WorldWideScience

Sample records for central sahara threat

  1. Unravelling biodiversity, evolution and threats to conservation in the Sahara-Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, José C; Godinho, Raquel; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Pleguezuelos, Juan M; Rebelo, Hugo; Santos, Xavier; Vale, Cândida G; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Carvalho, Sílvia B; Ferreira, Sónia; Gonçalves, Duarte V; Silva, Teresa L; Tarroso, Pedro; Campos, João C; Leite, João V; Nogueira, Joana; Alvares, Francisco; Sillero, Neftalí; Sow, Andack S; Fahd, Soumia; Crochet, Pierre-André; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-02-01

    Deserts and arid regions are generally perceived as bare and rather homogeneous areas of low diversity. The Sahara is the largest warm desert in the world and together with the arid Sahel displays high topographical and climatic heterogeneity, and has experienced recent and strong climatic oscillations that have greatly shifted biodiversity distribution and community composition. The large size, remoteness and long-term political instability of the Sahara-Sahel, have limited knowledge on its biodiversity. However, over the last decade, there have been an increasing number of published scientific studies based on modern geomatic and molecular tools, and broad sampling of taxa of these regions. This review tracks trends in knowledge about biodiversity patterns, processes and threats across the Sahara-Sahel, and anticipates needs for biodiversity research and conservation. Recent studies are changing completely the perception of regional biodiversity patterns. Instead of relatively low species diversity with distribution covering most of the region, studies now suggest a high rate of endemism and larger number of species, with much narrower and fragmented ranges, frequently limited to micro-hotspots of biodiversity. Molecular-based studies are also unravelling cryptic diversity associated with mountains, which together with recent distribution atlases, allows identifying integrative biogeographic patterns in biodiversity distribution. Mapping of multivariate environmental variation (at 1 km × 1 km resolution) of the region illustrates main biogeographical features of the Sahara-Sahel and supports recently hypothesised dispersal corridors and refugia. Micro-scale water-features present mostly in mountains have been associated with local biodiversity hotspots. However, the distribution of available data on vertebrates highlights current knowledge gaps that still apply to a large proportion of the Sahara-Sahel. Current research is providing insights into key

  2. Pre-Islamic Dry-Stone Monuments of the Central and Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Yves

    Saharan dry-stone monuments are important cultural markers: not only do they highlight the boundaries of the areas occupied by different prehistoric populations, but they also reveal information about the rites and beliefs of Holocene Saharan populations. As climate deteriorated in the Middle Holocene, ways of life changed, with indirect impacts on the architecture of the monuments and on the way they were oriented. Tens of thousands of recorded monuments, of various types, allow us to understand what the orientation rules were and how they changed with location. Data compiled for the eleven types of monuments reveal that many monuments of the central Sahara and Tibesti were probably aligned toward the rising sun or moon, that three types of the Atlantic Sahara show instead a random distribution, and that monuments with a pan-Saharan distribution have a complex orientation pattern. A correlation or orientation with key landscape features is likely for three monument types, coexisting with criteria based on lunisolar alignment.

  3. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (green algae like Pediastrum the first pollen spectra indicate a lake shore and shallow fresh water vegetation. This seems to be in agreement with the preliminary observations of the fossil diatom contents, which show a diatom flora mainly composed of benthic and tychoplanktonic species, indicating a shallow freshwater lake. Both diatomite sequences thus suggest shallow lakes throughout their deposition-whether this is due to their marginal position within the large calderas and/or shallow waters covered the entire calderas is an outstanding question that will be addressed with planned additional investigations. Kröpelin, S. etal (2015): New data on the unresolved paradox of the Tibesti crater paleolakes (Central Sahara, North Chad). Abstract #64322 AGU-Fall-Meeting-2015.

  4. Dust emission mechanisms in the central Sahara: new insights from remote field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Washington, R.; Engelstaedter, S.

    2013-12-01

    North Africa is the world's largest source of mineral aerosol (dust). The Fennec Project, an international consortium led by the University of Oxford, is the first project to systematically instrument the remote central Sahara Desert. These observations have, among others, provided new insights into the atmospheric mechanisms of dust emission. Bordj Badji Mokhtar, in south-west Algeria, is within kilometres of the centre of the global mean summer dust maximum. The site, operated by Fennec partners ONM Algerie, has been heavily instrumented since summer 2011. During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP) in June 2011, four main emission mechanisms were observed and documented: cold pool outflows, low level jets (LLJs), monsoon surges and dry convective plumes. Establishing the relative importance of dust emission mechanisms has been a long-standing research goal. A detailed partitioning exercise of dust events during the IOP shows that 45% of the dust over BBM was generated by local emission in cold pool outflows, 14% by LLJs and only 2% by dry convective plumes. 27% of the dust was advected to the site rather than locally emitted and 12% of the dust was residual or ';background' dust. The work shows the primacy of cold pool outflows for dust emission in the region and also the important contribution of dust advection. In accordance with long-held ideas, the cube of wind speed is strongly correlated with dust emission. Surprisingly however, particles in long-range advection (>500km) were found to be larger than locally emitted dust. Although a clear LLJ wind structure is evident in the mean diurnal cycle during the IOP (12m/s peak winds at 935hPa between 04-05h), LLJs are only responsible for a relatively small amount of dust emission. There is significant daily variability in LLJ strength; the strongest winds are produced by a relatively small number of events. The position and strength of the Saharan Heat Low is strongly associated with the development (or

  5. Aerosol direct radiative forcing during Sahara dust intrusions in the central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Perrone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The clear-sky, instantaneous Direct Radiative Effect (DRE by all and anthropogenic particles is calculated during Sahara dust intrusions in the Mediterranean basin, to evaluate the role of anthropogenic particle's radiative effects and to get a better estimate of the DRE by desert dust. The clear-sky aerosol DRE is calculated by a two stream radiative transfer model in the solar (0.3–4 μm and infrared (4–200 μm spectral range, at the top of the atmosphere (ToA and at the Earth's surface (sfc. Aerosol optical properties by AERONET sun-sky photometer measurements and aerosol vertical profiles by EARLINET lidar measurements, both performed at Lecce (40.33° N, 18.10° E during Sahara dust intrusions occurred from 2003 to 2006 year, are used to initialize radiative transfer simulations. Instantaneous values at 0.44 μm of the real (n and imaginary (k refractive index and of the of aerosol optical depth (AOD vary within the 1.33–1.55, 0.0037–0.014, and 0.2–0.7 range, respectively during the analyzed dust outbreaks. Fine mode particles contribute from 34% to 85% to the AOD by all particles. The complex atmospheric chemistry of the Mediterranean basin that is also influenced by regional and long-range transported emissions from continental Europe and the dependence of dust optical properties on soil properties of source regions and transport pathways are responsible for the high variability of n, k, and AOD values and of the fine mode particle contribution. Instantaneous net (solar+infrared DREs that are negative as a consequence of the cooling effect by aerosol particles, span the – (32–10 W m−2 and the – (44–20 W m−2 range at the ToA and surface, respectively. The instantaneous net DRE by anthropogenic particles that is negative, varies within −(13–8 W m−2 and −(17–11 W m−2 at the ToA and surface, respectively. It represents from 41 up to 89

  6. Takarkori rock shelter (SW Libya): an archive of Holocene climate and environmental changes in the central Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Zerboni, Andrea; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Olmi, Linda; Biagetti, Stefano; di Lernia, Savino

    2014-10-01

    Rock shelters in the central Saharan massifs preserve anthropogenic stratigraphic sequences that represent both a precious archive for the prehistory of the region and a powerful proxy data for Holocene palaeoenvironments. The geoarchaeological (micromorphology) and archaeobotanical (pollen analysis) approaches were integrated to investigate the anthropogenic sedimentary sequence preserved within the Takarkori rock shelter, a Holocene archaeological site located in the Libyan central Sahara (southern Tadrart Acacus massif). The site was occupied throughout the Early and Middle Holocene (African Humid Period) by groups of hunter-gatherers before and by pastoral communities later. The investigation on the inner part of the sequence allows to recognize the anthropogenic contribution to sedimentation process, and to reconstruct the major changes in the Holocene climate. At the bottom of the stratigraphic sequence, evidence for the earliest frequentation of the site by hunters and gatherers has been recognized; it is dated to c. 10,170 cal yr BP and is characterized by high availability of water, freshwater habitats and sparsely wooded savannah vegetation. A second Early Holocene occupation ended at c. 8180 cal yr BP; this phase is marked by increased aridity: sediments progressively richer in organics, testifying to a more intense occupation of the site, and pollen spectra indicating a decrease of grassland and the spreading of cattails, which followed a general lowering of lake level or widening of shallow-water marginal habitats near the site. After this period, a new occupational phase is dated between c. 8180 and 5610 cal yr BP; this period saw the beginning of the frequentation of pastoral groups and is marked by an important change in the forming processes of the sequence. Sediments and pollen spectra confirm a new increase in water availability, which led to a change in the landscape surrounding the Takarkori rock shelter with the spreading of water bodies. The

  7. The daytime cycle in dust aerosol direct radiative effects observed in the central Sahara during the Fennec campaign in June 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Banks, Jamie R.

    2014-12-16

    © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. The direct clear-sky radiative effect (DRE) of atmospheric mineral dust is diagnosed over the Bordj Badji Mokhtar (BBM) supersite in the central Sahara during the Fennec campaign in June 2011. During this period, thick dust events were observed, with aerosol optical depth values peaking at 3.5. Satellite observations from Meteosat-9 are combined with ground-based radiative flux measurements to obtain estimates of DRE at the surface, top-of-atmosphere (TOA), and within the atmosphere. At TOA, there is a distinct daytime cycle in net DRE. Both shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) DRE peak around noon and induce a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system. Toward dusk and dawn, the LW DRE reduces while the SW effect can switch sign triggering net radiative cooling. The net TOA DRE mean values range from -9 Wm-2 in the morning to heating of +59 Wm-2 near midday. At the surface, the SW dust impact is larger than at TOA: SW scattering and absorption by dust results in a mean surface radiative cooling of 145Wm-2. The corresponding mean surface heating caused by increased downward LW emission from the dust layer is a factor of 6 smaller. The dust impact on the magnitude and variability of the atmospheric radiative divergence is dominated by the SW cooling of the surface, modified by the smaller SW and LW effects at TOA. Consequently, dust has a mean daytime net radiative warming effect on the atmosphere of 153Wm-2.

  8. Sahara en mouvement

    OpenAIRE

    Casajus, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    On peut dire du Sahara ce que Fernand Braudel disait naguère de la Méditerranée : lui assigner des bornages est une tâche malaisée. Des géographes s’y sont cependant essayés, et leurs tentatives participent de ce qu’on peut appeler l’« invention » du Sahara. La présente introduction évoque quelques figures marquantes de cette invention (Léon l’Africain, Eugène Daumas, Émile Carette, Henri Duveyrier, Robert Capot-Rey…) puis présente brièvement les diverses contributions du dossier, en les repl...

  9. Early to Middle Holocene landscape exploitation in a drying environment: Two case studies compared from the central Sahara (SW Fezzan, Libya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Zerboni, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    The erg Uan Kasa and the wadi Tanezzuft (Libyan Sahara) reacted in different ways to Holocene climatic changes. Consequently, the human groups settled there responded with different ways of adaptation to the drying environment. In the erg Uan Kasa, shallow lakes were formed from the Early to the Mid-Holocene, and their shores were densely inhabited from the Epipalaeolithic to the Pastoral-Neolithic periods. The erg dried out at c. 5000 years BP, but the area was not completely abandoned, as indicated by minor Late Pastoral-Neolithic sites composed of scattered fireplaces. During the wet Holocene, the wadi Tanezzuft was a large meandering river, and its banks were densely settled. At c. 5000 years BP, the stream was not completely dried out, but it changed its pattern, originating an alluvial plain. A large oasis was formed between c. 4000 and 2000 years BP, exploited by Late Pastoral-Neolithic pastoral communities, and later by Garamantians, which introduced soil management and agricultural practices. The Tanezzuft oasis suffered a drastic reduction in size during the first centuries AD, at the time of the abandonment of the Garamantian settlements.

  10. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a

  11. Norwegian support in development of regulations of radioactive waste management in central Asia-threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Central Asia (CA) the radioactive waste comes mainly from uranium mining and milling, nuclear weapon testing and nuclear power development and other ionizing sources. This waste was produced, to a greater extent, by the military-industrial complex and the uranium and non-uranium industry, and, to a lesser extent, by the nuclear industry and in the process of use of isotope products. Exploitation and mining of uranium and thorium deposits produce a large amount of solid and liquid radioactive waste, as well volatile contaminants which need a proper management. In Central Asia the wastes are mainly stored at the surface in large piles and represent a long-term potential health and environmental hazard. The process of remediating legacy sites of the past and reducing the threats is now getting under way, with the design and implementation of remediation activities, partly with international support. However, there is a significant lack in the regulatory basis for carrying out such remediation work, including a lack of relevant radiation and environmental safety norms and standards, licensing procedures and requirements for monitoring etc., as well as expertise to transform such a basis into practice. Accordingly, the objective of the proposed project is to assist the relevant regulatory authorities in Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan to develop national robust and adequate regulations and procedures, taking into account the international guidance and Norwegian experience with regulatory support projects in Russia. Specific expected results in the project period include: a threat assessment report identifying priority areas for regulatory development, based on the status of current regulatory documents and the hazard presented by the different sites and facilities; development of national radioactive waste management strategies in each country; development of an enhanced regulatory framework for supervision of nuclear matters, and an enhanced safety culture

  12. NON BANKING FINANCIAL COMPANIES AND INDIA’S RURAL ECONOMY - WITH REFERENCE TO SAHARA GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKANTA CHANDRA SWAIN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sahara India Group has diversified business in the areas like finance, real estate, media and entertainment, tourism and services. Its business in finance, as usual, comes under the purview of Reserve Bank of India (RBI jurisdiction. Its two financial institutions (FIs – Sahara India Investment Corporation Ltd (SIICL, a non-banking finance company (NBFC and Sahara India Financial Corporation Ltd (SIFCL, a residuary nonbanking finance company (RNBC have been coming under RBI scanner. While the registration of SIICL has been recently cancelled by RBI in spite of a net profit in 2006-07 against a loss in 2005-06, SIFCL has been under the threat of winding up the business owing to regulatory concerns of RBI. Thus time will come when Sahara India Group will no more be there in the financial sector. However, it will not allow the resources withdrawn from these two FIs to be idle. As it has been a prominent player in the real estate industry of India, it is clearly visible that it will reallocate the resources in favour of real estate. That way, the profitability of Sahara India Group will never be undermined. But can we say with confident that the economy will never lose anything by this ‘move by coercion’ of Sahara India Group? Certainly no, because other FIs are yet to penetrate into rural areas what SIICL and SIFCL had been doing successfully. Therefore the twin objective - Mobilization of rural savings and eradication of rural poverty will definitely be in jolt because of this. This paper tries to analyze critically this ‘move by coercion’ of Sahara India Group in the perspective of rural poverty, the ultimate problem of Indian Economy.

  13. Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara

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    Paul Sereno

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diverse crocodyliforms have been discovered in recent years in Cretaceous rocks on southern landmasses formerly composing Gondwana.  We report here on six species from the Sahara with an array of trophic adaptations that significantly deepen our current understanding of African crocodyliform diversity during the Cretaceous period.  We describe two of these species (Anatosuchus minor, Araripesuchus wegeneri from nearly complete skulls and partial articulated skeletons from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation (Aptian-Albian of Niger. The remaining four species (Araripesuchus rattoides sp. n., Kaprosuchus saharicus gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus thaumastos gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus maghrebensis gen. n. sp. n. come from contemporaneous Upper Cretaceous formations (Cenomanian in Niger and Morocco.

  14. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

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    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  15. Modulation of instrumental responding by a conditioned threat stimulus requires lateral and central amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eCampese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the role of the amygdala in response modulation by an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS in rats. Experiment 1 investigated the role of amygdala circuitry in conditioned suppression using a paradigm in which licking for sucrose was inhibited by a tone CS that had been previously paired with footshock. Electrolytic lesions of the lateral amygdala impaired suppression relative to sham-operated animals, and produced the same pattern of results when applied to central amygdala. In addition, disconnection of the lateral and central amygdala, by unilateral lesion of each on opposite sides of the brain, also impaired suppression relative to control subjects that received lesions of both areas on the same side. In each case, lesions were placed following Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental training, but before testing. This procedure produced within-subjects measures of the effects of lesion on freezing and between-group comparisons for the effects on suppression. Experiment 2 extended this analysis to a task where an aversive CS suppressed shuttling responses that had been previously food reinforced and also found effects of bilateral lesions of the central amygdala in a pre-post design. Together, these studies demonstrate that connections between the lateral and central amygdala constitute a serial circuit involved in processing aversive Pavlovian stimuli, and add to a growing body of findings implicating central amygdala in the modulation of instrumental behavior.

  16. Solar hydrogen: the Great Sahara project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eljrushi, G.S. (High Industrial Inst., Misurata (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)); Zubia, J.N. (Secretariat of Light Industry, Misurata (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya))

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses a proposal for an international solar hydrogen project to be installed in North Africa, near the town of Ghadames in the middle of the desert, to exploit the enormous Sahara solar power resource. It suggests some practical steps to implement this project in three successive stages. The financing of the project is discussed, and the relevant local activities have been outlined. It also discusses the forming of a task force from interested parties to take initiatives and to present facts about the benefits that would result from harnessing the Sahara's limitless reservoir of solar energy. (author)

  17. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  18. CENTRAL ASIA: THE RELIGIOUS SITUATION AND THE THREAT OF RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM

    OpenAIRE

    Laumulin, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In Central Asia, religion is gradually coming to the fore in everyday life as a fairly integrated phenomenon with a wide range of functions: consolidation of ethnic self-awareness, shaping spiritual and moral culture together with the awareness of being part of a religious and the world community; fulfilling social functions through religious prescriptions; formulating the ideals of social justice, as well as man's duty to the state and the state's to man, etc. Some of the functions, however,...

  19. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa--2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Grard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human sera and mosquitoes collected in Gabon from 2007 to 2010, in order to identify other circulating arboviruses.Sample collections, including 4312 sera from patients presenting with painful febrile disease, and 4665 mosquitoes belonging to 9 species, split into 247 pools (including 137 pools of Aedes albopictus, were screened with molecular biology methods. Five human sera and two Aedes albopictus pools, all sampled in an urban setting during the 2007 outbreak, were positive for the flavivirus Zika (ZIKV. The ratio of Aedes albopictus pools positive for ZIKV was similar to that positive for dengue virus during the concomitant dengue outbreak suggesting similar mosquito infection rates and, presumably, underlying a human ZIKV outbreak. ZIKV sequences from the envelope and NS3 genes were amplified from a human serum sample. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Gabonese ZIKV at a basal position in the African lineage, pointing to ancestral genetic diversification and spread.We provide the first direct evidence of human ZIKV infections in Gabon, and its first occurrence in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. These data reveal an unusual natural life cycle for this virus, occurring in an urban environment, and potentially representing a new emerging threat due to this novel association with a highly invasive vector whose geographic range is still expanding across the globe.

  20. Sleep Deprivation Impairs the Human Central and Peripheral Nervous System Discrimination of Social Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Greer, Stephanie M; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2015-07-15

    Facial expressions represent one of the most salient cues in our environment. They communicate the affective state and intent of an individual and, if interpreted correctly, adaptively influence the behavior of others in return. Processing of such affective stimuli is known to require reciprocal signaling between central viscerosensory brain regions and peripheral-autonomic body systems, culminating in accurate emotion discrimination. Despite emerging links between sleep and affective regulation, the impact of sleep loss on the discrimination of complex social emotions within and between the CNS and PNS remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate in humans that sleep deprivation impairs both viscerosensory brain (anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala) and autonomic-cardiac discrimination of threatening from affiliative facial cues. Moreover, sleep deprivation significantly degrades the normally reciprocal associations between these central and peripheral emotion-signaling systems, most prominent at the level of cardiac-amygdala coupling. In addition, REM sleep physiology across the sleep-rested night significantly predicts the next-day success of emotional discrimination within this viscerosensory network across individuals, suggesting a role for REM sleep in affective brain recalibration. Together, these findings establish that sleep deprivation compromises the faithful signaling of, and the "embodied" reciprocity between, viscerosensory brain and peripheral autonomic body processing of complex social signals. Such impairments hold ecological relevance in professional contexts in which the need for accurate interpretation of social cues is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive.

  1. Sahara: Barrier or corridor? Nonmetric cranial traits and biological affinities of North African late Holocene populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2012-02-01

    The Garamantes flourished in southwestern Libya, in the core of the Sahara Desert ~3,000 years ago and largely controlled trans-Saharan trade. Their biological affinities to other North African populations, including the Egyptian, Algerian, Tunisian and Sudanese, roughly contemporary to them, are examined by means of cranial nonmetric traits using the Mean Measure of Divergence and Mahalanobis D(2) distance. The aim is to shed light on the extent to which the Sahara Desert inhibited extensive population movements and gene flow. Our results show that the Garamantes possess distant affinities to their neighbors. This relationship may be due to the Central Sahara forming a barrier among groups, despite the archaeological evidence for extended networks of contact. The role of the Sahara as a barrier is further corroborated by the significant correlation between the Mahalanobis D(2) distance and geographic distance between the Garamantes and the other populations under study. In contrast, no clear pattern was observed when all North African populations were examined, indicating that there was no uniform gene flow in the region. PMID:22183688

  2. Electricity generated in the North Sea and Sahara; Een supergrid met Noordzee- en Saharastroom?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.H.H. [Autarkis, Almere (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    This article makes a clear statement that the total investments in the 'decentralized all electrical solution' is less than the investments in central solutions with electricity generated in either the North Sea and/or the Sahara. The author states that the Dutch government should therefore focus their subsidiary policies to smaller affordable decentralized solutions, instead of the larger expensive centralized solutions. This is at the moment clearly not the case in Dutch politics. However, autarky is possible in the short term as described in this article on the basis of a case of a house with heat and electricity installations. [Dutch] Vormt een supergrid met elektriciteit van de Noordzee en uit de Sahara gecombineerd met passieve woningbouw onze toekomstige duurzame (autarke) energievoorziening? Het warmte/krachtverbruik van de gebouwde omgeving in Nederland bedraagt circa 30 procent van het primaire energiegebruik. Het is ondoenlijk om op afzienbare tijd alle 7,2 miljoen woningen te renoveren tot op een passief woningbouwniveau met isolatiedikten tot wel 40 a 50 centimeter, voorzien van thermische zonnecollectoren voor de warmwaterproductie en met elektriciteit van de Noordzee en uit de Sahara. Autarkie op kortere termijn is wel realiseerbaar op een wijze zoals beschreven in deze publicatie op basis van een woning met warmte- en electrische installaties.

  3. China Threat, What Threat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China has become the candidate of choice among "illusionist" hawks looking to justify Pentagon spending. Henry Rosemont, a professor emeritus at St Mary’s CoUege of Maryland and a visiting scholar in the Religious Studies Department at Brown University, recently wrote an article for Asia Times Online, saying that facts belie the claims of China’s military threat

  4. AN EPHEMERALANALYSIS OF SAHARA GROUP FRAUD WITH THE INVESTORS (WITH REFERENCE TO GOVERNANCE ISSUES INVOLVED)

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Rao

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the Sahara India Pariwar scam. The two companies of Sahara group naming Sahara Group Companies Sahara India Real Estate Corporation limited (SIRECL) and Sahara Housing Investment Corporation (SHIC) were raising thousands of crores from the public without informing SEBI. The paper discusses how these two companies could raise so much of money without following the prescribed rules and regulations and how did SEBI come to know about the wrongdoings of these two ...

  5. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  6. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods:Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC). The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata). Results:Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00) mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67) mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67) mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67) mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P Conclusions:To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  7. Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and

  8. Alternative energies. Sahara Power needs pan-European grid operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wijland, G.

    2009-09-15

    A consortium of leading European - mostly German - companies plans to invest 400 billion euros in a megaproject to generate solar power in the Sahara desert. Desertec, as the project is called, could cover 15 percent of European electricity demand. The problem is, how do you transport this power to Paris and Berlin? It can only work with a pan-European grid operator.

  9. Cultural Astronomy in Africa South of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    This chapter examines two foci of cultural astronomy found in Africa south of the Sahara: creation myths and celestial art. The examples highlighted are from the Akan, the Bahima, the Boshongo, the Fon, the Igbo, the Mambila, the Yoruba, and the Zulu people.

  10. The qanat of Algerian Sahara: an evolutionary hydraulic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remini, Boualem; Achour, Bachir; Albergel, Jean

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses for the first time a study on the connection and interconnection of qanats located in the Algerian Sahara. During the missions in the oases of Touat and Gourara in 2009, 2010 and 2011, we have been impressed by the complexity of the network of water distribution. The seguias of differents sections take all the senses. Connections are made between qanats to ensure water supply to each owner. In this study, we identified nine models for connecting qanats.

  11. The Green Sahara: Climate Change, Hydrologic History and Human Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ronald G.; Farr, Tom G.; Feynmann, Joan; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Paillou, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Archaeology can provide insight into interactions of climate change and human activities in sensitive areas such as the Sahara, to the benefit of both disciplines. Such analyses can help set bounds on climate change projections, perhaps identify elements of tipping points, and provide constraints on models. The opportunity exists to more precisely constrain the relationship of natural solar and climate interactions, improving understanding of present and future anthropogenic forcing. We are beginning to explore the relationship of human occupation of the Sahara and long-term solar irradiance variations synergetic with changes in atmospheric-ocean circulation patterns. Archaeological and climate records for the last 12 K years are gaining adequate precision to make such comparisons possible. We employ a range of climate records taken over the globe (e.g. Antarctica, Greenland, Cariaco Basin, West African Ocean cores, records from caves) to identify the timing and spatial patterns affecting Saharan climate to compare with archaeological records. We see correlation in changing ocean temperature patterns approx. contemporaneous with drying of the Sahara approx. 6K years BP. The role of radar images and other remote sensing in this work includes providing a geographically comprehensive geomorphic overview of this key area. Such coverage is becoming available from the Japanese PALSAR radar system, which can guide field work to collect archaeological and climatic data to further constrain the climate change chronology and link to models. Our initial remote sensing efforts concentrate on the Gilf Kebir area of Egypt.

  12. The Sahara Troposphere - Simultaneous Aircraft Observations from Fennec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelstaedter, Sebastian; Washington, Richard; Flamant, Cyrille; Allen, Chris J. T.

    2013-04-01

    The Saharan heat low (SHL) that develops over western Africa in Boreal summer has been recognised for its important role in the regional and continental scale climate system. It is co-located with the highest atmospheric dust loading and the deepest dry convective boundary layer in the world. As part of the Fennec 2011 Intensive Observation Period, two aircraft surveyed the SHL region in the morning and afternoon on 22 June 2011 along different tracks employing LIDAR instruments and dropsondes allowing the first characterisation of the structure and daytime evolution of atmospheric features in the central western Sahara including the SHL, the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), the monsoon and atmospheric dust distributions within the system. The observations show a system that is more complex than previously thought. Characteristics include a) a NE-SW orientated SHL, b) a monsoon re-circulation around the SHL associated with dampened Convective Boundary Layer (CBL) growth and Saharan Residual Layer (SRL) top minimum, c) Harmattan winds associated with increased near-surface temperatures and enhanced CBL growth rate and CBL depth, d) near-surface inversions limiting CBL growth and vertical mixing of emitted dust, e) above SRL inversion strength linked to SRL top altitude, f) an aged dust layer close to the SABL top that shows a complex wave-like structure, and g) a potential tropospheric ventilation reducing SRL height and reducing dust concentration. The NE-SW elongated SHL is located over northern Mauritania close to the Mali border in the morning and moves west by about 0.5 to 1.0° in the afternoon corresponding well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The CBL depth ranges from 0.45 to 2.01 km above mean sea level (aMSL) in the morning and from 1.75 to 6.02 km in the afternoon. Low-level inversions in the morning between 0.5 and 0.9 km aMSL are strongest (up to 0.83°C) where the CBL is most shallow and weakening with increasing CBL depth. Above SRL

  13. Optimal investment and indifference pricing when risk aversion is not monotone: SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the dis- tinguishing feature that they implement the assumption that agents may become less risk-averse for very low values of wealth. This means that SAHARA utility can be used to characterize risk gambling behavior of an e

  14. Regime shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: interactions between ecological and climatic systems in northern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foley, J.A.; Coe, M.T.; Scheffer, M.; Wang, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Sahara and Sahel regions of northern Africa have complex environmental histories punctuated by sudden and dramatic "regime shifts" in climate and ecological conditions. Here we review the current understanding of the causes and consequences of two environmental regime shifts in the Sahara and Sa

  15. An Implementation Analysis of Threat Assessment Policies in Public Universities and Community Colleges in Central Texas: A Post Virginia Tech Incident Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet DeLaTorre, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It is clear that the tragic events at Virginia Tech and other institutions of higher education (IHEs) have brought threat assessment to the forefront of higher education literature and increased public concern for campus safety. IHEs have a profound duty to learn from the Virginia Tech tragedy and to recognize their responsibility in providing a…

  16. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  17. Bubbling Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The shift of China’s monetary policy stance from "moderately loose" to "prudent" in 2011 indicates curbing inflation and asset bubbles have become the Central Government’s top priority. But is China’s bubble problem short-term or long-term? Is it only monetary or related to economic structure? Is it the cause of China’s economic imbalance or the result? And what kind of deep-rooted problems in the macro economy does it reflect? All these questions call for deep thought,said Zhang Monan,a

  18. Dry Deposition from Sahara Sources Regions of Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Douaiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, wide coverage, and endurance. In the present work, the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast. This particular case was chosen based on the strong dry removal that occurred, rendering it ideal for examining the deposition processes. The simulation of synoptic conditions and dry deposition of four dust particles including clay, small silt, large silt, and sand was performed with Eta model, coupled with a desert dust cycle module. The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations located in Gran Canaria, and various satellite images such as European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for the period in question.

  19. An integrated remote sensing and GIS analysis of the Kufrah Paleoriver, Eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Eman; Benedetti, Michael; El-Baz, Farouk

    2012-02-01

    A combined remote sensing (optical and radar imagery) and GIS (hydrologic network delineation) analysis allows mapping of the Kufrah Paleoriver of Libya and sheds light on its geomorphic evolution during the Neogene. The Kufrah system, which is now largely buried beneath the windblown sands of the Eastern Sahara, drained an area of about 236,000 km 2 in central and southern Libya. The river discharged across a large inland delta to the Al-Jaghbub depression in northern Libya, and ultimately through the Sirt Basin to the Mediterranean Sea. Radar imagery reveals buried features of the landscape including drainage divides, locations of possible stream capture, deeply-incised valleys, and the distal margins of the inland delta. Previous studies have shown that the Kufrah Paleoriver is the successor of the Sahabi River, which drained most of central Libya during the late Tertiary. Satellite imagery supports the concept of large-scale drainage rearrangement in the Quaternary, driven by tectonic subsidence that diverted streamflow and sediment discharge away from the Sahabi basin toward the inland delta of the lower Kufrah basin. Paleochannels crossing the delta suggest that at various times during the Quaternary, the Kufrah Paleoriver either drained externally through the deeply-incised Sahabi Paleochannel to the Mediterranean Sea, or drained internally to paleolakes in the Al-Jaghbub depression. Thick alluvial deposits on the delta and lake margins likely provided a major sediment source to build the Great Sand Sea, which covers the region today. The southwestern branch of the Kufrah drainage is aligned with an elongated trough that connects to the Amatinga River system in Chad. Thus the Kufrah watershed may have served as an outlet from Megalake Chad to the Mediterranean Sea during humid phases of the Neogene. If so, the combined Amatinga/Kufrah system may have served as one of the proposed natural corridors used by human and animal populations to cross the Sahara

  20. Is the Hybrid Threat a True Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Raugh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the “hybrid threat” discussed in General Marty Dempsey’s 2015 United States National Military Strategy make logical sense? In this paper I define the national security threat risk assessment process, examine the most significant US security threats, and study the hybrid threat. I conclude that the hybrid threat is the one that could most exploit our nation’s critical vulnerabilities- both from a security and foreign policy perspective. I conclude with a study of security and economic methods to reduce this threat.

  1. Foreign direct investment determinants in Sub-Sahara Africa: A co-integration analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Bende-Nabende

    2002-01-01

    This study provides an empirical assessment of the factors that significantly influence the long-run transnational corporations' investment decision making process in Sub-Sahara Africa. The empirical evidence based on a co-integration analysis of 19 countries suggests that the most dominant long-run determinants of FDI in Sub-Sahara Africa are market growth, export-orientation policy and FDI liberalisation. These are followed by real exchange rates and market size. Bottom on the list is openn...

  2. Were Rivers Flowing across the Sahara During the Last Interglacial? Implications for Human Migration through Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Coulthard, T.; Ramirez, J.; Barton, N.; Rogerson, M.; Bruecher, T.

    2013-01-01

    Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c. 100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three r...

  3. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    A. CHERITI; N. BELBOUKHARI; S. HACINI

    2013-01-01

    A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist ...

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    A. CHERITI; N. BELBOUKHARI; S. HACINI

    2013-01-01

    A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk a...

  5. Remote sensing of the hydrologic history of the eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Blom, R. G.; Paillou, P.

    2010-12-01

    The eastern Sahara Desert has never been thoroughly mapped in terms of the landforms and subsurface signs of past climates conducive to human occupation. As part of ongoing work and through a new proposal to NASA, we are generating new maps of the paleohydrology, topography, geomorphology, and surficial deposits of the area and developing GIS-based models which use the data to pinpoint past resources and travel pathways. The maps we are generating will constitute a unique resource for exploration for water and archeological sites in the Gilf Kebir and other regions of NE Africa. That the Sahara was favorable for human habitation at times has long been known. With the remarkable paleo-landscape revealed by the L-band (25 cm) Shuttle Imaging Radar-A in 1981, it became clear that ancient humans concentrated along integrated drainage systems dubbed “radar rivers” by McCauley and colleagues. However SIR-A and subsequent long-wavelength radar coverage was limited and regional understanding of the drainage network has remained elusive. We are mapping the area with three sensors optimized for mapping and characterizing arid regions: The Japanese PALSAR L-band imaging radar, NASA’s SRTM, and ASTER. Together these sensors provide full coverage of the area allowing characterization and mapping of surface and subsurface landforms formed and modified by former wetter climates. In particular and following the work of Ghoneim, Robinson, El Baz and others, we are mapping the regional drainage network revealed by the radar images and applying modern analysis tools to the drainage basins and channels. These include drainage density, channel gradient vs. distance, and longitudinal and cross-channel topographic profiles. We use these quantities to estimate a stream’s past approach to equilibrium and this to infer balances between climate, tectonic uplift, and other changes in base level. Discovery over the last few years of large paleolakes (e.g. Mega Lake Chad, North Darfur

  6. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  7. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  8. The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    The timing and development of Holocene human occupation in the now hyperarid Sahara has major implications for understanding links between climate change, demography and cultural adaptation. Here we use summed probability distributions from 3287 calibrated 14C dates from 1011 archaeological sites to demonstrate a major and rapid demographic shift between 10,500 and 5500 years BP. This event corresponds with the African Humid Period (AHP) and is sub-continental in scale, indicating climate as the prime factor driving broad-scale population dynamics in northern Africa. Furthermore, by providing a high temporal resolution proxy for effective carrying capacity our population curve offers an independent estimate of environmental change in northern Africa, indicating a temporal delay in the terrestrial response to atmospheric climate change. These results highlight the degree to which human demography is a function of environment at the appropriate scale of observation in both time and space and sheds important new light on the social response to global environmental change.

  9. Geological fieldwork in the Libyan Sahara: A multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, Guido; Whitham, Andrew; Howard, James P.; Morton, Andrew; Abutarruma, Yousef; Bergig, Khaled; Elgadry, Mohamed; Le Heron, Daniel P.; Paris, Florentin; Thusu, Bindra

    2010-05-01

    Libya is one of the most hydrocarbon-rich countries in the world. Its large oil and gas reserves make it attractive to international oil and gas companies, which provide the impetus for field-based research in the Libyan Sahara. North Africa is made up of several enormous intracratonic basins, two of which are found in southern Libya: the Murzuq Basin, in the southwest, and the Kufra Basin, in the southeast, separated by the Tibesti Massif. Both basins are filled with Palaeozoic and Mesozoic clastic sedimentary rocks reaching up to 5 km in thickness. These basins developed from the Cambrian onwards following an earlier period of orogenesis (the Panafrican Orogeny) in the Neoproterozoic. Precambrian metasediments and granitoids are unconformably overlain by Cambrian and Ordovician conglomerates and sandstones. They show a transitional environment from continental to shallow marine. Skolithos-bearing sandstone is common in Ordovician strata. By the Late Ordovician, ice masses had developed across West Gondwana. Upon melting of the ice sheets in the latest Hirnantian, large volumes of melt water and sediment were released that were transported to the periphery of Gondwana. In Libya, these sediments are predominantly highly mature sandstones, which, in many places, are excellent hydrocarbon reservoirs. Polished and striated surfaces in these sandstones clearly point to their glaciogenic origin. Following Late Ordovician deglaciation, black shale deposition occurred in the Silurian. Some of the shales are characterised by high values of total organic carbon (TOC). These shales are commonly referred to as ‘hot shales' due to their associated high uranium content, and are the major source rock for Early Palaeozoic-sourced hydrocarbons in North Africa. Late Ordovician glaciogenic sediments and the Early Silurian ‘hot shales' are therefore the main focus of geological research in the Libyan Sahara. Fluvial conglomerates and sandstones of Devonian age unconformably

  10. Threats to Bitcoin Software

    OpenAIRE

    Kateraas, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Collect and analyse threat models to the Bitcoin ecosystem and its software. The create misuse case, attack trees, and sequence diagrams of the threats. Create a malicious client from the gathered threat models. Once the development of the client is complete, test the client and evaluate its performance. From this, assess the security of the Bitcoin software.

  11. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  13. External threat and the definition of deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudedale, P; Smith-Cunnien, P; Parker, J; Inverarity, J

    1984-05-01

    Research ( Lauderdale , 1976; Schachter , 1951) suggests that an external threat to a group can lead to the rejection of deviant members of the group and alteration of group communication patterns and solidarity. This study sought to extend those findings, integrate them with concepts from Simmel 's (1917/1955) work on group conflict, and link them to key issues in the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior. We examined the effect of variation in level of threat, the relationship between deviant status and nonconformity to the central task norm, the role of high-status actors in deviance designation, the relationship between rejection and negative definition of the deviant, and the effects of rejection and negative definition on group solidarity. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design involving three conditions (strong threat, weak threat, and no threat). The results suggest that (a) the level of threat is directly related to the extent of rejection and negative definition, (b) nonconformity to the central task norm is not systematically related to deviant status, (c) high-status actors are more involved in the rejection of the deviant, (d) sociometric rejection of the deviant is accompanied by negative definition in the strong-threat condition, and (e) the level of group solidarity is related to the extent of rejection and negative definition. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior and analogous processes in other social groups.

  14. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology.

  15. Abrupt shifts of the Sahara-Sahel boundary during Heinrich Stadials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Collins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Relict dune fields that are found at 14° N in the modern-day African Sahel are testament to equatorward expansions of the Sahara desert during the late Pleistocene. However, difficulties of dating dune formation mean that abrupt millennial-scale climate events are not always resolved in these records. High-resolution marine core studies have identified Heinrich Stadials as the dustiest periods of the last glacial, although no studies have mapped the spatio-temporal evolution of dust export from West Africa. We use the major-element composition of four marine sediment cores to reconstruct the spatial extent of Saharan-dust versus river-sediment input to the continental margin from West Africa over the last 60 ka. This allows us to map the position of the sediment composition corresponding to the Sahara-Sahel boundary. Our records indicate that the Sahara-Sahel boundary reached its most southerly position (13° N during Heinrich Stadials, suggesting that these were the periods when the sand dunes formed at 14° N on the continent, rather than at the Last Glacial Maximum. We find that SSB position was closely linked to North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, which during Heinrich Stadials triggered abrupt increases of aridity and wind strength in the Sahel, exposing new dust sources. This result illustrates the influence of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on the southerly extent of the Sahara desert and has implications for global atmospheric dust loading.

  16. Reconstruction of exposure histories of meteorites from Antarctica and the Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupert, U.; Neumann, S.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Zentraleinrichtung fuer Strahlenschutz (ZfS); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bonani, G.; Hajdas, I.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al were analyzed in H-, L-, and LL-chondrites from the Acfer region in the Algerian Sahara and from the Allan Hills/Antarctica. Exposure histories and terrestrial ages could be determined. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  17. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  18. Alternative Threat Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. King III

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many challenges facing risk analysis practitioners, perhaps the most difficult to overcome is in the field of terrorist threat analysis. When estimating the threat associated with naturally occurring events, historical data provides a great deal of insight into the frequency of those events. Threat associated with accidents applies many operations research tools to gauge future failure-rates (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis being perhaps the most widely known. However, estimating the probability of an individual's or group's attacking a specific (or even a generic target is an element of risk analysis in which art and intuition are applied far more regularly than is science.

  19. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inlfammatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey:In vivo approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Saad Aissat; Noureddine Djebli

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6). Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline). In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration) reduced significantly (P Conclusions:Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...... on to discuss a number of approaches from the technological, the sociological, and the socio-technical domain. We draw two main conclusions. Tackling insider threats requires a combination of techniques from the technical, the sociological, and the socio-technical domain, to enable qualified detection...... of threats, and their mitigation. Another important observation is that the distinction between insiders and outsiders seems to loose significance as IT infrastructure is used in performing insider attacks....

  1. Facing ambiguous threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

  2. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets. PMID:26387526

  3. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  4. Mediascapes of Human Rights: Emergent Forms of Digital Activism for the Western Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Deubel, Tara F.

    2015-01-01

    In the disputed Western Sahara territory that has remained under Moroccan state control since 1975, Sahrawi political activists who promote self-determination continue to experience forms of state repression and silencing of human rights activism by Moroccan state authorities. Amidst a highly charged political climate, the rapid influx of new digital media sources over the past decade has increased access between Sahrawi activists and diverse public audiences worldwide. Establishing direct li...

  5. Aquatic community response in a groundwater-fed desert lake to Holocene desiccation of the Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Hilde; Verschuren, Dirk; Fagot, Maureen; Rumes, Bob; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Kröpelin, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    The finely laminated sediment record of a permanent, hypersaline, desert oasis lake in the Ounianga region of northeastern Chad presents a unique opportunity to document the hydrological evolution of this groundwater-fed aquatic ecosystem during mid- and late-Holocene desiccation of the Sahara. In this study we reconstruct long-term changes in zoobenthos and zooplankton communities of Lake Yoa as their early-Holocene freshwater habitat changed into the hypersaline conditions prevailing today. Chironomid production peaked during the fresh-to-saline transition period, then stabilized at about half that of the earlier freshwater ecosystem. Quantitative salinity inferences based on fossil chironomid assemblages indicate that the fresh-to-saline transition occurred fairly abruptly between ˜4100 and 3400 cal yr BP, but that the ecosystem was buffered against shorter-term climate fluctuations due to continuous inflow of fossil groundwater. The mixture of tropical-African and southern Palaearctic chironomid faunas in the Lake Yoa fossil record required us to address several methodological issues concerning chironomid-based salinity reconstruction, and the applicability of a calibration dataset based on tropical East and West African lakes to this Sahara desert locality. The most coherent reconstruction was obtained with an inference model that applies a weighted best-modern-analogue (WMAT) transfer function to the African calibration dataset expanded with six Sahara lakes.

  6. Comparing environmental changes and habitability settings in the geological history of Sahara and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, G. G.; Sabbadini, R.; Komatsu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Sahara has experienced during its long geological history a large number of climatic changes from humid conditions (with savanna-type environments) to dry conditions (with hot desert environments). Therefore, since the late Miocene (?), Sahara experienced periods with rivers, lakes, deltas, and swamps alternated with dry periods with strong aeolian activity and the formation of deflation surface and sand seas. The fluvio-lacustrine deposits formed during humid periods have been strongly reworked by wind processes during the dry periods leaving only the coarse-grained portion of the sediments (conglomerate to rudite). This highly efficient reworking eeolian mechanism affected both of the fluvial and deltaic channel deposits and the large inland lakes, flood plains and other waterlogged areas. The former occurs, at present day, as morphological features and coarse-grained remnants of large fluvial systems whereas the latter are mostly buried below sand seas such as Grand Erg Oriental, Erg Chech, and Azawad. While the sand to silt material accumulated (mostly by saltation) in the sand seas and sand sheets, the finer portion (able to enter the wind as suspended material) was probably swallowed in the large- scale atmospheric circulation redistributed in Sahara itself, in adjacent continents (mostly Europe and South America), and oceans. This geological setting is similar to the one of Mars where fluvial deposits and morphologies abound as largely eroded discontinuous remains. Large-scale alluvial basins and terminal lakes or waterlogged areas (such as the allucial plain in Zephyria) have been largely present in the Martian Noachian-Hesperian time (and possibly even later) but relatively scanty sedimentary deposits testify their existence. When deposits are present they are basically coarse-grained (e.g. the meandering channels of the Eberswalde deltaic plain) due to the long lasting aeolian erosion similarly than the Sahara example. The wind, that dominated the long

  7. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  8. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebede, Ellene [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 210 Campbell, Hall, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Kagochi, John [School of Business Administration, University of Houston-Victoria, 3007, N. Ben Wilson, Victoria, 77901 (United States); Jolly, Curtis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 212 Comer, Hall Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  9. Energy consumption and economic development in Sub-Sahara Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sub-Saharan African countries' economic development is dependent on energy consumption. This paper assesses total energy demand, which is composed of traditional energy (wood fuel) and commercial energy (electricity and petroleum), in the Central, East, South, and West regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional time series data for 20 countries in 25 years are analyzed, and the results of the study show that wood fuel accounts for 70% of energy consumption, followed by petroleum, with most industrial activities utilizing some form of wood fuel. Regression results suggest that energy demand is inversely related to the price of petroleum and industrial development, but positively related to GDP, population growth rate, and agricultural expansion, and that price elasticity is less than one. The model results also show that there are regional differences in energy demand. In addition, the interaction of population growth rates by regions generates mixed results, and there are regional differences in the use of commercial energy consumption, and GDP growth. The findings of this study suggest that countries must diversify their energy sources and introduce energy-efficient devices and equipment at all levels of the economy to improve GDP growth rate and GDP per capita. (author)

  10. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.

  11. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  12. Mineral dust aerosols over the Sahara: Meteorological controls on emission and transport and implications for modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippertz, Peter; Todd, Martin C.

    2012-02-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust has recently become an important research field in Earth system science because of its impacts on radiation, clouds, atmospheric dynamics and chemistry, air quality, and biogeochemical cycles. Studying and modeling dust emission and transport over the world's largest source region, the Sahara, is particularly challenging because of the complex meteorology and a very sparse observational network. Recent advances in satellite retrievals together with ground- and aircraft-based field campaigns have fostered our understanding of the spatiotemporal variability of the dust aerosol and its atmospheric drivers. We now have a more complete picture of the key processes in the atmosphere associated with dust emission. These cover a range of scales from (1) synoptic scale cyclones in the northern sector of the Sahara, harmattan surges and African easterly waves, through (2) low-level jets and cold pools of mesoscale convective systems (particularly over the Sahel), to (3) microscale dust devils and dusty plumes, each with its own pronounced diurnal and seasonal characteristics. This paper summarizes recent progress on monitoring and analyzing the dust distribution over the Sahara and discusses implications for numerical modeling. Among the key challenges for the future are a better quantification of the relative importance of single processes and a more realistic representation of the effects of the smaller-scale meteorological features in dust models. In particular, moist convection has been recognized as a major limitation to our understanding because of the inability of satellites to observe dust under clouds and the difficulties of numerical models to capture convective organization.

  13. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of three endemic plants from Algerian Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELmouloud Bouchouka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Saharan plants are known by their high content of antioxidant products like phenolic compounds due to the extreme climatic conditions. They constitute the basis of treatments used by local population for various diseases. The purposes of this study were to measure the total phenolic compounds and total fl avonoid compounds, to determine antioxidant capacity, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three wild Saharan medicinal plants. Material and methods. Hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of ethanol:water extract and the residu of the extracted aqueous layer of Ferula vesceritensis fruits, Genista saharae aerial parts and Zilla macropterae fruits were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method against: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. In addition, the total phenolic compounds and total fl avonoids and antioxydant activity using DPPH test of ethyl acetate fractions (EAF of plant parts studied were investigated. Gallic acid, quercetin and vitamin C were used for these parameters. Results. Among the extracts tested, ethyl acetate fractions of all plants and hexane fraction of F. vesceritensis showed activity against S. aureus. Good activity was shown by EAF of G. saharae. According to the results, it is observed that Z. macropterae fruits possess a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion. The results indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction of G. sahara Aerial parts possesses a good antibacterial activity against S. aureus, which justifi es its use in traditional medicine for treating respiratory diseases. Furthermore, evaluation of in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ethyl acetate fractions of these plants, particular Z. macroptera fruits, has also provided interesting results. Zilla macroptera fruits may therefore be a good source of antioxidants.

  14. Modelling the Determinants of Import Demand in Sub-Sahara Africa

    OpenAIRE

    AYODOTUN, Ayorinde; FARAYIBI, Adesoji

    2016-01-01

    This study employed panel data from 1995 to 2012 to model the determinants of imports in sub-Sahara Africa. Also, it assesses the long-run and short-run elasticities of aggregate imports and their components and considers the impact of trade liberalization. Fixed effects and Random effect estimation were done for the model. The results indicate that domestic income, foreign exchange reserves and trade liberalization all play significant roles both in the short-run and long-run import demand l...

  15. Wars Without Beginning or End: Violent Political Organizations and Irregular Warfare in the Sahel-Sahara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Leuprecht, Christian; Skillicorn, David

    This article examines the structure and spatial patterns of violent political organizations in the Sahel-Sahara, a region characterized by growing political instability over the last 20 years. Drawing on a public collection of disaggregated data, the article uses network science to represent alli......, the article shows that national management strategies and foreign military interventions have profoundly affected the movement of Islamist groups....... related to nine Trans-Saharan Islamist groups between 2004 and 2014. Spatial analysis suggests that cross-border movement has intensified following the establishment of military bases by AQIM in Mali but reveals no evidence of a border ‘sanctuary’. Owing to the transnational nature of conflict...

  16. Nuclear Threats and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Jacobs; Winston P. Nagan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legalit...

  17. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HAIs HICPAC One & Only Campaign A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... need to be aware of a very serious threat to their health - the reuse of needles or ...

  18. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  19. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tranquilli

    Full Text Available Numerous protected areas (PAs have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  20. Geochemical variations in aeolian mineral particles from the Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Castillo, Sonia; Alastuey, Andrés; Cuevas, Emilio; Herrmann, Ludger; Mounkaila, Mohammed; Elvira, Josep; Gibbons, Wes

    2006-10-01

    The Sahara-Sahel Dust Corridor runs from Chad to Mauritania and expels huge amounts of mineral aerosols into the Atlantic Ocean. Data on samples collected from Algeria, Chad, Niger, and Western Sahara illustrate how corridor dust mineralogy and chemistry relate to geological source and weathering/transport history. Dusts sourced directly from igneous and metamorphic massifs are geochemically immature, retaining soluble cations (e.g., K, Na, Rb, Sr) and accessory minerals containing HFSE (e.g., Zr, Hf, U, Th) and REE. In contrast, silicate dust chemistry in desert basins (e.g., Bodélé Depression) is influenced by a longer history of transport, physical winnowing (e.g., loss of Zr, Hf, Th), chemical leaching (e.g., loss of Na, K, Rb), and mixing with intrabasinal materials such as diatoms and evaporitic salts. Mineral aerosols blown along the corridor by the winter Harmattan winds mix these basinal and basement materials. Dusts blown into the corridor from sub-Saharan Africa during the summer monsoon source from deeply chemically weathered terrains and are therefore likely to be more kaolinitic and stripped of mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Mg, Ca, LILE), but retain immobile and resistant elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, REE). Finally, dusts blown southwestwards into the corridor from along the Atlantic Coastal Basin will be enriched in carbonate from Mesozoic-Cenozoic marine limestones, depleted in Th, Nb, and Ta, and locally contaminated by uranium-bearing phosphate deposits. PMID:16600327

  1. Quality and management of hot water of intercalary continental, northern Sahara of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tifrani, Ala Eddine; Nezli, Imed Eddine

    2016-07-01

    The Algerian Sahara is the biggest desert in the world, and it is known by that the main climatic characters which are the high temperature and the low precipitations. The northern Sahara is a part of this big area, located on the south-east of Algeria. Due to the rarely and insufficient precipitations (1 to 180 mm per year) the need for water is a rising problem, so the main source are the ground water. There are three ground water aquifers in the area, the phreatic table, the terminal complex and the intercalary continental, our study is focused on the intercalary continental which is the biggest non recharged aquifer in the world, many studies national and international estimated the reserve of the water around 6 million m3. Existing between 1000 and 2000 m depth, this depth gives the water a lot of characterization which need to be noted and updated for example the temperature (around 50°C), and the high mineralization, because of the vast area and the difference in depths between wells, which is a reason of variety, the main goal is the determination of chemical and physical setting of this water.

  2. Chlorine-36 and noble gases in deep groundwaters from the northeastern Sahara (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwaters occurring in the Northeastern Sahara (Algeria-Tunisia and Libya) constitute huge water reservoirs whose major component is very old (Paleowaters). Water managers are there facing problems related to resource management in terms of estimating budget parameters (recharge, evaporation, leakage, mixing), degradation of the water quality, but also the renewable rate (residence time). The Continental Intercalaire from Sahara is one of the largest confined aquifers in the world. The aquifer material is made of complex layers of sandstone alternating with clayish levels. The depth of the aquifer ranges between 400 and 1800 metres giving rise to temperature up to 70 deg. C and total dissolved salts of 1.5 to 5 g.l-1, in mainly Ci-Na-SO4. Sampled groundwaters show a quite wide range of 36Cl contents. The space distribution of 36Cl contents fits fairly well with what is known about the piezometric contours of the aquifer: a decrease is observed from recharge to discharge zones. If this decrease is radioactive decay, it can be interpreted in terms of groundwaters transit time. Maximum time intervals of about 3 halflives may be computed using 36Cl specific activities. In order to evaluate the epigene production, Measurements were performed on chloride extracted by leaching from a soil profile. The results are the same order of magnitude as for groundwater chloride sampled near recharge areas and could reflect the true value of initial 36Cl input

  3. Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Coulthard

    Full Text Available Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.

  4. Activity patterns in the Sahara Desert: an interpretation based on cross-sectional geometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Siew, Yun Ysi; Stock, Jay; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2011-11-01

    The Garamantian civilization flourished in modern Fezzan, Libya, between 900 BC and 500 AD, during which the aridification of the Sahara was well established. Study of the archaeological remains suggests a population successful at coping with a harsh environment of high and fluctuating temperatures and reduced water and food resources. This study explores the activity patterns of the Garamantes by means of cross-sectional geometric properties. Long bone diaphyseal shape and rigidity are compared between the Garamantes and populations from Egypt and Sudan, namely from the sites of Kerma, el-Badari, and Jebel Moya, to determine whether the Garamantian daily activities were more strenuous than those of other North African populations. Moreover, sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry are assessed at an intra- and inter-population level. The inter-population comparisons showed the Garamantes not to be more robust than the comparative populations, suggesting that the daily Garamantian activities necessary for survival in the Sahara Desert did not generally impose greater loads than those of other North African populations. Sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry in almost all geometric properties of the long limbs were comparatively low among the Garamantes. Only the lower limbs were significantly stronger among males than females, possibly due to higher levels of mobility associated with herding. The lack of systematic bilateral asymmetry in cross-sectional geometric properties may relate to the involvement of the population in bilaterally intensive activities or the lack of regular repetition of unilateral activities.

  5. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  6. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  7. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara); Prospeccion de recursos hidricos subterraneos en el area de Zug (Tiris, Sahara Occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, B.; Villarroya, F.; Rebollo, L. F.; Olaiz, A.; Lopez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  8. Adverse drug reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub Sahara Africa: A study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew F.; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Michael, Kidane; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many pharmacovigilance centers have been established in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA) in recent years. Their focus has been on ADRs to drugs for communicable diseases. Little is known about ADRs caused by drugs for cardiometabolic diseases, although its burden is increasing rapidly in SSA. Obj

  9. Preliminary comparative study of anti-inflmmatory effect of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey: In vivo approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of unheated and heat-treated of Sahara honey. Methods: A total of 24 Swiss albino mice weighing 25–35 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Anti-inflammatory effect was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.5 mL of a 1% solution in normal saline. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: The total phenolic content capacity of the Sahara honey before and after heat treatment was between 72 and 97.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey respectively. Administration of unheated honey (oral administration reduced significantly (P < 0.05. The carrageenan induced mice paw edema model at 1, 3 and 6 h for 21.85%, 5.43% and 80.43%, respectively. Administration of heat-treated honey showed insignificant inhibition of carrageenan and induced paw edema at 1 h (31.16%, 3 h (0.25% and 6 h (34.19%. The 50 mg/kg diclofenac exhibited percent reduction in paw volume 16.12%, 8.90% and 15.32% after 1 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively, when compared with control animals. No toxicity was identified. Conclusions: Our results suggest that unheated Sahara honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the mice paw edema size while heat-treated Sahara honey decreases the antiinflammatory activity.

  10. Regional hydrogen roadmap. Project development framework for the Sahara Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhamou, Khalid [Sahara Wind Inc., Rabat (Morocco); Arbaoui, Abdelaziz [Ecole National Superieure des Arts et Metiers ENSAM Meknes (Morocco); Loudiyi, Khalid [Al Akhawayn Univ. (Morocco); Ould Mustapha, Sidi Mohamed [Nouakchott Univ. (Mauritania). Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

    2010-07-01

    The trade winds that blow along the Atlantic coast from Morocco to Senegal represent one of the the largest and most productive wind potentials available on earth. Because of the erratic nature of winds however, wind electricity cannot be integrated locally on any significant scale, unless mechanisms are developed for storing these intermittent renewable energies. Developing distributed wind energy solutions feeding into smaller electricity markets are essential for solving energy access issues and enabling the development of a local, viable renewable energy industry. These may be critical to address the region's economic challenges currently under pressure from Sub-Saharan migrant populations. Windelectrolysis for the production of hydrogen can be used in grid stabilization, as power storage, fuel or chemical feedstock in specific industries. The objective of the NATO SfP 'Sahara Trade Winds to Hydrogen' project is to support the region's universities through an applied research framework in partnership with industries where electrolysis applications are relevant. By powering two university campuses in Morocco and Mauritania with small grid connected wind turbines and 30 kW electrolyzers generating hydrogen for power back-up as part of ''green campus concepts'' we demonstrated that wind-electrolysis for the production of hydrogen could absorb larger quantities of cheap generated wind electricity in order to maximize renewable energy uptakes within the regions weaker grid infrastructures. Creating synergies with local industries to tap into a widely available renewable energy source opens new possibilities for end users such as utilities or mining industries when processing raw minerals, whose exports generates key incomes in regions most exposed to desertification and climate change issue. Initiated by Sahara Wind Inc. a company from the private sector, along with the Al Akhawayn University, the Ecole Nationale Superieure

  11. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  12. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  13. Costa Rica - An Army-less Nation Facing External Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Dall, Nana; Hammer Holm, Lasse; Kaas-Claesson, Kristina; McCay Martinez, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to explain how Costa Rica deal with external threats. Having abolished their military in 1948, the small state of Costa Rica situated in the conflict-ridden region of Central America, is internationally portrayed as an inspirational nation upholding peace and high morality. This has raised questions in regards to how Costa Rica upholds security in the event of threat. The project applies the International Relations theories of neo-liberalism and neo-realism to two cases: the...

  14. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  15. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  16. Surface features on Sahara soil dust particles made visible by atomic force microscope (AFM phase images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Helas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM phase images can reveal surface features of soil dust particles, which are not evident using other microscopic methods. The non-contact AFM method is able to resolve topographical structures in the nanometer range as well as to uncover repulsive atomic forces and attractive van der Waals' forces, and thus gives insight to surface properties. Though the method does not allow quantitative assignment in terms of chemical compound description, it clearly shows deposits of distinguishable material on the surface. We apply this technique to dust aerosol particles from the Sahara collected over the Atlantic Ocean and describe micro-features on the surfaces of such particles.

  17. Wars Without Beginning or End: Violent Political Organizations and Irregular Warfare in the Sahel-Sahara

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Olivier; Skillicorn, David

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the structure and spatial patterns of violent political organizations in the Sahel-Sahara, a region characterized by growing political instability over the last 20 years. Drawing on a public collection of disaggregated data, the article uses network science to represent alliances and conflicts of 179 organizations that were involved in violent events between 1997 and 2014. To this end, we combine two spectral embedding techniques that have previously been considered separately: one for directed graphs (relationships are asymmetric), and one for signed graphs (relationships are positive or negative). Our result show that groups that are net attackers are indistinguishable at the level of their individual behavior, but clearly separate into pro- and anti-political violence based on the groups to which they are close. The second part of the article maps a series of 389 events related to nine Trans-Saharan Islamist groups between 2004 and 2014. Spatial analysis suggests that cross-border mov...

  18. Local Human Development in contexts of permanent crisis: Women’s experiences in the Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López Belloso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sahrawi women are active agents in the social dynamics of the refugee camps, in which they have developeda number of coping strategies to overcome the hardships of a deteriorating humanitarian situation. Since the outbreak of the con#ict and the forced settlement in Tindouf, Algeria, women have been responsible for the entire management of refugee camps, assuming leadership roles in many sectors of society.This paper highlights the Sahrawi women’s contribution to the process of local human development in a context of protracted refuge such as the one in the Western Sahara. In addition to the enlargement of the refugee population’s capacities in relation to material and physical assets, social and organizational abilities, and motivational strengths, one of the major achievements of Sahrawi women has been their own individual and collective process of empowerment within the camp life.

  19. Comparison of efifcacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods:Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results:The unheated honey demonstrated the highest activity on the wound compared to reference ointment silver sulfadiazine, heat-treated honey and sterile saline respectively. Further the present investigation proves that unheated honey is possessing superior wound healing activity than that of heat-treated honey. Conclusions:The result of this study confirms that unheated honey had the best wound healing effect even better than heat-treated honey.

  20. Structure, composition, and location of organic matter in the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    CERN Document Server

    Piani, Laurette; Beyssac, Olivier; Binet, Laurent; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Derenne, Sylvie; Guillou, Corentin Le; Marrocchi, Yves; Mostefaoui, Smail; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Thomen, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) of an unequilibrated enstatite chondrite Sahara (SAH) 97096 has been investigated using a battery of analytical techniques. As the enstatite chondrites are thought to have formed in a reduced environment at higher temperatures than carbonaceous chondrites, they constitute an interesting comparative material to test the heterogeneities of the IOM in the solar system and to constrain the processes that could affect IOM during solar system evolution. The SAH 97096 IOM is found in situ: as submicrometer grains in the network of fine-grained matrix occurring mostly around chondrules and as inclusions in metallic nodules, where the carbonaceous matter appears to be more graphitized. IOM in these two settings has very similar $\\delta^{15}N$ and $\\delta^{13}C$; this supports the idea that graphitized inclusions in metal could be formed by metal catalytic graphitization of matrix IOM. A detailed comparison between the IOM extracted from a fresh part and a terrestrially weathered part...

  1. Airborne bacteria transported with Sahara dust particles from Northern Africa to the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, A.; Meola, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Sahara Desert is the most important source of aerosols transported across the Mediterranean towards Europe. Airborne microorganisms associated with aerosols may be transported over long distances and act as colonizers of distant habitats. However, little is known on the composition and viability of such microorganisms, due to difficulties related to their detection, collection and isolation. Here we describe an in-depth assessment of the bacterial communities associated with Sahara dust (SD) particles deposited on snow. Two distinct SD events reaching the European Alps in February and May 2014 were preserved as distinct ochre-coloured layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples from a snow profile at 3621 m a.s.l. close to the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps). SD particles were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Backward trajectories were calculated using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Bacterial communities were charac-terized by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial physiological profiles were assessed by incubation of samples on BIOLOG plates. The SD-layers were generally enriched in illite and kaolinite particles as compared to the adjacent snow layers. The source of SD could be traced back to Algeria. We observed distinct bacterial community structures in the SD-layers as compared to the clean snow layers. While sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers, low abundant (Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bioindicators for SD. Both phyla are adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation and thus are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-distance airborne transport. Our results show that bacteria are viable and metabolically active after the trek to the European Alps.

  2. Uneven distribution of Halobacillus trueperi species in arid natural saline systems of Southern Tunisian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi, Amel; Ettoumi, Besma; El Hidri, Darine; Essanaa, Jihene; Cherif, Hanene; Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-11-01

    The genetic diversity of a collection of 336 spore-forming isolates recovered from five salt-saturated brines and soils (Chott and Sebkhas) mainly located in the hyper-arid regions of the southern Tunisian Sahara has been assessed. Requirements and abilities for growth at a wide range of salinities\\ showed that 44.3 % of the isolates were extremely halotolerant, 23 % were moderate halotolerant, and 32.7 % were strict halophiles, indicating that they are adapted to thrive in these saline ecosystems. A wide genetic diversity was documented based on 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer fingerprinting profiles (ITS) and 16S rRNA gene sequences that clustered the strains into seven genera: Bacillus, Gracilibacillus, Halobacillus, Oceanobacillus, Paenibacillus, Pontibacillus, and Virgibacillus. Halobacillus trueperi was the most encountered species in all the sites and presented a large intraspecific diversity with a multiplicity of ITS types. The most frequent ITS type included 42 isolates that were chosen for assessing of the intraspecific diversity by BOX-PCR fingerprinting. A high intraspecific microdiversity was documented by 14 BOX-PCR genotypes whose distribution correlated with the strain geographic origin. Interestingly, H. trueperi isolates presented an uneven geographic distribution among sites with the highest frequency of isolation from the coastal sites, suggesting a marine rather than terrestrial origin of the strains. The high frequency and diversity of H. trueperi suggest that it is a major ecosystem-adapted microbial component of the Tunisian Sahara harsh saline systems of marine origin. PMID:23949950

  3. Forsterite and Olivine in Sahara-97210 (LL3.2) and Chainpur (LL3.4) Chondrules: Compositional Evolution and the Influence of Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, A.; Floss, C.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that chondrules contain relict grains that did not crystallize in situ, and that forsterite is one type of relict grain which is a likely precursor for chondrules. Chemically and morphologically similar forsterite is also found as "isolated grains", especially in carbonaceous chondrites. Using SIMS, we analyzed forsterite, ferrous overgrowths around forsterite, and coexisting normal olivine in 5 chondrules and 2 isolated grains in the Sahara-97210 ('Sahara") LL3.2 chondrite. We earlier used the same methods to study olivine in 3 Chainpur chondrules that contain relict forsterite. Our new data for Sahara provide additional insight into the processes affecting chondrules and their precursors.

  4. The Sahara from the Middle Jurassic to the Middle Cretaceous: Data on environments and climates based on outcrops in the Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busson, G.; Cornée, A.

    The period investigated, succeeded the Upper Triassic and Liassic-Lower Dogger arid sedimentation which was characterized by the development of large evaporitic deposits. The north-eastern part of the Algerian Sahara is specially interesting as it constitutes part of the few dated continental Jurassic outcrops in North Africa (except in the Maghreb). Continental Lower-Middle Cretaceous is also well developed in the same region. The grading of these continental series into marine series particularly in the north-eastern part of the Maghreb has been investigated from an adequate number of well spaced wells. The Middle-Upper Jurassic (Lower Taouratine) consists of an argillaceous-sandy-ferruginous series, often grey coloured and rich in filicean wood and vertebrate remains in some levels. The ferralitic alteration products denote a more humid climate than that which prevailed during the Liassic-Lower-Dogger times. These products alternate with sandy conglomeratic events confirming the influences of alternating important run-off and aeolian winnowing. The large continental Lower and Middle Cretaceous detrital nappes are discussed. They constitute the uppermost part of the series, south of the Tinrhert Hamada (Alba-Vraconian series with the more detrital lateral equivalent), west of Tademait (Gara Samani). Data on lithology and paleobiology (fishes, Dinosaurs, other vertebrates, pelecypods, gastropods, wood debris, palynoflora) permit the reconstruction of the palaeo-environment and the conditions of deposition. This is similar to the sub-desertic terrestrial sedimentation by violent and ephemeral hydrodynamism model based on the modern Darfour example. The desertic conditions which prevailed in these Saharan areas during the Cretaceous are reflected as well as their possible consequences on the sedimentation of nearby oceanic areas (Atlantic and Tethys). This detrital sedimentation is finally reviewed in the context of its tectonic origins and an attempt is made to

  5. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security. Threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; UNU-EHS, Bonn (DE). College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico, Cuernavaca (MX). Regional Multidisciplinary Research Centre (CRIM); Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Exonomics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Political Science; Dutch Knowledge network for Systems Innovations and Transitions (KSI), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Strathmore Univ., Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Chourou, Bechir [Univ. of Tunis-Carthage, Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Dunay, Pal [Geneva Centre for Security Policy (Switzerland). International Training Course in Security Policy; Birkmann, Joern (eds.) [United Nations Univ. (UNU), Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (EHS)

    2011-07-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10 parts concepts of military and political hard security and economic, social, environmental soft security with a regional focus on the Near East, North and Sub-Sahara Africa and Asia and on hazards in urban centres. The major focus is on coping with global environmental change: climate change, desertification, water, food and health and with hazards and strategies on social vulnerability and resilience building and scientific, international, regional and national political strategies, policies and measures including early warning of conflicts and hazards. The book proposes a political geo-ecology and discusses a 'Fourth Green Revolution' for the Anthropocene era of earth history. (orig.)

  6. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  7. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  8. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  9. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  10. Partaking in the global movement for occupational mental health: what challenges and ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilola Olayinka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an ongoing global movement for the entrenchment of occupational mental health as an integral part of occupational health and safety schemes. Aside from being a fundamental human right issue, this move has been demonstrated to be of cost-benefit in terms of workplace productivity and general economic growth. Despite being among the regions most prone to the human and economic repercussions of work-related mental health problems by reason of her socio-economic circumstance; sub-Sahara Africa is yet to fully plug into this movement. With a view to make recommendations on the ways forward for sub-Sahara Africa, this paper examines the current state of and the barriers to effective occupational mental health policy and practice in the region.

  11. Recharge Mechanism to North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) Using Environmental Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gamal, Samir

    2010-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding is highly needed for any successful transboundary cooperation policy. Moreover, an analysis of the NWSAS can be of particular interest for policy makers and researchers. This paper aims to reveals and to assess the renewability of North Western Sahara Aquifer System(NWSAS) as one of the major transboundary multi-layered aquifer system, in North Africa, shared by Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya and is often referred to as the Système Aquifère du Sahara Septentrional (SASS).The paper is primarily intended for exploring whether it receives a considerable fraction of modern water as recharge or it is at risk of being depleted and excessively pumped, where the main challenge for NWSAS ,is that it should be abstracted rationally for equitable use. Environmental isotopes data of δ18O, δ2H, 3H ,14C as well as characteristics of d-excess are used to illustrate whether NSWAS is renewable or non-renewable resource.Geochemical, hydrological and statistical evidences supporting the renewability of NWSAS are provided through pairs of cross-plots . The study has clearly indicated that NWSAS is receiving a considerable fraction of modern water as recharge to the aquifer because of the following reasons; Firstly, the moderately depleted delta values of O-18 and H-2 of water from Sahara Atlas in Algeria and the Dahar and the Dj. Nefoussa in Tunisia and Libya with δ18O content (- 6.0‰ to -5.0‰) compared with that of palaeowater (-7.0 to -9.0 ‰) indicate a considerable fraction of modern water recharging NWSAS.This considerable fraction of modern water should be attributed to originate from the present-day precipitation (-6.5‰).Secondly, the presence of significant amount of 14C >2 % and 3H > 5TU., frequently found in data should be attributed to a mixing with shallow and modern water, where old water practically contains no 14C. The foregoing facts are in good agreement with the results of conventional hydrologic approach. This would contradicts

  12. An assessment of recharge possibility to North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) using environmental isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gamal, Samir Anwar

    2011-02-01

    SummaryA comprehensive understanding of the groundwater dynamics of a transboundary aquifer system is highly needed for any successful transboundary cooperation policy. Moreover, an analysis of the NWSAS can be of particular interest for policy makers and researchers. This paper aims to reveals and to assess the renewability of North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) as one of the major transboundary multi-layered aquifer system, in North Africa, shared by Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya and is often referred to as the Système Aquifère du Sahara Septentrional (SASS). The paper is primarily intended for exploring whether it receives a considerable fraction of modern water as recharge or it is at risk of being depleted and excessively pumped, where the main challenge for NWSAS, is that it should be abstracted rationally for equitable use. Environmental isotopes data of δ 18O, δ 2H, 3H, 14C as well as characteristics of d-excess are used to illustrate whether NSWAS is renewable or non-renewable resource. Geochemical, hydrological and statistical evidences supporting the renewability of NWSAS are provided through pairs of cross-plots. The study has clearly indicated that NWSAS is receiving a considerable fraction of modern water as recharge to the aquifer because of the following reasons: Firstly, the moderately depleted delta values of δ 18O and δ 2H of water from Sahara Atlas in Algeria and the Dahar and the Dj. Nefoussa in Tunisia and Libya with δ 18O content (-6.0‰ to -5.0‰) compared with that of palaeowater (-7.0‰ to -9.0‰) indicate an appreciable fraction of modern water recharging NWSAS. This appreciable fraction of modern water should be attributed to originate from the present-day precipitation (-6.5‰). Secondly, the presence of significant amount of 14C > 2% and 3H > 5 TU, frequently found in data should be attributed to a mixing with shallow and modern water, where old water practically contains no 14C. The foregoing facts are in good

  13. The East-Asian economic growth miracle : lessons for sub-Sahara Africa / Stephanie van der Westhuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Stephanié

    2003-01-01

    The economic performance of eight East Asian countries - Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia - have been described as the "East Asian Miracle" because of their economies' significant growth since the 1960s. In these eight countries real per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rose twice as fast as in any other region between 1965 and 1990. In contrast, much of Sub-Sahara African (SSA) remains in poverty with slow growth in many SSA...

  14. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Laallam, Hadda; Boughediri, Larbi; Bissati, Samia; Menasria, Taha; Mouzaoui, Mohamed S.; Hadjadj, Soumia; Hammoudi, Rokia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Esch...

  15. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hadda eLAALLAM; Larbi eBOUGHEDIRI; Samia eBISSATI; Taha eMENASRIA; Mohamed Saïd eMOUZAOUI; Soumia eHADJAJ; Rokia eHAMMOUDI; Haroun eChenchouni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components.Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins and its physicochemical characteristics.Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four pathogenic bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Es...

  16. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along landuse and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Pierce, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our study focuses on the keystone species Acacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara. Bruchids infest its seeds and reduce their viability and germination, but ingestion by ruminant herbivores diminishes infestation levels and enhances/promotes seed viability and germination. The degree of these effects seems to be correlated with animal body mass. Signific...

  17. Heat Waves Are Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159694.html Heat Waves Are Health Threats Drink plenty of water and ... 2016 SATURDAY, July 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heat waves are more than uncomfortable, they can be deadly. ...

  18. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  19. The Right to Self-Determination and Natural Resources: The Case of Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Morten Haugen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate, fish and possibly oil and gas all constitute important natural resources found on the territory and in the waters of Western Sahara. The importance of these natural resources must be recognised in order to understand the stalemate in the attempted process of decolonisation from Morocco which has been going on for more than 30 years. The article analyses the ‘resource dimension’ of the right to self-determination, as recognised in human rights treaties and in Resolution III of the UN Conference on the Law of the Seas, as well as several resolutions from the United Nations General Assembly. If the resources are exploited in a manner which does not benefit the peoples seeking to enjoy the right to self-determination, such exploitation is illegal. The article shows that the current exploitation takes place in a manner contrary to the interests of the local population, the Saharawis. The article also demonstrates that recent license agreements with Saharawi authorities in the field of oil and gas, signal a potentially new and constructive approach by international corporations.

  20. Bacterial composition and survival on Sahara dust particles transported to the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMeola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of Sahara dust (SD particles is a frequent phenomenon in Europe, but little is known about the viability and composition of the bacterial community transported with SD. The goal of this study was to characterize SD-associated bacteria transported to the European Alps, deposited and entrapped in snow. During two distinct events in February and May 2014, SD particles were deposited and promptly covered by falling snow, thus preserving them in distinct ochre layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples at different depths from a snow profile at the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps; 3621 m a.s.l.. After filtration, we performed various microbiological and physicochemical analyses of the snow and dust particles therein that originated in Algeria.Our results show that bacteria survive and are metabolically active after the transport to the European Alps. Using high throughput sequencing, we observed distinct differences in bacterial community composition and structure in SD-layers as compared to clean snow layers. Sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers; however, phyla with low abundance such as Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bio-indicators for SD. Since many members of these phyla are known to be adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation, they are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-range airborne transport.

  1. Dynamics of green Sahara periods and their role in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrasoaña, Juan C; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J

    2013-01-01

    Astronomically forced insolation changes have driven monsoon dynamics and recurrent humid episodes in North Africa, resulting in green Sahara Periods (GSPs) with savannah expansion throughout most of the desert. Despite their potential for expanding the area of prime hominin habitats and favouring out-of-Africa dispersals, GSPs have not been incorporated into the narrative of hominin evolution due to poor knowledge of their timing, dynamics and landscape composition at evolutionary timescales. We present a compilation of continental and marine paleoenvironmental records from within and around North Africa, which enables identification of over 230 GSPs within the last 8 million years. By combining the main climatological determinants of woody cover in tropical Africa with paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic data for representative (Holocene and Eemian) GSPs, we estimate precipitation regimes and habitat distributions during GSPs. Their chronology is consistent with the ages of Saharan archeological and fossil hominin sites. Each GSP took 2-3 kyr to develop, peaked over 4-8 kyr, biogeographically connected the African tropics to African and Eurasian mid latitudes, and ended within 2-3 kyr, which resulted in rapid habitat fragmentation. We argue that the well-dated succession of GSPs presented here may have played an important role in migration and evolution of hominins. PMID:24146882

  2. Dynamics of green Sahara periods and their role in hominin evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Larrasoaña

    Full Text Available Astronomically forced insolation changes have driven monsoon dynamics and recurrent humid episodes in North Africa, resulting in green Sahara Periods (GSPs with savannah expansion throughout most of the desert. Despite their potential for expanding the area of prime hominin habitats and favouring out-of-Africa dispersals, GSPs have not been incorporated into the narrative of hominin evolution due to poor knowledge of their timing, dynamics and landscape composition at evolutionary timescales. We present a compilation of continental and marine paleoenvironmental records from within and around North Africa, which enables identification of over 230 GSPs within the last 8 million years. By combining the main climatological determinants of woody cover in tropical Africa with paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic data for representative (Holocene and Eemian GSPs, we estimate precipitation regimes and habitat distributions during GSPs. Their chronology is consistent with the ages of Saharan archeological and fossil hominin sites. Each GSP took 2-3 kyr to develop, peaked over 4-8 kyr, biogeographically connected the African tropics to African and Eurasian mid latitudes, and ended within 2-3 kyr, which resulted in rapid habitat fragmentation. We argue that the well-dated succession of GSPs presented here may have played an important role in migration and evolution of hominins.

  3. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  4. The population threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    contraints urged by Malthus. US policies in the 1980s amounted to defunding of population programs and ideological suppression. Seven steps in US policy change are indicated. Centralization of responsibilities for population issues should be determined within government; the Department of State or the National Security Council are likely choices. PMID:12344649

  5. The population threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    contraints urged by Malthus. US policies in the 1980s amounted to defunding of population programs and ideological suppression. Seven steps in US policy change are indicated. Centralization of responsibilities for population issues should be determined within government; the Department of State or the National Security Council are likely choices.

  6. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Ryder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fennec climate program aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include: (1 the first airborne measurement of dust particles sized up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL, (2 dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI satellite imagery, (3 vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4 in-situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as CCN and IN at −15 °C, (5 dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL, (6 airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold-pool (haboob issued from deep convection over the Atlas, (7 the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8 coincident ozone and dust surface area measurements suggest coarser particles provide a route for ozone depletion, (9 discrepancies between airborne coarse mode size distributions and AERONET sunphotometer

  7. A forest butterfly in sahara desert oases: isolation does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Dapporto, Leonardo; Rödder, Dennis; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies addressing the impact of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity have been performed. In this study, we analyze the effects of a seemingly nonpermeable matrix on the population structure of the forest-dwelling butterfly Pararge aegeria in geographically isolated oases at the northern margin of the Sahara desert using microsatellites, morphological characters, and species distribution modeling. Results from all analyses are mostly congruent and reveal 1) a split between European and North African populations, 2) rather low divergence between populations from the eastern and western part of North Africa (Morocco vs. Tunisia), 3) a lack of differentiation between the oasis and Atlas Mountain populations, 4) as well as among the oasis populations, and 5) no reduction of genetic variability in oasis populations. However, one exception to this general trend resulted from the analyses of wing shape; wings of butterflies from oases are more elongated compared with those from the other habitats. This pattern of phenotypic divergence may suggest a recent colonization of the oasis habitats by individuals, which might be accompanied by a rather dispersive behavior. Species distribution modeling suggests a fairly recent reexpansion of the species' climatic niche starting in the Holocene at about 6000 before present. The combined results indicate a rather recent colonization of the oases by highly mobile individuals from genetically diverse founder populations. The colonization was likely followed by the expansion and persistence of these founder populations under relatively stable environmental conditions. This, together with low rates of gene flow, likely prevented differentiation of populations via drift and led to the maintenance of high genetic diversity. PMID:23132908

  8. Alliance of proteomics and genomics to unravel the specificities of Sahara bacterium Deinococcus deserti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan de Groot

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To better understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts, we report the first complete genome sequence and proteome analysis of a bacterium, Deinococcus deserti VCD115, isolated from Sahara surface sand. Its genome consists of a 2.8-Mb chromosome and three large plasmids of 324 kb, 314 kb, and 396 kb. Accurate primary genome annotation of its 3,455 genes was guided by extensive proteome shotgun analysis. From the large corpus of MS/MS spectra recorded, 1,348 proteins were uncovered and semiquantified by spectral counting. Among the highly detected proteins are several orphans and Deinococcus-specific proteins of unknown function. The alliance of proteomics and genomics high-throughput techniques allowed identification of 15 unpredicted genes and, surprisingly, reversal of incorrectly predicted orientation of 11 genes. Reversal of orientation of two Deinococcus-specific radiation-induced genes, ddrC and ddrH, and identification in D. deserti of supplementary genes involved in manganese import extend our knowledge of the radiotolerance toolbox of Deinococcaceae. Additional genes involved in nutrient import and in DNA repair (i.e., two extra recA, three translesion DNA polymerases, a photolyase were also identified and found to be expressed under standard growth conditions, and, for these DNA repair genes, after exposure of the cells to UV. The supplementary nutrient import and DNA repair genes are likely important for survival and adaptation of D. deserti to its nutrient-poor, dry, and UV-exposed extreme environment.

  9. Review: Hérodote: Revue de géographie et de géopolitique, 2011/3, no. 142: Géopolitique du Sahara, Paris: La Découverte Besprechung: Hérodote: Revue de géographie et de géopolitique, 2011/3, Nr. 142: Géopolitique du Sahara, Paris: La Découverte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Marfaing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the issue 2011/3, no. 142, of Hérodote: Revue de géographie et de géopolitique: Géopolitique du Sahara, Paris: La Découverte.Besprechung der Ausgabe 2011/3, Nr. 142, von Hérodote: Revue de géographie et de géopolitique: Géopolitique du Sahara, Paris: La Découverte.

  10. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct threat. 36.208 Section 36.208... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.208 Direct threat. (a) This part does not... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) Direct threat means a...

  11. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  12. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  13. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  14. Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2009-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the International School of Structural Biology and Magnetic Resonance 8th Course: Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats. This NATO Advance Study Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 19 through 30 June 2007. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who bridged the fields of virology and biology, biophysics, chemistry and physics. Prominent lecturers and students from around the world representant a total of 24 countries participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments, and help propel development in NATO partner countries. The ASI merged the relat...

  15. Looming vulnerability to threat: a cognitive paradigm for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, J H

    1997-08-01

    The concept that perceived threat or danger is a cognitive antecedent of anxiety is central in clinical psychology, personality psychology, and social psychology. The aim in the current article is to review this concept and present a new conception called the looming vulnerability model. Looming vulnerability is conceptualized as an important cognitive component of threat or danger that elicits anxiety, sensitizes the individual to signs of movement and threat, biases cognitive processing, and makes the anxiety more persistent and less likely to habituate. In addition, it is postulated as a principal theme that discriminates anxiety and focal fears from depression. The looming vulnerability model integrates a disparate collection of findings and integrates the conceptualization of anxiety and fear with ethological and developmental observations. The social-cognitive and evolutionary basis of the sense of looming vulnerability are discussed, as well as its roots in cognitive schemata (fear scripts), its state elicitation by several potential classes of antecedent conditions, and possible treatment implications.

  16. Integration of radiocarbon dating in the hydrodynamic scheme of north western Sahara aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Baba Sy, M.; Besbes, M.

    2003-04-01

    Radiocarbon dating methods can be applied to obtain the age of ground water. Carbon exists in several naturally occurring isotopes, l2C, 13C, and 14C. Carbon 14 is formed in the atmosphere by the bombardment of 14N by cosmic radiation (DeVries 1959). The l4C forms CO2, so that the atmospheric CO2 has a constant radioactivity due to modern 14C. If the CO2 is incorporated into a form in which it is isolated from modern 14C, age determinations can be made from the 14C radioactivity as a percent of the original. The half-life of l4C is 5730 y, so that if one-fourth of the original activity is present, two half-lives, or 11,460 y, have elapsed. When precipitation soaks into the ground, it is saturated with respect to CO2, with a known 14C activity. Once the water has entered the soil, additional carbon may come from soil CO2 and the solution of carbonate minerals. The modern carbon is diluted by the inactive carbon from carbonate minerals. The raw dates obtained must be adjusted for this dilution. In the present research, we present a contribution of radiocarbon dating in the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, the NWSAS, shared by three countries (Algeria, Libya and Tunisia). This will be done while showing the utility of the log-linear function gotten by regression of some values representing the age of water by the activity of the carbon 14. This function has permitted to estimate the age of water for a sample of 72 water points. It leads, by interpolation on a cartographic support, to the distribution of the carbon 14 activities measured to the wells, translated in equivalent ages of water in the Continental Intercalaire aquifer, which is part of NWSAS and extends over one million square km. The reading of this ages map shows well the hydaulic behavior of the aquifer system.

  17. Exploring Subsurface Geology Using Radar Techniques: Experiments in Sahara and Consequences for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillou, P.; Grandjean, G.; Heggy, E.; Farr, T.

    2004-05-01

    For several years, we have conducted a quantitative study of radar penetration performances in various desert arid environments. This study combines both SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imaging from orbital and airborne platforms and in situ GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) measurements. Laboratory characterization of various minerals and rocks are used as input to electromagnetic models such as IEM (Integral Equation Model) and FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) that describe the subsurface scattering process for inversion purposes. Several test sites were explored, mainly the Sahara. Our first experiment was realized in Republic of Djibouti, an arid volcanic area which is a good analog to Mars. We observed a very little radar penetration there because of the presence of iron oxides and salts in the subsurface that make the soil conductive [Paillou et al., GRL, 2001]. A more favorable site for radar penetration was then explored in southern Egypt: the Bir Safsaf area where buried river channels were discovered using orbital SAR images. We showed how to combine SAR and GPR in order to obtain a complete description of subsurface geology down to several meters [Paillou et al., IEEE TGRS, 2003]. Such field experiments were the basis for more systematic laboratory measurements of the electromagnetic properties of various rocks and minerals which were used in numerical models in order to simulate the performances of future Martian radars, e.g. MARSIS and NETLANDER low frequency radars [Heggy et al., Icarus, 2001; Berthelier et al., JGR, 2003; Heggy et al., JGR, 2003]. More recently, new explorations were conducted in Mauritania in order to demonstrate radar capacities for geologic mapping [Grandjean et al., Coll. Afr. Geol., 2004] and in Libya where radar discovered a double impact crater in the southern desert [Paillou et al., C.R. Geoscience, 2003]. More local radar experiments were also conducted on a test site located in France, the Pyla sand dune, where we observed

  18. The place of sub-Sahara Africa in the world sport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dejonghe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world sportsystem is developed through globalisation with its homogenisation and heterogenisation processes. The result of these opposite forces is the division of the world in 6 classes. Sub-Sahara Africa underwent, with the exception of South-Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe, a total and passive acceptance of the western (British modern sports. The place of that part of Africa is analogue to and correlates with its place in Wallerstein's world-system periphery. The introduction of modern sports is associated with the spatial diffusion of the 19th century British hegemonic cultural imperialism. The purpose of this policy was a transformation of the traditional society into a modern functional world-culture and the incorporation of that part of the world in the world-system. The anti-western feelings after the independence resulted in a political Pan-Africanism. However, sport and more specific soccer, a typical product of the western domination, has not been rejected. On the contrary, local politicians used it to create a national identity. The strong link between soccer and soil resulted in a strong form of topophily. This connection was transformed into sportnationalism and created in the, through artificial borders developed, nations a unity and a national pride. The outcome of sport games was used to demonstrate the successes in politics and economics. The absence of any political platform on which the Third World had a strong voice brought about that the international sport scene, such as the FIFA, was used for the unification of the Third World against the former colonial powers. Nowadays, the globalisation processes result in an increasing labour migration of African football players to the rich core competitions in Europe. This form of migration can be classified as another form of "cash crop" or in this case "foot drain.. ""As Roman imperialism laid the foundation of modern civilisation and led wild barbarians of these

  19. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, C. L.; McQuaid, J. B.; Flamant, C.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Washington, R.; Brindley, H. E.; Highwood, E. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Todd, M. C.; Banks, J. R.; Brooke, J. K.; Engelstaedter, S.; Estelles, V.; Formenti, P.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Kocha, C.; Marenco, F.; Sodemann, H.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bourdon, A.; Bart, M.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Chevaillier, S.; Crosier, J.; Darbyshire, E.; Dean, A. R.; Dorsey, J. R.; Kent, J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Schepanski, K.; Szpek, K.; Trembath, J.; Woolley, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Fennec climate programme aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE (Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed for and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sizes of up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager) satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) at -15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas Mountains, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and dust surface area

  20. The Convergence of Virtual Reality and Social Networks: Threats to Privacy and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brolcháin, Fiachra; Jacquemard, Tim; Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel; Novitzky, Peter; Gordijn, Bert

    2016-02-01

    The rapid evolution of information, communication and entertainment technologies will transform the lives of citizens and ultimately transform society. This paper focuses on ethical issues associated with the likely convergence of virtual realities (VR) and social networks (SNs), hereafter VRSNs. We examine a scenario in which a significant segment of the world's population has a presence in a VRSN. Given the pace of technological development and the popularity of these new forms of social interaction, this scenario is plausible. However, it brings with it ethical problems. Two central ethical issues are addressed: those of privacy and those of autonomy. VRSNs pose threats to both privacy and autonomy. The threats to privacy can be broadly categorized as threats to informational privacy, threats to physical privacy, and threats to associational privacy. Each of these threats is further subdivided. The threats to autonomy can be broadly categorized as threats to freedom, to knowledge and to authenticity. Again, these three threats are divided into subcategories. Having categorized the main threats posed by VRSNs, a number of recommendations are provided so that policy-makers, developers, and users can make the best possible use of VRSNs.

  1. The Convergence of Virtual Reality and Social Networks: Threats to Privacy and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brolcháin, Fiachra; Jacquemard, Tim; Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel; Novitzky, Peter; Gordijn, Bert

    2016-02-01

    The rapid evolution of information, communication and entertainment technologies will transform the lives of citizens and ultimately transform society. This paper focuses on ethical issues associated with the likely convergence of virtual realities (VR) and social networks (SNs), hereafter VRSNs. We examine a scenario in which a significant segment of the world's population has a presence in a VRSN. Given the pace of technological development and the popularity of these new forms of social interaction, this scenario is plausible. However, it brings with it ethical problems. Two central ethical issues are addressed: those of privacy and those of autonomy. VRSNs pose threats to both privacy and autonomy. The threats to privacy can be broadly categorized as threats to informational privacy, threats to physical privacy, and threats to associational privacy. Each of these threats is further subdivided. The threats to autonomy can be broadly categorized as threats to freedom, to knowledge and to authenticity. Again, these three threats are divided into subcategories. Having categorized the main threats posed by VRSNs, a number of recommendations are provided so that policy-makers, developers, and users can make the best possible use of VRSNs. PMID:25552240

  2. Presence and Origin of Fluoride in the Complex Terminal Water of Ouargla Basin (Northern Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed E. Nezli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The underground waters in the oriental regions of the Algerian Sahara, present real chemical quality problems. Their content in fluorides always exceeds the limit of the recommended levels. That is 0.8 mg L-1, according to the maximum temperature in the region. Combined to a high salinity, it affects the health of the population living around the region. The present work, deals with the presence of fluoride and the geochemical origin in the Complex Terminal aquifer of Ouargla, rarely examined in the Algerian Sahara. Approach: Is based on the following aspects: Sampling and physico-chemicals analysis of water, statistical treatment of the physico-chemical water parameters and simulation to natural and isotherm 25°C evaporation of water parameters. Results: The results show the presence of fluoride in the studied water. The rates vary between 1 and 2 mg L-1. The calculation of water saturation index in relation with the preponderant minerals, using the thermodynamic model ‹‹phreeqci›› reveals a sensitivity of carbonate minerals towards precipitation and dissolution of evaporitic minerals and clayey fluorides as well. Conclusions/Recommendations: The increasing alkalinity of water in contact with the aquifer during long periods of stay decreases the chemical activity of calcium and helps with alteration of clayey minerals and fluoride as a necessary condition for a possible fluorite mineralization. Knowing the origin of that fluoridation leads to possible solutions, through the optimization of a water treatment meets the standards.

  3. Reducing HIV/AIDS in Young People in Sub-Sahara Africa: Gaps in Research and the Role of Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michielsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of education in preventing HIV in children and young people in sub-Sahara Africa and presents the results of policy advisory research conducted on behalf of the Belgian Development Cooperation. The research consisted of a literature review and a field study in Rwanda. Relative to the high number of HIV prevention activities in sub-Sahara Africa, there is a limited number of scientific data on HIV risk reduction interventions for young people in this region. Longitudinal studies are especially scarce. Preliminary results show that many interventions have only a marginal impact on reducing sexual risk behaviour. Factors influencing programme effectiveness include the consistency and accuracy of messages and information, the provision of life-skills, social support and access to contraceptives, the intensity and duration of the programme, the training of the facilitators and the age of the target population. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has a potentially devastating impact on the education sector. Because few countries have monitoring systems in place that quantify the absenteeism, morbidity and mortality of teachers and students infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS, there is only anecdotal evidence available for illustrating this impact. The final section discusses the current gaps in research and the important role of theory in increasing the impact and improving the evaluations of HIV/AIDS education interventions.

  4. Constraining the Sahara freshwater discharge during sapropel S5 time by a stable isotope record from the Greater Sirte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirks, Eleen; Kucera, Michal; Bachem, Paul; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River and the Black Sea were long considered as the only significant eastern Mediterranean freshwater sources and therefore inferred as the primary agents promoting surface stratification associated with sapropel formation. Sapropel S5, deposited during the last interglacial, marks a time of possible movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Satellite images revealed the existence of ancient rivers that once ran through the Sahara desert and drained into the Gulf of Sirte. Anomalous Nd isotope records from sapropel S5 deposits indicate that these rivers may have been active during MIS 5e, implying another freshwater source into the eastern Mediterranean Sea during that period. To constrain the extent of freshwater discharge into the Mediterranean from the Kufrah River during MIS 5e, a new δ18O record of five planktonic foraminifera species was generated from sediment core GeoTü SL 96, located proximal to the assumed outflow of the Kufrah River. The record from core GeoTü SL 96 compared with seven other records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal a pattern of oxygen isotope anomalies which implies that the Kufrah River delivered detectable amount of freshwater during the second part of sapropel S5. These results reinforce the hypothesis that Sahara river systems were active during MIS 5e, which has ramifications for the understanding of sapropel events, reconstruction of coastal landscape, and the better understanding of migration routes of early humans.

  5. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. - New evidence of desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during black cloud season and its significance for regional aerosols, dust models, and potential impact on the regional climate.

  6. Dust aerosol optical depth above Sahara and Arabian Peninsula from CALIOP: comparison with MODIS Deep Blue and MISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamalis, Christoforos; Chédin, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Sahara is the biggest desert of the Earth contributing about half the global dust emissions. Dust aerosols emitted from Sahara are transported to Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Middle East, while they can reach Americas and Europe. The Arabian Peninsula is also an important dust source region. In situ systematic measurements of the aerosol optical depth AOD above desert areas are very sparse due to extreme meteorological conditions. At the same time, retrieving the AOD from space-borne instruments above deserts is less straightforward than over sea or land. As an active instrument, the space-borne two-wavelength lidar CALIOP has the advantage to be far less affected by the desert high albedo in comparison to passive instruments measuring in the visible, while it is able to take measurements during nighttime. CALIOP was launched on board CALIPSO in April 2006 with principal aim to characterize aerosols and clouds vertical distribution on a global scale. Thanks to depolarisation at 532 nm, CALIOP is able to discriminate between dust and other types of aerosols, which generally do not depolarize light. However, being an elastic lidar in its retrieval of the AOD, a crucial assumption about the lidar ratio has to be done. In order to assess the quality of the CALIOP-retrieved AOD (532 nm) above Sahara and Arabian Peninsula we compare it with retrievals from MODIS (Aqua) Deep Blue (550 nm) and MISR (555 nm). For this purpose, the L2 5 km aerosol layer product (version 3.01) is used for the 5-year period June 2006 - May 2011. Only nighttime data are taken into consideration due to better signal to noise ratio and only the aerosols layers with the best quality of discrimination from clouds. The aerosols classes "dust" and "polluted dust" from the L2 product are used and seasonal maps with 1 degree horizontal resolution are established. The choice of seasonal maps permits to overcome the difficulty of CALIOP's low daily spatial coverage (beam diameter of 70 m at the

  7. Is China Threat a Hoax?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Weigan; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics has focused unprecedented world attention on China this year. Many people hail the Games as an occasion that showcases China's growing contribution to world development and harmony. But intent on politicizing this global event, a few modern Cassandras still cling to the flawed China Threat theory. In this paper, the author traces the origins of this fallacious theory. He sees it as a product of Western empiricism viewed through an historical and philosophical prism. He argues that the assertion of threat arises from a generalization of historical facts. The assertion links China's growing clout with declining Western dominance in international affairs. Starting with the myth that peace is possible only among democracies, the theory predicts the inevitability of conflict between the West and China, a country with an alleged expansionist tradition and under an authoritarian system.

  8. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one o...

  9. Subordinates as Threats to Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn

    2001-01-01

    A leader of an organization may view a subordinate as threatening or weakening the leader's position. The threat may increase with the subordinate's ability and reduce the rents the leader wins. In particular, a leader who trains his subordinate reduces the cost to the owner of a firm in replacing the leader, and so reduces the leader's bargaining power. The leader therefore provides inefficiently low training for the subordinate.

  10. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, Lucas; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero;

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  11. OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN: AN EMERGING THREAT IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity in children and adolescents is rapidly reaching epidemic proportions globally as well as in India. It is a well-recognized risk factor for adult obesity, which in turn may be the basis of various chronic diseases. So, by preventing the development of obesity in childhood can reduce the likelihood of obesity in adulthood and its health consequences. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Bhopal city. MATERIAL & METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study. STUDY POPULATION: Students studying in IX, X, XI, XII class in government and private schools of Bhopal STUDY PERIOD: July 2012-June 2014 (24 Months SAMPLING PROCEDURE: Multistage simple random sampling method was used to select schools from a list obtained by Ministry of education. Total 38 schools were chosen to fulfill the sample size, in which 120 students from each school were included under study. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: Data was collected by taking anthropometric measurements like body weight, height, BMI (Body mass index, WC (waist circumference. RESULTS: In present study, 256 (5.6% students were overweight and 46 (1.0% were obese. Total 2505 (55.0% of students have waist circumferences between 70 to 85 cm, whereas only 187(4.0% students have waist circumference more than 85 cm. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.6% and 1.0% respectively among school children. It was more common in girls and among students of private schools.

  12. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a first- ...

  13. Globalisation of water: Opportunities and threats of virtual water trade

    OpenAIRE

    Chapagain, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Where the river basin is generally seen as the appropriate unit for analyzing freshwater availability and use, it becomes increasingly important to put freshwater issues in a global context. The book analyses the opportunities and threats of international virtual water trade in the context of solving national and regional problems of water shortages. Central questions addressed in the study are: What are the fluxes of virtual water related to the international trade of products? Is the import...

  14. The role of threats in animal cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cant, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identi...

  15. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  16. 24 CFR 9.131 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct threat. 9.131 Section 9.131... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.131 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require the agency..., privileges, advantages and accommodations of that agency when that individual poses a direct threat to...

  17. Security of radioactive sources: Threats and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general issue of the security of radioactive sources is presented as a prime but constitutive element of radiation safety, focusing particularly on the perceived threats for the malevolent use of radioactive sources and on the possible answers to these threats. The paper discusses the source security threat and the possible international response, and presents an overall outlook for the future. (author)

  18. Flight altitude of trans-Sahara migrants in autumn: a comparison of radar observations with predictions from meteorological conditions and water and energy balance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Biebach, H.

    2000-01-01

    Radar observations on the altitude of bird migration and altitudinal profiles of meteorological conditions over the Sahara desert are presented for the autumn migratory period. Migratory birds By at an average altitude of 1016 m (a.s.l.) during the day and 571 m during the night. Weather data served

  19. Dust emission from different sol types and geomorphic units in the Sahara - implications for modeling dust emission and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouvi, Onn; Schepanski, Kerstin; Amit, Rivka; Gillespie, Alan; Enzel, Yehouda

    2014-05-01

    Mineral dust plays multiple roles in mediating physical and biogeochemical exchanges among the atmosphere, land and ocean, and thus is an active component of the global climate system. To estimate the past, current, and future impacts of dust on climate, sources of dust and their erodibility should be identified. The Sahara is the major source of dust on Earth. Based on qualitative analysis of remotely sensed data with low temporal resolution, the main sources of dust that have been identified are topographic depressions comprised of dry lake and playa deposits in hyprarid regions. Yet, recent studies cast doubts on these as the major sources and call for a search for others. Moreover, the susceptibility of soils to aeolian erosion (wind land erodibility) in the Sahara is still poorly known. In this study we identify and determine the soil types and geomorphic units most important as Saharan dust sources by correlating between the number of days with dust storms (NDS), derived from remote-sensing data of high temporal resolution, with the distribution of the soil types/geomorphic units. During 2006-8 the source of over 90% of the NDS was sand dunes, leptosols, calcisols, arenosols, and rock debris. Few dust storms originated from dry lake beds and playas. Land erodibility by wind for each soil type/geomorphic unit was estimated by a regression of the NDS and the number of days with high-speed wind events; the regression is relatively high for sand dunes and gypsisols. We use these regressions to differentiate between sources of dust that are supply-limited to those that are transport-limited. We propose that the fracturing of saltating sand and the removal of clay coatings from sand grains through eolian abrasion is the dominant dust-emission mechanism for the sand-rich areas covering large portion of the Sahara. Our results also explain the increased dustiness during the last glacial period, when sand dunes activity has been more common than during the Holocene

  20. Phylogeny of North African Agama lizards (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the role of the Sahara desert in vertebrate speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Duarte V; Brito, José C; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Padial, José M; Harris, D James

    2012-09-01

    The origin of Saharan biodiversity is poorly understood, in part because the geological and paleoclimatic events that presumably shaped species diversity are still controversial, but also because few studies have explored causal explanations for the origin of Saharan diversity using a phylogenetic framework. Here, we use mtDNA (16S and ND4 genes) and nDNA (MC1R and CMOS genes) to infer the relationships and biogeographic history of North African agamas (genus Agama). Agamas are conspicuous, diverse and abundant African lizards that also occur in the Saharan xeric and mesic environments. Our results revealed the presence of three Agama lineages in North Africa: one Afrotropical, one Sahelo-Saharan, and one broadly distributed in North Africa and mainly Saharan. Southern Mauritania contains the highest known diversity, with all three lineages present. Results suggest that agamas colonized the Sahara twice, but only one lineage was able to radiate and diversify there. Species in the Saharan lineage are mostly allopatric, and their splitting, genetic diversity and distribution are greatly explained by mountain ranges. One species in this lineage has colonized the Mediterranean climatic zone (A. impalearis), and another one the Sahel savannah (A. boueti). The other lineage to colonize the Sahara corresponds to A. boulengeri, an eminently Sahelian species that also inhabits Saharan mountain ranges in Mauritania and Mali. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that allopatric montane populations within some currently recognized species are also genetically divergent. Our study therefore concludes that vicariant speciation is a leading motor of species diversification in the area: Inside the Sahara, associated to mountain-ranges isolated by dune seas and bare plains; outside, associated to less harsh climates to the North and South. Paleoclimatic oscillations are suggested as causal explanations of the vicariant distribution and origin of species. Agamas are thought to have

  1. The evolution of the 87Sr/86Sr in the Dead Sea brine: from the Sedom lagoon to Sahara dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai

    2016-04-01

    The history of water-bodies in the Dead Sea brines commenced with the intrusion of the Sedom lagoon, possibly in the late Neogene and continued with the development of hypersaline and freshwater lakes (e.g. the modern Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee). 87Sr/86Sr ratios in these water-bodies decreased over the past ~ 5-6 Ma from 0.7087-0.7084 in salts deposited in the Sedom lagoon to ~ 0.7080 in modern Dead Sea brine. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the salts deposited from Sedom lagoon are significantly lower than those of the contemporaneous late Miocene seawater (~0.709). This difference was attributed to modification of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Sedom lagoon solution by influx of Ca-chloride brines. The brines, in turn were formed by dolomitization of marine limestones of the DSR Cretaceous wall rocks (87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7075) by the ingressing evaporated seawaters (Stein et al., 2000). After the disconnection of the Sedom lagoon from the open sea freshwater filled the lakes that occupied the Dead Sea basin. The freshwater influx modified the strontium isotope and chemical composition of the brine and provided bicarbonate and sulfate to the lake that led the precipitation of primary aragonite and gypsum. Freshwater that currently enter the lake are characterize by 87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.7081, significantly higher than the Cretaceous carbonates. Settled dust that deposits on the Judea Mountains is composed of calcite and quartz grains and is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ~ 0.7084. It appears that significant amounts of the strontium that entered the lakes with the freshwater originated from dissolution of the dust calcites. Large amounts of dust were transported from the Sahara desert to the Dead Sea watershed during glacial periods when the Sahara was dry and sea-level was low. The source of the detrital calcites however, is not known. They could be derived from dry paleo-lakes in the Sahara that were previously filled by waters that retained the required strontium isotope

  2. Phylogeny of North African Agama lizards (Reptilia: Agamidae) and the role of the Sahara desert in vertebrate speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Duarte V; Brito, José C; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Padial, José M; Harris, D James

    2012-09-01

    The origin of Saharan biodiversity is poorly understood, in part because the geological and paleoclimatic events that presumably shaped species diversity are still controversial, but also because few studies have explored causal explanations for the origin of Saharan diversity using a phylogenetic framework. Here, we use mtDNA (16S and ND4 genes) and nDNA (MC1R and CMOS genes) to infer the relationships and biogeographic history of North African agamas (genus Agama). Agamas are conspicuous, diverse and abundant African lizards that also occur in the Saharan xeric and mesic environments. Our results revealed the presence of three Agama lineages in North Africa: one Afrotropical, one Sahelo-Saharan, and one broadly distributed in North Africa and mainly Saharan. Southern Mauritania contains the highest known diversity, with all three lineages present. Results suggest that agamas colonized the Sahara twice, but only one lineage was able to radiate and diversify there. Species in the Saharan lineage are mostly allopatric, and their splitting, genetic diversity and distribution are greatly explained by mountain ranges. One species in this lineage has colonized the Mediterranean climatic zone (A. impalearis), and another one the Sahel savannah (A. boueti). The other lineage to colonize the Sahara corresponds to A. boulengeri, an eminently Sahelian species that also inhabits Saharan mountain ranges in Mauritania and Mali. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that allopatric montane populations within some currently recognized species are also genetically divergent. Our study therefore concludes that vicariant speciation is a leading motor of species diversification in the area: Inside the Sahara, associated to mountain-ranges isolated by dune seas and bare plains; outside, associated to less harsh climates to the North and South. Paleoclimatic oscillations are suggested as causal explanations of the vicariant distribution and origin of species. Agamas are thought to have

  3. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  4. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one of the most famous mobile operating systems 'Symbian'; its vulnerabilities and recommended protection technologies.

  5. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Bensaâd Ali (dir., L’eau et ses enjeux au Sahara, Iremam, Karthala, 2011, 242 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marçot

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Je dirai en premier ma déception. Comme le suggère Ali Bensaâd à l’entrée du livre qu’il a dirigé, l’enjeu de l’eau au Sahara n’est ni plus ni moins que la conservation de la vie dans ce milieu qui lui est particulièrement hostile - la vie sous tous ses aspects. Or cet enjeu « vital » a été négligé au profit d’une approche micro-géographique. C’est pourtant par cette entrée que le travail collectif aurait pu légitimement intéresser un vaste public. Comment l’eau existe-t-elle à l’état naturel...

  7. [Severe keratomycosis due to Fusarium solani induced by a telluric foreign body: About a case in moroccan Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er-Rami, M; Souhail, H; Lemkhente, Z; El Mellouki, W; Lmimouni, B

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of severe keratitis due to Fusarium solani in a young man in the Sahara in Morocco where the climate is arid. This patient reported had a grain of sand in his right eye for a week after a sandstorm. On admission he had a corneal abscess. Despite rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment with available antifungal drugs: amphotericin B and natamycin eye drops, the prognosis worsened and led to the enucleation of the right eye. Faced with a suspected eye infection after a microtrauma caused by grains of sand carried by a sandstorm, it is important to take biological samples to search for fungal infections among other. It is also important to have new triazole antifungal drugs available to treat ocular mycosis rapidly and effectively. PMID:24451564

  8. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Anup K; El-Askary, Hesham; Kafatos, Menas

    2010-11-01

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. PMID:20797813

  9. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  10. The threat of illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligence services, the army, the navy, the air force and the police together work to avoid illicit trafficking around the world by taking actions as follows: examining the risks and threats of illicit trafficking of radioactive material by terrorists or criminals; gaining a better understanding of current and future patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of radioactive material; determining progress on efforts to establish detection capabilities at borders and to exchange information on developments in detection technology and response methodologies through installation of radiation detection equipment; strengthening existing networks and cooperation for sharing information on illicit trafficking reports on incidents involving smuggling, theft, loss and illegal disposal, illegal possession and transfer, and attempted illegal sales of the material; examining how an enhanced export/import regime can assist in combating illicit trafficking control through unauthorized movement of radioactive material; sharing information on activities intended to implement international obligations, recommendations and guidance relevant to nuclear security; suggest actions by which the international effort, through the IAEA, would be strengthened. This paper examines the threat and context of illicit nuclear trafficking of radioactive material, what is being done to combat such trafficking and highlights where more needs to be done

  11. Quantifying the "Energy-Return-on-Investment" of desert greening in the Sahara/Sahel using a Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S. P. K.; Miller, L. M.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kleidon, A.

    2013-08-01

    "Greening" the world's deserts has been proposed as a way to produce additional food, sequester carbon, and alter the climate of desert regions. Here, we quantify the potential benefits in terms of energetic quantities and compare these to the energetic costs. We then compare these using the metric of Energy-Return-On-Investment (EROI). We apply EROI to a series of global climate model simulations where the arid Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated with various rates of desalinated water to produce biomass. The energy content of this biomass is greater than the energy input rate for a minimum irrigation rate of about 200 mm yr-1 in the winter and 500 mm yr-1 in the summer, thereby yielding an EROI ratio > 1 : 1, expressing energetic sustainability. Quantified annually, the EROI was > 1 : 1 for irrigation rates more than 500 mm yr-1, progressively increasing to a maximum of 1.8 : 1 with 900 mm yr-1, and then decreasing with further increases in the irrigation rate. Including the precipitation feedback arising from changes in moisture-recycling within the study region approximately doubles these EROI ratios. This overall result varies spatially and temporally, so while the entire Sahara/Sahel region is irrigated equally, the western coastal region from June to August had the highest EROI. Other factors would complicate such a large-scale modification of the Earth System, but this sensitivity study concludes that with a required energy input, desert greening may be energetically sustainable. Furthermore, we suggest that this type of EROI-analysis could be applied as a metric to assess a diverse range of human alterations to, and interventions within, the Earth System.

  12. Dust aerosol emission over the Sahara during summertime from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Martin C.; Cavazos-Guerra, Carolina

    2016-03-01

    Dust aerosols are an important component of the climate system and a challenge to incorporate into weather and climate models. Information on the location and magnitude of dust emission remains a key information gap to inform model development. Inadequate surface observations ensure that satellite data remain the primary source of this information over extensive and remote desert regions. Here, we develop estimates of the relative magnitude of active dust emission over the Sahara desert based on data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Utilising the unique vertical profile of aerosol characteristics provided by CALIOP our algorithm identifies emission from aerosol extinction and lidar backscatter in the near surface layers. From the long-term CALIOP archive of day and night-time orbits over 2006-13 we construct coarse resolution maps of a new dust emission index (DEI) for the Sahara desert during the peak summer dust season (June to September). The spatial structure of DEI indicates highest emission over a broad zone focused on the border regions of Southern Algeria, Northern Mali and northwest Niger, displaced substantially (∼7°) to the east of the mean maximum in satellite-derived aerosol optical depth. In this region night-time emission exceeds that during the day. The DEI maps substantially corroborate recently derived dust source frequency count maps based on back-tracking plumes in high temporal resolution SEVIRI imagery. As such, a convergence of evidence from multiple satellite data sources using independent methods provides an increasingly robust picture of Saharan dust emission sources. Various caveats are considered. As such, quantitative estimates of dust emission may require a synergistic combined multi-sensor analysis.

  13. Discrimination and Validation of Clouds and Dust Aerosol Layers over the Sahara Desert with Combined CALIOP and IIR Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingjing; CHEN Bin; HUANG Jianping

    2014-01-01

    This study validates a method for discriminating between daytime clouds and dust aerosol layers over the Sahara Desert that uses a combination of active CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polar-ization) and passive IIR (Infrared Imaging Radiometer) measurements; hereafter, the CLIM method. The CLIM method reduces misclassification of dense dust aerosol layers in the Sahara region relative to other techniques. When evaluated against a suite of simultaneous measurements from CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), CloudSat, and the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imag-ing Spectroradiometer), the misclassification rate for dust using the CLIM technique is 1.16%during boreal spring 2007. This rate is lower than the misclassification rates for dust using the cloud aerosol discriminations performed for version 2 (V2-CAD;16.39%) or version 3 (V3-CAD;2.01%) of the CALIPSO data processing algorithm. The total identification errors for data from in spring 2007 are 13.46% for V2-CAD, 3.39% for V3-CAD, and 1.99%for CLIM. These results indicate that CLIM and V3-CAD are both significantly better than V2-CAD for discriminating between clouds and dust aerosol layers. Misclassifications by CLIM in this region are mainly limited to mixed cloud-dust aerosol layers. V3-CAD sometimes misidentifies low-level aerosol layers adjacent to the surface as thin clouds, and sometimes fails to detect thin clouds entirely. The CLIM method is both simple and fast, and may be useful as a reference for testing or validating other discrimination techniques and methods.

  14. Threat, security and attitude formation among the young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Furio

    1985-12-01

    The perception of threat to security on the part of young people reflects a central aspect of the societal phenomenon of attitude formation, whose primary function is, ideally, to meet the need for security. In all modern societies, however, the process of socialization — which by its very nature is educational in that it prepares individuals to function as members of society — operates on the principle of systematically frustrating this need by employing a system of reward and punishment based on competition. This system creates a fundamental insecurity and a corresponding attitude (de)formation in the individual, which is exploited by the state in order to consolidate the power of the dominant groups. Due to this fundamental insecurity, the individual is incapable of coping rationally with threat and seeks pseudo-security, e.g., in conformity. Threat — particularly global threat — is perceived as an external factor over which the individual has no control, i.e., it is perceived as falling exclusively within the province of those in power, whose control is further strengthened by this perception. Since the essential damage to the individual's attitude system has been done by the time he leaves school, this undesirable condition of modern societies can only be rectified by a socialization process in general — and an educational process in particular — which cultivates in the individual the development of critical judgment, free self-realization and the spirit of co-operation instead of competition.

  15. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things

  16. Surveillance of the bioterrorist threat: a primary care response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D M; Barley, M A; Chapman, R S

    2004-03-01

    Threats from bioterrorism are of national and international concern. We outline a system of disease surveillance covering a selection of diseases linked to potential bioterrorist threats, based on the weekly returns service of the Royal College of General Practitioners and covering a surveillance population of 650,000 in England and Wales. Practices record working diagnoses and the episode type (distinguishing new episodes of illness from ongoing consultations) on patients' computerised medical records. These are interrogated twice weekly by using automated routines. The registered population and persons consulting for each Read code (group of codes) are counted in sex and age specific groups and the data forwarded electronically to the Research Unit, where the results are consolidated by region (North, Central, South). Weekly incidence rates between October 2001 and September 2002 were compared with the weekly average over the past seven years for 13 selected conditions. Detailed data are presented for three conditions (asthma, infections of the skin, disorders of the peripheral nervous system). For asthma increased incidence was reported in weeks 31 and 32 of 2002, predominantly in the Central region. For the other two conditions no unusual peaks of incidence were observed in any region. Operational research based on disciplined recording of morbidity in general practice can deliver timely surveillance data on bioterrorist threats.

  17. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  18. Environmental Scanning and Knowledge Representation for the Detection of Organised Crime Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Brewster, Benjamin; Andrews, Simon; Polovina, Simon; Hirsch, Laurence; Akhgar, Babak

    2014-01-01

    ePOOLICE aims at developing an efficient and effective strategic early warning system that utilises environmental scanning for the early warning and detection of current, emergent and future organised crime threats. Central to this concept is the use of environmental scanning to detect ‘weak signals’ in the external environment to monitor and identify emergent and future threats prior to their materialization into tangible criminal activity. This paper gives a brief overview of the applicatio...

  19. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes-Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed.

  20. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesinger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  1. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  2. Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, D L

    1992-01-01

    We combined the health belief model with the theory of subjective expected utility to derive hypotheses about the relations among health beliefs and preventive decisions. The central implication of this combination of theories is the importance of conceptualizing, measuring, and communicating about health threats in ways that are clearly conditional on action. It is important to distinguish, for example, between how susceptible to a disease a person thinks he or she would be if that person were and were not to take a preventive action. An experimental study of judgments about a hypothetical preventive action was conducted to test many of the theoretically derived hypotheses. A correlation study of dental flossing behavior was conducted to test the hypotheses as they apply to overt behavior rather than to judgment. Results of both studies supported most of the tested hypotheses, especially those related to the conditional conceptualization of health threats. Implications for theory, research methods, and practical applications are discussed. PMID:1582381

  3. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  4. Threat by association: do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the threatening group, carry over to other groups that individuals actually do encounter in their local environment (e.g., immigrants). The main goal of our studies was to experimentally identify this carry-over effect of intergroup threat. Specifically, we hypothesized that (by definition relatively abstract) symbolic threats (e.g., threats to the ingroup's worldview) have an especially strong carry-over potential because those threats can be easily attributed to other outgroups. We tested these predictions in one correlational and two experimental studies. The results of all three studies confirmed our hypothesis that particularly distant symbolic threats were predictive of intolerance towards local outgroups.

  5. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  6. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world.

  7. Environmental protection, tourism and the new development agenda for the Sahara: the dubious socio-political outcomes of the top-down approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    This conference paper discusses critically two development plans for the Sahara and their likely problematic outcomes. The first and most ambitious is the UNESCO (2003) pan-Saharan framework plan for tourism development, which provides guidelines for other international and national development agencies that are invited to use them as the basis for their own action plans. The second is one such action plan, designed by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme),ii for the Algerian Great ...

  8. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    OpenAIRE

    Benachour Elhadj; Draoui Belkacem; Imine Baachir; Hasnat Mohammed; Rahmani Lakhdar

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as th...

  9. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadda eLAALLAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components.Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins and its physicochemical characteristics.Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four pathogenic bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM.Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38±0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5±550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey electrical conductivity. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1±4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive with 3.9±5.4 mm. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5±4.7 mm.Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations.Keywords: Honey characterization; antibacterial effects

  10. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  11. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  12. Cosmic Impacts: The DoomsDay Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, J.

    1998-07-01

    Recent science fiction movies (Deep Impact and Armageddon) have brought public attention to the threat of possible impacts from space. Just how real is this threat and what would be the consequences of such an impact? Can we do anything to prevent it? The survival of civilization may depend on it.

  13. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernandes Junior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

  14. Threat by association : Do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the thre

  15. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    OpenAIRE

    SJS Flora

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS), liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and...

  16. The Threat of Terrorist Organizations in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the threat of terrorism in cyberspace and examines the truth of the perceptions of this threat that have formed in recent years. It examines the capabilities that a non-state actor can achieve and whether these can constitute a real threat to the national security of states. For an analysis of the main threats facing a state from a multi-year perspective and in light of anticipated changes in a state’s strategic balance, the factors that threaten the state are presented and the roots of the threat are identified. The article thus examines whether terrorism, whose impact is generally tactical, could make (or perhaps has already made the transition to a cyber weapon capability with strategic impact. Specifically, the question is could terrorists develop cyber weapon capabilities that could inflict widespread damage or damage over time, of the sort that brings states to their knees and causes critical systems to crash.

  17. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-07

    This report is the culmination of a project in which data from several industries confronting internal security threats were collected and analyzed. The industries and threats involved are deemed to be analogous in one or more respects to potential threats confronting decision makers in the nuclear industry. The analog internal threats consist of bank frauds and embezzlements over $10,000, computer crimes of various types and insider drug thefts from drug manufactures and distributors. These data have been subjected to careful analysis utilizing both descriptive and formal statistical techniques. A number of findings are quite suggestive as to the general nature of the internal threat and are discussed and interpreted in terms of thenuclear industry analogy.

  18. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  19. A Review of e-Health Interventions for Maternal and Child Health in Sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasola, Oluwaseun Ireti; Mabawonku, Iyabo; Lagunju, Ikeoluwa

    2015-08-01

    To review e-health interventions for maternal and child health (MCH) and to explore their influence on MCH practices in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). Keyword searches were used to retrieve articles from four databases and the websites of organisations involved in e-health projects for MCH in SSA. A total of 18relevant articles were retrieved using inclusion and exclusion criteria. The researchers reveal the prevalence of the application of mobile phones for MCH care and the influence of the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering MCH information and services to target populations. There is a need to move the application of ICT for MCH care from pilot initiatives to interventions involving all stakeholders on a sub-regional scale. These interventions should also adopt an integrated approach that takes care of the information needs at every stage along the continuum of care. It is anticipated that the study would be useful in the evolution and implementation of future ICT-based programmes for MCH in the region.

  20. Study of hydrogen production by three strains of Chlorella isolated from the soil in the Algerian Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chader, Samira [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables Bouzareah, BP 62, Alger (Algeria); Hacene, Hocine [Laboratory of Microbiology, USTHB, BP 32, Alger (Algeria); Agathos, Spiros N. [Unit of Bioengineering, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the photosynthetic hydrogen production rates by some strains of green microalgae were investigated. Three strains of Chlorella isolated from arid soil and foggaras's water in the Algerian Sahara were used. Chlorella sorokiniana strain Ce, Chlorella salina strain Mt and Chlorella sp strain Pt6 produced hydrogen gas under sulphur-deprived conditions, but its rate was dependent on strain type and oxygen partial pressure in medium. In C. sorokiniana strain Ce, the maximum value of hydrogen accumulated was 147 ml at 222 h at 2% of O{sub 2} pressure. Compared to C. sorokiniana strain Ce, C. salina strain Mt and Chlorella sp strain Pt6 produced less amount of hydrogen, but they were able to sustain with an O{sub 2} partial pressure of up to 11-15.4%. Our data were compared with hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In this communication, the relationship between physiological behaviour, biochemical characteristic (starch and protein) and rates gas production (O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) was also specified. (author)

  1. Repeated threat (without harm) in a living environment potentiates defensive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D J; Anderson, B J

    2015-02-15

    Children exposed to neighborhood violence have higher rates of aggression, but it is unclear whether aggression is associated with threat, harm or the combination of factors. All animals, including humans, experience threat as they leave the safety of home and risk harm to gather resources (foraging). To better understand how selective environmental variables drive behavioral tendencies, we developed a semi-naturalistic living environment that includes the need to navigate across space to obtain resources. Rats were housed for three weeks in two tub cages, one with food and the other with water, both consistently available, but separated by a 91 cm long tunnel. After habituating for three days, half the rats (threat stress condition) received unpredictable threats (simultaneous puff of air with ferret dander, abrupt flash of light, and an abrupt sound) when crossing the central position of the tunnel (random order with p=0.25) for 21 days. During the manipulation, the threat stress rats crossed the tunnel less and exhibited risk assessment behaviors. After cessation of the treatment conditions, the threat stress group spent more time burying a rag with ferret dander odor and was more likely to bury, and spent more time burying a highly novel stimulus. There were no group differences in symptoms of depression, avoidance, or exploration. The results suggest that repeated threats without harm increase pre-emptive defense behaviors, a form of active coping, without affecting passive forms of coping. PMID:25446759

  2. Terrorism threats and preparedness in Canada: the perspective of the Canadian public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stacey; Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lee, Jennifer E C

    2007-06-01

    Although Canada has not experienced a major terrorist attack, an increased global pending threat has put preparedness at the top of the Canadian government's agenda. Given its strong multicultural community and close proximity to the recently targeted United States, the Canadian experience is unique. However, minimal research exists on the public's reactions to terrorism threats and related preparedness strategies. In order for response initiatives to be optimally effective, it is important that the public's opinions regarding terrorism and preparedness be considered. This qualitative study examined perceptions of terrorism threats among Canadians living in Central and Eastern Canada (N = 75) in the fall of 2004. Conceptualizations of terrorism threat, psychosocial impacts, and sense of preparedness were explored in a series of qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that the majority of Canadians did not feel overly threatened by terrorist attacks, due in part to a perception of terrorist threats as related to global sociopolitical events and a positive Canadian identity. In addition, while most respondents did not feel they were individually affected by the threat of terrorism, there was some concern regarding larger societal impacts, such as increased paranoia, discrimination, and threats to civil liberties. Participants' views on preparedness focused largely on the utility of emergency preparedness strategies and the factors that could mitigate or inhibit preparedness at the individual and institutional levels, with a specific focus on education. Finally, the significant relevance of these findings in shaping terrorism preparedness, both in Canada and generally, is discussed.

  3. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  4. Towards securing SCADA systems against process-related threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Bolzoni, Damiano; Hartel, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    We propose a tool-assisted approach to address process-related threats on SCADA systems. Process-related threats have not been addressed before in a systematic manner. Our approach consists of two steps: threat analysis and threat mitigation. For the threat analysis, we combine two methodologies (PH

  5. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Aung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to become the first nation to be sunk by global warming because it is one of the smallest and lowest-lying countries in the world. Approach: In this study, sea level data from the Australian project will be focussed on despite the fact that the length of data is not sufficiently long. The AusAID funded South Pacific Sea Level and climate monitoring project was set up in response to concerns raised by Pacific island countries over the potential impacts of an enhanced greenhouse effect on climate and sea levels in the South Pacific for 20 years. Results: Based upon the 15½ years of sea level data from the project, the sea level rise rate in Tuvalu as at september 2008 was 5.9 mM year-1. This was about four times higher than the global average of 1-2 mm year-1. Sea level in the Tuvalu area had risen approximately 9.14 cm since the inception of the project 15½ years ago. However, it was to be noted that the land is quite stable and the rate of land sinking is -0.06 mM year-1 only. Accordingly, there was no significant impact on the sea level trends. Conclusion: Although the data length is just over 15 years, the sea level trend values do not fluctuate significantly since 1999. It simply indicated that the rate of sea level rise in the Tuvalu region was not accelerating as anticipated by the community.

  6. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  7. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  8. Cyber threats in social networking websites

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sites are not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websi...

  9. Hydrology: Indo-Gangetic groundwater threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendorf, Scott; Benner, Shawn G.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing groundwater extraction supports hundreds of millions of people across the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Data suggests that despite the increase in withdrawals, groundwater depletion is localized and the most widespread threat is contamination.

  10. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  11. Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159744.html Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats Kids, elderly among those ... can be inherently dangerous, but the initial heat waves every summer can be particularly perilous to those ...

  12. Cyber Threats In Social Networking Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeb Ghari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which areconnected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sitesare not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websites.

  13. WIRELESS NETWORKS: DEVELOPMENTS, THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiana Mohamad Noor; Wan Haslina Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses current threats in wireless networks and some academia research reviews regarding the matters. Significant and persistent threats discussed are sniffing, Man In the Middle Attack (MITM), Rogue Access Points (RAP), Denial Of Services (DoS) and social engineering attacks. Some current developments of wireless communication technology such as short range communication, cloud computing, bring your own device policy (BYOD), devices tethering and convergences of WiFi and cellul...

  14. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  15. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  16. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurren...

  17. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat. PMID:19245886

  18. Interaction between the North-West Sahara Aquifer and the seismically active intraplate Hun Graben Fault system, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamling, I. J.; Aoudia, A.

    2011-12-01

    The North-West Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) covers an area of ~1 million km2 spanning the countries of Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. The system is composed of two main aquifers, the Complexe Terminal (CT) and the deeper Continental Intercalaire (CI). Over the last ~40 years these aquifers have been increasingly exploited in order to provide water to these countries. There are estimated to be ~7000 drill sites across the aquifer, 4000 in Algeria, 2000 in Tunisia and a further ~1000 in Libya. Land subsidence, caused by anthropogenic activities such as groundwater pumping, is a global problem and has been observed in a number of places around the world. Here we investigate fault controlled subsidence related to the extraction of water in North Western Libya. Located ~600 km south east of Tripoli, the Hun Graben separates the Sirte Basin to the east from the Hamada al Hamra Platform to the west and lies on the eastern boundary of the North-West Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS). The graben is composed of two border faults extending for ~130 km from the town of Hun to the north west. These faults, bounding the eastern and western margins of the graben, are known to be seismically active and were responsible for the magnitude 7.1 earthquake in 1935. Due to the lack of ground based instrumentation, there are currently no estimates of slip along these structures. Here we use ERS and Envisat SAR images acquired over the last 20 years and form a number of interferograms to study interseismic strain accumulation along these structures. Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) is a widely used technique for monitoring deformation of the Earth's surface. By differencing the phase from two radar images acquired at different times, maps of range change between the radar and ground can be obtained with millimetre precision. Our analysis over the graben suggests that neither of the two border faults are actively deforming and therefore the causes of intraplate large earthquakes such as

  19. Crocodiles in the Sahara desert: an update of distribution, habitats and population status for conservation planning in Mauritania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20(th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of surveys in Mauritania detected crocodile presence in 78 localities dispersed across 10 river basins and most tended to be isolated within river basins. Permanent gueltas and seasonal tâmoûrts were the most common occupied habitats. Crocodile encounters ranged from one to more than 20 individuals, but in most localities less than five crocodiles were observed. Larger numbers were observed after the rainy season and during night sampling. Crocodiles were found dead in between water points along dry river-beds suggesting the occurrence of dispersal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Research priorities in Chad and Egypt should focus on quantifying population size and pressures exerted on habitats. The present study increased in by 35% the number of known crocodile localities in Mauritania. Gueltas are crucial for the persistence of mountain populations. Oscillations in water availability throughout the year and the small dimensions of gueltas affect biological traits, including activity and body size. Studies are needed to understand adaptation traits of desert populations. Molecular analyses are needed to quantify genetic variability, population sub-structuring and effective population size, and detect the occurrence of gene flow. Monitoring is needed to detect demographical and genetical trends in completely isolated populations. Crocodiles are apparently vulnerable during dispersal events. Awareness campaigns focusing on

  20. Seed viability and germination success of Acacia tortilis along land-use and aridity gradients in the Eastern Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gidske Leknæs; Krzywinski, Knut; Gjessing, Håkon K; Pierce, Richard Holton

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the keystone species Acacia tortilis and is the first to investigate the effect of domestic ungulates and aridity on seed viability and germination over an extensive part of the Eastern Sahara. Bruchids infest its seeds and reduce their viability and germination, but ingestion by ruminant herbivores diminishes infestation levels and enhances/promotes seed viability and germination. The degree of these effects seems to be correlated with animal body mass. Significantly reduced numbers of wild ruminant ungulates have increased the potential importance of domestic animals and pastoral nomadism for the functionality of arid North African and Middle Eastern ecosystems. We sampled seeds (16,543) from A. tortilis in eight areas in three regions with different aridity and land use. We tested the effect of geography and sampling context on seed infestation using random effects logistic regressions. We did a randomized and balanced germination experiment including 1193 seeds, treated with different manure. Germination time and rates across geography, sampling context, and infestation status were analyzed using time-to-event analyses, Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards Cox regressions. Bruchid infestation is very high (80%), and the effects of context are significant. Neither partial infestation nor adding manure had a positive effect on germination. There is a strong indication that intact, uningested seeds from acacia populations in the extremely arid Western Desert germinate more slowly and have a higher fraction of hard seeds than in the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea Hills. For ingested seeds in the pastoralist areas we find that intact seeds from goat dung germinate significantly better than those from camel dung. This is contrary to the expected body-mass effect. There is no effect of site or variation in tribal management. PMID:26811790

  1. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laallam, Hadda; Boughediri, Larbi; Bissati, Samia; Menasria, Taha; Mouzaoui, Mohamed S.; Hadjadj, Soumia; Hammoudi, Rokia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38 ± 0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5 ± 550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey EC. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1 ± 4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5 ± 4.7 mm. Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations. PMID:26594206

  2. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  3. Ernährung, wirtschaftliche Entwicklung und Bürgerkriege in Afrika südlich der Sahara (1950-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Ein Leben frei von Hunger ist ein bedeutender Bestandteil der Lebensqualität. Um die Ernährungssituation in Afrika südlich der Sahara (ASS) zu quantifizieren, bedient sich die Studie der Methoden der anthropometrischen Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Eine unzureichende Ernährung sowie ein hoher Nahrungsbedarf beeinträchtigen die körperliche Entwicklung von Menschen. Die Arbeit nutzt diesen biologischen Zusammenhang und analysiert Körpergrößen von mehr als 160 000 erwachsenen Frauen aus 28 afrikanische...

  4. Threat navigator: grouping and ranking malicious external threats to current and future urban smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Montoya, Lorena; Ceccarelli, Andrea; Le, Anhtuan; Ionita, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Deriving value judgements about threat rankings for large and entangled systems, such as those of urban smart grids, is a challenging task. Suitable approaches should account for multiple threat events posed by different classes of attackers who target system components. Given the complexity of the

  5. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  6. Threat detection, precautionary responses, and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Nesse, Randolph M

    2011-03-01

    Study of the anxiety disorders may be a particularly useful vehicle for demonstrating how foundational sciences (e.g. cognitive-affective neuroscience, evolutionary psychology) can advance psychiatric theory and research. Here we consider important potential advances and remaining future challenges when basic research on threat detection and precautionary responses is used to address the anxiety disorders. We emphasize the potential value of a model of threat detection and precautionary responses that integrates cognitive-affective neuroscience and evolutionary approaches for understanding the anxiety disorders. However, we also suggest that substantial additional work is needed in order to link systematically the psychobiological mechanisms posited by basic work on threat detection and precautionary responses to the complex phenomena seen in the clinic. PMID:21147162

  7. On the special status of "ego threats".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, D E

    1992-05-01

    This article comments on a recent article by Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy (1991) in which they suggest that ego threats are a prerequisite to affectively induced disinhibition of food intake in restrained eaters and current dieters. In contrast, the present review suggests that mood induction procedures that involve no apparent threat (e.g., viewing a frightening film) can also prompt disinhibition in restrained eaters. Thus, any mood induction procedure that does not directly physically threaten the S may disinhibit restrained eaters. It is concluded that recommendations to focus future research on ego threats are premature and may serve to obscure the mechanisms by which changes in affective state influence food intake in dieters. PMID:1507070

  8. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  9. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessment. 1540.203 Section 1540... Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat assessment. (a) Each operator subject to...

  10. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5... CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS Procedures and General Standards § 1572.5 Standards for security threat assessments. (a) Standards. TSA determines that an applicant poses a security threat...

  11. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  12. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  13. Nash bargaining with a nondeterministic threat

    CERN Document Server

    Soileau, Kerry Michael

    2008-01-01

    We consider bargaining problems which involve two participants, with a nonempty closed, bounded convex bargaining set of points in the real plane representing all realizable bargains. We also assume that there is no definite threat or disagreement point which will provide the default bargain if the players cannot agree on some point in the bargaining set. However, there is a nondeterministic threat: if the players fail to agree on a bargain, one of them will be chosen at random with equal probability, and that chosen player will select any realizable bargain as the solution, subject to a reasonable restriction.

  14. 电测深法在撒哈拉沙漠地区找水应用%The Application of Electrical Sounding to Water Exploration in Sahara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐英杰

    2014-01-01

    Because of the arid climate and water scarcity, few study on geology and hydrogeology of Sahara has been taken.The lack of study in this field has made water exploration in Sahara harder .On the basis of previous research data , the study is taken step by step to explore the unknown research field.With the help of electrical sounding, aquifers'location are identified and physical properties of them are concluded.The study is scientific and its results can be a reference for further work on hydrogeology .%撒哈拉沙漠地区气候干燥,水资源缺乏,相应的地质、水文地质工作研究程度低,为水源地勘探工作带来很大困难。结合实例,采用电测深法,遵循从已知到未知原则,经过点、线、面逐步开展工作,总结含水层物性特征,划定主要含水区域,为水文工作的开展提供重要的基础资料。

  15. Defensive activation to (un)predictable interoceptive threat: The NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroijen, Mathias; Fantoni, Simona; Rivera, Carmen; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; van den Bergh, Omer; van Diest, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Potentially life-threatening interoceptive sensations easily engage the behavioral defensive system. Resulting fear and anxiety toward interoceptive threat are functionally distinct states that are hypothesized to play a prominent role in the etiology of panic disorder. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle responses occur to predictable and unpredictable interoceptive threat, respectively. Therefore, we modified the NPU threat test (Schmitz & Grillon, ) and replaced the aversive electrocutaneous stimulus with an aversive interoceptive stimulus (a breathing occlusion, making it briefly impossible to breathe). Healthy participants (N = 48) underwent three instructed conditions. A visual cue signaled the occlusion in the predictable condition (P), whereas another cue was unrelated to the occurrence of the occlusion in the unpredictable condition (U). The safe condition (N) also had a visual cue, but no occlusion. Both fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle blink responses were observed in response to predictable and unpredictable respiratory threat, respectively. The current study presents and validates the NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr) as an ecologically valid paradigm to study both anxiety and fear in response to a panic-relevant interoceptive threat. The paradigm allows future testing of contextual generalization, investigation of different clinical groups, and more explicit comparisons of defensive responding to interoceptive versus exteroceptive threats.

  16. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  17. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We the

  18. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Arnaudova

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both side

  19. Extensible threat taxonomy for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union-sponsored project Vital Infrastructure Threats and Assurance (VITA) has the objective of exploring and showing new paths in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) R&D. This paper describes one of VITA’s results: the idea and the development of a novel extensible and generic thre

  20. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  1. 'NRBC' threat: is this concept still valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 10 years ago, after the Sarin attack in Tokyo, the world discover that terrorists could use again radio-nuclear, chemical or biological agents to launch attacks, just to cause terror and disruption of western economies. This has forged the acronym 'NRBC'. In terms of likelihood, nuclear and radiological attacks could be considered among the most easy to prepare, and some possible acts are listed in this paper. A considerable amount of work has been prepared for the preparedness against radio-nuclear attacks, during the last 3 years, by World Health Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Atomic Energy Agency (AEN) as well as by the International Commission of Radio Protection (ICRP). A series of documents have been issued from international cooperation. These documents shows specificities to the R/N threat in terms of health consequences, that make this threat less prone to international cooperative efforts than biological threats. In addition, the Ministers of Health of the G7 countries have created an 'Global Health Security Initiative' (GHSI) in 2002 to anticipate crisis such as the anthrax problem, or other possible NRBC threats

  2. Diversity, Racial Threat and Metropolitan Housing Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as the percent black or percent Hispanic grows, that group's residential segregation from whites tends to increase as well. Typically, these findings are explained in terms of white discriminatory reaction to the perceived threat associated with minority population growth. The present analysis examines whether…

  3. The silent threat of low genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Across the Caribbean, protected coastal waters have served as primary feeding and breeding grounds for the endangered Antillean manatee. Unfortunately, these same coastal waters are also a popular “habitat” for humans. In the past, the overlap between human and manatee habitat allowed for manatee hunting and threatened the survival of these gentle marine mammals. Today, however, threats are much more inadvertent and are often related to coastal development, degraded habitats and boat strikes. In the state of Florida, decades of research on the species’ biological needs have helped conservationists address threats to its survival. For example, low wake zones and boater education have protected manatees from boat strikes, and many of their critical winter refuges are now protected. The Florida population has grown steadily, thus increasing from approximately 1,200 in 1991 to more than 5,000 in 2010. It is conceivable that in Florida manatees may one day be reclassified as “threatened” rather than “endangered.” Yet, in other parts of the Caribbean, threats still loom. This includes small, isolated manatee populations found on islands that can be more susceptible to extinction and lack of genetic diversity. To ensure the species’ long-term viability, scientists have turned their sights to the overall population dynamics of manatees throughout the Caribbean. Molecular genetics has provided new insights into long-term threats the species faces. Fortunately, the emerging field of conservation genetics provides managers with tools and strategies for protecting the species’ long-term viability.

  4. The Missing Piece in Threat Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Denis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Common systems for sharing intelligence on security threats have not been designed to efficiently process feedback from infrastructure providers. In order to fill this gap, we introduce DIP, a new description language to expose changes being made on a network that are relevant to security research and prevention.

  5. Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate changes, lessons from the past - Focus on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Zheng, Weipeng; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Braconnot, Pascale; Krinner, Gerhard; Harel, Marie-Alice; Anglade, Juliette; Paillou, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructions from sedimentary records and climate modelling results show an overall drying in the African Sahara and Sahel during the Holocene. Was this change abrupt or gradual, and amplified or not through vegetation change and feedbacks to the atmosphere is still the subject of debate. For instance, while [deMenocal et al. 2000] show from oceanic sediments off the Mauritanian coast, that the end of the African Humid Period (AHP), recorded 5500 years ago, was abrupt. [Kroepelin et al., 2008] studied recently sediments from lake Yoa (Ounianga region, NE Chad) and derived a gradual climate change. The present paper focusses on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad) where the Kropelin et al. study was carried on. We investigate hydrological reconstructions based on climate scenarios and modelling of water dynamics of the catchment area of the lakes. Under modern conditions, Ounianga lakes are maintained in a hyper arid environment due to groundwater inputs from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), a very large aquifer covering parts of Chad, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Moreover, these lakes are situated within 200 km of the Tibesti Mountains ranging over 3000 meters where rainfall is larger than in the plains. So the issue arises as to what extent distant water inputs from the Tibesti and local groundwater recharge could have maintained high lake levels during the climatic transition phase and/or could explain some features analysed from the sediments regarding the abruptness of the salinisation of lake Yoa roughly by 3900 BP. The topography of the region is analyzed from SRTM data to obtain paleo river networks and compared with satellite radar pictures (PALSAR) to identify key features in the Yoa catchement area [refer to Grenier et al. 2009]. A hydrological model is constructed including the river network and depressions interpreted as lakes and modeled dynamically as reservoirs. The groundwater input from the aquifer is modeled within the Cast3m finite element

  6. OpenFlow Security Threat Detection and Defense Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqing You

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of OpenFlow-capable switches de- couples control plane from the data flow plane so that they support programmable network and allow network administrators to have programmable central control of network traffic via a controller. The controller and its communication with switches and users become a malicious attack target. This paper explores major possible security threats and attacks on the controller of SDN and proposes a new approach to automatically and dynamically detect and monitor malicious behaviors on flow message passing and defend such attacks to ensure the security of SDN. We have built a FlowEye prototype at service level on Mininet API, and simulation tests are done on two feasible attacks on OpenFlow Beacon platform. The paper provides the feasibility study of such attacks and defense protection strategies in SDN security research.

  7. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  8. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Nardo, Di A.; Rossi, D.; Lamin Saleh, S.; Broglia, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regardin

  9. Factors influencing IUCN threat levels to orchids across Europe on the basis of national red lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Tiiu; Selgis, Ulvi; Peciña, Miguel Villoslada; Metsare, Mirjam; Ilves, Aigi; Tali, Kadri; Sepp, Kalev; Kull, Kalevi; Shefferson, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, forests and inland wetlands) also significantly impacted the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pasture and grassland lowers it. Unexpectedly, a bigger share of inland wetland area in a country increased threat level, which we believe may be due to the threatened nature of wetlands themselves relative to other natural land cover types. Finally, species occurring in multiple countries are on average less threatened. We believe that large-scale analysis of current IUCN national red lists as based on their specific categories and criteria may particularly inform the development of coordinated regional or larger-scale management strategies. In this case, we advocate for a coordinated EU protection and restoration strategy particularly aimed at central European orchids and those occurring in wetland area. PMID:27648240

  10. Factors influencing IUCN threat levels to orchids across Europe on the basis of national red lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Tiiu; Selgis, Ulvi; Peciña, Miguel Villoslada; Metsare, Mirjam; Ilves, Aigi; Tali, Kadri; Sepp, Kalev; Kull, Kalevi; Shefferson, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, forests and inland wetlands) also significantly impacted the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pasture and grassland lowers it. Unexpectedly, a bigger share of inland wetland area in a country increased threat level, which we believe may be due to the threatened nature of wetlands themselves relative to other natural land cover types. Finally, species occurring in multiple countries are on average less threatened. We believe that large-scale analysis of current IUCN national red lists as based on their specific categories and criteria may particularly inform the development of coordinated regional or larger-scale management strategies. In this case, we advocate for a coordinated EU protection and restoration strategy particularly aimed at central European orchids and those occurring in wetland area.

  11. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  12. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  13. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  14. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  15. Handsets Malware Threats and Facing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Elfattah, Marwa M A; Sarhan, Ebada

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, mobile handsets combine the functionality of mobile phones and PDAs. Unfortunately, mobile handsets development process has been driven by market demand, focusing on new features and neglecting security. So, it is imperative to study the existing challenges that facing the mobile handsets threat containment process, and the different techniques and methodologies that used to face those challenges and contain the mobile handsets malwares. This paper also presents a new approach to group the different malware containment systems according to their typologies.

  16. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  17. Bot armies as threats to network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2007-04-01

    "Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

  18. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account.

  19. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  20. High-angular Resolution Laser Threat Warner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design and development aspects of a high-angular resolution laser-threat Warner developed at the Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi are presented. It describes a high-angular resolution laser-threat warner capable of giving warning with a resolution of i 3" when it is exposed to laser radiation from visible and near-IR pulsed solid-state laser source. It has a field of view of 90' in the azimuth direction, whereas the elevation coverage is between -5" and + 25". It is capable of handling multiple types of laser threats covering wavelength from 400 nm to 1100 nm and has an operational range of 4 km for a Q-switched laser source energy (10 ns of 10 mJ/pulse and output beam divergence of 1 mrad. The paper also describes its simulated evaluation process and field-testing which it has undergone. The result of field-testing confirms that it meets all its performance specifications mentioned above.

  1. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  2. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures.

  3. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  4. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  5. Threat Modeling-Oriented Attack Path Evaluating Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaohong; LIU Ran; FENG Zhiyong; HE Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate all attack paths in a threat tree,based on threat modeling theory,a weight distribution algorithm of the root node in a threat tree is designed,which computes threat coefficients of leaf nodes in two ways including threat occurring possibility and the degree of damage.Besides,an algorithm of searching attack path was also obtained in accordence with its definition.Finally,an attack path evaluation system was implemented which can output the threat coefficients of the leaf nodes in a target threat tree,the weight distribution information,and the attack paths.An example threat tree is given to verify the effectiveness of the algorithms.

  6. Threat-Related Information Suggests Competence: A Possible Factor in the Spread of Rumors

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Pascal; Parren, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Information about potential danger is a central component of many rumors, urban legends, ritual prescriptions, religious prohibitions and witchcraft crazes. We investigate a potential factor in the cultural success of such material, namely that a source of threat-related information may be intuitively judged as more competent than a source that does not convey such information. In five studies, we asked participants to judge which of two sources of information, only one of which conveyed thre...

  7. The formation conditions of enstatite chondrites: Insights from trace element geochemistry of olivine-bearing chondrules in Sahara 97096 (EH3)

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    We report in situ LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses of silicate phases in olivine-bearing chondrules in the Sahara 97096 (EH3) enstatite chondrite. Most olivine and enstatite present rare earth element (REE) patterns comparable to their counterparts in type I chondrules in ordinary chondrites. They thus likely share a similar igneous origin, likely under similar redox conditions. The mesostasis however frequently shows negative Eu and/or Yb (and more rarely Sm) anomalies, evidently out of equilibrium with olivine and enstatite. We suggest that this reflects crystallization of oldhamite during a sulfidation event, already inferred by others, during which the mesostasis was molten, where the complementary positive Eu and Yb anomalies exhibited by oldhamite would have possibly arisen due to a divalent state of these elements. Much of this igneous oldhamite would have been expelled from the chondrules, presumably by inertial acceleration or surface tension effects, and would have contributed to the high abundance ...

  8. Screening for Genes Coding for Putative Antitumor Compounds, Antimicrobial and Enzymatic Activities from Haloalkalitolerant and Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria Strains of Algerian Sahara Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okba Selama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments may often contain unusual bacterial groups whose physiology is distinct from those of normal environments. To satisfy the need for new bioactive pharmaceuticals compounds and enzymes, we report here the isolation of novel bacteria from an extreme environment. Thirteen selected haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from Algerian Sahara Desert soils. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds using PCR based methods. Enzymatic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined by using cultural dependant methods. Several of these isolates are typical of desert and alkaline saline soils, but, in addition, we report for the first time the presence of a potential new member of the genus Nocardia with particular activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to their haloalkali character, the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds, combined with the antimicrobial activity against a broad range of indicator strains and their enzymatic potential, makes them suitable for biotechnology applications.

  9. Relict populations of Diaphanosoma  (Cladocera: Ctenopoda) in the Chadian Sahara, with the description of a new species .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei-Fei; Dumont, Henri J

    2014-01-01

    We record two species of Diaphanosoma from Ounianga and Tibesti in Northern Chad, the first ctenopods to be found in the Sahara desert. One species, from a freshwater guelta on the south flanks of the Tibesti (D. excisum) is tropical; the second species, found in a freshwater lake in a largely saline environment (the Ounianga plateau) is new to science (D. bopingi sp.nov.) and is here described, with special attention to some previously unnoticed structures on the postabdomen. Its relatives are northern species that may transgress into the tropics but largely live outside of them. They are also more salt-tolerant than the tropical D. excisum. The latter is considered a relict of Megachad times, while the new species is considered a relict of more humid but also cooler times in the desert.  PMID:25284649

  10. Threat model framework and methodology for personal networks (PNs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.

    2007-01-01

    is to give a structured, convenient approach for building threat models. A framework for the threat model is presented with a list of requirements for methodology. The methodology will be applied to build a threat model for Personal Networks. Practical tools like UML sequence diagrams and attack trees have...

  11. 49 CFR 1540.205 - Procedures for security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TSA determines that the applicant meets the security threat assessment standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c... the applicant does not meet the security threat assessment standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c). The... standards in 49 CFR 1540.201(c) and may pose an imminent threat to transportation or national security,...

  12. 77 FR 1672 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense... Department of Defense announces the following Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction.... William Hostyn, GS-15, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS...

  13. 77 FR 27208 - Renewal of Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... of the Secretary Renewal of Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY: DoD. ACTION: Renewal of...), the Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the Threat Reduction... Biological Defense Programs), independent advice and recommendations on: a. Reducing the threat to the...

  14. 75 FR 30002 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY... the charter for the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as the Committee). FOR... Acquisition, Technology and Logistics and the Director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency on the...

  15. Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dautu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005−2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

  16. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Cooperation Threat Reduction Program Liquid Propellant Disposition Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    This audit is one in a series of audits the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested. As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, DoD agreed to assist the Russian Federation in disposing of its liquid rocket propellant. Public Law 102-228 (section 2551 NOTE, title 22, United States Code), the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 designates DoD as the executive agent for the CTR Program. Specific objectives of the act are to destroy chemical, nuclear, and other weapons; transport, store, disable, and safeguard weapons in connection with their destruction; and establish verifiable safeguards against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy), under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, develops, coordinates, and oversees implementation of policy for the CTR Program. The CTR Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency operates the program.

  17. Protection without detection: a threat mitigation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua; McCoy, Joseph R.; Ratazzi, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Networking systems and individual applications have traditionally been defended using signature-based tools that protect the perimeter, many times to the detriment of service, performance, and information flow. These tools require knowledge of both the system on which they run and the attack they are preventing. As such, by their very definition, they only account for what is known to be malicious and ignore the unknown. The unknown, or zero day threat, can occur when defenses have yet to be immunized via a signature or other identifier of the threat. In environments where execution of the mission is paramount, the networks and applications must perform their function of information delivery without endangering the enterprise or losing the salient information, even when facing zero day threats. In this paper we, describe a new defensive strategy that provides a means to more deliberately balance the oft mutually exclusive aspects of protection and availability. We call this new strategy Protection without Detection, since it focuses on network protection without sacrificing information availability. The current instantiation analyzes the data stream in real time as it passes through an in-line device. Critical files are recognized, and mission-specific trusted templates are applied as they are forwarded to their destination. The end result is a system which eliminates the opportunity for propagation of malicious or unnecessary payloads via the various containers that are inherent in the definition of standard file types. In some cases, this method sacrifices features or functionality that is typically inherent in these files. However, with the flexibility of the template approach, inclusion or exclusion of these features becomes a deliberate choice of the mission owners, based on their needs and amount of acceptable risk. The paper concludes with a discussion of future extensions and applications.

  18. Handsets Malware Threats and Facing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. A. Elfattah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, mobile handsets combine the functionality of mobile phones and PDAs. Unfortunately, mobile handsets development process has been driven by market demand, focusing on new features and neglecting security. So, it is imperative to study the existing challenges that facing the mobile handsets threat containment process, and the different techniques and methodologies that used to face those challenges and contain the mobile handsets malwares. This paper also presents a new approach to group the different malware containment systems according to their typologies.

  19. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled.

  20. Rethinking climate change as a security threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, Corinne

    2011-10-15

    Once upon a time climate change was a strictly environment and development issue. Today it has become a matter of national and international security. Efforts to link climate change with violent conflict may not be based on solid evidence, but they have certainly captured the attention of governments. They have played a vital role in raising the much-needed awareness of climate change as an issue that deserves global action. But at what cost? Focusing on climate change as a security threat alone risks devolving humanitarian responsibilities to the military, ignoring key challenges and losing sight of those climate-vulnerable communities that stand most in need of protection.

  1. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled. PMID:27417495

  2. Cybersecurity Public Sector Threats and Responses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasson, Kim J

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has given rise to new opportunities for the public sector to improve efficiency and better serve constituents in the form of e-government. But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new risks. An accessible primer, Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses focuses on the convergence of globalization, connectivity, and the migration of public sector functions online. It identifies the challenges you need to be aware of and examines emerging trends and strategies from around

  3. Threats in Optical Burst Switched Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Siva Subramanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical network is a viable network for future communication, which transmits data at an average rate of 50Tb/s. Optical Burst Switching is a trusted mechanism used for Optical network. There is a good amount of research done in the area of security in Optical networks. In addition, the issues related to physical network security has been dealt with respect to Optical networks. Our proposed work is intend to find the possible security threats that may happen in Optical Burst Switched Networks and the counter measures are examined separately. The NS-2 simulator with modified OBS patch is used to verify and validate the proposed mechanism

  4. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley C. Banyard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations.

  5. Ongoing Threats to Emerging Financial Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce Alexander LYNCH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the twenty-first century the pace of technological advancement shows no signs of stopping. Old technologies are being discarded as obsolete or are transformed in ways that nobody could have foreseen even a half-decade ago. Along with these radical changes come vulnerabilities and threats to infrastructure, including informational and financial which must be considered and protected. This is not to say that basic security measures must continue to be neglected in favor of rapid development and deployment to provide a Minimum Viable Product to customers; basic security protocols become all the more important under these circumstances. Improving faster are attacks against the new infrastructure; technique and technology tend to change along generally accepted sets of rules while attackers follow no rules or guidelines. This fundamental asymmetry leaves defenders at a distinct advantage in several ways, including ethical concerns (“There are some lines we will not cross” versus “By any means necessary”, monetary considerations (“Return on investment” versus “The resources aren’t ours to begin with, so who cares” and pragmatism (“We exist to make money to improve shareholder value” versus “Because it’s there”. That said, measurable, repeatable, and effective countermeasures exist which can be deployed on an enterprise-wide basis to help level the playing field by deterring attackers. This paper will discuss these threats along with active and passive countermeasures for same.

  6. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  7. Threats to the consumer market of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriil Aleksandrovich Agarkov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This papers reviews the main threats to the today's consumer market and offers a historic tour of their existence. The results of a comprehensive diagnostics technique of economic safety of the consumer market in the region taking into account the impact of threats are presented. In the basis of the procedure is an indicative method of analysis, in which diagnosis is carried out on a set of criterial parameters. Along with a comprehensive assessment, the paper offers a detailed analysis of one of the method's modules - evaluation of consumer protection as the most vulnerable category of participants in the consumer market. A classification of prejudice of consumers in accordance with international studies is considered. The conducted study showed that, in general, there is a positive trend of economic safety of the consumer market in the region for the period from 2003 to 2010, but, according to some modules (evaluation of consumer protection, the situation has worsened for the majority of the subjects discussed during the reviewed period. The results of economic safety diagnostics of the consumer market actors can be used in the formation of program-target events to neutralize the negative trends in the consumer market

  8. Passive acoustic threat detection in estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Brian; Sutin, Alexander; Roh, Heui-Seol; Bunin, Barry

    2008-04-01

    The Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) at Stevens Institute of Technology supports research in a range of areas relevant to harbor security, including passive acoustic detection of underwater threats. The difficulties in using passive detection in an urban estuarine environment include intensive and highly irregular ambient noise and the complexity of sound propagation in shallow water. MSL conducted a set of tests in the Hudson River near Manhattan in order to measure the main parameters defining the detection distance of a threat: source level of a scuba diver, transmission loss of acoustic signals, and ambient noise. The source level of the diver was measured by comparing the diver's sound with a reference signal from a calibrated emitter placed on his path. Transmission loss was measured by comparing noise levels of passing ships at various points along their routes, where their distance from the hydrophone was calculated with the help of cameras and custom software. The ambient noise in the Hudson River was recorded under varying environmental conditions and amounts of water traffic. The passive sonar equation was then applied to estimate the range of detection. Estimations were done for a subset of the recorded noise levels, and we demonstrated how variations in the noise level, attenuation, and the diver's source level influence the effective range of detection. Finally, we provided analytic estimates of how an array improves upon the detection distance calculated by a single hydrophone.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS POLICY OF GERMANY, BRITAIN AND FRANCE IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Yun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Germany, Great Britain and France stated their interests in Central Asia immediately after the disintegration of USSR. In 1994 and 1995 the policies of the leading European countries towards Central Asia stressed the restraining of Russia’s neo-imperial ambitions in the post-soviet space and the support of economic independence of Central Asian states. As of late 1990s the regional policies prioritized fighting the drug threat and after September 11, 2001 — the terrorism threat. The...

  10. Temperature profiles from STD casts from the Spanish Sahara from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 1974-03-08 to 1974-05-01 (NCEI Accession 9800112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from STD casts off the Spanish Sahara from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER from 08 March 1974 to 01 May 1974. Data were collected by the...

  11. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  12. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  13. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Domestic Security Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is part of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). One of GTRI’s primary missions is to work throughout the United States to enhance security for radiological materials located at civilian sites such as hospitals and universities that could be potentially used in a radiological dispersal device (RDD). In partnership with other federal organizations such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), GTRI has assisted sites in enhancing security for thousands of radioactive sources located throughout the U.S. This paper provides an overview of GTRI’s partnership with the NRC, the FBI, DHS, and host sites to enhance the security of radioactive sources

  14. Threats from space: 20 years of progress

    CERN Document Server

    Remo, J L

    2014-01-01

    It has been 20 years since planning began for the 1995 United Nations International Conference on Near-Earth Objects. The conference proceedings established the scientific basis for an international organizational framework to support research and collective actions to mitigate a potential near-Earth object (NEO) threat to the planet. Since that time, researchers have conducted telescope surveys that should, within the coming decade, answer many questions about the size, number, and Earth impact probability of these objects. Space explorations to asteroids and comets have been successfully carried out, including sample recovery. Laboratory experiments and computer simulations at Sandia National Laboratories have analyzed the effects of soft X-ray radiation on meteorites - which might help researchers develop a way to redirect an incoming asteroid by vaporizing a thin layer of its surface. An Action Team on NEOs, established in 2001 in response to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the E...

  15. The expectancy of threat and peritraumatic dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela McDonald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peritraumatic dissociation is one of the most critical acute responses to a traumatic experience, partly because it predicts subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite this, there is little understanding about the factors that influence peritraumatic dissociation. This study investigated the extent to which peritraumatic dissociation is predicted by the amount of perceived warning that participants had of the impact of the trauma. Method: Randomized eligible admissions to four major trauma hospitals (N =243 were assessed during hospital admission with the Peritraumatic Dissociation Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ and the perceived warning that participants had before the trauma impact occurred. Results: Whereas female gender predicted both Awareness and Derealization subscale scores on the PDEQ, perceived warning also predicted scores on the Derealization subscale. Conclusions: This finding suggests that the degree of anticipated threat may contribute to peritraumatic dissociation.

  16. Zika Virus: Old Rival, New Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV, originally isolated in 1947, caused a worldwide epidemic between January 2014 and February 2016 in which a total of 39 countries have reported autochthonous circulation (33 or indirect evidence of local transmission (6. The total area affected by ZIKV infection is expanding steadily. ZIKV has become a new threat to public health, and the recent cluster of microcephaly and other neurologic disorders suspected to be due to ZIKV has lead the World Health Organization to announce that it is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Because of its current importance, this review summarizes the currently available data on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, and transmission of ZIKV and its related diseases.

  17. Bluetooth Security Threats And Solutions: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nateq Be-Nazir Ibn Minar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth technology has become an integral part of this modern society. The availability of mobile phones, game controllers, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA and personal computers has made Bluetooth a popular technology for short range wireless communication. However, as the Bluetooth technology becomes widespread, vulnerabilities in its security protocols are increasing which can be potentially dangerous to the privacy of a user’s personal information. The security issues of Bluetooth have been an active area of research for the last few years. This paper presents the vulnerabilities in the security protocols of this technology along with some past security threats and possible countermeasures as reported in the literatures which have been surveyed and summarized in this paper. It also presents some tips that end-users can implement immediately to become more cautious about their private information.Finally, the paper concludes with some recommendations for future security enhancements that can be implemented in the Bluetooth standard.

  18. Scientific performance estimation of robustness and threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John R.; Sorensen, Eric; Stelzig, Chad A.; Mahler, Ronald P. S.; El-Fallah, Adel I.; Alford, Mark G.

    2002-07-01

    For the last three years at this conference we have been describing the implementation of a unified, scientific approach to performance estimation for various aspects of data fusion: multitarget detection, tracking, and identification algorithms; sensor management algorithms; and adaptive data fusion algorithms. The proposed approach is based on finite-set statistics (FISST), a generalization of conventional statistics to multisource, multitarget problems. Finite-set statistics makes it possible to directly extend Shannon-type information metrics to multisource, multitarget problems in such a way that information can be defined and measured even though any given end-user may have conflicting or even subjective definitions of what informative means. In this presentation, we will show how to extend our previous results to two new problems. First, that of evaluating the robustness of multisensor, multitarget algorithms. Second, that of evaluating the performance of multisource-multitarget threat assessment algorithms.

  19. Radiation, multiple dispersal and parallelism in the skinks, Chalcides and Sphenops (Squamata: Scincidae), with comments on Scincus and Scincopus and the age of the Sahara Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Geniez, Ph; Roca, J; Mateo, J A

    2008-03-01

    Phylogenetic analysis using up to 1325 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 179 specimens and 30 species of Chalcides, Sphenops, Eumeces, Scincopus and Scincus indicates that Sphenops arose twice independently within Chalcides. It is consequently synonymized with that genus. Chalcides in this broader sense originated in Morocco, diversifying into four main clades about 10 Ma, after which some of its lineages dispersed widely to cover an area 40 times as large. Two separate lineages invaded the Canary Islands and at least five main lineages colonized southern Europe. At least five more spread across northern Africa, one extending into southwest Asia. Elongate bodies with reduced limbs have evolved at least four times in Chalcides, mesic 'grass-swimmers' being produced in one case and extensive adaptation to life in loose desert sand in two others. In clade, Chalcides striatus colonized SW Europe from NW Africa 2.6 Ma and C. chalcides mainland Italy 1.4 Ma, both invasions being across water, while C. c. vittatus reached Sardinia more recently, perhaps anthropogenically, and C. guentheri spread 1200km further east to Israel. C. minutus is a composite, with individuals from the type locality forming a long independent lineage and the remaining ones investigated being most closely related to C. mertensi. In the Northern clade, C. boulengeri and C. sepsoides spread east through sandy habitats north of the Sahara about 5 Ma, the latter reaching Egypt. C. bedriagai invaded Spain around the same time, perhaps during the Messinian period when the Mediterranean was dry, and shows considerable diversification. Although it is currently recognized as one species, the C. ocellatus clade exhibits as much phylogenetic depth as the other main clades of Chalcides, having at least six main lineages. These have independently invaded Malta and Sardinia from Tunisia and also southwest Arabia C. o. humilis appears to have spread over 4000 km through the Sahel, south of the Sahara quite

  20. Nuclear terrorism: How real is the threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the end of the Cold War the threat of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction to non-state actors has increased and since non-territorial actors cannot be deterred as easily as states, new responses have to be found. The author offers a definition of nuclear terrorism which includes also attacks on, and sabotage of, nuclear reactors and the dispersal of radioactive waste, in addition to the possession or use of weapon-grade nuclear materials. It is held that the main bottleneck for would-be nuclear terrorists is not so much bomb design than access to nuclear material for which the territories of the former Soviet Union are a likely source, due to gaps in safety and security. The article discusses the smuggling of nuclear material from the former USSR's territories and lists seven possible methods of acquisition of nuclear materials by terrorists. The intentions of various types of groups to use weapons of mass destruction and their possible goals are analyzed and the question whether or not Osama Bin Laden has acquired nuclear materials is raised. A discussion of possible motivations for nuclear terrorism by non-state actors and a listing of facilitating and inhibiting factors with regard to terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction lead to the conclusion that nuclear terrorism by non-state actors is still a low probability event but that no risks can be taken and that a broad action plan to counter the threat is needed whereby the IAEA should stand in the forefront. (author)

  1. The CBRNE Threat Needs New Dedicated Analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: After the 9-11 attack by terrorists several governments realized their vulnerability towards creative asymmetric attacks. Due to increasing complexity of our society we create more vulnerability towards terror attacks. More chemical substances than we realize can be misused to destabilize our modern society. Recently aircraft passengers were confronted with new regulations, which limit the amount of fluid, which a passenger can bring on board with hand luggage. How far should we go limiting the allowance to bring liquids and substances on board? It indicates that we need new analytic instruments for screening the safety of luggage in all types of transport. Study Design: An inventory was made of the present demand for safe transport and its vulnerability to terror attacks. Also the safety and safety awareness in public buildings, offices and industrial complexes was assessed. Knowing the demand for a certain safety level, an inventory was made to identify analytical equipment, which can be used to check passengers and luggage on possible threats. The same can be used for protecting public areas, offices and industrial complexes. Results And Discussion: It is amazing how some governments, financially driven, underestimate the consequences of CBRNE incidences and disasters. Both threats due to release of dangerous substances just by accident and deliberate abuse of chemicals and/or biologicals by terror organizations is underestimated. Financial rationales are often the cause that the preparedness is less that technically could be possible. Still some commercial companies realize the importance of safety and preparedness towards terror attacks and take their precautions. Several detection systems are now under development and a new market of safety devices comes into existence. Conclusion: Key question is how far we would like to go with defending us with technical devices against potential terror attacks. Also the design of buildings, transport

  2. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: testing integrated threat theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents' (N=1,187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and symbolic threats, but not realistic threats, predicted prejudice towards Muslims. Further, it was found that the effect of in-group identification on prejudice was fully mediated by symbolic threat, the effect of contact was partially mediated by stereotypes, and the effect of the endorsement of multiculturalism was mediated by both symbolic threat and stereotypes. In addition, contact and multiculturalism were directly associated with prejudice towards Muslims. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. When anticipation beats accuracy: Threat alters memory for dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Michael; Franklin, Nancy; Martins, Mariana; Sewack, Christine; Meier, Markus A

    2016-05-01

    Threat frequently leads to the prioritization of survival-relevant processes. Much of the work examining threat-related processing advantages has focused on the detection of static threats or long-term memory for details. In the present study, we examined immediate memory for dynamic threatening situations. We presented participants with visually neutral, dynamic stimuli using a representational momentum (RM) paradigm, and manipulated threat conceptually. Although the participants in both the threatening and nonthreatening conditions produced classic RM effects, RM was stronger for scenarios involving threat (Exps. 1 and 2). Experiments 2 and 3 showed that this effect does not generalize to the nonthreatening objects within a threatening scene, and that it does not extend to arousing happy situations. Although the increased RM effect for threatening objects by definition reflects reduced accuracy, we argue that this reduced accuracy may be offset by a superior ability to predict, and thereby evade, a moving threat. PMID:26698159

  4. When anticipation beats accuracy: Threat alters memory for dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Michael; Franklin, Nancy; Martins, Mariana; Sewack, Christine; Meier, Markus A

    2016-05-01

    Threat frequently leads to the prioritization of survival-relevant processes. Much of the work examining threat-related processing advantages has focused on the detection of static threats or long-term memory for details. In the present study, we examined immediate memory for dynamic threatening situations. We presented participants with visually neutral, dynamic stimuli using a representational momentum (RM) paradigm, and manipulated threat conceptually. Although the participants in both the threatening and nonthreatening conditions produced classic RM effects, RM was stronger for scenarios involving threat (Exps. 1 and 2). Experiments 2 and 3 showed that this effect does not generalize to the nonthreatening objects within a threatening scene, and that it does not extend to arousing happy situations. Although the increased RM effect for threatening objects by definition reflects reduced accuracy, we argue that this reduced accuracy may be offset by a superior ability to predict, and thereby evade, a moving threat.

  5. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad, Kacem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs, lipolytic bacteria and yeasts were isolated from 20 samples of shmen, a traditional clarified butter made from sour camel milk in the Algerian Sahara. The values of pH, titratable acidity, NaCl, total solid, moisture, and fat content ranged from : 3.11-4.97, 0.19-0.36%, 1.04-2.15%, 64.03-65.11%, 34.40-34.99%, and 49.90-56% respectively. A total of 181 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (40 strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 strains, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 strains, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 strains and Leuconostoc gelidum (12 strains Enterococcus faecium (35 strains. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (55 isolates. Of these, 40 were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 15 isolates were identified as Saccharomyces sp.Se aislaron los microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, bacterias acido lácticas, bacterias lipolíticas y levaduras de 20 muestras de “shmen”, una matequilla tradicional del Sahara argelino hecha a partir de leche de camella. Los valores de pH, acidez, libre, Nacl, solidos totales, humedad y grasa oscilaron entre 3,11-4,97, 0,19-0,36%, 1.04-2,15%, 64,03-65,11%, 34,40-34,99% y 49,90-56,00%, respectivamente. Entre los 181 cultivos puros de bacterias lácticas se identificaron Lactobacillus plantarum (40 cepas, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 cepas, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 cepas, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 cepas and Leuconostoc gelidum (12cepas Enterococcus faecium (35 cepas. Asimismo, se detectaron levaduras en todas las muestras (55 cultivos puros. De estos, 40 se identificaron como

  6. The effects of takeover threats of shareholders and firm value

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, Marco; Riyanto, Yohanes

    2000-01-01

    We study the role of takeover threats as a corporate control mechanism using Aghion and Tirole's (1997) model of formal and real authority. Shareholders do not monitor the manager's actions, since ownership is widely dispersed. A corporate raider may monitor, and steps in if a profit opportunity exists. In our model, a takeover threat decreases the manager's effort and does not benefit shareholders. The effect of a takeover threat on the expected value of the firm is ambiguous. It is in the i...

  7. Analysis of industrial threats on the chosen example

    OpenAIRE

    R. Nowosielski; M. Spilka; A. Kania

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper the analysis of influence of threats on the safety level in plastic processing industry was carried out. The effect of the proper risk management is increase of work safety and psychical comfort of employers. The necessity of threats monitoring and minimization of the occupational risk were showed.Design/methodology/approach: In this article the essence of industrial safety was presented. Identification of threats on the work position and determination of the risk accep...

  8. On the relationship between social distance and threat

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid C. Buba; de Hoog, Natascha

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the dependence of threat perception and reaction on social distance estimation. Social identity threat was imposed within a 2x2 between subjects design, with N=163 students reading a criticising comment about their ingroup assigned to originate from one of two possible outgroups. The participants completed parts of the scale Overlap of self, ingroup and outgroup (OSIO, Schubert and Otten, 2002) as a measure of social distance either before or after the threat manipulation. Res...

  9. The Reliability to Predict Threat in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrs Larionovs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the analysis and study it will be possible to create and describe information damping mechanism for transition of threats from one user group to another (within the parameters of portraits, which is the main cause of the massively spreading threat on social networks. Threat predictability in social networks is associated with an adequate scrutiny of system and user portrait, which has a direct correlation.

  10. Wetland Preservation in Australia: The Administrative and Policital Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Yaolin Wang

    2008-01-01

    The wetlands in Australia are of great physical, chemical and biological variety due to the continent's age, geological history and climate. The traditional physical and biological threats remain as the main challenges for wetland preservation in Australia. However, it has been increasingly recognized that the immediate survival of wetlands are being affected by more subtle threats, such as administrative and political threats. This paper identifies these non-physical threats and discusses how and why they have become the major barriers for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia. Finally, this paper calls for more practical policies and solutions to be implemented for sustainable wetland preservation in Australia.

  11. Reverse Modeling and Autonomous Extrapolation of RF Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguk Noh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the investigation of the basic components of reverse modeling and autonomous extrapolation of radio frequency (RF threats in electronic warfare settings. To design and test our system, we first model RF threats using the radioactive parameters received. The enemy radar simulated with a transponder or emitter transmits electronic signals; next, the sensors of the system intercept those signals as radioactive parameters. We generate the attributes of RF threats during communication between the electronic emissions of RF threats and the receivers of our system in various electronic warfare scenarios. We then utilize the data acquired through our system to reversely model RF threats. Our system carries out the reverse extrapolation process for the purpose of identifying and classifying threats by using profiles compiled through a series of machine learning algorithms, i.e., naive Bayesian classifier, decision tree, and k-means clustering algorithms. This compilation technique, which is based upon the inductive threat model, could be used to analyze and predict what a real-time threat is. We summarize empirical results that demonstrate our system capabilities of reversely modeling and autonomously extrapolating RF threats in simulated electronic warfare settings.

  12. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  13. Diagnosis of the Relationship between Dust Storms over the Sahara Desert and Dust Deposit or Coloured Rain in the South Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Prezerakos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objects of study in this paper are the synoptic scale atmospheric circulation systems associated with the rather frequent phenomenon of coloured rain and the very rare phenomenon of dust or sand deposits from a Saharan sandstorm triggered by a developing strong depression. Analysis of two such cases revealed that two days before the occurrence of the coloured rain or the dust deposits over Greece a sand storm appeared over the north-western Sahara desert. The flow in the entire troposphere is southerly/south-westerly with an upward vertical motion regime. If the atmospheric conditions over Greece favour rain then this rain contains a part of the dust cloud while the rest is drawn away downstream adopting a light yellow colour. In cases where the atmospheric circulation on the route of the dust cloud trajectories is not intensively anticyclonic dust deposits can occur on the surface long far from the region of the dust origin. Such was the case on 4th April, 1988, when significant synoptic-scale subsidence occurred over Italy and towards Greece. The upper air data, in the form of synoptic maps, illustrate in detail the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulations associated with the emission-transport-deposition and confirm the transportation of dust particles.

  14. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2014-01-20

    Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (Pdamping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (Pseed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively. PMID:23920229

  15. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world's medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens. PMID:27366358

  16. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benachour, Elhadj; Draoui, Belkacem; Imine, Baachir; Hasnat, Mohammed; Rahmani, Lakhdar

    2016-03-01

    The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as the Mud which is in our region with a significant amount and almost free quantity. This work presents a study of numerical simulation aiming at the role and the influence of the insulation by the mud Reduced like a local material to the town of Bechar located at the south west of Algeria, or one is interested in a comparative study for pursued these goals. In this context, an analogy was used for the functions which are discretized by the finite difference method and integrated in the Fluent code which is based on the finite volume method. The validation of this procedure was confirmed while comparing some results. The results are presented in the form of distributions of the isotherms, the streamlines, local and average Nusselt of which the goal to study the influence on comfort.

  17. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benachour Elhadj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as the Mud which is in our region with a significant amount and almost free quantity. This work presents a study of numerical simulation aiming at the role and the influence of the insulation by the mud Reduced like a local material to the town of Bechar located at the south west of Algeria, or one is interested in a comparative study for pursued these goals. In this context, an analogy was used for the functions which are discretized by the finite difference method and integrated in the Fluent code which is based on the finite volume method. The validation of this procedure was confirmed while comparing some results. The results are presented in the form of distributions of the isotherms, the streamlines, local and average Nusselt of which the goal to study the influence on comfort.

  18. New early Pliocene owls from Langebaanweg, South Africa, with first evidence of Athene south of the Sahara and a new species of Tyto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pavia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fossiliferous Upper Varswater Formation at Langebaanweg (South Africa produced remains of at least five species of owls (Strigiformes. Tyto richae sp. nov. is the first palaeospecies of Tytonidae described from an African fossil site, though indeterminate remains referable to the genus Tyto are known from the Middle Miocene of Morocco, the early Pliocene of Ethiopia, and the Pliocene of Tanzania. Athene inexpectata sp. nov. is not only the earliest documented fossil evidence for the genus worldwide, but also the first record of a species of Athene in Africa south of the Sahara. Proportions of its hind limb indicate that At. inexpectata sp. nov. probably has been as terrestrial as its modern relative At. cunicularia. A few additional remains represent the earliest fossil evidence for the genera Asio and Bubo on the African continent, though the poor preservation of these bones prevents more detailed identifications. A distal tibiotarsus of a small owl about the size of At. inexpectata sp. nov. indicates the presence of a fifth, as yet indeterminate, species of owl at Langebaanweg. Biogeographical and palaeoecological implications of this assemblage of owls are discussed.

  19. Desert Dust Aerosol Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, Using Particle Properties Derived from Space-Based Multi-Angle Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph; Petzold, Andreas; Wendisch, Manfred; Bierwirth, Eike; Dinter, Tilman; Esselborn, Michael; Fiebig, Marcus; Heese, Birgit; Knippertz, Peter; Mueller, Detlef; Schladitz, Alexander; Von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Coincident observations made over the Moroccan desert during the Sahara mineral dust experiment (SAMUM) 2006 field campaign are used both to validate aerosol amount and type retrieved from multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) observations, and to place the suborbital aerosol measurements into the satellite s larger regional context. On three moderately dusty days during which coincident observations were made, MISR mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) agrees with field measurements point-by-point to within 0.05 0.1. This is about as well as can be expected given spatial sampling differences; the space-based observations capture AOT trends and variability over an extended region. The field data also validate MISR s ability to distinguish and to map aerosol air masses, from the combination of retrieved constraints on particle size, shape and single-scattering albedo. For the three study days, the satellite observations (1) highlight regional gradients in the mix of dust and background spherical particles, (2) identify a dust plume most likely part of a density flow and (3) show an aerosol air mass containing a higher proportion of small, spherical particles than the surroundings, that appears to be aerosol pollution transported from several thousand kilometres away.

  20. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-26

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  1. Fructose; a Hidden Threat for Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Korkmaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Incremental usage of the fructose derived from corn by processed-food manufacturers has become a crucial threat in terms of human health. Although it is known as fruit sugar, the most important source of dietary fructose is now, processed-food prepared by using high-fructose corn syrup. Basically, fructose is metabolized within liver and its energy load is equal to glucose. Nevertheless, it does not make up satiety and fullness. Therefore, fructose-rich foods and beverages can be consumed in large amount because the absence of satiety. Studies performed recently unveil a connection between amount of fructose consumed and metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The incidence of metabolic diseases which are already affecting more than half of the adults has been increasing among children. Moreover, these types of foods are generally consumed by children. Therefore, in order to reduce the frequency of metabolic disorders in all ages, the amount of fructose in processed-foods and beverages should also be taken into consideration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 343-346

  2. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  3. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society’s poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient’s clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  4. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society's poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient's clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  5. Ebola Virus ─ A Global Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejbah Uddin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus is a filamentous, enveloped, non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus. It belongs to the Filoviridae and was first recognized near the Ebola River valley in Zaire in 1976. Since then most of the outbreaks have occurred to both human and nonhuman primates in sub-Saharan Africa. Ebola virus causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to hemorrhagic fever, it could be used as a bioterrorism agent. Although its natural reservoir is yet to be proven, current data suggest that fruit bats are the possibility. Infection has also been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines. Human infection is caused through close contact with the blood, secretion, organ or other body fluids of infected animal. Human-to-human transmission is also possible. Ebola virus infections are characterized by immune suppression and a systemic inflammatory response that causes impairment of the vascular, coagulation, and immune systems, leading to multiorgan failure and shock. The virus constitutes an important public health threat in Africa and also worldwide as no effective treatment or vaccine is available till now

  6. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  7. Superluminous Supernovae: No Threat from Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian; Melott, A. L.; Fields, B. D.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.

    2008-05-01

    Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of 1044 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to η Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. η Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma-Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, η Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over 104 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovae, endocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered "dangerous” for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, η Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree.

  8. Superluminous supernovae: No threat from Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C; Fields, Brian D; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of ~10^44 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to Eta Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a (poorly determined) distance of ~2.5 kpc. Eta Carinae appears ready to detonate, and in fact had an outburst in 1843. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, Eta Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over ~10^4 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possib...

  9. Reducing the threat of nuclear theft and sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appalling events of September II, 2001 make clear that the threat of well-organized global terrorist groups bent on causing mass destruction is not hypothetical but real. There is evidence that Osama bin Laden's Al Quaida organization is seeking weapons of mass destruction, and has attempted to purchase stolen nuclear material from the former Soviet Union for use in nuclear explosives. Ensuring that the technologies and materials of weapons of mass destruction - especially weapons-usable nuclear materials, do not fall into the hands of terrorist groups or hostile states must therefore be a central element of the coming global battle to prevent mass-destruction terrorism. At the same time, nuclear facilities and radioactive materials - along with a wide range of other especially hazardous facilities and materials - must be protected from mass-consequence sabotage. Limited access to fissile materials, the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, is the principal technical barrier to nuclear proliferation in the world today. The international community has an overwhelming interest in seeing that all such material is secure and accounted for. These events highlight the urgent need to: Dramatically expand international cooperation to upgrade security and accounting for weapons- usable nuclear material, in the former Soviet Union and worldwide, with the goal of ensuring that all such material is protected to stringent standards within a few years; Ensure that all nuclear facilities and materials (and other particularly hazardous facilities) are secure from mass-consequence sabotage; Strengthen national and international standards for security of nuclear materials and facilities; Greatly expand international efforts to interdict nuclear smuggling, including the difficult but essential task of strengthening efforts to share intelligence in this critical area; Reduce the number of sites where significant quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material exist, and the size

  10. A Probabilistic Analysis Framework for Malicious Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Taolue; Kammuller, Florian; Nemli, Ibrahim;

    2015-01-01

    Malicious insider threats are difficult to detect and to mitigate. Many approaches for explaining behaviour exist, but there is little work to relate them to formal approaches to insider threat detection. In this work we present a general formal framework to perform analysis for malicious insider...

  11. Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Muris; M. Kindt; S. Boegels; H. Merckelbach; B, Gadet; V. Moulaert

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationship between childhood anxiety and threat perception abnormalities. 105 children (aged 8-13 yrs) were exposed to stories reflecting 3 types of anxiety: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. From children's reactions to the stories, a number of threat perce

  12. Threat Level High (School): Curriculum Reform with Violence in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, T. Elijah; Twemlow, Stuart W.

    2015-01-01

    When school communities are troubled by violence, or threats of violence, at the hands of young people, educators have an opportunity to learn about aggression and adolescent identity development. A disturbing threat incident provides the point of departure for this principal's reflection on how high school curriculum can better meet the identity…

  13. 78 FR 46782 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... RIN 9000-AM44 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense... Revolutionary Guard Corps, as contained in titles II and III of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights... Federal Register at 77 FR 73516, on December 10, 2012, to implement sections of titles II and III of...

  14. 75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of... announces a meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as ``the Committee..., October 21, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Heritage...

  15. Threat Detection in Tweets with Trigger Patterns and Contextual Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitters, M.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Worm, D.T.H.; Bouma, H.

    2014-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities in open sources on the internet. Early detection of threats based on internet information could assist in the prevention of incidents. However, the amount of data in social media, blogs and forums rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  16. Superior Detection of Threat-Relevant Stimuli in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also…

  17. Threats and protection for electronically-steered array radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.P.B.; Monni, S.; Maas, A.P.M.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2008-01-01

    Front-end power overload protection is a vital issue in any electro-magnetic sensor. The issues around active electronically-steered arrays are more recent and pose new threats. Different categories of threats can damage the sensitive electronics in the phased-array radar, like hostile high power el

  18. Investigating Hypervigilance for Social Threat of Lonely Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualter, Pamela; Rotenberg, Ken; Barrett, Louise; Henzi, Peter; Barlow, Alexandra; Stylianou, Maria; Harris, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that lonely children show hypervigilance for social threat was examined in a series of three studies that employed different methods including advanced eye-tracking technology. Hypervigilance for social threat was operationalized as hostility to ambiguously motivated social exclusion in a variation of the hostile attribution…

  19. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  20. Asymmetric Threat Assessment Using Electro-Optical Image Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Schutte, K.

    2010-01-01

    Asymmetric threat assessment from military platforms, including early detection and classification by electro-optical means, is a complicated matter. These threats can be for instance explosives-packed rubber boats, minecarrying swimmers and divers in a marine environment or terrorists, improvised e

  1. 41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-300.22 Section 60-300.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as...

  2. Personality, threat and affective responses to cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Karen; Van der Gang, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    The present study tried to reconcile assumptions from Terror Management Theory that individual differences in openness to diversity are enhanced by existential threat with own recent findings suggesting that individual differences are diminished by threat. A model was supported assuming that it is t

  3. 41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-250.22 Section 60-250.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as...

  4. 41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60-741.22 Section 60-741.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor...

  5. Perceived control qualifies the effects of threat on prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Louis, Winnifred R; Hornsey, Matthew J; Jones, Janelle M

    2014-09-01

    People sometimes show a tendency to lash out in a prejudiced manner when they feel threatened. This research shows that the relationship between threat and prejudice is moderated by people's levels of perceived control: Threat leads to prejudice only when people feel concurrently low in control. In two studies, terrorist threat was associated with heightened prejudice among people who were low in perceived control over the threat (Study 1; N = 87) or over their lives in general (Study 2; N = 2,394), but was not associated with prejudice among people who were high in perceived control. Study 3 (N = 139) replicated this finding experimentally in the context of the Global Financial Crisis. The research identifies control as an important ingredient in threatening contexts that, if bolstered, can reduce general tendencies to lash out under threat.

  6. Threat, prejudice and stereotyping in the context of Japanese, North Korean, and South Korean intergroup relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Chris; Abrams, Dominic; Rosenthal, Harriet E.S.; Christian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated threat theory, realistic conflict theory, and group justification (based on social identity theory) were evaluated in the international context of Japanese prejudice toward North Korea and South Korea. Military threat emerged as an important addition to the four threats outlined by integrated threat theory. Three perceived North Korean threats (realistic [domestic] threat; intergroup anxiety; military threat) predicted prejudice toward North Korea. North Korean preju...

  7. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Dan E; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  8. Technology and the defense industry: real threats, bad habits, or new (market) opportunities?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellais, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    International audience Technology has been playing a central role in defense spending or arms-producing countries since World War II. Although there has been no major threat or conflict since the 1990s, defense R&D absorbs a large share of military expenditures, as well as public R&D. This technology-centric paradigm results from uncertainties surrounding defense matters and the need to avoid strategic surprises. However, one can wonder whether such a paradigm is still adapted to today's d...

  9. Threat from Rubble-Pile Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    While chondrites are the most common meteoroids to enter our atmosphere, they represent a small fraction of recovered falls. Most stony meteorites disrupt during entry, consumed by ablation or lost by weathering; in contrast, small iron meteorites (entry at altitude; (c) no accessory meteorite falls; (d) "explosion" (not low-speed compression) crater; (e) infrasound/seismic data indicating a high-speed entry/collision; and (f) petrologic evidence for shock deformation/melting in breccias indicative of speeds >4 km/s. Although a monolithic chondrite (~ 10 m across) might allow surviving entry, most objects of this size contain multiple flaws, ensuring atmospheric disruption. Hence, an alternative "needle model" was proposed wherein a small rubble-pile object gradually re-shaped itself during entry [Schultz, 2008], a process that minimizes drag, thermal signatures of entry, and catastrophic disruption. First proposed to account for smaller than expected craters on Venus [Schultz, 1992], such a process resembles subsequent Shoemaker-Levy entry models [Boslough and Crawford, 1997] that predicted much deeper entry than standard models. Laboratory experiments at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range simulated this process by breaking-up hypervelocity projectiles into a cloud of debris and tracking its path at near-full atmospheric pressure. The resulting cloud of fragments exhibited less deceleration than a solid sphere at the same speed. Moreover, shadowgraphs revealed constituent fragments "surfing" the pressure jump within the mach cone/column. Previous models proposed that crater-forming impacts must be >50-100 m in diameter in order to survive entry [Bland and Artemieva, 2004]. The "needle model" for the Carancas meteorite entry, however, raises questions about this lower limit for threats by rubble-pile asteroids, e.g., Itokawa. Consequently, we modeled the fate of a rubble-pile entering earth's atmosphere using GEODYN, an Eulerian code with adaptive mesh refinement

  10. Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

  11. The role of genomics in the identification, prediction, and prevention of biological threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Florian Fricke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In all likelihood, it is only a matter of time before our public health system will face a major biological threat, whether intentionally dispersed or originating from a known or newly emerging infectious disease. It is necessary not only to increase our reactive "biodefense," but also to be proactive and increase our preparedness. To achieve this goal, it is essential that the scientific and public health communities fully embrace the genomic revolution, and that novel bioinformatic and computing tools necessary to make great strides in our understanding of these novel and emerging threats be developed. Genomics has graduated from a specialized field of science to a research tool that soon will be routine in research laboratories and clinical settings. Because the technology is becoming more affordable, genomics can and should be used proactively to build our preparedness and responsiveness to biological threats. All pieces, including major continued funding, advances in next-generation sequencing technologies, bioinformatics infrastructures, and open access to data and metadata, are being set in place for genomics to play a central role in our public health system.

  12. Safe from harm: learned, instructed, and symbolic generalization pathways of human threat-avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dymond

    Full Text Available Avoidance of threatening or unpleasant events is usually an adaptive behavioural strategy. Sometimes, however, avoidance can become chronic and lead to impaired daily functioning. Excessive threat-avoidance is a central diagnostic feature of anxiety disorders, yet little is known about whether avoidance acquired in the absence of a direct history of conditioning with a fearful event differs from directly learned avoidance. In the present study, we tested whether avoidance acquired indirectly via verbal instructions and symbolic generalization result in similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-beliefs to avoidance acquired after direct learning. Following fear conditioning in which one conditioned stimulus was paired with shock (CS+ and another was not (CS-, participants either learned or were instructed to make a response that cancelled impending shock. Three groups were then tested with a learned CS+ and CS- (learned group, instructed CS+ (instructed group, and generalized CS+ (derived group presentations. Results showed similar levels of avoidance behaviour and threat-belief ratings about the likelihood of shock across each of the three pathways despite the different mechanisms by which they were acquired. Findings have implications for understanding the aetiology of clinical avoidance in anxiety.

  13. CRISIS FOCUS: Bubbles Pose The Biggest Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The shift of China’s monetary policy stance from "moderately loose" to "prudent" next year indicates curbing inflation and asset bubbles have become the Central Government’s top priority. But is China’s bubble problem short-term or long-term? Is it only monetary or related to economic structure? Is it the cause of China’s economic imbalance or the result? And what kind of deep-rooted problems in the macro economy does it reflect? All these questions call for deep thought, said Zhang Monan, a researcher with the State Information Center, in a recent article for The Beijing News. Edited excerpt follows:

  14. Information fusion: telling the story (or threat narrative)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2014-06-01

    Today's operators face a "double whammy" - the need to process increasing amounts of information, including "Twitter-INT"1 (social information such as Facebook, You-Tube videos, blogs, Twitter) as well as the need to discern threat signatures in new security environments, including those in which the airspace is contested. To do this will require the Air Force to "fuse and leverage its vast capabilities in new ways."2 For starters, the integration of quantitative and qualitative information must be done in a way that preserves important contextual information since the goal increasingly is to identify and mitigate violence before it occurs. To do so requires a more nuanced understanding of the environment being sensed, including the human environment, ideally from the "emic" perspective; that is, from the perspective of that individual or group. This requires not only data and information that informs the understanding of how the individuals and/or groups see themselves and others (social identity) but also information on how that identity filters information in their environment which, in turn, shapes their behaviors.3 The goal is to piece together the individual and/or collective narratives regarding threat, the threat narrative, from various sources of information. Is there a threat? If so, what is it? What is motivating the threat? What is the intent of those who pose the threat and what are their capabilities and their vulnerabilities?4 This paper will describe preliminary investigations regarding the application of prototype hybrid information fusion method based on the threat narrative framework.

  15. Prefrontal inhibition of threat processing protects working memory from interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert James Clarke

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up processes can interrupt ongoing cognitive processing in order to adaptively respond to emotional stimuli of high potential significance, such as those that threaten wellbeing. However it is vital that this interference can be modulated in certain contexts to focus on current tasks. Deficits in the ability to maintain the appropriate balance between cognitive and emotional demands can severely impact on day-to-day activities. This fMRI study examined this interaction between threat processing and cognition; 18 adult participants performed a visuospatial working memory (WM task with two load conditions, in the presence and absence of anxiety induction by threat of electric shock. Threat of shock interfered with performance in the low cognitive load condition; however interference was eradicated under high load, consistent with engagement of emotion regulation mechanisms. Under low load the amygdala showed significant activation to threat of shock that was modulated by high cognitive load. A directed top-down control contrast identified two regions associated with top-down control; ventrolateral PFC and dorsal ACC. Dynamic causal modelling provided further evidence that under high cognitive load, top-down inhibition is exerted on the amygdala and its outputs to prefrontal regions. Additionally, we hypothesised that individual differences in a separate, non-emotional top-down control task would predict the recruitment of dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC during top-down control of threat. Consistent with this, performance on a separate dichotic listening task predicted dorsal ACC and ventrolateral PFC activation during high WM load under threat of shock, though activation in these regions did not directly correlate with WM performance. Together, the findings suggest that under high cognitive load and threat, top-down control is exerted by dACC and vlPFC to inhibit threat processing, thus enabling WM performance without threat

  16. A hydrological-economic model for sustainable groundwater use in sparse-data drylands: Application to the Amtoudi Oasis in southern Morocco, northern Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Robles-Marín, Pedro; Guerrera, Francesco; Martín-Martín, Manuel; Raffaelli, Giuliana; de León, Julián Tejera; Asebriy, Lahcen

    2015-12-15

    A hydrological-economic model is introduced to describe the dynamics of groundwater-dependent economics (agriculture and tourism) for sustainable use in sparse-data drylands. The Amtoudi Oasis, a remote area in southern Morocco, in the northern Sahara attractive for tourism and with evidence of groundwater degradation, was chosen to show the model operation. Governing system variables were identified and put into action through System Dynamics (SD) modeling causal diagrams to program basic formulations into a model having two modules coupled by the nexus 'pumping': (1) the hydrological module represents the net groundwater balance (G) dynamics; and (2) the economic module reproduces the variation in the consumers of water, both the population and tourists. The model was operated under similar influx of tourists and different scenarios of water availability, such as the wet 2009-2010 and the average 2010-2011 hydrological years. The rise in international tourism is identified as the main driving force reducing emigration and introducing new social habits in the population, in particular concerning water consumption. Urban water allotment (PU) was doubled for less than a 100-inhabitant net increase in recent decades. The water allocation for agriculture (PI), the largest consumer of water, had remained constant for decades. Despite that the 2-year monitoring period is not long enough to draw long-term conclusions, groundwater imbalance was reflected by net aquifer recharge (R) less than PI+PU (Gtechnology actions are tentatively proposed to mitigate groundwater degradation, such as: wastewater capture, treatment, and reuse for irrigation; storm-water harvesting for irrigation; and active maintenance of the irrigation system to improve its efficiency.

  17. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  18. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND CENTRAL ASIA: PREMATURE ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabol, Steven

    2008-01-01

    In the months leading up to, and the first few years after, the Soviet Union collapsed numerous articles and books were published that claimed Islamic "fundamentalism" was likely to emerge in Central Asia. These fears were predicated on numerous scenarios, the most important being the ongoing political and military crisis in Afghanistan and Iranian attempts to increase its influence in the region. I will argue, however, that these concerns were premature and that the real threat to the stabil...

  19. Assessing Database and Network Threats in Traditional and Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Lourida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is currently one of the most widely-spoken terms in IT. While it offers a range of technological and financial benefits, its wide acceptance by organizations is not yet wide spread. Security concerns are a main reason for this and this paper studies the data and network threats posed in both traditional and cloud paradigms in an effort to assert in which areas cloud computing addresses security issues and where it does introduce new ones. This evaluation is based on Microsoft’s STRIDE threat model and discusses the stakeholders, the impact and recommendations for tackling each threat.

  20. Animal Botulism Outcomes in the AniBioThreat Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Skarin, Hanna;

    2013-01-01

    and botulinum neurotoxins are considered potential weapons for bioterrorism and have been included in the Australia Group List of Biological Agents. In 2010 the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security) funded a 3-year project named AniBioThreat to improve the EU's capacity to counter animal...... bioterrorism threats. A detection portfolio with screening methods for botulism agents and incidents was needed to improve tracking and tracing of accidental and deliberate contamination of the feed and food chain with botulinum neurotoxins and other Clostridia. The complexity of this threat required acquiring...

  1. Threat, prejudice and the impact of the riots in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Eline A; Goodwin, Matthew J; Pickup, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how a major outbreak of rioting in England in 2011 impacted on prejudice toward three minority groups in Britain: Muslims, Black British and East Europeans. We test whether the riots mobilized individuals by increasing feelings of realistic and symbolic threat and ultimately prejudice, or whether the riots galvanized those already concerned about minorities, thus strengthening the relationship between threat and prejudice. We conducted three national surveys - before, after and one year on from the riots - and show that after the riots individuals were more likely to perceive threats to society's security and culture, and by extension express increased prejudice toward Black British and East European minorities. We find little evidence of a galvanizing impact. One year later, threat and prejudice had returned to pre-riots levels; however, results from a survey experiment show that priming memories of the riots can raise levels of prejudice.

  2. Stereotype threat and arousal: effects on women's math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Crandall, Christian S

    2003-06-01

    Theories of arousal suggest that arousal should decrease performance on difficult tasks and increase performance on easy tasks. An experiment tested the hypothesis that the effects of stereotype threat on performance are due to heightened arousal. The authors hypothesized that telling participants that a math test they are about to take is known to have gender differences would cause stereotype threat in women but not in men. In the experiment, each participant took two tests--a difficult math test and an easy math test. Compared to women in a "no differences" condition, women in the "gender differences" condition scored better on the easy math test and worse on the difficult math test. Men's performance was unaffected by the manipulation. These data are consistent with an arousal-based explanation of stereotype threat effects. Data were inconsistent with expectancy, evaluation apprehension, and persistence explanations of the stereotype threat phenomenon.

  3. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  4. Perceived threats of individuals recovering from myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S J

    1992-01-01

    Lazarus' phenomenological theory of stress and coping provided the basis for this descriptive study of perceived threats after myocardial infarction (MI). Sixty-four post-MI subjects enrolled in phase II cardiac rehabilitation programs identified threats they had experienced in the past month. Perceived threats were defined as situations that were difficult or troubling to the individual and were described by respondents in narrative form. Degree of threat was then measured by one item on which subjects indicated the degree of concern the threatening event had caused them. Responses to the one item were analyzed and categorized into the following five areas: physical problems; medical therapy/self-care; work/physical activity; interpersonal/family; and financial. The results provide an overview of the multiple concerns individuals deal with after a major life-threatening cardiac event.

  5. THE SOCIAL-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT: THREATS, OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк Наталья Юрьевна

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author turns to the problems of social-cultural environment: threats, opportunities, responses, and cultural values (primary and secondary). The examples of both primary and secondary cultural values are given in the article as well.

  6. Assessment of Containment Structures Against Missile Impact Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Q M

    2006-01-01

    In order to ensure the highest safety requirements,nuclear power plant structures (the containment structures,the fuel storages and transportation systems) should be assessed against all possible internal and external impact threats.The internal impact threats include kinetic missiles generated by the failure of high pressure vessels and pipes,the failure of high speed rotating machineries and accidental drops.The external impact threats may come from airborne missiles,aircraft impact,explosion blast and fragments.The impact effects of these threats on concrete and steel structures in a nuclear power plant are discussed.Methods and procedures for the impact assessment of nuclear power plants are introduced.Recent studies on penetration and perforation mechanics as well as progresses on dynamic properties of concrete-like materials are presented to increase the understanding of the impact effects on concrete containment structures.

  7. New Frontiers of Network Security: The Threat Within

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, Sugata; Gupta, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 70% of information security threats originate from inside an organization. Opportunities for insider threats have been increasing at an alarming rate with the latest trends of mobility (portable devices like Laptop, smart phones etc.), ubiquitous connectivity (wireless or through 3G connectivity) and this trend increases as more and more web-based applications are made available over the Internet. Insider threats are generally caused by current or ex-employees, contractors or partners, who have authorized access to the organization's network and servers. Theft of confidential information is often for either material gain or for willful damage. Easy availability of hacking tools on the Internet, USB devices and wireless connectivity provide for easy break-ins. The net result is losses worth millions of dollars in terms of IP theft, leakage of customer / individual information, etc. This paper presents an understanding of Insider threats, attackers and their motives and suggests mitigation techniques at ...

  8. Little Threat of Zika Spread from Rio Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Little Threat of Zika Spread From Rio Olympics: Study Because it's winter in Brazil, mosquito activity ... HealthDay News) -- Travelers and competitors at the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil are not likely to contract ...

  9. Racial Threat Theory: Assessing the Evidence, Requesting Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Brooks Dollar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial threat theory was developed as a way to explain how population composition influences discriminatory social control practices and has become one of the most acknowledged frameworks for explaining racial disparity in criminal justice outcomes. This paper provides a thorough review of racial threat theory and empirical assessments of the theory and demonstrates that while scholars often cite inconsistent support for the theory, empirical discrepancies may be due to insufficient attention to the conceptual complexity of racial threat. I organize and present the following review around 4 forms of state-sanctioned control mechanisms: police expenditures, arrests, sentencing, and capital punishment. Arguing that the pervasiveness of racialization in state controls warrants continued inquiry, I provide suggestions for future scholarship that will help us develop enhanced understanding of how racial threat may be operating.

  10. Wireless Security Threats, Vulnerabilities and Their Defense Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Bawiskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world means of communications has changed rapidly and the main focus is on wireless communications. Communication in wireless mode has many threats. This paper discusses a brief overview of various threats to wireless networks at various layers and also presents a survey of the defense mechanisms. The main aim is to discuss attacks on MANET and their defense mechanisms. Communication in wireless mode is more challenging as compared to wired mode because of dynamically changing network topology. Wireless networks are mostly used in military applications and commercial applications. This paper also discusses internal threats and external threats. It also gives an overview of routing protocols being used in wireless networks and various attacks that take place against these routing protocols and their counter measures.

  11. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  12. TERRORISM AS THE MAIN THREAT TO THE STATE DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. VERBITSKAYA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of terrorism as the main threat to the state defense. One of the main problems in combating this threat is lack of the uniformity in understanding and definition of terrorism on national and international level, what complicates the search of the means reducing this threat. In addition, because of possible use of armed forces against this threat, the absence of understanding of this term as the basis for introducing relevant legal regimes may lead to violation of human rights. The article presents definitions of terrorism from normative acts of foreign countries and sources of international law. It traces the historical development of the understanding of terrorism in different countries in terms of the evolution of the content of this term.

  13. Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007 : a new threat from Aedes albopictus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilda Grard; Mélanie Caron; Illich Manfred Mombo; Dieudonné Nkoghe; Statiana Mboui Ondo; Davy Jiolle; Didier Fontenille; Christophe Paupy; Eric Maurice Leroy

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya and dengue viruses emerged in Gabon in 2007, with large outbreaks primarily affecting the capital Libreville and several northern towns. Both viruses subsequently spread to the south-east of the country, with new outbreaks occurring in 2010. The mosquito species Aedes albopictus, that was known as a secondary vector for both viruses, recently invaded the country and was the primary vector involved in the Gabonese outbreaks. We conducted a retrospective study of human se...

  14. The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, Phillipe; Drummer, Heidi E; Richards, Jack S; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Beeson, James G

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has newly emerged as a significant global threat, especially to pregnancy. Recent major outbreaks in the Pacific and in Central and South America have been associated with an increased incidence of microcephaly and other abnormalities of the central nervous system in neonates. The causal link between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is now strongly supported. Over 2 billion people live in regions conducive to ZIKV transmission, with ~4 million infections in the Americas predicted for 2016. Given the scale of the current pandemic and the serious and long-term consequences of infection during pregnancy, the impact of ZIKV on health services and affected communities could be enormous. This further highlights the need for a rapid global public health and research response to ZIKV to limit and prevent its impact through the development of therapeutics, vaccines, and improved diagnostics. Here we review the epidemiology of ZIKV; the threat to pregnancy; the clinical consequences and broader impact of ZIKV infections; and the virus biology underpinning new interventions, diagnostics, and insights into the mechanisms of disease. PMID:27487767

  15. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Orazem, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  16. Survey of threat studies related to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable effort has been directed toward the determination of threat characteristics, resulting in a voluminous collection of documents. This report summarizes several of the major studies in order to make the information more accessible. This summary includes only studies involving attacks on nuclear material, plus those incidents which because of their objectives, resources, or motivations may lend insight into potential threat against nuclear facilities or material

  17. Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:19432644

  18. Current and Future Threats Framework in Smart Grid Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Procopiou, A.; Komninos, N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to smart grid’s complex nature and criticality as an infrastructure, it is important to understand the key actors on each domain in depth so the potential vulnerabilities that can rise are identified. Furthermore, the correct identification of threats affecting the smart grid’s normal functionality must be realised, as well as what impact these threats can have so appropriate countermeasures are implemented. In this paper a list of vulnerabilities that weaken the smart grid is outlined. A...

  19. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposur...

  20. 76 FR 22878 - Closed Meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the... Defense announces the following Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory... 22206. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Contact Mr. William Hostyn, Defense Threat Reduction...

  1. Attentional bias to threat: a perceptual accuracy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Crombez, Geert; Notebaert, Lies

    2008-12-01

    To investigate attentional bias to threatening information, the authors propose a new version of the spatial cueing paradigm in which the focus is on perceptual accuracy instead of response speed. In two experiments, healthy volunteers made unspeeded discriminations between three visual targets presented left or right. Each target was preceded by a visual cue (colored rectangle) at either the same (valid) or opposite (invalid) location. By means of differential classical conditioning with aversive white noise, a threat cue and a control cue were created. Analyses of error rates showed that cueing effects (lower proportion of errors in valid trials relative to invalid trials) were more pronounced in threat trials than in neutral trials. This threat-related bias was particularly because of threat cues reducing accuracy in invalid trials, indicating difficulty disengaging attention from threatening information. Engagement of attention was not affected by threat, as threat cues did not facilitate the processing of targets in valid trials. The findings are discussed in light of the strengths and limitations of spatial cueing tasks.

  2. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  3. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Spielberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala, but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues—which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences.

  4. Feature based passive acoustic detection of underwater threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkin, Rustam; Sutin, Alexander; Radhakrishnan, Sreeram; Bruno, Michael; Fullerton, Brian; Ekimov, Alexander; Raftery, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology is performing research aimed at determining the acoustical parameters that are necessary for detecting and classifying underwater threats. This paper specifically addresses the problems of passive acoustic detection of small targets in noisy urban river and harbor environments. We describe experiments to determine the acoustic signatures of these threats and the background acoustic noise. Based on these measurements, we present an algorithm for robustly discriminating threat presence from severe acoustic background noise. Measurements of the target's acoustic radiation signal were conducted in the Hudson River. The acoustic noise in the Hudson River was also recorded for various environmental conditions. A useful discriminating feature can be extracted from the acoustic signal of the threat, calculated by detecting packets of multi-spectral high frequency sound which occur repetitively at low frequency intervals. We use experimental data to show how the feature varies with range between the sensor and the detected underwater threat. We also estimate the effective detection range by evaluating this feature for hydrophone signals, recorded in the river both with and without threat presence.

  5. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  6. Non fisheries threats - Risk, status and trends of non-fisheries threats in the California Current to groundfish species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are calculating the risk of focal groundfish species to non-fisheries related threats (e.g. shipping activity, inorganic pollution) and comparing the relative...

  7. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  8. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. O'Brien

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching and whole-body leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory. Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the whole-body task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the whole-body movements than in arm-reaching at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects’ inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.

  9. Effects of threat management interactions on conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Nancy A; Wilson, Kerrie A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Hanson, Jeffrey O; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-12-01

    Decisions need to be made about which biodiversity management actions are undertaken to mitigate threats and about where these actions are implemented. However, management actions can interact; that is, the cost, benefit, and feasibility of one action can change when another action is undertaken. There is little guidance on how to explicitly and efficiently prioritize management for multiple threats, including deciding where to act. Integrated management could focus on one management action to abate a dominant threat or on a strategy comprising multiple actions to abate multiple threats. Furthermore management could be undertaken at sites that are in close proximity to reduce costs. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to prioritize investments in fire management, controlling invasive predators, and reducing grazing pressure in a bio-diverse region of southeastern Queensland, Australia. We compared outcomes of 5 management approaches based on different assumptions about interactions and quantified how investment needed, benefits expected, and the locations prioritized for implementation differed when interactions were taken into account. Managing for interactions altered decisions about where to invest and in which actions to invest and had the potential to deliver increased investment efficiency. Differences in high priority locations and actions were greatest between the approaches when we made different assumptions about how management actions deliver benefits through threat abatement: either all threats must be managed to conserve species or only one management action may be required. Threatened species management that does not consider interactions between actions may result in misplaced investments or misguided expectations of the effort required to mitigate threats to species.

  10. An Expert System For Multispectral Threat Assessment And Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alan N.

    1987-05-01

    A concept has been defined for an automatic system to manage the self-defense of a combat aircraft. Distinctive new features of this concept include: a. the flexible prioritization of tasks and coordinated use of sensor, countermeasures, flight systems and weapons assets by means of an automated planning function; b. the integration of state-of-the-art data fusion algorithms with event prediction processing; c. the use of advanced Artificial Intelligence tools to emulate the decision processes of tactical EW experts. Threat Assessment functions (a) estimate threat identity, lethality and intent on the basis of multi-spectral sensor data, and (b) predict the time to critical events in threat engagements (e.g., target acquisition, tracking, weapon launch, impact). Response Management functions (a) select candidate responses to reported threat situations; (b) estimate the effects of candidate actions on survival; and (c) coordinate the assignment of sensors, weapons and countermeasures with the flight plan. The system employs Finite State Models to represent current engagements and to predict subsequent events. Each state in a model is associated with a set of observable features, allowing interpretation of sensor data and adaptive use of sensor assets. Defined conditions on state transitions allow prediction of times to critical future states and are used in planning self-defensive responses, which are designed either to impede a particular state transition or to force a transition to a lower threat state.

  11. Matching and fairness in threat-based mobile sensor coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Yu, Ma T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Yau, King Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Chin, Jren-Chit [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Rao, Nageswara S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sensors can be used to effect complete coverage of a surveillance area for a given threat over time, thereby reducing the number of sensors necessary. The surveillance area may have a given threat profile as determined by the kind of threat, and accompanying meteorological, environmental, and human factors. In planning the movement of sensors, areas that are deemed higher threat should receive proportionately higher coverage. We propose a coverage algorithm for mobile sensors to achieve a coverage that will match - over the long term and as quantified by an RMSE metric - a given threat profile. Moreover, the algorithm has the following desirable properties: (1) stochastic, so that it is robust to contingencies and makes it hard for an adversary to anticipate the sensor's movement, (2) efficient, and (3) practical, by avoiding movement over inaccessible areas. Further to matching, we argue that a fairness measure of performance over the shorter time scale is also important. We show that the RMSE and fairness are, in general, antagonistic, and argue for the need of a combined measure of performance, which we call efficacy. We show how a pause time parameter of the coverage algorithm can be used to control the trade-off between the RMSE and fairness, and present an efficient offline algorithm to determine the optimal pause time maximizing the efficacy. Finally, we discuss the effects of multiple sensors, under both independent and coordinated operation. Extensive simulation results - under realistic coverage scenarios - are presented for performance evaluation.

  12. Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadés, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; van Leeuwen, Stephen; Walters, Belinda; Firn, Jennifer; Reeson, Andrew; Martin, Tara G; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    Conservation decision tools based on cost-effectiveness analysis are used to assess threat management strategies for improving species persistence. These approaches rank alternative strategies by their benefit to cost ratio but may fail to identify the optimal sets of strategies to implement under limited budgets because they do not account for redundancies. We devised a multiobjective optimization approach in which the complementarity principle is applied to identify the sets of threat management strategies that protect the most species for any budget. We used our approach to prioritize threat management strategies for 53 species of conservation concern in the Pilbara, Australia. We followed a structured elicitation approach to collect information on the benefits and costs of implementing 17 different conservation strategies during a 3-day workshop with 49 stakeholders and experts in the biodiversity, conservation, and management of the Pilbara. We compared the performance of our complementarity priority threat management approach with a current cost-effectiveness ranking approach. A complementary set of 3 strategies: domestic herbivore management, fire management and research, and sanctuaries provided all species with >50% chance of persistence for $4.7 million/year over 20 years. Achieving the same result cost almost twice as much ($9.71 million/year) when strategies were selected by their cost-effectiveness ranks alone. Our results show that complementarity of management benefits has the potential to double the impact of priority threat management approaches.

  13. A vector relational data modeling approach to Insider threat intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan F.; Anderson, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    We address the problem of detecting insider threats before they can do harm. In many cases, co-workers notice indications of suspicious activity prior to insider threat attacks. A partial solution to this problem requires an understanding of how information can better traverse the communication network between human intelligence and insider threat analysts. Our approach employs modern mobile communications technology and scale free network architecture to reduce the network distance between human sensors and analysts. In order to solve this problem, we propose a Vector Relational Data Modeling approach to integrate human "sensors," geo-location, and existing visual analytics tools. This integration problem is known to be difficult due to quadratic increases in cost associated with complex integration solutions. A scale free network integration approach using vector relational data modeling is proposed as a method for reducing network distance without increasing cost.

  14. Threat Assessment of Targets Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Huai-ping; LIU Jing-xu; CHEN Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In the context of cooperative engagement of armored vehicles, the threat factors of offensive targets are analyzed, and a threat assessment (TA) model is built based on a support v.ector machine (SVM) method. The SVM-based model has some advantages over the traditional method-based models: the complex factors of threat are considered in the cooperative engagement; the shortcomings of neural networks, such as local minimum and "over fitting", are overcome to improve the generalization ability; its operation speed is high and meets the needs of real time C2 of cooperative engagement; the assessment results could be more reasonable because of its self-learning capability. The analysis and simulation indicate that the SVM method is an effective method to resolve the TA problems.

  15. Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David; Nuclear Threats and Security Challenges

    2015-01-01

    With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the nuclear threats facing the world are constantly evolving and have grown more complex since the end of the Cold War. The diversion of complete weapon systems or nuclear material to rogue nations and terrorist organizations has increased. The events of the past years have proved the necessity to reevaluate these threats on a level never before considered.  In recognition that no single country possesses all of the answers to the critical scientific, institutional and legal questions associated with combating nuclear and radiological terrorism, the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” and this proceeding was structured to promote wide-ranging, multi-national exploration of critical technology needs and underlying scientific challenges to reducing the threat of nuclear/radiological terrorism; to illustrate through country-specific presentations how resulting technologies were used in national programs; and to outli...

  16. 49 CFR 1572.21 - Procedures for TWIC security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... described in 49 CFR 1572.5. The Initial Determination of Threat Assessment includes— (i) A statement that... described in 49 CFR 1572.5 and may pose an imminent security threat. The Initial Determination of Threat... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for TWIC security threat...

  17. Fragile isthmus under pressure. Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypsilantis, J

    1992-01-01

    In Costa Rica the 1300 hectares of rainforest that comprise La Selva Biological Station support more than 1.5 times the number of plant and animal species found in California. In Central America over 2/3 of all deforestation has occurred since 1950, and closed canopy forest has shrunk dramatically during the past 40 years. The population in Central America, plus Mexico, grew by around 28% during the period 1977-87. At the same time the surface of forests and woodlands decreased by 13%, to 26% of the total land area. Croplands grew by 4% during these 10 years, to 13% of the total land area, and pastures by 2% to 37%; and unproductive lands grew by 14% to 24% of total land area. 50% of land is seriously eroded or degraded in El Salvador and over 30% in Guatemala. Central America's population was 22 million in 1980, 29 million in 1990, and it is anticipated to reach 63 million by 2025. Central America's urban population reached 46% in the 1990s: over 13 million with continuing increases in the next few decades. The growing population's need for fuelwood and the demand for agricultural land pose the main threat to forests in the coming decades. Close to 90% of the energy used by households comes from fuelwood. In the Telire reserve in Costa Rica 366 Cabecars are not yet an environmental threat for the forest. The Peten area in Guatemala is inhabited by around 300,000 people whose destructive slash and burn practices pose a serious threat to the environment which is exacerbated by a high population growth rate of 5.5% a year. PMID:12317701

  18. Phishing - A Growing Threat to E-Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, M Tariq

    2011-01-01

    In today's business environment, it is difficult to imagine a workplace without access to the web, yet a variety of email born viruses, spyware, adware, Trojan horses, phishing attacks, directory harvest attacks, DoS attacks, and other threats combine to attack businesses and customers. This paper is an attempt to review phishing - a constantly growing and evolving threat to Internet based commercial transactions. Various phishing approaches that include vishing, spear phishng, pharming, keyloggers, malware, web Trojans, and others will be discussed. This paper also highlights the latest phishing analysis made by Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) and Korean Internet Security Center.

  19. Quality of life threats in recreational and competitive sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    Quality of life threats in recreational and competitive sport Author: ass. Professor Jan Toftegaard Støckel Key words: sport, stress, depression, illness, Previous research has shown that personal issues (nutrition, injury, goals and expectations), coach-athlete issues (coach, coaching style......, depression or illness (SDI) by odds ratio 6,5 in elite sport compared to recreational sport. One in eight athletes reported SDI and highest associations are related to coach behavior. The key question for this abstract is to examine whether men and women are equally vulnerable to SDI at various sport levels...... and secondly what types of behaviors may pose the biggest threats to athlete welfare....

  20. Threat representative droplet generation and surface interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Steven; Chyba, Thomas H.; Jones, Robert M.; Harper, Gordon; Haslam, Diane

    2011-05-01

    We present our experiments with state-of-the-art equipment to dispense threat-representative (3 - 90 nL) freely falling droplets of viscous chemical material (material can be created on demand and the behavior of the droplet on a surface can be monitored as a function of time. Knowledge of how these droplets behave on surfaces is critical in understanding an entire chemical threat scenario and directly impacts the design, testing, and success of standoff surface chemical sensor technology and modeling efforts alike. We are currently working to address this knowledge gap by recording 'cradle-to-grave' droplet dissemination and surface interaction events.

  1. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  2. The indoor as a scene for biological threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Kresten; Gunnarsen, Lars; Bräuner, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    on the user-interface of the first prototype, a second user-interface was developed. We tested the first generation prototype in combination with the second generation user interface on two types of users: A) First responders with experience in bio-threat action and B) Facility Management operators......The paper presents the result of involving users in developing a user-friendly device for easy and fast detection of bio-threats in indoor settings. Bio-protect is a project supported by the European Commission, with the concept of developing a fast-alert, mobile, easy-to-use device to detect...

  3. The Public Place of Central Libraries: Findings from Toronto and Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Gloria J.; Hopkins, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the social roles of public libraries focuses on the public use of central libraries in Toronto and Vancouver. Results support the notion that central libraries fulfill ideals of public place, and that private market interests represent a threat to its role as a public place. (Contains 99 references.) (Author/LRW)

  4. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear risk has become a major social communication along the 20. century because of its critical socio-political impact. That communication is not limited to expert speeches and simple acceptation. The way people understand that kind of threat is based on beliefs and on imaginary pictures. Consequently, and because it shapes people attitude, expectations and behaviours, their analysis is a key for policy and prevention. We will present, in the light of the research on risk perception and social psychology theoretical background, how people can manage with the nuclear fear. Some particular points will be studied: the nature of nuclear threat and fear, the cultural and media coverage and the consequences of this threat on behaviour. We will first focus on what a societal threat is and of which nature is the nuclear threat. We will rely on statistical data on risk perception. We have to consider the two main fields of information: first the nuclear threat as a mass destruction weapon and second, the radiological risk as a consequence of civil use of radiological material. Those two aspects, deeply related for most people, make the roots for the described fears. Then, the perception of the risks relative to nuclear is necessarily influenced by this representation. The representation of the nuclear power is and will be for next years, related to the nuclear mushroom as experimentally pointed o ut by Fiske, both with the abnormal children of Chernobyl. How can we change that vision? Not to be a liar, it will be hard work because it a old story, a long construction of what will be the future of mankind, something deeply influenced by media, movie, geopolitical facts like the cold war or technological accident like Three Mile Island or Chernobyl. It has to deal with the problem of media transmission of fears, which is a problem in itself, but due to the scientific base of our problem, particularly relevant. Moreover, there is a strong cultural background that maintains

  5. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciszewski, T. [University Rene Descartes - Paris 5, 92 - Boulogne (France)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear risk has become a major social communication along the 20. century because of its critical socio-political impact. That communication is not limited to expert speeches and simple acceptation. The way people understand that kind of threat is based on beliefs and on imaginary pictures. Consequently, and because it shapes people attitude, expectations and behaviours, their analysis is a key for policy and prevention. We will present, in the light of the research on risk perception and social psychology theoretical background, how people can manage with the nuclear fear. Some particular points will be studied: the nature of nuclear threat and fear, the cultural and media coverage and the consequences of this threat on behaviour. We will first focus on what a societal threat is and of which nature is the nuclear threat. We will rely on statistical data on risk perception. We have to consider the two main fields of information: first the nuclear threat as a mass destruction weapon and second, the radiological risk as a consequence of civil use of radiological material. Those two aspects, deeply related for most people, make the roots for the described fears. Then, the perception of the risks relative to nuclear is necessarily influenced by this representation. The representation of the nuclear power is and will be for next years, related to the nuclear mushroom as experimentally pointed o ut by Fiske, both with the abnormal children of Chernobyl. How can we change that vision? Not to be a liar, it will be hard work because it a old story, a long construction of what will be the future of mankind, something deeply influenced by media, movie, geopolitical facts like the cold war or technological accident like Three Mile Island or Chernobyl. It has to deal with the problem of media transmission of fears, which is a problem in itself, but due to the scientific base of our problem, particularly relevant. Moreover, there is a strong cultural background that maintains

  6. Stereotype Threat in Organizations: An Examination of its Scope, Triggers, and Possible Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Laura J. Kray; Shirako, Aiwa

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores stereotype threat in organizational contexts. Building on the understanding that stereotype threat involves concerns about confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group, we begin by elucidating the scope of potential stereotype threat effects in organizations. We first examine the ubiquity of evaluations in organizations, which are at the heart of stereotype threat. Next we specify the potential psychological consequences of stereotype threat on targeted individua...

  7. Role of editors and journals in detecting and preventing scientific misconduct: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Ana; Katavic, Vedran; Marusic, Matko

    2007-09-01

    Scientific journals have a central place in protecting research integrity because published articles are the most visible documentation of research. We used SWOT analysis to audit (S)trengths and (W)eaknesses as internal and (O)pportunities and (T)hreats as external factors affecting journals' responsibility in addressing research integrity issues. Strengths include editorial independence, authority and expertise, power to formulate editorial policies, and responsibility for the integrity of published records. Weaknesses stem from having no mandate for legal action, reluctance to get involved, and lack of training. Opportunities for editors are new technologies for detecting misconduct, policies by editorial organization or national institutions, and greater transparency of published research. Editors face threats from the lack of legal regulation and culture of research integrity in academic communities, lack of support from stakeholders in scientific publishing, and different pressures. Journal editors cannot be the policing force of the scientific community but they should actively ensure the integrity of the scientific record. PMID:17970252

  8. GRACE-Based Analysis of Total Water Storage Trends and Groundwater Fluctuations in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer in Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, K. A.; Milewski, A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal water management practices and strategies, in arid and semi-arid environments, are often hindered by a lack of quantitative and qualitative understanding of hydrological processes. Moreover, progressive overexploitation of groundwater resources to meet agricultural, industrial, and domestic requirements is drawing concern over the sustainability of such exhaustive abstraction levels, especially in environments where groundwater is a major source of water. NASA's GRACE (gravity recovery and climate change experiment) mission, since March 2002, has advanced the understanding of hydrological events, especially groundwater depletion, through integrated measurements and modeling of terrestrial water mass. In this study, GLDAS variables (rainfall rate, evapotranspiration rate, average soil moisture), and TRMM 3B42.V7A precipitation satellite data, were used in combination with 95 GRACE-generated gravitational anomalies maps, to quantify total water storage change (TWSC) and groundwater storage change (GWSC) from January 2003 to December 2010 (excluding June 2003), in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer System in northwestern Africa. Separately processed and computed GRACE products by JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA), CSR (Center of Space Research, UT Austin), and GFZ (German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam), were used to determine which GRACE dataset(s) best reflect total water storage and ground water changes in northwest Africa. First-order estimates of annual TWSC for NWSAS (JPL: +5.297 BCM; CSR: -5.33 BCM; GFZ: -9.96 BCM) and Tindouf Aquifer System (JPL: +1.217 BCM; CSR: +0.203 BCM; GFZ: +1.019 BCM), were computed using zonal averaging over a span of eight years. Preliminary findings of annual GWSC for NWSAS (JPL: +2.45 BCM; CSR: -2.278 BCM; GFZ: -6.913 BCM) and Tindouf Aquifer System (JPL: +1.108 BCM; CSR: +0.094 BCM; GFZ: +0.910 BCM), were calculating using a water budget approach, parameterized by GLDAS

  9. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST…

  10. Mathematics Self-Efficacy: Stereotype Threat versus Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinle, Amy; Mims, Grace A.

    2009-01-01

    Children's academic self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of achievement (Wigfield and Eccles, "Contemporary Educational Psychology" 25(1): 68-81, 2000). The present research examined mathematics self-efficacy and the relationship of racial context from the perspective of two competing bodies of research. Stereotype threat theory would…

  11. Prioritizing Threats to Patient Safety in Rural Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit; Singh, Ashok; Servoss, Timothy J.; Singh, Gurdev

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rural primary care is a complex environment in which multiple patient safety challenges can arise. To make progress in improving safety with limited resources, each practice needs to identify those safety problems that pose the greatest threat to patients and focus efforts on these. Purpose: To describe and field-test a novel approach to…

  12. Food Security in Russia: Monitoring, Trends and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Shagaida; Vasiliy Uzun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on monitoring, assessment and threats of food security in Russia. The authors propose methodologies and submit calculations of aggregate indices of assessment of the food security. Economic accessibility of food for groups of population with different income levels in the country as a whole and in the constituents of the Russian Federation.

  13. Facing death together : Understanding the consequences of mortality threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    In everyday life people are constantly reminded of the temporary nature of life. Newspapers, television, and the Internet offer a constant stream or death reminders, ranging from terrorist attacks to natural disasters. According to Terror Management Theory, people are able to cope with these threats

  14. As Threats of Violence Escalate, Primate Researchers Stand Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Scientists doing research on primates are increasingly being subjected to threats and acts of violence from animal rights groups. The intimidation has resulted in many laboratories taking extensive security measures. Some scientists claim, however, that there is no surrogate for animal research in understanding human diseases. There are fears that…

  15. Suitable Enemies? Governmentality of Youth: Youth as a Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowicka, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the discourse of politics towards (for) youth, which the author defines as the "cultural politics of risk". The article begins with scientific representations of youth as a threat, as a group inclined to engage in risky behaviours. It then focuses on theoretical approaches called the "risk paradigm", providing a…

  16. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-04

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.  Created: 5/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/4/2016.

  17. Reasoning about threats: From observables to situation assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Marck, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to assess threats that are based on observables. Observables are properties of persons, i.e., their behavior and interaction with other persons and objects. We consider observables that can be extracted from sensor signals and intelligence. In this paper, we discuss situation

  18. Survey of Threats and Assaults by Patients on Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Yael; Moniwa, Emiko; Crisp-Han, Holly; Levy, Dana; Coverdale, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine the prevalence of threats and assaults by patients on psychiatry residents, their consequences, and the perceived adequacy of supports and institutional responses. Method: Authors conducted an anonymous survey of 519 psychiatry residents in 13 psychiatry programs across the United States. The survey…

  19. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (Mage  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed.

  20. Assessing the recent terrorist threat to the Malacca Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Chalk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    "In light of these recent threats this article examines the likelihood of sea-based extremist violence in the region, JI (Jemaah Islamiya) capacity to operate in an offshore environment and whether Southeast Asia is a place that al-Qaida would seek to exploit in terms of maritime attacks."

  1. Escorting commercial aircraft to reduce the MANPAD threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Nicholas; Richardson, M. A.; Butters, B.; Walmsley, R.; Ayling, R.; Taylor, B.

    2005-11-01

    This paper studies the Man-Portable Air Defence System (MANPADS) threat against large commercial aircraft using flight profile analysis, engagement modelling and simulation. Non-countermeasure equipped commercial aircraft are at risk during approach and departure due to the large areas around airports that would need to be secured to prevent the use of highly portable and concealable MANPADs. A software model (CounterSim) has been developed and was used to simulate an SA-7b and large commercial aircraft engagement. The results of this simulation have found that the threat was lessened when a escort fighter aircraft is flown in the 'Centreline Low' position, or 25 m rearward from the large aircraft and 15 m lower, similar to the Air-to-Air refuelling position. In the model a large aircraft on approach had a 50% chance of being hit or having a near miss (within 20m) whereas escorted by a countermeasure equipped F-16 in the 'Centerline Low' position, this was reduced to only 14%. Departure is a particularly vulnerable time for large aircraft due to slow climb rates and the inability to fly evasive manoeuvres. The 'Centreline Low' escorted departure greatly reduced the threat to 16% hit or near miss from 62% for an unescorted heavy aircraft. Overall the CounterSim modelling has showed that escorting a civilian aircraft on approach and departure can reduce the MANPAD threat by 3 to 4 times.

  2. Cognitive bias for pictorial and linguistic threat cues in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van den Hout; B. Hoekzema; P. de Jong; M. Kindt

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the conditions under which threat-related cognitive bias can be observed in anxious children. Measures of cognitive bias for threatening words and pictures were obtained from 55 spider fearful children and 58 non-fearful children (aged 8-11 yrs) in the 1st expe

  3. Competition Derived from Innovation as a Substitution Threat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review of the role of innovation as substitution threat. The interesting strategy for those facing what in retrospect proves to be full substitution is the strategy of 'switch' to the substituting technology. the context-dependent uncedrtainty involved in the switch decision is ex...

  4. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  5. The effects of takeover threats of shareholders and firm value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco; Riyanto, Yohanes

    1999-01-01

    We study the role of takeover threats as a corporate control mechanism using Aghion and Tirole's (1997) model of formal and real authority. Shareholders do not monitor the manager's actions, since ownership is widely dispersed. A corporate raider may monitor, and steps in if a profit opportunity exi

  6. The effects of takeover threats of shareholders and firm value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco; Riyanto, Yohanes

    2000-01-01

    Abstract We study the role of takeover threats as a corporate control mechanism using Aghion and Tirole's (1997) model of formal and real authority. Shareholders do not monitor the manager's actions, since ownership is widely dispersed. A corporate raider may monitor, and steps in if a prot opportun

  7. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus: A threat to avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt (LW) is a disease caused by Raffaelea sp., a fungal symbiont associated with the recently-introduced redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus. Impact of RAB as a vector of the disease to avocado is a threat to avocado production in the U.S. Since 2006, we have a) tested suscepti...

  8. Degrees of Integrity: The Threat of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David W.; Lindner, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is the focus of growing international concern among governments, educators, students, and other stakeholders. Those working in higher education institutions now face a unique convergence of pressures that is creating a heightened threat to the integrity of the higher education enterprise worldwide. This paper draws…

  9. Societal threat as a moderator of cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Roos, Patrick; Nau, Dana; Harrington, Jesse; Mu, Yan; Jackson, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    As scholars have rushed to either prove or refute cultural group selection (CGS), the debate lacks sufficient consideration of CGS's potential moderators. We argue that pressures for CGS are particularly strong when groups face ecological and human-made threat. Field, experimental, computational, and genetic evidence are presented to substantiate this claim.

  10. Collective threat, trust, and the sense of personal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E

    2011-09-01

    A threatening and dangerous neighborhood may produce distressing emotions of anxiety, anger, and depression among the individuals who live there because residents find these neighborhoods subjectively alienating. The author introduces the idea that neighborhood disorder indicates collective threat, which is alienating-shaping perceptions of powerlessness and mistrust. The author presents a theory of trust that posits that mistrust develops in places where resources are scarce and threat is common and among individuals with few resources and who feel powerless to avoid or manage the threat. Perceived powerlessness develops with exposure to uncontrollable, negative conditions such as crime, danger, and threat in one's neighborhood. Thus, neighborhood disorder, common in disadvantaged neighborhoods, influences mistrust directly and indirectly by increasing perceptions of powerlessness among residents, which amplify disorder's effect on mistrust. The very thing needed to protect disadvantaged residents from the negative effects of their environment-a sense of personal control-is eroded by that environment in a process that the author calls structural amplification. Powerlessness and mistrust in turn are distressing, increasing levels of anxiety, anger, and depression.

  11. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... current cost of conducting security threat assessments. TSA determines fee amounts and any necessary revisions to the fee amounts based on current costs, using a method of analysis consistent with widely accepted accounting principles and practices, and calculated in accordance with the provisions of 31...

  12. Uncovering Embedded Face Threat Mitigation in Landscape Architecture Critique Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley Gaffney, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Receiving public feedback on academic work may threaten students' face, particularly when such feedback is critical. One way that feedback may be cushioned is through face-threat mitigation techniques. I analyzed the use of such techniques in the feedback given by faculty and professionals to landscape architecture students as preparation for…

  13. The effects of takeover threats on shareholders and firm value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, MA; Riyanto, Y

    2006-01-01

    We study the role of takeover threats as a corporate control mechanism using [Aghion, P., Tirole, J., 1997. Formal and real authority in organizations. Journal of Political Economy 105, 1-29] model of formal and real authority. Shareholders do not monitor the manager's actions since ownership is wid

  14. Globalisation of water: opportunities and threats of virtual water trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Where the river basin is generally seen as the appropriate unit for analyzing freshwater availability and use, it becomes increasingly important to put freshwater issues in a global context. The book analyses the opportunities and threats of international virtual water trade in the context of solvin

  15. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists (M age  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed. PMID:23606785

  16. Computer Viruses and Related Threats: A Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, John P.; Carnahan, Lisa J.

    This document contains guidance for managing the threats of computer viruses, Trojan horses, network worms, etc. and related software along with unauthorized use. It is geared towards managers of end-user groups, managers dealing with multi-user systems, personal computers, and networks. The guidance is general and addresses the vulnerabilities…

  17. Cognitive bias for pictorial and linguistic threat cues in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M; van den Hout, M; de Jong, Peter; Hoekzema, B

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the conditions under which threat-related cognitive bias can be observed in anxious children. Measures of cognitive bias for threatening words and pictures were obtained from spider fearful children (N = 55) and non-fearful children (N = 58) aged 8-11 in the fi

  18. Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J T

    2005-11-08

    In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats include people as well as weapons. In most cases, security personnel must make very fast assessments of a threat based upon limited amount of data. Among other attributes, UWB has been shown and quantified to penetrate and propagate through many materials (wood, some concretes, non-metallic building materials, some soils, etc.) while maintaining high range resolution. We have build collaborations with university partners and government agencies. We have considered the impact of psychometrics on target recognition and identification. Specifically we have formulated images in real-time that will engage the user's vision system in a more active way to enhance image interpretation capabilities. In this project, we are researching the use of real time (field programmable gate arrays) integrated with high resolution (cm scale), ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic signals for imaging personnel through smoke and walls. We evaluated the ability of real-time UWB imaging for detecting smaller objects, such as concealed weapons that are carried by the obscured personnel. We also examined the cognitive interpretation process of real time UWB electromagnetic images.

  19. New and emerging threats of cyber crime and terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in information and communication technologies (ICT) inextricably bring new threats to the end-users and society. However, the last 40 years have shown that many of the same cyber security design and programming failures occur over and over again when a new ICT innovation and development

  20. Predictors of Collegiate Student-Athletes' Susceptibility to Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Schneider, Richard; Hwang, Seunghyun; Skogsberg, Nikolaus J.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation sought to determine the extent to which collegiate student-athletes are susceptible to stereotype threat and the factors that predict it. We proposed a structural equation model (SEM) by which a perceived coach's positive regard for an athlete's academic ability, athletic identity, and academic identity predicts the…

  1. Regulation in a Brave New World: Safeguarding against Subversive Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornosty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology is a rapidly advancing science that has the potential to revolutionize medicine and transform human abilities. Accompanying these positives are an underdiscussed category of threats to principles of human rights and equality. Although any technology might be used to inegalitarian ends, biotechnology has the capacity to beget…

  2. Threat, Intimidation, and Student Financial Market Knowledge: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Matthew W.; Devoto, Steve; Kent, Daniel W.; Harrison, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Threat emanating from financial markets may intimidate college students to some degree. In this article, the authors considered the influence of such intimidation on student financial market knowledge. They hypothesized a negative relationship between intimidation and market knowledge. An empirical study of over 150 undergraduate business school…

  3. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, Robert MD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:151-156.

  4. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Conflict and creativity: Threat-rigidity or motivated focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; B.A. Nijstad

    2008-01-01

    According to the traditional threat-rigidity reasoning, people in social conflict will be less flexible, less creative, more narrow-minded, and more rigid in their thinking when they adopt a conflict rather than a cooperation mental set. The authors propose and test an alternative, motivated focus a

  6. Gender Identification Moderates Social Identity Threat Effects on Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Hagiwara, Nao

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined whether gender identification moderates women's working memory following exposure to situations that threaten the integrity of their gender group. Young adults read sentences that either threatened women's gender identity (in the social identity threat condition) or did not threaten this identity (in the control…

  7. Not so Simple: The Threats to Leadership Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottery, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This article begins by examining the possible meanings of "sustainability," and argues that most meanings are prescriptive rather than descriptive in nature: they tend, either overtly or covertly, to recommend the particular end-states that writers desire. The article then looks at the threats to leadership sustainability, suggesting…

  8. Laser Remediation of Threats Posed by Small Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Rogers, Jan R.; Hovater, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The continually increasing amount of orbital debris in near Earth space poses an increasing challenge to space situational awareness. Recent collisions of spacecraft caused abrupt increases in the density of both large and small debris in near Earth space. An especially challenging class of threats is that due to the increasing density of small (1 mm to 10 cm dimension) orbital debris. This small debris poses a serious threat since: (1) The high velocity enables even millimeter dimension debris to cause serious damage to vulnerable areas of space assets, e.g., detector windows; (2) The small size and large number of debris elements prevent adequate detection and cataloguing. We have identified solutions to this threat in the form of novel laser systems and novel ways of using these laser systems. While implementation of the solutions we identify is challenging we find approaches offering threat mitigation within time frames and at costs of practical interest. We base our analysis on the unique combination of coherent light specifically structured in both space and time and applied in novel ways entirely within the vacuum of space to deorbiting small debris. We compare and contrast laser based small debris removal strategies using ground based laser systems with strategies using space based laser systems. We find laser systems located and used entirely within space offer essential and decisive advantages over groundbased laser systems.

  9. Having more potential raiders weakens the takeover threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that a well-developed market for corporate control results in a takeover threat that disciplines management. We study the effects of a larger market for corporate control and show that an increase in the number of potential raiders of a firm may decrease the probability of a

  10. Stereotype Threat and Test Performance: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2007-01-01

    Ethical guidelines require school psychologists to ensure that their assessment practices are nondiscriminatory, but typical discussions on this topic neglect the possible discriminatory effects of cultural stereotypes on assessment results. Recent research on "stereotype threat" shows that students' knowledge of stereotype-based negative…

  11. Inclusion of Premeditated Threats in the Safety Methodology for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade the global effort to prevent terrorism or to mitigate its harm, if prevention fails, has increased. The nuclear power community was involved in this effort trying to prevent terrorist attacks on NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants). A natural extension of terror restraining is the prevention of any premeditated damage to the plant, including acts of state. The pre-feasibility study of an Israeli NPP, conducted by the Ministry of National Infrastructures, has identified the risk of hostile damage to the NPP as a major obstacle to the establishment of nuclear power in Israel, second only to the refusal of nuclear exporting nations to sell an NPP to Israelv. The General Director of the Ministry and the Head of the IAEC (Israeli Atomic Energy Commission) have approved continuation of the pre-feasibility study. This synopsis presents a study, regarding premeditated threats to NPPs, commissioned by the Ministry of National Infrastructures as part of the continuation. It focuses on the safety aspect of premeditated threats originating outside the plant, although a significant part of the analysis can be extended to other subjects such as theft or diversion of strategic materials. The study deals only with methodology and does not encompass specific threats or protection measures. Conclusions and recommendations and marked by bold italics Arial font. The theory of nuclear safety regarding non-premeditated safety events (equipment failures, human errors, natural events, etc.) is well developed. The study refers to these events and the theory attached to them as classical, distinguishing them from premeditated events. The study defines two postulates, related to premeditated threats: Correspondence – We should adopt the classical methodology whenever possible. Regulation – The safety of an NPP from premeditated threats requires examination, approval and inspection by a regulator. Key issues of the methodology with substantial differences from the classical

  12. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The flaviviruses dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex spp.), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses. PMID:25287260

  13. Chronology of Awareness About US National Park External Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Craig L.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to raise understanding of the history of protected area external threat awareness in the United States and at World Protected Area Congresses. The earliest concerns about external threats to US national parks began in the late nineteenth century: a potential railroad transgression of Yellowstone National Park in the 1880s. During the early and mid 1930s, George Wright and colleagues focused on outside boundary concerns like of hunting and trapping of furbearers, grazing, logging, disease and hybridization between species. In the 1960s, a worldwide recognition began about the role of outside habitat fragmentation/isolation on nature reserves and human generated stressors crossing their boundaries. The State of the Park Report 1980 added a plethora of threats: oil/gas and geothermal exploration and development, hydropower and reclamation projects, urban encroachment, roads, resorts, and recreational facilities. The early 1980s ushered in political interference with NPS threats abatement efforts as well as Congressional legislative initiatives to support the abatement challenges of the agency. By 1987, the Government Accounting Office issued its first report on National Park Service (NPS) progress in dealing with external threats. Climate change impacts on parks, especially in terms of animals adjusting their temperature and moisture requirements by latitude and altitude, surfaced in the technical literature by the mid-1980s. By 1992, the world parks community stressed the need to integrate protected areas into the surrounding landscape and human community. The importance of the matrix has gradually gained appreciation in the scientific community. This chronology represents one example of national park and protected areas' institutional history contributing to the breath of modern conservation science.

  14. A taxonomic study of the genus Tuarega Uvarov, 1943 with descriptions of two new species from Sahara (Orthoptera: Acridoidea, Pamphagidae, Prionotropisinae)%土尔蝗属分类研究及撒哈拉地区二新种记述(直翅目:蝗总科:癞蝗科:锯癞蝗亚科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印象初; 李新江

    2011-01-01

    本文对土尔蝗属Tuarega Uvarov,1943进行了分类研究,记述了撒哈拉地区2新种--撒哈拉土尔蝗Tuarega sahara sp.nov.和巴氏土尔蝗Tuarega parisi sp.nov.,并编制了该属3个已知种的检索表.新种模式标本保存于西班牙国立自然博物馆(Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales).%This paper deals with a taxonomic study of the genus Tuarega Uvarov, 1943, with 2 new species, namely Tuarega sahara sp.nov.and Tuarega parisi sp.nov., from Sahara described.T.sahara sp.nov.is similar to T.insignis ( Lucas, 1851 ), but it differs from the latter in four characters: the widest width of pronotum longer than length of metazona, median vein of tegmen not combined with cubital vein, radius vein of tegmen with 5 branches, cubital vein of tegmen with 2 branches.T.parisi sp.nov.is similar to T.insignis, but it differs from the latter in four characters: the widest width of pronotum longer than length of metazona, median vein of tegmen not combined with cubital vein, median vein of tegmen with 2 branches, eubital vein of tegmen with 2 branches.It is also similar to T.sahara sp.nov., but it differs from the latter by radius vein of tegmen with 7 branches and median vein of tegmen with 2 branches.A key to all known species of Tuarega is given.The type speeimens are deposited in the Spanish National Museum of Natural Sciences ( Museo Nacional de Cieneias Naturales, MNCN).

  15. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  16. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an operator identify potential threats...

  17. Nuclear power threats, public opposition and green electricity adoption: Effects of threat belief appraisal and fear arousal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the extent to which willingness to oppose nuclear power and intention to adopt green electricity are related to the cognitive and emotional appraisal of threats deriving from nuclear power. The analysis draws on a theoretical framework which introduces emotional fear arousal as a direct behavioural antecedent of coping behaviour into a model based on cognitive centred Protection Motivation Theory (PMT, Maddux and Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1983) and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM, Witte, 1992, 1998). Hypothesized relations are tested in a nationally representative online study conducted in April and May 2012, one year after the Fukushima accident. Results support the hypothesized influences of perceived threat, fear arousal and perceived coping efficacy. Support for the proposed effects of fear control is rather limited. Findings contribute to extending previous knowledge on the role of cognitive and emotional appraisal processes induced by awareness of threats from nuclear power as behavioural antecedents of both opposing nuclear power and adopting green electricity. Findings of the study have implications for nuclear power policy and activism, as well as for institutional and commercial promoters of voluntary residential green electricity adoption. - Highlights: • Nationally representative online survey on nuclear power conducted in Spain in April and May 2012. • Opposition to nuclear power and green electricity adoption are related to threat beliefs. • Emotional fear arousal motivates nuclear opposition and green electricity uptake. • Significant behavioural effects of coping efficacy are confirmed. • Influences of fear control on behaviour intentions are rather weak

  18. Threat and Selective Exposure: The Moderating Role of Threat and Decision Context on Confirmatory Information Search after Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmuller, Andreas; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Fischer, Julia; Frey, Dieter; Crelley, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the impact of perceived threat on confirmatory information search (selective exposure) in the context of decision making have yielded mixed results. Some studies have suggested that confirmatory information search is reduced, yet others have found contradictory effects. The present series of 5 studies consistently found that…

  19. Feeling the Threat: Stereotype Threat as a Contextual Barrier to Women's Science Career Choice Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Eric D.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Chase, Justin P.; Smith, Jessi L.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2000) holds that contextual barriers inhibit self-efficacy and goal choice intentions from points both near and far from the active career development situation. The current study examined the influence of one such proximal barrier, stereotype threat, on attainment of these…

  20. Adding Security to Web Services : An Automatic, Verifiable, and Centralized Mechanism for Web Services Input Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Brekken, Lars Arne; Åsprang, Rune Frøysa

    2006-01-01

    Accepting unvalidated input is considered today's greatest web security threat. This master's thesis addresses that threat by proposing an automatic and centralized mechanism for validating web services input. By building on existing web services standards, the proposed solution intercepts incoming web service requests and validates them against a security policy. A major design goal for this work was to realize web services input validation without modifying existing functionality. That is,...

  1. Barbara E. Barich People, Water and grain. Beginings of domestication. The Sahara and the Nile Valley, L'Herma di Bretschneider, Rome, 1998, 155 p., 35 fig. dont 7 cartes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Camps

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Il est des petits livres qui, à l'usage, se révèlent de grandes œuvres. C'est le cas de la dernière publication de B. Barich, professeur à l'Université romaine de la Sapienza. Spécialiste de la préhistoire récente du Sahara. L'auteur a eu l'excellente idée de montrer, en douze chapitres l'évolution culturelle qui, entre 10 000 et 8 000 BP, transforma les populations sahariennes vivant de chasse et de cueillette, en pasteurs et cultivateurs. Ces douze chapitres sont des synthèses régionales qu...

  2. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  3. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2014-08-04

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  5. Sniffing Threat and Practices in IPv6 Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Xiushuang; WEN Zhankao; ZHANG Dengke

    2006-01-01

    The IPv4 protocol suite is vulnerable to a variety of attacks.IPv6 security is in many ways the same as IPv4 security, the basic mechanisms for transporting packets across the network stay mostly unchanged, and the upper-layer protocols that transport the actual application data are mostly unaffected.This paper illustrates sniffing threat against IPv4 and then compares how the threat might influence an IPv6 networks.This is prefaced by a brief overview of current practices around the design of an IPv4 Internet edge network and then followed by a review of how that IPv4 edge network needs to evolve in order to secure the addition of IPv6.As IPv6 security is a large and complex subject, and also, IPv6 network is still at the very beginning stage and has not been fully examined in fact, this paper focus on the security requirements of medium edge networks.

  6. Space debris and other threats from outer space

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    The mounting problem of space debris in low earth orbit and its threat to the operation of application satellites has been increasingly recognized as space activities increase. The efforts of the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordinating Committee (IADC) and UN COPUS have now led to international guidelines to mitigate the creation of new debris. This book discusses the technical studies being developed for active removal processes and otherwise mitigating problems of space debris, particularly in low earth orbit. This book also considers threats to space systems and the Earth that comes from natural causes such as asteroids, coronal mass ejections, and radiation. After more than half a century of space applications and explorations, the time has come to consider ways to provide sustainability for long-term space activities. 

  7. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  8. A survey on top security threats in cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kazim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing enables the sharing of resources such as storage, network, applications and software through internet. Cloud users can lease multiple resources according to their requirements, and pay only for the services they use. However, despite all cloud benefits there are many security concerns related to hardware, virtualization, network, data and service providers that act as a significant barrier in the adoption of cloud in the IT industry. In this paper, we survey the top security concerns related to cloud computing. For each of these security threats we describe, i how it can be used to exploit cloud components and its effect on cloud entities such as providers and users, and ii the security solutions that must be taken to prevent these threats. These solutions include the security techniques from existing literature as well as the best security practices that must be followed by cloud administrators.

  9. LIF bio-aerosol threat triggers: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreez, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Bio-aerosol terrorist attacks have been carried out against civilians in the United States and elsewhere. Unfortunately, recurrence appears inevitable. A fast, reliable, and inexpensive bioaerosol threat detection trigger can be an important tool for detect-to-protect and detect-to-treat countermeasure scenarios. Bio-aerosol threat detection triggers employing light, historically laser light but recently LED light, for induced native- or auto-fluorescence (LIF) have been developed for well over a decade without a generally accepted solution being found. This paper presents a brief history of LIF triggers and reviews many vendor efforts, past and current. Various technical approaches and design considerations are discussed. Triggers from ICx technology, currently available or in development, are also discussed.

  10. Framework for Analyzing the Future Threat of WMD Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J.F. Forest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines theories of practical and strategic constraints that collectively explain why so few terrorist groups in history have crossed (or attempted to cross the WMD threshold. From this analysis, it becomes clear that a terrorist group's deliberations about WMD can be influenced (positively or negatively by a variety of factors. Our projections of the future WMD terrorism threat must therefore account for changes in the kinds of practical and strategic constraints that could lead to an increased willingness and/or capability of a group to pursue these kinds of weapons. Further, there are ways in which governments can influence a terrorist group's decision-making and thus have a direct impact on the future evolution of the WMD terrorism threat.

  11. Opportunities and threats for the launch of a smartphone app

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Eduardo Manuel Rosas Nobre Quinteiro

    2015-01-01

    Field lab: Entrepreneurial and innovative ventures The following work project illustrates the opportunities and threats of the industry for the launch of a smartphone app. In the first part, the technological and economic contextual drivers are analyzed in-depth through the study of key variables for the proliferation of the industry. In the second part, the characteristics of the market are exposed through a market assessment including an analysis of the industry rivalry and i...

  12. An Ecological Assessment of the Pandemic Threat of Zika Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Colin J.; Dougherty, Eric R.; Getz, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus poses a severe threat to human health. While the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the Americas indicates that the full potential distribution of Zika remains uncertain. Moreover, many studies rely on its similarity to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown ecological comparability. Here we compile a comprehensive spatially-explicit occurrence dataset fr...

  13. Resource Management with Stochastic Recharge and Environmental Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Leizarowitz, Arie; Tsur, Yacov

    2009-01-01

    Exploitation diminishes the capacity of renewable resources to with-stand environmental stress, increasing their vulnerability to extreme conditions that may trigger abrupt changes. The onset of such events depends on the coincidence of extreme environmental conditions (environmental threat) and the resource state (determining its resilience). When the former is uncertain and the latter evolves stochastically, the uncertainty regarding the event occurrence is the result of the combined effect...

  14. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    OpenAIRE

    Prokop Pavol; Ozel Murat; Usak Muhammet; Senay Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically ...

  15. Current laboratory methods for biological threat agent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchal, E A; Teska, J D; Ludwig, G V; Shoemaker, D R; Ezzell, J W

    2001-09-01

    The authors present an integrated approach for the identification of biological threat agents. The methods used have been used extensively in field exercises and during response to incidents of biological terrorism. A diagnostic system, which integrates the clinical diagnosis or medical intelligence with immunodiagnostic tests, rapid gene amplification assays, and standard culture, provides results of the highest quality and confidence. In the future, selected reagents and technologies will be distributed through a network of civilian and military laboratories. PMID:11572145

  16. Increasing influence of China in the world: threat or challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlištová, Miloslava

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor's work named Increasing influence of China in the world: threat or challenge? is based on positive and negative impacts of Chinese economic growth in the world in three different ways: 1) Chinese counterfeiters and their influence on world economy 2)impact of dynamic economic growth of China on the world economy 3)Effect of foreign and chinese companies in China and their impact on the world.

  17. Rhabdomyolysis due to hair dye poisoning: An emerging threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of physical,chemical, metabolic, infective and toxic causes. We present two patients who developed rhabdomyolysis after consumption of hairdye containing paraphenylene diamine. Both of them developed renal, liver and respiratory failure requiring renal replacement. We were able to save one patient whereas the other died. Intentional hair dye poisoning is an emerging threat. Early recognition of the complications and prompt treatment is necessary for a successful outcome.

  18. EMERGING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HOSPITAL A THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vichal Rastogi; Pankaj Kumar Mishra; Shalini Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance(AMR) threatens the health of many throughout the world, since both old and new infectious diseases remain a formidable public health threat. When pathogenic microorganisms can multiply beyond some critical mass in the face of invading antimicrobials, treatment outcome is compromised. This phenomenon is referred as antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the overall antimicrobial resistance in bacteri...

  19. COMPUTERIZED ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CAIS) VERSUS SECURITY THREATS

    OpenAIRE

    BAGHER SHAMSZADEH; ABOLFAZL AZIZI SHARIF

    2012-01-01

    According to the increasing use of information technology in accounting This study has done with the aim of identifying the significant security threats of computerized accounting systems and relationship between security of these systems with the level of education and work experience of system users, quality of system design and industry type in different companies. Methodically this research is a descriptive survey study. The correlation relationship between variables was done. Data collec...

  20. Threats to Aquatic Environments: Is Aquaculture a Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Rosamond L.

    2004-01-01

    Marine ecosystems and fisheries face serious threats from over-fishing, run-off of land-based pollutants, introductions and invasions of exotic species, coastal development and habitat alteration, unintended by-catch, and climate change. Annual global fish catches fluctuate between 80 and 90 million metric tonnes (MMT) and appear to be declining. As a result of limitations on wild capture, aquaculture has emerged as a major player in seafood production and marketing worldwide. During the past...

  1. Children and the nuclear threat: a child psychiatrist's personal reflections.

    OpenAIRE

    Salguero, C.

    1983-01-01

    From the very first stages of life, parents have provided their children with love and protection against harm from within or without, especially from life-threatening situations. Children's perception of death as a unique phenomena develops around age ten and later on, when they begin to grasp the meaning of mortality. This often occurs when they themselves suffer from terminal illness. Children have been the object of destruction, as witnessed by The Holocaust and Hiroshima. The threat of n...

  2. The threat nets approach to information system security risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mirembe, Drake

    2015-01-01

    The growing demand for healthcare services is motivating hospitals to strengthen outpatient case management using information systems in order to serve more patients using the available resources. Though the use of information systems in outpatient case management raises patient data security concerns, it was established that the current approaches to information systems risk analysis do not provide logical recipes for quantifying threat impact and determining the cost-effectiveness of risk m...

  3. Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbergen, Adam J. and the Insect Pollinators Initiative

    2013-01-01

    Insect pollinators of crops and wild plants are under threat globally and their decline or loss could have profound economic and environmental consequences. Here, we argue that multiple anthropogenic pressures – including land-use intensification, climate change, and the spread of alien species and diseases – are primarily responsible for insect-pollinator declines. We show that a complex interplay between pressures (eg lack of food sources, diseases, and pesticides) and biological processes ...

  4. China's Competitive Performance: A Threat to East Asian Manufactured Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Sanjaya; Albaladejo, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    We examine China's competitive threat to East Asian neighbors in the 1990s, benchmarking performance by technology and market. Market share losses are mainly in low-technology products; Japan is the most vulnerable market. China and its neighbors are raising high-technology exports in tandem: international production systems here are leading to complementarity rather than confrontation. In direct trade with its neighbors, China is acting as an engine of export growth, with imports outpacing e...

  5. A Scope for MANET Routing and Security Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Lathies Bhasker T

    2013-01-01

    The mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET) are wireless networks which utilize mobile nodes for communicating among them and in the external transmission range. The vulnerable nature of the network causes various security threats which upset its growth. In this survey, initially the existing security attacks in MANET are analyzed. The attacks categories fall under two stages that include internal and external attacks. The former attack is due to the malicious nodes within the network and later attack...

  6. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-06

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling.

  7. Inventing Armageddon : technology as apocalyptic threat in science fiction movies

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The Master’s thesis "Inventing Armageddon: Technology as Apocalyptic Threat in Science Fiction Movies" investigates the significance of technology throughout the history of the science fiction genre. Since the dawn of civilization technological innovations have shaped and influenced human development and science fiction has incorporated those changes into its stories, be it the invention of the steam engine, x-rays, or the discovery of electricity. Technology has always been used for good and...

  8. Ransomware: A Rising Threat of new age Digital Extortion

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Akashdeep; Subrahmanyam, G. V. B.; Avasthi, Vinay; Sastry, Hanumat

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to discover the surreptitious features of ransomware and to address it in information systems security research. It intends to elicit attention with regard to ransomware, a newly emerged cyber threat using such encryption technology as RSA, and to help both academic researchers and IT practitioners understand the technological characteristics of ransomware, along with its severity analysis. As ransomware infections continue to rise and attacks employing refined algorithm...

  9. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-01

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling. PMID:22678290

  10. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.

  11. Technological Innovations to Counter CBRNE Threat Vectors and Ecotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    The ubiquitous presence of sensors for enhanced situational awareness necessitates an innovative, articulate, and focused review of their design, architecture, functionality, and interoperability. A comprehensive overview of the latest and state-of-the art technological innovations in point and stand-off sensing/detection platforms with the objective of countering threats arising from chemical-biological-nuclear-high yield explosives (CBRNE) is the focus of this investigation. Ongoing research efforts and future research directions based on advanced approaches, including nanomaterials to develop materials, devices, and systems for potential use in sensing and detection of such threat vectors are articulated. The concept of advanced sciences convergences is introduced to examine the feasibility of potentially new and innovative research directions for persistent surveillance of CBRNE agents and infectious diseases. The intentional release of such agents in the environment constitutes ecological sabotage. Advanced sensing/detection platforms for CBRNE are used to detect threats to the environment. Issues associated with the use of nanomaterials regarding societal implications and dual-use concerns are addressed by studying fate and transport and the development of guidelines for a risk-assessment model. A roadmap of the future of nanomaterials, in terms of complexity, a nexus of disciplines, and its emerging potential to provide advanced, futuristic, and a paradigm-shifting platform is presented.

  12. Attention bias to threat indicates anxiety differences in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Caroline; Verbeek, Else; Doyle, Rebecca; Bateson, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Humans and animals show increased attention towards threatening stimuli when they are in increased states of anxiety. The few animal studies that have examined this phenomenon, known as attention bias, have applied environmental manipulations to induce anxiety but the effects of drug-induced anxiety levels on attention bias have not been demonstrated. Here, we present an attention bias test to identify high and low anxiety states in sheep using pharmacological manipulation. Increased anxiety was induced using 1-methyl-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) and decreased anxiety with diazepam, and then we examined the behaviour of sheep in response to the presence of a dog as a threat. Increased attention towards the threat and increased vigilance were shown in sheep that received the m-CPP and reduced in sheep receiving the diazepam. The modulated attention towards a threat displayed by the m-CPP and diazepam animals suggests that attention bias can assess different levels of anxiety in sheep. Measuring attention bias has the potential to improve animal welfare assessment protocols. PMID:27277950

  13. Building relationships with foreign governments in support of threat reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of any multinational effort in support of threat reduction depends on the relationship developed between the nation receiving the assistance and the donor nations. The effectiveness of this relationship must be based on a solid legal and cooperative framework that establishes the ground rules for the interaction between all parties involved. The author proposes in this paper to outline major considerations by the donor nation and the nation receiving the assistance as they establish an effective approach to threat-reduction efforts. The legal framework needs to be founded on a well-developed, country-to-country agreement that establishes general ground rules and officially recognizes the collaborative effort in an internationally binding document between signatories. This document normally addresses such issues as liability, tax exemptions, import duties, contracts, applicable environmental regulations, etc. Also, of utmost importance is the establishment of a collaborative framework. The basis for such a collaborative framework must be the buy-in into a common objective, the willingness to share concerns and work toward resolutions, and continuous communications. Only when a proper legal framework and a collaborative approach are established can effective relationships be built to enhance threat-reduction efforts. (author)

  14. Managing facility risk: external threats and health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel J; Reid, William H

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and clinical administrators should have a basic understanding of physical and financial risk to mental health facilities related to external physical threat, including actions usually viewed as "terrorism" and much more common sources of violence. This article refers to threats from mentally ill persons and those acting out of bizarre or misguided "revenge," extortionists and other outright criminals, and perpetrators usually identified as domestic or international terrorists. The principles apply both to relatively small and contained acts (such as a patient or ex-patient attacking a staff member) and to much larger events (such as bombings and armed attack), and are relevant to facilities both within and outside the U.S. Patient care and accessibility to mental health services rest not only on clinical skills, but also on a place to practice them and an organized system supported by staff, physical facilities, and funding. Clinicians who have some familiarity with the non-clinical requirements for care are in a position to support non-clinical staff in preventing care from being interrupted by external threats or events such as terrorist activity, and/or to serve at the interface of facility operations and direct clinical care. Readers should note that this article is an introduction to the topic and cannot address all local, state and national standards for hospital safety, or insurance providers' individual facility requirements. PMID:24733720

  15. Intact implicit processing of facial threat cues in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasteen, Jonathon R; Pinkham, Amy E; Kelsven, Skylar; Ludwig, Kelsey; Payne, B Keith; Penn, David L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that people with schizophrenia retain the ability to implicitly perceive facial affect, despite well-documented difficulty explicitly identifying emotional expressions. It remains unclear, however, whether such functional implicit processing extends beyond emotion to other socially relevant facial cues. Here, we constructed two novel versions of the Affect Misattribution Procedure, a paradigm in which affective responses to primes are projected onto neutral targets. The first version included three face primes previously validated to elicit varying inferences of threat from healthy individuals via emotion-independent structural modification (e.g., nose and eye size). The second version included the threat-relevant emotional primes of angry, neutral, and happy faces. Data from 126 participants with schizophrenia and 84 healthy controls revealed that although performing more poorly on an assessment of explicit emotion recognition, patients showed normative implicit threat processing for both non-emotional and emotional facial cues. Collectively, these results support recent hypotheses postulating that the initial perception of salient facial information remains intact in schizophrenia, but that deficits arise at subsequent stages of contextual integration and appraisal. Such a breakdown in the stream of face processing has important implications for mechanistic models of social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and treatment strategies aiming to improve functional outcome. PMID:26673971

  16. Detecting Threat E-mails using Bayesian Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, M Tariq; Jan, Tariq R; Shah, Nisar A

    2011-01-01

    Fraud and terrorism have a close connect in terms of the processes that enables and promote them. In the era of Internet, its various services that include Web, e-mail, social networks, blogs, instant messaging, chats, etc. are used in terrorism not only for communication but also for i) creation of ideology, ii) resource gathering, iii) recruitment, indoctrination and training, iv) creation of terror network, and v) information gathering. A major challenge for law enforcement and intelligence agencies is efficient and accurate gathering of relevant and growing volume of crime data. This paper reports on use of established Na\\"ive Bayesian filter for classification of threat e-mails. Efficiency in filtering threat e-mail by use of three different Na\\"ive Bayesian filter approaches i.e. single keywords, weighted multiple keywords and weighted multiple keywords with keyword context matching are evaluated on a threat e-mail corpus created by extracting data from sources that are very close to terrorism.

  17. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  18. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  19. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    CVL - infants; Central catheter - infants - surgically placed ... plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A ... central catheter (PICC) or midline central catheter (MCC). A CVL ...

  20. We can do it : The interplay of construal orientation and social comparisons under threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, DM; Stapel, DA

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated how a collective self-construal orientation in combination with positive social comparisons "turns off" the negative effects of stereotype threat. Specifically, Experiment 1 demonstrated that stereotype threat led to increased accessibility of participants' collective self (