WorldWideScience

Sample records for central sahara threat

  1. Pre-Islamic Dry-Stone Monuments of the Central and Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Yves

    Saharan dry-stone monuments are important cultural markers: not only do they highlight the boundaries of the areas occupied by different prehistoric populations, but they also reveal information about the rites and beliefs of Holocene Saharan populations. As climate deteriorated in the Middle Holocene, ways of life changed, with indirect impacts on the architecture of the monuments and on the way they were oriented. Tens of thousands of recorded monuments, of various types, allow us to understand what the orientation rules were and how they changed with location. Data compiled for the eleven types of monuments reveal that many monuments of the central Sahara and Tibesti were probably aligned toward the rising sun or moon, that three types of the Atlantic Sahara show instead a random distribution, and that monuments with a pan-Saharan distribution have a complex orientation pattern. A correlation or orientation with key landscape features is likely for three monument types, coexisting with criteria based on lunisolar alignment.

  2. Isotopic characteristic of meteoric water and groundwater in Ahaggar massif (central Sahara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mean contents of both oxygen-18 and deuterium in precipitation from the Ahaggar massif (central Sahara) are: δ18O = -3 per mille and 2H = -15 per mille. The heterogeneity in meteoric events and the great scattering of these isotopic contents can be ascribed to the origins and the histories of air masses. The main contribution comes from the inflow of the Guinean monsoon during summer months. During winter, the N/W winds, arriving in the area from the Moroccan coast, provide some rains. The deuterium excess of these precipitation are up to +10 per mille, indicating that the air masses generating these rains are supplied by the recycling of the continental air moisture. Groundwater resources are produced in some little phreatic aquifers, which are recharged by sporadic wadi floods. Aquifer zones that are the most favourable are located in the valleys and occur as three overlying levels of unequal importance: the alluvial aquifer, the weathered zone of the underlying substratum and the deep aquifer of fissured basement. The alluvial aquifer contain weakly mineralised water (0.3 g/l). Their stable isotopes contents (δ18O∼ -2.7 per mille) and 14C activity of them (> 100 pmc) are comparable to present meteoric water, allowing modern meteoric waters to be identified. The weathered zone groundwater's are more mineralised (0.8 g/l) and its isotopic contents (δ18O∼ -4.2 per mille) and intermediate radiocarbon activity, prove their old water component. The basement's groundwater are more mineralised (> 1 g/l) and their very depleted isotopic contents (δ18O∼ -9 per mille) diverge clearly from the present precipitation. Furthermore, the absence of 3H and 14C activity of them, prove an old heritage, resulting from recharge during the last humid episode of the Holocene. (author)

  3. Dust emission mechanisms in the central Sahara: new insights from remote field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Washington, R.; Engelstaedter, S.

    2013-12-01

    North Africa is the world's largest source of mineral aerosol (dust). The Fennec Project, an international consortium led by the University of Oxford, is the first project to systematically instrument the remote central Sahara Desert. These observations have, among others, provided new insights into the atmospheric mechanisms of dust emission. Bordj Badji Mokhtar, in south-west Algeria, is within kilometres of the centre of the global mean summer dust maximum. The site, operated by Fennec partners ONM Algerie, has been heavily instrumented since summer 2011. During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP) in June 2011, four main emission mechanisms were observed and documented: cold pool outflows, low level jets (LLJs), monsoon surges and dry convective plumes. Establishing the relative importance of dust emission mechanisms has been a long-standing research goal. A detailed partitioning exercise of dust events during the IOP shows that 45% of the dust over BBM was generated by local emission in cold pool outflows, 14% by LLJs and only 2% by dry convective plumes. 27% of the dust was advected to the site rather than locally emitted and 12% of the dust was residual or ';background' dust. The work shows the primacy of cold pool outflows for dust emission in the region and also the important contribution of dust advection. In accordance with long-held ideas, the cube of wind speed is strongly correlated with dust emission. Surprisingly however, particles in long-range advection (>500km) were found to be larger than locally emitted dust. Although a clear LLJ wind structure is evident in the mean diurnal cycle during the IOP (12m/s peak winds at 935hPa between 04-05h), LLJs are only responsible for a relatively small amount of dust emission. There is significant daily variability in LLJ strength; the strongest winds are produced by a relatively small number of events. The position and strength of the Saharan Heat Low is strongly associated with the development (or

  4. Aerosol direct radiative forcing during Sahara dust intrusions in the central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Perrone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The clear-sky, instantaneous Direct Radiative Effect (DRE by all and anthropogenic particles is calculated during Sahara dust intrusions in the Mediterranean basin, to evaluate the role of anthropogenic particle's radiative effects and to get a better estimate of the DRE by desert dust. The clear-sky aerosol DRE is calculated by a two stream radiative transfer model in the solar (0.3–4 μm and infrared (4–200 μm spectral range, at the top of the atmosphere (ToA and at the Earth's surface (sfc. Aerosol optical properties by AERONET sun-sky photometer measurements and aerosol vertical profiles by EARLINET lidar measurements, both performed at Lecce (40.33° N, 18.10° E during Sahara dust intrusions occurred from 2003 to 2006 year, are used to initialize radiative transfer simulations. Instantaneous values at 0.44 μm of the real (n and imaginary (k refractive index and of the of aerosol optical depth (AOD vary within the 1.33–1.55, 0.0037–0.014, and 0.2–0.7 range, respectively during the analyzed dust outbreaks. Fine mode particles contribute from 34% to 85% to the AOD by all particles. The complex atmospheric chemistry of the Mediterranean basin that is also influenced by regional and long-range transported emissions from continental Europe and the dependence of dust optical properties on soil properties of source regions and transport pathways are responsible for the high variability of n, k, and AOD values and of the fine mode particle contribution. Instantaneous net (solar+infrared DREs that are negative as a consequence of the cooling effect by aerosol particles, span the – (32–10 W m−2 and the – (44–20 W m−2 range at the ToA and surface, respectively. The instantaneous net DRE by anthropogenic particles that is negative, varies within −(13–8 W m−2 and −(17–11 W m−2 at the ToA and surface, respectively. It represents from 41 up to 89

  5. The daytime cycle in dust aerosol direct radiative effects observed in the central Sahara during the Fennec campaign in June 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Banks, Jamie R.

    2014-12-16

    © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. The direct clear-sky radiative effect (DRE) of atmospheric mineral dust is diagnosed over the Bordj Badji Mokhtar (BBM) supersite in the central Sahara during the Fennec campaign in June 2011. During this period, thick dust events were observed, with aerosol optical depth values peaking at 3.5. Satellite observations from Meteosat-9 are combined with ground-based radiative flux measurements to obtain estimates of DRE at the surface, top-of-atmosphere (TOA), and within the atmosphere. At TOA, there is a distinct daytime cycle in net DRE. Both shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) DRE peak around noon and induce a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system. Toward dusk and dawn, the LW DRE reduces while the SW effect can switch sign triggering net radiative cooling. The net TOA DRE mean values range from -9 Wm-2 in the morning to heating of +59 Wm-2 near midday. At the surface, the SW dust impact is larger than at TOA: SW scattering and absorption by dust results in a mean surface radiative cooling of 145Wm-2. The corresponding mean surface heating caused by increased downward LW emission from the dust layer is a factor of 6 smaller. The dust impact on the magnitude and variability of the atmospheric radiative divergence is dominated by the SW cooling of the surface, modified by the smaller SW and LW effects at TOA. Consequently, dust has a mean daytime net radiative warming effect on the atmosphere of 153Wm-2.

  6. Sahara en mouvement

    OpenAIRE

    Casajus, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    On peut dire du Sahara ce que Fernand Braudel disait naguère de la Méditerranée : lui assigner des bornages est une tâche malaisée. Des géographes s’y sont cependant essayés, et leurs tentatives participent de ce qu’on peut appeler l’« invention » du Sahara. La présente introduction évoque quelques figures marquantes de cette invention (Léon l’Africain, Eugène Daumas, Émile Carette, Henri Duveyrier, Robert Capot-Rey…) puis présente brièvement les diverses contributions du dossier, en les repl...

  7. Hydrodynamic framework of eastern Algerian Sahara: influence on hydrocarbon occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarelli, A.

    1978-04-01

    Patterns of water, pressure, salinity, and chemical content within a basin can give much useful information for oil exploration. In the eastern Algerian Sahara a substantial increase in exploration efficiency has been achieved by combining regional hydrodynamic studies with classic geologic and geophysical studies. This prolific area shows a wide variety of hydrodynamic phenomena. Two distinct areas, each with its own ''style,'' are present. (1) The northeast Sahara basin roughly coincides with the limit of Triassic salt occurrence and reservoir beds are sealed both vertically and laterally under abnormally high pressure. No flushing has taken place. The chemical characteristics of underground water are uniform within the basin. (2) The southern Sahara basin coincides with the Illizi sedimentary basin. Slightly saline water moves hydrodynamically from the outcrop toward the central part of the basin. Hydrodynamic studies are of value here in defining the most prospective zone, in understanding the oil entrapment mechanism, and in facilitating correlations between different reservoirs.

  8. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a

  9. Norwegian support in development of regulations of radioactive waste management in central Asia-threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Central Asia (CA) the radioactive waste comes mainly from uranium mining and milling, nuclear weapon testing and nuclear power development and other ionizing sources. This waste was produced, to a greater extent, by the military-industrial complex and the uranium and non-uranium industry, and, to a lesser extent, by the nuclear industry and in the process of use of isotope products. Exploitation and mining of uranium and thorium deposits produce a large amount of solid and liquid radioactive waste, as well volatile contaminants which need a proper management. In Central Asia the wastes are mainly stored at the surface in large piles and represent a long-term potential health and environmental hazard. The process of remediating legacy sites of the past and reducing the threats is now getting under way, with the design and implementation of remediation activities, partly with international support. However, there is a significant lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring etc., as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. Accordingly, the objective of the proposed project is to assist the relevant regulatory authorities in Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan to develop national robust and adequate regulations and procedures, taking into account the international guidance and Norwegian experience with regulatory support projects in Russia. Specific expected results in the project period include: a threat assessment report identifying priority areas for regulatory development, based on the status of current regulatory documents and the hazard presented by the different sites and facilities; development of national radioactive waste management strategies in each country; development of an enhanced regulatory framework for supervision of nuclear matters, and an enhanced safety culture

  10. Threats to Sustainability of Soil Functions in Central and Southeast Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Günal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A diverse topography along with deforestation, changing climatic conditions, long-term human settlement, overuse of agricultural lands without sustainable planning, cultural difficulties in accepting conservative land management practices, and wrong political decisions have increased the vulnerability of many soils to degradation and resulted in a serious decline in their functional capacity. A progressive reduction in the capacity of soils to support plant productivity is not only a threat in the African continent and its large desert zone, but also in several parts of Central and Southeastern Europe (CASEE. The loss of soil functions throughout CASEE is mainly related to the human activities that have profound influence on soil dynamic characteristics. Improper management of soils has made them more vulnerable to degradation through water and wind erosion, organic matter depletion, salinity, acidification, crusting and sealing, and compaction. Unmitigated degradation has substantial implications for long term sustainability of the soils’ capability to support human communities and resist desertification. If sustainable agricultural and land management practices are not identified, well understood and implemented, the decline in soil quality will continue and probably accelerate. The lack of uniform criteria for the assessment and evaluation of soil quality in CASEE countries prevents scientific assessments to determine if existing management practices are leading to soil quality improvement, or if not, what management practices should be recommended to mitigate and reverse the loss of soil health.

  11. NON BANKING FINANCIAL COMPANIES AND INDIA’S RURAL ECONOMY - WITH REFERENCE TO SAHARA GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKANTA CHANDRA SWAIN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sahara India Group has diversified business in the areas like finance, real estate, media and entertainment, tourism and services. Its business in finance, as usual, comes under the purview of Reserve Bank of India (RBI jurisdiction. Its two financial institutions (FIs – Sahara India Investment Corporation Ltd (SIICL, a non-banking finance company (NBFC and Sahara India Financial Corporation Ltd (SIFCL, a residuary nonbanking finance company (RNBC have been coming under RBI scanner. While the registration of SIICL has been recently cancelled by RBI in spite of a net profit in 2006-07 against a loss in 2005-06, SIFCL has been under the threat of winding up the business owing to regulatory concerns of RBI. Thus time will come when Sahara India Group will no more be there in the financial sector. However, it will not allow the resources withdrawn from these two FIs to be idle. As it has been a prominent player in the real estate industry of India, it is clearly visible that it will reallocate the resources in favour of real estate. That way, the profitability of Sahara India Group will never be undermined. But can we say with confident that the economy will never lose anything by this ‘move by coercion’ of Sahara India Group? Certainly no, because other FIs are yet to penetrate into rural areas what SIICL and SIFCL had been doing successfully. Therefore the twin objective - Mobilization of rural savings and eradication of rural poverty will definitely be in jolt because of this. This paper tries to analyze critically this ‘move by coercion’ of Sahara India Group in the perspective of rural poverty, the ultimate problem of Indian Economy.

  12. Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara

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    Paul Sereno

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diverse crocodyliforms have been discovered in recent years in Cretaceous rocks on southern landmasses formerly composing Gondwana.  We report here on six species from the Sahara with an array of trophic adaptations that significantly deepen our current understanding of African crocodyliform diversity during the Cretaceous period.  We describe two of these species (Anatosuchus minor, Araripesuchus wegeneri from nearly complete skulls and partial articulated skeletons from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation (Aptian-Albian of Niger. The remaining four species (Araripesuchus rattoides sp. n., Kaprosuchus saharicus gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus thaumastos gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus maghrebensis gen. n. sp. n. come from contemporaneous Upper Cretaceous formations (Cenomanian in Niger and Morocco.

  13. Threats to Sustainability of Soil Functions in Central and Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Günal; Tayfun Korucu; Marta Birkas; Engin Özgöz; Rares Halbac-Cotoara-Zamfir

    2015-01-01

    A diverse topography along with deforestation, changing climatic conditions, long-term human settlement, overuse of agricultural lands without sustainable planning, cultural difficulties in accepting conservative land management practices, and wrong political decisions have increased the vulnerability of many soils to degradation and resulted in a serious decline in their functional capacity. A progressive reduction in the capacity of soils to support plant productivity is not only a threat i...

  14. Holozäne Landschaftsentwicklung und Paläohydrologie der Zentralen Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Jan

    2013-01-01

    That the highest runoff events occur in arid regions is well known and proved among others by the works of CRIPPEN & BUE (1977) and COSTA (1987) for arid and semiarid regions in the U.S. Such studies are not known for the Central Sahara. Looking at the processes of fluvial morphodynamics in different time slices, this thesis attempts to fill this gap. The data base was created within the DFG project "Quaternary landscape evolution and current morphodynamics in the central Sahara (NE Niger)." ...

  15. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  16. Modulation of instrumental responding by a conditioned threat stimulus requires lateral and central amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eCampese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the role of the amygdala in response modulation by an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS in rats. Experiment 1 investigated the role of amygdala circuitry in conditioned suppression using a paradigm in which licking for sucrose was inhibited by a tone CS that had been previously paired with footshock. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral amygdala impaired suppression relative to sham-operated animals, and produced the same pattern of results when applied to central amygdala. In addition, disconnection of the lateral and central amygdala, by unilateral lesion of each on opposite sides of the brain, also impaired suppression relative to control subjects that received lesions of both areas on the same side. In each case, lesions were placed following Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental training, but before testing. This procedure produced within-subjects measures of the effects of lesion on freezing and between-group comparisons for the effects on suppression. Experiment 2 extended this analysis to a task where an aversive CS suppressed shuttling responses that had been previously food reinforced and also found effects of bilateral lesions of the central amygdala in a pre-post design. Together, these studies demonstrate that connections between the lateral and central amygdala constitute a serial circuit involved in processing aversive Pavlovian stimuli, and add to a growing body of findings implicating central amygdala in the modulation of instrumental behavior.

  17. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  18. CENTRAL ASIA: THE RELIGIOUS SITUATION AND THE THREAT OF RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM

    OpenAIRE

    Laumulin, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In Central Asia, religion is gradually coming to the fore in everyday life as a fairly integrated phenomenon with a wide range of functions: consolidation of ethnic self-awareness, shaping spiritual and moral culture together with the awareness of being part of a religious and the world community; fulfilling social functions through religious prescriptions; formulating the ideals of social justice, as well as man's duty to the state and the state's to man, etc. Some of the functions, however,...

  19. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa--2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Grard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus, were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV. The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe.

  20. Sleep Deprivation Impairs the Human Central and Peripheral Nervous System Discrimination of Social Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Greer, Stephanie M; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2015-07-15

    Facial expressions represent one of the most salient cues in our environment. They communicate the affective state and intent of an individual and, if interpreted correctly, adaptively influence the behavior of others in return. Processing of such affective stimuli is known to require reciprocal signaling between central viscerosensory brain regions and peripheral-autonomic body systems, culminating in accurate emotion discrimination. Despite emerging links between sleep and affective regulation, the impact of sleep loss on the discrimination of complex social emotions within and between the CNS and PNS remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate in humans that sleep deprivation impairs both viscerosensory brain (anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala) and autonomic-cardiac discrimination of threatening from affiliative facial cues. Moreover, sleep deprivation significantly degrades the normally reciprocal associations between these central and peripheral emotion-signaling systems, most prominent at the level of cardiac-amygdala coupling. In addition, REM sleep physiology across the sleep-rested night significantly predicts the next-day success of emotional discrimination within this viscerosensory network across individuals, suggesting a role for REM sleep in affective brain recalibration. Together, these findings establish that sleep deprivation compromises the faithful signaling of, and the "embodied" reciprocity between, viscerosensory brain and peripheral autonomic body processing of complex social signals. Such impairments hold ecological relevance in professional contexts in which the need for accurate interpretation of social cues is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive. PMID:26180190

  1. Sahara: Barrier or corridor? Nonmetric cranial traits and biological affinities of North African late Holocene populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2012-02-01

    The Garamantes flourished in southwestern Libya, in the core of the Sahara Desert ~3,000 years ago and largely controlled trans-Saharan trade. Their biological affinities to other North African populations, including the Egyptian, Algerian, Tunisian and Sudanese, roughly contemporary to them, are examined by means of cranial nonmetric traits using the Mean Measure of Divergence and Mahalanobis D(2) distance. The aim is to shed light on the extent to which the Sahara Desert inhibited extensive population movements and gene flow. Our results show that the Garamantes possess distant affinities to their neighbors. This relationship may be due to the Central Sahara forming a barrier among groups, despite the archaeological evidence for extended networks of contact. The role of the Sahara as a barrier is further corroborated by the significant correlation between the Mahalanobis D(2) distance and geographic distance between the Garamantes and the other populations under study. In contrast, no clear pattern was observed when all North African populations were examined, indicating that there was no uniform gene flow in the region. PMID:22183688

  2. China Threat, What Threat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China has become the candidate of choice among "illusionist" hawks looking to justify Pentagon spending. Henry Rosemont, a professor emeritus at St Mary’s CoUege of Maryland and a visiting scholar in the Religious Studies Department at Brown University, recently wrote an article for Asia Times Online, saying that facts belie the claims of China’s military threat

  3. Electricity generated in the North Sea and Sahara; Een supergrid met Noordzee- en Saharastroom?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.H.H. [Autarkis, Almere (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    This article makes a clear statement that the total investments in the 'decentralized all electrical solution' is less than the investments in central solutions with electricity generated in either the North Sea and/or the Sahara. The author states that the Dutch government should therefore focus their subsidiary policies to smaller affordable decentralized solutions, instead of the larger expensive centralized solutions. This is at the moment clearly not the case in Dutch politics. However, autarky is possible in the short term as described in this article on the basis of a case of a house with heat and electricity installations. [Dutch] Vormt een supergrid met elektriciteit van de Noordzee en uit de Sahara gecombineerd met passieve woningbouw onze toekomstige duurzame (autarke) energievoorziening? Het warmte/krachtverbruik van de gebouwde omgeving in Nederland bedraagt circa 30 procent van het primaire energiegebruik. Het is ondoenlijk om op afzienbare tijd alle 7,2 miljoen woningen te renoveren tot op een passief woningbouwniveau met isolatiedikten tot wel 40 a 50 centimeter, voorzien van thermische zonnecollectoren voor de warmwaterproductie en met elektriciteit van de Noordzee en uit de Sahara. Autarkie op kortere termijn is wel realiseerbaar op een wijze zoals beschreven in deze publicatie op basis van een woning met warmte- en electrische installaties.

  4. Isotopic hydrological studies of the northwest Sahara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study deals mainly with the paleovalley of the Saoura Wadi and includes an examination of the isotopic composition of the aquifers, the precipitations, and the surface system (18O/16O, D/H). The collection of samples from every precipitation at Beni Abbes on the present middle course of the Saoura provides a mean] of determining the 180 content of the heaviest rain storms which could feed the reservoirs, and of assessing the weighted mean isotopic composition of this contribution. The isotopic composition of the Saoura Wadi is studied at different stations along the course of the Wadi. In this way the influence of evaporation on the river waters can be estimated from the south side of the Sahara Atlas mountains where the floods originate to the endorheic basin of the Sebkha-al-Melah, the present limit of the Saoura Wadi where the water evaporates. This is particularly evident in the case of variations in oxygen-18 and deuterium content. On the middle course of the Wadi, the loss through evaporation is partially compensated by a contribution from aquifers whose existence was brought to light by continuous comparative study of the iso- topic composition of the Wadi waters and the Great Western Erg waters. The other regional reservoirs connected with the Saoura valley (those of the Hamada du Guir and of the Ougarta mountains) have also had their 180 content determined. Comparison of the results of these determinations with the present mean value for rainfall provides the basis for a discussion of the problem of how and when they are supplied. The Saoura paleovalley is also a line along which the so-called ''Continental intercalary'' reservoir emerges; this is a water body found at various depths throughout the north Sahara. Samplings made at the available water points in this aquifer, both in the Saoura valley and throughout the western Sahara, can be used for making a specific study of the western part of this reservoir. The data obtained are compared with

  5. AN EPHEMERALANALYSIS OF SAHARA GROUP FRAUD WITH THE INVESTORS (WITH REFERENCE TO GOVERNANCE ISSUES INVOLVED)

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Rao

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the Sahara India Pariwar scam. The two companies of Sahara group naming Sahara Group Companies Sahara India Real Estate Corporation limited (SIRECL) and Sahara Housing Investment Corporation (SHIC) were raising thousands of crores from the public without informing SEBI. The paper discusses how these two companies could raise so much of money without following the prescribed rules and regulations and how did SEBI come to know about the wrongdoings of these two ...

  6. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  7. TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS: A TRANSNATIONAL THREAT OF THE GLOBALIZATION ERA (COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CENTRAL CAUSASIAN STATES)

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdieva, Aysel

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses one of the most dangerous and serious, in the social-humanitarian respect, challenges of the current stage in world globalization-trafficking in human beings, especially in women and children, which has become an international problem in recent years. The article takes a look at the special features of the human trafficking problem in post-Soviet states, primarily in the Central Caucasian countries, caused by the powerful migration flows generated by the collapse of the ...

  8. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate. PMID:26361054

  9. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods:Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC). The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata). Results:Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00) mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67) mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67) mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67) mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P Conclusions:To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  10. Pharmacopée traditionnelle saharienne : Sahara septentrional

    OpenAIRE

    Maiza, K.; Brac de la Perrière, R.A.; Hammiche, V.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional uses of plants for medicine were studied in North Algerian Sahara. To date, 85 spontaneous medicinal plants have been identified, 35 are reported with the vernacular names and 17, selected because they have common medicinal use in 3 different geographical localities and may serve as an indicator of the major health problems of the populations. (Résumé d'auteur)

  11. Cultural Astronomy in Africa South of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    This chapter examines two foci of cultural astronomy found in Africa south of the Sahara: creation myths and celestial art. The examples highlighted are from the Akan, the Bahima, the Boshongo, the Fon, the Igbo, the Mambila, the Yoruba, and the Zulu people.

  12. Biogeochemical inferences of mobility of early Holocene fisher-foragers from the Southern Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanowski, Christopher M; Knudson, Kelly J

    2011-09-01

    North Africa is increasingly seen as an important context for understanding modern human evolution and reconstructing biocultural adaptations. The Sahara, in particular, witnessed a fluorescence of hunter-gatherer settlement at the onset of the Holocene after an extended occupational hiatus. Subsequent subsistence changes through the Holocene are contrary to those documented in other areas where mobile foraging gave way to settled agricultural village life. In North Africa, extractive fishing and hunting was supplanted by cattle and caprine pastoralism under deteriorating climatic conditions. Therefore, the initial stage of food production in North Africa witnessed a likely increase in mobility. However, there are few studies of paleomobility in Early Holocene hunter-gatherer Saharan populations and the degree of mobility is generally assumed. Here, we present radiogenic strontium isotope ratios from Early Holocene fisher-forager peoples from the site of Gobero, central Niger, southern Sahara Desert. Data indicate a relatively homogeneous radiogenic strontium isotope signature for this hunter-gather population with limited variability exhibited throughout the life course or among different individuals. Although the overall signature was local, some variation in the radiogenic strontium isotope data likely reflects transhumance into the nearby Aïr Massif. Data from Gobero were significantly less variable than in other worldwide hunter-gatherer populations, including those thought to be fairly sedentary. Strontium data from Gobero were also significantly different from contemporaneous sites in southwestern Libya. These patterns are discussed with respect to archaeological models of community organization and technological evolution. PMID:21766285

  13. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods: Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC. The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata. Results: Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00 mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67 mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67 mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67 mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P<0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that the TPC and colour is not correlated with the antimycotic capacity. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  14. Coloured rain dust from Sahara Desert is still radioactive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coloured rain event originating from the Sahara Desert occurred on April 9, 2000 at Thessaloniki, Northern Greece (40 deg. 38'N, 22 deg. 58'E). The radioactive nuclides that were determined in a coloured rain dust sample were 137Cs of Chernobyl origin, 7Be of cosmogenic origin and 40K of terrestrial origin. Cesium-137 still remained 14 years after the Chernobyl accident, reaching 26.6 Bq kg-1 in the coloured rain dust

  15. Cities in the Sahara: spatial structure and generative processes

    OpenAIRE

    Salah-Salah, F.

    1987-01-01

    The present thesis examines some aspects of the structure of urban space found in particular towns in the Sahara, and the peculiarities in their dual organisation of the circulation systems: the streets and the roof terraces of the houses inter-connected by another system of walkways, which are exclusively reserved for the circulation of women across the settlements or parts of the settlements. The terrace morphology is developed in different forms and at various degre...

  16. Non Banking Financial Companies and India’s Rural Economy - with Reference to Sahara Group

    OpenAIRE

    SUKANTA CHANDRA SWAIN

    2012-01-01

    Sahara India Group has diversified business in the areas like finance, real estate, media and entertainment, tourism and services. Its business in finance, as usual, comes under the purview of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) jurisdiction. Its two financial institutions (FIs) – Sahara India Investment Corporation Ltd (SIICL), a non-banking finance company (NBFC) and Sahara India Financial Corporation Ltd (SIFCL), a residuary non-banking finance company (RNBC) have been coming under RBI scanner. Wh...

  17. The Sahara Troposphere - Simultaneous Aircraft Observations from Fennec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelstaedter, Sebastian; Washington, Richard; Flamant, Cyrille; Allen, Chris J. T.

    2013-04-01

    The Saharan heat low (SHL) that develops over western Africa in Boreal summer has been recognised for its important role in the regional and continental scale climate system. It is co-located with the highest atmospheric dust loading and the deepest dry convective boundary layer in the world. As part of the Fennec 2011 Intensive Observation Period, two aircraft surveyed the SHL region in the morning and afternoon on 22 June 2011 along different tracks employing LIDAR instruments and dropsondes allowing the first characterisation of the structure and daytime evolution of atmospheric features in the central western Sahara including the SHL, the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), the monsoon and atmospheric dust distributions within the system. The observations show a system that is more complex than previously thought. Characteristics include a) a NE-SW orientated SHL, b) a monsoon re-circulation around the SHL associated with dampened Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) growth and Saharan Residual Layer (SRL) top minimum, c) Harmattan winds associated with increased near-surface temperatures and enhanced CBL growth rate and CBL depth, d) near-surface inversions limiting CBL growth and vertical mixing of emitted dust, e) above SRL inversion strength linked to SRL top altitude, f) an aged dust layer close to the SABL top that shows a complex wave-like structure, and g) a potential tropospheric ventilation reducing SRL height and reducing dust concentration. The NE-SW elongated SHL is located over northern Mauritania close to the Mali border in the morning and moves west by about 0.5 to 1.0° in the afternoon corresponding well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The CBL depth ranges from 0.45 to 2.01 km above mean sea level (aMSL) in the morning and from 1.75 to 6.02 km in the afternoon. Low-level inversions in the morning between 0.5 and 0.9 km aMSL are strongest (up to 0.83°C) where the CBL is most shallow and weakening with increasing CBL depth. Above SRL

  18. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  19. Bubbling Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The shift of China’s monetary policy stance from "moderately loose" to "prudent" in 2011 indicates curbing inflation and asset bubbles have become the Central Government’s top priority. But is China’s bubble problem short-term or long-term? Is it only monetary or related to economic structure? Is it the cause of China’s economic imbalance or the result? And what kind of deep-rooted problems in the macro economy does it reflect? All these questions call for deep thought,said Zhang Monan,a

  20. Dry Deposition from Sahara Sources Regions of Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Douaiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, wide coverage, and endurance. In the present work, the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast. This particular case was chosen based on the strong dry removal that occurred, rendering it ideal for examining the deposition processes. The simulation of synoptic conditions and dry deposition of four dust particles including clay, small silt, large silt, and sand was performed with Eta model, coupled with a desert dust cycle module. The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations located in Gran Canaria, and various satellite images such as European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for the period in question.

  1. Des arbres et des herbes aux marges du Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Bernus, Edmond

    1992-01-01

    Le Sahara possède une végétation qui est d'autant plus précieuse pour ses habitants qu'elle est rare. Les herbes, prairies d'"éphémères" dans les zones aux pluies les plus aléatoires, ou vivaces et annuelles plus régulières, fournissent un fourrage très recherché. Dans les marges méridionales des herbes permettent des ramassages de graines qui donnent aux nomades des nourritures appréciées. Mil, sorgho et riz poussent à l'état spontané : les deux premiers ont été domestiqués dans cette région...

  2. Is the Hybrid Threat a True Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Raugh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the “hybrid threat” discussed in General Marty Dempsey’s 2015 United States National Military Strategy make logical sense? In this paper I define the national security threat risk assessment process, examine the most significant US security threats, and study the hybrid threat. I conclude that the hybrid threat is the one that could most exploit our nation’s critical vulnerabilities- both from a security and foreign policy perspective. I conclude with a study of security and economic methods to reduce this threat.

  3. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  4. Were Rivers Flowing across the Sahara During the Last Interglacial? Implications for Human Migration through Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Coulthard, T.; Ramirez, J.; Barton, N.; Rogerson, M.; Bruecher, T.

    2013-01-01

    Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c. 100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three r...

  5. Foreign direct investment determinants in Sub-Sahara Africa: A co-integration analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Bende-Nabende

    2002-01-01

    This study provides an empirical assessment of the factors that significantly influence the long-run transnational corporations' investment decision making process in Sub-Sahara Africa. The empirical evidence based on a co-integration analysis of 19 countries suggests that the most dominant long-run determinants of FDI in Sub-Sahara Africa are market growth, export-orientation policy and FDI liberalisation. These are followed by real exchange rates and market size. Bottom on the list is openn...

  6. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  7. The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    The timing and development of Holocene human occupation in the now hyperarid Sahara has major implications for understanding links between climate change, demography and cultural adaptation. Here we use summed probability distributions from 3287 calibrated 14C dates from 1011 archaeological sites to demonstrate a major and rapid demographic shift between 10,500 and 5500 years BP. This event corresponds with the African Humid Period (AHP) and is sub-continental in scale, indicating climate as the prime factor driving broad-scale population dynamics in northern Africa. Furthermore, by providing a high temporal resolution proxy for effective carrying capacity our population curve offers an independent estimate of environmental change in northern Africa, indicating a temporal delay in the terrestrial response to atmospheric climate change. These results highlight the degree to which human demography is a function of environment at the appropriate scale of observation in both time and space and sheds important new light on the social response to global environmental change.

  8. Threats to Bitcoin Software

    OpenAIRE

    Kateraas, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Collect and analyse threat models to the Bitcoin ecosystem and its software. The create misuse case, attack trees, and sequence diagrams of the threats. Create a malicious client from the gathered threat models. Once the development of the client is complete, test the client and evaluate its performance. From this, assess the security of the Bitcoin software.

  9. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  10. Reconstruction of exposure histories of meteorites from Antarctica and the Sahara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10Be, 14C, and 26Al were analyzed in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites from the Acfer region in the Algerian Sahara and from the Allan Hills/Antarctica. Exposure histories and terrestrial ages could be determined. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs

  11. Le Sahara marocain : désenclavement et développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL MAHJOUB CHMOURK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Moroccan Sahara: opening-up and sustainable development. The enclosing of the Moroccan Sahara results from the inversion and old situation. Indeed, during a very long time, the area was a way of passage, a platform in the south of Morocco. In testify the Tran-Saharan commercial routes, which were the main transportation routes back in time, like the goal of integration of the area in the country and compared to western Africa. It is with the economic crisis, and even a political crisis causing a fold on itself of this area until 1975.Since Sahara belongs to Morocco, it still profits a considerable public effort to carry out its opening-up and its economic insertion within the country. Massive investments carried out by the State give to the area the structuring which it missed. Which are the aspects of the Sahara development? Which role played the State in this development? The intervention of the State contributes to bring effective solutions to the problem of the opening-up of this surrounding space?

  12. Reconstruction of exposure histories of meteorites from Antarctica and the Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupert, U.; Neumann, S.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentraleinrichtung fuer Strahlenschutz (ZfS); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bonani, G.; Hajdas, I.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al were analyzed in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites from the Acfer region in the Algerian Sahara and from the Allan Hills/Antarctica. Exposure histories and terrestrial ages could be determined. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  13. Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

  14. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  15. Alternative Threat Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. King III

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many challenges facing risk analysis practitioners, perhaps the most difficult to overcome is in the field of terrorist threat analysis. When estimating the threat associated with naturally occurring events, historical data provides a great deal of insight into the frequency of those events. Threat associated with accidents applies many operations research tools to gauge future failure-rates (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis being perhaps the most widely known. However, estimating the probability of an individual's or group's attacking a specific (or even a generic target is an element of risk analysis in which art and intuition are applied far more regularly than is science.

  16. Facing ambiguous threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

  17. The Changing Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siboni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this conference is to try to understand the changes in the threat against the State of Israel that have taken place in recent years, and to examine the components of the optimal response to the threat. Today’s seminar is organized within the framework of the INSS Military and Strategic Affairs Program, which aims to enhance the public discourse on subjects relevant to this discipline through conferences and the Military and Strategic Affairs journal.

  18. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inlfammatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey:In vivo approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6). Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline). In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration) reduced significantly (P Conclusions:Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the anti-inflammatory activity.

  19. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets. PMID:26387526

  20. Fiddling in biodiversity hotspots while deserts burn? Collapse of the Sahara's megafauna

    OpenAIRE

    Durant, S. M.; Woodroffe, R.; Belbachir, F.; Cornforth, W. A.; Jacobson, A.; Pettorelli, N.; Purchase, G.; Wacher, T.; De Ornellas, P.; Ransom, C.; Baillie, J.; Bashir, S.; Newby, J.; Abáigar, T.; M. Cano

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots understandably attract considerable conservation attention. However, deserts are rarely viewed as conservation priority areas, due to their relatively low productivity, yet these systems are home to unique species, adapted to harsh and highly variable environments. While global attention has been focused on hotspots, the world's largest tropical desert, the Sahara, has suffered a catastrophic decline in megafauna. Of 14 large vertebrates that have historically occurred i...

  1. Tingkat Kepuasan Ibu Nifas Terhadap Pelayanan Asuhan Kebidanan di Klinik Sahara Padangsidimpuan Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: From year to year request of society to active role of midwife in giving service increasing. Efficacy of service of certifiable health very influenced by attitude officer of health when giving service of health so that patient can feel that service of required health very is gratifying of x'self. Target of research: To know Storey, Level Satisfaction Of Mother Child bed To service of midwifery upbringing in Clinic of Sahara Padangsidimpuan Year 2015. Methodologies: this Desa...

  2. Mediascapes of Human Rights: Emergent Forms of Digital Activism for the Western Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Deubel, Tara F.

    2015-01-01

    In the disputed Western Sahara territory that has remained under Moroccan state control since 1975, Sahrawi political activists who promote self-determination continue to experience forms of state repression and silencing of human rights activism by Moroccan state authorities. Amidst a highly charged political climate, the rapid influx of new digital media sources over the past decade has increased access between Sahrawi activists and diverse public audiences worldwide. Establishing direct li...

  3. Dynamics of Green Sahara Periods and Their Role in Hominin Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Larrasoaña, Juan C.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomically forced insolation changes have driven monsoon dynamics and recurrent humid episodes in North Africa, resulting in green Sahara Periods (GSPs) with savannah expansion throughout most of the desert. Despite their potential for expanding the area of prime hominin habitats and favouring out-of-Africa dispersals, GSPs have not been incorporated into the narrative of hominin evolution due to poor knowledge of their timing, dynamics and landscape composition at evolutionary timescales...

  4. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  5. Comparing environmental changes and habitability settings in the geological history of Sahara and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, G. G.; Sabbadini, R.; Komatsu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Sahara has experienced during its long geological history a large number of climatic changes from humid conditions (with savanna-type environments) to dry conditions (with hot desert environments). Therefore, since the late Miocene (?), Sahara experienced periods with rivers, lakes, deltas, and swamps alternated with dry periods with strong aeolian activity and the formation of deflation surface and sand seas. The fluvio-lacustrine deposits formed during humid periods have been strongly reworked by wind processes during the dry periods leaving only the coarse-grained portion of the sediments (conglomerate to rudite). This highly efficient reworking eeolian mechanism affected both of the fluvial and deltaic channel deposits and the large inland lakes, flood plains and other waterlogged areas. The former occurs, at present day, as morphological features and coarse-grained remnants of large fluvial systems whereas the latter are mostly buried below sand seas such as Grand Erg Oriental, Erg Chech, and Azawad. While the sand to silt material accumulated (mostly by saltation) in the sand seas and sand sheets, the finer portion (able to enter the wind as suspended material) was probably swallowed in the large- scale atmospheric circulation redistributed in Sahara itself, in adjacent continents (mostly Europe and South America), and oceans. This geological setting is similar to the one of Mars where fluvial deposits and morphologies abound as largely eroded discontinuous remains. Large-scale alluvial basins and terminal lakes or waterlogged areas (such as the allucial plain in Zephyria) have been largely present in the Martian Noachian-Hesperian time (and possibly even later) but relatively scanty sedimentary deposits testify their existence. When deposits are present they are basically coarse-grained (e.g. the meandering channels of the Eberswalde deltaic plain) due to the long lasting aeolian erosion similarly than the Sahara example. The wind, that dominated the long

  6. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.

  7. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  8. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  9. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HAIs HICPAC One & Only Campaign A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... need to be aware of a very serious threat to their health - the reuse of needles or ...

  10. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of three endemic plants from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELmouloud Bouchouka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Saharan plants are known by their high content of antioxidant products like phenolic compounds due to the extreme climatic conditions. They constitute the basis of treatments used by local population for various diseases. The purposes of this study were to measure the total phenolic compounds and total fl avonoid compounds, to determine antioxidant capacity, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three wild Saharan medicinal plants. Material and methods. Hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of ethanol:water extract and the residu of the extracted aqueous layer of Ferula vesceritensis fruits, Genista saharae aerial parts and Zilla macropterae fruits were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method against: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. In addition, the total phenolic compounds and total fl avonoids and antioxydant activity using DPPH test of ethyl acetate fractions (EAF of plant parts studied were investigated. Gallic acid, quercetin and vitamin C were used for these parameters. Results. Among the extracts tested, ethyl acetate fractions of all plants and hexane fraction of F. vesceritensis showed activity against S. aureus. Good activity was shown by EAF of G. saharae. According to the results, it is observed that Z. macropterae fruits possess a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion. The results indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction of G. sahara Aerial parts possesses a good antibacterial activity against S. aureus, which justifi es its use in traditional medicine for treating respiratory diseases. Furthermore, evaluation of in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ethyl acetate fractions of these plants, particular Z. macroptera fruits, has also provided interesting results. Zilla macroptera fruits may therefore be a good source of antioxidants.

  11. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  12. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  13. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tranquilli

    Full Text Available Numerous protected areas (PAs have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  14. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  15. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Coulthard

    Full Text Available Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  16. Chlorine-36 and noble gases in deep groundwaters from the northeastern Sahara (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwaters occurring in the Northeastern Sahara (Algeria-Tunisia and Libya) constitute huge water reservoirs whose major component is very old (Paleowaters). Water managers are there facing problems related to resource management in terms of estimating budget parameters (recharge, evaporation, leakage, mixing), degradation of the water quality, but also the renewable rate (residence time). The Continental Intercalaire from Sahara is one of the largest confined aquifers in the world. The aquifer material is made of complex layers of sandstone alternating with clayish levels. The depth of the aquifer ranges between 400 and 1800 metres giving rise to temperature up to 70 deg. C and total dissolved salts of 1.5 to 5 g.l-1, in mainly Ci-Na-SO4. Sampled groundwaters show a quite wide range of 36Cl contents. The space distribution of 36Cl contents fits fairly well with what is known about the piezometric contours of the aquifer: a decrease is observed from recharge to discharge zones. If this decrease is radioactive decay, it can be interpreted in terms of groundwaters transit time. Maximum time intervals of about 3 halflives may be computed using 36Cl specific activities. In order to evaluate the epigene production, Measurements were performed on chloride extracted by leaching from a soil profile. The results are the same order of magnitude as for groundwater chloride sampled near recharge areas and could reflect the true value of initial 36Cl input

  17. Remote monitoring of aerosol layers over Sofia during Sahara dust transport episode (April, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Dimitar; Grigorov, Ivan; Deleva, Atanaska; Kolev, Nikolay; Peshev, Zahari; Kolarov, Georgi; Donev, Evgeni; Ivanov, Danko

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present results of lidar remote sensing of aerosol layers in the atmosphere above Sofia during an episode of Sahara dust transport, 02-07 April, 2012. The investigations were made using two lidar systems, one equipped with a CuBr-vapor laser, emitting at wavelength 510.6 nm, and a second one - with Nd:YAG laser, at wavelengths 1064 nm and 532 nm. The results of lidar measurements are presented in terms of vertical atmospheric backscatter coefficient profiles and color maps of the aerosol stratification evolution. The involved into discussions ceilometer data (CHM 15k ceilometer) and satellite data from CALIPSO lidar, enhance the synergy of observations. Conclusion about atmospheric aerosol's origin was made upon analyses of the information of weather-forecast maps provided by the Forecast system of Barcelona Supercomputing Centre, which are accessible via Internet. Additional information was provided by calculations of the backward air mass trajectories, using online software of NOAA about HYSPLIT model. The comparison between the data from the two lidars and the ceilometer showed similar behavior of aerosol layers development in the atmosphere above Sofia. All information about aerosol layers origin, their altitude above ground, persistence during lidar observations, confirmed the conclusion of observation of a long-distance Sahara dust transport beyond Balkans and Sofia. An interesting completion of CALIPSO lidar and ground based lidars results of measurement is presented in case of thick opaque cloud layer in the atmosphere, which slices the path of lidar sensing in both directions.

  18. Geochemical variations in aeolian mineral particles from the Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Castillo, Sonia; Alastuey, Andrés; Cuevas, Emilio; Herrmann, Ludger; Mounkaila, Mohammed; Elvira, Josep; Gibbons, Wes

    2006-10-01

    The Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor runs from Chad to Mauritania and expels huge amounts of mineral aerosols into the Atlantic Ocean. Data on samples collected from Algeria, Chad, Niger, and Western Sahara illustrate how corridor dust mineralogy and chemistry relate to geological source and weathering/transport history. Dusts sourced directly from igneous and metamorphic massifs are geochemically immature, retaining soluble cations (e.g., K, Na, Rb, Sr) and accessory minerals containing HFSE (e.g., Zr, Hf, U, Th) and REE. In contrast, silicate dust chemistry in desert basins (e.g., Bodélé Depression) is influenced by a longer history of transport, physical winnowing (e.g., loss of Zr, Hf, Th), chemical leaching (e.g., loss of Na, K, Rb), and mixing with intrabasinal materials such as diatoms and evaporitic salts. Mineral aerosols blown along the corridor by the winter Harmattan winds mix these basinal and basement materials. Dusts blown into the corridor from sub-Saharan Africa during the summer monsoon source from deeply chemically weathered terrains and are therefore likely to be more kaolinitic and stripped of mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Mg, Ca, LILE), but retain immobile and resistant elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, REE). Finally, dusts blown southwestwards into the corridor from along the Atlantic Coastal Basin will be enriched in carbonate from Mesozoic-Cenozoic marine limestones, depleted in Th, Nb, and Ta, and locally contaminated by uranium-bearing phosphate deposits. PMID:16600327

  19. Costa Rica - An Army-less Nation Facing External Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Dall, Nana; Hammer Holm, Lasse; Kaas-Claesson, Kristina; McCay Martinez, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to explain how Costa Rica deal with external threats. Having abolished their military in 1948, the small state of Costa Rica situated in the conflict-ridden region of Central America, is internationally portrayed as an inspirational nation upholding peace and high morality. This has raised questions in regards to how Costa Rica upholds security in the event of threat. The project applies the International Relations theories of neo-liberalism and neo-realism to two cases: the...

  20. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  1. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara); Prospeccion de recursos hidricos subterraneos en el area de Zug (Tiris, Sahara Occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, B.; Villarroya, F.; Rebollo, L. F.; Olaiz, A.; Lopez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  2. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  3. Adverse drug reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub Sahara Africa: A study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew F.; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Michael, Kidane; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pharmacovigilance centers have been established in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) in recent years. Their focus has been on ADRs to drugs for communicable diseases. Little is known about ADRs caused by drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, although its burden is increasing rapidly in SSA. Obj

  4. Revising Australia's Design Basis Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia’s Design Basis Threat (DBT) was revised in 2012, ten years after the previous review. Using the IAEA’s Nuclear Security Series Guidance document on DBTs the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office used an interagency process to devise a series of threat profiles which were distilled into the final DBT. Challenges to the review process included setting the scope, treating insider, cyber and air-borne threats, and interpretation of the final product. (author)

  5. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  6. Recurrent dreams: Recurring threat simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, K; Revonsuo, A

    2006-06-01

    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte (2006) have made a valuable contribution to the empirical testing of the Threat Simulation Theory (TST) (Revonsuo, 2000a) in recurrent dreams. For the most part, their results are in accordance with the theory, while some findings seem to conflict with the predictions of TST. In our commentary, we consider some alternative ways to interpret the results, and we conclude that many prominent features of most recurrent dreams seem to be manifestations of a threat simulation function, leading to repeated rehearsal of threat perception and avoidance, but a minority of recurrent dreams seem to have origins unrelated to threat simulation. PMID:16019227

  7. Structure, composition, and location of organic matter in the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    CERN Document Server

    Piani, Laurette; Beyssac, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Derenne, Sylvie; Guillou, Corentin Le; Marrocchi, Yves; Mostefaoui, Smail; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Thomen, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) of an unequilibrated enstatite chondrite Sahara (SAH) 97096 has been investigated using a battery of analytical techniques. As the enstatite chondrites are thought to have formed in a reduced environment at higher temperatures than carbonaceous chondrites, they constitute an interesting comparative material to test the heterogeneities of the IOM in the solar system and to constrain the processes that could affect IOM during solar system evolution. The SAH 97096 IOM is found in situ: as submicrometer grains in the network of fine-grained matrix occurring mostly around chondrules and as inclusions in metallic nodules, where the carbonaceous matter appears to be more graphitized. IOM in these two settings has very similar $\\delta^{15}N$ and $\\delta^{13}C$; this supports the idea that graphitized inclusions in metal could be formed by metal catalytic graphitization of matrix IOM. A detailed comparison between the IOM extracted from a fresh part and a terrestrially weathered part...

  8. Local Human Development in contexts of permanent crisis: Women’s experiences in the Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López Belloso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sahrawi women are active agents in the social dynamics of the refugee camps, in which they have developeda number of coping strategies to overcome the hardships of a deteriorating humanitarian situation. Since the outbreak of the con#ict and the forced settlement in Tindouf, Algeria, women have been responsible for the entire management of refugee camps, assuming leadership roles in many sectors of society.This paper highlights the Sahrawi women’s contribution to the process of local human development in a context of protracted refuge such as the one in the Western Sahara. In addition to the enlargement of the refugee population’s capacities in relation to material and physical assets, social and organizational abilities, and motivational strengths, one of the major achievements of Sahrawi women has been their own individual and collective process of empowerment within the camp life.

  9. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdad Khiati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions: The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  10. Comparison of efifcacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods:Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results:The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions:The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  11. Wars Without Beginning or End: Violent Political Organizations and Irregular Warfare in the Sahel-Sahara

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Olivier; Skillicorn, David

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the structure and spatial patterns of violent political organizations in the Sahel-Sahara, a region characterized by growing political instability over the last 20 years. Drawing on a public collection of disaggregated data, the article uses network science to represent alliances and conflicts of 179 organizations that were involved in violent events between 1997 and 2014. To this end, we combine two spectral embedding techniques that have previously been considered separately: one for directed graphs (relationships are asymmetric), and one for signed graphs (relationships are positive or negative). Our result show that groups that are net attackers are indistinguishable at the level of their individual behavior, but clearly separate into pro- and anti-political violence based on the groups to which they are close. The second part of the article maps a series of 389 events related to nine Trans-Saharan Islamist groups between 2004 and 2014. Spatial analysis suggests that cross-border mov...

  12. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  13. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  14. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Helas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  15. Temporal assessment of wind energy resource at four locations in Algerian Sahara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Work: wind energy assessment at four locations in Algerian Sahara with reactualization of wind data (last decade). • Annual, seasonal and monthly wind energy efficiency extractable for wind energy conversion system of 600 kW rated capacity. • Regions situated in extreme south of Algeria are windiest. • The better wind energy potential is given in hottest months in Summer and Spring. - Abstract: This paper presents a statistical analysis of wind characteristics of four locations situated in Algerian Sahara, namely Bordj Badji Mokhtar, Djanet, Illizi and Tamanrasset, using Weibull distribution function on wind speed data at 10 m height collected in the last decade by the Algerian Meteorological Office. The monthly, seasonal and annual variations were examined by statistical analyses, while wind speeds at 50 m were assessed by extrapolating the 2-parameter Weibull using the power law. It is shown that Bordj Badji Mokhtar has the highest wind potential with the annual mean wind speed Vm = 5 m/s. The average monthly mean wind speed variation ranged from 2.54 m/s at Tamanrasset to 4.94 m/s at Bordj Badji Mokhtar, while the minimum seasonal mean wind speed is recorded at Djanet with 2.65 m/s and the maximum is found to be 5.79 m/s at Bordj Badji Mokhtar. Annual wind power density ranged from 48 W/m2 at Tamanrasset to 204 W/m2 at Bordj Badji Mokhtar is recorded. Weibull parameters k and A together were estimated and compared with the variation of air temperature for the respective locations. Results indicate that wind speed is most important and most uniform in hottest periods. Additionally, the analysis of energy efficiency for wind turbine of 600 kW rated capacity was made for calculating electricity generation and capacity factor for all periods

  16. Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2007-01-01

    Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

  17. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  18. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  19. Threat Modelling for Active Directory

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the security threats that can arise against an Active Directory server when it is included in a Web application. The approach is based on the STRIDE classification methodology. The paper also provides outline descriptions of countermeasures that can be deployed to protect against the different threats and vulnerabilities identified here.

  20. The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  1. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

    2011-07-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

  2. The Sahara from the Middle Jurassic to the Middle Cretaceous: Data on environments and climates based on outcrops in the Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busson, G.; Cornée, A.

    The period investigated, succeeded the Upper Triassic and Liassic-Lower Dogger arid sedimentation which was characterized by the development of large evaporitic deposits. The north-eastern part of the Algerian Sahara is specially interesting as it constitutes part of the few dated continental Jurassic outcrops in North Africa (except in the Maghreb). Continental Lower-Middle Cretaceous is also well developed in the same region. The grading of these continental series into marine series particularly in the north-eastern part of the Maghreb has been investigated from an adequate number of well spaced wells. The Middle-Upper Jurassic (Lower Taouratine) consists of an argillaceous-sandy-ferruginous series, often grey coloured and rich in filicean wood and vertebrate remains in some levels. The ferralitic alteration products denote a more humid climate than that which prevailed during the Liassic-Lower-Dogger times. These products alternate with sandy conglomeratic events confirming the influences of alternating important run-off and aeolian winnowing. The large continental Lower and Middle Cretaceous detrital nappes are discussed. They constitute the uppermost part of the series, south of the Tinrhert Hamada (Alba-Vraconian series with the more detrital lateral equivalent), west of Tademait (Gara Samani). Data on lithology and paleobiology (fishes, Dinosaurs, other vertebrates, pelecypods, gastropods, wood debris, palynoflora) permit the reconstruction of the palaeo-environment and the conditions of deposition. This is similar to the sub-desertic terrestrial sedimentation by violent and ephemeral hydrodynamism model based on the modern Darfour example. The desertic conditions which prevailed in these Saharan areas during the Cretaceous are reflected as well as their possible consequences on the sedimentation of nearby oceanic areas (Atlantic and Tethys). This detrital sedimentation is finally reviewed in the context of its tectonic origins and an attempt is made to

  3. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  4. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-01-01

    In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austr...

  5. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  6. Stereotype Threat as Validity Threat: The Anxiety-Sex-Threat Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana R.; Prieto, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been invoked to explain underperformance on a variety of groups for whom the stereotypes allege inferior cognitive abilities. In math testing, stereotype threat has been used to explain sex differences in test performance. This paper describes an experimental study on a large sample (n = 313), in which the role of anxiety and…

  7. Cognitive and physiological antecedents of threat and challenge appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaka, J; Blascovich, J; Kibler, J; Ernst, J M

    1997-07-01

    Cognitive appraisal theories of stress and emotion propose that cognitive appraisals precede physiological responses, whereas peripheralist theories propose that physiological arousal precedes cognitive processes. Three studies examined this issue regarding threat and challenge responses to potential stress. Study 1 supported cognitive appraisal theory by demonstrating that threat and challenge cognitive appraisals and physiological responses could be elicited experimentally by manipulating instructional set. Studies 2 and 3, in contrast, found that manipulations of physiological response patterns consistent with challenge and threat did not result in corresponding changes in cognitive appraisal. Appraisals in Study 3, however, were related to subjective pain independent of the physiological manipulation. These studies suggest a central role for cognitive appraisal processes in elicitation of threat and challenge responses to potentially stressful situations. PMID:9216079

  8. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children. PMID:26613687

  9. Elucidating an Affective Pain Circuit that Creates a Threat Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung; Soleiman, Matthew T; Soden, Marta E; Zweifel, Larry S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2015-07-16

    Animals learn to avoid harmful situations by associating a neutral stimulus with a painful one, resulting in a stable threat memory. In mammals, this form of learning requires the amygdala. Although pain is the main driver of aversive learning, the mechanism that transmits pain signals to the amygdala is not well resolved. Here, we show that neurons expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the parabrachial nucleus are critical for relaying pain signals to the central nucleus of amygdala and that this pathway may transduce the affective motivational aspects of pain. Genetic silencing of CGRP neurons blocks pain responses and memory formation, whereas their optogenetic stimulation produces defensive responses and a threat memory. The pain-recipient neurons in the central amygdala expressing CGRP receptors are also critical for establishing a threat memory. The identification of the neural circuit conveying affective pain signals may be pertinent for treating pain conditions with psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:26186190

  10. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  11. Heat Waves Are Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159694.html Heat Waves Are Health Threats Drink plenty of water and ... 2016 SATURDAY, July 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heat waves are more than uncomfortable, they can be deadly. ...

  12. Partaking in the global movement for occupational mental health: what challenges and ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilola Olayinka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an ongoing global movement for the entrenchment of occupational mental health as an integral part of occupational health and safety schemes. Aside from being a fundamental human right issue, this move has been demonstrated to be of cost-benefit in terms of workplace productivity and general economic growth. Despite being among the regions most prone to the human and economic repercussions of work-related mental health problems by reason of her socio-economic circumstance; sub-Sahara Africa is yet to fully plug into this movement. With a view to make recommendations on the ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa, this paper examines the current state of and the barriers to effective occupational mental health policy and practice in the region.

  13. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  14. Identity, Power, and Threat Perception

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Rousseau; Rocio Garcia-Retamero

    2007-01-01

    Realists in international relations and realistic conflict theorists in social psychology argue that the perception of threat in intergroup conflict is a function of power asymmetries between groups. In contrast, social constructivists and social identity theorists argue that a shared sense of identity can reduce perceptions of intergroup threat. In this article, we test these competing arguments using three laboratory experiments conducted in two different countries (Spain and the United Sta...

  15. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  16. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  17. Crocodiles in the Sahara Desert: An Update of Distribution, Habitats and Population Status for Conservation Planning in Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, José C.; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Sierra, Pablo; Sillero, Neftalí; Tarroso, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Background Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. Me...

  18. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Laallam, Hadda; Boughediri, Larbi; Bissati, Samia; Menasria, Taha; Mouzaoui, Mohamed S.; Hadjadj, Soumia; Hammoudi, Rokia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Esch...

  19. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hadda eLAALLAM; Larbi eBOUGHEDIRI; Samia eBISSATI; Taha eMENASRIA; Mohamed Saïd eMOUZAOUI; Soumia eHADJAJ; Rokia eHAMMOUDI; Haroun eChenchouni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components.Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins and its physicochemical characteristics.Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four pathogenic bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Es...

  20. The East-Asian economic growth miracle : lessons for sub-Sahara Africa / Stephanie van der Westhuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Stephanié

    2003-01-01

    The economic performance of eight East Asian countries - Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia - have been described as the "East Asian Miracle" because of their economies' significant growth since the 1960s. In these eight countries real per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rose twice as fast as in any other region between 1965 and 1990. In contrast, much of Sub-Sahara African (SSA) remains in poverty with slow growth in many SSA...

  1. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along landuse and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Pierce, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our study focuses on the keystone species Acacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara. Bruchids infest its seeds and reduce their viability and germination, but ingestion by ruminant herbivores diminishes infestation levels and enhances/promotes seed viability and germination. The degree of these effects seems to be correlated with animal body mass. Signific...

  2. Sahara dust, ocean spray, volcanoes, biomass burning: pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.; Brothers, L.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M.

    2009-10-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1960 and 3180 m, has been carried out since 2002. The samples, accumulated over about 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-). About 35% of the weekly samples had very low ion contents, with pH mostly above 5 and conductivity below 10 μS/cm. 10-days back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas, with little or no obvious pollution sources. About 65%, however, were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 μS/cm. The corresponding back trajectories clearly showed that air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, active volcanoes, and the ocean, with episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference. Enhanced SO42- and NO3+ were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixel observations with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O in nitrate show that nitrate in the samples is indeed a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors. Some SO42-, about 10% of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were encountered by about 10% of all trajectories. Enhanced Na+, K+, and Cl- were found to originate from ocean spray sources. They were associated with winds providing Atlantic air masses to the receptor site within less than 5 days. Episodes of enhanced Ca2+ and Mg2+ were found to be associated with air masses from African deserts. Satellite aerosol data confirm desert sources both on the Northern (Sahara) as on the Southern Hemisphere (Namib), depending on the season. A few significant PO43- peaks are related with air masses originating from North African phosphate mining fields.

  3. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  4. DENGUE: GLOBAL THREAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease, which is currently an expanding global problem. Four closely related dengue serotypes cause the disease, which ranges from asymptomatic infection to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever (DF), and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF is characterized by fever, bleeding diathesis, and a tendency to develop a potentially fatal shock syndrome. Dengue infection with organ impairment mainly involves the central nervous system and the liver. Consistent hematological findings include vasculopathy, coagulopathy, and thrombocytopenia. Laboratory diagnosis includes virus isolation, serology, and detection of dengue ribonucleic acid. Successful treatment, which is mainly supportive, depends on early recognition of the disease and careful monitoring for shock. A severity-based revised dengue classification for medical interventions has been developed and validated in many countries. There is no specific dengue treatment, and prevention is currently limited to vector control measures. The world's first, large-scale dengue vaccine efficacy study demonstrated its efficacy and a reduction of dengue disease severity with a good safety profile in a study of more than 30,000 volunteers from Asia and Latin America. PMID:26506726

  5. Dengue: a global threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule

    2015-01-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is currently an expanding global problem. The disease is caused by four closely related dengue serotypes; it ranges from asymptomatic infection to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF is characterized by fever, bleeding diathesis and a tendency to develop apotentially fatal shock syndrome. Dengue infection with organ impairment mainly involves the central nervous system and liver. Consistent hematological findings include vasculopathy, coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia. Laboratory diagnoses include virus isolation, serology, and detection ofdengue ribonucleic acid. Successful treatment, which is mainly supportive, depends on early recognition of the disease and careful monitoring for shock. A severity-based revised dengue classification for medical interventions has been developed and validated in many countries. So far however, there has not been any specific dengue treatment; prevention is currently limited to vector control measures. The world's first, large-scale dengue vaccine, efficacy study demonstrated its efficacy and a reduction of dengue's severity in a study of more than 10,000 volunteers in Asia. Initial safety data are consistent with a good safety profile. PMID:25764623

  6. Model Simulations of Complex Dust Emissions over the Sahara during the West African Monsoon Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cavazos-Guerra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing limitations in ground-based observations in remote areas in West Africa determine the dependence on numerical models to represent the atmospheric mechanisms that contribute to dust outbreaks at different space-time scales. In this work, the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Chemistry (WRF-Chem model using the GOCART dust scheme is evaluated. The period comprises the West African Monsoon onset phase (the 7th to 12th of June, 2006 coinciding with the AMMA Special Observing Period (SOP. Different features in the horizontal and vertical dynamical structure of the Saharan atmosphere are analyzed with a combination of satellite and ground-based observations and model experimentation at 10 and 30 km model resolution. The main features of key Saharan dust processes during summer are identifiable, and WRF-CHEM replicates these adequately. Observations and model analyses have shown that cold pools (haboobs contributed a substantial proportion of total dust during the study period. The comparative analysis between observations and WRF-Chem simulations demonstrates the model efficiency to simulate the spatial and 3D structure of dust transport over the Sahara and Sahel. There is, therefore, a strong basis for accurate forecasting of dust events associated with synoptic scale events when model dust emission parameterization is suitably calibrated.

  7. The Right to Self-Determination and Natural Resources: The Case of Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Morten Haugen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate, fish and possibly oil and gas all constitute important natural resources found on the territory and in the waters of Western Sahara. The importance of these natural resources must be recognised in order to understand the stalemate in the attempted process of decolonisation from Morocco which has been going on for more than 30 years. The article analyses the ‘resource dimension’ of the right to self-determination, as recognised in human rights treaties and in Resolution III of the UN Conference on the Law of the Seas, as well as several resolutions from the United Nations General Assembly. If the resources are exploited in a manner which does not benefit the peoples seeking to enjoy the right to self-determination, such exploitation is illegal. The article shows that the current exploitation takes place in a manner contrary to the interests of the local population, the Saharawis. The article also demonstrates that recent license agreements with Saharawi authorities in the field of oil and gas, signal a potentially new and constructive approach by international corporations.

  8. Dynamics of green Sahara periods and their role in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrasoaña, Juan C; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J

    2013-01-01

    Astronomically forced insolation changes have driven monsoon dynamics and recurrent humid episodes in North Africa, resulting in green Sahara Periods (GSPs) with savannah expansion throughout most of the desert. Despite their potential for expanding the area of prime hominin habitats and favouring out-of-Africa dispersals, GSPs have not been incorporated into the narrative of hominin evolution due to poor knowledge of their timing, dynamics and landscape composition at evolutionary timescales. We present a compilation of continental and marine paleoenvironmental records from within and around North Africa, which enables identification of over 230 GSPs within the last 8 million years. By combining the main climatological determinants of woody cover in tropical Africa with paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic data for representative (Holocene and Eemian) GSPs, we estimate precipitation regimes and habitat distributions during GSPs. Their chronology is consistent with the ages of Saharan archeological and fossil hominin sites. Each GSP took 2-3 kyr to develop, peaked over 4-8 kyr, biogeographically connected the African tropics to African and Eurasian mid latitudes, and ended within 2-3 kyr, which resulted in rapid habitat fragmentation. We argue that the well-dated succession of GSPs presented here may have played an important role in migration and evolution of hominins. PMID:24146882

  9. Satellite imagery and airborne geophysics for geologic mapping of the Edembo area, Eastern Hoggar (Algerian Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamri, Takfarinas; Djemaï, Safouane; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Zoheir, Basem; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Amara, Massinissa

    2016-03-01

    Satellite imagery combined with airborne geophysical data and field observations were employed for new geologic mapping of the Edembo area in the Eastern Hoggar (Tuareg Shield, Sahara). Multi-spectral band fusion, filtering, and transformation techniques, i.e., band combination, band-rationing and principal component analysis of ETM+ and ASTER data are used for better spectral discrimination of the different rocks units. A thematic map assessed by field data and available geologic information is compiled by supervised classification of satellite data with high overall accuracy (>90%). The automated extraction technique efficiently aided the detection of the structural lineaments, i.e., faults, shear zones, and joints. Airborne magnetic and Gamma-ray spectrometry data showed the pervasiveness of the large structures beneath the Paleozoic sedimentary cover and aeolian sands. The aeroradiometric K-range is used for discrimination of the high-K granitoids of Djanet from the peralumineous granites of Edembo, and to verify the Silurian sediments with their high K-bearing minerals. The new geological map is considered to be a high resolution improvement on all pre-existing maps of this hardly accessible area in the Tuareg Shield. Integration of the airborne geophysical and space-borne imagery data can hence provide a rapid means of geologically mapping areas hitherto poorly known or difficult to access.

  10. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct threat. 36.208 Section 36.208... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.208 Direct threat. (a) This part does not... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) Direct threat means a...

  11. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  12. Use of isotopes to study groundwater recharge in arid zones: Application to the crystalline Ahaggar massif (central Sahara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the crystalline and igneous Ahaggar massif, the water resources are found in some small-scale phreatic aquifers which are recharged by sporadic wadi floods. The most favourable aquifer zones are localized in the valleys, consisting of three overlying levels of varying importance: the alluvial aquifer, the weathered zone of the underlying substratum, and the deep aquifer of fissured basement, the extent of which is not limited only to wadis. In order to evaluate the recharge to the different aquifers, chemical and isotopic analyses have been carried out on a hundred samples taken at different depths. Measurements of oxygen-18, deuterium, carbon-13, carbon-14 and tritium have been carried out on these samples

  13. Chlorine-36 and noble gases in deep groundwaters from the Northeastern Sahara (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The groundwaters occurring in the Northeastern Sahara (Algeria-Tunisia and Libya) constitute huge water reservoirs whose major component is very old (Paleowaters). Water managers are there facing problems related to resource management in terms of estimating budget parameters (recharge, evaporation, leakage, mixing), degradation of the water quality, but also the renewable rate (residence time). The Continental Intercalaire from Sahara is one of the largest confined aquifers in the world. The aquifer material is made of complex layers of sandstone alternating with clayish levels. The depth of the aquifer ranges between 400 and 1800 metres giving rise to temperature up to 70 deg. C and total dissolved salts of 1.5 to 5 g.l-1, in mainly Ci-Na-SO4. Sampled groundwaters show a quite wide range of 36Cl contents, ranging from 8 to 99 10-15 at.at-1, expressed as 36Cl/Cl atomic ratio. The space distribution of 36Cl contents fits fairly well with what is known about the piezometric contours of the aquifer: a decrease is observed from recharge to discharge zones. If this decrease is radioactive decay, it can be interpreted in terms of groundwaters transit time. Maximum time intervals of about 3 half-lives (900 Ka) may be computed using 36Cl specific activities (at.l-1). In order to evaluate the epigene production, Measurements were performed on chloride extracted by leaching from a soil profile. The results are the same order of magnitude (10-15 at.at-1) as for groundwater chloride sampled near recharge areas and could reflect the true value of initial 36Cl input. However, the values measured on the groundwaters sampled near recharge areas (100 Km) are equivalent (order of magnitude: 108 at.l-1) when compared to the calculated values for precipitations in the region. The equivalence between the measured activity in this zone and the expected initial activity could thus be explained by two phenomena: dissolution of Cl- within the aquifer, and/or radioactive decay

  14. Sahara dust, ocean spray, volcanoes, biomass burning: pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fabian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1960 and 3180 m, has been carried out since 2002. The samples, accumulated over about 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, NO3, PO43−.

    About 35% of the weekly samples had very low ion contents, with pH mostly above 5 and conductivity below 10 μS/cm. 10-days back trajectories (FLEXTRA showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas, with little or no obvious pollution sources.

    About 65%, however, were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 μS/cm. The corresponding back trajectories clearly showed that air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, active volcanoes, and the ocean, with episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference.

    Enhanced SO42− and NO3+ were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixel observations with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O in nitrate show that nitrate in the samples is indeed a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors. Some SO42−, about 10% of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were encountered by about 10% of all trajectories.

    Enhanced Na+, K+, and Cl were found to originate from ocean spray sources. They were associated with winds providing Atlantic air masses to the receptor site within less than 5 days. Episodes of

  15. A forest butterfly in sahara desert oases: isolation does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Dapporto, Leonardo; Rödder, Dennis; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies addressing the impact of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity have been performed. In this study, we analyze the effects of a seemingly nonpermeable matrix on the population structure of the forest-dwelling butterfly Pararge aegeria in geographically isolated oases at the northern margin of the Sahara desert using microsatellites, morphological characters, and species distribution modeling. Results from all analyses are mostly congruent and reveal 1) a split between European and North African populations, 2) rather low divergence between populations from the eastern and western part of North Africa (Morocco vs. Tunisia), 3) a lack of differentiation between the oasis and Atlas Mountain populations, 4) as well as among the oasis populations, and 5) no reduction of genetic variability in oasis populations. However, one exception to this general trend resulted from the analyses of wing shape; wings of butterflies from oases are more elongated compared with those from the other habitats. This pattern of phenotypic divergence may suggest a recent colonization of the oasis habitats by individuals, which might be accompanied by a rather dispersive behavior. Species distribution modeling suggests a fairly recent reexpansion of the species' climatic niche starting in the Holocene at about 6000 before present. The combined results indicate a rather recent colonization of the oases by highly mobile individuals from genetically diverse founder populations. The colonization was likely followed by the expansion and persistence of these founder populations under relatively stable environmental conditions. This, together with low rates of gene flow, likely prevented differentiation of populations via drift and led to the maintenance of high genetic diversity. PMID:23132908

  16. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Ryder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fennec climate program aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include: (1 the first airborne measurement of dust particles sized up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL, (2 dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI satellite imagery, (3 vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4 in-situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as CCN and IN at −15 °C, (5 dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL, (6 airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold-pool (haboob issued from deep convection over the Atlas, (7 the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8 coincident ozone and dust surface area measurements suggest coarser particles provide a route for ozone depletion, (9 discrepancies between airborne coarse mode size distributions and AERONET sunphotometer

  17. Alliance of proteomics and genomics to unravel the specificities of Sahara bacterium Deinococcus deserti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan de Groot

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts, we report the first complete genome sequence and proteome analysis of a bacterium, Deinococcus deserti VCD115, isolated from Sahara surface sand. Its genome consists of a 2.8-Mb chromosome and three large plasmids of 324 kb, 314 kb, and 396 kb. Accurate primary genome annotation of its 3,455 genes was guided by extensive proteome shotgun analysis. From the large corpus of MS/MS spectra recorded, 1,348 proteins were uncovered and semiquantified by spectral counting. Among the highly detected proteins are several orphans and Deinococcus-specific proteins of unknown function. The alliance of proteomics and genomics high-throughput techniques allowed identification of 15 unpredicted genes and, surprisingly, reversal of incorrectly predicted orientation of 11 genes. Reversal of orientation of two Deinococcus-specific radiation-induced genes, ddrC and ddrH, and identification in D. deserti of supplementary genes involved in manganese import extend our knowledge of the radiotolerance toolbox of Deinococcaceae. Additional genes involved in nutrient import and in DNA repair (i.e., two extra recA, three translesion DNA polymerases, a photolyase were also identified and found to be expressed under standard growth conditions, and, for these DNA repair genes, after exposure of the cells to UV. The supplementary nutrient import and DNA repair genes are likely important for survival and adaptation of D. deserti to its nutrient-poor, dry, and UV-exposed extreme environment.

  18. Countering the nuclear terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to a RDD. RDDs, or 'dirty bombs' as they are often called, spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of a RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Terrorist acquisition and use of an IND is a low-probability but high-consequence threat. Terrorist use of a RDD is a threat of higher probability but lower consequence. Two threats need to be considered for civil radiological and nuclear facilities. One is the theft of materials by terrorists, and the other is an attack on a facility to disperse radiological or nuclear materials. Facilities may include reactors as well as nuclear waste and storage areas. While important elements of a layered defense against these threats are already in place, improved international cooperation and a sustained investment in the science and technology needed to win the war on terrorism is necessary. (author)

  19. Measuring Vulnerability to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Lucy; Burley, Hansel; Olivarez, Arturo; Crooks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of an instrument intended to measure vulnerability to stereotype threat. Method: We revised the instrument through assessing score reliability and then examined a domain specific model using confirmatory factor analyses. After examining the responses of the total sample…

  20. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  1. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  2. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  3. Review: Hérodote: Revue de géographie et de géopolitique, 2011/3, no. 142: Géopolitique du Sahara, Paris: La Découverte Besprechung: Hérodote: Revue de géographie et de géopolitique, 2011/3, Nr. 142: Géopolitique du Sahara, Paris: La Découverte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Marfaing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the issue 2011/3, no. 142, of Hérodote: Revue de géographie et de géopolitique: Géopolitique du Sahara, Paris: La Découverte.Besprechung der Ausgabe 2011/3, Nr. 142, von Hérodote: Revue de géographie et de géopolitique: Géopolitique du Sahara, Paris: La Découverte.

  4. Indicators and warnings: A framework for assessing the threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the utility of an 'indicators and warnings' framework for thinking through and responding to the associated threats of nuclear trafficking and nuclear terrorism in the context of 'a possible international strategy to prevent, detect and respond to this phenomenon.' The production of accurate and timely intelligence on these twin problems is obviously of central importance to all national, bilateral and multilateral responses designed to mitigate the threats posed in this area. A single and coherent 'international strategy to prevent, detect and respond' to the threat posed by nuclear trafficking and terrorism would certainly benefit from a common approach to the assessment of information and the generation of intelligence assessments and warnings. It is against this backdrop that the paper examines the utility of an indicators and warnings framework for thinking about the associated problems of nuclear trafficking and terrorism. The paper also addresses some of the challenges and problems associated with generating accurate indicators and warnings. (author)

  5. Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2009-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the International School of Structural Biology and Magnetic Resonance 8th Course: Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats. This NATO Advance Study Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 19 through 30 June 2007. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who bridged the fields of virology and biology, biophysics, chemistry and physics. Prominent lecturers and students from around the world representant a total of 24 countries participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments, and help propel development in NATO partner countries. The ASI merged the relat...

  6. Revision of the genus Thyreocephalus and description of Afrus gen. nov. of Africa south of the Sahara (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janák, Jiří; Bordoni, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Thyreocephalus Guérin-Méneville, 1844 of Africa south of the Sahara is presented. A new genus Afrus gen. nov. was described with the type species Thyreocephalus spegazzinii Bernhauer, 1915, which resulted in following new combination: Afrus spegazzinii (Bernhauer, 1915), comb. nov. Eulissus collarti (Cameron, 1932) was transferred to Afrus. Based on a revision of types and of additional material, 32 species of the genus Thyreocephalus and two species of the genus Afrus are recognized in Africa south of the Sahara. All species are described or redescribed and illustrated, seven of them for the first time: Thyreocephalus camerunensis sp. nov., T. manfredi sp. nov., T. marginipennis sp. nov., T. meridioafricanus sp. nov., T. pseudoafricanus sp. nov., T. subcorticalis sp. nov. and T. tsingidianus sp. nov. Neotypes are designated for Eulissus ater Laporte, 1835, Xantholinus coeruleipennis Quedenfeldt, 1881, and X. interocularis Eppelsheim, 1895. Lectotypes are designated for Eulissus atlanticus Bernhauer, 1915, E. burgeoni Bernhauer, 1929, E. mokaensis Bernhauer, 1915, E. secretus Bernhauer, 1935, E. turneri Bernhauer, 1937, Xantholinus alluaudi Fauvel, 1907, X. mocquerysi Fauvel, 1903, X. pilosus Roth, 1851, Thyreocephalus diversiceps Bernhauer, 1936, and T. spegazzinii Bernhauer, 1915. Eulissus africanus Bernhauer, 1913, E. alluaudi (Fauvel, 1907) (originally described in Xantholinus Dejean, 1821), E. atlanticus Bernhauer, 1915, E. brunneiventris Tottenham, 1956, E. burgeoni Bernhauer, 1929, E. guineensis Bernhauer, 1912, E. mokaensis Bernhauer, 1915, E. secretus Bernhauer, 1935, E. strinatii Scheerpeltz, 1958, and Xantholinus nairobiensis Fauvel, 1907 were transferred to Thyreocephalus. Following synonymies are proposed: Thyreocephalus nairobiensis (Fauvel, 1907) = Eulissus turneri Bernhauer, 1937, syn. nov., Thyreocephalus interocularis (Eppelsheim, 1895) = Thyreocephalus diversiceps Bernhauer, 1936, syn. nov., Thyreocephalus mokaensis

  7. The Convergence of Virtual Reality and Social Networks: Threats to Privacy and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brolcháin, Fiachra; Jacquemard, Tim; Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel; Novitzky, Peter; Gordijn, Bert

    2016-02-01

    The rapid evolution of information, communication and entertainment technologies will transform the lives of citizens and ultimately transform society. This paper focuses on ethical issues associated with the likely convergence of virtual realities (VR) and social networks (SNs), hereafter VRSNs. We examine a scenario in which a significant segment of the world's population has a presence in a VRSN. Given the pace of technological development and the popularity of these new forms of social interaction, this scenario is plausible. However, it brings with it ethical problems. Two central ethical issues are addressed: those of privacy and those of autonomy. VRSNs pose threats to both privacy and autonomy. The threats to privacy can be broadly categorized as threats to informational privacy, threats to physical privacy, and threats to associational privacy. Each of these threats is further subdivided. The threats to autonomy can be broadly categorized as threats to freedom, to knowledge and to authenticity. Again, these three threats are divided into subcategories. Having categorized the main threats posed by VRSNs, a number of recommendations are provided so that policy-makers, developers, and users can make the best possible use of VRSNs. PMID:25552240

  8. GHYRAF (Gravity and HYdrology in AFrica): a New Experiment Combining Hydrology and Geodesy to Investigate Water Storage Changes from the Sahara to the Equatorial Monsoon Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Linage, C.; Hinderer, J.; Boy, J.; Masson, F.; Gegout, P.; Diament, M.; de Viron, O.; Bayer, R.; Balmino, G.; Biancale, R.; Bonvalot, S.; Genthon, P.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new project using multi-disciplinary data (gravity, geodesy, hydrology, and meteorology) to determine seasonal changes in water storage in Africa. We foresee to concentrate on two areas: the desert zone in the Sahara (Tamanrasset, Algeria) where almost no hydrological change is present, and the equatorial monsoon band (Niger, Benin Republic) that provides on the contrary a large rainfall signal. This project will be a first attempt to do a ground validation of satellite-derived gravity observations such as GRACE or GOCE in Africa. We will pay attention to the various length scales involved in hydrological processes that are differently retrieved whether gravity is measured at the ground or by satellite. Our experience includes two types of ground-based gravity measurements. First we will perform a repeated survey with absolute gravimeters (AG) on a North-South profile during 2-3 years (2008-2010) to assess the large soil moisture changes as predicted by existing hydrological models such as GLDAS or LadWorld. Second we plan to establish a superconducting gravimeter (SG) to act as a continuously monitored base station in a region of large soil moisture changes. In addition, continuous geodetic GPS measurements will be made along the gravity profile to assess the vertical deformation which acts to alter ground gravity but not satellite gravity. In-situ measurements of hydrological parameters at each station will assist us in modelling local gravity effects. The goal is a better characterization of continental water storage, particularly in the critical areas of water management in the north and central parts of the African continent.

  9. Is China Threat a Hoax?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Weigan; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics has focused unprecedented world attention on China this year. Many people hail the Games as an occasion that showcases China's growing contribution to world development and harmony. But intent on politicizing this global event, a few modern Cassandras still cling to the flawed China Threat theory. In this paper, the author traces the origins of this fallacious theory. He sees it as a product of Western empiricism viewed through an historical and philosophical prism. He argues that the assertion of threat arises from a generalization of historical facts. The assertion links China's growing clout with declining Western dominance in international affairs. Starting with the myth that peace is possible only among democracies, the theory predicts the inevitability of conflict between the West and China, a country with an alleged expansionist tradition and under an authoritarian system.

  10. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U.S. and......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas of...... shared interests pre-crisis. • Establish political agreements and/or intentions with partners to address potential threats. • Establishing mutual trust through Building Partnership Capacity with capable SOF and intelligence organizations....

  11. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    OpenAIRE

    Than Aung; Awnesh Singh; Uma Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to...

  12. Affirmative action and stereotype threat

    OpenAIRE

    Bracha, Anat; Cohen, Alma; Conell-Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the apparent success of affirmative action (AA) in the past, many oppose such policies. Opponents argue that the cost of attaining proportional representation by preferential policies is too high, reducing the quality of selected groups and stigmatizing members of the protected class. One way in which preferential policies might harm groups they are designed to benefit is by producing stereotype threat; that is, cueing a negative stereotype may lead individuals to conform to it. A...

  13. Cyber Terrorism– Global Security Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanoski, Mitko; Petreski, Drage

    2013-01-01

    It is more than obvious that the way of conducting terrorism with the time is becoming more sophisticated. The cyber terrorism is real threat to fast technology development. Potential targets are systems which control the nation’s defenses and critical infrastructure. The terrorist of the future will win the wars without firing a shot - just by destroying infrastructure that significantly relies on information technology. The fast growth of the Internet users and Internet dependence dramat...

  14. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one o...

  15. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, Lucas; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero;

    2016-01-01

    he diversity of life on Earth—which provides vital services to humanity (1)—stems from the difference between rates of evolutionary diversification and extinction. Human activities have shifted the balance (2): Species extinction rates are an estimated 1000 times the “background” rate (3) and cou...... United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  16. Subordinates as Threats to Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn

    2001-01-01

    A leader of an organization may view a subordinate as threatening or weakening the leader's position. The threat may increase with the subordinate's ability and reduce the rents the leader wins. In particular, a leader who trains his subordinate reduces the cost to the owner of a firm in replacing the leader, and so reduces the leader's bargaining power. The leader therefore provides inefficiently low training for the subordinate.

  17. The place of sub-Sahara Africa in the world sport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dejonghe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world sportsystem is developed through globalisation with its homogenisation and heterogenisation processes. The result of these opposite forces is the division of the world in 6 classes. Sub-Sahara Africa underwent, with the exception of South-Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe, a total and passive acceptance of the western (British modern sports. The place of that part of Africa is analogue to and correlates with its place in Wallerstein's world-system periphery. The introduction of modern sports is associated with the spatial diffusion of the 19th century British hegemonic cultural imperialism. The purpose of this policy was a transformation of the traditional society into a modern functional world-culture and the incorporation of that part of the world in the world-system. The anti-western feelings after the independence resulted in a political Pan-Africanism. However, sport and more specific soccer, a typical product of the western domination, has not been rejected. On the contrary, local politicians used it to create a national identity. The strong link between soccer and soil resulted in a strong form of topophily. This connection was transformed into sportnationalism and created in the, through artificial borders developed, nations a unity and a national pride. The outcome of sport games was used to demonstrate the successes in politics and economics. The absence of any political platform on which the Third World had a strong voice brought about that the international sport scene, such as the FIFA, was used for the unification of the Third World against the former colonial powers. Nowadays, the globalisation processes result in an increasing labour migration of African football players to the rich core competitions in Europe. This form of migration can be classified as another form of "cash crop" or in this case "foot drain.. ""As Roman imperialism laid the foundation of modern civilisation and led wild barbarians of these

  18. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a first- ...

  19. Globalisation of water: Opportunities and threats of virtual water trade

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Where the river basin is generally seen as the appropriate unit for analyzing freshwater availability and use, it becomes increasingly important to put freshwater issues in a global context. The book analyses the opportunities and threats of international virtual water trade in the context of solving national and regional problems of water shortages. Central questions addressed in the study are: What are the fluxes of virtual water related to the international trade of products? Is the import...

  20. Impacts of dust reduction on the northward expansion of the African monsoon during the Green Sahara period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Messori, Gabriele; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The West African Monsoon (WAM) is crucial for the socio-economic stability of millions of people living in the Sahel. Severe droughts have ravaged the region in the last three decades of the 20th century, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the WAM dynamics. One of the most dramatic changes in the West African Monsoon (WAM) occurred between 15000-5000 yr BP, when increased summer rainfall led to the so-called "Green Sahara" and to a reduction in dust emissions from the region. However, model experiments are unable to fully reproduce the intensification and geographical expansion of the WAM during this period, even when vegetation over the Sahara is considered. Here, we use a fully coupled simulation for 6000 yr BP (Mid-Holocene) in which prescribed Saharan vegetation and dust concentrations are changed in turn. A closer agreement with proxy records is obtained only when both the Saharan vegetation changes and dust decrease are taken into account. The dust reduction strengthens the vegetation-albedo feedback, extending the monsoon's northern limit approximately 500 km further than the vegetation-change case only. We therefore conclude that accounting for changes in Saharan dust loadings is essential for improving model simulations of the WAM during the Mid-Holocene.

  1. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. - New evidence of desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during black cloud season and its significance for regional aerosols, dust models, and potential impact on the regional climate.

  2. Constraining the Sahara freshwater discharge during sapropel S5 time by a stable isotope record from the Greater Sirte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirks, Eleen; Kucera, Michal; Bachem, Paul; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River and the Black Sea were long considered as the only significant eastern Mediterranean freshwater sources and therefore inferred as the primary agents promoting surface stratification associated with sapropel formation. Sapropel S5, deposited during the last interglacial, marks a time of possible movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Satellite images revealed the existence of ancient rivers that once ran through the Sahara desert and drained into the Gulf of Sirte. Anomalous Nd isotope records from sapropel S5 deposits indicate that these rivers may have been active during MIS 5e, implying another freshwater source into the eastern Mediterranean Sea during that period. To constrain the extent of freshwater discharge into the Mediterranean from the Kufrah River during MIS 5e, a new δ18O record of five planktonic foraminifera species was generated from sediment core GeoTü SL 96, located proximal to the assumed outflow of the Kufrah River. The record from core GeoTü SL 96 compared with seven other records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal a pattern of oxygen isotope anomalies which implies that the Kufrah River delivered detectable amount of freshwater during the second part of sapropel S5. These results reinforce the hypothesis that Sahara river systems were active during MIS 5e, which has ramifications for the understanding of sapropel events, reconstruction of coastal landscape, and the better understanding of migration routes of early humans.

  3. Stereotype Threat and Survey Response Bias

    OpenAIRE

    King, Kenya Latonya

    2014-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the threat of confirming a negative stereotype about a group with which a person identifies. Researchers have found that stereotype threat can result in underperformance in multiple domains, shifts in social behavior, and shifts in assessed implicit attitudes, the likelihood of which increases as an individual's concern about the domain of interest increases. According to theory, this threat can be "alleviated",thereby diminishing or eliminating its impact. In this projec...

  4. The role of threats in animal cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cant, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identi...

  5. Security of radioactive sources: Threats and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general issue of the security of radioactive sources is presented as a prime but constitutive element of radiation safety, focusing particularly on the perceived threats for the malevolent use of radioactive sources and on the possible answers to these threats. The paper discusses the source security threat and the possible international response, and presents an overall outlook for the future. (author)

  6. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  7. 24 CFR 9.131 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct threat. 9.131 Section 9.131... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.131 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require the agency..., privileges, advantages and accommodations of that agency when that individual poses a direct threat to...

  8. The nuclear threat and the Nuclear Threat Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: President and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), was invited by the IAEA Director General to speak about NTI and its mission at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Established by CNN founder Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, NTI is a charitable organization working to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The foundation is global, concentrating not just on the United States, Russia, and other nations of the former Soviet Union, but also on those regions of greatest proliferation concern in Asia and the Middle East. NTI is working to close what it perceives as an increasingly dangerous gap between the threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the global response. NTI is supported by a pledge from Mr. Turner of at least $250 million over five years, among the largest sums any private individual has ever invested in these security issues. NTI's Board of Directors, an international team of experienced and knowledgeable experts, determines the overall direction of the foundation. (author)

  9. Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rydell, Robert J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; Boucher, Kathryn L.; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype “women are bad at math” causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task...

  10. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  11. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one of the most famous mobile operating systems 'Symbian'; its vulnerabilities and recommended protection technologies.

  12. Wireless LAN Security Threats & Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Waliullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless LANs are everywhere these days from home to large enterprise corporate networks due to the ease of installation, employee convenience, avoiding wiring cost and constant mobility support. However, the greater availability of wireless LANs means increased danger from attacks and increased challenges to an organisation, IT staff and IT security professionals. This paper discusses the various security issues and vulnerabilities related to the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN encryption standard and common threats/attacks pertaining to the home and enterprise Wireless LAN system and provide overall guidelines and recommendation to the home users and organizations.

  13. Flight altitude of trans-Sahara migrants in autumn: a comparison of radar observations with predictions from meteorological conditions and water and energy balance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Biebach, H.

    2000-01-01

    Radar observations on the altitude of bird migration and altitudinal profiles of meteorological conditions over the Sahara desert are presented for the autumn migratory period. Migratory birds By at an average altitude of 1016 m (a.s.l.) during the day and 571 m during the night. Weather data served

  14. The threat of illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligence services, the army, the navy, the air force and the police together work to avoid illicit trafficking around the world by taking actions as follows: examining the risks and threats of illicit trafficking of radioactive material by terrorists or criminals; gaining a better understanding of current and future patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of radioactive material; determining progress on efforts to establish detection capabilities at borders and to exchange information on developments in detection technology and response methodologies through installation of radiation detection equipment; strengthening existing networks and cooperation for sharing information on illicit trafficking reports on incidents involving smuggling, theft, loss and illegal disposal, illegal possession and transfer, and attempted illegal sales of the material; examining how an enhanced export/import regime can assist in combating illicit trafficking control through unauthorized movement of radioactive material; sharing information on activities intended to implement international obligations, recommendations and guidance relevant to nuclear security; suggest actions by which the international effort, through the IAEA, would be strengthened. This paper examines the threat and context of illicit nuclear trafficking of radioactive material, what is being done to combat such trafficking and highlights where more needs to be done

  15. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  16. Dust emission from different sol types and geomorphic units in the Sahara - implications for modeling dust emission and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouvi, Onn; Schepanski, Kerstin; Amit, Rivka; Gillespie, Alan; Enzel, Yehouda

    2014-05-01

    Mineral dust plays multiple roles in mediating physical and biogeochemical exchanges among the atmosphere, land and ocean, and thus is an active component of the global climate system. To estimate the past, current, and future impacts of dust on climate, sources of dust and their erodibility should be identified. The Sahara is the major source of dust on Earth. Based on qualitative analysis of remotely sensed data with low temporal resolution, the main sources of dust that have been identified are topographic depressions comprised of dry lake and playa deposits in hyprarid regions. Yet, recent studies cast doubts on these as the major sources and call for a search for others. Moreover, the susceptibility of soils to aeolian erosion (wind land erodibility) in the Sahara is still poorly known. In this study we identify and determine the soil types and geomorphic units most important as Saharan dust sources by correlating between the number of days with dust storms (NDS), derived from remote-sensing data of high temporal resolution, with the distribution of the soil types/geomorphic units. During 2006-8 the source of over 90% of the NDS was sand dunes, leptosols, calcisols, arenosols, and rock debris. Few dust storms originated from dry lake beds and playas. Land erodibility by wind for each soil type/geomorphic unit was estimated by a regression of the NDS and the number of days with high-speed wind events; the regression is relatively high for sand dunes and gypsisols. We use these regressions to differentiate between sources of dust that are supply-limited to those that are transport-limited. We propose that the fracturing of saltating sand and the removal of clay coatings from sand grains through eolian abrasion is the dominant dust-emission mechanism for the sand-rich areas covering large portion of the Sahara. Our results also explain the increased dustiness during the last glacial period, when sand dunes activity has been more common than during the Holocene

  17. The evolution of the 87Sr/86Sr in the Dead Sea brine: from the Sedom lagoon to Sahara dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai

    2016-04-01

    The history of water-bodies in the Dead Sea brines commenced with the intrusion of the Sedom lagoon, possibly in the late Neogene and continued with the development of hypersaline and freshwater lakes (e.g. the modern Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee). 87Sr/86Sr ratios in these water-bodies decreased over the past ~ 5-6 Ma from 0.7087-0.7084 in salts deposited in the Sedom lagoon to ~ 0.7080 in modern Dead Sea brine. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the salts deposited from Sedom lagoon are significantly lower than those of the contemporaneous late Miocene seawater (~0.709). This difference was attributed to modification of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Sedom lagoon solution by influx of Ca-chloride brines. The brines, in turn were formed by dolomitization of marine limestones of the DSR Cretaceous wall rocks (87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7075) by the ingressing evaporated seawaters (Stein et al., 2000). After the disconnection of the Sedom lagoon from the open sea freshwater filled the lakes that occupied the Dead Sea basin. The freshwater influx modified the strontium isotope and chemical composition of the brine and provided bicarbonate and sulfate to the lake that led the precipitation of primary aragonite and gypsum. Freshwater that currently enter the lake are characterize by 87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7081, significantly higher than the Cretaceous carbonates. Settled dust that deposits on the Judea Mountains is composed of calcite and quartz grains and is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ~ 0.7084. It appears that significant amounts of the strontium that entered the lakes with the freshwater originated from dissolution of the dust calcites. Large amounts of dust were transported from the Sahara desert to the Dead Sea watershed during glacial periods when the Sahara was dry and sea-level was low. The source of the detrital calcites however, is not known. They could be derived from dry paleo-lakes in the Sahara that were previously filled by waters that retained the required strontium isotope

  18. Phylogeny of North African Agama lizards (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the role of the Sahara desert in vertebrate speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Duarte V; Brito, José C; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Padial, José M; Harris, D James

    2012-09-01

    The origin of Saharan biodiversity is poorly understood, in part because the geological and paleoclimatic events that presumably shaped species diversity are still controversial, but also because few studies have explored causal explanations for the origin of Saharan diversity using a phylogenetic framework. Here, we use mtDNA (16S and ND4 genes) and nDNA (MC1R and CMOS genes) to infer the relationships and biogeographic history of North African agamas (genus Agama). Agamas are conspicuous, diverse and abundant African lizards that also occur in the Saharan xeric and mesic environments. Our results revealed the presence of three Agama lineages in North Africa: one Afrotropical, one Sahelo-Saharan, and one broadly distributed in North Africa and mainly Saharan. Southern Mauritania contains the highest known diversity, with all three lineages present. Results suggest that agamas colonized the Sahara twice, but only one lineage was able to radiate and diversify there. Species in the Saharan lineage are mostly allopatric, and their splitting, genetic diversity and distribution are greatly explained by mountain ranges. One species in this lineage has colonized the Mediterranean climatic zone (A. impalearis), and another one the Sahel savannah (A. boueti). The other lineage to colonize the Sahara corresponds to A. boulengeri, an eminently Sahelian species that also inhabits Saharan mountain ranges in Mauritania and Mali. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that allopatric montane populations within some currently recognized species are also genetically divergent. Our study therefore concludes that vicariant speciation is a leading motor of species diversification in the area: Inside the Sahara, associated to mountain-ranges isolated by dune seas and bare plains; outside, associated to less harsh climates to the North and South. Paleoclimatic oscillations are suggested as causal explanations of the vicariant distribution and origin of species. Agamas are thought to have

  19. Environmental Scanning and Knowledge Representation for the Detection of Organised Crime Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Brewster, Benjamin; Andrews, Simon; Polovina, Simon; Hirsch, Laurence; Akhgar, Babak

    2014-01-01

    ePOOLICE aims at developing an efficient and effective strategic early warning system that utilises environmental scanning for the early warning and detection of current, emergent and future organised crime threats. Central to this concept is the use of environmental scanning to detect ‘weak signals’ in the external environment to monitor and identify emergent and future threats prior to their materialization into tangible criminal activity. This paper gives a brief overview of the applicatio...

  20. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  1. [Severe keratomycosis due to Fusarium solani induced by a telluric foreign body: About a case in moroccan Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er-Rami, M; Souhail, H; Lemkhente, Z; El Mellouki, W; Lmimouni, B

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of severe keratitis due to Fusarium solani in a young man in the Sahara in Morocco where the climate is arid. This patient reported had a grain of sand in his right eye for a week after a sandstorm. On admission he had a corneal abscess. Despite rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment with available antifungal drugs: amphotericin B and natamycin eye drops, the prognosis worsened and led to the enucleation of the right eye. Faced with a suspected eye infection after a microtrauma caused by grains of sand carried by a sandstorm, it is important to take biological samples to search for fungal infections among other. It is also important to have new triazole antifungal drugs available to treat ocular mycosis rapidly and effectively. PMID:24451564

  2. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Anup K; El-Askary, Hesham; Kafatos, Menas

    2010-11-01

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. PMID:20797813

  3. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes. PMID:24345711

  4. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes-Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed.

  5. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes-Dodson law, Easterbrook's theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants' memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  6. Source apportionment and seasonal variation of PM2.5 in a Sub-Sahara African city: Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Gaita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sources of airborne particulate matter and their seasonal variation in urban areas in Sub-Sahara Africa are poorly understood due to lack of long-term measurement data. In view of this, airborne fine particles matter (particle diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM2.5 were collected between May 2008 and April 2010 at two sites (urban background site and suburban site within the Nairobi metropolitan area. A total of 780 samples were collected and analyzed for particulate mass, black carbon (BC and thirteen trace elements. The average PM2.5 concentration at the urban background site was 20 ± 8 μg m−3 whereas the concentration at the suburban site was 13 ± 8 μg m−3. The daily PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 25 μg m−3 (the World Health Organization 24 h guideline value 29% of the days at the urban background site and 7% of the days at the suburban site. At both sites, BC, Fe, S and Cl accounted for approximately 80% of all detected elements. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis identified five source factors that contribute to PM2.5 in Nairobi; traffic, mineral dust, secondary aerosol, industrial and combustion. Mineral dust and traffic factors were related to approximately 74% of PM2.5. Identified source factors exhibited seasonal variation though traffic factor was prominently consistent throughout the sampling period. The results provide information that can be exploited for policy formulation and mitigation strategies to control air pollution in Sub-Sahara African cities.

  7. Discrimination and Validation of Clouds and Dust Aerosol Layers over the Sahara Desert with Combined CALIOP and IIR Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingjing; CHEN Bin; HUANG Jianping

    2014-01-01

    This study validates a method for discriminating between daytime clouds and dust aerosol layers over the Sahara Desert that uses a combination of active CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polar-ization) and passive IIR (Infrared Imaging Radiometer) measurements; hereafter, the CLIM method. The CLIM method reduces misclassification of dense dust aerosol layers in the Sahara region relative to other techniques. When evaluated against a suite of simultaneous measurements from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), CloudSat, and the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imag-ing Spectroradiometer), the misclassification rate for dust using the CLIM technique is 1.16%during boreal spring 2007. This rate is lower than the misclassification rates for dust using the cloud aerosol discriminations performed for version 2 (V2-CAD;16.39%) or version 3 (V3-CAD;2.01%) of the CALIPSO data processing algorithm. The total identification errors for data from in spring 2007 are 13.46% for V2-CAD, 3.39% for V3-CAD, and 1.99%for CLIM. These results indicate that CLIM and V3-CAD are both significantly better than V2-CAD for discriminating between clouds and dust aerosol layers. Misclassifications by CLIM in this region are mainly limited to mixed cloud-dust aerosol layers. V3-CAD sometimes misidentifies low-level aerosol layers adjacent to the surface as thin clouds, and sometimes fails to detect thin clouds entirely. The CLIM method is both simple and fast, and may be useful as a reference for testing or validating other discrimination techniques and methods.

  8. Quantifying the "Energy-Return-on-Investment" of desert greening in the Sahara/Sahel using a Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S. P. K.; Miller, L. M.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-08-01

    "Greening" the world's deserts has been proposed as a way to produce additional food, sequester carbon, and alter the climate of desert regions. Here, we quantify the potential benefits in terms of energetic quantities and compare these to the energetic costs. We then compare these using the metric of Energy-Return-On-Investment (EROI). We apply EROI to a series of global climate model simulations where the arid Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated with various rates of desalinated water to produce biomass. The energy content of this biomass is greater than the energy input rate for a minimum irrigation rate of about 200 mm yr-1 in the winter and 500 mm yr-1 in the summer, thereby yielding an EROI ratio > 1 : 1, expressing energetic sustainability. Quantified annually, the EROI was > 1 : 1 for irrigation rates more than 500 mm yr-1, progressively increasing to a maximum of 1.8 : 1 with 900 mm yr-1, and then decreasing with further increases in the irrigation rate. Including the precipitation feedback arising from changes in moisture-recycling within the study region approximately doubles these EROI ratios. This overall result varies spatially and temporally, so while the entire Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated equally, the western coastal region from June to August had the highest EROI. Other factors would complicate such a large-scale modification of the Earth System, but this sensitivity study concludes that with a required energy input, desert greening may be energetically sustainable. Furthermore, we suggest that this type of EROI-analysis could be applied as a metric to assess a diverse range of human alterations to, and interventions within, the Earth System.

  9. Dust aerosol emission over the Sahara during summertime from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Martin C.; Cavazos-Guerra, Carolina

    2016-03-01

    Dust aerosols are an important component of the climate system and a challenge to incorporate into weather and climate models. Information on the location and magnitude of dust emission remains a key information gap to inform model development. Inadequate surface observations ensure that satellite data remain the primary source of this information over extensive and remote desert regions. Here, we develop estimates of the relative magnitude of active dust emission over the Sahara desert based on data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Utilising the unique vertical profile of aerosol characteristics provided by CALIOP our algorithm identifies emission from aerosol extinction and lidar backscatter in the near surface layers. From the long-term CALIOP archive of day and night-time orbits over 2006-13 we construct coarse resolution maps of a new dust emission index (DEI) for the Sahara desert during the peak summer dust season (June to September). The spatial structure of DEI indicates highest emission over a broad zone focused on the border regions of Southern Algeria, Northern Mali and northwest Niger, displaced substantially (∼7°) to the east of the mean maximum in satellite-derived aerosol optical depth. In this region night-time emission exceeds that during the day. The DEI maps substantially corroborate recently derived dust source frequency count maps based on back-tracking plumes in high temporal resolution SEVIRI imagery. As such, a convergence of evidence from multiple satellite data sources using independent methods provides an increasingly robust picture of Saharan dust emission sources. Various caveats are considered. As such, quantitative estimates of dust emission may require a synergistic combined multi-sensor analysis.

  10. Real threat of nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trade in uranium and plutonium during the past five years has given smuggling unprecedented relevance to international security. Yet there is considerable controversy over the threat nuclear smuggling poses. Even though serious efforts are being made to attack the problem at the source, the international community has been slow to respond to the dangers that nuclear smuggling presents. We suggest that systematic multinational measures be taken as soon as possible to inhibit theft at the source, to disrupt trafficking and to deter buyers. The U.S., Germany, Russia and other nations with an interest in the nuclear problem should set up a 'flying squad' with an investigative arm, facilities for counter terrorist and counter extortion actions and a disaster management team. This paper discusses these issues. 3 refs

  11. World's soils are under threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  12. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  13. Beeinflusst Stereotype Threat die Leseleistung von Jungen?

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Ein durchgängiger Befund internationaler Schulleistungsvergleichsstudien bezieht sich auf die niedrigere Lesekompetenz von Jungen im Vergleich zu Mädchen (OECD, 2010). Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war, zu prüfen, welchen Einfluss negative Stereotype – im Sinne der Stereotype Threat-Theorie (Steele & Aronson, 1995) – auf die Leseleistung von Jungen haben. Basierend auf Befunden aus der Lese- und Stereotype Threat-Forschung wurde ein Mediator-Moderator-Modell des Stereotype Threat-Effekts (vgl....

  14. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xu, Xiao Y.; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  15. Reaction to New Security Threat Class

    OpenAIRE

    Elovici, Yuval; Rokach, Lior

    2014-01-01

    Each new identified security threat class triggers new research and development efforts by the scientific and professional communities. In this study, we investigate the rate at which the scientific and professional communities react to new identified threat classes as it is reflected in the number of patents, scientific articles and professional publications over a long period of time. The following threat classes were studied: Phishing; SQL Injection; BotNet; Distributed Denial of Service; ...

  16. Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, D L

    1992-01-01

    We combined the health belief model with the theory of subjective expected utility to derive hypotheses about the relations among health beliefs and preventive decisions. The central implication of this combination of theories is the importance of conceptualizing, measuring, and communicating about health threats in ways that are clearly conditional on action. It is important to distinguish, for example, between how susceptible to a disease a person thinks he or she would be if that person were and were not to take a preventive action. An experimental study of judgments about a hypothetical preventive action was conducted to test many of the theoretically derived hypotheses. A correlation study of dental flossing behavior was conducted to test the hypotheses as they apply to overt behavior rather than to judgment. Results of both studies supported most of the tested hypotheses, especially those related to the conditional conceptualization of health threats. Implications for theory, research methods, and practical applications are discussed. PMID:1582381

  17. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  18. Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stere...

  19. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong; ZHAO Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study...

  20. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  1. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  2. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tsui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress women’s scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: Experiment 1, where in Chinese students were tested with the added independent variable of test importance. Our results produced only marginally significant stereotype threat effects. Experiment 2, a replication of experiment 1, yielded completely different results, with no threat effects at all. Math-test scores were significantly higher in the threat condition for both men and women, consistent with the phenomena of stereotype lift and stereotype reactance. Experiment 3, which did not include the test-important variable, yielded no significant effects. Conclusion: Stereotype threat, in the mathematics domain, does not seem to be a problem for women in China. We discuss our results in terms of factors which moderate stereotype threat and societal differences in the U.S. and China.

  3. Development of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseekos, A. Chantelle; Dahlen, Eric R.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the development and preliminary validation of the Academic Stereotype Threat Inventory, a self-report measurement of math-related stereotype threat among women. A preliminary version of the instrument was administered to 308 undergraduate women. Principal component analysis yielded a 3-factor solution. Convergent and…

  4. Stereotype Threat, Identity Salience, and Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Matthew S.; Aronson, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    Stereotype threat research provides insight into how the low standardized test scores of students from stigmatized social groups may derive in part from the negative performance expectations about these groups. Because these students belong to many social groups, one means of mitigating the threat is to remind them of their membership in groups…

  5. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Volchan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

  6. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  7. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  8. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world. PMID:17286014

  9. The Threat of Terrorist Organizations in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the threat of terrorism in cyberspace and examines the truth of the perceptions of this threat that have formed in recent years. It examines the capabilities that a non-state actor can achieve and whether these can constitute a real threat to the national security of states. For an analysis of the main threats facing a state from a multi-year perspective and in light of anticipated changes in a state’s strategic balance, the factors that threaten the state are presented and the roots of the threat are identified. The article thus examines whether terrorism, whose impact is generally tactical, could make (or perhaps has already made the transition to a cyber weapon capability with strategic impact. Specifically, the question is could terrorists develop cyber weapon capabilities that could inflict widespread damage or damage over time, of the sort that brings states to their knees and causes critical systems to crash.

  10. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-07

    This report is the culmination of a project in which data from several industries confronting internal security threats were collected and analyzed. The industries and threats involved are deemed to be analogous in one or more respects to potential threats confronting decision makers in the nuclear industry. The analog internal threats consist of bank frauds and embezzlements over $10,000, computer crimes of various types and insider drug thefts from drug manufactures and distributors. These data have been subjected to careful analysis utilizing both descriptive and formal statistical techniques. A number of findings are quite suggestive as to the general nature of the internal threat and are discussed and interpreted in terms of thenuclear industry analogy.

  11. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  12. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    OpenAIRE

    Benachour Elhadj; Draoui Belkacem; Imine Baachir; Hasnat Mohammed; Rahmani Lakhdar

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as th...

  13. Environmental protection, tourism and the new development agenda for the Sahara: the dubious socio-political outcomes of the top-down approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    This conference paper discusses critically two development plans for the Sahara and their likely problematic outcomes. The first and most ambitious is the UNESCO (2003) pan-Saharan framework plan for tourism development, which provides guidelines for other international and national development agencies that are invited to use them as the basis for their own action plans. The second is one such action plan, designed by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme),ii for the Algerian Great ...

  14. Lithofacies prediction from well log data using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) - a case study from the Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadfeul, S.-A.; Aliouane, L.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a combination of supervised and unsupervised leanings is used for lithofacies classification from well log data. The main idea consists of enhancing the multilayer perceptron (MLP) learning by the output of the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network. Application to real data of two wells located the Algerian Sahara clearly shows that the lithofacies model built by the neural combination is able to give better results than a self-organizing map.

  15. Conservation Studies on Land Use Change and the Sustainability of Food Production and Gold Mining in a Sub-Sahara African Forest Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Castel Djietror; Appiah Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The imbalance between land use for agronomy and for earth mineral exploration has profound ramifications for food security in gold producing African countries. Mineral exploration within forest ecosystems is a common phenomenon across the Sub-Sahara African region. This case study of Ghana examined the conversion of fertile agricultural land to gold mining land and how this change impacted on cropland area. Between 1980-2000 the mining land area within the four major gold-producing centers of...

  16. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadda eLAALLAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components.Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins and its physicochemical characteristics.Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four pathogenic bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM.Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38±0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5±550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey electrical conductivity. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1±4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive with 3.9±5.4 mm. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5±4.7 mm.Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations.Keywords: Honey characterization; antibacterial effects

  17. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs

  18. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  19. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Aung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to become the first nation to be sunk by global warming because it is one of the smallest and lowest-lying countries in the world. Approach: In this study, sea level data from the Australian project will be focussed on despite the fact that the length of data is not sufficiently long. The AusAID funded South Pacific Sea Level and climate monitoring project was set up in response to concerns raised by Pacific island countries over the potential impacts of an enhanced greenhouse effect on climate and sea levels in the South Pacific for 20 years. Results: Based upon the 15½ years of sea level data from the project, the sea level rise rate in Tuvalu as at september 2008 was 5.9 mM year-1. This was about four times higher than the global average of 1-2 mm year-1. Sea level in the Tuvalu area had risen approximately 9.14 cm since the inception of the project 15½ years ago. However, it was to be noted that the land is quite stable and the rate of land sinking is -0.06 mM year-1 only. Accordingly, there was no significant impact on the sea level trends. Conclusion: Although the data length is just over 15 years, the sea level trend values do not fluctuate significantly since 1999. It simply indicated that the rate of sea level rise in the Tuvalu region was not accelerating as anticipated by the community.

  20. Rapid Identification of Antioxidant Compounds of Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. by Combination of DPPH Scavenging Assay and HPTLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Meriane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genista species are sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds such as O- and C-glycosylflavonoids and isoflavonoids. A combination of a DPPH scavenging assay with HPTLC-MS, a fast and efficient method for identification of bioactive compounds, has been applied for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of metabolites from Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. Different organs collected at various periods have been compared. Identification of antioxidant compounds was obtained by elution of the major DPPH-inhibition zones. The resulting HPTLC-MS analysis under moderately polar conditions, coupled to the DPPH results led to the putative identification of two antioxidant isoflavone aglycones: 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (1 and ficuisoflavone (3, whereas polar migration conditions led to the identification of the glycosides 5-methoxy-4',7-trihydroxy-8-glucopyranosylisoflavone (4 and 4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone-4'-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (5. Evaluation of percentage of inhibition of DPPH radical by the purified isoflavone 4 from the root extract showed that it affords a moderate contribution to the total radical scavenging activity of the extract.

  1. Study of hydrogen production by three strains of Chlorella isolated from the soil in the Algerian Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chader, Samira [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables Bouzareah, BP 62, Alger (Algeria); Hacene, Hocine [Laboratory of Microbiology, USTHB, BP 32, Alger (Algeria); Agathos, Spiros N. [Unit of Bioengineering, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the photosynthetic hydrogen production rates by some strains of green microalgae were investigated. Three strains of Chlorella isolated from arid soil and foggaras's water in the Algerian Sahara were used. Chlorella sorokiniana strain Ce, Chlorella salina strain Mt and Chlorella sp strain Pt6 produced hydrogen gas under sulphur-deprived conditions, but its rate was dependent on strain type and oxygen partial pressure in medium. In C. sorokiniana strain Ce, the maximum value of hydrogen accumulated was 147 ml at 222 h at 2% of O{sub 2} pressure. Compared to C. sorokiniana strain Ce, C. salina strain Mt and Chlorella sp strain Pt6 produced less amount of hydrogen, but they were able to sustain with an O{sub 2} partial pressure of up to 11-15.4%. Our data were compared with hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In this communication, the relationship between physiological behaviour, biochemical characteristic (starch and protein) and rates gas production (O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) was also specified. (author)

  2. Diversité floristique d´un lac du Bas-Sahara Algérien

    OpenAIRE

    Chenchouni, Haroun

    2012-01-01

    Nous avons examiné la composition et la dynamique de la végétation vasculaire spontanée dans le Lac Ayata (Vallée d’Oued Righ, Bas-Sahara algérien). Le site se situe entre 33°29’17’’N à 33°29’48’’N et 05°59’10’’E à 05°59’37’’E. L’échantillonnage systématique de la flore a révélé l’existence de 13 espèces appartenant à 8 familles et 13 genres. Le plan d’eau est dépourvu de plantes submergées. Les types biologiques, la structure et la physionomie de la végétation sont été déterminés. L’occupati...

  3. Holocene freshwater carbonate structures in the hyper-arid Gebel Uweinat region of the Sahara Desert (Southwestern Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita M.; Meckler, A. Nele; McKay, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    The eastern part of the Sahara is at present the driest region of the desert. Yet the extensive animal rock art in the area, presumed to depict real activities in the lives of the painters, suggests that environmental conditions were significantly different when the rock art was produced. Here we report on exploration of the area, which led to the discovery of morphologically-distinct carbonate structures that line the walls of two valleys in Gebel Uweinat, and were likely formed in standing water. The carbonate structures comprise what appear to be shoreline carbonate formations, and date back to 8100 and 9400 years BP. The chemical and morphological similarity of these formations to carbonate structures from modern lakes suggests that these lakes contained fresh, standing water suitable for human and animal use. However, the significant quartz content suggests that windblown sand was pervasive, and thus the vegetation cover may have been sparse. This discovery supports the possibility of grasslands in the area, which may have been able to support human habitation, and adds to the evidence for a wetter climate in the area in the early Holocene.

  4. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  5. Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159744.html Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats Kids, elderly among those ... can be inherently dangerous, but the initial heat waves every summer can be particularly perilous to those ...

  6. Cyber Threats In Social Networking Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeb Ghari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which areconnected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sitesare not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websites.

  7. Cyber threats in social networking websites

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sites are not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websi...

  8. Reducing stereotype threat by blurring intergroup boundaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, H. E. S.; Crisp, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors aimed to establish whether interventions designed to reduce intergroup bias could be applied to the stereotype threat domain. In three experiments, the hypothesis was tested that blurring intergroup boundaries would reduce stereotype threat. In the first study, it was found that female participants who thought about characteristics shared between the genders tended to show less preference for stereotypical female careers than did participants in the baseline condition. In. Experim...

  9. Stereotype Threat and the Student-Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas S. Dee

    2009-01-01

    Achievement gaps may reflect the cognitive impairment thought to occur in evaluative settings (e.g., classrooms) where a stereotyped identity is salient (i.e., stereotype threat). This study presents an economic model of stereotype threat that reconciles prior evidence on how student effort and performance are influenced by this social-identity phenomenon. This study also presents empirical evidence from a laboratory experiment in which students at a selective college were randomly assigned t...

  10. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurren...

  11. Contemporary terrorism as a global threat

    OpenAIRE

    Smolarek, Mirosław; Żuber, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism has been present in human history since ancient times, but it was not considered a serious threat for global security. The attacks on the World Trade Center have demonstrated that it is a threat of a global nature. It is an effective weapon used by the "weaker" against the stronger opponents. The subject of terrorism is very complex, difficult and elusive. There is a divergence among the scholars in understanding terrorism studies due to the lack of uniform criteria for the deter...

  12. WIRELESS NETWORKS: DEVELOPMENTS, THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiana Mohamad Noor; Wan Haslina Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses current threats in wireless networks and some academia research reviews regarding the matters. Significant and persistent threats discussed are sniffing, Man In the Middle Attack (MITM), Rogue Access Points (RAP), Denial Of Services (DoS) and social engineering attacks. Some current developments of wireless communication technology such as short range communication, cloud computing, bring your own device policy (BYOD), devices tethering and convergences of WiFi and cellul...

  13. Security Solutions against Computer Networks Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Soleimani Roozbahani; Reihaneh Azad

    2015-01-01

    The spread of information networks in communities and organizations have led to a daily huge volume of information exchange between different networks which, of course, has resulted in new threats to the national organizations. It can be said that information security has become today one of the most challenging areas. In other words, defects and disadvantages of computer network security address irreparable damage for enterprises. Therefore, identification of security threats and ways of dea...

  14. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat. PMID:19245886

  15. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carels, Robert A.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M.; Hinman, Nova G.; Davis, Alan K.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; LeRoy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 2...

  16. Counter-regulating on the Internet: Threat elicits preferential processing of positive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greving, Hannah; Sassenberg, Kai; Fetterman, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The Internet is a central source of information. It is increasingly used for information search in self-relevant domains (e.g., health). Self-relevant topics are also associated with specific emotions and motivational states. For example, individuals may fear serious illness and feel threatened. Thus far, the impact of threat has received little attention in Internet-based research. The current studies investigated how threat influences Internet search. Threat is known to elicit the preferential processing of positive information. The self-directed nature of Internet search should particularly provide opportunities for such processing behavior. We predicted that during Internet search, more positive information would be processed (i.e., allocated more attention to) and more positive knowledge would be acquired under threat than in a control condition. Three experiments supported this prediction: Under threat, attention is directed more to positive web pages (Study 1) and positive links (Study 2), and more positive information is acquired (Studies 1 and 3) than in a control condition. Notably, the effect on knowledge acquisition was mediated by the effect on attention allocation during an actual Internet search (Study 1). Thus, Internet search under threat leads to selective processing of positive information and dampens threatened individuals' negative affect. PMID:26098968

  17. The Cenozoic volcanic province of Tibesti (Sahara of Chad): major units, chronology, and structural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniel, C.; Vincent, P. M.; Beauvilain, A.; Gourgaud, A.

    2015-09-01

    Using both field relationships and some absolute ages, the sequence of volcanic units in the Cenozoic Tibesti Volcanic Province (TVP) (Chad) is established as follows: (1) plateau volcanism, between at least 17 and 8 Ma, consisting of flood basalts and silicic lava plugs, with intercalated ignimbritic sheets in the upper basalt succession increasing in amount upwards. Ages decrease from NE to SW, following the migration of the small NW-SE flexures concentrating the feeding dike swarms; (2) Late Miocene large central composite volcanoes exhibiting diverse and original structures. Some of them (Tarso Toon, Ehi Oyé, and Tarso Yéga) are located along a major NNE fault, representing the main tectonic direction in Tibesti since Precambrian times; (3) construction of three large ignimbritic volcanoes, associated with significant updoming of the basement, ending with the collapse of large calderas: Voon (about 5-7 Ma), Emi Koussi (2.4-1.33 Ma), and Yirrigué (0.43 Ma); (4) basaltic activity, starting at about 5-7 Ma, and essentially consisting of cinder cones and associated lava flows (Tarso Tôh, Tarso Ahon, and Tarso Emi Chi); and (5) final volcanic activity represented by post-Yirrigué caldera activity in the Tarso Toussidé Volcanic Complex, and especially Ehi Toussidé (the only active volcano in Tibesti), plus Ehi Timi and Ehi Mousgou volcanoes, similar to Ehi Toussidé. The two tectonic directions controlling some volcanic features of the province correspond to the major old lithospheric structures delimiting the volcanic province, namely, the great NW-SE Tassilian flexure to the SW and a major NE-NNE fault zone to the E. Unusual conditions of uplift and erosion in the TVP enable exceptional exposure of the internal structure of its volcanoes.

  18. Impact of an interactive anti-speeding threat appeal: how much threat is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panić, Katarina; Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the impact of an interactive television public-service announcement (PSA) containing an anti-speeding threat appeal on feelings of telepresence and behavioral intention. In a 2 × 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design with 213 participants, the level of threat evoked by a traditional PSA, by the interactive part of the PSA (dedicated advertising location or DAL) and by the preceding program context are manipulated to be either low or high. The results support the assumptions of the Extended Parallel Processing Model with regard to the effect of the level of perceived threat and perceived efficacy in an interactive media environment, and the important role of telepresence as a processing variable. The results of the three-way interaction effect of threat evoked by the program, the PSA and the DAL on telepresence show that when the threat levels of the program and the PSA are both either low or high, exposure to the threatening information in the DAL does not generate a significantly higher feeling of telepresence. However, when a low-threat program is followed by a high-threat PSA, the threat level of the DAL has a positive effect on telepresence. The same trend is found with a high-threat program and a low-threat PSA, although the effect of the threat evoked by the DAL on telepresence is not significant at conventional levels. Finally, there is a positive effect of telepresence on the behavioral intention to reduce speeding, which is partly mediated by the viewer's perceived efficacy to follow the recommended behavior. PMID:21204691

  19. Flash floods in the Sahara: A case study for the 28th January 2013 flood in Qena-Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Moawad; Omar, Ahmed; Mamtimin, Buhalqem

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the torrential rainfall and its consequent surface runoff in the Sahara is a crucial issue for better flood protection and water management plans. This is often hampered by lack of the appropriate in situ measurements. Even now the satellite derived rainfall suffers from great uncertainty. Thus, we adjusted the data obtained from real-time satellite rainfall coverage (HYDIS) using the in situ observed rainfall (Robs). Hydro-morphological parameters were then integrated with the empirical curve number (CN) approach to estimate the surface runoff in Qena, Egypt during the 28th January 2013 flash flood event. We deduced that the study area received a total precipitation (∑Rcum) of ~35.6×106 [mm] and a total rain volume (∑Rvol) of ~88.9×109 [m3] mainly from wadi Qena (89.8%). The majority of the rainfalls fell at light intensity (volume (∑Qvol) was 66.2×106 [m3]. The total surface transmission losses (∑Tlos) were calculated as 9.1×106 [mm], which represents about 25.6% of the total precipitation (∑Rcum) and creates substantial opportunities for alluvial aquifer recharge. The total surface runoff (∑Qsur) and flood magnitude were generally low, therefore, flood influences were restricted to the destruction of some roads in Qena but no fatalities were involved, nevertheless. Most of the running water was contained by the El Sail Canal and poured into the Nile River. It is expected that the applied method in this study will be helpful for our understanding and quantification of flood hydrology and contribute to better risk management plan in the arid and hyper-arid regions.

  20. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laallam, Hadda; Boughediri, Larbi; Bissati, Samia; Menasria, Taha; Mouzaoui, Mohamed S.; Hadjadj, Soumia; Hammoudi, Rokia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38 ± 0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5 ± 550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey EC. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1 ± 4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5 ± 4.7 mm. Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations. PMID:26594206

  1. Crocodiles in the Sahara desert: an update of distribution, habitats and population status for conservation planning in Mauritania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20(th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of surveys in Mauritania detected crocodile presence in 78 localities dispersed across 10 river basins and most tended to be isolated within river basins. Permanent gueltas and seasonal tâmoûrts were the most common occupied habitats. Crocodile encounters ranged from one to more than 20 individuals, but in most localities less than five crocodiles were observed. Larger numbers were observed after the rainy season and during night sampling. Crocodiles were found dead in between water points along dry river-beds suggesting the occurrence of dispersal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Research priorities in Chad and Egypt should focus on quantifying population size and pressures exerted on habitats. The present study increased in by 35% the number of known crocodile localities in Mauritania. Gueltas are crucial for the persistence of mountain populations. Oscillations in water availability throughout the year and the small dimensions of gueltas affect biological traits, including activity and body size. Studies are needed to understand adaptation traits of desert populations. Molecular analyses are needed to quantify genetic variability, population sub-structuring and effective population size, and detect the occurrence of gene flow. Monitoring is needed to detect demographical and genetical trends in completely isolated populations. Crocodiles are apparently vulnerable during dispersal events. Awareness campaigns focusing on

  2. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along land-use and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K; Pierce, Richard Holton

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the keystone species Acacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara. Bruchids infest its seeds and reduce their viability and germination, but ingestion by ruminant herbivores diminishes infestation levels and enhances/promotes seed viability and germination. The degree of these effects seems to be correlated with animal body mass. Significantly reduced numbers of wild ruminant ungulates have increased the potential importance of domestic animals and pastoral nomadism for the functionality of arid North African and Middle Eastern ecosystems. We sampled seeds (16,543) from A. tortilis in eight areas in three regions with different aridity and land use. We tested the effect of geography and sampling context on seed infestation using random effects logistic regressions. We did a randomized and balanced germination experiment including 1193 seeds, treated with different manure. Germination time and rates across geography, sampling context, and infestation status were analyzed using time-to-event analyses, Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards Cox regressions. Bruchid infestation is very high (80%), and the effects of context are significant. Neither partial infestation nor adding manure had a positive effect on germination. There is a strong indication that intact, uningested seeds from acacia populations in the extremely arid Western Desert germinate more slowly and have a higher fraction of hard seeds than in the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea Hills. For ingested seeds in the pastoralist areas we find that intact seeds from goat dung germinate significantly better than those from camel dung. This is contrary to the expected body-mass effect. There is no effect of site or variation in tribal management. PMID:26811790

  3. Nouvelles données paléoenvironnementales pour le Quaternaire récent en Tunisie centrale (bassin de Maknassy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Bouchra; Zouari, Kamel; Ouezdou, Hedi Ben; Chkir, Najiba; Causse, Christiane

    1998-06-01

    Sedimentary deposits outcropping on the Wadi Leben and Wadi Ben Sellam banks in the Maknassy Basin (central Tunisia) have registered paleoclimatic variations, and particularly humid episodes, already known for Upper Pleistocene and Holocene, in present hyperarid areas of northern Sahara. A pluridisciplinary study, including prehistory, sedimentology, mineralogy, ecology and radiochronology ( 14C, uranium-thorium [U-Th]), improves the comprehension of paleoenvironmental interpretations and makes it possible to precisely determine the chronological framework of humid episodes during the Upper Quaternary in Tunisia.

  4. Threat navigator: grouping and ranking malicious external threats to current and future urban smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Montoya, Lorena; Ceccarelli, Andrea; Le, Anhtuan; Ionita, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Deriving value judgements about threat rankings for large and entangled systems, such as those of urban smart grids, is a challenging task. Suitable approaches should account for multiple threat events posed by different classes of attackers who target system components. Given the complexity of the

  5. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the...

  6. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless...

  7. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessment. 1540.203 Section 1540... Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat assessment. (a) Each operator subject to...

  8. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5... CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS Procedures and General Standards § 1572.5 Standards for security threat assessments. (a) Standards. TSA determines that an applicant poses a security threat...

  9. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fees for security threat assessment. 1540.209...: GENERAL RULES Security Threat Assessments § 1540.209 Fees for security threat assessment. This section describes the payment process for completion of the security threat assessments required under subpart....

  10. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  11. On the special status of "ego threats".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, D E

    1992-05-01

    This article comments on a recent article by Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy (1991) in which they suggest that ego threats are a prerequisite to affectively induced disinhibition of food intake in restrained eaters and current dieters. In contrast, the present review suggests that mood induction procedures that involve no apparent threat (e.g., viewing a frightening film) can also prompt disinhibition in restrained eaters. Thus, any mood induction procedure that does not directly physically threaten the S may disinhibit restrained eaters. It is concluded that recommendations to focus future research on ego threats are premature and may serve to obscure the mechanisms by which changes in affective state influence food intake in dieters. PMID:1507070

  12. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  13. The Range of Threats against Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Amidror

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses primarily on the threats against the State of Israel and touches little on the responses to these threats. Over the last sixty years, the threats Israel has been forced to tackle have assumed different emphases, but the fundamental principle for understanding them has not changed, namely: the world around us, the Arab world, most of the Muslim world – not necessarily “most” in the numerical-statistical terms, but in terms of those determining the outlook of that world – does not consent to the existence of an independent, sovereign Jewish state in the heart of the Middle East and will do whatever it takes to destroy it.

  14. Intergroup threat and outgroup attitudes: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, Blake M; Mania, Eric W; Gaertner, Samuel L

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between intergroup threat and negative outgroup attitudes. We first qualitatively review the intergroup threat literature, describing the shift from competing theories toward more integrated approaches, such as the integrated threat theory (ITT; W. G. Stephan and Stephan, 2000). The types of threats discussed include: realistic threat, symbolic threat, intergroup anxiety, negative stereotypes, group esteem threat, and distinctiveness threat. We then conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the relationships between various intergroup threats and outgroup attitudes. The meta-analysis, involving 95 samples, revealed that 5 different threat types had a positive relationship with negative outgroup attitudes. Additionally, outgroup status moderated some of these relationships. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:17201592

  15. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  16. Terrorism: the threat of a radiological device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organization building and detonating a 'dirty bomb' with a radiological component. The paper will discuss how such devices are made and how security of radiological material world wide will minimize the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the threat assessments against nuclear waste processing and storage sites, threats to nuclear plants and other sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device be detonated. (author)

  17. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  18. Ernährung, wirtschaftliche Entwicklung und Bürgerkriege in Afrika südlich der Sahara (1950-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Ein Leben frei von Hunger ist ein bedeutender Bestandteil der Lebensqualität. Um die Ernährungssituation in Afrika südlich der Sahara (ASS) zu quantifizieren, bedient sich die Studie der Methoden der anthropometrischen Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Eine unzureichende Ernährung sowie ein hoher Nahrungsbedarf beeinträchtigen die körperliche Entwicklung von Menschen. Die Arbeit nutzt diesen biologischen Zusammenhang und analysiert Körpergrößen von mehr als 160 000 erwachsenen Frauen aus 28 afrikanische...

  19. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We the

  20. The Missing Piece in Threat Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Denis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Common systems for sharing intelligence on security threats have not been designed to efficiently process feedback from infrastructure providers. In order to fill this gap, we introduce DIP, a new description language to expose changes being made on a network that are relevant to security research and prevention.

  1. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  2. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  3. 'NRBC' threat: is this concept still valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 10 years ago, after the Sarin attack in Tokyo, the world discover that terrorists could use again radio-nuclear, chemical or biological agents to launch attacks, just to cause terror and disruption of western economies. This has forged the acronym 'NRBC'. In terms of likelihood, nuclear and radiological attacks could be considered among the most easy to prepare, and some possible acts are listed in this paper. A considerable amount of work has been prepared for the preparedness against radio-nuclear attacks, during the last 3 years, by World Health Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Atomic Energy Agency (AEN) as well as by the International Commission of Radio Protection (ICRP). A series of documents have been issued from international cooperation. These documents shows specificities to the R/N threat in terms of health consequences, that make this threat less prone to international cooperative efforts than biological threats. In addition, the Ministers of Health of the G7 countries have created an 'Global Health Security Initiative' (GHSI) in 2002 to anticipate crisis such as the anthrax problem, or other possible NRBC threats

  4. Diversity, Racial Threat and Metropolitan Housing Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as the percent black or percent Hispanic grows, that group's residential segregation from whites tends to increase as well. Typically, these findings are explained in terms of white discriminatory reaction to the perceived threat associated with minority population growth. The present analysis examines whether…

  5. Reemerging Threat of Epidemic Typhus in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokrani, K.; Fournier, P E; Dalichaouche, M.; Tebbal, S.; Aouati, A.; Raoult, D

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of epidemic typhus in a patient from the Batna region of Algeria, who presented with generalized febrile exanthema. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by serological cross-adsorption followed by Western blotting. Our report emphasizes the threat of epidemic typhus in the highlands of Algeria.

  6. Extensible threat taxonomy for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union-sponsored project Vital Infrastructure Threats and Assurance (VITA) has the objective of exploring and showing new paths in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) R&D. This paper describes one of VITA’s results: the idea and the development of a novel extensible and generic thre

  7. After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159007.html After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure 1 in 4 survivors develops this serious ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Risk of heart failure appears high within a few years of ...

  8. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  9. OpenFlow Security Threat Detection and Defense Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqing You

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of OpenFlow-capable switches de- couples control plane from the data flow plane so that they support programmable network and allow network administrators to have programmable central control of network traffic via a controller. The controller and its communication with switches and users become a malicious attack target. This paper explores major possible security threats and attacks on the controller of SDN and proposes a new approach to automatically and dynamically detect and monitor malicious behaviors on flow message passing and defend such attacks to ensure the security of SDN. We have built a FlowEye prototype at service level on Mininet API, and simulation tests are done on two feasible attacks on OpenFlow Beacon platform. The paper provides the feasibility study of such attacks and defense protection strategies in SDN security research.

  10. Nuclear theft and sabotage. Priorities for reducing new threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appalling attacks of 11 September 2001 in the United States make clear that the threat of large, well-organized global terrorist groups bent on causing mass destruction is not hypothetical but real. The attackers achieved horrifying destruction with box-cutters. The results could have been even more horrific if the attackers would have had access to, and used, weapons of mass destruction. Ensuring that technologies and materials for weapons of mass destruction - especially weapons-usable nuclear materials, whose acquisition is the most difficult part of making a nuclear bomb - do not fall into the hands of terrorist groups or hostile States must be a central element of the coming global effort to prevent catastrophic terrorism. At the same time, nuclear facilities and materials - along with a wide range of other especially hazardous facilities and materials must be protected from mass-consequence sabotage. Securing these materials and facilities must be a top priority on the international agenda - pursued at every opportunity, at every level of authority, until the job is done. At the same time, the threats against which we must defend have to be fundamentally reconsidered. On 11 September, the threat revealed itself to be bigger, smarter, better organized, and more deadly than the threats most of the world's security systems were designed to defend against. We must ensure that our defensive response is every bit as intelligent and capable as the September attackers. And we may have to rethink some of the approaches to nuclear energy that the world has been pursuing or contemplating. Every reasonable effort must be made to ensure that nuclear materials and facilities are effectively secured. In the past, many scenarios with enormously high consequences were dismissed as too unlikely to contribute much to overall risk - but now many of these probability estimates will have to be revised. A far-reaching new effort is needed to strengthen security for nuclear

  11. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  12. Sexual harassment under social identity threat: the computer harassment paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Anne; Cadinu, Mara; Guarnieri, Gaia; Grasselli, Annalisa

    2003-11-01

    Two laboratory experiments investigated the hypothesis that threat to male identity would increase the likelihood of gender harassment. In both experiments, using the computer harassment paradigm, male university students (N=80 in Experiment 1, N=90 in Experiment 2) were exposed to different types of identity threat (legitimacy threat and threat to group value in Experiment 1 and distinctiveness threat and prototypicality threat in Experiment 2) or to no threat and were then given the opportunity to send pornographic material to a virtual female interaction partner. Results show that (a) participants harassed the female interaction partner more when they were exposed to a legitimacy, distinctiveness, or prototypicality threat than to no threat; (b) this was mainly true for highly identified males; and (c) harassment enhanced postexperimental gender identification. Results are interpreted as supporting a social identity account of gender harassment. PMID:14599249

  13. 电测深法在撒哈拉沙漠地区找水应用%The Application of Electrical Sounding to Water Exploration in Sahara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐英杰

    2014-01-01

    Because of the arid climate and water scarcity, few study on geology and hydrogeology of Sahara has been taken.The lack of study in this field has made water exploration in Sahara harder .On the basis of previous research data , the study is taken step by step to explore the unknown research field.With the help of electrical sounding, aquifers'location are identified and physical properties of them are concluded.The study is scientific and its results can be a reference for further work on hydrogeology .%撒哈拉沙漠地区气候干燥,水资源缺乏,相应的地质、水文地质工作研究程度低,为水源地勘探工作带来很大困难。结合实例,采用电测深法,遵循从已知到未知原则,经过点、线、面逐步开展工作,总结含水层物性特征,划定主要含水区域,为水文工作的开展提供重要的基础资料。

  14. Conservation Studies on Land Use Change and the Sustainability of Food Production and Gold Mining in a Sub-Sahara African Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Castel Djietror

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between land use for agronomy and for earth mineral exploration has profound ramifications for food security in gold producing African countries. Mineral exploration within forest ecosystems is a common phenomenon across the Sub-Sahara African region. This case study of Ghana examined the conversion of fertile agricultural land to gold mining land and how this change impacted on cropland area. Between 1980-2000 the mining land area within the four major gold-producing centers of Ghana increased by a total of 1131.61 km2. Surface mining operations represented the major cause for land use change from cropland to mining land. There were simultaneous increases in the land area for food crops and cash crops. This seriously limited the land area available for food production. Though inter-annual food harvest increased, it resulted from the expansion in farm size rather than from improvement in technology or agricultural inputs. Increased gold production generated higher income to support food imports. However, the high cost of imported food undermined the food purchasing power of rural people. Rural poverty rate between 1980 and 2000 increased while urban poverty percentage remained 15%. Uncontrolled gold mining could facilitate a rapid decline in arable land area and reduce the food crop production output. This imbalance in land use could contribute to long-term food security crisis in Ghana and other gold-producing Sub-Sahara African countries.

  15. A threat in the computer: the race implicit association test as a stereotype threat experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cynthia M; Cuddy, Amy J C; Burnett, Molly; Ray, Heidi; Hart, Allen

    2004-12-01

    Three experiments test whether the threat of appearing racist leads White participants to perform worse on the race Implicit Association Test (IAT) and whether self-affirmation can protect from this threat. Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that White participants show a stereotype threat effect when completing the race IAT, leading to stronger pro-White scores when the test is believed to be diagnostic of racism. This effect increases for domain-identified (highly motivated to control prejudice) participants (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, self-affirmation inoculates participants against stereotype threat while taking the race IAT. These findings have methodological implications for use of the race IAT and theoretical implications concerning the malleability of automatic prejudice and the potential interpersonal effects of the fear of appearing racist. PMID:15536243

  16. WIRELESS NETWORKS: DEVELOPMENTS, THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Mohamad Noor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses current threats in wireless networks and some academia research reviews regarding the matters. Significant and persistent threats discussed are sniffing, Man In the Middle Attack (MITM, Rogue Access Points (RAP, Denial Of Services (DoS and social engineering attacks. Some current developments of wireless communication technology such as short range communication, cloud computing, bring your own device policy (BYOD, devices tethering and convergences of WiFi and cellular network technology are also presented. Some practical suggestion and advanced countermeasures are also reviewed in this paper. The findings from reviewing these research papers proved that the complexity of the attacks had increased by time and the attacks in WiFi network are passive and more dangerous to the end users.

  17. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  18. The nuclear threat. 2. enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume contains a collection of essays published already in 1972 under the title 'The last days and end of time'. Inspite of the articles having been written between 1958 and 1967, the author feels that they are not void of present-day interest because the threat of a global cataclysm has uninterruptedly continued to exist. What he fights is not this or that enemy who might be attacked or suppressed by nuclear means but the nuclear situation as such. As he makes clear, he is not unaware of the annihilation potential working in nuclear reactors but, he feels, the threat of nuclear war has almost creased to be noticed. So then, in his opinion, the anti-nuclear-power movement is something of an obstacle to the movement against nuclear war. (HSCH)

  19. Indian estuaries: Dynamics, ecosystems, and threats

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    ARTICLE Indian estuaries: Dynamics, ecosystems, and threats Satish R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004. e-mail: shetye@nio.org Received May 11, 2011 Abstract Indian estuaries have special features that are derived from... the tide pulls the mixed water out of the estuary through its mouth. Different processes within an estuary contribute to mixing of the two waters, the important among these in the Mandovi estuary are: influence of the tide on the advective field within...

  20. Stereotype Threat Reinterpreted as a Regulatory Mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Lisa R.; Markman, Arthur B.; Maddox, W. Todd; Baldwin, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    Research documents performance decrements resulting from the activation of a negative task-relevant stereotype. We combine a number of strands of work to identify causes of stereotype threat in a way that allows us to reverse the effects and improve the performance of individuals with negative task-relevant stereotypes. We draw on prior work suggesting that negative stereotypes induce a prevention focus, and other research suggesting that people exhibit greater flexibility when their regulato...

  1. The Neuroscience of Stigma and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Derks, Belle; Inzlicht, Michael; Kang, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews social neuroscience research on the experience of stigma from the target's perspective. More specifically, we discuss several research programs that employ electroencephalography, event-related potentials, or functional magnetic resonance imaging methods to examine neural correlates of stereotype and social identity threat. We present neuroimaging studies that show brain activation related to the experience of being stereotyped and ERP studies that she...

  2. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  3. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-01

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, …) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1—contraband material in the sea containers, case 2—-explosives in soil (landmines), case 3—explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  4. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  5. Handsets Malware Threats and Facing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Elfattah, Marwa M A; Sarhan, Ebada

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, mobile handsets combine the functionality of mobile phones and PDAs. Unfortunately, mobile handsets development process has been driven by market demand, focusing on new features and neglecting security. So, it is imperative to study the existing challenges that facing the mobile handsets threat containment process, and the different techniques and methodologies that used to face those challenges and contain the mobile handsets malwares. This paper also presents a new approach to group the different malware containment systems according to their typologies.

  6. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  7. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  8. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  9. High-angular Resolution Laser Threat Warner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design and development aspects of a high-angular resolution laser-threat Warner developed at the Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi are presented. It describes a high-angular resolution laser-threat warner capable of giving warning with a resolution of i 3" when it is exposed to laser radiation from visible and near-IR pulsed solid-state laser source. It has a field of view of 90' in the azimuth direction, whereas the elevation coverage is between -5" and + 25". It is capable of handling multiple types of laser threats covering wavelength from 400 nm to 1100 nm and has an operational range of 4 km for a Q-switched laser source energy (10 ns of 10 mJ/pulse and output beam divergence of 1 mrad. The paper also describes its simulated evaluation process and field-testing which it has undergone. The result of field-testing confirms that it meets all its performance specifications mentioned above.

  10. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  11. Evaluation of Potential Biological Threats in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilating of biological threats spectrum, EDI diffusion opportunities and routes, unpredictability of outbreaks connected with connatural, technogenic, terrorist factors determines constant monitoring and readiness for operative BPA indication and identification. Scientific analytical approach of existing and probable regional bio-threats evaluation is necessary for adequate readiness system creation and maintenance of medical counteraction tactics to probable biological threats. Basing on the international experience, we carry out analysis of a situation present in Ukraine and routes for the decisions. The basic directions are: - Evaluation of a reality for EDI penetration from abroad and presence of conditions for their further diffusion inside the country. - Revealing of presence and definition of connatural EDI foci biocenoses features and BPAs. - Appropriate level of biological safety and physical protection of bio-laboratories and pathogens collections maintenance. - Gene/molecular and phenotypical definition of EDI circulating strains. - Creation of the circulating EDI gene/ phenotypic characteristics regional data bank. - Ranging of EDI actual for area. - Introduction of GPT, mathematical modeling and forecasting for tactics development in case of technogenic accidents and connatural outbreaks. - Methodical basis and equipment improvement for BPA system indication for well-timed identification of natural, or modified agent. - Education and training The international cooperation in maintenance of biosafety and bioprotection within the framework of scientific programs, grants, exchange of experience, introduction of international standards and rules are among basic factors in the decision for creating system national biosafety for countries not included in EU and the NATO. (author)

  12. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  13. Stereotype Threat and Feedback Seeking in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Loriann; Deitch, Elizabeth A.; Brief, Arthur P.; Block, Caryn J.

    2003-01-01

    Among 166 African American managers, those who were the only minority-group member in their workgroup perceived more stereotype threat. Stereotype threat was related to indirect feedback seeking and discounting of supervisors' performance feedback. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)

  14. 41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may... individual or others in the workplace. (See § 60-741.2(y) defining direct threat.)...

  15. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  16. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  17. Threat-Related Information Suggests Competence: A Possible Factor in the Spread of Rumors

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Pascal; Parren, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Information about potential danger is a central component of many rumors, urban legends, ritual prescriptions, religious prohibitions and witchcraft crazes. We investigate a potential factor in the cultural success of such material, namely that a source of threat-related information may be intuitively judged as more competent than a source that does not convey such information. In five studies, we asked participants to judge which of two sources of information, only one of which conveyed thre...

  18. Modulation of executive attention by threat stimulus in test-anxious students

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Renlai; Zou, Jilin

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether test anxiety (TA) is related to impaired attentional networks under emotional distraction. High and low test-anxious students completed a modified version of the attention network test (ANT) in which emotional distracters, specifically threat-related or neutral words, were embedded in centrally presented hollow arrows in Experiment 1. Results showed a significant reduction in efficiency of the executive attention in test-anxious students compared to controls when th...

  19. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment (Seibt & Förster, 2004). Because of this, we predic...

  20. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pip...

  1. Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Heather; Ferdaña, Zach; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-02-01

    The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system threats in a site-prioritization exercise for the Pacific Northwest coast ecoregion (U.S.A.). Cross-system threats are actions or features in one ecological realm that have effects on species in another realm. We considered bulkheads and other forms of shoreline hardening threats to terrestrial systems and roads, logging, agriculture, and urban areas threats to marine systems. We used 2 proxies of freshwater influence on marine environments, validated against a mechanistic model and field observations, to propagate land-based threats into marine sites. We evaluated the influence of cross-system threats on conservation priorities by comparing MARXAN outputs for 3 scenarios that identified terrestrial and marine priorities simultaneously: (1) no threats, (2) single-system threats, and (3) single- and cross-system threats. Including cross-system threats changed the threat landscape dramatically. As a result the best plan that included only single-system threats identified 323 sites (161,500 ha) at risk from cross-system threats. Including these threats changed the location of best sites. By comparing the best and sum solutions of the single- and cross-system scenarios, we identified areas ideal for preservation or restoration through integrated management. Our findings lend quantitative support to the call for explicitly integrated decision making and management action in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. PMID:18254857

  2. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Nardo, Di A.; Rossi, D.; Lamin Saleh, S.; Broglia, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regardin

  3. Gender, Stereotype Threat, and Anxiety: Psychophysiological and Cognitive Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis proposed that negative group stereotypes increase individual anxiety levels, hurting performance. However, the role of anxiety in stereotype threat has not been fully explored. This study examined the hypothesis that experimental manipulation of stereotype threat would influence real-time…

  4. Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logel, Christine R.; Walton, Gregory M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Peach, Jennifer; Mark, Zanna P.

    2012-01-01

    Social-psychological research conducted over the past 15 years provides compelling evidence that pervasive psychological threats are present in common academic environments--especially threats that originate in negative intellectual stereotypes--and that these threats undermine the real-world academic performance of non-Asian ethnic minority…

  5. CBRN Threats and the Economic Analysis of Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Ramseger, Alexander; Kalinowski, Martin B.; Weiß, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the economic aspects of CBRN threats. For this purpose, the extent to which this topic is reflected in freely-accessible academic literature and the costs associated with such threats will be assessed. Furthermore, it is to be determined which industries have a particular interest in security against such CBRN threats.

  6. Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these…

  7. 41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as a... position held or desired without posing a direct threat to the health or safety of the individual or...

  8. 77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... RIN 9000-AM44 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012. DATES: Effective Date...), to implement sections of Titles II and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act...

  9. 49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TSA determines that the applicant meets the security threat assessment standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c... the applicant does not meet the security threat assessment standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c). The... standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c) and may pose an imminent threat to transportation or national security,...

  10. 77 FR 1672 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense... Department of Defense announces the following Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction.... William Hostyn, GS-15, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS...

  11. 41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as a... position held or desired without posing a direct threat to the health or safety of the individual or...

  12. 77 FR 27208 - Renewal of Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... of the Secretary Renewal of Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY: DoD. ACTION: Renewal of...), the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Threat Reduction... Biological Defense Programs), independent advice and recommendations on: a. Reducing the threat to the...

  13. 75 FR 30002 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY... the charter for the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as the Committee). FOR... Acquisition, Technology and Logistics and the Director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency on the...

  14. Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dautu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005−2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

  15. Threat in Context: School Moderation of the Impact of Social Identity Threat on Racial/Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Paul; Bruch, Sarah K.; Gamoran, Adam; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Schools with very few and relatively low-performing marginalized students may be most likely to trigger social identity threats (including stereotype threats) that contribute to racial disparities. We test this hypothesis by assessing variation in the benefits of a self-affirmation intervention designed to counteract social identity threat in a…

  16. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat identification in its integrity program? 192.917 Section 192.917....917 How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the...

  17. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    This audit is one in a series of audits the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested. As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, DoD agreed to assist the Russian Federation in disposing of its liquid rocket propellant. Public Law 102-228 (section 2551 NOTE, title 22, United States Code), the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 designates DoD as the executive agent for the CTR Program. Specific objectives of the act are to destroy chemical, nuclear, and other weapons; transport, store, disable, and safeguard weapons in connection with their destruction; and establish verifiable safeguards against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

  18. Screening for Genes Coding for Putative Antitumor Compounds, Antimicrobial and Enzymatic Activities from Haloalkalitolerant and Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria Strains of Algerian Sahara Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okba Selama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments may often contain unusual bacterial groups whose physiology is distinct from those of normal environments. To satisfy the need for new bioactive pharmaceuticals compounds and enzymes, we report here the isolation of novel bacteria from an extreme environment. Thirteen selected haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from Algerian Sahara Desert soils. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds using PCR based methods. Enzymatic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined by using cultural dependant methods. Several of these isolates are typical of desert and alkaline saline soils, but, in addition, we report for the first time the presence of a potential new member of the genus Nocardia with particular activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to their haloalkali character, the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds, combined with the antimicrobial activity against a broad range of indicator strains and their enzymatic potential, makes them suitable for biotechnology applications.

  19. The formation conditions of enstatite chondrites: Insights from trace element geochemistry of olivine-bearing chondrules in Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    We report in situ LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses of silicate phases in olivine-bearing chondrules in the Sahara 97096 (EH3) enstatite chondrite. Most olivine and enstatite present rare earth element (REE) patterns comparable to their counterparts in type I chondrules in ordinary chondrites. They thus likely share a similar igneous origin, likely under similar redox conditions. The mesostasis however frequently shows negative Eu and/or Yb (and more rarely Sm) anomalies, evidently out of equilibrium with olivine and enstatite. We suggest that this reflects crystallization of oldhamite during a sulfidation event, already inferred by others, during which the mesostasis was molten, where the complementary positive Eu and Yb anomalies exhibited by oldhamite would have possibly arisen due to a divalent state of these elements. Much of this igneous oldhamite would have been expelled from the chondrules, presumably by inertial acceleration or surface tension effects, and would have contributed to the high abundance ...

  20. Nuclear waste dump no threat, says NAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a review of the National Academy of Sciences report on the efforts to site a low-level waste repository in the Mohave Desert. This report states that there would be little threat to ground water or the Colorado River, but critics charge that the advisory group, with close ties to the nuclear industry, set forth some findings that support arguments against the project. Leakage pathways from the containers to the Colorado River are reviewed, and it is concluded that even if all the leakage of plutonium reached the river, the impact would be minimal

  1. Asteroids: Their composition and impact threat

    OpenAIRE

    Burbine T H

    2002-01-01

    Impacts by near-Earth asteroids are serious threats to life as we know it. The energy of the impact will be a function of the mass of the asteroid and its impact velocity. The mass of an asteroid is very difficult to determine from Earth. One way to derive a near-Earth object's mass is by estimating the object's density from its surface composition. Reflectance spectra are the best way to determine an object's composition since many minerals (e.g. olivine, pyroxene, hydrated silicates) have c...

  2. Threats in Optical Burst Switched Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Siva Subramanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical network is a viable network for future communication, which transmits data at an average rate of 50Tb/s. Optical Burst Switching is a trusted mechanism used for Optical network. There is a good amount of research done in the area of security in Optical networks. In addition, the issues related to physical network security has been dealt with respect to Optical networks. Our proposed work is intend to find the possible security threats that may happen in Optical Burst Switched Networks and the counter measures are examined separately. The NS-2 simulator with modified OBS patch is used to verify and validate the proposed mechanism

  3. Rethinking climate change as a security threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, Corinne

    2011-10-15

    Once upon a time climate change was a strictly environment and development issue. Today it has become a matter of national and international security. Efforts to link climate change with violent conflict may not be based on solid evidence, but they have certainly captured the attention of governments. They have played a vital role in raising the much-needed awareness of climate change as an issue that deserves global action. But at what cost? Focusing on climate change as a security threat alone risks devolving humanitarian responsibilities to the military, ignoring key challenges and losing sight of those climate-vulnerable communities that stand most in need of protection.

  4. Cybersecurity Public Sector Threats and Responses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasson, Kim J

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has given rise to new opportunities for the public sector to improve efficiency and better serve constituents in the form of e-government. But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new risks. An accessible primer, Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses focuses on the convergence of globalization, connectivity, and the migration of public sector functions online. It identifies the challenges you need to be aware of and examines emerging trends and strategies from around

  5. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled. PMID:27417495

  6. Threat Model Design for new GNSS signals

    OpenAIRE

    Pagot, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Paul; Julien, Olivier; Amarillo-Fernández, Francisco; Maillard, Denis

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes threat models (TM) for Galileo E1C, the pilot component of the E1 Open Service signal, (CBOC(6,1,111⁄) modulation) and Galileo E5a (BPSK(10) modulation) signals, as they are the Galileo signals that will be used by civil aviation airborne receivers for pseudorange computation. The advent of new GNSS signals requests new definitions for prospective signal distortions. Indeed, new signals and/or new tracking methods change the conception of hazardous signal distortion. The p...

  7. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley C. Banyard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations.

  8. Tackling the Threats of Internet Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sakib Khan Pathan

    2012-01-01

    Computer Worm is a kind of malicious program that self-replicates automatically within a computer network. Again, Internet is defined as a network of networks. This is the reason why computer worms do not reside only within one computer or a single network but rather get spread all over the Internet whenever it is possible during computer-to-computer communications. The reality of today’s Internet is that the worms pose a major threat to the Internet infrastructure security. This is also unde...

  9. Applying the concept of "energy return on investment" to desert greening of the Sahara/Sahel using a global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S. P. K.; Miller, L. M.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-01-01

    Altering the large-scale dynamics of the Earth system through continual and deliberate human intervention now seems possible. In doing so, one should question the energetic sustainability of such interventions. Here, from the basis that a region might be unnaturally vegetated by employing technological means, we apply the metric of "energy return on investment" (EROI) to benchmark the energetic sustainability of such a scenario. We do this by applying EROI to a series of global climate model simulations where the entire Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated with increased rates of desalinated water to produce biomass. The energy content of this biomass is greater than the energy input rate for a minimum irrigation rate of about 200 mm yr-1 in the winter and 500 mm yr-1 in the summer, thereby yielding an EROI ratio >1 : 1, expressing energetic sustainability. Quantified annually, the EROI was >1 : 1 for irrigation rates more than 500 mm yr-1, progressively increasing to a maximum of 1.8 : 1 with 900 mm yr-1, and then decreasing with further increases in the irrigation rate. Including the precipitation feedback arising from changes in moisture recycling within the study region approximately doubles these EROI ratios. This overall result varies spatially and temporally, so while the entire Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated equally, the western coastal region from June to August had the highest EROI. Other factors would complicate such a large-scale modification of the Earth system, but this sensitivity study concludes that with a required energy input, desert greening may be energetically sustainable. More specifically, we have shown how this type of EROI analysis could be applied as a metric to assess a diverse range of human alterations to, and interventions within, the Earth system.

  10. Threat model framework and methodology for personal networks (PNs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.

    2007-01-01

    To be able to build a secure network, it is essential to model the threats to the network. A methodology for building a threat model has been proposed in the paper. Several existing threat models and methodologies will be compared to the proposed methodology. The aim of the proposed methodology i...... have been used. Also risk assessment methods will be discussed. Threat profiles and vulnerability profiles have been presented.......To be able to build a secure network, it is essential to model the threats to the network. A methodology for building a threat model has been proposed in the paper. Several existing threat models and methodologies will be compared to the proposed methodology. The aim of the proposed methodology is...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  12. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  13. Ongoing Threats to Emerging Financial Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce Alexander LYNCH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the twenty-first century the pace of technological advancement shows no signs of stopping. Old technologies are being discarded as obsolete or are transformed in ways that nobody could have foreseen even a half-decade ago. Along with these radical changes come vulnerabilities and threats to infrastructure, including informational and financial which must be considered and protected. This is not to say that basic security measures must continue to be neglected in favor of rapid development and deployment to provide a Minimum Viable Product to customers; basic security protocols become all the more important under these circumstances. Improving faster are attacks against the new infrastructure; technique and technology tend to change along generally accepted sets of rules while attackers follow no rules or guidelines. This fundamental asymmetry leaves defenders at a distinct advantage in several ways, including ethical concerns (“There are some lines we will not cross” versus “By any means necessary”, monetary considerations (“Return on investment” versus “The resources aren’t ours to begin with, so who cares” and pragmatism (“We exist to make money to improve shareholder value” versus “Because it’s there”. That said, measurable, repeatable, and effective countermeasures exist which can be deployed on an enterprise-wide basis to help level the playing field by deterring attackers. This paper will discuss these threats along with active and passive countermeasures for same.

  14. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.)

  15. Religion, group threat and sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Sheikh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sacred or protected values have important influences on decision making, particularly in the context of intergroup disputes. Thus far, we know little about the process of a value becoming sacred or why one person may be more likely than another to hold a sacred value. We present evidence that participation in religious ritual and perceived threat to the group lead people to be more likely to consider preferences as protected or sacred values. Specifically, three studies carried out with Americans and Palestinians show: (a that the more people participate in religious ritual the more likely they are to report a preference to be a sacred value (Studies 1--3; (b that people claim more sacred values when they are reminded of religious ritual (Study 2; and (c that the effect of religious ritual on the likelihood of holding a sacred value is amplified by the perception of high threat to the in-group (Study 3. We discuss implications of these findings for understanding intergroup conflicts, and suggest avenues for future research into the emergence and spread of sacred values.

  16. Insider threat vulnerability analysis - MAIT update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer-based method for security system evaluation and improvement called Matrix Analysis for the Insider Threat (MAIT) was developed and reported on previously by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). MAIT is a sophisticated method for the analysis of safeguards or security systems that determines if single or multiple insiders can covertly sabotage a facility or system or can covertly divert a resource that is present in the facility or system. The MAIT code was initially developed for application to theft from fuel cycle facilities. The MAIT method provides a detailed, organized way to exhaustively examine the safeguards or security system against these covert threats. An evaluation of this broad scope is beyond the reasonable capability of an analyst working without computer assistance. The MAIT analysis is conducted by first manually collecting detailed facility design data and access and control information for each individual safeguard measure. With this information, the MAIT computer code synthesizes every possible situation and returns data to the analyst concerning those particular events that are not adequately projected

  17. Prefrontal control of attention to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Polly V; Simons, Jon S; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g., trait anxiety) and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink (AB) following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience. PMID:23386824

  18. Unattended sensors for nuclear threat detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the ongoing development of a compact, unattended, and low-power radiation detection system designed for deployment to the front lines of nuclear proliferation. Current countermeasure deployments aim to detect nuclear threats by screening cargo containers abroad or at ports of entry, but the defensive nature of these systems means that they face the immense challenge of detecting intentionally-concealed materials. A complementary strategy places countermeasures closer to the source of nuclear proliferation, but deployments to these regions often must operate autonomously and in the absence of infrastructure. This application motivates our development of a low-power system capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron emissions while operating autonomously for extended periods of time. Many challenges are present when developing radiation-detection systems for this application, and this paper describes work focused on two of them: the development of compact, low-power electronics for gamma-ray-spectrometer and 3He- tube signal processing, and analysis algorithms capable of distinguishing threats from benign sources in mid-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers. We discuss our development efforts on these fronts and present results based on implementation in a proof-of-principle system comprised of two 5 cm x 10 cm x 41 cm NaI(Tl) crystals and eight 40-cm 3He tubes

  19. Unattended sensors for nuclear threat detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Kiff, Scott D.; Morris, Scott J.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Rohrer, John S.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2008-06-30

    This paper discusses the ongoing development of a compact, unattended, and low-power radiation detection system designed for deployment to the front lines of nuclear proliferation. Current countermeasure deployments aim to detect nuclear threats by screening cargo containers abroad or at ports of entry, but the defensive nature of these systems means that they face the immense challenge of detecting intentionally-concealed materials. A complementary strategy places countermeasures closer to the source of nuclear proliferation, but deployments to these regions often must operate autonomously and in the absence of infrastructure. This application motivates our development of a low-power system capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron emissions while operating autonomously for extended periods of time. Many challenges are present when developing radiation-detection systems for this application, and this paper describes work focused on two of them: the development of compact, low-power electronics for gamma-ray-spectrometer and 3He- tube signal processing, and analysis algorithms capable of distinguishing threats from benign sources in mid-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers. We discuss our development efforts on these fronts and present results based on implementation in a proof-of-principle system comprised of two 5 cm x 10 cm x 41 cm NaI(Tl) crystals and eight 40-cm 3He tubes.

  20. Threats to the consumer market of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriil Aleksandrovich Agarkov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This papers reviews the main threats to the today's consumer market and offers a historic tour of their existence. The results of a comprehensive diagnostics technique of economic safety of the consumer market in the region taking into account the impact of threats are presented. In the basis of the procedure is an indicative method of analysis, in which diagnosis is carried out on a set of criterial parameters. Along with a comprehensive assessment, the paper offers a detailed analysis of one of the method's modules - evaluation of consumer protection as the most vulnerable category of participants in the consumer market. A classification of prejudice of consumers in accordance with international studies is considered. The conducted study showed that, in general, there is a positive trend of economic safety of the consumer market in the region for the period from 2003 to 2010, but, according to some modules (evaluation of consumer protection, the situation has worsened for the majority of the subjects discussed during the reviewed period. The results of economic safety diagnostics of the consumer market actors can be used in the formation of program-target events to neutralize the negative trends in the consumer market

  1. Prefrontal control of attention to threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly V Peers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g. trait anxiety and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show, that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience.

  2. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  3. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Domestic Security Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is part of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). One of GTRI’s primary missions is to work throughout the United States to enhance security for radiological materials located at civilian sites such as hospitals and universities that could be potentially used in a radiological dispersal device (RDD). In partnership with other federal organizations such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), GTRI has assisted sites in enhancing security for thousands of radioactive sources located throughout the U.S. This paper provides an overview of GTRI’s partnership with the NRC, the FBI, DHS, and host sites to enhance the security of radioactive sources

  4. Threats from space: 20 years of progress

    CERN Document Server

    Remo, J L

    2014-01-01

    It has been 20 years since planning began for the 1995 United Nations International Conference on Near-Earth Objects. The conference proceedings established the scientific basis for an international organizational framework to support research and collective actions to mitigate a potential near-Earth object (NEO) threat to the planet. Since that time, researchers have conducted telescope surveys that should, within the coming decade, answer many questions about the size, number, and Earth impact probability of these objects. Space explorations to asteroids and comets have been successfully carried out, including sample recovery. Laboratory experiments and computer simulations at Sandia National Laboratories have analyzed the effects of soft X-ray radiation on meteorites - which might help researchers develop a way to redirect an incoming asteroid by vaporizing a thin layer of its surface. An Action Team on NEOs, established in 2001 in response to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the E...

  5. Bluetooth Security Threats And Solutions: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nateq Be-Nazir Ibn Minar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth technology has become an integral part of this modern society. The availability of mobile phones, game controllers, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA and personal computers has made Bluetooth a popular technology for short range wireless communication. However, as the Bluetooth technology becomes widespread, vulnerabilities in its security protocols are increasing which can be potentially dangerous to the privacy of a user’s personal information. The security issues of Bluetooth have been an active area of research for the last few years. This paper presents the vulnerabilities in the security protocols of this technology along with some past security threats and possible countermeasures as reported in the literatures which have been surveyed and summarized in this paper. It also presents some tips that end-users can implement immediately to become more cautious about their private information.Finally, the paper concludes with some recommendations for future security enhancements that can be implemented in the Bluetooth standard.

  6. Zika Virus: Old Rival, New Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV, originally isolated in 1947, caused a worldwide epidemic between January 2014 and February 2016 in which a total of 39 countries have reported autochthonous circulation (33 or indirect evidence of local transmission (6. The total area affected by ZIKV infection is expanding steadily. ZIKV has become a new threat to public health, and the recent cluster of microcephaly and other neurologic disorders suspected to be due to ZIKV has lead the World Health Organization to announce that it is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Because of its current importance, this review summarizes the currently available data on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, and transmission of ZIKV and its related diseases.

  7. MCNPX improvements for threat reduction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Laurie S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Durkee, Joe W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elson, Jay S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holloway, Shannon T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johns, Russell C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, M William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mckinney, Gregg W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pelowitz, Denise B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) is funding a multiyear program of improvements for the MCNPX{sup TM} Monte Carlo radiation-transport code. Additional work is underway for the DTRA Active Interrogation programs. Enhancements contained in the current MCNPX 2.6.0 RSICC release will be presented, including stopped-muon physics, delayed neutron and photon generation and automatic generation of source photons. Preliminary benchmarking comparisons with data taken with a PSI muon beam will be discussed. We will also describe current improvements now underway, including Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, pulsed sources, and others. We will also describe very new work begun on a Threat-Reduction user inferface, designed to simplify the setup of TR-related calculations, and introduce standards into geometry, sources and backgrounds.

  8. The expectancy of threat and peritraumatic dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela McDonald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peritraumatic dissociation is one of the most critical acute responses to a traumatic experience, partly because it predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite this, there is little understanding about the factors that influence peritraumatic dissociation. This study investigated the extent to which peritraumatic dissociation is predicted by the amount of perceived warning that participants had of the impact of the trauma. Method: Randomized eligible admissions to four major trauma hospitals (N =243 were assessed during hospital admission with the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ and the perceived warning that participants had before the trauma impact occurred. Results: Whereas female gender predicted both Awareness and Derealization subscale scores on the PDEQ, perceived warning also predicted scores on the Derealization subscale. Conclusions: This finding suggests that the degree of anticipated threat may contribute to peritraumatic dissociation.

  9. Consequences of a changing CBRN threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OPCW now counts 186 member States. Member States that possessed chemical weapons (CW) are destroying those weapons, albeit at a slow pace. In the coming decade most, if not all, of the 100.000 + tons of CW from the previous century will have been destroyed. Of the 12± States, not part of the OPCW, four of them potentially have CW but their quantities are restricted to less than 1000 tons. About one kg of the more potent nerve agent or Mustard gas is required to produce on average one casualty amongst unprotected troops, 1000 tons potentially can produce 1 million casualties. Protection, passive chemical defense, is therefore mandatory. However, once a detection and protection system is in place, with a protection factor of say one thousand, the amount required to produce one casualty amongst troops in a military scenario becomes prohibitive. Furthermore, available CW quantities will have been reduced by pre-emptive airstrikes and the aggressor will have little chance to fully deploy his CW capability. The threat from massive CW with units facing several attacks per week has changed to incidental attacks on a smaller scale and with far lower frequency. This should have consequences for the chemical defense posture of the forces, Detection and protection are still required but the protection can have a lower capacity, less spares per individual. Because the number of incidents will be far lower it might be more cost effective to abandon contaminated equipment than to decontaminate it. As the number of CW casualties entering the military medical system will be small it might be better to find cures for diseases from biological weapons than to spent money on improved therapies for nerve agent or mustard. Although research in CW medical over the last 50 years was great, it has not produced a therapy for mustard or a significant improvement over the old therapy for nerve agent poisoning. With a declining CW threat the BW threat is on the rise, making a passive

  10. Security Threats in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, technological advances in the design of processors, memory, and radio communications have propelled an active interest in the area of distributed sensor networking, in which a number of independent, self-sustainable nodes collaborate to perform a large sensing task....... Security and privacy are rapidly replacing performance as the first and foremost concern in many sensor networking scenarios. While security prevention is important, it cannot guarantee that attacks will not be launched and that, once launched, they will not be successful. Therefore, detection of malicious...... of the most severe routing attacks against sensor networks, namely the sinkhole and wormhole attacks, and we emphasize on strategies that an attacker can follow to successfully launch them. Then we propose novel localized countermeasures that can make legitimate nodes become aware of the threat, while...

  11. The CBRNE Threat Needs New Dedicated Analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: After the 9-11 attack by terrorists several governments realized their vulnerability towards creative asymmetric attacks. Due to increasing complexity of our society we create more vulnerability towards terror attacks. More chemical substances than we realize can be misused to destabilize our modern society. Recently aircraft passengers were confronted with new regulations, which limit the amount of fluid, which a passenger can bring on board with hand luggage. How far should we go limiting the allowance to bring liquids and substances on board? It indicates that we need new analytic instruments for screening the safety of luggage in all types of transport. Study Design: An inventory was made of the present demand for safe transport and its vulnerability to terror attacks. Also the safety and safety awareness in public buildings, offices and industrial complexes was assessed. Knowing the demand for a certain safety level, an inventory was made to identify analytical equipment, which can be used to check passengers and luggage on possible threats. The same can be used for protecting public areas, offices and industrial complexes. Results And Discussion: It is amazing how some governments, financially driven, underestimate the consequences of CBRNE incidences and disasters. Both threats due to release of dangerous substances just by accident and deliberate abuse of chemicals and/or biologicals by terror organizations is underestimated. Financial rationales are often the cause that the preparedness is less that technically could be possible. Still some commercial companies realize the importance of safety and preparedness towards terror attacks and take their precautions. Several detection systems are now under development and a new market of safety devices comes into existence. Conclusion: Key question is how far we would like to go with defending us with technical devices against potential terror attacks. Also the design of buildings, transport

  12. Nuclear terrorism: How real is the threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the end of the Cold War the threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction to non-state actors has increased and since non-territorial actors cannot be deterred as easily as states, new responses have to be found. The author offers a definition of nuclear terrorism which includes also attacks on, and sabotage of, nuclear reactors and the dispersal of radioactive waste, in addition to the possession or use of weapon-grade nuclear materials. It is held that the main bottleneck for would-be nuclear terrorists is not so much bomb design than access to nuclear material for which the territories of the former Soviet Union are a likely source, due to gaps in safety and security. The article discusses the smuggling of nuclear material from the former USSR's territories and lists seven possible methods of acquisition of nuclear materials by terrorists. The intentions of various types of groups to use weapons of mass destruction and their possible goals are analyzed and the question whether or not Osama Bin Laden has acquired nuclear materials is raised. A discussion of possible motivations for nuclear terrorism by non-state actors and a listing of facilitating and inhibiting factors with regard to terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction lead to the conclusion that nuclear terrorism by non-state actors is still a low probability event but that no risks can be taken and that a broad action plan to counter the threat is needed whereby the IAEA should stand in the forefront. (author)

  13. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: testing integrated threat theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents' (N=1,187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and symbolic threats, but not realistic threats, predicted prejudice towards Muslims. Further, it was found that the effect of in-group identification on prejudice was fully mediated by symbolic threat, the effect of contact was partially mediated by stereotypes, and the effect of the endorsement of multiculturalism was mediated by both symbolic threat and stereotypes. In addition, contact and multiculturalism were directly associated with prejudice towards Muslims. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18284782

  14. The Reliability to Predict Threat in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrs Larionovs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the analysis and study it will be possible to create and describe information damping mechanism for transition of threats from one user group to another (within the parameters of portraits, which is the main cause of the massively spreading threat on social networks. Threat predictability in social networks is associated with an adequate scrutiny of system and user portrait, which has a direct correlation.

  15. Mediators of Stereotype Threat among Black College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Douglas S.; Owens, Jayanti

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesize that the manner in which stereotype threat affects college grade achievement is mediated by institutional context as well as individual characteristics. Drawing on a sample of black students from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen we find weak and inconsistent evidence that institutional characteristics influence the operation of stereotype threat. We find more consistent evidence to indicate that the effect of stereotype threat is conditioned by individual factors su...

  16. CYBER THREATS TRENDS IN THE WORLD INFORMATION SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Cherniak, Oleg R.; Fedulov, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    To protect informational systems against cyber threats (attacks) risks must be constantly evaluated and assessed their existence in the global information space affect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information resources. Upon the analysis and identification of the trends major development of cyber threats in the global information space made, it is possible to draw the conclusion about the trends progress of cyber threats and mechanisms of their proliferation become more ...

  17. New Frontiers of Network Security: The Threat Within

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, Sugata; Shelat, Ajit; Gupta, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 70% of information security threats originate from inside an organization. Opportunities for insider threats have been increasing at an alarming rate with the latest trends of mobility (portable devices like Laptop, smart phones etc.), ubiquitous connectivity (wireless or through 3G connectivity) and this trend increases as more and more web-based applications are made available over the Internet. Insider threats are generally caused by current or ex-employees, contractors or partners,...

  18. The effects of takeover threats of shareholders and firm value

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, Marco; Riyanto, Yohanes

    2000-01-01

    We study the role of takeover threats as a corporate control mechanism using Aghion and Tirole's (1997) model of formal and real authority. Shareholders do not monitor the manager's actions, since ownership is widely dispersed. A corporate raider may monitor, and steps in if a profit opportunity exists. In our model, a takeover threat decreases the manager's effort and does not benefit shareholders. The effect of a takeover threat on the expected value of the firm is ambiguous. It is in the i...

  19. On the relationship between social distance and threat

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid C. Buba; de Hoog, Natascha

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the dependence of threat perception and reaction on social distance estimation. Social identity threat was imposed within a 2x2 between subjects design, with N=163 students reading a criticising comment about their ingroup assigned to originate from one of two possible outgroups. The participants completed parts of the scale Overlap of self, ingroup and outgroup (OSIO, Schubert and Otten, 2002) as a measure of social distance either before or after the threat manipulation. Res...

  20. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa : Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèlle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin; Davenport, Tim; Dunn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover...

  1. Attention Training and the Threat Bias: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    O’Toole, Laura; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is characterized by exaggerated attention to threat. Several studies suggest that this threat bias plays a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Furthermore, although the threat bias can be reduced in anxious individuals and induced in non-anxious individual, the attentional mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. To address this issue, 49 non-anxious adults were randomly assigned to either attentional training toward or training away from th...

  2. Wetland Preservation in Australia: The Administrative and Policital Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Yaolin Wang

    2008-01-01

    The wetlands in Australia are of great physical, chemical and biological variety due to the continent's age, geological history and climate. The traditional physical and biological threats remain as the main challenges for wetland preservation in Australia. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the immediate survival of wetlands are being affected by more subtle threats, such as administrative and political threats. This paper identifies these non-physical threats and discusses how and why they have become the major barriers for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia. Finally, this paper calls for more practical policies and solutions to be implemented for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia.

  3. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects. PMID:27120561

  4. Stereotype threat in salary negotiations is mediated by reservation salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellhed, Una; Björklund, Fredrik

    2011-04-01

    Women are stereotypically perceived as worse negotiators than men, which may make them ask for less salary than men when under stereotype threat (Kray et al., 2001). However, the mechanisms of stereotype threat are not yet properly understood. The current study investigated whether stereotype threat effects in salary negotiations can be explained by motivational factors. A total of 116 business students negotiated salary with a confederate and were either told that this was diagnostic of negotiating ability (threat manipulation) or not. Measures of minimum (reservation) and ideal (aspiration) salary goals and regulatory focus were collected. The finding (Kray et al., 2001) that women make lower salary requests than men when under stereotype threat was replicated. Women in the threat condition further reported lower aspiration salary, marginally significantly lower reservation salary and less eagerness/more vigilance than men. Reservation salary mediated the stereotype threat effect, and there was a trend for regulatory focus to mediate the effect. Thus, reservation salary partly explains why women ask for less salary than men under stereotype threat. Female negotiators may benefit from learning that stereotype threat causes sex-differences in motivation. PMID:21077905

  5. Radiation, multiple dispersal and parallelism in the skinks, Chalcides and Sphenops (Squamata: Scincidae), with comments on Scincus and Scincopus and the age of the Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Geniez, Ph; Roca, J; Mateo, J A

    2008-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis using up to 1325 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 179 specimens and 30 species of Chalcides, Sphenops, Eumeces, Scincopus and Scincus indicates that Sphenops arose twice independently within Chalcides. It is consequently synonymized with that genus. Chalcides in this broader sense originated in Morocco, diversifying into four main clades about 10 Ma, after which some of its lineages dispersed widely to cover an area 40 times as large. Two separate lineages invaded the Canary Islands and at least five main lineages colonized southern Europe. At least five more spread across northern Africa, one extending into southwest Asia. Elongate bodies with reduced limbs have evolved at least four times in Chalcides, mesic 'grass-swimmers' being produced in one case and extensive adaptation to life in loose desert sand in two others. In clade, Chalcides striatus colonized SW Europe from NW Africa 2.6 Ma and C. chalcides mainland Italy 1.4 Ma, both invasions being across water, while C. c. vittatus reached Sardinia more recently, perhaps anthropogenically, and C. guentheri spread 1200km further east to Israel. C. minutus is a composite, with individuals from the type locality forming a long independent lineage and the remaining ones investigated being most closely related to C. mertensi. In the Northern clade, C. boulengeri and C. sepsoides spread east through sandy habitats north of the Sahara about 5 Ma, the latter reaching Egypt. C. bedriagai invaded Spain around the same time, perhaps during the Messinian period when the Mediterranean was dry, and shows considerable diversification. Although it is currently recognized as one species, the C. ocellatus clade exhibits as much phylogenetic depth as the other main clades of Chalcides, having at least six main lineages. These have independently invaded Malta and Sardinia from Tunisia and also southwest Arabia C. o. humilis appears to have spread over 4000 km through the Sahel, south of the Sahara quite

  6. Norwegian assessment of nuclear and radiological threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There has previously been a series of severe accidents and other events around the world, which has lead to health effects and severe consequences to the environment as a result of ionising radiation. Some of the most severe accidents have been related to explosions or fires in nuclear installations and high dose levels due to orphan sources. Even though the Norwegian nuclear industry is limited, it has since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 been Norwegian policy to have a particular emergency preparedness towards nuclear or radiological events. In order to maintain an effective emergency preparedness with limited resources, it is necessary to have a good understanding of possible scenarios and related consequences. Norwegian authorities are therefore continuously assessing nuclear and radiological threats. Norwegian emergency preparedness has to a large extent been directed towards scenarios where an accident at a foreign nuclear installation leads to radioactive volumes of air passing over Norway, causing considerable deposition over large geographical areas. Norway is neighbouring the Kola Peninsula, where there was a considerable nuclear development during the cold war. Due to their close vicinity to the Norwegian border and poor conditions at some of the sites, possible accidents at nuclear installations on the Kola Peninsula in Russia have been emphasised in Norwegian emergency preparedness. However, Norwegian and international efforts have contributed to improve the conditions at several sites on the Kola Peninsula. Improved safety and physical protection at these sites have reduced the risk for cross-border contamination. Furthermore, extensive decommissioning and dismantlement of aged nuclear submarines have reduced the number of nuclear objects of particular concern. Meanwhile, the latest changes in the international security environment have made one consider a new set of scenarios, involving e.g. massive attacks on nuclear installations. Aging

  7. A Probabilistic Analysis Framework for Malicious Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Taolue; Kammuller, Florian; Nemli, Ibrahim;

    2015-01-01

    Malicious insider threats are difficult to detect and to mitigate. Many approaches for explaining behaviour exist, but there is little work to relate them to formal approaches to insider threat detection. In this work we present a general formal framework to perform analysis for malicious insider...

  8. Personality, threat and affective responses to cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Karen; Van der Gang, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    The present study tried to reconcile assumptions from Terror Management Theory that individual differences in openness to diversity are enhanced by existential threat with own recent findings suggesting that individual differences are diminished by threat. A model was supported assuming that it is t

  9. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  10. An examination of stereotype threat effects on girls' mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M; Mingle, Leigh A; Ryan, Allison M; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In a series of 3 studies, with a total sample of 931 students, we investigated stereotype threat effects during childhood and adolescence. Three activation methods were used, ranging from implicit to explicit. Across studies, we found no evidence that the mathematics performance of school-age girls was impacted by stereotype threat. In 2 of the studies, there were gender differences on the mathematics assessment regardless of whether stereotype threat was activated. Potential reasons for these findings are discussed, including the possibility that stereotype threat effects only occur in very specific circumstances or that they are in fact occurring all the time. We also address the possibility that the literature regarding stereotype threat in children is subject to publication bias. PMID:23356523

  11. An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmader, Toni; Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on…

  12. Lack of Stereotype Threat at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivardo, Mark G.; Rhodes, Michael E.; Klein, Brandi

    2008-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been demonstrated to reduce the performance of stereotyped individuals in the threatened domain (Steele & Aronson, 1995). This study attempted to replicate the finding that stereotype threat instruction can erase the performance deficit women experience in math performance (Johns, Schmader, & Martens, 2005) and to further…

  13. Does Manipulating Stereotype Threat Condition Change Performance Goal State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Cecil Max

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether the Stereotype Threat effect is mediated by achievement goals, in particular performance-avoidance goals. Threat level was altered before a difficult math test to observe how the endorsement by females of various achievement goal dimensions was affected. 222 people (96 females) in a pre-calculus class at a Mid-Western…

  14. Threat Level High (School): Curriculum Reform with Violence in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, T. Elijah; Twemlow, Stuart W.

    2015-01-01

    When school communities are troubled by violence, or threats of violence, at the hands of young people, educators have an opportunity to learn about aggression and adolescent identity development. A disturbing threat incident provides the point of departure for this principal's reflection on how high school curriculum can better meet the identity…

  15. Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

  16. Threat-Related Attentional Bias in Anxious Youth: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliafico, Anthony C.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    The research literature suggests that children and adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders experience cognitive distortions that magnify their perceived level of threat in the environment. Of these distortions, an attentional bias toward threat-related information has received the most theoretical and empirical consideration. A large volume…

  17. Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Muris; M. Kindt; S. Boegels; H. Merckelbach; B, Gadet; V. Moulaert

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationship between childhood anxiety and threat perception abnormalities. 105 children (aged 8-13 yrs) were exposed to stories reflecting 3 types of anxiety: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. From children's reactions to the stories, a number of threat perce

  18. Threat Detection in Tweets with Trigger Patterns and Contextual Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitters, M.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Worm, D.T.H.; Bouma, H.

    2014-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities in open sources on the internet. Early detection of threats based on internet information could assist in the prevention of incidents. However, the amount of data in social media, blogs and forums rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  19. 78 FR 46782 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... RIN 9000-AM44 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense... Revolutionary Guard Corps, as contained in titles II and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights... Federal Register at 77 FR 73516, on December 10, 2012, to implement sections of titles II and III of...

  20. 75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of... announces a meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as ``the Committee..., October 21, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Heritage...

  1. Combating threats of bankruptcy to large energy consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the outstanding advantages pointed out in the early privatization period in Croatia, the course of development taken by liberalized energy markets in Europe poses a number of threats of bankruptcy to large energy consumers. The paper presents several ways of combating these threats.(author)

  2. Superluminous supernovae: No threat from Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C; Fields, Brian D; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of ~10^44 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to Eta Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a (poorly determined) distance of ~2.5 kpc. Eta Carinae appears ready to detonate, and in fact had an outburst in 1843. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, Eta Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over ~10^4 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possib...

  3. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society’s poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient’s clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  4. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society's poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient's clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  5. Nuclear weapons: new threats, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief history of the Iranian nuclear crisis since 2003, the author discusses the four aspects of this crisis which make it a textbook case: a country which wants to control the whole nuclear process and therefore may reach the capacity to produce military-grade uranium (this raises the question of the relationship between nuclear energy and disarmament), the validity and efficiency of international controls is at stake, divergence may appear on the ways to have international treaties respected (different approaches between Europe and the USA), a country which is looking for nuclear weapon for matters of regional security and power (this raises the issue of a new approach to security). Then, the author describes the new nuclear threats: proliferating states, terrorist groups, and states with nuclear weapons (attitude of the USA, China, Russia, France and the United Kingdom, perspective of a nuclear disarmament of Europe). He gives an overview of the current status of disarmament and of treaties (START, NPT), and discusses the opportunities to save the non proliferation treaty from collapsing in 2005

  6. Ebola Virus ─ A Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejbah Uddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is a filamentous, enveloped, non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. It belongs to the Filoviridae and was first recognized near the Ebola River valley in Zaire in 1976. Since then most of the outbreaks have occurred to both human and nonhuman primates in sub-Saharan Africa. Ebola virus causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to hemorrhagic fever, it could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Although its natural reservoir is yet to be proven, current data suggest that fruit bats are the possibility. Infection has also been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines. Human infection is caused through close contact with the blood, secretion, organ or other body fluids of infected animal. Human-to-human transmission is also possible. Ebola virus infections are characterized by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock. The virus constitutes an important public health threat in Africa and also worldwide as no effective treatment or vaccine is available till now

  7. Calculating the new global nuclear terrorism threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experts from around the world are meeting at the IAEA on 29 October to 2 November at an international symposium on nuclear safeguards, verification, and security. A special session on 2 November focuses on the issue of combating nuclear terrorism. Although terrorists have never used a nuclear weapon, reports that some terrorist groups, particularly al-Qaeda, have attempted to acquire nuclear material is a cause of great concern. According to the IAEA, since 1993, there have been 175 cases of trafficking in nuclear material and 201 cases of trafficking in other radioactive sources (medical, industrial). However, only 18 of these cases have actually involved small amounts of highly enriched uranium or plutonium, the material needed to produce a nuclear bomb. IAEA experts judge the quantities involved to be insufficient to construct a nuclear explosive device. The IAEA experts have evaluated the risks for nuclear terrorism in these three categories: Nuclear facilities; Nuclear Material; Radioactive Sources. The IAEA is proposing a number of new initiatives, including strengthening border monitoring, helping States search for and dispose of orphan sources and strengthening the capabilities of the IAEA Emergency Response Centre to react to radiological emergencies following a terrorist attack. In the short term, the IAEA estimates that at least $30-$50 million annually will be needed to strengthen and expand its programs to meet this terrorist threat

  8. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  9. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-26

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  10. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. PMID:25087211

  11. Fructose; a Hidden Threat for Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Korkmaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Incremental usage of the fructose derived from corn by processed-food manufacturers has become a crucial threat in terms of human health. Although it is known as fruit sugar, the most important source of dietary fructose is now, processed-food prepared by using high-fructose corn syrup. Basically, fructose is metabolized within liver and its energy load is equal to glucose. Nevertheless, it does not make up satiety and fullness. Therefore, fructose-rich foods and beverages can be consumed in large amount because the absence of satiety. Studies performed recently unveil a connection between amount of fructose consumed and metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The incidence of metabolic diseases which are already affecting more than half of the adults has been increasing among children. Moreover, these types of foods are generally consumed by children. Therefore, in order to reduce the frequency of metabolic disorders in all ages, the amount of fructose in processed-foods and beverages should also be taken into consideration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 343-346

  12. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  13. Environmental degradation and environmental threats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a review of environmental degradation and its threats in China. Air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, soil degradation, sand depositing in dams, decaying urban infrastructure, and more and more hazards such as floods, landslides and soil erosion are major consequences of environmental degradation and are making tremendous loss both in life and property. Through investigation, the author found that poor air quality in the large cities; water pollution in the downstream of many rivers; the multiple problems of many mining areas; lack of access to fresh water; decaying sewage systems; and the disastrous impact of these environmental degradations on public health and agricultural products in many provinces is rather serious. Relationship of environmental degradation and natural hazards is close; more attention should be put in environmental degradation that may surpass economy progress if the trend continues. It is therefore imperative that Chinese government undertake a series of prudent actions now that will enable to be in the best possible position when the current environmental crisis ultimately passes. PMID:15887370

  14. Reducing the threat of nuclear theft and sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appalling events of September II, 2001 make clear that the threat of well-organized global terrorist groups bent on causing mass destruction is not hypothetical but real. There is evidence that Osama bin Laden's Al Quaida organization is seeking weapons of mass destruction, and has attempted to purchase stolen nuclear material from the former Soviet Union for use in nuclear explosives. Ensuring that the technologies and materials of weapons of mass destruction - especially weapons-usable nuclear materials, do not fall into the hands of terrorist groups or hostile states must therefore be a central element of the coming global battle to prevent mass-destruction terrorism. At the same time, nuclear facilities and radioactive materials - along with a wide range of other especially hazardous facilities and materials - must be protected from mass-consequence sabotage. Limited access to fissile materials, the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, is the principal technical barrier to nuclear proliferation in the world today. The international community has an overwhelming interest in seeing that all such material is secure and accounted for. These events highlight the urgent need to: Dramatically expand international cooperation to upgrade security and accounting for weapons- usable nuclear material, in the former Soviet Union and worldwide, with the goal of ensuring that all such material is protected to stringent standards within a few years; Ensure that all nuclear facilities and materials (and other particularly hazardous facilities) are secure from mass-consequence sabotage; Strengthen national and international standards for security of nuclear materials and facilities; Greatly expand international efforts to interdict nuclear smuggling, including the difficult but essential task of strengthening efforts to share intelligence in this critical area; Reduce the number of sites where significant quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material exist, and the size

  15. Threat, prejudice and stereotyping in the context of Japanese, North Korean, and South Korean intergroup relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Chris; Abrams, Dominic; Rosenthal, Harriet E.S.; Christian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated threat theory, realistic conflict theory, and group justification (based on social identity theory) were evaluated in the international context of Japanese prejudice toward North Korea and South Korea. Military threat emerged as an important addition to the four threats outlined by integrated threat theory. Three perceived North Korean threats (realistic [domestic] threat; intergroup anxiety; military threat) predicted prejudice toward North Korea. North Korean preju...

  16. Instantaneous threat escape and differentiated refuge demand among zooplankton taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lars-Anders; Bianco, Giuseppe; Ekvall, Mikael; Heuschele, Jan; Hylander, Samuel; Yang, Xi

    2016-02-01

    Most animals, including aquatic crustacean zooplankton, perform strong avoidance movements when exposed to a threat, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We here show that the genera Daphnia and Bosmina instantly adjust their vertical position in the water in accordance with the present UVR threat, i.e., seek refuge in deeper waters, whereas other taxa show less response to the threat. Moreover, Daphnia repeatedly respond to UVR pulses, suggesting that they spend more energy on movement than more stationary taxa, for example, during days with fluctuating cloud cover, illustrating nonlethal effects in avoiding UVR threat. Accordingly, we also show that the taxa with the most contrasting behavioral responses differ considerably in photoprotection, suggesting different morphological and behavioral strategies in handling the UVR threat. In a broader context, our studies on individual and taxa specific responses to UVR provide insights into observed spatial and temporal distribution in natural ecosystems. PMID:27145603

  17. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benachour, Elhadj; Draoui, Belkacem; Imine, Baachir; Hasnat, Mohammed; Rahmani, Lakhdar

    2016-03-01

    The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as the Mud which is in our region with a significant amount and almost free quantity. This work presents a study of numerical simulation aiming at the role and the influence of the insulation by the mud Reduced like a local material to the town of Bechar located at the south west of Algeria, or one is interested in a comparative study for pursued these goals. In this context, an analogy was used for the functions which are discretized by the finite difference method and integrated in the Fluent code which is based on the finite volume method. The validation of this procedure was confirmed while comparing some results. The results are presented in the form of distributions of the isotherms, the streamlines, local and average Nusselt of which the goal to study the influence on comfort.

  18. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benachour Elhadj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as the Mud which is in our region with a significant amount and almost free quantity. This work presents a study of numerical simulation aiming at the role and the influence of the insulation by the mud Reduced like a local material to the town of Bechar located at the south west of Algeria, or one is interested in a comparative study for pursued these goals. In this context, an analogy was used for the functions which are discretized by the finite difference method and integrated in the Fluent code which is based on the finite volume method. The validation of this procedure was confirmed while comparing some results. The results are presented in the form of distributions of the isotherms, the streamlines, local and average Nusselt of which the goal to study the influence on comfort.

  19. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world's medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens. PMID:27366358

  20. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2014-01-20

    Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (Pdamping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (Pseed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively. PMID:23920229

  1. New early Pliocene owls from Langebaanweg, South Africa, with first evidence of Athene south of the Sahara and a new species of Tyto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pavia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fossiliferous Upper Varswater Formation at Langebaanweg (South Africa produced remains of at least five species of owls (Strigiformes. Tyto richae sp. nov. is the first palaeospecies of Tytonidae described from an African fossil site, though indeterminate remains referable to the genus Tyto are known from the Middle Miocene of Morocco, the early Pliocene of Ethiopia, and the Pliocene of Tanzania. Athene inexpectata sp. nov. is not only the earliest documented fossil evidence for the genus worldwide, but also the first record of a species of Athene in Africa south of the Sahara. Proportions of its hind limb indicate that At. inexpectata sp. nov. probably has been as terrestrial as its modern relative At. cunicularia. A few additional remains represent the earliest fossil evidence for the genera Asio and Bubo on the African continent, though the poor preservation of these bones prevents more detailed identifications. A distal tibiotarsus of a small owl about the size of At. inexpectata sp. nov. indicates the presence of a fifth, as yet indeterminate, species of owl at Langebaanweg. Biogeographical and palaeoecological implications of this assemblage of owls are discussed.

  2. Diagnosis of the Relationship between Dust Storms over the Sahara Desert and Dust Deposit or Coloured Rain in the South Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Prezerakos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objects of study in this paper are the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation systems associated with the rather frequent phenomenon of coloured rain and the very rare phenomenon of dust or sand deposits from a Saharan sandstorm triggered by a developing strong depression. Analysis of two such cases revealed that two days before the occurrence of the coloured rain or the dust deposits over Greece a sand storm appeared over the north-western Sahara desert. The flow in the entire troposphere is southerly/south-westerly with an upward vertical motion regime. If the atmospheric conditions over Greece favour rain then this rain contains a part of the dust cloud while the rest is drawn away downstream adopting a light yellow colour. In cases where the atmospheric circulation on the route of the dust cloud trajectories is not intensively anticyclonic dust deposits can occur on the surface long far from the region of the dust origin. Such was the case on 4th April, 1988, when significant synoptic-scale subsidence occurred over Italy and towards Greece. The upper air data, in the form of synoptic maps, illustrate in detail the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulations associated with the emission-transport-deposition and confirm the transportation of dust particles.

  3. Desert Dust Aerosol Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, Using Particle Properties Derived from Space-Based Multi-Angle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Fiebig, Marcus; Heese, Birgit; Knippertz, Peter; Mueller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the Sahara mineral dust experiment (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the suborbital aerosol measurements into the satellite s larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days during which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR s ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (1) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (2) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow and (3) show an aerosol air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometres away.

  4. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Dan E; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  5. Technology and the defense industry: real threats, bad habits, or new (market) opportunities?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellais, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    International audience Technology has been playing a central role in defense spending or arms-producing countries since World War II. Although there has been no major threat or conflict since the 1990s, defense R&D absorbs a large share of military expenditures, as well as public R&D. This technology-centric paradigm results from uncertainties surrounding defense matters and the need to avoid strategic surprises. However, one can wonder whether such a paradigm is still adapted to today's d...

  6. Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

  7. Threat from Rubble-Pile Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    While chondrites are the most common meteoroids to enter our atmosphere, they represent a small fraction of recovered falls. Most stony meteorites disrupt during entry, consumed by ablation or lost by weathering; in contrast, small iron meteorites (entry at altitude; (c) no accessory meteorite falls; (d) "explosion" (not low-speed compression) crater; (e) infrasound/seismic data indicating a high-speed entry/collision; and (f) petrologic evidence for shock deformation/melting in breccias indicative of speeds >4 km/s. Although a monolithic chondrite (~ 10 m across) might allow surviving entry, most objects of this size contain multiple flaws, ensuring atmospheric disruption. Hence, an alternative "needle model" was proposed wherein a small rubble-pile object gradually re-shaped itself during entry [Schultz, 2008], a process that minimizes drag, thermal signatures of entry, and catastrophic disruption. First proposed to account for smaller than expected craters on Venus [Schultz, 1992], such a process resembles subsequent Shoemaker-Levy entry models [Boslough and Crawford, 1997] that predicted much deeper entry than standard models. Laboratory experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range simulated this process by breaking-up hypervelocity projectiles into a cloud of debris and tracking its path at near-full atmospheric pressure. The resulting cloud of fragments exhibited less deceleration than a solid sphere at the same speed. Moreover, shadowgraphs revealed constituent fragments "surfing" the pressure jump within the mach cone/column. Previous models proposed that crater-forming impacts must be >50-100 m in diameter in order to survive entry [Bland and Artemieva, 2004]. The "needle model" for the Carancas meteorite entry, however, raises questions about this lower limit for threats by rubble-pile asteroids, e.g., Itokawa. Consequently, we modeled the fate of a rubble-pile entering earth's atmosphere using GEODYN, an Eulerian code with adaptive mesh refinement

  8. The role of genomics in the identification, prediction, and prevention of biological threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Florian Fricke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In all likelihood, it is only a matter of time before our public health system will face a major biological threat, whether intentionally dispersed or originating from a known or newly emerging infectious disease. It is necessary not only to increase our reactive "biodefense," but also to be proactive and increase our preparedness. To achieve this goal, it is essential that the scientific and public health communities fully embrace the genomic revolution, and that novel bioinformatic and computing tools necessary to make great strides in our understanding of these novel and emerging threats be developed. Genomics has graduated from a specialized field of science to a research tool that soon will be routine in research laboratories and clinical settings. Because the technology is becoming more affordable, genomics can and should be used proactively to build our preparedness and responsiveness to biological threats. All pieces, including major continued funding, advances in next-generation sequencing technologies, bioinformatics infrastructures, and open access to data and metadata, are being set in place for genomics to play a central role in our public health system.

  9. Safe from harm: learned, instructed, and symbolic generalization pathways of human threat-avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dymond

    Full Text Available Avoidance of threatening or unpleasant events is usually an adaptive behavioural strategy. Sometimes, however, avoidance can become chronic and lead to impaired daily functioning. Excessive threat-avoidance is a central diagnostic feature of anxiety disorders, yet little is known about whether avoidance acquired in the absence of a direct history of conditioning with a fearful event differs from directly learned avoidance. In the present study, we tested whether avoidance acquired indirectly via verbal instructions and symbolic generalization result in similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-beliefs to avoidance acquired after direct learning. Following fear conditioning in which one conditioned stimulus was paired with shock (CS+ and another was not (CS-, participants either learned or were instructed to make a response that cancelled impending shock. Three groups were then tested with a learned CS+ and CS- (learned group, instructed CS+ (instructed group, and generalized CS+ (derived group presentations. Results showed similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-belief ratings about the likelihood of shock across each of the three pathways despite the different mechanisms by which they were acquired. Findings have implications for understanding the aetiology of clinical avoidance in anxiety.

  10. Modulation of human vestibular reflexes with increased postural threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horslen, Brian C; Dakin, Christopher J; Inglis, J Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Carpenter, Mark G

    2014-08-15

    Anxiety and arousal have been shown to facilitate human vestibulo-ocular reflexes, presumably through direct neural connections between the vestibular nuclei and emotional processing areas of the brain. However, the effects of anxiety, fear and arousal on balance-relevant vestibular reflexes are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to manipulate standing height to determine whether anxiety and fear can modulate the direct relationship between vestibular signals and balance reflexes during stance. Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS; 2-25 Hz) was used to evoke ground reaction forces (GRF) while subjects stood in both LOW and HIGH surface height conditions. Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate the SVS-GRF relationship, in terms of coupling (coherence and cumulant density) and gain, in the medio-lateral (ML) and antero-posterior (AP) directions. The short- and medium-latency cumulant density peaks were both significantly increased in the ML and AP directions when standing in HIGH, compared to LOW, conditions. Likewise, coherence was statistically greater between 4.3 Hz and 6.7 Hz in the ML, and between 5.5 and 17.7 Hz in the AP direction. When standing in the HIGH condition, the gain of the SVS-GRF relationship was increased 81% in the ML direction, and 231% in the AP direction. The significant increases in coupling and gain observed in both experiments demonstrate that vestibular-evoked balance responses are augmented in states of height-induced postural threat. These data support the possibility that fear or anxiety-mediated changes to balance control are affected by altered central processing of vestibular information. PMID:24973412

  11. Impact of southern and central European land surface heating induced by greenhouse warming on the atmospheric circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A robust result of greenhouse warming runs with global climate models is the depletion of soil moisture in southern and central Europe in summer. This leads to a strong increase in surface temperatures as a result of the accompanying reduction of the surface cooling by evaporation. In a series of sensitivity experiments with the EC-EARTH climate model we investigate the effect of this enhanced warming on the atmospheric circulation. EC-EARTH is a coupled climate model jointly developed by the EC-EARTH consortium and is based on the integrated forecast model of the ECMWF. The sensitivity experiments are designed to test the hypothesis that the enhanced summer surface easterlies over central Europe that are found in many recent climate scenario simulations are mainly due to the development of a heat low over the Mediterranean region in response to the enhanced warming of North Africa and Southern Europe. In the experiments with EC-EARTH the land surface temperature is artificially enhanced by increasing the downward surface solar radiation. This is done in order to enable the soil moisture to respond in a dynamically consistent way to the increase in surface land temperature. A similar approach has been successfully used in a previous study to show that an enhanced Sahara heating results in a deepening of the Sahara low with consequences for the Sahel rainfall. (author)

  12. Stereotype threat can both enhance and impair older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-12-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults' memory via stereotype threat; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In two experiments, we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts of stereotype threat: executive-control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about age-related memory declines or not under such threat. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive-control-interference account predicts that stereotype threat decreases the availability of executive-control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory-fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus, which should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were consistent only with the regulatory-fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses. PMID:24150969

  13. Information fusion: telling the story (or threat narrative)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2014-06-01

    Today's operators face a "double whammy" - the need to process increasing amounts of information, including "Twitter-INT"1 (social information such as Facebook, You-Tube videos, blogs, Twitter) as well as the need to discern threat signatures in new security environments, including those in which the airspace is contested. To do this will require the Air Force to "fuse and leverage its vast capabilities in new ways."2 For starters, the integration of quantitative and qualitative information must be done in a way that preserves important contextual information since the goal increasingly is to identify and mitigate violence before it occurs. To do so requires a more nuanced understanding of the environment being sensed, including the human environment, ideally from the "emic" perspective; that is, from the perspective of that individual or group. This requires not only data and information that informs the understanding of how the individuals and/or groups see themselves and others (social identity) but also information on how that identity filters information in their environment which, in turn, shapes their behaviors.3 The goal is to piece together the individual and/or collective narratives regarding threat, the threat narrative, from various sources of information. Is there a threat? If so, what is it? What is motivating the threat? What is the intent of those who pose the threat and what are their capabilities and their vulnerabilities?4 This paper will describe preliminary investigations regarding the application of prototype hybrid information fusion method based on the threat narrative framework.

  14. CRISIS FOCUS: Bubbles Pose The Biggest Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The shift of China’s monetary policy stance from "moderately loose" to "prudent" next year indicates curbing inflation and asset bubbles have become the Central Government’s top priority. But is China’s bubble problem short-term or long-term? Is it only monetary or related to economic structure? Is it the cause of China’s economic imbalance or the result? And what kind of deep-rooted problems in the macro economy does it reflect? All these questions call for deep thought, said Zhang Monan, a researcher with the State Information Center, in a recent article for The Beijing News. Edited excerpt follows:

  15. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND CENTRAL ASIA: PREMATURE ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabol, Steven

    2008-01-01

    In the months leading up to, and the first few years after, the Soviet Union collapsed numerous articles and books were published that claimed Islamic "fundamentalism" was likely to emerge in Central Asia. These fears were predicated on numerous scenarios, the most important being the ongoing political and military crisis in Afghanistan and Iranian attempts to increase its influence in the region. I will argue, however, that these concerns were premature and that the real threat to the stabil...

  16. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Dan E.; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, ...

  17. Assessing Database and Network Threats in Traditional and Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Lourida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is currently one of the most widely-spoken terms in IT. While it offers a range of technological and financial benefits, its wide acceptance by organizations is not yet wide spread. Security concerns are a main reason for this and this paper studies the data and network threats posed in both traditional and cloud paradigms in an effort to assert in which areas cloud computing addresses security issues and where it does introduce new ones. This evaluation is based on Microsoft’s STRIDE threat model and discusses the stakeholders, the impact and recommendations for tackling each threat.

  18. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  19. 76 FR 22878 - Closed Meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... Defense announces the following Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory... 22206. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Contact Mr. William Hostyn, Defense Threat Reduction...

  20. Mediators of Stereotype Threat among Black College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Owens, Jayanti

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesize that the manner in which stereotype threat affects college grade achievement is mediated by institutional context as well as individual characteristics. Drawing on a sample of black students from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen we find weak and inconsistent evidence that institutional characteristics influence the operation of stereotype threat. We find more consistent evidence to indicate that the effect of stereotype threat is conditioned by individual factors such as skin color, multiracial origins, and an integrated upbringing. Most of the effect on grade achievement occurs through the internalization pathway, in which the internalization of negative stereotypes leads to disinvestment manifested by a reduction in academic effort. The reduction in work effort, in turn, lowers grades. We also find evidence that immigrant origin confers protection from the negative effects of stereotype threat through both internalization and externalization mechanisms, though the ultimate effect of grade achievement is rather small. PMID:24860201

  1. Little Threat of Zika Spread from Rio Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160051.html Little Threat of Zika Spread From Rio Olympics: Study Because it's winter ... in Brazil are not likely to contract the Zika virus during their stay or bring it back ...

  2. Insider Threats in Comparative Perspective: Lessons Learned from Past Mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies six mistakes that security-conscious organizations have made that exacerbated insider threat problems and created dangerous incidents: (1) Assuming that serious insider problems are NIMO (Not In My Organization); (2) Focusing only on malicious insider threats; (3) Forgetting that insiders can know about insider threat protection methods and therefore work around them; (4) Assuming that security rules are followed (or forgetting there are rules about when it is okay to break rules); (5) Using “Red Team” exercises, but forgetting that red teams and protection forces have insiders too; and (6) Assuming that Red Flags will be read properly. The diversity and complexity of insider threat causes warns us to avoid “the myth of absolute security.” Serious prevention efforts should therefore always be supplemented with equally serious emergency response and mitigation efforts. (author)

  3. Assessment of Containment Structures Against Missile Impact Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Q M

    2006-01-01

    In order to ensure the highest safety requirements,nuclear power plant structures (the containment structures,the fuel storages and transportation systems) should be assessed against all possible internal and external impact threats.The internal impact threats include kinetic missiles generated by the failure of high pressure vessels and pipes,the failure of high speed rotating machineries and accidental drops.The external impact threats may come from airborne missiles,aircraft impact,explosion blast and fragments.The impact effects of these threats on concrete and steel structures in a nuclear power plant are discussed.Methods and procedures for the impact assessment of nuclear power plants are introduced.Recent studies on penetration and perforation mechanics as well as progresses on dynamic properties of concrete-like materials are presented to increase the understanding of the impact effects on concrete containment structures.

  4. Racial Threat Theory: Assessing the Evidence, Requesting Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Brooks Dollar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial threat theory was developed as a way to explain how population composition influences discriminatory social control practices and has become one of the most acknowledged frameworks for explaining racial disparity in criminal justice outcomes. This paper provides a thorough review of racial threat theory and empirical assessments of the theory and demonstrates that while scholars often cite inconsistent support for the theory, empirical discrepancies may be due to insufficient attention to the conceptual complexity of racial threat. I organize and present the following review around 4 forms of state-sanctioned control mechanisms: police expenditures, arrests, sentencing, and capital punishment. Arguing that the pervasiveness of racialization in state controls warrants continued inquiry, I provide suggestions for future scholarship that will help us develop enhanced understanding of how racial threat may be operating.

  5. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  6. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the US Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Antibiotics are powerful tools for fighting illness and disease, ...

  7. New Frontiers of Network Security: The Threat Within

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, Sugata; Gupta, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 70% of information security threats originate from inside an organization. Opportunities for insider threats have been increasing at an alarming rate with the latest trends of mobility (portable devices like Laptop, smart phones etc.), ubiquitous connectivity (wireless or through 3G connectivity) and this trend increases as more and more web-based applications are made available over the Internet. Insider threats are generally caused by current or ex-employees, contractors or partners, who have authorized access to the organization's network and servers. Theft of confidential information is often for either material gain or for willful damage. Easy availability of hacking tools on the Internet, USB devices and wireless connectivity provide for easy break-ins. The net result is losses worth millions of dollars in terms of IP theft, leakage of customer / individual information, etc. This paper presents an understanding of Insider threats, attackers and their motives and suggests mitigation techniques at ...

  8. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ADVANCED CLOUD PRIVACY THREAT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-preservation for sensitive data has become a challenging issue in cloud computing. Threat modeling as a part of requirements engineering in secure software development provides a structured approach for identifying attacks and proposing countermeasures against the exploitation of vulnerabilities in a system. This paper describes an extension of Cloud Privacy Threat Modeling (CPTM methodology for privacy threat modeling in relation to processing sensitive data in cloud computing environments. It describes the modeling methodology that involved applying Method Engineering to specify characteristics of a cloud privacy threat modeling methodology, different steps in the proposed methodology and corresponding products. In addition, a case study has been implemented as a proof of concept to demonstrate the usability of the proposed methodology. We believe that the extended methodology facilitates the application of a privacy-preserving cloud software development approach from requirements engineering to design.

  9. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  10. Champ or chump? Challenge and threat states during pressurized competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J; Coussens, Adam H; Freeman, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present research examined the immediate impact of challenge and threat states on golf performance in both real competition and a laboratory-based task. In Study 1, 199 experienced golfers reported their evaluations of competition demands and personal coping resources before a golf competition. Evaluating the competition as a challenge (i.e., sufficient resources to cope with demands) was associated with superior performance. In Study 2, 60 experienced golfers randomly received challenge or threat manipulation instructions and then performed a competitive golf-putting task. Challenge and threat states were successfully manipulated and the challenge group outperformed the threat group. Furthermore, the challenge group reported less anxiety, more facilitative interpretations of anxiety, less conscious processing, and displayed longer quiet eye durations. However, these variables failed to mediate the group-performance relationship. These studies demonstrate the importance of considering preperformance psychophysiological states when examining the influence of competitive pressure on motor performance. PMID:24334317

  11. THE SOCIAL-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT: THREATS, OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк Наталья Юрьевна

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author turns to the problems of social-cultural environment: threats, opportunities, responses, and cultural values (primary and secondary). The examples of both primary and secondary cultural values are given in the article as well.

  12. Wireless Security Threats, Vulnerabilities and Their Defense Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Bawiskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world means of communications has changed rapidly and the main focus is on wireless communications. Communication in wireless mode has many threats. This paper discusses a brief overview of various threats to wireless networks at various layers and also presents a survey of the defense mechanisms. The main aim is to discuss attacks on MANET and their defense mechanisms. Communication in wireless mode is more challenging as compared to wired mode because of dynamically changing network topology. Wireless networks are mostly used in military applications and commercial applications. This paper also discusses internal threats and external threats. It also gives an overview of routing protocols being used in wireless networks and various attacks that take place against these routing protocols and their counter measures.

  13. The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, Phillipe; Drummer, Heidi E; Richards, Jack S; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Beeson, James G

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has newly emerged as a significant global threat, especially to pregnancy. Recent major outbreaks in the Pacific and in Central and South America have been associated with an increased incidence of microcephaly and other abnormalities of the central nervous system in neonates. The causal link between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is now strongly supported. Over 2 billion people live in regions conducive to ZIKV transmission, with ~4 million infections in the Americas predicted for 2016. Given the scale of the current pandemic and the serious and long-term consequences of infection during pregnancy, the impact of ZIKV on health services and affected communities could be enormous. This further highlights the need for a rapid global public health and research response to ZIKV to limit and prevent its impact through the development of therapeutics, vaccines, and improved diagnostics. Here we review the epidemiology of ZIKV; the threat to pregnancy; the clinical consequences and broader impact of ZIKV infections; and the virus biology underpinning new interventions, diagnostics, and insights into the mechanisms of disease. PMID:27487767

  14. A hydrological-economic model for sustainable groundwater use in sparse-data drylands: Application to the Amtoudi Oasis in southern Morocco, northern Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Robles-Marín, Pedro; Guerrera, Francesco; Martín-Martín, Manuel; Raffaelli, Giuliana; de León, Julián Tejera; Asebriy, Lahcen

    2015-12-15

    A hydrological-economic model is introduced to describe the dynamics of groundwater-dependent economics (agriculture and tourism) for sustainable use in sparse-data drylands. The Amtoudi Oasis, a remote area in southern Morocco, in the northern Sahara attractive for tourism and with evidence of groundwater degradation, was chosen to show the model operation. Governing system variables were identified and put into action through System Dynamics (SD) modeling causal diagrams to program basic formulations into a model having two modules coupled by the nexus 'pumping': (1) the hydrological module represents the net groundwater balance (G) dynamics; and (2) the economic module reproduces the variation in the consumers of water, both the population and tourists. The model was operated under similar influx of tourists and different scenarios of water availability, such as the wet 2009-2010 and the average 2010-2011 hydrological years. The rise in international tourism is identified as the main driving force reducing emigration and introducing new social habits in the population, in particular concerning water consumption. Urban water allotment (PU) was doubled for less than a 100-inhabitant net increase in recent decades. The water allocation for agriculture (PI), the largest consumer of water, had remained constant for decades. Despite that the 2-year monitoring period is not long enough to draw long-term conclusions, groundwater imbalance was reflected by net aquifer recharge (R) less than PI+PU (G<0) in the average year 2010-2011, with net lateral inflow from adjacent Cambrian formations being the largest recharge component. R is expected to be much less than PI+PU in recurrent dry spells. Some low-technology actions are tentatively proposed to mitigate groundwater degradation, such as: wastewater capture, treatment, and reuse for irrigation; storm-water harvesting for irrigation; and active maintenance of the irrigation system to improve its efficiency. PMID:26282765

  15. Plio-Pleistocene changes in the vegetation of central North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, I. S.; Phu, V.; Urann, B.

    2013-12-01

    The area of central North Africa (including the Sahara and the Sahel) is sensitive to migrations of the intertropical rainbelt and has experienced dramatic, and possibly abrupt, shifts between wet and arid conditions in the past. For example, during the humid period of the early Holocene, the region that is presently the Sahara desert was vegetated and contained permanent lakes, and was occupied by human populations (e.g. Kuper and Kröpelin, 2006). In this study, we investigate the hydrology of central North Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene (4-0.5 Ma), a period during which a number of key steps in hominin evolution occurred. ODP site 660 is located in the tropical NE Atlantic Ocean (offshore West Africa) and receives dust from central North Africa, which is transported offshore by the African Easterly Jet. Plant leaf waxes (n-alkanes) contained in this dust provide information on the type of vegetation present , which in turn, can be used to examine hydrological variability because in tropical Africa the large scale distribution of vegetation utilizing the C3 (mainly trees) vs. C4 (grasses and warm season sedges) photosynthetic pathways mainly depends on aridity (precipitation) (e.g. Schefuss et al., 2003). Here, we examine the carbon (δ13C) and deuterium (δD) isotopic composition of plant leaf waxes, proxies for vegetation type (C3 vs. C4 plants) and precipitation amount, respectively. We also examine sea surface temperature variability using the alkenone Uk'37 Index as several studies have demonstrated close ties between sea surface temperature variability and hydrological conditions in N Africa during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Results of this study further support a close link between SST and hydrological conditions in the Sahel during the past 4 Ma while also highlighting regional differences in aridity between Plio-Pleistocene records of western, eastern and southern Africa.

  16. Computer viruses: The threat today and the expected future

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2003-01-01

    This Master’s Thesis within the area computer security concerns ”Computer viruses: The threat today and the expected future”. Firstly, the definitions of computer virus and the related threats are presented; Secondly, current situation of computer viruses are discussed, the working and spreading mechanisms of computer viruses are reviewed in details, simplistic attitude of computer world in computer virus defence is analyzed; Thirdly, today’s influencing factors for near future computer viru...

  17. An Integrated Process Model of Stereotype Threat Effects on Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Schmader, Toni; Johns, Michael; Forbes, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Research showing that activation of negative stereotypes can impair the performance of stigmatized individuals on a wide variety of tasks has proliferated. However, a complete understanding of the processes underlying these stereotype threat effects on behavior is still lacking. The authors examine stereotype threat in the context of research on stress arousal, vigilance, working memory, and self-regulation to develop a process model of how negative stereotypes impair performance on cognitive...

  18. Emotion blocks the path to learning under stereotype threat

    OpenAIRE

    Mangels, Jennifer A.; Good, Catherine; Whiteman, Ronald C.; Maniscalco, Brian; Dweck, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Gender-based stereotypes undermine females’ performance on challenging math tests, but how do they influence their ability to learn from the errors they make? Females under stereotype threat or non-threat were presented with accuracy feedback after each problem on a GRE-like math test, followed by an optional interactive tutorial that provided step-wise problem-solving instruction. Event-related potentials tracked the initial detection of the negative feedback following errors [feedback relat...

  19. Stereotype Threat and College Academic Performance: A Latent Variables Approach*

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Jayanti; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory has gained experimental and survey-based support in helping explain the academic underperformance of minority students at selective colleges and universities. Stereotype threat theory states that minority students underperform because of pressures created by negative stereotypes about their racial group. Past survey-based studies, however, are characterized by methodological inefficiencies and potential biases: key theoretical constructs have only been measured using ...

  20. Task Demands Moderate Stereotype Threat Effects on Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Thomas M.; Emery, Lisa; Queen, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults’ memory performance is adversely affected by the explicit activation of negative stereotypes about aging. In this study, we examined the impact of stereotype threat on recognition memory, with specific interest in (a) the generalizability of previously observed effects, (b) the subjective experience of memory, and (c) the moderating effects of task demands. Older participants subjected to threat performed worse than did those in a nonthreat...

  1. Survey of threat studies related to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable effort has been directed toward the determination of threat characteristics, resulting in a voluminous collection of documents. This report summarizes several of the major studies in order to make the information more accessible. This summary includes only studies involving attacks on nuclear material, plus those incidents which because of their objectives, resources, or motivations may lend insight into potential threat against nuclear facilities or material

  2. Physician Office Readiness for Managing Internet Security Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavjee, K; Pairaudeau, N; Bhanji, A

    2006-01-01

    Internet security threats are evolving toward more targeted and focused attacks. Increasingly, organized crime is involved and they are interested in identity theft. Physicians who use Internet in their practice are at risk for being invaded. We studied 16 physician practices in Southern Ontario for their readiness to manage internet security threats. Overall, physicians have an over-inflated sense of preparedness. Security practices such as maintaining a firewall and conducting regular virus...

  3. Staff Turnover as a Possible Threat to Knowledge Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Linhartová Lucie; Urbancová Hana

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on labour turnover as a potential threat to knowledge loss. Labour turnover results in an organizations inability to ensure knowledge continuity. In this study, induction was used to identify factors within organizations that determine employees’ exit from organizations. The verifiability of these factors was tested by means of correlation and regression. Subsequently, the presented causes of employee turnover were specified as potential threat to knowledge loss. In the cu...

  4. Terror threat perception and its consequences in contemporary Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, R; Wilson, M; Gaines, SO

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11, and subsequent terrorist acts around the world, have alerted social psychologists to the need to examine the antecedents and consequences of terrorist threat perception. In these two studies we examined the predictive power of demographic factors (age, sex, location), individual values and normative influences on threat perception and the consequences of this perception for behavioural change and close relationships. In study 1 (N = 100) gender, benevolence valu...

  5. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: Testing integrated threat theory

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents’ (N ¼ 1; 187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and ...

  6. Measuring Attentional Biases for Threat in Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lobue, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Investigators have long been interested in the human propensity for the rapid detection of threatening stimuli. However, until recently, research in this domain has focused almost exclusively on adult participants, completely ignoring the topic of threat detection over the course of development. One of the biggest reasons for the lack of developmental work in this area is likely the absence of a reliable paradigm that can measure perceptual biases for threat in children. To address this issue...

  7. Multiagency security contingency planning: Mutual support against the high threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the author's objective to suggest a process that can materially enhance a critical facility's capacity for detecting, deterring, or if need be, defeating attacks from the higher end of the threat spectrum. This process systematically identifies those proactive and reactive measures required to address threat scenarios beyond the capabilities of in situ security resources. It then establishes implementing procedures which optimally utilize and integrate the considerable array of total onsite and offsite security, intelligence, and tactical response forces available

  8. Criteria and methods for assessing the threat status of ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Guoke Chen; Keping Ma

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the threat status of ecosystems is a useful tool for understanding biodiversity loss on Earth. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) established a working group at the fourth World Conservation Congress to develop quantitative categories and criteria for assessing ecosystem threat status. These categories and criteria were similar to those used to assess extinction risk for species. This working group strove to establish red lists of ecosystems by applyi...

  9. Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:19432644

  10. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Orazem, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  11. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposur...

  12. Current and Future Threats Framework in Smart Grid Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Procopiou, A.; Komninos, N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to smart grid’s complex nature and criticality as an infrastructure, it is important to understand the key actors on each domain in depth so the potential vulnerabilities that can rise are identified. Furthermore, the correct identification of threats affecting the smart grid’s normal functionality must be realised, as well as what impact these threats can have so appropriate countermeasures are implemented. In this paper a list of vulnerabilities that weaken the smart grid is outlined. A...

  13. Fluctuations in [¹¹C]SB207145 PET binding associated with change in threat-related amygdala reactivity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Haahr, Mette Ewers; Jensen, Christian Gaden;

    2015-01-01

    resonance imaging while performing a gender discrimination task of fearful, angry, and neutral faces. This offered a unique opportunity to evaluate whether individual fluctuations in central serotonin levels, indexed by change in [11C]SB207145 binding, predicted changes in threat-related reactivity (ie...

  14. A Proposed Data Mining Profiler Model to Fight Security Threats in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson AKPOJARO

    2013-01-01

    The growing insecurity challenges in Nigeria are of great concern to everyone and every effort must be employed to combat these security threats. Using the proposed data mining profiler model, our work distinguishes between information related threats and non-information related security threats. Information related threats are essentially attacks on computers and networks. That is, they are threats that damage electronic information. Non-information related terrorist threats include terroris...

  15. Protecting National Critical Infrastructure against Radiological Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    responder equipped with a radiation detector or a dosimeter. The main impact of such a radiological attack is the contamination of a large areaxxxii. The size of the contaminated area depends on the type and activity of the radioactive material, on the type and geometry of the dispersion device, on the micro-meteorology conditions and on the cross contamination caused by the movement of people inside the contaminated areaxxxiii. Two experimental programs, Green Fieldxxxiv (GF) and Red Housexxxv (RH) were recently conducted in Israel in order to increase the preparedness for a RDD event. The GF program aimed at evaluating the consequences of an outdoor and an indoor explosion of an RDD device; while the RH program aimed at evaluating the outcome of a silent dispersion of a radioactive material inside a building. Based on the results of these two experimental programs, the consequences of a possible RDD attack or a silent indoor dispersion of a radioactive material will be given and the necessary preventative steps that can be taken in order to secure NCI's against these threats will be specified

  16. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Spielberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.

  17. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  18. An implementation-independent threat model for group communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jason; Yurcik, William; Campbell, Roy

    2006-04-01

    The importance of group communications and the need to efficiently and reliably support it across a network is an issue of growing importance for the next decade. New group communication services are emerging such as multimedia conferencing/groupware, distributed interactive simulations, sensor fusion systems, command and control centers, and network-centric military applications. While a succession of point-to-point unicast routes could provide group communications, this approach is inherently inefficient and unlikely to support the increased resource requirements of these new services. There is the lack of a comprehensive process to designing security into group communications schemes. Designing such protection for group communications is best done by utilizing proactive system engineering rather than reacting with ad hoc countermeasures to the latest attack du jour. Threat modeling is the foundation for secure system engineering processes because it organizes system threats and vulnerabilities into general classes so they can be addressed with known protection techniques. Although there has been prior work on threat modeling primarily for software applications, however, to our knowledge this is the first attempt at implementation-independent threat modeling for group communications. We discuss protection challenges unique to group communications and propose a process to create a threat model for group communication systems independent of underlying implementation based on classical security principles (Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability, Authentication, or CIAA). It is our hope that this work will lead to better designs for protection solutions against threats to group communication systems.

  19. Cognitive and affective components of challenge and threat states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijen, Carla; Jones, Marc V; McCarthy, Paul J; Sheffield, David; Allen, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    We explored the cognitive and affective components of the Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) using a cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-seven collegiate athletes indicated how they typically approached an important competition on measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, achievement goals, emotional states and interpretation of emotional states. Participants also indicated to what extent they typically perceived the important competition as a challenge and/or a threat. The results suggest that a perception of challenge was not predicted by any of the cognitive components. A perception of threat was positively predicted by avoidance goals and negatively predicted by self-efficacy and approach goals. Both challenge and threat had a positive relationship with anxiety. Practical implications of this study are that an avoidance orientation appeared to be related to potentially negative constructs such as anxiety, threat and dejection. The findings may suggest that practitioners and researchers should focus on reducing an avoidance orientation, however the results should be treated with caution in applied settings, as this study did not examine how the combination of constructs exactly influences sport performance. The results provided partial support for the TCTSA with stronger support for proposed relationships with threat rather than challenge states. PMID:23256682

  20. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  1. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007 : a new threat from Aedes albopictus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Grard, Gilda; Caron, Mélanie; Mombo, Illich Manfred; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Mboui Ondo, Statiana; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Paupy, Christophe; Leroy, Eric Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human se...

  2. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  3. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. O'Brien

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching and whole-body leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory. Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the whole-body task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the whole-body movements than in arm-reaching at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects’ inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.

  4. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A

    2016-05-01

    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information-a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat-but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval. PMID:26218527

  5. Matching and fairness in threat-based mobile sensor coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Yu, Ma T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Yau, King Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Chin, Jren-Chit [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Rao, Nageswara S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sensors can be used to effect complete coverage of a surveillance area for a given threat over time, thereby reducing the number of sensors necessary. The surveillance area may have a given threat profile as determined by the kind of threat, and accompanying meteorological, environmental, and human factors. In planning the movement of sensors, areas that are deemed higher threat should receive proportionately higher coverage. We propose a coverage algorithm for mobile sensors to achieve a coverage that will match - over the long term and as quantified by an RMSE metric - a given threat profile. Moreover, the algorithm has the following desirable properties: (1) stochastic, so that it is robust to contingencies and makes it hard for an adversary to anticipate the sensor's movement, (2) efficient, and (3) practical, by avoiding movement over inaccessible areas. Further to matching, we argue that a fairness measure of performance over the shorter time scale is also important. We show that the RMSE and fairness are, in general, antagonistic, and argue for the need of a combined measure of performance, which we call efficacy. We show how a pause time parameter of the coverage algorithm can be used to control the trade-off between the RMSE and fairness, and present an efficient offline algorithm to determine the optimal pause time maximizing the efficacy. Finally, we discuss the effects of multiple sensors, under both independent and coordinated operation. Extensive simulation results - under realistic coverage scenarios - are presented for performance evaluation.

  6. Managing threats from emerging technologies: can safeguards show the way?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of international nuclear safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is primarily a means of verification of states’ commitments under various legal instruments, principally the Nuclear Non‑Proliferation Treaty (NPT), to utilize controlled nuclear fission for peaceful purposes only. However, the safeguards system can also be seen as a mechanism through which states acted to reduce the threat posed by a new technology that had a transformative impact on existing national security paradigms when it emerged in the twentieth century. In the twenty‑first century, new technologies with equally profound national security implications are emerging. These include biotechnology and synthetic biology, nano technology, information technology, cognitive science, robotics and artificial intelligence. Throughout its history, the safeguards system has evolved to accommodate new technologies, new undertakings and new threats. Because multiple emerging technologies now constitute potential national security threats, it is appropriate to consider whether and how the lessons and successes of the safeguards system, including its capacity to evolve in response to changing requirements, could be leveraged to mitigate the threat posed by these new technologies. This paper addresses the possibility of re‑imagining safeguards in a way that makes them applicable to a broader range of technology‑based threats without compromising their effectiveness for their original purpose.

  7. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  8. 49 CFR 1522.121 - Security threat assessments for personnel of TSA-approved validation firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessments for personnel of TSA... Firms and Validators for the Certified Cargo Screening Program § 1522.121 Security threat assessments... security threat assessment or comparable security threat assessment described in part 1540, subpart C...

  9. 49 CFR 1572.21 - Procedures for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... described in 49 CFR 1572.5. The Initial Determination of Threat Assessment includes— (i) A statement that... described in 49 CFR 1572.5 and may pose an imminent security threat. The Initial Determination of Threat... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for TWIC security threat...

  10. Threat Assessment of Targets Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Huai-ping; LIU Jing-xu; CHEN Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In the context of cooperative engagement of armored vehicles, the threat factors of offensive targets are analyzed, and a threat assessment (TA) model is built based on a support v.ector machine (SVM) method. The SVM-based model has some advantages over the traditional method-based models: the complex factors of threat are considered in the cooperative engagement; the shortcomings of neural networks, such as local minimum and "over fitting", are overcome to improve the generalization ability; its operation speed is high and meets the needs of real time C2 of cooperative engagement; the assessment results could be more reasonable because of its self-learning capability. The analysis and simulation indicate that the SVM method is an effective method to resolve the TA problems.

  11. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls. PMID:23402479

  12. Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Sustainable Security Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) cooperates with host countries and sites to improve nuclear and radiological security around the world. GTRI takes a holistic approach to security of nuclear and radioactive material that goes beyond equipment installation and maintenance activities and strives to implement comprehensive measures necessary to make long-lasting threat reduction sustainable. GTRI’s goal is to institutionalize long-term threat reduction by assisting host sites and countries in transitioning from GTRI-funded equipment and technical support to self-sustainment of security enhancements provided as a result of cooperation with GTRI. As part of its sustainability efforts, GTRI assists sites in implementing robust security management programs to include protection planning, procedure development, configuration control of procedures and security equipment, budgeting and lifecycle management, training, performance testing, and maintenance management

  13. Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David; Nuclear Threats and Security Challenges

    2015-01-01

    With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the nuclear threats facing the world are constantly evolving and have grown more complex since the end of the Cold War. The diversion of complete weapon systems or nuclear material to rogue nations and terrorist organizations has increased. The events of the past years have proved the necessity to reevaluate these threats on a level never before considered.  In recognition that no single country possesses all of the answers to the critical scientific, institutional and legal questions associated with combating nuclear and radiological terrorism, the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” and this proceeding was structured to promote wide-ranging, multi-national exploration of critical technology needs and underlying scientific challenges to reducing the threat of nuclear/radiological terrorism; to illustrate through country-specific presentations how resulting technologies were used in national programs; and to outli...

  14. Amygdala lesions in rhesus macaques decrease attention to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Monte, Olga; Costa, Vincent D; Noble, Pamela L; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from animal and human studies has suggested that the amygdala plays a role in detecting threat and in directing attention to the eyes. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic investigation of whether the amygdala specifically facilitates attention to the eyes or whether other features can also drive attention via amygdala processing. The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys on attentional capture by specific facial features, as well as gaze patterns and changes in pupil dilation during free viewing. Here we show reduced attentional capture by threat stimuli, specifically the mouth, and reduced exploration of the eyes in free viewing in monkeys with amygdala lesions. Our findings support a role for the amygdala in detecting threat signals and in directing attention to the eye region of faces when freely viewing different expressions. PMID:26658670

  15. Computer Security of NPP Instrumentation and Control Systems: Cyber Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to cyber threats, as one of the aspects in computer security of instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants (NPP). The basic concepts, terms and definitions are shortly addressed. The paper presents a detailed analysis of potential cyber threats during the design and operation of NPP instrumentation and control systems. Eleven major types of threats are considered, including: the malicious software and hardware Trojans (in particular, in commercial-off-the-shelf software and hardware), computer attacks through data networks and intrusion of malicious software from an external storage media and portable devices. Particular attention is paid to the potential use of lower safety class software as a way of harmful effects (including the intrusion of malicious fragments of code) on higher safety class software. The examples of actual incidents at various nuclear facilities caused by intentional cyber attacks or unintentional computer errors during the operation of software of systems important to NPP safety.

  16. Fragile isthmus under pressure. Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypsilantis, J

    1992-01-01

    In Costa Rica the 1300 hectares of rainforest that comprise La Selva Biological Station support more than 1.5 times the number of plant and animal species found in California. In Central America over 2/3 of all deforestation has occurred since 1950, and closed canopy forest has shrunk dramatically during the past 40 years. The population in Central America, plus Mexico, grew by around 28% during the period 1977-87. At the same time the surface of forests and woodlands decreased by 13%, to 26% of the total land area. Croplands grew by 4% during these 10 years, to 13% of the total land area, and pastures by 2% to 37%; and unproductive lands grew by 14% to 24% of total land area. 50% of land is seriously eroded or degraded in El Salvador and over 30% in Guatemala. Central America's population was 22 million in 1980, 29 million in 1990, and it is anticipated to reach 63 million by 2025. Central America's urban population reached 46% in the 1990s: over 13 million with continuing increases in the next few decades. The growing population's need for fuelwood and the demand for agricultural land pose the main threat to forests in the coming decades. Close to 90% of the energy used by households comes from fuelwood. In the Telire reserve in Costa Rica 366 Cabecars are not yet an environmental threat for the forest. The Peten area in Guatemala is inhabited by around 300,000 people whose destructive slash and burn practices pose a serious threat to the environment which is exacerbated by a high population growth rate of 5.5% a year. PMID:12317701

  17. Views on Nuclear and Radiological Terrorism Threat Assessment and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper offers some views from an international perspective on the nuclear and radiological terrorism threat assessment and response. It introduces the political, institutional and regulatory issues associated with this threat. This paper analyses the reactions and mechanisms implemented by the international community aimed at fighting nuclear terrorism and the role of the IAEA. It also describes national needs in order to ensure national security against attacks with nuclear or radioactive material. The paper takes into account the security community's viewpoint on the subject of standards and on the need to recognize that a nuclear regulatory body does not represent the entire community of stakeholders in the security field. (author)

  18. Phishing - A Growing Threat to E-Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, M Tariq

    2011-01-01

    In today's business environment, it is difficult to imagine a workplace without access to the web, yet a variety of email born viruses, spyware, adware, Trojan horses, phishing attacks, directory harvest attacks, DoS attacks, and other threats combine to attack businesses and customers. This paper is an attempt to review phishing - a constantly growing and evolving threat to Internet based commercial transactions. Various phishing approaches that include vishing, spear phishng, pharming, keyloggers, malware, web Trojans, and others will be discussed. This paper also highlights the latest phishing analysis made by Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) and Korean Internet Security Center.

  19. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  20. Cave invertebrates in Espírito Santo state, Brazil: a primary analysis of endemism, threats and conservation priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Souza Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cave-dwelling invertebrates were studied according to their composition, biodiversity, distribution and threats in the Atlantic Forest Central Biodiversity Corridor, a priority area for conservation actions in Brazil. Twelve obligate cave species were found, plus 495 troglophile species. Araneae (103 spp., Coleoptera (61 spp., Diptera (56 spp. and Lepidoptera (38 spp. were the richest taxa. The richness was higher in the carbonate caves (63 spp., sd = 16.7 and the highest diversity in granitic caves (H´= 2.68, sd = 0.5. The spatial turnover was 63.45 and similarity less than 30%. The total richness was correlated with the linear extension of the caves (Rs = 0.757, p ≤ 0.05. Surrounding area deforestation and religious and tourist use were the main threats. Emergency attention is recommended regarding protective actions, management and conservation of caves of extremely high biological importance.

  1. Stereotype Threat in Organizations: An Examination of its Scope, Triggers, and Possible Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kray, Laura J.; Shirako, Aiwa

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores stereotype threat in organizational contexts. Building on the understanding that stereotype threat involves concerns about confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group, we begin by elucidating the scope of potential stereotype threat effects in organizations. We first examine the ubiquity of evaluations in organizations, which are at the heart of stereotype threat. Next we specify the potential psychological consequences of stereotype threat on targeted individua...

  2. Stereotype Threat in Classroom Settings: The Interactive Effect of Domain Identification, Task Difficulty and Stereotype Threat on Female Students' Maths Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Background: Stereotype threat research revealed that negative stereotypes can disrupt the performance of persons targeted by such stereotypes. This paper contributes to stereotype threat research by providing evidence that domain identification and the difficulty level of test items moderate stereotype threat effects on female students' maths…

  3. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciszewski, T. [University Rene Descartes - Paris 5, 92 - Boulogne (France)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear risk has become a major social communication along the 20. century because of its critical socio-political impact. That communication is not limited to expert speeches and simple acceptation. The way people understand that kind of threat is based on beliefs and on imaginary pictures. Consequently, and because it shapes people attitude, expectations and behaviours, their analysis is a key for policy and prevention. We will present, in the light of the research on risk perception and social psychology theoretical background, how people can manage with the nuclear fear. Some particular points will be studied: the nature of nuclear threat and fear, the cultural and media coverage and the consequences of this threat on behaviour. We will first focus on what a societal threat is and of which nature is the nuclear threat. We will rely on statistical data on risk perception. We have to consider the two main fields of information: first the nuclear threat as a mass destruction weapon and second, the radiological risk as a consequence of civil use of radiological material. Those two aspects, deeply related for most people, make the roots for the described fears. Then, the perception of the risks relative to nuclear is necessarily influenced by this representation. The representation of the nuclear power is and will be for next years, related to the nuclear mushroom as experimentally pointed o ut by Fiske, both with the abnormal children of Chernobyl. How can we change that vision? Not to be a liar, it will be hard work because it a old story, a long construction of what will be the future of mankind, something deeply influenced by media, movie, geopolitical facts like the cold war or technological accident like Three Mile Island or Chernobyl. It has to deal with the problem of media transmission of fears, which is a problem in itself, but due to the scientific base of our problem, particularly relevant. Moreover, there is a strong cultural background that maintains

  4. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear risk has become a major social communication along the 20. century because of its critical socio-political impact. That communication is not limited to expert speeches and simple acceptation. The way people understand that kind of threat is based on beliefs and on imaginary pictures. Consequently, and because it shapes people attitude, expectations and behaviours, their analysis is a key for policy and prevention. We will present, in the light of the research on risk perception and social psychology theoretical background, how people can manage with the nuclear fear. Some particular points will be studied: the nature of nuclear threat and fear, the cultural and media coverage and the consequences of this threat on behaviour. We will first focus on what a societal threat is and of which nature is the nuclear threat. We will rely on statistical data on risk perception. We have to consider the two main fields of information: first the nuclear threat as a mass destruction weapon and second, the radiological risk as a consequence of civil use of radiological material. Those two aspects, deeply related for most people, make the roots for the described fears. Then, the perception of the risks relative to nuclear is necessarily influenced by this representation. The representation of the nuclear power is and will be for next years, related to the nuclear mushroom as experimentally pointed o ut by Fiske, both with the abnormal children of Chernobyl. How can we change that vision? Not to be a liar, it will be hard work because it a old story, a long construction of what will be the future of mankind, something deeply influenced by media, movie, geopolitical facts like the cold war or technological accident like Three Mile Island or Chernobyl. It has to deal with the problem of media transmission of fears, which is a problem in itself, but due to the scientific base of our problem, particularly relevant. Moreover, there is a strong cultural background that maintains

  5. Growing threat of intense tropical cyclones to East Asia over the period 1977–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) to East Asia has increased in recent decades. Integrated analyses of five available TC data sets for the period 1977–2010 revealed that the growing threat of TCs primarily results from the significant shift that the spatial positions of the maximum intensity of TCs moved closer to East Asian coastlines from Vietnam to Japan. This shift incurs a robust increase in landfall intensity over east China, Korea and Japan. In contrast, an increase of TC genesis frequency over the northern part of the South China Sea leads to a reduction in the maximum TC intensity before landfall, because of their short lifetime; thus, there are no clear tendencies in the landfall intensity across Vietnam, south China and Taiwan. All changes are related to the strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation, closely linked with the recent manifestation that the warming trend of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific is much higher than that in the central to eastern Pacific. (paper)

  6. Role of editors and journals in detecting and preventing scientific misconduct: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Ana; Katavic, Vedran; Marusic, Matko

    2007-09-01

    Scientific journals have a central place in protecting research integrity because published articles are the most visible documentation of research. We used SWOT analysis to audit (S)trengths and (W)eaknesses as internal and (O)pportunities and (T)hreats as external factors affecting journals' responsibility in addressing research integrity issues. Strengths include editorial independence, authority and expertise, power to formulate editorial policies, and responsibility for the integrity of published records. Weaknesses stem from having no mandate for legal action, reluctance to get involved, and lack of training. Opportunities for editors are new technologies for detecting misconduct, policies by editorial organization or national institutions, and greater transparency of published research. Editors face threats from the lack of legal regulation and culture of research integrity in academic communities, lack of support from stakeholders in scientific publishing, and different pressures. Journal editors cannot be the policing force of the scientific community but they should actively ensure the integrity of the scientific record. PMID:17970252

  7. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-04

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.  Created: 5/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/4/2016.

  8. Staff Turnover as a Possible Threat to Knowledge Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhartová Lucie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on labour turnover as a potential threat to knowledge loss. Labour turnover results in an organizations inability to ensure knowledge continuity. In this study, induction was used to identify factors within organizations that determine employees’ exit from organizations. The verifiability of these factors was tested by means of correlation and regression. Subsequently, the presented causes of employee turnover were specified as potential threat to knowledge loss. In the current knowledge economy, employees in an organization are considered the key competitive advantage and the most important asset. If an employee leaves an organization, they take the knowledge they have acquired with them. The loss of knowledge is a potential threat to an organizations existence, especially if an employee with valuable knowledge leaves to join a competitor. Therefore, this paper deals with knowledge continuity as a probable means of eliminating this threat. Dependencies between selected qualitative variables were tested to determine their impact on organizations. The study concludes by indicating that, today‘s knowledge-based organizations must be aware of the main causes and consequences of employee fluctuation so as to maintain their competitiveness in times of economic crisis.

  9. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  10. Beyond Performance: A Motivational Experiences Model of Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Dustin B.; Smith, Jessi L.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Chase, Justin; Lee, Joo Young K.

    2013-01-01

    The contributing role of stereotype threat (ST) to learning and performance decrements for stigmatized students in highly evaluative situations has been vastly documented and is now widely known by educators and policy makers. However, recent research illustrates that underrepresented and stigmatized students' academic and career motivations are…

  11. Perfectionism Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on STEM Majors' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Stinson, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of…

  12. Stereotype Threat among Schoolgirls in Quasi-Ordinary Classroom Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Pascal; Regner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    There is ample evidence today in the stereotype threat literature that women and girls are influenced by gender-stereotyped expectations on standardized math tests. Despite its high relevance to education, this phenomenon has not received much attention in school settings. The present studies offer the 1st evidence to date indicating that middle…

  13. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST…

  14. Immunity to Popular Stereotypes of Aging? Seniors and Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sean; Baker, Joseph; Pearce, William; Deakin, Janice M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that seniors' short-term performance is affected by stereotype threat--defined as a situation in which an individual is at risk of confirming a negative characterization about one's group. The current study attempted to replicate and extend these findings to areas of cognitive and physical functioning considered…

  15. Stereotype Threat and Test Performance: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2007-01-01

    Ethical guidelines require school psychologists to ensure that their assessment practices are nondiscriminatory, but typical discussions on this topic neglect the possible discriminatory effects of cultural stereotypes on assessment results. Recent research on "stereotype threat" shows that students' knowledge of stereotype-based negative…

  16. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus: A threat to avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt (LW) is a disease caused by Raffaelea sp., a fungal symbiont associated with the recently-introduced redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus. Impact of RAB as a vector of the disease to avocado is a threat to avocado production in the U.S. Since 2006, we have a) tested suscepti...

  17. Threat assessment using visual hierarchy and conceptual firearms ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Abdullah N.; Hempelmann, Christian F.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady Price; Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2015-05-01

    The work that established and explored the links between visual hierarchy and conceptual ontology of firearms for the purpose of threat assessment is continued. The previous study used geometrical information to find a target in the visual hierarchy and through the links with the conceptual ontology to derive high-level information that was used to assess a potential threat. Multiple improvements and new contributions are reported. The theoretical basis of the geometric feature extraction method was improved in terms of accuracy. The sample space used for validations is expanded from 31 to 153 firearms. Thus, a new larger and more accurate sequence of visual hierarchies was generated using a modified Gonzalez' clustering algorithm. The conceptual ontology is elaborated as well and more links were created between the two kinds of hierarchies (visual and conceptual). The threat assessment equation is refined around ammunition-related properties and uses high-level information from the conceptual hierarchy. The experiments performed on weapons identification and threat assessment showed that our system recognized 100% of the cases if a weapon already belongs to the ontology and in 90.8% of the cases, determined the correct third ancestor (level concept) if the weapon is unknown to the ontology. To validate the accuracy of identification for a very large data set, we calculated the intervals of confidence for our system.

  18. Not so Simple: The Threats to Leadership Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottery, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This article begins by examining the possible meanings of "sustainability," and argues that most meanings are prescriptive rather than descriptive in nature: they tend, either overtly or covertly, to recommend the particular end-states that writers desire. The article then looks at the threats to leadership sustainability, suggesting…

  19. Degrees of Integrity: The Threat of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David W.; Lindner, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is the focus of growing international concern among governments, educators, students, and other stakeholders. Those working in higher education institutions now face a unique convergence of pressures that is creating a heightened threat to the integrity of the higher education enterprise worldwide. This paper draws…

  20. Assessing the recent terrorist threat to the Malacca Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Chalk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    "In light of these recent threats this article examines the likelihood of sea-based extremist violence in the region, JI (Jemaah Islamiya) capacity to operate in an offshore environment and whether Southeast Asia is a place that al-Qaida would seek to exploit in terms of maritime attacks."