloid deposits were detected that had been missed in the first reading using Congo-red-stained slides alone. Since no common primary cause was identified, the amyloidosis was classified as idiopathic generalized AA-amyloidosis with a potential familial predisposition.

  2. Ordovician of the Siberian Platform: sea-level and long-term lithological changes (United States)

    Dronov, A.


    Comparative analysis of the Ordovician successions of the Siberian and North American platforms demonstrates a striking similarity in the long-term lithological changes and sea-level curve interpretation. On both platforms Ordovician succession starts with tropical stromatolite-bearing carbonates which abruptly changes to siliciclastic deposits (Baykit Sandstone in Siberia and Eureka Sandstone in North America respectively) and terminates with cool-water carbonates (Ettensohn, 2010; Herrmann et al., 2004; Kanygin et al., 2010). Numerous K-bentonite beds in the Upper Ordovician of North American and Siberian platforms stressed this similarity (Huff et al., 2010; Dronov et al., 2011). The sea-level curve for the Ordovician of North American platform assumes a prominent sea-level drop at the base of the Middle Ordovician and a long-term lowstand during all the Dapingian and Darriwilian (80-100 m lower than in the Lower and Upper Ordovician), (Vail eat al., 1977; Ross and Ross, 1992; 1995). The sea-level curve for the Ordovician of Siberian platform looks roughly the same (Dronov et al., 2009; Kanygin et al, 2010). On the other hand, sea-level curves for the Ordovician of the Gondwanan platforms (North Africa, Yangtze platform, South America, Avalonia) seems to share different patterns (Videt et al., 2010; Su, 2007; Heredia and Beresi, 1995; Woodcock, 1990). The Middle Ordovician represents rather a highstand interval in these reconstructions. As for the Baltica, there are two different sea-level models for this paleocontinent. The sea-level curve suggested by A. Nielsen (2004) demonstrate close similarity to the North American model while the sea-level curve presented by A. Dronov (2005) seems to fit better to the platforms rifted from the Gondwana paleocontinent (Munnecke et al., 2010). This contradiction reflects opposite opinions in the interpretation of limestone units within the deep water setting of the Ordovician basin of Baltoscandia. The invasion of carbonate

  3. Contributions of the Siberian shelf polynyas to the Arctic Ocean intermediate and deep water (United States)

    Martin, Seelye; Cavalieri, Donald J.


    To investigate the role of Siberian Shelf polynyas in water mass formation, and that of Whalers Bay in the cooling of the West Spitsbergen Current, satellite observations from the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer are used to determine the size and location of polynyas for November-March, 1978-1982. If salt contributes only to the Arctic Intermediate Water, the results show that the continental shelves can produce 20-60 percent of this water. Alternatively, if the salt contributes only to the deep water of the Eurasian Basin, then without consideration of the mixing of the bottom water with the Greenland and Norwegian Sea water, the contribution from the shelves yields a renewal time of about 100 years. These results imply that there is insufficient water produced in the shelf polynyas to perform all of the roles that have historically been assigned to it.

  4. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan


    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  5. [The data on helminth infestation of the Siberian tree frog (Rana amurensis Boulenger, 1886) in the western boundary of the range]. (United States)

    Zhigileva, O N; Kirina, I Iu


    Helminth species composition and infection rates of the Siberian tree frog Rana amurensis in Western Siberia were studied. Four species of helminthes--nematodes Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and the trematode Haplometra cylindracea were found. Prevalence of helminths in the Siberian tree frog is 100%, and mean abundance is 27.5 +/- 4.8. Helminth species richness in the Siberian tree frog in the western periphery of their distribution area is lower than in the center of the range, in Yakutia and Transbaikalia, and is approximately equal to that in the northeastern boundary of the range, in Magadan Province. R. bufonis, a highly pathogenic nematode species, dominates in prevalence and abundance in the Siberian tree frog in Western Siberia as well as in other parts of the geographical range of this species.

  6. Effects of dietary arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) and endogenous probiotics on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and gut micrbiota of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraylou, Z.; Souffreau, C.; Rurangwa, E.; Meester, de L.; Courtin, C.M.; Delcour, J.A.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.


    We investigated the effects of administration of putative endogenous probiotics Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis or Bacillus circulans, alone and in combination with arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), a new class of candidate prebiotics, in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Eight

  7. Leptin mediates seasonal variation in some but not all symptoms of sickness in Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E


    Many seasonally breeding species, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), exhibit seasonal variation in sickness responses. One hypothesis regarding the mechanism of this variation is that sickness intensity tracks an animal's energetic state, such that sickness is attenuated in the season that an animal has the lowest fat stores. Energetic state may be signaled via leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a signal of fat stores. Siberian hamsters respond to extended housing in short, winter-like days by reducing fat stores and leptin levels, relative to those housed in long, summer-like days. Sickness responses are also attenuated in short-day hamsters as compared to long-day hamsters. We hypothesized that leptin provides a physiological signal by which seasonally breeding animals modulate sickness responses, such that animals with higher leptin levels show increased sickness intensity. To test this, we provided short-day hamsters with a long-day-like leptin signal and assessed their responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a sickness-inducing antigen. We compared these responses to short-day vehicle-, long-day vehicle-, and long-day leptin-treated hamsters. Unexpectedly, LPS induced a hypothermic response (rather than fever) in all groups. Short-day vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited the greatest LPS-induced hypothermia, and leptin treatment attenuated this response, making hypothermia more long-day-like. Contrary to our hypothesis, short-day leptin-treated hamsters showed the least pronounced LPS-induced anorexia among all groups. These results suggest that leptin may mediate some but not all aspects of seasonal sickness variation in this species. Future studies should be targeted at determining roles of other energetic hormones in regulating seasonal sickness response variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Susceptibility of the Siberian polecat to subcutaneous and oral Yersinia pestis exposure (United States)

    Castle, K.T.; Biggins, D.; Carter, L.G.; Chu, M.; Innes, Kim; Wimsatt, J.


    To determine if the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmannii) represents a suitable model for the study of plague pathogenesis and prevention in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), polecats were exposed to 103, 107, or 1010 Yersinia pestis organisms by subcutaneous injection; an additional group was exposed to Y. pestis via ingestion of a plague-killed mouse. Plague killed 88% of polecats exposed to Y. pestis (71% mortality in the 103 group, 100% mortality in the 107 and 1010 groups, and 83% mortality in the mouse-fed group). Within the challenged group, mean day of death post-challenge ranged from 3.6 to 7.6 days; all polecats died on or before day 12 post-challenge. Animals receiving the lowest parenteral dose survived significantly longer than those receiving higher parenteral doses. Within challenged animals, mean survival time was lower in those presenting with significant weight loss by day 3, lethargy, and low fecal output; time to onset of lethargy and other signs was also related to risk of dying and/or plague dose. Six polecats developed serum antibody titers to the Y. pestis F1 protein. Three seropositive polecats survived the initial challenge and a subsequent exposure to a plague-killed mouse, while two seropositive animals later died. This study confirms that the Siberian polecat is susceptible to plague and suggests that this species will offer an appropriate surrogate for black-footed ferrets in future plague studies and related vaccine trials.

  9. Limited protection of macro-aggregate-occluded organic carbon in Siberian steppe soils (United States)

    Bischoff, Norbert; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Puzanov, Alexander; Silanteva, Marina; Grebennikova, Anna; Fuß, Roland; Guggenberger, Georg


    Macro-aggregates especially in agricultural steppe soils are supposed to play a vital role for soil organic carbon (OC) stabilization at a decadal timescale. While most research on soil OC stabilization in steppes focused on North American prairie soils of the Great Plains with information mainly provided by short-term incubation experiments, little is known about the agricultural steppes in southwestern Siberia, though they belong to the greatest conversion areas in the world and occupy an area larger than that in the Great Plains. To quantify the proportion of macro-aggregate-protected OC under different land use as function of land use intensity and time since land use change (LUC) from pasture to arable land in Siberian steppe soils, we determined OC mineralization rates of intact (250-2000 µm) and crushed (water holding capacity) along two agricultural chronosequences in the Siberian Kulunda steppe. Additionally, we incubated bulk soil (agricultural use on a fast and a slow soil OC pool (labile vs. more stable OC), as derived from fitting exponential-decay models to incubation data. We hypothesized that (i) macro-aggregate crushing leads to increased OC mineralization due to an increasing microbial accessibility of a previously occluded labile macro-aggregate OC fraction, and (ii) bulk soil OC mineralization rates and the size of the fast OC pool are higher in pasture than in arable soils with decreasing bulk soil OC mineralization rates and size of the fast OC pool as land use intensity and time since LUC increase. Against our hypothesis, OC mineralization rates of crushed macro-aggregates were similar to those of intact macro-aggregates under all land use regimes. Macro-aggregate-protected OC was almost absent and accounted for residue input.

  10. Ecology of nonnative Siberian prawn (Palaemon modestus) in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.


    We assessed the abundance, distribution, and ecology of the nonnative Siberian prawn Palaemon modestus in the lower Snake River, Washington, USA. Analysis of prawn passage abundance at three Snake River dams showed that populations are growing at exponential rates, especially at Little Goose Dam where over 464,000 prawns were collected in 2015. Monthly beam trawling during 2011–2013 provided information on prawn abundance and distribution in Lower Granite and Little Goose Reservoirs. Zero-inflated regression predicted that the probability of prawn presence increased with decreasing water velocity and increasing depth. Negative binomial models predicted higher catch rates of prawns in deeper water and in closer proximity to dams. Temporally, prawn densities decreased slightly in the summer, likely due to the mortality of older individuals, and then increased in autumn and winter with the emergence and recruitment of young of the year. Seasonal length frequencies showed that distinct juvenile and adult size classes exist throughout the year, suggesting prawns live from 1 to 2 years and may be able to reproduce multiple times during their life. Most juvenile prawns become reproductive adults in 1 year, and peak reproduction occurs from late July through October. Mean fecundity (189 eggs) and reproductive output (11.9 %) are similar to that in their native range. The current use of deep habitats by prawns likely makes them unavailable to most predators in the reservoirs. The distribution and role of Siberian prawns in the lower Snake River food web will probably continue to change as the population grows and warrants continued monitoring and investigation.

  11. Neocortical neuronal morphology in the Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). (United States)

    Johnson, Cameron B; Schall, Matthew; Tennison, Mackenzie E; Garcia, Madeleine E; Shea-Shumsky, Noah B; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H; Bertelsen, Mads F; Waller, Leona C; Walsh, Timothy; Roberts, John F; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C; Manger, Paul R; Jacobs, Bob


    Despite extensive investigations of the neocortex in the domestic cat, little is known about neuronal morphology in larger felids. To this end, the present study characterized and quantified the somatodendritic morphology of neocortical neurons in prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices of the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). After neurons were stained with a modified Golgi technique (N = 194), dendritic branching and spine distributions were analyzed using computer-assisted morphometry. Qualitatively, aspiny and spiny neurons in both species appeared morphologically similar to those observed in the domestic cat. Although the morphology of spiny neurons was diverse, with the presence of extraverted, inverted, horizontal, and multiapical pyramidal neurons, the most common variant was the typical pyramidal neuron. Gigantopyramidal neurons in the motor cortex were extremely large, confirming the observation of Brodmann ([1909] Vergleichende Lokalisationlehre der Grosshirnrinde in ihren Prinzipien dargestellt auf Grund des Zellenbaues. Leipzig, Germany: J.A. Barth), who found large somata for these neurons in carnivores in general, and felids in particular. Quantitatively, a MARSplines analysis of dendritic measures differentiated typical pyramidal neurons between the Siberian tiger and the clouded leopard with 93% accuracy. In general, the dendrites of typical pyramidal neurons were more complex in the tiger than in the leopards. Moreover, dendritic measures in tiger pyramidal neurons were disproportionally large relative to body/brain size insofar as they were nearly as extensive as those observed in much larger mammals (e.g., African elephant). Comparison of neuronal morphology in a more diverse collection of larger felids may elucidate the comparative context for the relatively large size of the pyramidal neurons observed in the present study. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3641-3665, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Reconstructing Aquatic Environment and Volcanic Crater Lake Evolution in the Siberian Traps (United States)

    Fristad, K.; Svensen, H.; Pedentchouk, N.; Planke, S.; Polozov, A. G.


    The Tunguska Basin in Siberia contains hundreds of phreatomagmatic breccia pipes and a dozen overlying crater lake deposit formed contemporaneously with the Siberian Traps. These structures were created by the violent eruption-inducing interaction of basaltic magma with gigatonnes of greenhouse gases evolved from sill intrusions into organic rich sediments. This sudden release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere had serious implications for the end-Permian environment (Svensen et al., EPSL, 2009). The crater lake deposits above such pipes retain a unique record of breccia pipe ejecta, fluid seepage and the local environment syn- and post-eruption. Examination of these sediments is key to understanding timing, duration and effects pipe formation and degassing had on the environment. Field expeditions to Siberia in 2006 returned samples of a 1.3 km core through the largest of the preserved lake deposits and underlying breccia pipe at Oktyabrskoe in the southern Tunguska Basin. The 505 m of crater lake sediments have been analyzed for sediment geochemistry, fossil content, organic geochemistry and carbon isotopic compositions. Sediments evolve from fine grained and ash-rich at the crater base to increased siliciclastic components and coarse grain layers in the upper meters. Lake basin stability Calcareous microfossils appear with lake basin stability and taxa shed light on water quality and ecology. The appearance of dense ash layers scattered throughout the sequence mark eruption activity in other Siberian Trap pipes. Bulk carbonate, organic, and n-alkane carbon isotopes highlight changes in DIC pool, fluid influx and CO2 values over time. Observations by these diverse methods enable analysis of the coevolving biologic and inorganic environment through time. This end-Permian lake provides a unique record of the terrestrial environment at the end-Permian crisis as well as the gas seep history and lake evolution of a volcanic lake during the largest flood basalt

  13. [Development of the lateral line system in juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)]. (United States)

    Song, Wei; Song, Jia-Kun


    The Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt), a chondrostean, occupies an important position in the evolution of the electroreceptor. In order to more fully understanding the evolution of these receptors, we examined the development of the lateral line system during early ontogeny of the Siberian sturgeon by using light and scanning electron microscopes. We detected four major events in this process: the lateral line placodal development, the sensory ridge formation, the receptor formation and the canal formation. On day 1 of post hatching, all six lateral line placodes are present and the posterior lateral line placode starts actively migrating posteriorly along the mid-line of the trunk, depositing neuromasts at intervals on the way of migration. The other lateral line placodes elongate to form sensory ridges according to its destination line pattern over the head, all containing primordial neuromasts. By day 7, ampullary organs rise from the lateral zones of the ventral of the head, though this may lag up to one week behind of that of the neuromasts. On day 9, the epidermis under the neuromast slowly invaginates, and the bony lateral line canals begin to form. Towards day 29, the epidermal cells surrounded some single openings of the ampullary organs at the ventral surface of the head, begin to migrate, and then transform into 3 to 4 aggregate openings. By this point, abundant microvilli are visible on the surface of the receptor epithelium, similar to the structure in elasmobranches and other sturgeons. On the day 57 of post hatching, the trunk canal is fully embedded into the lateral scutes. By then, the majority of ampullary organs are highly concentrated on the ventral rostrum, arranged in clusters of 3-4, distributing closely such as the shape of quincunx, thus completing the formation of the lateral line system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Esau


    Full Text Available Modern human societies have accumulated considerable power to modify their environment and the earth’s system climate as the whole. The most significant environmental changes are found in the urbanized areas. This study considers coherent changes in vegetation productivity and land surface temperature (LST around four northern West Siberian cities, namely, Tazovsky, Nadym, Noyabrsk and Megion. These cities are located in tundra, forest-tundra, northern taiga and middle taiga bioclimatic zones correspondingly. Our analysis of 15 years (2000–2014 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data revealed significantly (1.3 °C to 5.2 °C warmer seasonally averaged LST within the urbanized territories than those of the surrounding landscapes. The magnitude of the urban LST anomaly corresponds to climates found 300–600 km to the South. In the climate change perspective, this magnitude corresponds to the expected regional warming by the middle or the end of the 21st century. Warmer urban climates, and specifically warmer upper soil layers, can support re-vegetation of the disturbed urban landscapes with more productive trees and tall shrubs. This afforestation is welcome by the migrant city population as it is more consistent with their traditional ecological knowledge. Survival of atypical, southern plant species encourages a number of initiatives and investment to introduce even broader spectrum of temperate blossoming trees and shrubs in urban landscapes. The unintended changes of the urban micro-climates in combination with knowledgeable urban planning could transform the Siberian pioneer settlements into places of belonging.

  15. Intraspecific variability of the Siberian larch Larix sibirica Ledeb. seed scales

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    A. P. Barchenkov


    Full Text Available The results of the study of morphological features variability of the Siberian larch seed scales are presented in the paper. Variation of seed scales size, forms of flat and scale edge ofithave been analyzed. Population analysis has been carried out on the phenotypic races and, depending on growing conditions. Four races of the Siberian larch have been investigated. The populations from highlands and low mountains sites of every race have been studied. Samples of seed scales have been selected from thirty trees on each plot. The length and widthof the seed scale, the form index of scaleand the edge form ofseed scale have been considered. The classification of trees on tight scale, wide scale and intermediate forms have been carried out in accordance with the index form of seed scales. The geographic variation analysis of seed scales sizes showed the differentiation of features between races, and, depending on growing conditions. The trees with small scales dominate in larch populations of Baikal race of this species. The largest seed scales have been found in the trees of Sayan race populations in the Kuznetsky Alatau low mountains sites. Polymorphism in the form of seed scale and form its edge has been detected in the studied larch populations. The dominance of «wide scale» and «intermediate» forms trees have been observed in the northern populations (the polar race. The «intermediate» form trees on type flat seed scale predominate in populations of the Sayan race. The most variability of seed scale forms have been found in populations of the Altai and Sayan races. Increased occurrence of wide scale form in the upper mountain belt have been found in both races (more than 50 %. In contrast, more than 50 % of the trees that have cones of tight scale form have been revealed in populations of the Baikal Olkhon Island at altitude of 500 meters above sea level.

  16. Modelling hydrological processes and analysing water-related ecosystem services of Western Siberian lowland basins (United States)

    Schmalz, Britta; Kiesel, Jens; Kruse, Marion; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Sheludkov, Artyom; Khoroshavin, Vitaliy; Veshkurseva, Tatyana; Müller, Felix; Fohrer, Nicola


    For discussing and planning sustainable land management of river basins, stakeholders need suitable information on spatio-temporal patterns of hydrological components and ecosystem services. The ecosystem services concept, i.e., services provided by ecosystems that contribute to human welfare benefits, contributes comprehensive information for sustainable river management. This study shows an approach to use ecohydrological modelling results for quantifying and assessing water-related ecosystem services in three lowland river basins in Western Siberia, a region which is of global significance in terms of carbon sequestration, agricultural production and biodiversity preservation. Using the ecohydrological model SWAT, the three basins Pyschma (16762 km²), Vagai (3348 km²) and Loktinka (373 km²) were modelled following a gradient from the landscape units taiga, pre-taiga to forest steppe. For a correct representation of the Siberian lowland hydrology, the consideration of snow melt and retention of surface runoff as well as the implementation of a second groundwater aquifer was of great importance. Good to satisfying model performances were obtained for the extreme hydrological conditions. The simulated SWAT output variables of different hydrological processes were used as indicators for the two regulating services water flow and erosion regulation. The model results were translated into a relative ecosystem service valuation scale. The resulting ecosystem service maps show different spatial and seasonal patterns. Although the high resolution modelling results are averaged out within the aggregated relative valuation scale, seasonal differences can be depicted: during snowmelt, low relevant regulation can be determined, especially for water flow regulation, but a very high relevant regulation was calculated for the vegetation period during summer and for the winter period. The SWAT model serves as a suitable quantification method for the assessment of water

  17. Contrasting Hydraulic Architectures of Scots Pine and Sessile Oak at Their Southernmost Distribution Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Martínez-Sancho


    Full Text Available Many temperate European tree species have their southernmost distribution limits in the Mediterranean Basin. The projected climatic conditions, particularly an increase in dryness, might induce an altitudinal and latitudinal retreat at their southernmost distribution limit. Therefore, characterizing the morphological and physiological variability of temperate tree species under dry conditions is essential to understand species’ responses to expected climate change. In this study, we compared branch-level hydraulic traits of four Scots pine and four sessile oak natural stands located at the western and central Mediterranean Basin to assess their adjustment to water limiting conditions. Hydraulic traits such as xylem- and leaf-specific maximum hydraulic conductivity (KS-MAX and KL-MAX, leaf-to-xylem area ratio (AL:AX and functional xylem fraction (FX were measured in July 2015 during a long and exceptionally dry summer. Additionally, xylem-specific native hydraulic conductivity (KS-N and native percentage of loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC were measured for Scots pine. Interspecific differences in these hydraulic traits as well as intraspecific variability between sites were assessed. The influence of annual, summer and growing season site climatic aridity (P/PET on intraspecific variability was investigated. Sessile oak displayed higher values of KS-MAX, KL-MAX, AL:AX but a smaller percentage of FX than Scots pines. Scots pine did not vary in any of the measured hydraulic traits across the sites, and PLC values were low for all sites, even during one of the warmest summers in the region. In contrast, sessile oak showed significant differences in KS-MAX, KL-MAX, and FX across sites, which were significantly related to site aridity. The striking similarity in the hydraulic traits across Scots pine sites suggests that no adjustment in hydraulic architecture was needed, likely as a consequence of a drought-avoidance strategy. In contrast

  18. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova


    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  19. Whitebark and limber pine restoration and monitoring in Glacier National Park (United States)

    Jennifer M. Asebrook; Joyce Lapp; Tara. Carolin


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are keystone species important to watersheds, grizzly and black bears, squirrels, birds, and other wildlife. Both high elevation five-needled pines have dramatically declined in Glacier National Park primarily due to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and fire exclusion, with mountain pine...

  20. Vegetation and Terrain Relationships in South-Central New Mexico and Western Texas (United States)


    Ledeb (salt cedar) CONVOLVULACEAE (Morning Glory Family ) Ipornoea sp. (morning glory) VERBEt4ACEAE (Verbain Family ) A.toyz-La QWighti (Gray) Heller...Central New Mexico Plant Community.I POLYPODIACEAB (True Ferns) II heitizWh WghtiZ Hook (Wright liptern) PINACEAE (Pine Family ) JwzipcAuA monospt’tma...Engeim.) Sarg - (oneseeded juniper; cedar) = PinU6 edLUlt Engeim. (pinyon pine) EPHEDRACEAE (Ephedra Family ) Epze&t abp&I Engeim. (popotillo; Mormon

  1. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa


    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  2. Afinidades en la flora genérica de piñonares del norte y centro de México: un análisis fenético Floristic affinities of the generic flora of pinyon pines of northern and central Mexico: a phenetic analysis

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    Mario Luna-Cavazos


    Full Text Available Mediante un análisis de clasificación fenética, se discuten las afinidades en la flora genérica de los piñonares mexicanos. El estudio se sustentó en el registro de 438 géneros de plantas vasculares de 32 piñonares mexicanos caracterizados por distintas especies como Pinus cembroides, P. johannis, P. maximartinezii, P. monophylla, P. quadrifolia, P. nelsonii, P. culminicola y P. lagunae. Se elaboró una matriz de datos presencia/ausencia de los géneros en los 32 piñonares, cada uno de los cuales se consideró como una Unidad Geográfica Operativa. Se estimaron 2 índices de semejanza entre las comunidades piñoneras, y después se agruparon mediante el procedimiento UPGMA; los grupos formados se representaron en un dendrograma. Los piñonares se relacionaron, en general, por cercanía geográfica y por su localización en una misma provincia fisiográfica. Los piñonares de Baja California caracterizados por P. quadrifolia formaron un grupo compacto, lo mismo que aquellos de P. cembroides de Chihuahua y de P. maximartinezii de Zacatecas. En el grupo de San Luis Potosí se conjuntaron comunidades de P. cembroides y de P. johannis; mientras que las propias de P. nelsonii no formaron un grupo coherente; los piñonares del suroeste de Coahuila están muy relacionados, pero tienen diferencias con los de más al norte de este estado. El piñonar de P. culminicola de Nuevo León es el más diferente de las otras comunidades de piñoneros.Using phenetic classification, we analyze the similarity of the generic flora of Mexican pinyon pine forests. Methods included records of 438 genera of vascular plants from 32 communities of pinyon pines such as Pinus cembroides, P. johannis, P. maximartinezii, P. monophylla, P. quadrifolia, P. nelsonii, P. culminicola, and P. lagunae. A matrix of presence/absence of genera in 32 communities was performed, and 2 indices of similarity between communities were estimated; we then applied UPGMA to classify the

  3. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm in the structure of the Middle Paleozoic Vilyui rift system (Siberian Craton) (United States)

    Kiselev, A. I.; Konstantinov, K. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Ivanov, A. V.


    The formation of the Vilyui rift system in the eastern Siberian Craton was finished with breakdown of the continent and formation of its eastern margin. A characteristic feature of this rift system is the radial distribution of dyke swarms of basic rocks. This peculiarity allows us to relate it to the breaking processes above the mantle plume, the center of which was located in the region overlain in the modern structure by the foreland of the Verkhoyan folded-thrust belt. The Chara-Sina dyke swarm is the southern part of a large area of Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism in the eastern Siberian Craton. The OIB-like geochemical characteristics of dolerite allow us to suggest that the melting substrate for Middle Paleozoic basaltic magmatism was represented by a relatively homogeneous, mid-depleted mantle of the plume with geochemical parameters similar to those of OIB.

  4. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

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    Nevzorov Aleksey


    Full Text Available We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E. The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  5. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.


    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  6. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

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    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  7. Soil property changes during loblolly pine production (United States)

    R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya; G.M. Chescheir; Christine D. Blanton


    Three watersheds, each approximately 25 ha, were instrumented to measure and record drainage rate, water table depth, rainfall and meteorological data. Data continuously collected on the site since 1988 include response of hydrologic and water quality variables for nearly all growth stages of a Loblolly pine plantation. Data for drainage outflow rates and water table...

  8. Thermomechanical pulping of loblolly pine juvenile wood (United States)

    Gary C. Myers


    Intensive forest management, with a heavy emphasis on ecosystem management and restoring or maintaining forest health, will result in the removal of smaller diameter materials from the forest. This increases the probability of higher juvenile wood content in the harvested materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of loblolly pine juvenile and...

  9. Factors Affecting Survival of Longleaf Pine Seedlings (United States)

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer


    Longleaf pine may be managed most efficiently in large even-aged stands. Past research has shown that the effect of trees surrounding the openings (gaps) or the use of fire is a complicating factor, especially with small openings. Longleaf seedlings are considered more susceptible to fire under and nearer to standing trees, and seedling size, kind of fire, soil type,...

  10. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman


    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  11. Landscape dynamics of mountain pine beetles (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Robin M. Reich


    The magnitude and urgency of current mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States and Canada have resulted in numerous studies of the dynamics and impacts of these insects in forested ecosystems. This paper reviews some of the aspects of the spatial dynamics and landscape ecology of this bark beetle. Landscape heterogeneity influences dispersal patterns...

  12. Artificial ripening of sugar pine seeds (United States)

    Stanley L. Krugman


    Immature sugar pine seeds were collected and ripened either in the cone or in moist vermiculate. Seeds collected before the second week of August could not be artificially ripened and the causes for these failures were investigated. After the second week of August, immature seeds could be brought to maturity. A practical method for a commercial operation should be...

  13. Geographic variation in ponderosa pine leader growth (United States)

    James W. Hanover


    Growth of the shoot apices of 91 trees in a 45-year-old Pinus ponderosa Laws. provenance test was measured periodically with a transit. Analysis of the measurements led to the following conclusions: (1) 19 races of ponderosa pine planted near Priest River, Idaho, showed phenological, morphological, or physiological variation in six characters: date of beginning growth...

  14. Status of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pine snake) (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Ricky W. Maxey


    Extensive trapping surveys across the historical range of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake) suggest that extant populations are extremely small and limited to remnant patches of suitable habitat in a highly fragmented landscape. Evaluation of habitat at all known historical localities of P. ruthveni documents the widespread...

  15. Electromagnetic Treatment of Loblolly Pine Seeds (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Stanley L. Krugman


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed...

  16. Comparing Planting Tools for Container Longleaf Pine (United States)

    Daniel J. Leduc; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung


    We examined if compressing the soil to make a planting hole with a custom-built, solid round dibble versus coring the soil with a commercially available tube dibble influenced container-grown longleaf pine seedling development differently. Seven teen months after planting, the planting tool did not significantly affect root collar diameter, shoot or root mass, root-to-...

  17. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape. N S Leela. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 43-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  18. Prescribed burning in southwestern ponderosa pine (United States)

    Stephen S Sackett; Sally M Haase; Michael G Harrington


    Prescribed burning is an effective way of restoring the fire process to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems of the Southwest. If used judiciously, fire can provide valuable effects for hazard reduction, natural regeneration, thinning, vegetation revitalization, and in general, better forest health. Relatively short burning...

  19. Specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine wood (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin


    In the range of 333 K to 413 K, the specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood was expressed by a linear function of temperature. No relationship was detected with specific gravity, growth rate, or distance from the pith; nor were differences found between earlywood and latewood.

  20. Studies in western yellow pine nursery practice (United States)

    Donald R. Brewster; J. A. Larsen


    In 1912 and 1913, when nursery experiments were started under direction of the then "Priest River'' Forest Experiment Station, at Priest River, Idaho, and elsewhere, western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) was one of the principal species being planted on a large scale in the northern Rocky Mountain region and millions of plants were being raised each year...

  1. Production of Oleoresin from southern pine trees. (United States)

    T.A. Harrington


    Developments in techniques, methods, and equipment for producing oleoresin from the living pine are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the need for mechanized production methods if this ancient industry is to survive the competition from other sources of rosin and turpentine.

  2. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear


    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  3. Red Rot of Ponderosa Pine (FIDL) (United States)

    Stuart R. Andrews


    Red rot caused by the fungus Polyporus anceps Peck is the most important heart rot of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in the Southwest (in Arizona and New Mexico), the Black Hills of South Dakota, and some localities in Colorado, Montana, and Idaho. It causes only insignificant losses to this species elsewhere in the West. The red rot fungus rarely attacks other...

  4. Growth and yield of shortleaf pine (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy


    A survey of available growth and yield information for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is given. The kinds of studies and data sources that produce this information are also evaluated, and an example of how a growth and yield model can be used to answer management questions is illustrated. Guidelines are given for using growth and yield models, and needs for...

  5. Direct-seedling pines in the south (United States)

    Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann


    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it...

  6. Parasitoids of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    C. Wayne Berisford


    Hymenopterous parasitoids make up a significant portion of the natural enemy complex associated with the southern pine beetle (SPB). Collectively, parasitoids can affect the growth of individual SPB infestations and area populations by reducing the survival rates of developing SPB larval/pupal broods. A substantial body of information on parasitoids has been...

  7. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  8. De novo transcriptomic analysis and development of EST-SSR markers in the Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). (United States)

    Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Yujiao; Ma, Qin; Zhu, Minghao; Liu, Dan; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Chen, Hongyan; Guan, Weijun


    The Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, is an endangered species, and much more work is needed to protect this species, which is still vulnerable to extinction. Conservation efforts may be supported by the genetic assessment of wild populations, for which highly specific microsatellite markers are required. However, only a limited amount of genetic sequence data is available for this species. To identify the genes involved in the lung transcriptome and to develop additional simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the Siberian tiger, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to characterize the Siberian tiger transcriptome in lung tissue (designated 'PTA-lung') and a pooled tissue sample (designated 'PTA'). Approximately 47.5 % (33,187/69,836) of the lung transcriptome was annotated in four public databases (Nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, and COG). The annotated genes formed a potential pool for gene identification in the tiger. An analysis of the genes differentially expressed in the PTA lung, and PTA samples revealed that the tiger may have suffered a series of diseases before death. In total, 1062 non-redundant SSRs were identified in the Siberian tiger transcriptome. Forty-three primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification reactions, and 26 of the 43 pairs were also used to evaluate the levels of genetic polymorphism. Fourteen primer pairs (32.56 %) amplified products that were polymorphic in size in P. tigris altaica. In conclusion, the transcriptome sequences will provide a valuable genomic resource for genetic research, and these new SSR markers comprise a reasonable number of loci for the genetic analysis of wild and captive populations of P. tigris altaica.

  9. The effects of frequent electroejaculation on the semen characteristics of a captive Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)


    FUKUI, Daisuke; NAGANO, Masashi; NAKAMURA, Ryohei; BANDO, Gen; NAKATA, Shinichi; KOSUGE, Masao; SAKAMOTO, Hideyuki; MATSUI, Motozumi; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki


    Artificial insemination (AI) can help to avoid inbreeding and genetic degeneration for sustaining genetically healthy populations of endangered species in captivity. Collection of a sufficient quantity of viable sperm is an essential first step in the AI process. In the present study, we examined the effects of frequent electroejaculation on semen characteristics in a Siberian tiger. We collected semen in all 17 trials during 6 breeding seasons (6 years). The mean number of sperm and the perc...

  10. Spin motion at and near orbital resonance in storage rings with Siberian snakes I. At orbital resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.


    Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)

  11. Exploring Conservation Options in the Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest of the Changbai Mountain Region

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    Lin Ma


    Full Text Available The broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (BKPF is one of the most biodiverse zonal communities in the northern temperate zone. Changbai Mountain in northeastern China contains one of the largest BKPFs in the region. The government of China has established a network of 23 nature reserves to protect the BKPF and the species that depend on it for habitat, including the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica. This study used the conservation planning software C-Plan to calculate the irreplaceability value of each unit to assess how efficiently and comprehensively the existing conservation network supports biodiversity and to identify gap areas that, if integrated into the network, would expand its protection capability. Results show a number of high-conservation-value planning units concentrated along certain ridges. The existing conservation network is structured such that the habitats of only 24 species (out of a total of 75 achieve established conservation targets. Of the other 51 species, 20 achieve less than 50% of their conservation targets. However, expanding the network to include high-conservation-value gap areas could achieve conservation targets for 64 species and could provide different degrees of protection to the other 11 species. Using C-Plan software can guide decision-making to expand the conservation network in this most precious of mountainous ecological zones.

  12. Surgical management of extramural ectopic ureter by modified colposuspension following ureteroneocystostomy in a young female Siberian Husky dog

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    In Seong Jeong


    Full Text Available Objective: Postoperative complication of extramural ectopic ureters (EEUs with persistent urinary incontinence (UI is common in Siberian Huskies. This case report was aimed at reporting the successful correction procedure of EEU in Siberian Huskies by surgical procedure. Materials and methods: A three-month-old and weighing 7.9 kg Siberian Husky dog was presented with history of an acute dermatitis around the genitals, swelling of the genitals and dribbling urination. Abdominal radiographs, ultrasonography, and 3D computed tomography scanning revealed presence of the ectopic ureter with urinary incontinence. Ureteroneocystostomy was applied as the first choice of corrective procedure in this case, and clinical sings were corrected apparently after surgery. Unfortunately, UI with cystitis was developed two months postoperatively. To correct the condition, surgical procedure of colposuspension with ovarianhystectomy and cystopexy was opted. Results: Post-operative progression showed good prognosis and the dog recovered fully. Follow up checkup of the patient after 4 months postoperative and follow up phone call 27 months later did not reveal any abnormalities. Conclusion: This case report recommends surgical procedure of modified colposuspension following ureteroneocystostomy to correct EEUs and its postoperative complication. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(3.000: 301-306

  13. Features of formation of «developmental institutions» in Russia: a case of the Siberian regions

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    Kirill Sergeyevich Sablin


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the features of the process of “developmental institutions” formation in the Siberian regions. The importance of the institutional environment and informal personalized connections affect its formation is articulated. The research is carried out according to the methodological base of public choice theory, especially — economics of bureaucracy, and the concept of D. North. Functional roles, which “developmental institutions” are performed in the Siberian regions, are disclosed: “affiliate” of the regional administration under its full organizational and financial control; “independent agent”, which expresses the interests of academic science and small innovative business; “subdivision” of federal innovative structure that promotes commercialization of innovations in the region; “conductor” of the federal level big business interests that favor large-scale projects realization in the region. As a result, different combinations of the elements of the institutional environment and informal personalized connections between subjects, who are involved in the process of “developmental institutions” formation in the Siberian regions, determine further success or “failure” of these organizational-economic structures.

  14. Regeneration-degeneration processes in the inland dune forests in protected areas of central Poland (Kampinos National Park

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    Kowalska Anna


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to quantify the differences in the regeneration-degeneration processes in pine and mixed oak-pine forest habitats in the Kampinos Forest (central Poland. We investigated whether the regeneration rate depends on habitat type, whether there is a relationship between the bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus cover and the degree of community deformation, and which habitat type has been most invaded by alien plant species. Our results indicate that the constant loss of pine forest habitats, which has been observed since the 1970s, is continuing. The less deformed communities generally have more bilberry coverage, the stands in pine forest habitats are older and less deformed, and the stands in mixed oak-pine forest habitats are more susceptible to the spread of alien species, but are able to regenerate faster after a disturbance. These results are in line with observations from other parts of Poland and other European countries.

  15. Extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips. (United States)

    Karunanithy, C; Muthukumarappan, K; Gibbons, W R


    Pretreatment is the first step to open up lignocellulose structure in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Extrusion can be a viable pretreatment method due to its ability to simultaneously expose biomass to a range of disruptive conditions in a continuous flow process. Extruder screw speed, barrel temperature, and feedstock moisture content are important factors that can influence sugar recovery from biomass. Hence, the current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these parameters on extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips. Pine wood chip at 25, 35, and 45 % wb moisture content were pretreated at various barrel temperatures (100, 140, and 180 °C) and screw speeds (100, 150, and 200 rpm) using a screw with compression ratios of 3:1. The pretreated pine wood chips were subjected to standard enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sugar and byproducts quantification. Statistical analyses revealed the existence of significant differences in sugar recovery due to independent variables based on comparing the mean of main effects and interaction effects. Pine wood chips pretreated at a screw speed of 150 rpm and a barrel temperature of 180 °C with a moisture content of 25 % resulted in a maximum cellulose, hemicellulose, and total sugar recoveries of 65.8, 65.6, and 66.1 %, respectively, which was about 6.7, 7.9, and 6.8 fold higher than the control (unpretreated pine chips). Furthermore, potential fermentation inhibitors such as furfural, hydroxyl methyl furfural, and acetic acid were not found in any of the treatment combinations.

  16. Evaluating the temporal link between Siberian Traps magmatism and the end-Permian mass extinction (Invited) (United States)

    Burgess, S. D.; Bowring, S. A.


    Interest in Large Igneous Provinces as agents for massive climatic and biological change is steadily increasing, though the temporal constraints on both are seldom precise enough to allow detailed testing of a causal relationship. The end-Permian mass extinction is one of the most biologically important and intensely studied events in Earth history and has been linked to many possible trigger mechanisms, from voluminous volcanism to bolide impact. Proposed kill mechanisms range from acidic and/or anoxic oceans to a cocktail of toxic gases, although the link between trigger and kill mechanisms is unconstrained due to the lack of a high-precision timeline. Critical to assessing the plausibility of different trigger and kill mechanisms is an accurate age model for the biotic crisis and the perturbations to the global carbon cycle and ocean chemistry. Recent work using the EARTHTIME U/Pb tracer solution has refined the timing of the onset and duration of the marine mass extinction event and the earliest Triassic recovery at the GSSP for the Permian-Triassic boundary in Meishan, China. This work constrains the mass extinction duration to less than 100 kyr and provides an accurate and precise time point for the onset of extinction, against which the timing of potential trigger mechanisms may be compared. For more than two decades, eruption and emplacement of the Siberian traps has been implicated as a potential trigger of the end-Permian extinction. In this scenario, magmatism drives the biotic crisis through mobilization of volatiles from the sedimentary rock with which intruding and erupting magmas interact. Massive volatile release is believed to trigger major changes in atmospheric chemistry and temperature, both of which have been proposed as kill mechanisms. Current temporal constrains on the timing and duration of the Siberian magmatism are an order of magnitude less precise than those for the mass extinction event and associated environmental perturbations

  17. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten--Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat? (United States)

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej


    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  18. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten--Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

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    Anna Wereszczuk

    Full Text Available Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina and pine marten (Martes martes occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF, to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and

  19. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten – Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat? (United States)

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej


    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  20. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.


    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  1. DNA-Bank of the Siberian Group Chemical Enterprises workers and Seversk city residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freidin, M. B.; Goncharova, I. A.; Karpov, A. B.; Takhauov, R. M.


    According to the most common definition a DNA-bank is a system of a genetic material storage. Applying to nuclear-chemical plant workers, DNA-bank creation is determined by the necessity to preserve a hereditary material of these people and their descendants for the further evaluation of consequences of technogenic factors action on human genome using a contemporary conceptual and applied advances of genetics. In the frameworks of the study of technogenic factors indluence on human genome and genetic-caused disorders development the Seversk Biophysical Research Center is being created DNA-bank of Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises workers exposed to radiation, their descendants, and ZATO Seversk and Tomsk city inhabitants. The DNA-bank will be a basis for all major research laboratory projects: analysis of molecular basis of individual radiosensitivity; analysis of technogenic factors role in congenital malformations and hereditary diseases development in nuclear-chemical plant workers offspring; elaboration of genotype-specific tes-systems of cancer prognosis and development of cardiovascular and other common disorders connected with the effect of technogenic factors. The DNA-bank creation is a technological issue aggravated by ethical problems. Whereas the DNA isolation is not a problem today, ethical complication is debated widely in the world. These questions strongly arise in a view of advances of Human Genome Project. Information consent on DNA usage is imperative today. Also questions on DNA property (who is its owner a doner or a banker) and of a confidentiality, which maintenance is a doubtable question in a case of multiple genetic testing, are not solved today. At present, the Genomic Medicine Laboratory disposes the DNA samples of more than 400 Sevesk and Tomsk inhabitants affected with breast and lung cancer. More than 800 blood samples of main manufacture of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises workers are collected. About 1500 DNA samples

  2. Unique Mineralogy of Triassic Diamondiferous Hypabyssal Kimberlite Postdated Siberian Flood Basalt (sfb) Province (United States)

    Sobolev, N. V.; Sobolev, A. V.; Tomilenko, A. A.; Schertl, H. P.; Neuser, R. D.; Timina, T. Y.; Karmanov, N. S.; Batanova, V. G.; Logvinova, A. M.; Kuzmin, D.


    The Siberian flood basalt (SFB) province is the largest terrestrial province with the estimated volume of igneous rocks up to 5 million cubic km. The majority of SFB erupted over less than one million years at 251 Ma. The main epochs of kimberlites emplacement took place in Devonian (344-364 Ma) producing principal diamond mines including Udachnaya mine and in Triassic (about 240 Ma) with only one, Malokuonapskaya kimberlite pipe with near-commercial diamond grade. This indicates the availability of complete lithospheric cross section. It contains flood basalt and peridotite xenoliths. We report here preliminary data on mineralogy of this hypabyssal kimberlite containing fresh olivine. Homogeneous cores of zoned olivine with Fo 78.5-93 are different in compositional range from those of Udachnaya olivines (Fo 85-94). Outer rims composition are also different (Fo 85-86 and 89-90 respectively). Concentration of Ni, Mn, Co, Ca, Cr, Al, Ti, P, Na and Zn were measured by EPMA using an innovative method which has been developed based on earlier publication (Sobolev et al., Science, 2007, 316: 412-417). It made possible to obtain external precision down to 10 ppm (2SD) and detection limit down to 2 ppm. High resolution compositional maps of olivine zoning for all mentioned elements are produced. "Hot cathode" CL microscope was applied for study of luminescent minerals including calcite, apatite and baryte. Twenty percent of representative olivine samples are characterized by low Fo 78.5-85 and NiO from 600 to 2300 ppm. Clear zoning in concentration of some trace elements, P in particular, is detected in the cores of studied olivines. Ba-phlogopite containing BaO from less than 1 up to 14.5 wt.% is another specific feature of Malokuonapskaya kimberlite, which is different from any kimberlites and especially from Udachnaya with highest BaO - 4.85 wt.% of its phlogopite. Chromediopsides contain 1.3 - 5.2 wt.% FeO, 0.6 - 2.0 wt.% Cr2O3 and 0.45 - 2.0 wt.% Na2O. Pyropes

  3. East Siberian Sea, an Arctic region of very high biogeochemical activity

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    L. G. Anderson


    Full Text Available Shelf seas are among the most active biogeochemical marine environments and the East Siberian Sea is a prime example. This sea is supplied by seawater from both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and has a substantial input of river runoff. All of these waters contribute chemical constituents, dissolved and particulate, but of different signatures. Sea ice formation during the winter season and melting in the summer has a major impact on physical as well as biogeochemical conditions. The internal circulation and water mass distribution is significantly influenced by the atmospheric pressure field. The western region is dominated by input of river runoff from the Laptev Sea and an extensive input of terrestrial organic matter. The microbial decay of this organic matter produces carbon dioxide (CO2 that oversaturates all waters from the surface to bottom relative to atmospheric level, even when primary production, inferred from low surface water nutrients, has occurred. The eastern surface waters were under-saturated with respect to CO2 illustrating the dominance of marine primary production. The drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon equals a primary production of ~0.8 ± 2 mol C m−2, which when multiplied by half the area of the East Siberian Sea, ~500 000 km2, results in an annual primary production of 0.4 (± 1 × 1012 mol C or ~4 (± 10 × 1012 gC. Microbial decay occurs through much of the water column, but dominates at the sediment interface where the majority of organic matter ends up, thus more of the decay products are recycled to the bottom water. High nutrient concentrations and fugacity of CO2 and low oxygen and pH were observed in the bottom waters. Another signature of organic matter decomposition, methane (CH4, was observed in very high but variable concentrations. This is due to its seabed sources of glacial origin or modern production from

  4. Comparison of stem volume of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. and Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

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    Petr Vaněk


    Full Text Available This study deals with mensurational and volumetric characteristics of introduced Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus in comparison with native Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris of the similar age and habitat. Municipal forests of Hradec Králové city (an area with the natural occurrence of Scotch pine and introduced Eastern white pine; east part of Bohemia, altitude from 250 to 280 m a.s.l. belong to typological unit – nutrient-very poor, and acidic sites. There comparative analysis of basic stem variables (stem diameter at the breast-height – DBH, total tree height – H and stem volume – V of dominant trees (10 individuals with the highest DBH of both species in four suitable forest stands of age from 42 to 102 years was done. Statistical analysis showed similar trends in all forests stands. Eastern white pine compared to Scotch pine reached larger mean DBH (up to 16%. H – values do not have a clear trend across the forest stands and did not show large differences in all cases. Eastern white pine compared to Scotch pine showed also larger mean stem volume (up to 47%. Therefore, introduced Eastern white pine reached higher stem size parameters and wood production compared to native Scotch pine in studied forest district.

  5. Population sizes and group characteristics of Siberian Crane (Leuco-geranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) in Poyang Lake Wetland. (United States)

    Shao, Ming-Qin; Guo, Hong; Jiang, Jian-Hong


    Both the Siberian Crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) have limited population sizes and are considered endangered by domestic Chinese and international agencies. To document the current size of their respective populations and characterize their groups, between October 2012 and April 2013 we undertook fieldwork at four nature reserve areas within the Poyang Lake wetlands. We divided Poyanghu National Nature Reserve (PYH) into the Wucheng (PWC) and Hengfeng areas (PHF), because each are each located in different counties. Our fieldwork showed that the Siberian Crane occurred mainly in PYH (364 in the PHF, 158 in the PWC) and the Nanjishan Wetland National Nature Reserve (NJS, with 200 individuals). The Hooded Crane was mainly distributed in PYH (302 in the PHF and 154 in the PWC). Family groups accounted for more than 50% of the total number of groups among both species, with Hooded Cranes forming more family groups than Siberian Cranes. Typically, these groups were formed of two adults with one offspring (Siberian Crane), and two adults with two offspring (Hooded Crane), with the mean family group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane being respectively 2.65 ± 0.53 (n=43) and 3.09 ± 0.86 (n=47) individuals per group. The mean collective group size of the Siberian Crane and Hooded Crane included 28.09 ± 24.94 (n=23) and 28.94 ± 27.97 (n=16) individuals per group, respectively, with the proportion of juveniles among Hooded Cranes being more than double that seen among the Siberian Cranes.

  6. The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain lake in central Kamchatka (United States)

    Self, A. E.; Klimaschewski, A.; Solovieva, N.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.; Brooks, S. J.


    A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4-5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid

  7. Dynamics and structure of mortality of patients with HIV infection in the Siberian federal district in 2006–2015

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    O. A. Pasechnik


    Full Text Available Objective: studying of dynamics, level, structure, features of territorial distribution of a mortality of patients with HIVinfection in the Siberian Federal District in 2015.Materials and methods: observation descriptive and estimated epidemiological research of these forms of federal statistical observation of subjects of the Siberian Federal District (SFD.Results: in the Siberian Federal district for the period of 2006–2015 dynamics of mortality of HIV-infected individuals was characterized by a high rate of growth (9,21%. For the entire period of study HIV infection in the region died 31772 patients, of whom 19,3 percent in 2015. The mortality rate of HIV-infected persons died from various causes in 2015 was 31.9 per 100 thousand population (6153. Male mortality is 2.6 times higher than the mortality of women (47,8 and 17,9 per 100 thousand population, respectively. More than 80% of persons died from HIV- infection were urban residents, 99,6 percent were over the age of 18 years. 43.9% of the deceased persons had the HIV-infection as a direct cause of death, they were under medical observation in 2015 (11,2 on 100 thousand population, of which 98.4% of the dead had late stage of HIV-infection. 47,4% of HIV-infected persons, who died from various causes, had coinfection of tuberculosis, mortality from tuberculosis in the later stages of HIVinfection was 12,9 per 100 thousand population. The distribution of mortality of HIV-infected persons in the territory of the Siberian Federal district was characterized by unevenness in the range from 1,3 in the Republic of Tuva to 52,2 in the Kemerovo region.Conclusion. The presence of a clear trend of increasing mortality of people living with HIV on the territory of the Siberian Federal district on the background of high prevalence of infection indicates the need of optimization of preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance system of HIV infection. 

  8. The Socio-Political Crisis of the Siberian Region in the Post-February Period of the 1917 Revolution

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    Mikhail I. Vtorushin


    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of the Siberian region general crisis of the 1917 spring. The internal and external contradictions of the transformation process of socio-economic and political relations in Siberia are examined in terms of the post-February all- Russian revolutionary crisis development. The understanding of the socio-political Russian crisis in the spring of 1917, emerging after the February political coup, is essential in studying the revolutionary соnversion process of the early twentieth century Russian society, as this crisis has generally become the turning point in the country’s history and objectively led to the October political coup. The Russian revolutionary crisis constituents, its foreign and domestic manifestations require careful investigation in the issue formulation presented in the paper. The development specifics of the revolutionary crisis in the spring of 1917 in the trans-Uralian agricultural colony of the Russian Empire is of scientific interest, as well as the finding of its anti-crisis development scenarios in the paper presented period. The development of the nationwide crisis in Russia in the early twentieth century, due to the complex and contradictory processes of Russian society modernization in completing the industrial civilization and transition to the imperialist development stage, was complicated by the “Siberian historical issues” in the Siberian region. A set of these issues include the incompleteness of the regional peasantry land management, the contradictions between the old peasantry and Stolypin migrants, and also between the peasantry and the privileged regional Cossacks, the agricultural products export problems from Siberia to domestic and foreign markets, or marketing crisis, the contradictions between the regional and metropolis bourgeoisie, or the issue of the Siberians economic inequality, the local industry underdevelopment and the complete dependence of the local

  9. Influence of herbicides and felling, fertilization, and prescribed fire on longleaf pine growth and understory vegetation through ten growing seasons and the outcome of an ensuing wildfire (United States)

    James D. Haywood


    Restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) over much of its original range requires artificial regeneration. In central Louisiana, USA, two fertilization levels - No (NF) or Yes (F-36 kg/ha N and 40 kg/ha P) in combination with three vegetation treatments - Check, four prescribed fires (PF), or multi-year vegetation control by herbicidal and mechanical means (IVM...

  10. Synoptic climatology of the long-distance dispersal of white pine blister rust II. Combination of surface and upper level conditions (United States)

    K. L. Frank; B. W. Geils; L. S. Kalkstein; H. W. Thistle


    An invasive forest pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, white pine blister rust (WPBR), is believed to have arrived in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New Mexico about 1970. Epidemiological and genetic evidence supports the hypothesis that introduction was the result of long-distance dispersal (LDD) by atmospheric transport from California. This...

  11. Fuel composition influences fire characteristics and understorey hardwoods in pine savanna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellair, Darin P; Platt, William J; Austin, Amy


    .... We experimentally manipulated amounts of pine and hickory leaves beneath understorey hickory stems in a pine savanna, measured temperatures during prescribed fires and assessed combustion of fuels...

  12. Introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi contribute more to lyme borreliosis risk than native reservoir rodents.

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    Maud Marsot

    Full Text Available The variation of the composition in species of host communities can modify the risk of disease transmission. In particular, the introduction of a new host species can increase health threats by adding a new reservoir and/or by amplifying the circulation of either exotic or native pathogens. Lyme borreliosis is a multi-host vector-borne disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted by the bite of hard ticks, especially Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Previous studies showed that the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus barberi, an introduced ground squirrel in the Forest of Sénart (near Paris, France was highly infested by I. ricinus, and consequently infected by B. burgdorferi sl. An index of the contribution of chipmunks to the density of infected questing nymphs on the vegetation (i.e., the acarological risk for humans was compared to that of bank voles (Myodes glareolus and of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, two known native and sympatric competent reservoir hosts. Chipmunks produced nearly 8.5 times more infected questing nymphs than voles and mice. Furthermore, they contribute to a higher diversity of B. burgdorferi sl genospecies (B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii. The contribution of chipmunks varied between years and seasons, according to tick availability. As T. s. barberi must be a competent reservoir, it should amplify B. burgdorferi sl infection, hence increasing the risk of Lyme borreliosis in humans.

  13. Impact of Siberian Trap volcanism on the end-Permian and Early Triassic carbon cycle (United States)

    Meyer, K. M.; Kump, L.; Cui, Y.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Payne, J.


    The Siberian Traps are the largest of the large igneous provinces, covering approximately 5 million km2. The timing of this volcanic episode is indistinguishable from the end-Permian mass extinction, and the event likely both directly and indirectly impacted marine ecosystems, leading to the largest extinction of Earth history. Recent studies suggest record volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases were released from both lava degassing and degassing due to heating of Tunguska Basin sediments. In this study, we use Genie-1, an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (, to examine the impact of volcanic volatile release on the sedimentary carbon isotope record and end-Permian carbonate system under a wide range of volumes, rates, and isotope compositions of CO2 input. These model experiments place quantitative constraints on the magnitude and rates of CO2 addition that can account for the sedimentary and C isotope records of the end-Permian and Early Triassic.

  14. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter. (United States)

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata


    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Siberian Ibex (Capra sibirica Neonatal Kid Survival and Morphometric Measurements in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

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    Baatargal Otgonbayar


    Full Text Available Understanding the factors infl uencing survival of ungulate neonates facilitates successful management programs, particularly as they relate to population dynamics and adaptive species management. However, kid survival of near threatened Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica remains poorly understood. During 2005-2013, we captured and collared 21 ibex kids in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve in southeastern Mongolia, to monitor their survival and cause-specifi c mortality. We found no diff erences in morphometric measurements between male and female kids, except body mass being males weighing more than females. A total of 11 mortalities were documented and predations by red foxes (n=5, Vulpes vulpes and grey wolf (n=1, Canis lupus was the leading cause of the mortalities. Known fate models indicate the monthly survival of kids best explained by body mass and fi rst month of life (April-May + weight. Monthly survival estimates ranged from 0.077 (95% CI = 0.60-0.88 in April-May to 0.97 (95% CI = 0.90-0.99 in June-March, with an annual survival rate of 0.45 (95% CI = 0.24-0.68. We found little support for the hypotheses that body mass or birth date infl uenced survival; however, our small sample size limited the power of the analyses. Overall, our results indicated that predation and other factors led to high kid mortality during the period shortly after birth

  16. Large-Scale Plantlet Conversion and Ex Vitro Transplantation Efficiency of Siberian Ginseng by Bioreactor Culture

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    Jingli Yang


    Full Text Available To achieve large-scale low-cost ex vitro acclimatization of Siberian ginseng plants, heart- and torpedo-shaped secondary somatic embryos (SEs induced from germinated SEs on agar medium were collected and then inoculated to 10-l bubble column bioreactor, respectively. For plantlet conversion, inoculation of torpedo-shaped secondary SEs was more effective than heart-shaped SEs. TS2 (culture of torpedo-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval plantlets had a higher root number and leaf number and larger leaf area than did HS3 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 3-week subculture interval and HS2 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval plantlets. Of these converted plants, TS2 plantlets had higher survival rate (83.7% and growth characteristics after transplantation in a simple shed covered with a 50% sunshade net only for 6 months. TS2 plantlets also showed significantly lower H2O2 content and significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and glutathione transferase (GST expression levels as compared to HS2 plants when exposure to ex vitro conditions.

  17. Canine distemper in Siberian tiger cubs from Zagreb ZOO: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Konjević


    Full Text Available Canine distemper is a contagious, potentially lethal disease of mainly domestic and wild canids, but also of many other mammalian species including large felids. In February 2004, two Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica cubs at the age of six months died at the Zagreb ZOO. The animals were presented for necropsy with two days history of severe digestive disorders, characterized mainly by haemathemesis. Dissections revealed catarrhal to pseudomembranous gastroenteritis (depending on the animal accompanied with haemorrhagic oedema of the lungs. Necrotic tonsillitis and disseminated depletion of the lymphocytes were the most prominent histological findings in both examined animals, while intranuclear and intracytoplasmatic inclusion bodies were found in the samples of the tongues and intestines. Representative portions of the livers, intestines, tonsils and lymph nodes were submitted for bacteriological and mycological analysis. The presence of Clostridium spp., Campylobacter coli and Escherichia coli was detected in gut samples, coli-like bacteria were found in samples of liver, tonsils and lymph nodes, while Candida sp. was found in the gut and pharynx samples. Toxicological analysis excluded anticoagulant and organophosphorous intoxication as the cause of death. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for canine distemper virus. Based on all this, epizootiological, clinical and additional findings, canine distemper was recognized as the cause of the observed condition in these animals.

  18. Effects of Burn Severity and Environmental Conditions on Post-Fire Regeneration in Siberian Larch Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu


    Full Text Available Post-fire forest regeneration is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic heterogeneity in the pre- and post-fire environments, including fire regimes, species characteristics, landforms, hydrology, regional climate, and soil properties. Assessing these drivers is key to understanding the long-term effects of fire disturbances on forest succession. We evaluated multiple factors influencing patterns of variability in a post-fire boreal Larch (Larix sibirica forest in Siberia. A time-series of remote sensing images was analyzed to estimate post-fire recovery as a response variable across the burned area in 1996. Our results suggested that burn severity and water content were primary controllers of both Larch forest recruitment and green vegetation cover as defined by the forest recovery index (FRI and the fractional vegetation cover (FVC, respectively. We found a high rate of Larch forest recruitment in sites of moderate burn severity, while a more severe burn was the preferable condition for quick occupation by vegetation that included early seral communities of shrubs, grasses, conifers and broadleaf trees. Sites close to water and that received higher solar energy during the summer months showed a higher rate of both recovery types, defined by the FRI and FVC, dependent on burn severity. In addition to these factors, topographic variables and pre-fire condition were important predictors of post-fire forest patterns. These results have direct implications for the post-fire forest management in the Siberian boreal Larch region.

  19. [Model of social exclusion of the elderly people in Siberian Regions]. (United States)

    Maximova, S G; Noyanzina, O E; Omelchenko, D A


    An article presents results of the construction and approbation of a theoretical model of social exclusion of population of elderly age groups in Siberian regions. It bases on the results of sociological research (2016) in three Russian regions: Altai region, Trans-Baikal region and Kemerovo oblast (n=779 age of respondents from 55 (women) and 60 (men) years and older). In theory, the model lays on the following: in is determined by economic (material) deprivation, deprivation of social rights (access to social institutes and services) and deprivation of security (safe environment), deprivation of social participation, cultural (normative) disintegration and social autism; the above named components are specific for the group of elderly people, that is a priori a high risk of exclusion; social exclusion, as a condition and situation of exclusion can be estimated straightly through the manifestation of its dimensions; the model has a one-way causality, i.e. the manifestation of one of its dimensions can lead to the high manifestation of the social exclusion. Basing on dimensions, operationalized in questionnaire, we calculated as an index of components of the social exclusion, as the total social exclusion index for elderly people including its regional correlations. By the results of a posteriori testing of the suggested model, we proved a good correlation between theoretical and empirical models of social exclusion of elderly people.

  20. Monitoring of Siberian biomass burning smoke from AHI on board geostationary satellite Himawari-8 (United States)

    Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Yoshida, A.; Nakata, M.; Minoura, H.; Holben, B. N.


    High frequency aerosol measurements are demanded for evaluation of the model simulations, monitoring the atmospheric qualities such as Particulate Matter (PM2.5), and so on. Geostationary satellite provides us with the high frequency information of the atmosphere. Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) launched the Himawari-8 geostationary satellite in 2014 and has prepared Himawari-9 for launching in 2016. Both satellites carry new generation imagers named Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). They have 16 multi-channels from short visible to thermal infrared wavelengths with 1 km IFOV for visible and 2 km for infrared. Each observation is done within 10 minutes for the Earth full disk. Then high frequency Earth observations are realized. AHI has frequently observed biomass burning plume around East Siberia and its transportation according to weather system. This work retrieves aerosol properties due to the Siberian smoke plume and its movements based on the measurements with AHI. The results are compared with ground based measurements which have newly deployed at an AERONET/Niigata site in Japan. It is shown here that continuous measurements of aerosols from geostationary satellite combination with the polar orbiting satellite provide us with much detail information of aerosol.