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Sample records for central russia tver

  1. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  2. Environmental Studies in the Boreal Forest Zone: Summer IPY Institute at Central Boreal Forest Reserve, Fedorovskoe, Tver area, Russia (14-28 August, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kurbatova, Y.; Groisman, P.; Alexeev, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Summer Institute was organized by the International Arctic Research Center (IARC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in collaboration with the A.N. Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia, and the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve in Fedorovskoe, Russia. The Institute was arranged as a part of the education/outreach activities of the International Polar Year (IPY) at the University of Alaska and the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) and was held in Russia. The Institute provided a unique opportunity for participants to learn about the climate and environment of Northern Eurasia from leading scientists and educators, in a wide spectrum of polar and Earth system science disciplines from meteorology, biology, chemistry, and earth system modeling. Additionally, the Institute attendees observed and participated in the biospheric research activities under the guidance of experienced scientists. During a two-week-interval, the School attendees heard 40 lectures, attended several field trips and participated in three brainstorming Round Table Workshop Sessions devoted to perspectives of the boreal forest zone research and major unresolved problems that it faces. Thirty professors and experts in different areas of climate and biosphere research from Russia, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Japan, shared their expertise in lectures and in round table discussions with the Institute participants. Among the Institute participants there were 31 graduate students/early career scientists from six countries (China, Russia, Estonia, Finland, UK, and the United States) and eight K-12 teachers from Russia. The two groups joined together for several workshop sessions and for the field work components of the Institute. The field work was focused on land-atmosphere interactions and wetland studies in the boreal forest zone. Several field trips in and outside the Forest

  3. Air Pollution Studies in Tver Region of Russia using Moss-Biomonitoring with Nuclear Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the trace element atmospheric deposition in the Tver region based on moss analysis are presented. Moss samples were collected in the summer of 1999 and 2004 from 174 sites evenly distributed over the region. As bioaccumulators, two common mosses were used: Pleurozium schreberi (∼80%) and Hylocomium splendens (∼20%). The moss samples were subject to neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor JINR Dubna. The purpose of this study was to determine deposition patterns of potent sources of air pollution such as the largest Russian thermal power plant nearby the town of Konakovo and to reveal previously unknown pollution sources located in towns and settlements within the sampled territory. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the examined territory. Comparison of the results obtained with those from other surveys in Russia and Europe shows that Tver region could be considered as a background territory for the Russian Federation

  4. Contamination of agricultural lands by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Tver region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkin, Andrey; Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study sources and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the agriculture soils within areas without intensive contaminations. Our studied object was soil and snow cover in the taiga zone (Tver region, Russia). A total of 52 surface (0-30 cm) and 31 subsurface (30-50 cm) soil samples, and 13 snow samples were collected in 35 soil pits, located in forest, crop and layland soils. Studied concentrations of the following 11 individual compounds: two-ring compounds (diphenyl and naphthalene homologues); three-ring compounds (fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene); four-ring compounds (chrysene, pyrene, tetraphene); five-ring compounds (perylene, benzo[a]pyrene); and six-ring compounds (benzo[ghi]perylene). Analyses made by specrtofluorometry method at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The total concentrations of all PAHs in soil samples ranged from 9 to 770 ng*g‑1 with a median of 96 ng*g‑1. The sum of high molecular weight PAHs was significantly lower than the sum of low molecular weight PAHs in the studied soils. The phenanthrene concentration was highest and ranged from 1.2 to 720 ng*g‑1 (medium 72 ng*g‑1). Compared PAHs reserves in snow cover (μg*m-2) with the reserves in topsoil layer (μg*m-2 in the upper 30 cm). Low molecular weight PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene, diphenyl, naphthalene) reserves in snow was less than 20% from the reserves in the soil surface layer. High molecular weight PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, perylene, pyrene and tetraphene) reserves in snow was about 50-70% from the reserves in soil surface layer. High molecular weight PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene and anthracene) reserves in snow was more than in topsoil. PAHs vertical distribution in soil profiles was statistically examined. The total concentration of all PAHs decreased with depth in all studied forest soils. In the arable soils was no significant trend in domination of PAHs total concentrations in the plowing and subsoil layers. The ratio of

  5. Review of human osseal remains from XVI-XVIII centuries cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad (Tver, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zinoviev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human osseal remains from the cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad at the historical Russian city of Tver revealed the data on its population in XVI-XVIII centuries. Obtained data generally agreed with the material from other contemporaneous necropoles of the city. Domination of male burials and underrepresentation of younger individuals are accompanied by the signs of poor oral hygiene. Caries has not only often destroyed majority of molars in males and females by the age of 45-50 years, but affected teeth of teenagers and even younger individuals. The heavily developed dental calculus is one of the signs of insufficient oral hygiene in adults. Possible kinship between buried is manifested by similar genetically determined cranial anomalies.

  6. Lateral Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Spherical Magnetic Particles within Soil Catenas of the Arable Watershed (Tver Region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshovskii, Timur; Zhidkin, Andrei; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very dangerous substances because of their carcinogenic properties. It is important to know the features of PAHs transport and accumulation in soils, especially on agricultural lands. Unfortunately this scientific problem is studied not enough. It is known that predominantly PAHs in soils are sorbed on solid phase particles [2], so redistribution of PAHs should be carried out with transport of soil solid phase matter. For the purpose of assessment of connections between PAHs and soil solid phase transport the lateral distribution of PAHs and spherical magnetic particles (SMP) as tracers of soil solid phase migration has been compared. SMP is the component of fly ash which is used last two decades for quantitative assessment of soil erosion [1]. Studies were conducted in small watershed of south-taiga zone in European part of Russia in Tver region. The watershed has 53 ha, steep slopes, less 50, convex and convexo-concave shapes with ridges and runnels. The watershed lands were plowed up for the last 350-400 years until 1995 year. Predominant soils are Umbric Albeluvisols. Soil samples were selected at four soil catenas (30 points with average distance about 70 meters). Two catenas were on opposite slopes near the road, and other two catenas were located on the opposite slopes (250-400 m from the road). It is revealed that average concentration of PAHs in studied soils are 105 ng/g, and varies from 11 to 770 ng/g, with coefficient of variation 143%. Lateral distribution of PAHs and SMP differs within different catenas, because of various factors influence on PAHs concentrations: 1) amounts of PAHs income, depending on the distance from the source; 2) homogenization of PAHs concentrations within arable layer because of mixing the soil matter due to plowing; 3) vertical transport of PAHs in subarable layers is also connected with plowing and bioturbation; 4) rates of decomposition of PAHs in arable layer, depending on

  7. On the investigation of possible remains of Field Marshal Iosif Gurko and his wife Maria (Salias de Turnemir found in their former estate Sakharovo (Tver Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V Zinoviev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Two skeletons, found in the tomb of the former estate Sakharovo near the city of Tver, were investigated. Although fragmentary and lacking skulls, according to age of death and anthropometry they could have belonged to Field Marshal Iosif Vladimirovich Gurko (1828-1901 and his wife Maria Andreevna (Salias de Turnemir (1838-1906. Further investigations are necessary to locate clavicles of the male skeleton. Fused fracture of one of them can strengthen the idea of the male skeleton belonging to Field Marshal, who broke the clavicle during manoeuvres of 1874.

  8. Problem of heat pumps in central Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the problems of heat pumps due to climatic conditions and the characteristics of energy sources. As energy sources for heat pumps, solar power, air, groundwater, soil, and rejected heat are considered. It is shown that in central Russia it is only rational to use waste heat as an energy source for heat pump systems. (author)

  9. The Botanic Garden of Tver State University

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova O M; Notov A A

    2004-01-01

    The Botanic Garden of Tver State University is situated at the meeting place of the Volga and Tvertza rivers. It is one of the main green spaces of Tver. The history of the Garden goes back to 1879. It was planted by the merchant Ilya Bobrov at the former territory of Otroch monastery. After the October Revolution the Garden be- came national property and was used as a leisure center. The main planting occurred between 1938 and 1941 but a great number of plants disappeared during ...

  10. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  11. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  12. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by 137Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of 137Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km2), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of 137Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated 137Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km2), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of 137Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km2) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km2) of 137Cs. About 84-92% of 137Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ∼30 years after Chernobyl accident. But it may by considerable

  13. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  14. The nuclear sector in Russia and Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of texts presented during a workshop at the French National Assembly (Paris, December 2, 1993). Participants are political, economical, technical or military specialists of the nuclear question in Eastern countries and Russia and comes from various French, European or international organisations involved in nuclear industry. The aim of the workshop is to debate about the economical and safety aspects of nuclear installations in Eastern and Central Europe countries, and about the financial and human means that occidental countries can provide for the improvement of installations safety. Also political and military aspects of the international control of nuclear trade, nuclear weapons and fissile materials management in the Independent States Community is discussed. (J.S.). 4 figs., 13 tabs

  15. IMPORTANCE OF TANAP IN COMPETITION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Varol Sevim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available TANAP natural gas which was initiated by Azerbaijan’s SOCAR and Turkey's BOTAŞ has altered the dynamics and strategies in the region. TANAP project not only formed new competition picture from Nabucco versus South Stream to TANAP versus South Stream but also triggered the competition between Russia and Central Asia in terms of pipeline strategies. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are landlocked countries in the east Caspian region and Azerbaijan is the only post-Soviet state that had succeeded to reach world markets by non-Russian routes. In this sense if TANAP would establish until 2018-2019, it would have an impact as in the case of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline which was considered as the “Contract of the Century” in the 1990s. In this paper, it is aimed to analyze how TANAP will affect upon Russian foreign energy policy strategy upon Central Asian states and Azerbaijan as well as emphasizing on the risks and opportunities of the project.

  16. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  17. Labour Migration from Central Asia to Russia : State Management of Migration

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Russia has become a large scale recipient of labour migrants from Central Asia. Unemployment and low wages in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have made people travel north to what used to be the centre of the former Soviet Union – a state entity that these now independent states, a little more than some 20 years ago, all belonged to. Currently, Russia is facing a demographical crisis with dramatic population decline especially among the working-age group of the population. As such, acce...

  18. AMERICAN POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA AND RUSSIA'S INTERESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Braterskiy, Maxim

    2007-01-01

    Five years ago I published an article in which I assessed the results of the first decade of America's Central Asian policy. I came to the conclusion that between the early 1990s and 2002, it developed from mere recognition of the newly independent states to a long-term regional strategy. For obvious reasons, 9/11 served as the turning point: "From a geographically remote, unstable and, in general, unexciting region, Central Asia became a zone of the U.S.'s national security interests." After...

  19. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  20. Soil cover patterns and SOC dynamics impacts on the soil processes, land management and ecosystem services in Central Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Chernikov, Vladimir; Yashin, Ivan; Geraskin, Mikhail; Morev, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    In the Central Region of Russia (CRR) the soil cover patterns usually play the very important role in the soil forming and degradation processes (SFP & SDP) potential and current rates, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and pools, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and soluble SOC fluxes that we need take into attention for better assessment of the natural and especially man-changed ecosystems' services and for best land-use practices development. Central Region of Russia is the biggest one in RF according to its population and role in the economy. CRR is characterized by high spatial variability of soil cover due to as original landscape heterogeneity as complicated history of land-use practices during last 700 years. Our long-term researches include the wide zonal-provincial set of representative ecosystems and soil cover patterns with different types and history of land-use (forest, meadow-steppe and agricultural ones) from middle-taiga to steppe zones with different level of continentality. The carried out more than 30-years region- and local-scale researches of representative natural and rural landscapes in Tver', Yaroslavl', Kaluga, Moscow, Vladimir, Saransk (Mordovia), Kursk, Orel, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov oblasts give us the interregional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different soil forming and degradation processes rates and soil organic carbon dynamics due to regionally specific soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and dominated microclimate conditions, land-use current practices and history. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of SFP and SDP develop¬ment, soil carbon dynamics and sequestration potential, ecosystem (agroecosystem) principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of SOC structure analysis, regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns detail

  1. CENTRAL ASIA: NATO'S MILITARY-POLITICAL STRATEGY AND RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shaymergenov, Timur

    2005-01-01

    Following the Soviet Union's demise, the situation in Central Asia changed radically: it has become an object of attention of various regional and global geopolitical players. This region, which is rich in natural resources (primarily gold, oil, and gas) and which used to be off-limits for the leading geopolitical players with strategic interests in this key area, has now opened up and become an attractive playground for these various strategic forces. The United States, in its desire to cons...

  2. A model of the TVER-03 controller for the ATHLET computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of the TVER-03 turbine power controller was set up using the Dukovany-2 as the reference reactor unit. Three test calculations were performed, whereby the correctness of the model was proved. (author)

  3. Assimilation or integration: Similarities and differences between acculturation attitudes of migrants from Central Asia and Russians in Central Russia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva N. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50), Russia (50), and Central Africa (50) (age range 21–60; M = 34). We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova) and the “Directed...

  4. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  5. A new map of the vegetation of central European Russia based on high-resolution satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, D V; Gavrilyuk, E A; Karpukhina, D A; Kovganko, K A

    2015-01-01

    The scientific basis of and approaches to regional thematic mapping of vegetation based on high-resolution satellite data have been elaborated. A vegetation map of central European Russia has been compiled. The map includes 12 thematic classes, six of which pertain to forest ecosystems. The map has been compared to the data of the GFC project (University of Maryland, United States) and the official data of the Rosstat Federal Service of State Statistics (Russia). The new vegetation map is currently used in the information system of the remote monitoring of forest fires in Russia. PMID:26530069

  6. Ophiolitic terranes of northern and central Alaska and their correlatives in Canada and northeastern Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, W.W. Jr. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    All of the major ophiolitic terranes (Angayucham, Tozitna, Innoko, Seventymile, and Goodnews terranes) in the northern and central Alaska belong to the Tethyan-type' of Moores (1982) and were obducted onto Paleozoic and Proterozoic continental and continental margin terranes in Mesozoic time. Tethyan-type' ophiolitic assemblages also occur in the Slide Mountain terrane in the Canadian Cordillera and extend from western Alaska into northeastern Russia. Although investigators have suggested widely different ages from their times of abduction onto the continent, these ophiolitic terranes display some remarkably similar features: (1) they consist of a stack of imbricated thrust slices dominated by ocean floor sediments, basalt, and high-level gabbro of late Paleozoic and Triassic age; (2) their mafic-ultramafic complexes generally are confined to the uppermost thrust sheets; (3) they lack the large tectonic melanges zones and younger accretionary flysch deposits associated with the ophiolitic terranes of southern Alaska and the Koryak region of northeastern Russia; (4) blueschist mineral assemblages occur in the lower part of these ophiolite terranes and (or) in the underlying continental terranes; and (5) they are bordered on their outboard' side by Mesozoic intraoceanic volcanic arc terranes. Recent geochemical and geologic studies of the mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Anagayucham and Tozitna terranes strongly suggest they were generated in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) and that they are directly overlain by volcanic rocks of the Koyukuk terrane.

  7. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  8. Functional-environmental assessment of Chernozems' technogenic changes in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviatova, Tatiana; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Long-term research revealed the significant changes in Chernozems of the recreational, urban, industrial and transport areas in the eastern part of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia. They are reflected in the soil properties and regimes disturbances that determine their environmental functions. The level of the Chernozems' anthropogenic degradation is usually determined not only by their pollutants composition and quantity but by landscape, microclimatic, hydrological and soil features too. The Chernozems strongest degradation has been observed in the industrial zone and central part of Voronezh, and also in the 20-m zone of the highway "Don" with maximum technogenic input intensity and depth. The Chernozems' resistance to contamination is determined by their texture, organic matter content and quality, microbial activity and biochemical processes, pH and redox power. The level of the pollution impact on the organic substances decomposition can be evaluated according to the extracellular biological processes changes from their standard rates: 50% - very hazardous (ecotoxicological scale). The investigated soil types and subtypes have essentially different resistance to their contamination. In case of the gray forest soils already medium input of pollutants often results in irreversible changes in their biocenosis functions. In case of the leached Chernozems 50%-drop in their biological state occurs only at high levels of pollution. The developed criteria reflect the man-made ecosystems' soil principal changes and can be useful in prediction of their environmental functions.

  9. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  10. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  11. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  12. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Tereshchenko; Yu. A. Belyy; I. G. Trifanenkova; M. S. Tereshchenkova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatme...

  13. Windthrow and fallow-forest successions impacts in soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics in the Central Russia' reserve spruce ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Ivanov, Alexey; Komarova, Tatyana; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    High spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most forest soils that is especially obvious in case of their carbon stocks and GHG fluxes. This phenomenon is generally well-known but not so often becomes the object of special precision investigation in detail and small scales so there are still serious gaps in its principal factors understanding due to their high bioclimatic, regional, landscape, tree species and temporal variability. Southern taiga is one of the most environmentally important world zonal forest ecosystems due to its still comparatively intensive carbon biogeochemical cycle and huge area in the northern Eurasia with strong anthropogenic impacts by Western & Central European and Southern & Eastern Asian regions. Central Forest Biospheric Reserve (Tver region, 360 km to North-West from Moscow) is the principal southern-taiga reserve in the European territory of Russia. Since start of its research activity in 1939 the reserve became the regional center of mature spruce ecosystem structure and dynamics investigation. In 1970-1980-s there have been done complex investigations of windthrow soil patterns and fallow-forest successions. Since middle of 1990-s the ecosystem-level GHG fluxes have been observed by eddy covariance method. Since 2012 the detailed year-round monitoring is running in the southern-taiga zonal station of the regional system RusFluxNet with especial attention on the soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics due to windthrow and fallow-forest successions (in frame of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266). Soil carbon dynamics is investigated in decades-hundred-year chronosequences of dominated parcels and different-size windthrow soil cover patterns, including direct investigation during last 33 years with detailed mapping, soil profile morphometrics and bulk density, morphogenetic and statistical analysis of mass data. Morphogenetic analysis of microrelief, soil profile

  14. Analysis of landslide overgrowing rates at Vaskiny Dachi key site, Central Yamal, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, A.

    2009-04-01

    An estimation of overgrowing of landslide-affected slopes by vegetation at three main landslide elements: shear surface, landslide body and "frontal zone" at Vaskiny Dachi key site is presented. Vaskiny Dachi key site is located in the watershed of Se-Yakha and Mordy-Yakha rivers on Central Yamal, Russia. The area is represented by highly-dissected alluvial-lacustrine-marine plains and terraces. The closest to Vaskiny Dachi climate station is Marresale, about 90 km southwest of Vaskiny Dachi, at the Kara sea coast. The weather here is probably somewhat cooler than at Vaskiny Dachi. The average annual (summer) air temperature at Marresale is -8.3° C (4.3° C) ("Russia's Weather" Server). To estimate vegetation cover dynamics on cryogenic landslides at "Vaskiny Dachi", data published by O.Rebristaya and others (1995) were used. Their observations were done in 1991-1993, and were supplemented by further field observations (Leibman et al., 2000, Khomutov & Leibman 2007) and by field and remote sensing observations in 2008. An estimation of vegetation cover dynamics on cryogenic landslides at "Vaskiny Dachi" leads to the following results. Immediately after landsliding in 1989, landslide shear surface was bare without any vegetation, landslide body had initial vegetation, and "frontal zone" was under liquefied sediment masses. "Frontal zone" formed in front of a landslide body, appears as a result of damming of drainage routes by a landslide body with flooding of the shear surface "upstream" of the landslide body, formation of a sedge-cottongrass meadow there, and swamping downstream (Khomutov & Leibman 2007). By 1993, landslide shear surface got overgrown by species subordinate in surrounding initial landscapes (Alopecurus alpinus, Festuca ovina, Calamagrostis neglecta, Poa alpigena ssp. Alpigena, etc.). Landslide body was covered by initial communities which got depressed: vitality of Salix polaris, Vaccinium vitis-idaea was reduced, dead off moss cover and overgrown

  15. The Heartland theory of Sir Halford John Mackinder: justification of foreign policy of the United States and Russia in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Suban Kumar; Hel Kafi, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    "The paper examines the foreign policy of the United States and Russia towards Central Asia by reviewing selective foreign policy discourses in the context of the Heartland theory. In effect, the central formulation of the study rests on this research question: to what extent is the Heartland theory influential in the foreign policy of the United States and Russia? The analysis is therefore organized by first conducting a comparative/contrast approach of USA and Russian policies via each othe...

  16. The main principles of formation of structure of cultural-historical landscapes of Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2014-05-01

    The forming and development of cultural-historical landscapes (CH) are obligate result of evolution of society and nature, as well as, man and landscapes during their coherent growth. CH landscapes are holistic historic-cultural and nature creations. They reflect the history of land use and spiritual development of ethnic community of concrete territory with determine homogeneous landscape characteristics. The majority of them appertain to the category of relict landscapes, which completed their evolution growth. That means that these are anthropogenic (AL) and cultural (CL) landscapes. They lost anthropogenic management and continue their growth obeying natural logic. These landscapes include elements of morphological structure and natural components, which have been transformed by men, and also artefacts, sociofacts and mental facts. These facts can be considered as peculiar "biographical chronicle" of activity of population in determinate landscape conditions in determinate historical period. These facts are evidences of material and spiritual cultural of society. The first AL begin to arise simultaneously with conversation of appropriating economy into generating economy. There was such conversation in Central Russia (Neolithic revolution) only in Bronze Age. Anthropogenic transformed landscape complexes and even man-made landscape complexes have been formed in Bronze Age. Some of these complexes exist now. Actual anthropogenic and cultural landscapes began to form only in Iron Age while permanent, long existed settlement and agriculture structure has organized. First, These are small settlement anthropogenic landscape complexes (selischa and gorodischa) with applied permanent miniature arable areas. These complexes located on the capes and on the areas between river banks and banks of streams. Second, these are pasture anthropogenic landscape complexes (on the level of podurochische and urochische), located in flood plain and valley-cavin position (pasture

  17. Climate determined differences in carbon dioxide fluxes dynamics between two comparable agroecosystems of Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Creation of Russian part of Fluxnet - Rusfluxnet, aims to fill the carbon dioxide fluxes data shortage. Because the Central Russia is still one of the less GHG-investigated European areas especially in case of agroecosystem-level carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by eddy covariance method. For the first time eddy covariance (EC) GHG study has been conducted at two representative agroecosystems of Central Russia belonging to different climate zones (climate and soils), but both with the same land use: the both fields were under barley. The study was carried out in 2013 and supported by RF Government grant No. 11.G34.31.0079. The first agricultural field located at Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Timiryazev Agricultural University situated in Moscow. It's arable Albeluvisols Umbric have around 1% of SOC, 5.4 pH(KCl) and NPK medium-enhanced contents in sandy loam topsoil. The field was used for barley planting (Hordeum vulgare L., breeding line Mihailovsky). Sowing was in early May 2013 and harvest was in August, 14. The second agricultural field near the Pristen placed at Kursk region of Russia. It's arable Chernozems have around 4% of SOC, 6.5 pH(KCl) and NPK high-enhanced contents in sandy loam topsoil. The field was used for barley planting (Hordeum vulgare L., breeding line Xanadu). Sowing was 25-27 of April and harvest was 14-19 of August. Instrumental equipments (mainly LI-COR) were the same for both stations. Both towers height was 1.4m. Footprints were considered by fields edges, and were about 55m for Moscow and about 150m for Pristen. Canopy growth and snow melting were taking into account in the model. Surface roughness was neglected. Calculations were done using EddyPro software. Since Pristen field is 600 km to the South than the Moscow one, higher PAR values were observed for Pristen field. Modal PAR values were 600 and 400 umol m-2 s-1 for Pristen and Moscow fields respectively. Nevertheless temporal pattern of PAR was similar for both

  18. Holocene climate dynamics in the central part of the East European plain (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene climate and vegetation dynamics in the broad-leaved forest zone of the central part of the East European plain have been reconstructed on the base of pollen, plant macrofossil, testate amoebae and radiocarbon data from the mire Klukva (N 53.834812, E 36.252488), located in the kast depression in the Upper Oka River basin (Tula region, European Russia). The reconstruction of main parameters of past climate (the mean annual temperature precipitation) was carried out by the "Best Modern Analog" approach. Reconstructions of vegetation show that in the early Holocene the territory was occupied mainly by birch and pine-birch forests. Significant changes in the plant cover of the Upper Oka River basin are attributed to the 7.5 cal kyr BP). The climatic conditions were favorable for development of the broad-leaved forests those persisted in this area up to industrial period. In the 17th century, when the population density greatly increased and watersheds were ploughed, natural vegetation communities were gradually destroyed and transformed into agricultural landscapes. According to obtained climatic reconstructions the period 10-8.5 cal kyr BP was relatively cold and wet, when the mean annual temperature was in 3°C lower and precipitation was in 50-100 mm higher then nowadays. The significant climate warming occurred in about 7.0-5.0 cal kyr BP (The Holocene thermal maximum): the mean annual temperature in 2°C exceeded the modern value and precipitation was close to that. The environment conditions were drier due to decrease of effective moisture. In the second part of the Holocene the sequence of second-, and even third-order climatic oscillations expressed against the background of the overall slight trend towards cooling have been determined. The most pronounced cool and wet intervals were reconstructed in 2.5-2.0 cal kyr BP and 1.5-1.3 cal kyr BP. The mean annual temperature decreased in 1.5-2 °C and precipitation rose in 200 mm in compare to modern

  19. Smoke aerosol and its radiative effects during extreme fire event over Central Russia in summer 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chubarova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Different microphysical, optical and radiative properties of aerosol were analyzed during the severe fires in summer 2010 over Central Russia using ground measurements at two AERONET sites in Moscow (Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University – MSU MO and Zvenigorod (Moscow Region and radiative measurements at the MSU MO. Volume aerosol size distribution in smoke conditions had a bimodal character with the significant prevalence of fine mode particles, for which effective radius was shifted to higher values (reff-fine = 0.24 μm against approximately 0.15 μm in typical conditions. For smoke aerosol, the imaginary part of refractive index (REFI in the visible spectral region was lower than that for typical aerosol (REFIλ =675 nm = 0.006 against REFIλ =675 nm = 0.01, while single scattering albedo (SSA was significantly higher (SSAλ =675 nm = 0.95 against SSAλ =675 nm ~ 0.9. Extremely high aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm (AOT500 was observed on 6–8 August reaching the absolute maximum on 7 August in Moscow (AOT500 = 6.4 and at Zvenigorod (AOT500 = 5.9. A dramatic attenuation of solar irradiance at ground was also recorded. Maximum irradiance loss had reached 64% for global shortwave irradiance, 91% for UV radiation 300–380 nm, and 97% for erythemally-weighted UV irradiance at relatively high solar elevation 47°. Significant spectral dependence in attenuation of solar irradiance in smoky conditions was mainly explained by higher AOT and smaller SSA in UV (0.8–0.9 compared with SSA in the visible region of spectrum. The assessments of radiative forcing effect (RFE at the TOA indicated a significant cooling of the smoky atmosphere. Instant RFE reached −167 Wm−2 at AOT500 = 6.4, climatological RFE calculated with August 2010 monthly mean AOT was about −65 Wm−2, compared with −20 Wm−2 for typical aerosol according to

  20. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  1. Siting of large diameter well type repositories for the central region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date only 14 from 16 RADON facilities are in operation. Most of them have not more than about 10% of their repositories free and available for new upcoming radioactive waste. Construction of new repositories and selection of new perspective sites is very actual problem for RAW management in Russia now. Near surface repositories are considered to be acceptable for storage of wastes with low and intermediate activity levels (LILW), which decay to safe levels in some hundreds of years. However, the experience with LILW isolation in the near surface facilities in Russia has shown that a lot of operational and natural factors impact on the engineered barriers and may cause failure of the isolation. In addition, the exploitation of the old repositories and construction of new ones require more area. Significant increase in LILW isolation reliability and area saving may be achieved by wastes disposal/storage in Large Diameter Wells (LDW), drilled in homogeneous sediments with low permeable properties. It could be considered as an intermediate between near-surface and geological repositories, and its specific features should be taken into account when choosing new sites for RAW disposal or long-term storage. (author)

  2. The Future Prospects of the SCO in Central Asia in the Context of Strategic Cooperation Between Russia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Khalanskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses at the analysis of the role, importance and future prospects of the SCO in Central Asian region in the contextof strategic cooperation between Russia and China. There are three views presented within regional academic discourse on Russian-Chinese relations as “China-ally”, “China-enemy”, “China-partner-companion.” The first “China-ally” approach is based on ashared vision of the US as an enemy that lays the foundation for future cooperation between Russia and China. The second “Chinaenemy”approach assumes that China is alreasy causes a threat to Russia’s national interests. The third “China-partner-companion”approach focuses on the need for Moscow to combine flexibility and agility in the relationships with Beijing to explore opportunitiesto enhance Russia’s ability to cope with the Chinese challenge in the future, if any, will pose a threat. The article explores someaspects of accelerated growth of the Chinese armed forces, migration issues and economic expansion of China and its implicationsfor cooperation between SCO member-states.

  3. A view on ''On-the-Job Training'' in the central and eastern European countries, Russia and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The G-24 Training Working Group visited the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEESs), Russia and Ukraine in the course of 1993/94, in order to define priorities for further financial support by the Donor Countries. As a result, it appeared that Nuclear Training needed strong improvements since it is mainly based on OJT (On the Job Training), not SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) oriented and relying essentially on the line supervisor of the trainee. Recommendations were provided to support a SAT based approach development and to provide adequate equipment. In view of the importance of OJT in the training courses, and that probably for some more years, a specific effort should be made in better defining the goals and objectives of the OJT and its coherent integration in the overall training system. In addition, the OJT ''instructors'' have to be trained in the specific teaching skills required to successfully run OJT. (author). 3 figs

  4. China-Russia relations in Central Asia. Energy policy, Beijing's new assertiveness and 21{sup st} century geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Thomas Stephan [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Ostasienwissenschaften

    2014-07-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. As China rises to global power status, its relations with other major powers, including Russia, are constantly renegotiated. Energy figures prominently in both countries' foreign policy. An extensive analysis of Chinese language sources - academic debate 1997-2012 - confirms a collision of interests over Central Asian reserves. While unanimous appeals to compromise render previous predictions of impending confrontation unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian energy relations as ''central to energy security'', and the explicit rejection of a Russian ''sphere of influence'', also exclude a retreat. In the long term, China will likely replace Russia as the dominant force in Central Asia's energy sector, causing the Kremlin to perceive another ''encroachment''. The current notion of a ''strategic partnership'' will inevitably be challenged.

  5. Cartographic modeling of heterogeneous landscape for footprint analysis of Eddy Covariance Measurements (Central Forest and Central Chernozem reserves, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Daniil

    2014-05-01

    The topographical, soil and vegetation maps of FLUXNET study areas are widely used for interpretation of eddy covariance measurements, for calibration of biogeochemical models and for making regional assessments of carbon balance. The poster presents methodological problems and results of ecosystem mapping using GIS, remote sensing, statistical and field methods on the example of two RusFluxNet sites in the Central Forest (33° E, 56°30'N) and Central Chernozem (36°10' E, 51°36'N) reserves. In the Central Forest reserve tacheometric measurements were used for topographical and peat surveys of bogged sphagnum spruce forest of 20-hectare area. Its common borders and its areas affected by windfall were determined. The supplies and spatial distribution of organic matter were obtained. The datasets of groundwater monitoring measurements on ten wells were compared with each other and the analysis of spatial and temporal groundwater variability was performed. The map of typical ecosystems of the reserve and its surroundings was created on the basis of analysis of multi-temporal Landsat images. In the Central Chernozem reserve the GNSS topographical survey was used for flux tower footprint mapping (22 ha). The features of microrelief predetermine development of different soils within the footprint. Close relationship between soil (73 drilling site) and terrain attributes (DEM with 2.5 m) allowed to build maps of soils and soil properties: carbon content, bulk density, upper boundary of secondary carbonates. Position for chamber-based soil respiration measurements was defined on the basis of these maps. The detailed geodetic and soil surveys of virgin lands and plowland were performed in order to estimate the effect of agrogenic processes such as dehumification, compaction and erosion on soils during the whole period of agricultural use of Central Chernozem reserve area and around. The choice of analogous soils was based on the similarity of their position within the

  6. Family Therapy and Young Abusers : Experiences from the multi-agency treatment service TVERS in Vest-Agder County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Søftestad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on young abusers participating in a treatment program for families where one or more children have experienced child sexual abuse and/or have abused other children. TVERS is a multiprofessional team where the treatment is performed within a frame of control ,“care and control hand in hand”. Three trained family therapists from three different agencies come together and form the therapy. The caseworker from the child care protection service (Children`s Service becomes a part of the TVERS-team during their therapeutic work with the young abuser and his family. The therapists are given access to all reports and documents from the police, the court and medical services. The caseworker can follow up the family between appointments as well as initiate child protection procedures if necessary. The article describes our experience of working with families where the son in the family has abused other children outside or inside their own family.

  7. Family Therapy and Young Abusers : Experiences from the multi-agency treatment service TVERS in Vest-Agder County, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Siri Søftestad; Margareth Bjørtvedt; Jorunn Haga; Karin E. Hildén

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on young abusers participating in a treatment program for families where one or more children have experienced child sexual abuse and/or have abused other children. TVERS is a multiprofessional team where the treatment is performed within a frame of control ,“care and control hand in hand”. Three trained family therapists from three different agencies come together and form the therapy. The caseworker from the child care protection service (Children`s Service) becomes a p...

  8. Floristic complexes on landslides of different age in Central Yamal, West Siberian Low Arctic, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Khitun; Ksenia Ermokhina; Irina Czernyadjeva; Marina Leibman; Artem Khomutov

    2015-01-01

    Accurate ground-based datasets are important for correct interpretation of remote sensing data. West-Siberian Arctic has been exposed to rapid land-cover and land-use changes during the last 50 years. Cryogenic landslides are important disturbing agents in the region, especially in the central part of the Yamal Peninsula. Different succession stages in the recovery of cryogenic landslides are described at the example of 4 model ones formed respectively in 1989, in the middle of 1970s, in la...

  9. The Qing and Russia in Central Asia : A Comparative Study of Motives for Political Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Peoples Republic of China’s Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, or eastern Central Asia, is an area that has recently seen large scale ethnic unrest, as the native Uygurs have protested violently against Chinese domination in the region. This thesis is a discussion of the background for why Xinjiang today is under Chinese rule. To and a half centuries ago, in 1755-59, the Manchu Qing dynasty (1636-1911) conquered Xinjiang and incorporated it into their state, and this conquest contributed s...

  10. The spatial variability of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs inventories in a small agricultural drainage basin in central Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little information currently exists regarding the small-scale spatial variability of Chernobyl radiocaesium fallout and associated inventories. This contribution reports the results of a study of the variability of 137Cs inventories within the 2.18-km2 Lapki balka catchment located near Tula in central Russia. The local area was characterized by 137Cs inventories in excess of 200 kBq m-2 immediately after the Chernobyl accident and pre-existing bomb-derived inventories can be ignored in view of their very low magnitude. Field sampling and measurements included both collection of soil cores for subsequent laboratory analysis and in situ field measurements using a CORAD portable detector. The results obtained show evidence of a systematic south-north increase in the reference inventory across the basin, which must be taken into account when interpreting subsequent radiocaesium redistribution within the basin. Random spatial variability of 137Cs inventories of a similar magnitude to that reported for bomb-derived fallout was also documented. The extent of random spatial variability varied between different geomorphological units. Maximum variability, with coefficients of variation up to 20%,was associated with areas of sediment accumulation within the balka bottoms. Substantial variability (cv. typically ca. 15%) was found within flat cultivated areas and undisturbed areas both on the interfluves and on the balka sides, all of which could serve as reference sites. Minimum variability (cv. typically ca. 12%) was associated with the cultivated slopes with no evidence of sediment accumulation

  11. Comparative genetic and phenotypic analysis of grayling (Thymallus sp) from Central Asia (Kazachstan, Russia, Mongolia) and their systematic placement in the genus

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Weiss Joseph Weiss; Igor Knizhin

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of grayling from Lake Markakol, Kazachstan, the upper Ob (Biya) in the Tuva republic, Russia, and the Central Asian basin in Mongolia reveal relatively close relationships of three putative taxa in the region. Approximate Bayesian Computation supports a very recent divergence (5-10,000 generations) for populations in the Lake Markakol region, and approximate 1-200,000 year divergence from Mongolian grayling, T. brevirostris. Both of these lineages are approximately equ...

  12. Floristic complexes on landslides of different age in Central Yamal, West Siberian Low Arctic, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khitun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate ground-based datasets are important for correct interpretation of remote sensing data. West-Siberian Arctic has been exposed to rapid land-cover and land-use changes during the last 50 years. Cryogenic landslides are important disturbing agents in the region, especially in the central part of the Yamal Peninsula. Different succession stages in the recovery of cryogenic landslides are described at the example of 4 model ones formed respectively in 1989, in the middle of 1970s, in late 1950s or early 1960s and an ancient landslide back scarp dated with radiocarbon method as ca 1000 year old. Botanical survey was performed in 1991 and repeated in 2012, phytosociological study on the same landslides and their surroundings was performed in 1997–2002. Correlation between different syntaxa, age and morphological element of landslide is shown. Both projective cover and species composition change gradually on young and old landslides, though vegetation on the ancient ones did not change during the last 20 years. Pioneer communities on Yamal landslides are dominated by grasses (Deschampsia borealis, Puccinellia sibirica, Calamagrostis holmii, Poa alpigena ssp. colpodea, Dupontia fisheri . Proportion of various species differs both between years and different sections of the shear surface. Сarex glareosa indicating saline deposits was recorded on landslides of all stages. Mosses play important role in the recovery and formation of organic horizon on the young landslides. Geochemical properties of the groundwater were analyzed and correlation of different communities with different levels of mineralization of groundwater is shown. Vegetation allows estimate the age of younger landslides and indicates the sites of possible ancient detachment.

  13. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  14. Defining Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lijiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Russia is a state stretching over the Eurasian land mass and with a mixture of both East and West cultures. During the historical process of its shaping, particularly sea changes took place, Russian leaders and the elites as well have always asked the following questions about the definition and orientation of their country: "Who am I?" "How to do?" and "Where to?" At present, Russia finds itself in a critical stage of social transition and adjustment of international status. "What country is Russia like?" "What image should Russia show on the international arena?" "What is its strategic trend?" These questions would directly affect the development of Russia.

  15. Trace element speciation and origin of colloids in surface waters of subarctic zone (NW of Russia and Central Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Vasukova, E. V.; Shirokova, L. S.; Dupre, B.

    2008-12-01

    Geochemistry of trace elements (TE) in boreal regions attracts large attention of researchers in view of on- going environmental changes that can affect both the fluxes of these elements to the ocean, their speciation and thus their bioavailability. Most of trace elements in waters of boreal zone are transported via organic and organo-mineral colloids. In order to better understand the processes of colloids formation in surface waters draining watersheds of various lithology and permafrost abundance, comparative study of TE speciation in various geographic zones is necessary. In this work we attempted to generalize the typical features of trace element speciation in boreal arctic and subarctic zones assessed via in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration. Surface waters of three circumpolar regions in Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia and Central Siberia were studied using unique and rigorous procedure via combination of in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration (1 kDa, 3.5 kDa, 10 kDa, 100 kDa, 0.22 µm, 0.45 µm, 1 μm, 5 µm). In both filtrates and dialysates, all major and trace elements and dissolved organic carbon were analyzed. In all studied regions, three typical features of colloid speciation have been revealed: i) high proportion of large-size colloids (10 kDa - 0.22 μm and 0.22 μm - 5 µm), mostly composed of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides stabilized by organic matter; ii) presence of organic-rich, small size colloids and conventionally "dissolved" substances (organic matter originated from plant litter and peat layers of surface horizons at the surface redox front between anoxic groundwaters and surficial OM-rich waters of the riparian zone, and 2) Plant litter-borne Fe(II) and TE originated from decomposing plant litter and mosses and coprecipitating together in the very surface horizons above the permafrost layer. The first pathway is typical for non-permafrost bearing zones such as European Russian Arctic where as in Central Siberia, plant litter degradation in surficial

  16. Quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics in changing land-use and landscape conditions at the Central region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I. I.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a major player in the global and regional carbon cycles acting as carbon stocks and carbon sources. Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest carbon stock in the most of terrestrial ecosystems.Soil CO2 emission is a predominant terrestrial carbon outflow, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic microbial respiration. The capacity for carbon sequestration is widely accepted as a principal soil ecological function. Soil respiration is assumed as an important carbon source, included in the studies, assessing carbon budget in changing land-use and landscape conditions. The Central region of the European territory of Russia is especially interested for this kind of researches due to essential original spatial heterogeneity of its forest and forest-steppe soils and landscapes that has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions as a results of past century environmental changes and human impacts. SOM stocks and especially CO2 emission demonstrates a very high spatial and temporal variability here, which is mutual feature for most regional natural and man-changed ecosystems and may have a strong influence on land-use and farming change strategy and climate change. However quite a few studies focus on this problem here with application of modern field tools and quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics variability at the level of changing elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) that includes in the key issues of our project. Development the zonal-regional set of criteria for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature southern taiga ecosystems mutual for them the

  17. Regional Media Education Centers (for non-professionals in the media fields in the European Part of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Levitskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the European parts of Russia (Archangelsk, Belgorod, Vladimir, Voronezh, Kazan, Krasnodar, Penza, Rostov-on-Don, St.Petersburg, Saratov, Smolensk, Taganrog, Tambov, Tver, Tolyatti and so on. there is a lot of pedagogues, who strive to develop media competence among different age groups with different social status. More and more media educational centers are emerging. The dean at the Faculty of Journalism of Belgorod State University, professor A.P. Korochensky, has become a founder of a leading Scientific Media Critic School in Russia. A new media Philosophic School has been opened in St. Petersburg (professor V.V.Savchuk is the leader and a school of theory and journalistic practice (professor S.G.Korkonosenko is the leader. A scientific school media physiology school exists on the ground of Saratov State University. There are media educational schools in Samara and Smolensk. Although, according to our analysis, the most fundamental theoretical and practical results in the area of media education, have been achieved at the regional media educational centers of Tver, Voronezh and Taganrog.

  18. Carbon balance at represenative agroecosystems of Central European Russia with different crops assessed by eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that in Russia cropland's soils carbon loses 9 time higher than forest's soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), agroecosystems were not given sufficient attention and most of the papers are devoted to forestry and natural ecosystems. Carbon balance was calculated at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia, for two agroecosystems with different crops from the same crop rotation studied for 2 years. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured with eddy covariance technique, statistical method to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers (Burba, 2013). Crop rotation included potato, winter wheat, barley and vetch and oat mix. Two fields of the same crop rotation were studied in 2013-2014. One of the fields (A) was used in 2013 for barley planting (Hordeum vulgare L.). The field B was in 2013 used for planting together vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Inversely oats and vetch grass mixt was sown in 2014 on field A. Winter wheat was sown on field A in the very beginning of September. On the second field (B) in 2014 winter wheat occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering, after harvesting it in mid of July, white mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the field with winter wheat and white mustard; perhaps because the two crops were cultivated on the field within one growing season. Three other cases showed CO2 emission. Great difference in 82 g C m‑2 per year in NEE between two fields with vetch and oat mix was related to higher difference in grass yields. NEE for barley field was positive during the whole year; considering only the growing season, NEE for barley was 100 g C m‑2 lower and was negative

  19. Products of micritization: evidences of microbial activity at and below the seafloor of the Upper Moscovian epicontinental basin of central European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Thin sections of the Upper Moscovian shallow-marine limestones of central European Russia exhibit various products of synsedimentary and earliest diagenetic degradation of carbonate allochems. Micritized grains and related features (microcrystalline overgrowths, oncoids, and endolithic borings) are very similar to modern micritized grains forming on the shallow protected seafloors of warm-water carbonate basins. Surface-sediment micritization in the late Moscovian epicontinental basin of central European Russia is expressed in microendolithic destruction, micrite-minimicrite precipitation in intraskeletal voids, and non-selective replacements of the original skeletal structures. Most conspicuous products of surface-sediment micritization are peloidized large foraminifers (fusulinoids and palaeotextulariids), micritic-minimicritic envelopes on brachiopod and echinoderm bioclasts, and internal micritization in echinoderm stereomal pores. The last feature is structurally controlled and where not related to other surface-sediment alterations, may be attributed to intrasedimentary degradation. Surface-sediment micritization was produced by a syntrophic microbial community that must have included phototrophic cyanobacteria and/or chlorophytes and heterotrophic bacteria and fungae responsible for the intragranular microcrystalline recrystallization and internal cementation. Microborings are diverse, include microbial and metazoan varieties. Microendolithic destruction and subsequent microcrystalline occlusion of borings was locally important in micritizing processes, although cinder-like peripheral replacements in massive bioclasts and persistence of test walls in deeply peloidized foraminifers suggest that recrystallization and internal cementation was equally or more important. Many skeletal packstones, wackestones, mudstones, and tempestites irrespectible of their inferred paleobathymetric position exhibit the signs of selective intrasedimentary degradation: peripheral

  20. The influence of climate cycles on the water regime and carbonate profile in chernozems of Central European Russia and adjacent territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazykina, G. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    The influence of long-term "dry" and "wet" climatic cycles on the water regime, hydrological parameters, and carbonate profiles of chernozems in Central European Russia and adjacent territories was studied. The hydrological and carbonate profiles were found to change during the wet cycle. However, the upper part of the hydrological profile is basically unchanging, whereas in its lower part, the number of hydrological horizons and contrast in their moistening decrease in the forest-steppe chernozems and increase in the steppe chernozems. The frequency of through wetting of chernozems increases during the wet cycles. The vertical lithological heterogeneity of the parent material affects the soil moisture status. In the wet climatic cycle, the moisture content above the lithological contact increases resulting in the development of the features of soil hydromorphism. In the carbonate profile, the character of pedofeatures is changing: some carbonate neoformations disappear, while the other ones develop. Possible variations of the periodically percolative water regime were revealed in chernozems. The classification of water regime proposed by A.A. Rode may be updated based on the data obtained during the dry climatic cycle. Rode's hypothesis about cyclic variations in the soil water regime is confirmed.

  1. Smoking among adolescents in Russia in comparison with other countries of central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, T.I.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare characteristics of tobacco consumption among adolescents in Russian Federation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe based on the data of Global Youth Tobacco Survey, carried out among adolescents aged 13—15 years in European middle and low income countries in 1999-2005. Russian Federation was characterized with higher rates of smoking prevalence among adolescents, earlier smoking initiation, higher chances to be daily smokers and dependent smokers. In Russian society, awareness of smoking-related harm was lower than in other European countries. Smoking was more likely to be considered a characteristic of popularity and success. Russian adolescents were more often exposed to second-hand smoke in their homes and in public places, but not in educational institutions. (Full text is in Russian

  2. Plant biodiversity and soil nitrogen and carbon pools changes as a result of nitrogen deposition at permanent pine plots in Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Alexander; Priputina, Irina; Zubkova, Elena; Shanin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    We present results of analysis of increased rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition observed in Central Russia between 1960 and 2010, and dealt with air pollution by NOx, on a biodiversity and main pools of C and N in pine forests of Moscow region, Russia. Shifts in nitrogen availability of three pine plots have been analyzed using presence/absence records on dynamics of understory plant communities (chronosequence consisting of four surveys from 1959-61 up to 2003) and a set of specialist plant species as bioindicators of soil richness. Atmospheric N loads received by ecosystems in 1950-1960 were estimated equal 5-7 kg ha-1 yr-1 with N-NH4 prevalence. In 1975-1990, NOx were more severe air contaminants that increased the N loads up to 15-20 kg ha-1 yr-1. Because of the economic decline of soon after 1990, general air pollution and the N deposition rates in Moscow region reduced, but a short time later started to increase again. We assume that those changes might be caused by atmospheric N input rates and to examine this assumption (i) analyze of species composition in understory has been done using Ellenberg indicator values and Tsyganov interval ecological scales developed for European Russia, and (ii) modeling of dynamics of main C and N pools in forest have been additionally carried out using EFIMOD and ROMUL models. Two nitrogen deposition scenarios have been simulated: (i) the steady background rate of N deposition equal to the one in the middle of last century, and (ii) the real ambient level of N depositions in last 50 yrs. Results have confirmed changes of understory species composition sustaining an eutrophication have been revealed in all plots. Number of specialists which mark rich soil conditions increases from 1950 and reaches maximum at 1990 for all plots. There is a difference between sample plots. Increasing number of specialists for rich conditions is very expressed for the richest mixed pine-lime stand and mixed pine-oak stand. Number of

  3. Holocene environment of Central Kamchatka, Russia: Implications from a multi-proxy record of Two-Yurts Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Ulrike; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Dirksen, Veronika G.; Dirksen, Oleg; Kuhn, Gerhard; Meyer, Hanno; Nazarova, Larisa; Roth, Alexandra; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Within the scope of Russian-German palaeoenvironmental research, Two-Yurts Lake (TYL, Dvuh-Yurtochnoe in Russian) was chosen as the main scientific target area to decipher Holocene climate variability on Kamchatka. The 5 × 2 km large and 26 m deep lake is of proglacial origin and situated on the eastern flank of Sredinny Ridge at the northwestern end of the Central Kamchatka Valley, outside the direct influence of active volcanism. Here, we present results of a multi-proxy study on sediment cores, spanning about the last 7000 years. The general tenor of the TYL record is an increase in continentality and winter snow cover in conjunction with a decrease in temperature, humidity, and biological productivity after 5000-4500 cal yrs BP, inferred from pollen and diatom data and the isotopic composition of organic carbon. The TYL proxy data also show that the late Holocene was punctuated by two colder spells, roughly between 4500 and 3500 cal yrs BP and between 1000 and 200 cal yrs BP, as local expressions of the Neoglacial and Little Ice Age, respectively. These environmental changes can be regarded as direct and indirect responses to climate change, as also demonstrated by other records in the regional terrestrial and marine realm. Long-term climate deterioration was driven by decreasing insolation, while the short-term climate excursions are best explained by local climatic processes. The latter affect the configuration of atmospheric pressure systems that control the sources as well as the temperature and moisture of air masses reaching Kamchatka.

  4. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  5. Environmental assessment of water-salt regime of irrigated soils in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Rumyantseva, Irina

    2016-04-01

    A large part of Central Chernozem Region is located in the zone of risky agriculture. This led to intensive use of soil in the irrigation system. Therefore, a detailed analysis of water-salt regime of irrigated soils required for ecological state assessment of soils for irrigation. In the investigated area the fone component of the soil cover on the levelled plateau are chernozems. On the slopes formed a meadow-chernozem soils. Parent material is a cover loess-like calcareous non-saline clay. In these soils, our studies found component-quantitative composition of the aqueous extract, the chemism of salinity, which allowed us to make conclusions about the direction of the salinisation process in soils when used in the system of irrigated agriculture. By quantity water extract chernozems are non-saline, the ratio of anions and cations are chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. In the composition of easily soluble salts dominated by Ca(HCO3)2. On sum of toxic salts in the soils are non-saline. This type and chemism of salinity deep brackish groundwater (more than 5 m) can be actively used in the system of rational irrigation. The meadow-chernozem soils formed under conditions of increased surface and soil moisture in the shallow brackish water at a depth of 3-5 m. These soils by quantity water extract are non-saline, anionic-cationic ratio - chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. Permanent components of salt associations are Ca(HCO3)2, MgCl2, Na2SO4. On sum of toxic salts in the soil is not saline throughout the profile. The chemism of salinity and the proximity of groundwater at irregular watering can lead to the rise of groundwater level, the development of gleyed and sodium alkalinization. Thus, the introduction of intensive irrigated agriculture on chernozems and hydromorphic analogues may lead to the development in them of negative consequences. The most dynamic indicator is the water-salt regime, the systematic monitoring and control which

  6. Metals in the 0.25-0.05 mm sand fraction of forest soils in central European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonova, Olga; Aseyeva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the vertical and lateral geochemical differentiation of 0.25-0.05 mm sand fraction partitioned from uncontaminated forest soils on the central part of the Russian Plain. The vertical distribution of Fe, Ti, Mn, Zr, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Co was examined in 5 soil profiles: two podzoluvisols developing on sheet loam on interfluvial summits, two poorly differentiated soddy and soddy gleyic soils occupying slope and footslope positions, and one floodplain soil. The spatial variations of 0.25-0.05 mm fraction geochemistry were characterized using elemental data from the humus horizons of two soil catenas and the topsoil of an erosional landform (a gully system), typical for the study area. Analyses show the following median concentrations in the sand fraction: Fe ‑ 3,2%, Ti ‑ 3000 ppm, Mn - 500 ppm, Zr - 640 ppm, Zn, Cu, Cr - 50 ppm, and Ni, Pb and Co ‑ 23, 18 and 8 ppm, respectively. Variation coefficients diminish in magnitude: Mn, Cu (70-80%) > Co, Zn, Ni, Fe (60-65%) >Zr, Ti (45%) > Cr, Pb (35%). The sand fraction content in the soils varied widely, from 0.4 to 56% depending on the lithological features of parent material and underlying strata. No even distribution of the fraction across soil profiles was registered. In soils on loamy deposits sand enrichment was observed in the upper horizons, in contrast to the lower horizons for soils underlain by sandy glacio-fluvial deposits. The higher contents of metals in the sand fraction in all soil profiles were found in the topsoil, characterized by more active humus accumulation, biogeochemical processes and sand grain weathering. However, Ti and Zr were distributed more evenly, implying their presence in a form of stable primary minerals. The spatial distribution of the metals in 0.25-0.05 mm particles revealed important soil-geochemical convergence processes in lateral direction along catenas. Fraction samples partitioned from soils in the lowermost positions on the two

  7. Functionally ecological assessment of C dominant pools and fluxes in field agroecosystems with sod-podzoluvosols at the Central Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vizirskaya, Mariya; Epikhina, Anna; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo; Meshalkina, Julia

    2014-05-01

    The Global Change problem has obvious interaction with greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. The principal GHG is carbon dioxide. There is a lot of data on its fluxes but the Central Region of Russia is still one of less investigated area especially in case of agroecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by chambers and eddy covariance methods combined application. Our research has been at the representative key plots of cultivated sod-podzoluvosols located at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (Moscow) in 2012-2013 in frame of RF Government grant 11.G34.31.0079 and RFBR grant 11-04-01376 activities. The research include the detailed soil cover patterns morphogenetic investigation, soil C pools dynamic analysis, soil CO2 flux decade-based monitoring by method of exposition chambers with IRGA (infra red gas analyzer) and agroecosystem CO2 flux seasonal monitoring by two eddy covariance stations in frame of 4 ha experimental plot. There were two crop versions (barley and grass mixture), and in case of chamber analysis - also two agrotecnology versions (traditional and no-till ones) with soil temperature and moisture analysis too. The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of soil and agroecosystem CO2 emission. The beginning of vegetation period (until plant height of 10-12 cm) is characterized by high average soil CO2 emission and adsorption at the same time. The adsorption is significantly higher. The resulted CO2 absorption during the day is approximately two times higher than emissions at night. After harvesting CO2 emission is becoming essentially higher than adsorption. In 2012 data have shown for barley the small predominance of CO2 emissions over the absorption. The daily dynamics of soil CO2 emissions depends on the air temperature dynamics with the correlation coefficient changes from 0.86 at the beginning of the season to 0.52 and 0.38 at the middle and at the end of one. Soil moisture

  8. Agricultural crops and soil treatment impacts on the daily and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes in the field agroecosystems at the Central region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Berezovskiy, Egor; Djancharov, Turmusbek

    2015-04-01

    The problem of greenhouse gases' concentrations increasing becomes more and more important due to global changes issues. The main component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. The researches focused on its fluxes in natural and anthropogenic modified landscapes can help in this problem solution. Our research has been done with support of the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # 14.120.14.4266 and of FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C in the representative for Central Region of Russia field agroecosystems at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University with cultivated sod podzoluvisols, barley and oats - vetch grass mix (Moscow station of the RusFluxNet). The daily and seasonal dynamics of the carbon dioxide have been studied at the ecosystem level by the Eddy covariance method (2 stations) and at the soil level by the exposition chamber method (40 chambers) with mobile infra red gas analyzer (Li-Cor 820). The primary Eddy covariance monitoring data on CO2 fluxes and water vapor have been processed by EddyPro software developed by LI-COR Biosciences. According to the two-year monitoring data the daily CO2 sink during the vegetation season is usually approximately two times higher than its emission at night. Seasonal CO2 fluxes comparative stabilization has been fixed in case the plants height around 10-12 cm and it usually persist until the wax ripeness phase. There is strong dependence between the soil CO2 emission and the air temperature with the correlation coefficient 0.86 in average (due to strong input of the soil thin top functional subhorizon), but it drops essentially at the end of the season - till 0.38. The soil moisture impact on CO2 fluxes dynamics was less, with negative correlation at the end of the season. High daily dynamics of CO2 fluxes determines the protocol requirements for seasonal soil monitoring investigation with less limitation at the end of the season. The accumulated monitoring data will be

  9. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  10. Russian federation : Social Expenditure and Fiscal Federalism in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Russia Social Expenditure Review (SER) has been undertaken by the human development team in the Europe and Central Asia Region of the World Bank at the request of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation. This Report presents the key findings of the Russia SER work. The key objectives of the SER are to: 1) benchmark Russia's social spending and some human development outcomes ...

  11. Governing uranium in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Khlopkov, Anton; Chekina, Valeriya

    2014-01-01

    Russia currently has the world's third largest fleet of nuclear power plants with 33 reactors in operation. To supply the country's growing energy demand, Russia plans to double its nuclear energy output by 2035 with ten reactors currently under construction and a number of existing ones being upgraded to extend service life. Russia is also one of the world's leading nuclear exporters, delivering nuclear fuel to ten countries. Additional 19 new power reactors will be launched in foreign count...

  12. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia's Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of 'non-traditional' Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  13. ANALYSIS OF COST STRUCTURE FOR PHARMACOTHERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH STABLE ANGINA (THE CASE OF CARDIOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF TVER REGIONAL CLINICAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Demidova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the cost structure for pharmacotherapy of patients with stable angina (SA, in particular, to compare the cost of pharmacotherapy with drugs, both included and not included into the official Standard of care (SC. Material and methods. Medical records of patients with SA (n=100 admitted to the cardiology department of Tver Regional Clinical Hospital in January-July 2010 were studied retrospectivelly. Costs of treatment with drugs specified in SC for patients with SA as well as drugs not included in SC were considered. Costs of pharmacotherapy and cost structure were determined. Pharmacoeconomical methods, especially ABC analysis, were partially used.  Results. Totally 65502.39 ruble was spent for pharmacotherapy of 100 patients with SA. Cost structure was the following: 32679.34 ruble was spent for drugs recommended by SC, 23698.18 ruble — for drugs not included in SC, and 9124.87 ruble — for drugs to treat concomitant diseases which are not taken into account by SC for patients with SA. Conclusion. SA pharmacotherapy counts 50% of the total cost for drugs recommended by SC, 36% — for drugs not included in SC but belonged to pharmacological class presented in SC, and 14% — drugs from pharmacological class not included in SC. In the process of new SC elaboration for SA patients it is necessary to take into account treatment costs of concomitant diseases especially diabetes mellitus which can account up to 9.5% of total treatment cost of SA patients.

  14. Application of a field-portable scintillation detector for studying the distribution of 137Cs inventories in a small basin in Central Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information relating to the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories within small areas is an important requirement both for assessing environmental contamination associated with the Chernobyl accident and for use in geomorphological applications where 137Cs measurements can provide a basis for estimating rates of erosion and sedimentation. Collection of such information using traditional techniques is, however, hampered by the need to collect soil cores and to analyse these in the laboratory using gamma spectrometry, which commonly involves lengthy count times. The use of field-portable in situ detectors offers many potential advantages over conventional field sampling. However, in order to assess this potential, there is a need for rigorous comparisons of the results obtained using the two approaches. This contribution reports the results of such a comparison undertaken in the small Lapki Balka catchment (2.18 km2) located near the town of Plavsk in Russia. The study area, which is located ca. 550 km northeast of Chernobyl, received high inputs of Chernobyl fallout and 137Cs inventories immediately after the accident were in excess of 200 kBq m-2. Parallel measurements of 137Cs inventories were made at more than 120 points using a 'CORAD' portable detector and conventional soil sampling. The sampling points were selected to be representative of the range of land use and geomorphological features within the study catchment. The results generally showed close agreement between the values of 137Cs inventory provided by the two approaches, but it is necessary to take account of the fact that the 'CORAD' results represent spatially averaged values, whereas the analysis of soil cores provides essentially point values. The interaction of the spatial properties of the two sets of measurements with the microvariability of soil 137Cs inventories must be considered when interpreting differences in both magnitude and dispersion. The results obtained indicate that in situ

  15. Radcure developments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey dwells on three main parts: 1. Insight into the state of radiation curing technology in Russia. 2. Scope of the scientific potential. 3. Certain regard on forecasts, opportunities and prospects for Russian RadTech market

  16. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The section Focus on Russia holds 3 articles and two columns. The first article looks at the close affiliation between the Russian president Medvedev and Gazprom. However, with energy prices going down, the growing risks for Gazprom might also become a risk for Medvedev. In the second article it is argued that the gas conflict between Ukraine and Russia is not what it appears to be in the western media. It has been going on for at least 15 years and it is really a war between private parties in Russia and Ukraine who engage in illicit gas trading. Article 3 discusses the Chinese threat. While the US and Europe compete for Shtokman gas, China is increasingly asserting itself as an attractive market for Russian energy. Yet, in the end, Russia will give Europe preference, according to the author

  17. Russia's scientific legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many insights of Russian scientists are unknown or long-forgotten outside of Russia. Making the Russian literature accessible to the international scientific community could stimulate new lines of research.

  18. Why Russia is not a state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  19. Sociohumanities in modern Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Jurevich

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes the current state of the sociohumanities in Russia. The author gives evidence of the growth in the quantity of programs certain disciplines, such as political science, economics, law studies and sociology. According to the authors opinion, the sociohumanities are more in demand than the natural sciences in present-day Russia. The reasons are to be found in the current state of Russian society and in the special relationship between Russian science and the "worlds" of busi...

  20. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  1. Application of the Radionuclide Technique and other Methods for Assessing the Effectiveness of Soil Conservation Measures at the Novosil Study Site, Orel Region, Central Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, the findings are presented of a detailed study about the long term (70-75 years) effectiveness of soil conservation measures, which was conducted at the Novosil study site located in the Orel region of the Central Russian Plain. At the Novosil Experimental station, three pairs of transects of different morphology were selected on relatively steep arable farmland. One transect in each pair underwent introduction of soil conservation measures in the past, while the other was kept under regular cultivation. On all three transects under soil conservation practices artificial terraces were installed in combination with forest belts located parallel to the topography contour lines and spaced at approximately 100 m from each other. The construction of terraces and tree planting was initiated in 1932. The 137Cs and 210Pbex radioisotopes were used as tracers for the quantitative assessment of long term soil conservation effectiveness within each pair of transects. Simultaneously soil profile morphology method and empirically based erosion modelling were used to complement the datasets collected by using fallout radionuclide techniques. The study, based on soil profile morphology and 137Cs based methods, concluded that slopes with soil-protective measures are characterized by a reduction of the average annual soil redistribution rates by 25-80%. Good coincidence of the spatial patterns of soil redistribution rates provided by these two techniques suggests general reliability of the results. Observed discrepancies in values obtained can be attributed to differences in temporal resolution of methods as well as to possible influence of individual extreme events on results yielded by the 137Cs method. However, more significant decrease of average soil degradation rates on slopes under soil conservation practices (up to 70-75% for each pair of slopes) was predicted by empirically based modelling. This substantial differences between predicted and directly

  2. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  3. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  4. The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avksentev, Alexey; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana; Moiseeva, Evgenya

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity Alexey Avksentev, Elena Negrobova, Tatiana Kramareva, Evgenya Moiseeva 394000 Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, 1 Voronezh State University Nitrous oxide is emitted by soil as a result of microbiological processes, ranks third in the list of aggressive greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide is formed during nitrification and denitrification of ammonia that enters the soil during microbial decomposition of complex organic compounds. Denitrification can be direct and indirect. In the microbiological process of recovery of nitrates involved of the organic substance. In aerobic conditions microorganisms denitrificator behave like normal saprotrophs and oxidize organic matter in the act of breathing oxygen. Thus, they operate at different times two enzyme systems: the electron transport chain with an oxygen acceptor in aerobic and restoration of nitrates under anaerobic conditions. Investigation of the emission of nitrous oxide by ordinary Chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region showed that it depends on the type of cenosis and the content of available forms of nitrogen. Natural ecosystems emit nitrous oxide more than the soil of arable land. The dependence of the emission of nitrous oxide from the humus content shows positive trend, but the aggregation of data, significant differences are not detected. Research shows that nitrous oxide emissions are seasonal. So the autumn season is characterized by nitrous oxide emissions than spring. Enzymatic processes are an important link in the biological cycle of elements and, consequently, participate in the process of decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and other processes. Analysis of the data on enzyme activity of ordinary Chernozem and the intensity of emission of N20 shows a clear relationship between

  5. Home Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  6. Terrorism Mounts in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The new year starts ominously with Moscow airport attack The year 2011 did not begin happily for Russia. On January 24,a bomb attack at Moscow’s Domodedovo Airport-the city’s largest-killed at least 35 people and injured more than 130. This tragedy shed light

  7. Singing Praise for Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Younger generations in China and Russia need to learn more about each other Few in China’s younger generations know more Russian than the names of the charismatic Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the anti-virus software brand Kaspersky or super tenor Vitas. Their

  8. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  9. Geopolitical warm spots : Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil production in Russia has increased by 50 per cent since 1999 and future growth appears to be promising. Major companies are being encouraged to re-invest in Russia's upstream sector due to high oil prices and a stable domestic business environment. The Centre for Global Energy Studies has conducted a study which reveals that in the next 10 years, Russian oil production could exceed the levels reached in the last years of the Soviet era. Oil production could reach 10 million barrels per day (mbpd) within 3 years, and 13 mbpd by 2015. All excess oil produced will be exported. The factors that may limit the expansion of the oil industry in Russia include political interference from Moscow, insufficient pipeline capacity to transport the oil to export terminals, and lower international oil prices. The greatest potential for increased oil production lies in West Siberia. Although West Siberia will continue to dominate Russia's oil production, companies will also need to focus on less mature regions such as East Siberia, the North Caspian and the Far East. tabs., figs

  10. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  11. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    that relies on strategic nuclear deterrent as a central element of security strategy, regardless of whether nuclear deterrence has any actual role in addressing those problems. The emphasis on strategic stability in the bilateral relationship with the United States was evident in the important role that Russia assigned to the U.S.-Russian arms control negotiations. Resumption of the legally binding arms control process was one of the key elements of the largely successful 'reset' policy pursued by the Obama Administration in its relationships with Russia. Also, during the negotiations Russia strongly emphasized its interest in those issues that it believed might directly affect its deterrent potential - missile defense and conventional strategic launchers. Russia's extremely cautious approach to the next round of nuclear disarmament talks suggests that these issues did not lose their importance after New START - looking at nuclear disarmament in the context of strategic stability, Russia expressed concerns that deep reductions could undermine its nuclear deterrent if, for example, the United States proceeds with deployment of its missile defense system. Whether or not these concerns are justified, they do play an important role in how Russia looks at the future of nuclear disarmament. However, the opposite is true as well - the nuclear disarmament process can change Russia's security policy in a variety of ways by addressing some of its concerns or failing to address others. After the successful conclusion of the New START negotiations, the direction of change in Russia's nuclear policy will depend on how the subsequent dialogue addresses a number of key issues. First, the arms control process will have to reconcile the U.S. and Russian strategic modernization programs with deeper nuclear reductions. In Russia's case this would critically depend on whether the two countries could resolve their differences on missile defense. They would also have to address the issue of

  12. Nuclear in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief presentation of some information and data about Russia, this document proposes indications of levels of energy production and world ranking for different sources (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear), indications of some reserves (gas, coal, oil, uranium), indication of electricity production and exports (with a brief history of the electronuclear sector). The next part proposes an overview of the nuclear sector: political and industrial organisation, main technical steps, reactor types (light water graphite reactors, light water enriched uranium reactors, fast neutron reactors) with their strengths, weaknesses and improvements. The renewal program is evoked, as well as the fuel cycle activity, and the large presence on the international market. The cooperation between France and Russia is briefly presented

  13. Doing business with Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last week's visit of Russian president Dmitry Medvedev to Slovakia did not bring anything new into business relations between the two countries. The great power is still looking at Slovakia as a market for output from Russian industry: especially nuclear power plant supplies such as technologies and nuclear fuel. That is the reason why Russia keeps lobbying for the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. There is another questionable project involving Russia: The R and D Cyclotron Center that is under construction in Bratislava. The real utilization in Slovakia remains unknown - researchers or businessmen have no idea how to use the collider. It was purely a political decision. Operation costs will be approximately 10 million euros a year. Also, a similar project was launched in Ruzomberok last week. A Russian proton accelerator was installed in the local hospital to help fight cancer. But economic feasibility is very uncertain. (author)

  14. [Labor migration to Russia from nearby countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinets, E; Barinova, N

    1996-01-01

    According to official data the unemployment rate in the Russian Federation at the end of the first half of 1995 reached 5.7 million people, or 7.6% of the economically active population. At the present time [1996] the proportion of potentially unemployed people ranges from 13% to 17% of the economically active population. During 1993-95, in the whole economy of Russia, the number of vacancies fluctuated between 320,000 and 400,000. Moreover, in the first quarter of 1995 an increase of manpower needs by 14% was observed compared to the first quarter of 1994. In the first half of 1995 the manpower needs increased to 311,000-400,000 people, or 43.1%. As far as the regional distribution of available jobs was concerned, one-fifth of them was located in the Urals and western Siberia and about one-third in the central region. In order to protect the labor market for Russian natives, in December 1993 a presidential decree was issued. At the end of 1994 the number of foreign workers in Russia numbered 128,999 people, of which 73,695 (58.9%) came from adjacent countries bordering Russia. Experts ascertained that these foreign workers provided higher qualifications: 47.2% were better qualified than the local work force, 75% were more productive, and 83.2% were more disciplined. The labor migration in Russia during the 1990s will depend on the demographic and socioeconomic changes in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union and the composition of the labor market, as well as measures taken in Russia concerning immigration policy. It is estimated that in the coming years the annual number of foreign workers would equal 110,000-130,000 people, and if quotas are set up by mutual agreement the number could grow two- to three-fold compared to the figure of 1994. PMID:12294931

  15. Beyond Holy Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This biography examines the long life of the traveller and author Stephen Graham. Graham walked across large parts of the Tsarist Empire in the years before 1917, describing his adventures in a series of books and articles that helped to shape attitudes towards Russia in Britain and the United States. In later years he travelled widely across Europe and North America, meeting some of the best known writers of the twentieth century, including H.G. Wells and Ernest Hemingway. Graham also wrote...

  16. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  17. Worker Flows in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Louise

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates worker flows in Russia. Information onelapsed durationsof job tenure from the 1994-1996 Russian Longitudinal MonitoringSurvey (RLMS)and fromretrospective work history responses to the Institute for LaborRelationsResearch (ISITO) 1998 household survey is used. Competing risksmodels fordurations of job tenure with multiple destination states areestimated. Patternsof transitions between sectors and to non-employment are identifiedfordifferent demographic groups. Rates of ...

  18. American Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  19. Orphan Care in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Victoria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current public opinion about the residential care system in contemporary Russia is extremely negative. A majority of Russians, both citizens and professionals, consider that family placement is the best arrangement for orphaned children. The year 2007 was announced as the Year of the Child in Russia. The majority of officials interpreted it as the year of de-institutionalization of the residential care system for children in Russia. De-institutionalization is mostly identified as reform focused on family placement instead of placement in institutions. Vladimir Fridlyanov, the executive director of the Ministry of Science and Education, announced in May, 2007 that the government is going to transfer 120,000 children from institutions into families every year from 2007 until 2010 and reduce the number of residential care institutions by one-third (Nesterova 2007. But the likelihood of family placement is small, with the exception of the adoption of infants without serious pathologies, and the attempts of precipitant de-institutionalization (when children’s homes are closed and children are distributed among families have failed (children were returned into children homes. According to the opinion of the Ministry, the key obstacle to effective de-institutionalization is the lack of professionals in adoption and foster care (Vazhdaeva 2006.

  20. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil, tree stems, and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56° N 33° E) during the growing seasons of 2002–2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere–biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of the total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of the ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability, ranging from 0.7 to 10 μmol m−2 s−1. Generally, the soil respiration depended on the soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions, the soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. The stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September, and in October it dramatically decreased. The tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3–5 μmol m−2 s−1 for dominant trees and about 1–2 μmol m−2 s−1 for subdominant trees. The respiration of living tree stems was about 10–20% of the ER. (letter)

  1. Russia at GHG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  2. The FSU/Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The London-based Centre for Global Energy Studies claims that geopolitics has played a significant role in determining the current level of global oil production. It estimates that geopolitical events in a small group of countries have deprived the world of about 2 mbpd and nearly 8 mbpd of potential oil production since 2000. In particular, growth in oil production in 2005 in the Former Soviet Union (FSU)/Russia was at a standstill following 3 years of a steady growth rate of almost 10 per cent per year. Although a slowdown in the rate of output was anticipated, the near suspension of Russian output was mostly due to administrative intervention which discouraged the Russian oil industry from investing in new upstream capacity. The administrative conflicts included large tax hikes to the oil industry, resulting in fears of losing licences, ownership changes, and rising costs of new developments and transportation. It was concluded that while Russia has the resources to improve oil production, the incentive for the oil industry to grow will depend greatly on the actions of the federal government and the policies it puts forward to regulate its oil industry. tabs., figs

  3. Life sciences research at JINR, Dubna, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the broad spectrum of activities in the Life Sciences at JINR such as nuclear medicine and pharmacy, radiation biology, radioecology, radioisotope production radioanalytical investigations play a special role due to the long-term experience in multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the reactor IBR-2 of FLNP, JINR. INAA is presently being used in several projects on air pollution studies using bio monitors (moss, lichens, tree bark). The results for some selected areas of Central Russia, South Urals, and countries of Europe (Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Slovakia, Western Ukraine) are reported to the European Atlas of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition edited under the auspices of the Environmental Commission of the United Nations. Battering-ram studies using NAA were initiated also in Turkey, China and South Korea. Applied to the analysis of air filters, INAA is successfully used in assessing quality of London underground air, Sahara desert impact on the Greater Cairo Area. Epithermal activation analysis in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry and energy-disperse X-ray fluorescence allowed source evaluation of metals in soil from some industrial and metropolitan areas of Russia (South Urals, Cola Peninsula) and the USA (Minneapolis). The analytical possibilities of NAA are favorably used in biotechnology, (i) for investigation of bacterial leaching of metals, including uranium and thorium from low-grade ores, rocks and industrial wastes; (i i) in the development of new pharmaceuticals based on the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Occupational health studies are carried out at several fertilizer plants in Russia, Uzbekistan, Poland, Romania, Denmark and the Netherlands in the framework of the 5th Programme Copernicus. The quality of foodstuffs grown in some contaminated areas of Russia is investigated in the framework of IAEA Coordinated Research Programme. In

  4. Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

  5. The Features of Naturalization of Invasive Fraction of Flora in the Voronezh Region and in Some Regions of the European Part of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimirov D.R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is about naturalization features of invasive fraction of flora in Voronezh and some other regions of the European part of Russia. The summary table represents all invasive and potentially invasive plants of the European part of Russia with their level of naturalization (or invasive status. Invasive fraction of flora in the Voronezh region numbers 120 plants. All of them are on different stages of naturalization process in an anthropogenic areal. Invasive plants represent by agriophyts – 41 (34,1 % species, epecophyts – 75 (62,5 % species and colonophyts-epecophyts – 4 (3,4 % species. Totally there are 201 species of invasive and potentially invasive plants spread within European part of Russia (Northern-West Russia, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Tver, and Voronezh regions. They formed the “black list” of European Russia. 10 species are common to all invasive fractions. These are Acer negundo, Amelanchier x spicata, Aster x salignus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis and Lupinus polyphyllus. The analysis of the general list of invasive fractions of European Russia shows that 120 species of the list are invasive or potentially invasive in the Voronezh region (100 and 20 species in accordance, adventives naturalized species – 31, native species – 19, archaeophyts – 2, apophyts – 4. 26 species from the list were not found in the Voronezh region. Apparently, the region is a transit area for many invasive plants, which migrate from South to North, from East to West etc. Not only its natural and climatic potential, but also high level of transformation of local landscapes enabled immigrant-plants to naturalize within the bounds of the region. Furthermore, for many years the Voronezh region was the center of introduction of alien plants. Many of those became a part of invasion fraction of regional flora. In recent decades green building took place of

  6. Medical exposure in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there have been considerable changes in radiology, which is because of coming to a new form of property, reforms of health services and crisis in the society. Big area, bad means of communication and low density of population in most regions of the country should be also mentioned among the factors influencing the level of both health protection and radiology services. All these factors don't allow to create an effective radiology system in a short time. Meanwhile the main nearest task of radiology is the integration and optimization of all means of visualization on the basis of solving fundamental problems of health protection according to the Federal program, normative acts and decrees of the government. In this connection it seemed to be an urgent task to estimate various aspects of radiology activity of Russian health in the dynamics for the recent period of time. The data of the state statistics are to be used to cope with this task. These data on the basis of the computer program 'Region', the quantity indices of various visualization methods used in Russia and the doses of exposure of the population have been estimated and the reference book 'Medical irradiation of the population in Russia. 1980-1997 years' has been published. It turned out that the average annual number of X-ray examinations per thousand population in Russia before 1988 year was constantly up to 1600. And only then because of Chernobyl accident its increase stopped and its gradual decline began (table 1). Such high frequency of the examinations was caused mainly by the large scales of mass preventive photofluorography (more than 40%), held for early tuberculosis exposure. It was as a result of reorganization of fluorographic examination system started in the late 80s and early 90s that this pernicious tendency was overcome and the number of fluorography was reduced almost twice from 90 to 56 millions a year, which considerably contributed to reducing the exposure. Unfortunately as

  7. Medical exposure in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there have been considerable changes in radiology, which is because of coming to a new form of property, reforms of health services and crisis in the society. Big area, bad means of communication and low density of population in most regions of the country should be also mentioned among the factors influencing the level of both health protection and radiology services. All these factors don't allow to create an effective radiology system in a short time. Meanwhile the main nearest task of radiology is the integration and optimization of all means of visualization on the basis of solving fundamental problems of health protection according to the Federal program, normative acts and decrees of the government. In this connection it seemed to be an urgent task to estimate various aspects of radiology activity of Russian health in the dynamics for the recent period of time. The data of the state statistics are to be used to cope with this task. These data on the basis of the computer program 'Region', the quantity indices of various visualization methods used in Russia and the doses of exposure of the population have been estimated and the reference book 'Medical irradiation of the population in Russia. 1980-1997 years' has been published. It turned out that the average annual number of X-ray examinations per thousand population in Russia before 1988 year was constantly up to 1600. And only then because of Chernobyl accident its increase stopped and its gradual decline began. Such high frequency of the examinations was caused mainly by the large scales of mass preventive photofluorography (more than 40%), held for early tuberculosis exposure. It was as a result of reorganization of fluorographic examination system started in the late 80s and early 90s that this pernicious tendency was overcome and the number of fluorography was reduced almost twice from 90 to 56 millions a year, which considerably contributed to reducing the exposure. Unfortunately as a result

  8. Subculture of Hackers in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Dremliuga

    2014-01-01

    This article observes the situation with hacker subculture in Russia. The author is analyzing the reasons why this subculture doesn’t need a lot of time to conquer Russian net society. He is proving that tremendous growth of popularity of hacker subculture in Russia is caused by easy acceptance of hacker’s ideology. Also, the author is studying modern functions of hacker subculture and researching why Russian society does not regard hackers as criminals.

  9. Re-Centring Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Grenet, Frantz

    2015-01-01

    The “golden peaches” of Samarkand in the days of Sogdian trade As a cultural area Central Asia was recognized at a late stage, since its emergence as a geographical reality was very slow. The term Central Asia was coined in around 1825, simultaneously in Russia and in France, by the diplomat Georges de Meyendorff and by Julius Klaproth, respectively. It soon gained currency, along with its variant Middle Asia, sometimes preferred in Russia. Reading this nineteenth-century geographic literat...

  10. Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia included the following: Central bank of generalized data, Bank of models, Information system for federal and local authorities. The analysis of many phenomena demanded retrospective data collection. In that way, banks of primary data were created and experience of analysis of directly accident information was acquired. The main element of the system-analytic support is the administrative information system of the Department for elimination of consequences of radiological and other disaster of EMERCOM of the Russian Federation. Administrative information system is intended for providing specialized program-technical complexes and systematized data related to the Chernobyl accident effects and measures on their elimination for heads and specialists of Central staff and territorial and regional administrative bodies, all other interested ministries, departments and organization

  11. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  12. Russia: the energy weapon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few weeks ahead of the Russian presidential elections and in the current context of hydrocarbon prices rises, Futuribles is publishing an article this month on the return of the state to the heart of the Russian energy sector. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian government has carried out an important restructuring of the national energy sector around major public and private companies. The main objectives of this reorganization were to sustain the economic growth of Russia and also - increasingly, in the view of Faouzi Bensebaa and Viviane du Castel - gain the country greater influence on the international scene. In this article, the authors present an assessment of the Russian energy sector and turn the spotlight on a number of projects (Sakhalin 1 and 2, Khariaga) which particularly illustrate the Russian strategy of controlling hydrocarbon resources for economic and geopolitical ends. They show, in this way, how the state is gradually taking over control of national energy resources (including by going back on agreements struck with foreign partner companies) and using that control for political ends (particularly towards 'nearby foreign countries'). At the end of their article, they nevertheless stress the factors militating against this renewed control of the energy sector: contradictions internal to the Russian regime, technological backwardness, international financial inter-linkages... (authors)

  13. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  14. CENTRAL ASIA'S POWER DILEMMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Budkin, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    It turned out to be much harder to create new power structures in Central Asia than elsewhere in the post-socialist world: no matter how hard it was for the Central European countries to acquire new political institutions, their advance toward the Western democratic model was much smoother. In the European part of the post-Soviet geopolitical expanse, Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova experienced fewer problems than the Central Asian region (CAR for short), though they too had their share of contr...

  15. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  16. Public discourse on labour migration to Russia. A potential threat to Russia’s soft security?

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiulina, Anna

    2008-01-01

    "Russia as a receiving country gains both costs and benefits of international labour migration. Costs of migration to Russia are tangible and may be threatening to the state, however, the central question of the paper is if they are considered to pose a danger to Russian national security in the public discourse of Russia. Although in none of official acts legal labour migration is fixed as a risk to integrity of a state, i.e. it is excluded from commonly accepted soft security...

  17. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  18. EUROPE, RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE CRISIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Gejl; Götz, Karl Elias Immanuel; Rothuizen, Jeppe Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    Da Institut for Statskundskab på Aarhus Universitet afholdt konferencen ”Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis”, blev der præsenteret en række forskellige forklaringer på, hvorfor forholdet mellem Rusland og Vesten har udviklet sig, som det er tilfældet samt, hvordan Vesten fremadrettet på...... intelligent vis kan håndtere den store nabo mod øst. Således ønsker artiklen, udfra tre overordnede analyserammer, at belyse: (1) Hvad er de centrale årsager bag Ruslands adfærd i Ukraine? (2) Hvor farlig er Rusland? Skal Rusland betragtes som en revisionistisk eller en status quo-søgende aktør? (3) Hvordan...

  19. Vertical and horizontal variation of carbon pools and fluxes in soil profile of wet southern taiga in European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santruckova, H.; Kastovska, E.; Liveckova, M. (Univ. of South Bohemia, Faculty of science, Branisovska (CZ)); Kozlov, D. (Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Geographical Dept., Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F. (A.N. Severtson Inst. of ecology and evolution RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Shibistova, O. (V.N.Sukachev Forest Inst., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)); Lloyd, J. (Earth and Biosphere Inst., Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom))

    2010-10-22

    Vertical and horizontal distributions of soil organic carbon, potential microbial activity and basic soil properties were studied in a boreal mixed forest (Central Forest Reserve, TVER region) to elucidate whether the soil CO{sub 2}-efflux is related to basic soil properties that affect the C pool and activity. Soil cores (0-100 cm depth) were taken from two transects every 50 meters (44 points) immediately after completion of soil CO{sub 2}-efflux measurements. Soil was separated into layers and moisture, bulk density, root density and bacterial counts were determined within one day after soil was taken. Microbial respiration, biomass, CN contents and pH were measured within few months. The variability in the soil CO{sub 2}-efflux and microbial activity was mainly explained by soil bulk density. Results further indicate that laboratory measurements of microbial respiration can represent heterotrophic soil respiration of a distinctive ecosystem in natural conditions, if microbial respiration is measured after the effect of soil handling disappears. (orig.)

  20. Patterns of partnership formation among lone mothers in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordula Zabel

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of partnership formation among lone mothers in Russia, using data from the Russian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) and the Education and Employment Survey (EES). The central research question is whether difficult economic circumstances pressure lone mothers to enter new partnerships sooner than they would under other circumstances, limiting their freedom of choice of type of living arrangement. The empirical results show that while occupation influence...

  1. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  2. PARALLEL IMPORT: REALITY FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  3. Petroleum Tax Policy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Bobylev

    2012-01-01

    Petroleum complex is Russia’s basic economic sector which is playing a leading role in providing the state budget revenues. This paper is dedicated to the main issues of the government petroleum tax policy in Russia. The author analyses the outcome of the implemented petroleum tax reform and possible measures designed for further taxation improvement in this sector.

  4. CONVERGENCE AND CONFLICT: THE “STRUCTURE” AND POLICIES AFFECTING RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA, CHINA, AND THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Rozmarin, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Central Asia, much like other regions of Eurasia, has witnessed tensions and cooperation between the United States, Russia, and China. It is also recognized that Central Asia has its own regional dynamics that intertwine with the global inter-state relations, giving strong international tinge to local events and drawing-in extra-regional competition and tensions. Within the above theme is another—the hegemonic rise of China and the expected, or even existent, balancing response by Russia. How...

  5. The Plans of the Great Powers on Solution for Constitutional and National Problems in Central Europe in 1914-1918/1919 (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, France, the United Kingdom, the United States)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokš, Petr

    Praha: Historický ústav, 2015, s. 37-67 ISBN 978-80-7286-260-3 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : First World War 1914-1918 * Great Power Policy * Central and East Europe * Constitutional and National Relations Subject RIV: AB - History

  6. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-04-01

    to the traditional view that relies on strategic nuclear deterrent as a central element of security strategy, regardless of whether nuclear deterrence has any actual role in addressing those problems. The emphasis on strategic stability in the bilateral relationship with the United States was evident in the important role that Russia assigned to the U.S.-Russian arms control negotiations. Resumption of the legally binding arms control process was one of the key elements of the largely successful 'reset' policy pursued by the Obama Administration in its relationships with Russia. Also, during the negotiations Russia strongly emphasized its interest in those issues that it believed might directly affect its deterrent potential - missile defense and conventional strategic launchers. Russia's extremely cautious approach to the next round of nuclear disarmament talks suggests that these issues did not lose their importance after New START - looking at nuclear disarmament in the context of strategic stability, Russia expressed concerns that deep reductions could undermine its nuclear deterrent if, for example, the United States proceeds with deployment of its missile defense system. Whether or not these concerns are justified, they do play an important role in how Russia looks at the future of nuclear disarmament. However, the opposite is true as well - the nuclear disarmament process can change Russia's security policy in a variety of ways by addressing some of its concerns or failing to address others. After the successful conclusion of the New START negotiations, the direction of change in Russia's nuclear policy will depend on how the subsequent dialogue addresses a number of key issues. First, the arms control process will have to reconcile the U.S. and Russian strategic modernization programs with deeper nuclear reductions. In Russia's case this would critically depend on whether the two countries could resolve their differences on

  7. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  8. HR technology in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  9. Marketing for exhibitions in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determinate how the European companies may market the international trade fairs in order to attract and serve Russian business customers. The aim was to find out what kind of marketing are tools available for small companies perceiving new market opportunities with Russian business market. The study was carried out by analysing the secondary sources and a massive corpus of publications related to marketing in Russia and exhibitions. The research method was c...

  10. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2015-01-01

    Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separat...

  11. Monitoring of Russia's Economic Outlook.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Trunin; Mikhail Khromov; Alexander Deryugin; Andrey Kaukin; Sergey Tsukhko; Olga Izryadnova; Marina Turuntseva; Kirill Rogov; Georgy Idrisov; Sergey Drobyshevsky; Eugen Goryunov; Arseny Mamedov; Vasiliy Zatsepin; Olga Morgunova

    2015-01-01

    From mid-March, both government officials and experts stated speaking about signs of economic stabilization in Russia, first of all, about ruble stabilization and inflation rate. Most likely, impact of direct consequences of December 2014 currency crisis is weakening, indeed. However, indirect consequences of devaluation as well as reduction of oil receipts and sharp reduction of external financing of the economy have a long-term trend and their consequences, most likely, have reached its pea...

  12. Possibilities of BIM in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shubin, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore the place of BIM in the Russian construction market. Nowadays BIM is new and confident-development technology. Many construction companies started to explore this technology. The aim is to show the level of using BIM in Russia. The study used the data from different conferences, websites and specialized publications. The results of the study show that BIM is a very actual topic and most of the Russian construction companies have started to imp...

  13. Social Media Marketing in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Ageeva, Yu. A.; Zaviyalova, Zinaida Sergeevna; Агеева, Ю. А.; Завьялова, Зинаида Сергеевна

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on using social media for business promotion. The authors analyze and compare the SMM experience in the western countries and Russia, give examples of failed promotion. A short review of Russian social networks are given including their peculiar features, which are important to consider when planning a SMM campaign. The main problems and perspectives of Russian SMM are described in conclusion of the article. In order to present the situation and specific of use of social n...

  14. HIV epidemic in Russia and neighbouring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Pokrovskiy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports of HIV/AIDS cases attributed to sexual transmission from foreigners were published in the USSR in the mid of 80s. In the initial decade of the epidemic, the subtype B was found in men who have sex with men (MSM population and several non-B subtypes were identified in heterosexual persons. The first case of HIV infection in intravenous drug users (IVDU was reported in 1993 and since then a specific subtype A and its recombinants invaded the intravenous drug users (IVDU populations of the region with the highest rate in Estonia, Russia and Ukraine. The concentrated HIV epidemic in IVDUs is still the main problem in the Eastern Europe; however, the rate of heterosexual transmission is increasing and many evidences of HIV prevalence rise in MSM are published. UNAIDS estimations for the number of HIV-positive persons living in the region range from 980,000 to 1,300,000 but distribution of HIV-cases is uneven and the prevalence rate of HIV infection in separate regions is over 1%. Mass seasonal labour migration from Central Asia and Caucasian republics to Russia transmits HIV to these countries. Prevention programs in the region are limited, and ART coverage is not more than 20% of the total HIV-positive population. The lack of concern about the epidemic, absence of effective national strategies and limited allocated resources are the main barriers to prevention and care in many countries. Local conflicts, rising religiosity and discrimination are adverse factors. The near-term forecast for the epidemic in the region is pessimistic and further international advocacy is needed to improve the situation.

  15. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  16. Perspectives of Expanding Business into Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Samaeva, Naylya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyze and evaluate the Russian market taking into account all its advantages and disadvantages and to find out whether it was profitable for the case company Hotel Vip Club International Oy to expand its business into Rus-sia. The study includes theoretical framework covering different essential theories and concepts, information about tourism and hotel related business in Russia, and the pecu-liarities of doing business in Russia including the analyses of t...

  17. Neopaganism and New Age in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Ferlat

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s various new pagan organisations have emerged in Russia. Religious phenomena known in Western Europe, such as the emergence of new religious movements, including the New Age, are also taking place in Russia. The article aims to find out whether the pagan movements in today’s Russia are related and if so, how they are related according to the comparative perspective explicated by Michael York, Paul Heelas and Wouter Hanegraaff.

  18. Russia's European agenda and the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Šleivytė, J.

    2009-01-01

    Russia has always been a primary factor in the development of the Baltic States. It is impossible to analyse Baltic security without looking into the processes inside Russia and the prevailing trends vis-a-vis the Baltic States. However, the changes in the Baltic security landscape in the 21st century lack a comprehensive analysis. This thesis seeks to bridge the gap. Two key aims are being pursued in this thesis. The first is to present an analysis of Russia's European agen...

  19. How corruption affects bank lending in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Weill, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of corruption on bank lending in Russia. This issue is of major interest in order to understand the causes of financial underdevelopment and the effects of corruption in Russia. We use regional measures of corruption and bank-level data to perform this investigation. Our main estimations show that corruption hampers bank lending in Russia. We investigate whether this negative role of corruption is influenced by the degree of bank risk aversio...

  20. Space Policy Strategies and Priorities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Edelkina; Oleg Karasev; Natalia Velikanova

    2015-01-01

    This article explores new innovation policy measures aimed at ongoing transformation of the space industry in Russia. The current implementation of a wide range of state programs and presidential decrees helps to maintain the leading position of Russia in the space industry and expanding international cooperation. The main objective of the paper is to present the principal directions of space policy development in Russia, including its priorities and the tasks to be solved in the short and mi...

  1. Letter to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Below is the referee report. It is not as bad as it seems at first. The manuscript has not been rejected. Instead, the referee is 'not recommending publication.' On the APS website, the status is 'with authors,' instead of 'not under consideration.' Thus, this manuscript is still alive, but we will need to work on it. Please take a look at what the referee says below and let me know how you would respond. I will do the same. Hopefully, we will be able to respond well and find a way for this manuscript to get into PRB. According to the introduction of their manuscript, the authors intend to study the electronic structure of clusters of Pu atoms and, among other things, to illustrate how the properties of the cluster's central region approach those of the bulk Pu metal as the cluster size increases. It is then somewhat surprising to find out that all the 'cluster' calculations discussed in the paper are in fact set up in such a way that they model the bulk properties - the clusters are embedded in a kind of mean field that is designed to approximate the rest of an infinite lattice (the authors call it the extended cluster scheme). Consequently, all the observed finite-size effects are essentially artificial since they represent the inaccuracies of the embedding procedure. The results for the finite clusters themselves do not carry a direct physical meaning (which contradicts authors statements from the introduction), only the extrapolation to the infinite cluster would, if done properly. The authors propose that the number of 5f electrons n()5f is a linear function of the cubic root of N, where N is the number of atoms in the cluster. This function fits the calculated data well (Fig. 8), but, as the authors indeed note, it cannot hold for very large N where n()5f must saturate at a finite value. The calculated data show no sign of such saturation (Fig. 8), which indicates that the considered clusters are too small to draw conclusions about the bulk properties. I find

  2. EUROPE AND RUSSIA: A NECESSARY COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rãzvan HAGIMÃ; Delia Vasilica ROTARU 

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the cooperation between the European Union and Russia in the energy sector. The European Union has been dependent on the imports of gas from Russia and has been looking to find alternative resources being conscious that a conflict with Russia would lead to disastrous effects if the country would stop supplying gas to Europe. The article also offers a point of view for the major pipeline projects that involve Russia and the EU and that would influence their coo...

  3. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  4. Initial reconstruction of the climate in the last millennium in the central Kola Peninsula (north-western Russia) based on tree-ring widths and stable isotope data of pine (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, T.; Kononov, Yu.; Friedrich, M.; Kremenetski, C.

    2003-04-01

    More than 300 samples of living tree cores and subfossil slices of Pinus sylvestris L. have been taken in the course of joint field investigations in the Khibiny low mountains in the central part of the Kola Peninsula (approx. 67-68^oN, 33-34^oE). The samples collected enabled a continuous chronological series 1139 years long to be constructed from AD 2000 to 862. It is currently the longest chronological sequence in the region. Comparison between annual ring width and instrumental climatic records over the period 1923-2000 revealed close correlation between the index of annual wood growth and the summer air temperature. In addition, 10 samples of cores taken from living trees were studied by annual isotope analysis (^δ13C and δ18O) of the wood cellulose of their tree rings. Analysis of annual isotope variations in tree ring series are most promising for climatic reconstructions. A significant relationship was established between the proportion of ^δ13C isotope and the mean summer temperature. This formed the basis for reconstructions of the main warming and cooling periods over the period under consideration. Altogether there were 12 significant cooling periods, each about 10-20 years long. As for warmings, they were fewer in number (7) but lasted longer (about 40-90 years). Very strong coolings occurred twice. The first one was from the beginning of the interval studied until AD 884. In all probability, this actually represented the termination of the previous, even colder period, when the weather prevented any tree growth. The second cooling was in 1641-1654, and there is good reason for believing that this was a local manifestation of the Little Ice Age. The mean summer temperature at that time was almost 5^o below that nowadays.

  5. The Apatity nuclear heating plant project: modern technical and economic issues of nuclear heat application in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally Russia is a country with advanced structure of centralized heat supply. Many thermal plants and heating networks need technical upgrading to improve their technical and economic efficiency. Fossil fuelled heating capacities have a negative influence on ecology, which can be seen especially in the northern regions of Russia. Furthermore, fossil fuel prices are rising in Russia. The above factors tend to intensify the need for alternative heat sources being capable of solving the problem. Nuclear heat sources may be the alternative. In this paper, the main features of a proposed NHP in the Murmansk region are summarized. (author)

  6. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia’s Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yılmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of ‘non-traditional’ Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  7. Political chaos reins progress on new joint ventures in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that frustration is mounting among foreign petroleum companies chasing business opportunities in Russia. Political uncertainty continues to block large oil and gas exploration and production deals there. Most foreign officials believe Russia's transformation from a centrally planned economy to a market economy is irreversible. But enough political, social, and economic uncertainty persists that Russian leaders are hesitant to approve deals with foreign companies. The lack of certainty among leaders of the former Soviet republic about who controls Russia's natural resources, who can approve contracts, and who determines winners of bid tenders is causing confusion among foreign companies trying to negotiate major E and P deals. With no clearly successful path apparent for completing large deals, various secondary negotiating strategies are prevailing. Russian industry specialists say those secondary strategies work best for small deals involving relatively small players in less prospective regions. Meantime, countervailing political forces within the country, the world's top producer of oil and gas, continue to buffet petroleum companies that are negotiating deals or getting projects off the ground

  8. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  9. Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasian migration system : development trends, socio-economic consequences of migration and approaches to regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ryazantsev, Sergey; Korneev, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    CARIM-East: Creating an Observatory of Migration East of Europe. Translated version of Migration Policy Centre; CARIM-East Research Report; 2013/43 Russia, Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries formed a strong migration system that is characterized by large-scale labor migration. It is not only economic development of donor countries that depends on labor migration. The same is true for recipient countries (Russia and Kazakhstan), where considerable share of GDP is generated by f...

  10. Russia's control over the Stan's and the implications for European Security of Energy Supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline is given of the relationship between the Russian Federation and its energy-rich neighbours in Central Asia. Within a couple of years the availability of 'Russian' gas that Europe imports will depend on the amounts of gas Russia is able to import from Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan: in this paper referred to as the Stan's

  11. Coolant technology experience in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1950s, the researches on substantiation of nuclear power facilities cooled with lead-bismuth eutectic alloy were started in Russia under the proposal made by A.I. Leipunsky. The choice of this alloy as a coolant was determined by its some positive physical-chemical thermal-physical properties. Low chemical activity of lead and bismuth at interaction of the alloy with air, water, steam excludes an opportunity of explosion and fire. The high level of coolant boiling temperature prevents an opportunity of its boiling in high power density parts of facility. The low working pressure in a coolant circuit increases a reliability and safety, simplifies a design and manufacturing of the equipment, essentially facilitates operational conditions of the equipment in the primary circuit

  12. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  13. Russia's atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia's nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia's vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia's nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia's nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia's decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia's nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia

  14. Development of ITER toroidal field insert. International collaboration with Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Solenoid (CS) model coil programme was performed since 1992 as one of the projects in the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor(ITER). The CS model coil programme involves a plan to develop the Toroidal Field (TF) insert to demonstrate the conductor performance of ITER TF coils under a magnetic flux density of 13T. The TF insert was fabricated by Russia and tested by Japan under the framework of the ITER-EDA. The TF insert developed a single-layer solenoid with nine turns. It is wound with a cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor which consists of 1,152 Nb3Sn strands, a thin titanium jacket and a central channel. The outer diameter, height and weight of the TF insert are 1.56 m, 3.2 m and 3.1 ton, respectively. Fabrication of the TF insert was completed in May 2001 at the D.V.Efremov Scientific Research Institute for Electrophysical Apparatus (Efremov institute) in St. Petersburg, Russia. The TF insert was then transported to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Installation of the TF insert to CS model coil test facility was completed in August, 2001. Experiments including the cooldown and warmup processes, were completed in November 2001. The TF insert was charged to 13T with 46 kA without any instability under a back up magnetic field from the CS model coil. This report introduces an overview of the fabrication, installation and experiments for the TF insert conducted under collaboration between Japan and Russia. (author)

  15. Vertigenesis in soils of the central chernozemic region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrov, N. B.

    2012-09-01

    On the basis of soil studies along routes and on key plots, 35 new areas of soils with definite features of vertigenesis have been identified in Belgorod and Voronezh oblasts and in the northern part of Volgograd oblast (in the Don River basin). Earlier, vertic soils were not noted for these areas. In the studied region, their portion in the soil cover is much less than 1%. All the delineated areas of vertic soils are confined to the outcrops of swelling clay materials of different origins (marine, lacustrine, glacial, and colluvial sediments) and ages (Quaternary or Tertiary) that may be found in four landscape positions: (1) in the deep closed depressions within vast flat watersheds; (2) in the bottoms of wide hollows on interfluvial slopes and, sometimes, on steeper slopes of local ravines; (3) in the hydromorphic solonetzic soil complexes, and (4) on step-like interfluvial surfaces with the outcrops of Tertiary clays. Within the studied areas, soils with different degrees of expression (six grades) of vertic properties are present. These soils belong to the type of dark vertic soils proper and to vertic subtypes of different soil types according to the Russian soil classification system; according to the WRB system, they belong to Vertisols proper and to reference soil units with a Vertic prefix in the groups of Chernozems, Phaeozems, and Solonetzes. Statistical data on the morphometric indices of the vertic properties (the depth and thickness of the soil horizons with slickensides, a wedge-shaped structure, and cracks filled with material from the upper horizons) and the depth and thickness of the Vertic horizon are analyzed.

  16. Professional development of social work in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to get an understanding about how the profession of social work explains its relevance and legitimacy in today's Russia, to enlighten the importance of socio-political, professional and educational contexts in explaining the societal position of the social work profession in Russia. This paper begins with the analysis of the processes of legitimization, professionalization and constitution of social work in today's Russia. In addition to functionalist and critical perspectives on these three processes, in its second part the paper employs phenomenological approach looking into everyday life theory of social work that is constructed in routine work at the social service agencies. The third part of this paper talks about the issues of social services and social work with family and children in contemporary Russia.

  17. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  18. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  19. US sanctions on Russia hit ITER council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    The ITER fusion experiment has had to bow to the impact of US sanctions against Russia and move the venue of its council meeting, scheduled for 18-19 June, from St Petersburg to the project headquarters in Cadarache, France.

  20. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RUSSIA: CHARACTERISTICS AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    GOLUSHKO A.V.; GUCHIGOV H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the article characteristics of entrepreneurship in Russia and conditions for its developing were considered. Russian entrepreneurs personal characteristics, motives and aims were analyzed, based on social survey. Government support of entrepreneurship was reviewed.

  1. Organizational aspects of management education in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova Elena Viktorovna; Eroyan Asya Efimovna

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the main organizational aspects of the education sector in Russia. Organizational management is concerned, above all, the quality of education and methods of evaluation. The analysis of national education policy.

  2. Elections in Russia, 1991-2008

    CERN Document Server

    Treisman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I review the main trends in voting in national elections in Russia since 1991, discuss the evidence of manipulation or falsification by the authorities, and use statistical techniques to examine the determinants of voting trends.

  3. Geopolitical situation of post-communist Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Levyk, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the current foreign policy of the Russian Federation. Some facts of the reduced geopolitical presence of Russia in the world are presented. Scientific viewpoints of Russian researchers of Eurasian and Neo-Eurasian issues, their commitment to the idea of exceptionality of the Russians are demonstrated. Two alternative forecasts by Western researchers of further geopolitical situation and development of Russia are given. It is pointed out that the RF pursues an aggressive fore...

  4. Social Pedagogy in Russia: Trends, Problems, Ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Sorochinskaya, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The given paper is concerned with holistic approach to social pedagogy in Russia. Itcovers the key trends in development of social pedagogy over the last 25 years. The main objective of the given paper is to give coverage to the researches that make significant contribution to development of social pedagogy in Russia. The author of the article highlights the key directions ofthe researches in the domain of social pedagogy,such as providing scientific grounds forthe new direction of pedagogica...

  5. A Common Currency for Belarus and Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Vassili Prokopenko; Etibar Jafarov; Anne Marie Gulde

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses costs, benefits, and implementation challenges of a possible currency union between Belarus and Russia. It shows that Belarus and Russia are economically closely linked but nevertheless do not fulfill all "optimal currency area" criteria, especially the macroeconomic symmetry condition. Furthermore, we argue that the different speeds of economic liberalization over the past decade have resulted in different economic structures, with Belarus still dependent on monetary fin...

  6. Russia's energy policies and Ukraine's NATO candidacy

    OpenAIRE

    Imblum, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    NATO enlargement and the European Union's growing dependence on external energy supplies controlled by Russia have simultaneously developed into crucial security issues in Europe. The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes regarding Ukraine's candidacy for membership. As the leading natural gas exporter with the largest proven gas reserves i...

  7. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  8. Risks of Public Service Reform in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Barabashev; T. Zaytseva; Mihail Krasnov; Alexander Obolonsky

    2007-01-01

    Public service reform in Russia is inevitable, otherwise the problems will continue to pile up for public service and this may result in further public administration deterioration. But how to tackle these problems and how to conduct public service reform? Should the world experience be applied or not? It seems that the Russian experience of the past decade gave the answer. The initial attempts to reform public service in Russia are already based on the world experience, with parts of it appl...

  9. Cost Accounting in Russia: Historical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, A. Y.; Ch. Z. Bikmukhametova

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to retrospective analysis of development stages of the system of cost and managementaccounting in the USSR and Russia. The features of full costs accounting method used in Russia have beenconsidered, comparative analysis of the given method and that of absorption costing has been performed. Theproblems of implementation of management accounting techniques have been studied. Particular attention ispaid to study of the early stages of production accounting development.

  10. History of earthquake studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Tatevossian, R.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the completeness of modern knowledge on historical seismicity it is necessary to know the general geopolitical and socio-cultural background in the country. It determines the possibility to record the evidence of an earthquake and conserve the record in original form for a long time-period. The potential duration of historical earthquake study in Russia is assessed based on these considerations. Certain stages of earthquake study in Russia have been detected. Specific problems ...

  11. Staff Training for Nanoindustry in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich

    2015-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry represents such a direction of the development of science, technologies and industries by means of which Russia will be able to achieve advanced positions in the world. For the last decade the necessary regulatory base for nanotech industry development was created in the country, beginning with the concept of nanotechnological works, and the strategy of nanotech industry development, and finishing by the program of nanotech industry development in Russia till 2015....

  12. Review of Labor Market in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Kamaseva; E. F. Salyakhov; A. L. Halikov; A. V. Fakhrutdinova

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the detailed characteristic of a current state of the labor market in Russia. It analyses thegender and age structure of the population and gender and age structure of economically active population. Theeducation level of the working people is considered in gender aspect. It reveals that shares of women and men inthe labor market in Russia with sufficient education are not equal. People with the higher or secondaryprofessional education (28,9 and 27,5% respectively) ...

  13. Is Russia Sick with the Dutch Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Dobrynskaya; Edouard Turkish

    2009-01-01

    Despite impressive economic growth between 1999 and 2007, there is a fear that Russia may suffer the Dutch disease, which predicts that a country with large natural resource rents may experience a de-industrialisation and a lower long term economic growth. We study whether there are symptoms of the Dutch disease in Russia. Using Rosstat and CHELEM databases, we analyse the trends in production, wages and employment in the Russian manufacturing industries, and we study the behaviour of Russian...

  14. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  15. The radiation legacy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  16. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  17. The Influence of Institutional Decision Making Mechanism in Russia on the Relations with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Chernyshev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the influence of internal factors (such as decision-making processes, political culture, and the connection between government and society on Russia’s foreign policy toward the European Union in the context of neoclassical realism. Excessive personalization and a closed decision-making structure do not encourage effective reactions to emerging challenges and affect the possibility of cooperation in the post-Soviet space. Institutional mechanisms and their impact on a country’s foreign policy are extremely important in the theory of neoclassical realism. This article also analyses EU-Russia relations over major periods and the role of internal factors in Russian policy. Despite an orientation toward long-term cooperation between the EU and Russia, a contradiction remains between Russia’s over-centralized decision-making structure and the EU’s decentralized system. In addition, political leaders and elites play less of a role in the EU, where there is a real separation of powers and competencies. These factors hamper EU-Russia cooperation because Russia prefers to establish bilateral relations with each state. As a result of all these factors, long-term relations may be at risk. However, the decentralization of power, increased efficiency of political institutions and the active participation of civil society will improve the level of mutual trust and overcome the current issues in EU-Russia relations.

  18. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  19. Energetic dialog EU and Russia slows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union maintains an individual dialog with Russia about cooperation in energy sphere since joint summit in Paris in October 2000. Both sides agreed there to create four export groups: for energy strategy, investments, infrastructure and technologies, efficiency and ecology. European Union expects that Russia will unequivocally take over the obligations by creation of suitable climate for investors. European Union considers as key preconditions the restructuring of the largest national monopoles. These conditions are also the important component of asking strategy of EU by the discussions about integration of Russia to WTO. One of the most important requests of Brussels is the restructuring of Gazprom concern, what means its division to mining and transport part. Russian part refuses all steps in this sphere. Author analyses the strategic interests of Russian government and of president Putin by planning and mining of oil and gas as like as by investments to the pipelines and gas lines. International Energetic Agency (IEA) assumes that the investments to oil and gas mining in Russia will be around 330 million USD till 2030. The similar situation is also in oil sector. More than half of huge oil deposits with the highest output are already mined. The oil mining in Russia reached 421 million tons in 2003. According to pessimistic estimations the gas mining will reach from 550 to 560 billion m3 in the following decades, according to optimistic scenario it can reach up to 730 billion m3 per year. In this case the netto export of oil from Russia could rise from present around 175 billion m3 to 280 billion m3 in 2030. IEA warns that these plans should be fulfilled only if massive foreign investments enter this sector. IEA also warns before concerns of investors about Russian legislation, property protection, cooperative regulation and transparentness of undertaking. Proposed pipelines among Russia, Near East, Africa and European Union are shown

  20. Learning Russia's ropes : 2 international negotiating pros share lessons they learned while doing business in post-Soviet Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-11-15

    This article addressed the issue of oil field services negotiators who travel to Russia to establish joint ventures in post-Perestroika Russia. Canadian Fracmaster Ltd. was the first Canadian company to sign a contract with Russia's ministry of oil. The contract was based on a guarantee that the Canadian company would finance the project and ensure that Fracmaster's 2000 horsepower pumpers would boost Russian production. Increases in production were divided equally between Russians and Canadians. At their first well, the pumpers increased production levels from 70 to 350 barrels per day. The 51 per cent Russian, 49 per cent Canadian-owned joint venture became a model for future business negotiations with other companies. Not wanting to rely on the unstable ruble, Gulf Canada negotiated payment-in-kind in return for the significant investments in the Russian oil and gas sector. Negotiations were often complicated by the fact that Russian government officials were arguing over who would be in charge of new initiatives, and new Russian republics were determined to gain control over their resources from the central government. Business people negotiating with westerners were often threatened by the Russian mafia or put under surveillance by the KGB. It was concluded that companies and individuals who were involved in Russia's new economy have gone on to make lucrative contracts in other developing countries. 4 figs.

  1. Economics of the Kyoto Protocol for Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golub, D.D.; Strukova, E. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The authors propose a careful analysis of the economic consequences of the Kyoto Protocol for Russian economic recovery. They review a different GHG forecasts for Russia and develop a new forecast for uncertain GDP growth and the changing elasticity of GHG emissions per GDP. As the rate of growth remains uncertain, elasticity could change over time, as well as the fuel mix. They apply the Monte-Carlo method to simulate these uncertainties and to produce a reasonable interval for CO{sub 2} emissions in 2010. The probability of Russia exceedings its Kyoto emissions budget is essentially zero. They also discuss the benefits for Russia from the Kyoto Protocol, and more generally from the implementation of GHG mitigation policy. Ancillary benefits from Kyoto Protocol implementation will bring essential reductions in risk to human health. On the other hand, potential negative changes in the fuel mix and GDP structure, as well as a slowing of the innovation process, could exacerbate the existing health problems. Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol may bring much tougher commitments to Russia. In conclusion the Kyoto Protocol is the best possible deal for Russia. 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Legal support of the state financial control in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Ekaterina Aleksandrovna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The state financial system covers area of public relations which is connected with process of formation, distributions and uses of the centralized and decentralized monetary funds state and municipal unions. The mechanism of accumulation of financial resources along with the organization of the given process can't do without effective and effective institute of financial control. In the light of changes occurring in our country, both administrative, and legal, it is possible to assert with certain confidence that preconditions of successful realization of all problems facing the state, root, first of all, in effective system of financial control. In the given work all aspects of legal maintenance of the state financial control in modern Russia are collected together and analysed. Necessity of acceptance of new decisions concerning legal registration of financial control in Russia is revealed; also existing laws and standard documents are investigated, corresponding conclusions are drawn. Necessary, timely and expedient ways of the decision of an investigated question are offered. The project of possible results owing to acceptance of the offered decisions is prepared.

  3. Review of Labor Market in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kamaseva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the detailed characteristic of a current state of the labor market in Russia. It analyses thegender and age structure of the population and gender and age structure of economically active population. Theeducation level of the working people is considered in gender aspect. It reveals that shares of women and men inthe labor market in Russia with sufficient education are not equal. People with the higher or secondaryprofessional education (28,9 and 27,5% respectively obviously prevail. Thus women among persons with thehigher education prevail - 54,6%, with secondary education – 58,5%. This work also presents also a comparativeanalysis of a salary of separate employee categories of the social sphere and conclusions on dynamics of thelevel of unemployment in Russia.

  4. Russia-Georgia Conflict and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yujun; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    Yet another Post 9/11 historical event indicating a significant turning point in the Post-Cold War era, Russia-Georgia conflict represents a remarkable change in the international strategy of a resurgent Russia. It also signifies that former Soviet republics are still groping for a new identity and that a new round of realignment will persist in the vast Eurasia region. The conflict reveals declining U.S. global control, flawed European integration, and NATO embarrassment. To a certain extent, it exposes chaos brought about by international nonpolarity and world governance vacuum. It also highlights what serious consequences can a double standard inflict on the principles of international law. A reasonable arrangement for global security and economic growth is therefore challenging the resolve and wisdom of international strategists. Actually fierce geopolitical rivalry for energy resources is at work behind the Russia-Georgia conflict. This will further compound the international energy strategic environment.

  5. Environmental security: The problems of Northwestern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of main existing environmental problems of North-West Russia covers the radioactive pollution, atmospheric pollution, destroying of the tundra and forest ecosystems, inland and water pollution, consequences of space activities. This region includes: Karelia and Komi republics; Yamalo-Nenetzk autonomous region; Murmansk; Leningrad and Vologda regions; White Sea; Southern and eastern parts of Barents Sea; eastern part of Kara Sea; and eastern part of the Baltic (Finnish Bay). The environmental situation in northwestern Russia is extremely unsafe. The fundamental reason for this situation is Soviet over-militarization in the past. There is an urgent need now to tackle the international environmental security in the Arctic and Scandinavian regions at least in two fields: 1. The existing radioactive pollution (mostly connected with military activities), and even more dangerous - the potential radioactive pollution of the Arctic and Scandinavia. 2. Atmospheric pollution (long distance transportation of pollutant, mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, from melting factories on Kola Peninsula). Several other problems relating to the environmental security of the region (among them deforestation, oil/gas pollution of the ocean, development of the diamond industry) need international attention in the nearest future. It is unrealistic to think that Russia alone can overcome these long-standing problems in the foreseeable future: we need international support for this. But foreign money for solving our environmental problems is not the solution, firstly, because for environmental restoration and recovery Russia needs much more than the international community can allocate; secondly, because there is much money inside Russia (every month, during 1993-1996, up to two billions US dollars were flowing out from Russia to western banks). To utilize this money in a proper way, we drastically need international help to awaken the Russian public environmental awareness

  6. Features of Russia migration policy in the 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Sergej

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of Russia migration policy after the Soviet Union collapse. The analysis of the dynamics of the accommodation of refugees and internally displaced people on the territory of Russia is made.

  7. Russia flexes muscles over oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-10-15

    A new militancy is emerging from Moscow in dealings with foreign companies operating in Russia. The government has severely criticized a number of international oil companies engaged in major oil and gas developments, including Shell, ExxonMobil, BP and Total. In several cases, the companies have been told that their environmental plans covering the development of new fields are unsatisfactory. The latest arguments concern two large oil and gas developments on the Pacific island of Sakhalin. The environmental criticisms, however, are simply the outward sign of a growing sentiment inside Russia that foreign companies have been granted lucrative upstream opportunities on terms that are much too favourable to them. (author)

  8. Tourism Marketing Opportunities in Russia : Case: Kallioplanetaario

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Elli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a marketing research for a unique experience tourism attraction Kallioplanetaario (Bedrock planetarium). The aim is to find out how the case company can start advertising in Russia, what are the requirements for doing that and also examine what is the best marketing channel to start marketing in. The research is of current interest as Russian tourists are the largest tourist group in Jyväskylä and the case company does not have any promotion in Russia y...

  9. The NATO-Russia Council - a Success?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    After the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, NATO and Russia concluded that «they no longer regarded each other as adversaries» (NATO, 1997).They also soon began a gradual rapprochement. In 1997, the Founding Act was created, and in 2002, the NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was established. The aim of the NRC was to treat the actors as equal partners, build trust, practical cooperation and become the main forum for crisis and security consultation between NATO and ...

  10. TB an epidemic in Russia's prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Over 100,000 prisoners are infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Russia, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Drug-resistant TB is found in thousands of inmates, and approximately 20,000 have died from it within the past 2 years. Although the country now has 50 centers for TB-infected prisoners, many are not being cured because of medicine shortages and failure to complete treatment. Up to 25 percent of TB infections found in Russian jails are multi-drug resistant, as opposed to 4 percent in Russia's general population and under 2 percent in the United States. PMID:11367347

  11. Bioenergy Development in Russia. Comparison of the North-West of Russia and Finland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitova, Olga (National Bioenergy Union, Saint-Petersburg, 197183 (Russian Federation)). e-mail: rakitova@newc.ru; Mutanen, Keijo (Joensuu Regional Development Company JOSEK Ltd, FIN-80110 Joensuu (Finland)). e-mail: keijo.mutanen@josek.fi

    2008-10-15

    Russia owns the largest natural gas, the second largest coal and the third largest oil reserves in the world. Russia is the third largest energy user and the largest producer of oil and gas in the world. Export of oil and gas plays a major role in the economic development of the whole Russia. Wood harvesting and processing industry responds only 4,4 % of the industrial production although Russia owns 23 % of the world's forest resources. Biomass represents only 1 % of the total energy consumption including residential use but hydro power represents about 18 % of Russia's electricity generation. Russia needs three times more energy to produce one unit of GDP than e.g. EU. This indicates very poor energy efficiency and poor conditions of the energy and the whole infrastructure as well. Simultaneously the prices of fossil fuels and electricity are heavily subsidized. These basic figures give on idea why utilization of renewable energy and especially biomass play a minor role in Russian energy system. One of the most progressive regions in bioenergy is the Northwest of Russia. The first pellet and briquette plants were installed in this region a few years ago. The region can be regarded as the forerunner in bioenergy in Russia. Federal Region of Northwest Russia consists of City of St.Petersburg, Republics of Karelia and Komi and regions of Leningrad, Arkhangelsk, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Nenetsk, Novgorod, Pskov and Vologda. The region has 15 million inhabitants and a 2200 km long joint border with the EU, most of that with Finland. N-W Russia owns over 14000 million m3 of raw wood that represents 17 % of Russian forests and 60 % of the forests located in the European side. Potential for annual harvesting is over 100 million m3 while harvesting is about 45 million m3. Most of that is exported as a form of raw wood. Wood represents only 2,8 % of the region's energy use including residential usage. Use of peat is marginal representing only 0,1 % of the

  12. The NATO-Russia Council: current political and juridical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Iulia IULIAN

    2015-01-01

    After the end of the Cold War, an important element of the European and international security structure is the cooperation between NATO and Russia in security and stability fields. NATO had the initiative to develop security organizations to approach Russia and create a partnership. The best security structure is represented by the NATO-Russia Council, a form of cooperation between a state, Russia and an international alliance, NATO. After being institutionalized a collaboration, with some i...

  13. International grain markets: Russia as a new power?

    OpenAIRE

    Glauben, Thomas; Pàll, Zsombor; Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Prehn, Sören; Teuber, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Russia, a former net importer of wheat, has developed into one of the leading actors in the world wheat market within the last decade. Forecasts suggest that Russia's share in the world market may increase even further and Russia might become the world's largest wheat exporter by 2020. One key research question resulting from this development is whether Russia could use its newly-gained market position in order to exercise market power or price discrimination. This issue could be of particula...

  14. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-01-01

    The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the ener...

  15. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. PMID:25555777

  16. Feedback to the ECB's monetary analysis: the Bank of Russia's experience with some key tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarenko, Alexey; Vasilieva, Elena; Schobert, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates to what extent some basic tools of the ECBs monetary analysis can be useful for other central banks given their specific institutional, economic and financial environment. We take the case of the Bank of Russia in order to show how to adjust methods and techniques of monetary analysis for an economy that differs from the euro area as regards, for instance, the role of the exchange rate, the impact of dollarization and the functioning of sovereign wealth funds. A special...

  17. The role of colloidal matter in transfer of chemical elements in the boreal zone (European Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ilina, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study element speciation and migration in the boreal environments (Karelia and Central Russia). Specific goals were to i) characterize the molecular weight distribution of trace elements and organic matter (OM) in various types of natural waters, ii) reveal the TE colloidal forms dependence in the continuum soil solution - bog - stream - feeding and terminal lakes in the surface waters of boreal watersheds, and iii) quantify the dependence of stable and rad...

  18. Fatherland, Faith and Family Policy: Parental Mobilization against Children’s Rights in Contemporary Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Höjdestrand, Tova

    2015-01-01

    Policies related to family, children, and birthrates have since the mid-2000s become increasingly central to the general ideological shift toward nationalism and conservative values in Russia. A symptom of, and a response to, this development is the so-called Parents’ Movement; a rapidly proliferating grassroots mobilization in the defense of presumably traditional Russian family values against allegedly Western forms of moral degeneration. The catalyst and main target of the Movement is a cu...

  19. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  20. Child Care in Russia: In Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, Jean

    With the advent of "perestroika" and "glasnost," Russian childcare and education underwent a transitional period in practice and theory. Contrasting impressions from an earlier visit under the Communist regime, this book describes the experiences of Jean Ispa in her travels to Russia, observing children in six child care centers. Interviews are…

  1. A Survey of Corporate Governance in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Lazareva; Andrei Rachinsky; Sergey Stepanov

    2007-01-01

    In this survey, we describe the current state of corporate governance in Russia and discuss its dynamics and prospects. We review the main mechanisms of corporate governance in the country and relate them to firms’ ownership structures, financial market development and government influence. Finally, we discuss the current trends in Russian corporate governance and its prospects.

  2. Environmental Education for Sustainable Development in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, N. S.; Malkhazova, S. M.; Romanova, E. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conceptual underpinning and the organizational structure of the existing system of higher environmental education in Russia are analysed. The system, embracing 129 universities, has been created in the last 10 years. At present there is a shift from general environmental education to education for sustainable development. The new system is…

  3. An Overview of Teacher Education in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, William E.

    This paper describes the experience of an educational psychologist who completed a Fulbright Lectureship at Moscow State Pedagogical University in Russia during April and May of 1993. The chaotic situation brought about by the dramatic and rapid changes that have taken place since the collapse of the Soviet Union has resulted in hyperinflation,…

  4. Development of NPP safety regulation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation describes the organisation scheme of Russian safety regulatory bodies, their tasks and responsibilities. Legislative and regulatory basis of NPP safety regulations rely on the federal laws: Law on the Use of Nuclear Energy and Law on Radiation Safety of the Population. Role of international cooperation and Improvement of regulatory activities in Russia are emphasised

  5. Libraries at "the End of Russia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Describes the library at Far Eastern State Technical University in Vladivostok (Russia) based on a visit that was part of a collaborative project with California State University, Sacramento. Highlights include staffing; problems with funding, space, and technology; library collections in the Department of World Politics and Law; and the nearby…

  6. Who pays for the sanctions on Russia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s sanctions on Russia mark the low point in relations between Brussels and Moscow since the end of the Cold War. Though there is a fierce debate over the impact of these sanctions on the Russian economy, much less attention is paid to their cost to EU Europe.

  7. Russia's Precious Metals Market: Condition and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTLYAR A. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The region of existence of phases in equilibrium with the solid solution based on palladium.Presented to analyze the current situation in the market of precious metals in Russia.Provides information about the production and processing of precious metals.Prospects for the most likely path of development of the Russian market of precious metals.

  8. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  9. Problems relevant to plutonium utilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the concept of the nuclear fuel cycle in Russia. The specific features and programme of civil and weapon's grade plutonium utilization are discussed. It is emphasized that plutonium is a valuable nuclear fuel the use of which is economically beneficial. It is also emphasized that the international conference GLOBAL-95 held in Versailles is important and urgent. (author)

  10. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  11. Russia's geopolitical orientation towards the former Soviet states: was Russia able to discard its imperial legacy?

    OpenAIRE

    Sagramoso, D.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis analyses Russia's military, economic and diplomatic policies towards the newly independent states, particularly towards the members of the CIS, during Boris Yeltsin's first term as President of an independent Russia (December 1991 to July 1996). The objective is to determine whether after the collapse of the Soviet Union the new Russian state tried to restore a sphere of influence or informal empire over the former Soviet republics - as the French did in sub-Saharan...

  12. The economics of smoking in Russia: evidence from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE)

    OpenAIRE

    Quirmbach, D.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contributes to our understanding of tobacco consumption, one of the leading causes of premature mortality in Russia. While smoking has received less attention in the literature compared to hazardous alcohol consumption in Russia, it is increasingly the focus of government policy, as illustrated by a restrictive anti-smoking law which was passed in 2013 and which, among other things, foresees substantial tax increases, some of which have already been introduced. The few studies exa...

  13. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  14. Emigration from Russia: New Trends and Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseyevich Iontsev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this article is migration from Russia. The study deals with current aspects and new forms of emigration. The goal of this paper is to identify new patterns determining the emigration from Russia. The article views the emigration in a broad sense, including, in addition to classic emigration (i.e. leaving the home country for permanent residence in another country, various categories of return migration (labor migration, shuttle traders, seasonal migration, episodic migration, economic tourism, business migration, education abroad, etc.. With the emergence of these new forms and categories, there is a need to clarify the migration concepts. This analysis is built on a broad historical perspective on emigration, which has been a typical phenomenon for Russia over the last three centuries. The article is based on such economic theories, as the human capital theory, new economic theory of migration, Todaro’s economic theory of migration and other. In this article, a variety of methods are used, including historical analogy, statistical and mathematical approaches, sociological and econometric models. The article analyzes the patterns of modern emigration from Russia. It also considers certain aspects in the legal regulation of migration processes, with a focus on emigrants, including potential emigrants. In conclusion, the article notes the need for the state control of emigration processes. This means not so much the improvement of statistical records for this group of migrants, but rather specific government measures aimed at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the nonreturn migration. In other words, it is not aimed at banning the emigration (a measure, the adverse effects of which were noted as long ago as by Mikhail Lomonosov, but at providing the state support to these categories of migrants in order to prevent the non-return migration. The findings of this research can be

  15. CHALLENGES AND DILLEMAS WITHIN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maria Simionov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Every EU enlargement signified a step towards Central and Eastern Europe, therefore, the 2004 „big bang enlargement”, followed by the one in 2007, modified the geopolitical context within the „old continent” and also increased the importance of the European Union regionally, as well as globally. Integrating the ex-soviet countries into the EU meant taking them out of the Russian sphere of influence, as well as attempting to super size the EU territory in order to increase the European power on a long term. Despite the weakening of Russia after the Cold War, the federation still represents a challenge regarding „pax europea”, as Russia still has an amazing military capacity, as well as important natural resources. The entrance into the Russian sphere of influence, the European energetic dependency on Russia, the conflicts within the separatist regions situated at the EU eastern borders are just few of the many challenges regarding the relations between the European Union and Russia.

  16. “120 priests per 20 workers”: non-proletarian population in the elections of 1920s soviet Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Salamatova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The author studies the participation of the non-proletarian urban population in elections during the New Economic Policy in Soviet Russia. The analysis of the urban population’s participation in election campaigns is made referring to a wide range of sources, materials of official statistics, Soviet press, unpublished archival documents kept in Russia’s central and regional archives. An analysis of typical documents of the highest and central Soviet and party bodies (order documents, protocol...

  17. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    . Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine

  18. Will the world SNF be reprocessed in Russia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia's possibilities in nuclear fuel reprocessing are well known. RT-1 plant with 400 tons/year in the Chelyabinsk region can provide reprocessing of fuel from Russian and Central European WWER-440 reactors, as well as from transport and research reactors. Former military complex Krasnoyarsk-26 with unique underground installations situated in rock galleries, already has an aqueous facility for storage of 6000 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), half-built plant RT-2 for nuclear fuel reprocessing with 1500 tons/year capacity, as well as the projects of dry storage facility for 30000 tons of SNF and of MOX fuel production plant. Russian nuclear specialists understand well, that the economic efficiency of nuclear fuel reprocessing industry is shown only in case of large-scale production, which would require consolidation of the countries, which develop nuclear energy. They also understand, that Russia has all the possibilities to become one of the centers of such a consolidation and to use these possibilities for the benefit of the country. The idea of foreign nuclear fuel reprocessing (for a long time realized for East and Central European countries, which operate Soviet-design reactors) has existed in the specialists' minds, and sometimes has appeared in the mass media. On the other hand, rehabilitation of territories of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises in Russia continues, including the Karachai lake, which contains 120 million Curie of radioactivity. Unfortunately, Russia simply has no money for complete solution of the problems of radiation military legacy. During discussion of the budget for 2000, the Russian Minatom has made a daring step. A real program, how to find money needed for solving the 'radiation legacy' problem, was proposed. With this purpose, it was proposed to permit storage and further reprocessing of other countries' SNF on Russian territory. It is well known, that another countries' SNF is accepted for reprocessing by UK and France, and Russia

  19. CORRUPTION IN RUSSIA: THE PAST AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. LITVYAK

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, the problem of corruption in various fields of activities of bodies of state power and administration has acquired a global and systemic character. Corruption presents a direct threat to national security, impedes the development of institutions of democracy and civil society in our country, realization by citizens of their constitutional rights in the field of education, health, welfare, and property relations. The article focuses on the study of corruption in Russia. The authors highlight the historical aspects of the development of corruption, what allowed not only to reveal the Genesis of the issue, but also to identify the circumstances that affect directly the state of corruption in modern Russia.

  20. Development of radiobiological dentistry in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History of the radiological dentistry progress in Russia from the first report on the application of biomedical radiography techniques to dental practice in Russia in 1901 is briefly described. The first special X-ray room was open in 1921 in Petrograd. First scientific papers and guides on the radiological dentistry made their appearance. The second period in the development of Russian radiological dentistry was connected with the World War 2 and wounds of maxillo-facial wounds. Postwar time is characterized by application of the novel techniques, wide range of scientific researches in the radiological dentistry. The modern history of radiological dentistry began from 1983 due to computerized tomography used in case of malignant tumors of maxilla and nose cavity

  1. History of earthquake studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tatevossian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the completeness of modern knowledge on historical seismicity it is necessary to know the general geopolitical and socio-cultural background in the country. It determines the possibility to record the evidence of an earthquake and conserve the record in original form for a long time-period. The potential duration of historical earthquake study in Russia is assessed based on these considerations. Certain stages of earthquake study in Russia have been detected. Specific problems of seismicity studies of low active areas are discussed as an example of Russian platform. The value of each (even moderate magnitude event becomes crucial for seismic hazard assessment in such territories. A correct identification of event nature (tectonic earthquake or exogenous phenomena - landslides, karsts, etc. is practically impossible without using primary sources with detailed descriptions. Occurrence of modern earthquakes can be used to assess the accuracy of historical seismicity knowledge.

  2. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  3. Rosneftegazstroy - Russia's premier oil and gas contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special Petroleum Economist Sponsored Supplement looks at the present condition and future prospects of the Russian oil and gas industry. Russia's chief oil and gas contractor, Rosneftegazstroy, a joint stock company formed in 1991, took over from the former Soviet Union's Ministry of Oil and Gas Construction and from Neftegazstroy, the State concern. Responsible for the exploration and exploitation of the country's huge oil and gas reserves, Rosneftegazstroy has a mammoth task ahead to modernize and create an adequate infrastructure for its new commercial basis. Its foreign investment projects are described and plans for rebuilding and new developments are discussed. Russia's fuel and energy industries now show clear signs of increasing activity, amid a backdrop of falling production overall. (UK)

  4. Russia clamps downs on data release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Russia is stepping up enforcement of laws banning unauthorized release of detailed geological and geophysical data to foreign companies. But companies authorized to sell or license information about Russian minerals say the stricter oversight isn't affecting their activities. That's because the effort is intended to curb illegal sales of data by Russian regional organizations and federal agencies. In addition, Russia's state tax department and ministries of finance and justice are considering sanctions to be imposed for violations of lawful procedures. The added vigilance by Russian officials likely will help clear up confusion among foreign companies, resulting from vague laws and regulations, about how and from whom data may be obtained obtained legally

  5. More natural gas from Russia, but when?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth article in a series about changes in the European natural gas market focuses on Russia, a country with gigantic potential reserves (216,000 billion m3) and a production unequalled in the world (780.4 billion m3 in 1992 in the Russian Federation), but also with enormous economic and technical problems. The question is what role Russia is able to play in the European natural gas supply. Attention is paid to the organizational structure in former Soviet Union regarding the natural gas industry, the environmental effects of exploration and exploitation, the need for foreign capital, and the disappointing progress of the 1991 Energy Charter. On a short term the infrastructure must be improved. Also the conflicts on the price of natural gas transport between the transfer countries Ukraine, Slovenia and Czechoslovakia and the West-European clients must be solved. 1 fig., 7 ills., 2 tabs

  6. Nordic Seminar on Waste Problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes a Nordic seminar held in 1998 that focused on radioactive waste disposal in Northwest Russia and that gave special attention to a repository which planned on Novaya Zemlya. The existing plans originated in a programme formulated by the Russian Federation for the period 1996-2005 and titled The Federal Programme: The Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel - Treatment and Final Disposal. The sea around Novaya Zemlya is important to the fishery industry in both Norway and Russia. And there is great Norwegian concern about the vulnerable Arctic environment. Geological conditions are of course crucial to waste disposal, and according to Russian experts, the permafrost bedrock on Novaya Zemlya will provide added safety. Permafrost is a source of a major complex of uncertainties, but there is Western expertise available that might provide international assessment of the construction plans

  7. Electronic geothermal atlases of Asian Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert DDuchkov; Michael Zheleznjak; Ludmila SSokolova

    2014-01-01

    Generalized geothermal data was used to produce two electronic atlases for Asian Russia, Geothermal Atlas of Siberia (GAS) (1995-2000) and Geothermal Atlas for Siberia and Russian Far East (GASRFE) (2009-2012). The atlases include heat flow maps, temperatures at depths of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 km and lower boundary of permafrost. Quantitative values of pa-rameters are presented as isolines (GAS) and symbols (GASRFE). GAS website is located at the Trofimuk Institute (www.ipgg.sbras.ru/ru/institute/structure/geophysics/natural-fields). GASRFE provides the most complete geothermal data on Asian Russia, which has been growing for the last 50 years, and is published on the Internet at http://maps.nrcgit.ru/geoterm. In this atlas, data about the depth of permafrost lower boundary ("zero"isotherm) are pre-sented for the first time.

  8. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  9. Safety of Russia's nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, 29 nuclear power plant units are in operation in Russia. The units 2, respectively, of both the Novovoronesh and Belojarsk nuclear power stations are shut down for decommissioning. In judjing the safety of the units of the first and second generation, GOSATOMNAZDOR applies very strict standards. For several nuclear power stations this entailed restraints on their power output as well as upgrading and retrofitting measures (Kurk, Balakovo, Kalinin, Leningrade 1 and 2, and Kola). (DG)

  10. The development of stock experience in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    FEDORENKO A.O.

    2015-01-01

    The securities market plays a very significant role in the modern economy. At the same time, in Russia its specific characteristics are determined by the fact that it has been developing during the period of active economic and other reforms. This had had a strong impact on the functions and operations of the market. The article deals with the history of major patterns of development of the Russian securities (stock) market and with its current condition.

  11. Regional out-migration patterns in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Brunarska, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    Russian society has been perceived by many scholars as relatively immobile. Migration abroad is indeed not as common in Russia as it is, for example, in Ukraine or Moldova, whose citizens migrate abroad in large numbers to improve their living standards. Leaving aside the deliberations whether Russians are less mobile than other big world populations this text concentrates on differences between Russian regions in patterns of mobility focusing on migration outflows. Given the size of the coun...

  12. Has Banks’ Financial Intermediation Improved in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Fungachova, Z.; Solanko, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the increasing importance of banks in the Russian economy over the period following the financial crisis of 1998. We use several measures to assess the role of banks in domestic financial intermediation in Russia. The traditional macro-level view is complemented by the analysis of sectoral financial flows as well as by insights from micro-level studies. All of these confirm that banks are becoming increasingly important in financial intermediation. We find ...

  13. RUSSIA IN MYTHS AND IN REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Solovey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.

  14. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)

  15. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  16. Laser techniques in conservation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of laser technologies into the field of art conservation, which was started more than thirty years ago in Italy, has revolutionary changed this field in many countries around the world. Though the dissemination of lasers in conservation in Russia goes slowly, it has a long and interesting history. This paper describes early projects concerned with the use of lasers in Cultural Heritage preservation and presents review of most important recent Russian case studies. (Author)

  17. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  18. Unwritten rules of HR management in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanova, N. A.; Степанова, Н. А.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Western companies have been actively developing the Russian market over the last twenty years, they are still faced with the Soviet-era heritage in human resource management. This paper gives an overview of the common Soviet human resource practices of the past. Understanding traditional human resource practices in the Soviet Union prior to the end of communism will help practitioners to design human resource management systems for Russia more efficiently today. More...

  19. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press) were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective ...

  20. Reform of Gas Sector in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Darryl Biggar

    2002-01-01

    There are few, if any, industries more important to the Russian economy than the natural gas industry. Russia is a major gas exporter and has substantial natural gas reserves. This industry is dominated by a single vertically-integrated firm, RAO Gazprom. The industry has faced several problems, including low domestic prices, widespread non-payment (and barter and offset schemes) and a virtually complete lack of competition. At a seminar in Moscow in September 2001, OECD experts and Russian o...

  1. Groundwater protection in Russia, Finland and EU

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, Liubov

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is a major source of fresh drinking water. Since groundwater is unevenly distributed, it is quite a strong effect on the problem of shortage of drinking water in some states. However, the importance of groundwater as the primary source of drinking water varies within countries, depending on the amount and quality of groundwater, and conditions of its use and geographic characteristics of the state. This thesis describes characteristics of groundwater in the territory of Russia...

  2. The Duration of Unemployment in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gogran, L.; Berg, van den, V.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal survey data to assess factors affecting the duration of unemployment in Russia. We examine four types of marginalised labour force participants, according to ILO guidelines and survey responses, and we estimate duration models for each type. It turns out that the sets of characteristics with the strongest effects on the duration are remarkably similar across the different unemployment definitions and model specifications. Therefore, despite the formidable practica...

  3. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions...

  4. Corruption and extortions : extortion groups in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This research is devoted to the Extortion Groups (EG) activities as the appeared substances and substitutes to the law system in Soviet Union and Russia further. Such establishments are considering as the transition process product. The appearance of these groups is due to the perishing of the old-type Soviet economy and transition shocks in connection with the job losing and unrequired men s work force especially under the situation which was between two points of time after Afganistania...

  5. Pedagogical education in Russia: Lessons of history

    OpenAIRE

    Natal'ja Kalinnikova

    2005-01-01

    The article offers a historical survey of the emergence and development of pedagogical education in Russia from the 17th century up to the beginning of the 21st century. The leading national traditions in the pedagogical education dating from the end of the 17th century are elucidated, namely, the use of both "the university model" and of "the specialized model" of teachers training; and the understanding (since the beginning of the 19th century) that pedagogical education is the principal li...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT TOOLS: INTERNATIONAL PRACTICIES FOR RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanina, T.; Pintassilgo, P.; Matias, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the basic tools of environmental management applied by developed countries and discusses its application to Russia. The focus is on environmental management instruments such as environmental taxes, subsidies, standards, permits and also on the important role of voluntary tools. Russian practice is analyzed in terms of the current environmental management situation and the prospects of necessary legislative actions. The article refers to the formation of the basic parts...

  7. Oil and Gas Industry in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to identify the role of oil and gas industries for the Russian economy. Describe problems and benefits that energy sector brings to the economy. Determine main threats and opportunities for oil and gas industries. Firstly, it presents overview of Russian economic situation including performance of its oil and gas industries and theory of Dutch disease. Secondly, the thesis focuses at world gas and crude oil deposits in the world with the emphasis on Russia. It presen...

  8. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  9. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  10. Choice of fuels, generating and distribution technologies for remote regions in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a very brief description of the various regional concepts of energy supply to remote settlements being under consideration in Russia. In Russia, nuclear power is used almost exclusively in central regions with high density of population. The use of small capacity nuclear power plants (SCNPP) for decentralized energy users is technically feasible, but has only been applied in Bilibino NPP (4x12 MWe) constructed during 1974-1976 in Chucot region (north of Russian Far East). The feedback from an equivalent of 80 reactor-years of good operating experience Bilibino NPP as well as the acquired knowledge from the construction and operation of test and ship nuclear reactors has been an integral part of the modern concepts for energy supply of separate energy users located in remote regions

  11. Women's employment and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Muszynska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of women's employment on the risk of union disruption within the centrally planned economy and transition period in Russia. The empirical part is based on two retrospective surveys conducted in Russia in 2004/2005, covering the years 1967-2004. These are analyzed using hazard regression. The results show that within two periods (1967-1991 and 1992-2004 the risk of union dissolution was similar among women who worked and those who did not work. No differences were found between various employment groups during socialism. In the transition period, however, a variation in the risk of union dissolution among groups of working women existed. The biggest differences are related to company ownership type, with women who worked in private enterprises having the highest risk of union dissolution.

  12. Nuclear power development in Russia. Russia's energy industry preparing for the free market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy industry in Eastern Europe is preparing for the free market economy. The ambitions goal is to get fit and prepared for joining the free market economy as a competitor, and within the shortest possible time at that, struggling against the sharp wind of change that will blow, and trying to make the best of actually very unfavourable economic and political conditions. Priority has been given to privatisation of power plants and electricity networks, and to a speedy connection to the Western grids. However, all parties concerned are well aware that this task cannot be accomplished out of Russia's own resources alone. Whether the economy in Russia can be put on a stable footing and develop stable structures will depend on the development and efficient use of nuclear power, as the most important resources of Russia's energy industry are concentrated in the eastern part of the country, while 70% of electricity generation and demand is concentrated in the European part. (orig.)

  13. Governors, Oligarchs, and Siloviki: Oil and Power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contest for control of Russia's oil industry has been an integral feature of the country's politics ever since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Therefore, an assessment of political elite dynamics and the competition for control over Russia's oil sector can explain why this industry has been subject to such rapid management changes, including the rise and demise of Russia's private oil corporations and the emergence of Rosneft as a national oil company (NOC). Whilst the 1990's and 2000's saw different management styles evolve in the industry, much of that competition took place during a time when Russia could exploit its Soviet-era legacy fields. The rise of Rosneft as Russia's super National Oil Company (NOC) has been driven just as much by internal political elite dynamics as it has by the challenges which Russia's oil industry faces, as it attempts to tap more remote fields in East Siberia and the Arctic

  14. Policy in Transition. New Framework for Russia's Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, Russia entered the second round of radical reforms of its economic and political system. These changes affect the institutions of the macro- and microeconomic policy, of the energy policy, as well as the institutions of the climate policy. Thus, the framework is currently being built in Russia within which the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol are being and will be implemented. Success, or failure, in Russia's interactions with the international community in implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol would depend, particularly, on whether it would be able to establish renovated climate policy institutions in the nearest future. Main provisions of the Kyoto Protocol open good perspectives for the climate policy of Russia. For these favourable perspectives to become a reality, Russia will have to accomplish quite a lot at the domestic, national level. Here, Russia is facing some serious problems. Among them are recently emerged problems with ratification of Kyoto Protocol

  15. Ukraine between the EU and Russia: A Geopolitical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Мухаметов, Руслан Салихович

    2013-01-01

    The author analyses major interests of Russia and of the European Union in Ukraine. The author demonstrates that Brussels’ interest in Ukraine is to contain Russian influence. As Ukraine is vital transit channel of Russian energy to the EU, Russia and the EU compete over controlling Ukrainian gas infrastructure. The military presence of Russia in Ukraine, which is of great importance to Russian national interests, is another controversial issue. The author argues that Brussels and Moscow are ...

  16. The condition and prospects of nuclear industry development in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation author analyses perspectives of nuclear industry development in Russian Federation. State of NPPs in Russia on 2005 year is presented. NPP output, NPP capacity factor as well as NPP operation events in Russia in the period of 1992-2010 are analysed. The energy strategy of Russia and scenario for electricity production development as well as main challenges of 'Rosenergoatom' including life extension of NPP power units in Russian Federation are discussed

  17. Pressing the "Reset Button" on US-Russia Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Aslund; Andrew Kuchins

    2009-01-01

    The global financial crisis offers all world leaders an opportunity to think big and reach out to international cooperation. President Barack Obama should seize this opportunity to dramatically turn around US-Russia relations by establishing a positive interaction with President Dmitri Medvedev based on an early formulation of a Russia policy. Aslund and Kuchins recommend that integration, as opposed to isolation, is the best way to "manage Russia's rise." They identify six key areas of desir...

  18. The G-8 Summit in St. Petersburg and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    The G8 summit in St. Petersburg from July 15 through 17, 2006 was regarded as a triumph for Russia as a host country that took advantage of the moment to assert its re-emergence on the world stage. The G8 leaders except Russia agreed to avoid pressuring Russia on its domestic policy, after a lot of accusations by Western leaders and the press on rollbacks in democracy. By focusing on and examining energy security with special reference to Russia's energy resources and strategic position, ...

  19. Changes of Russian Policy on Security in Central Asia at the turn of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Камынин, Владимир Дмитриевич

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the reasons for change in Russia’s security policy in Central Asia by analyzing leading experts’ opinions. The author argues that this reconsideration of policy was determined by both national and international factors and resulted in growing influence of Russia in the region. The author concludes that fight against international terrorism is now at the center of Russian activities in Central Asia.Key words: Russia, Central Asia, regional security, international terrorism

  20. Russia in the World Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  1. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry V. Kuzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia. After a brief introduction devoted to modern concepts of national competitiveness, the author analyse current competitive positioning of Russia using the results of the world's most influential research reports and rankings. This part of the paper reveals the most serious indicators of Russia's lag behind the leading and other similar in size, as well as potential and development stage countries.The next three parts of the paper analyze both positive and negative trends of recent Russia's development over the last 6 years as it is viewed from Russian expert' point of view. The essence of the current debate on the future of the country, after the next Presidential election, is also presented with emphasis on several feasible strategies and their potential influence on the future competitiveness of the country. At the end the paper addresses the issue of values modernization in Russia which seems to be crucial not just to improve competitiveness but to ensure the future development of the country.The views and estimates expressed in the paper except for references to different expert opinions are the authors own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting an official position on these issues.El presente trabajo hace una revisión general de los aspectos contemporáneos de la capacidad competitiva de Rusia a nivel global e indica posibles situaciones para un desarrollo que pueda mejorar la valoración mundial de Rusia. Tras una breve introducción, dedicada a conceptos modernos de competitividad nacional, el autor analiza la situación competitiva actual de Rusia utilizando los resultados de los informes y clasificaciones más influyentes a nivel mundial. Esta sección del artículo facilita los indicadores más rigurosos de la posici

  2. 3. The Slow Death of Holy Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Graham returned to Russia at the end of 1913, armed with Northcliffe's commission to "go where you like and write what you like", travelling by train through Paris and Warsaw, before heading on to Kiev, a city he had first visited the previous year on his way back from Jerusalem. Here he called on a number of old friends, including a spirited young woman called Katia, who had as a child made an unlikely attempt to run away to South Africa to help the Boers in their fight against the British. ...

  3. Staff Training for Nanoindustry in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology industry represents such a direction of the development of science, technologies and industries by means of which Russia will be able to achieve advanced positions in the world. For the last decade the necessary regulatory base for nanotech industry development was created in the country, beginning with the concept of nanotechnological works, and the strategy of nanotech industry development, and finishing by the program of nanotech industry development in Russia till 2015. The special place is allocated for education in the field of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. The system of staff training for nanotech industry is developing very quickly. The departments of nanotechnologies are established almost in all leading higher education institutions of Russia, the institutes of scientific and educational centers as well as the centers of collective use are introduced in the country, the national nanotechnological network is functioning. RUSNANO State Corporation of Nanotechnologies makes significant contribution to the training of innovation staff. The corporation is planning to create at least 100 educational programs of staff training and retraining for the needs of nanotech industry. The fund of infrastructure and educational programs was established in RUSNANO which in 2012 launched the project on creation of training system in the field of nanotechnology in the e-Learning mode. In 2013 the fund created the autonomous non-profit organization “Electronic Education for Nanotech Industry” (“eNano” which became the leading developer of innovative branch educational resources and the operator on rendering educational services for nanotech industry. Since 2011 in RUSNANO there is a School League which set for itself the task to make the contribution to improvement of the situation in teaching naturalscience disciplines at schools. At the same time, according to the results of students enrolment in Russia in 2011-2014, the

  4. Russia and its neighbours: East or West?

    OpenAIRE

    S. White; McAllister, I.

    2008-01-01

    As ‘Europe’ becomes more diverse, the countries that were formerly part of the USSR face new choices. One of the most fundamental is whether they identify with the economic and military institutions of the ‘West’, such as NATO and the European Union, or with the Commonwealth of Independent States and other forms of association with the Slavic ‘East’. We examine these choices in each of three societies—Belarus, Russia and Ukraine—on the basis of national surveys conducted between 2000 and 2008...

  5. Institutional design of food quality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoguzov Eugene, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests the comprehensive analysis of reforms consequences in the field of technical regulation of food quality in Russia. In the research the institutional approach is applied to discover reasons of this problem. Institutional changes have brought to the loss of food determinacy on the Russian food markets. Authors propose a way to solutions this problem mentioned by the institutional design of food quality. The institutional design based on the idea of conventional norms (social standards, the development of which is possible due to reconciling the interests of social groups.

  6. NEW TRENDS REGARDING OFDI FROM RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among emerging economies, the Russian Federation is the second largest outward investor, surpassed only by China, but ahead of Brazil, India and South Africa. Alongside other multinationals from BRICS countries, TNCs from Russia started to emerge in the international rankings of global companies. The propose of the paper is to present the importance of developing and transition economies as investors, to provide background information and new trends of OFDI from BRICS countries, pointing out the outward expansion of Russian multinational corporations in recent years. The paper basically investigates the main patterns of Russian outward foreign direct investment (OFDI, including its dynamics and geographical destinations.

  7. Foreign investment in Russia: obstacles and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of recent developments with regard to foreign investment in the Russian oil industry is presented. Progress has already been made in the oil and gas sector but some important issues which still remain insufficiently resolved for the potential Western investor are examined. These are: the settlement of the internal division of responsibilities; a stable legal and fiscal framework for foreign investment; decisions on what Russia wants from foreign oil companies; only difficult and costly fields are on offer; reserve estimates are not based on economic criteria; implementation of environmental and operational standards. (UK)

  8. Modernity and natalism in Russia: Historic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kouprianova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Less than desirable indigenous birth rates in Western Europe have generated interest toward examining the question of natalism — an organised state initiative to manage and promote reproduction, child rearing, health, as well as related neo-traditional cultural values — from a comparative perspective. This paper reviews the history of natalism in the USSR and contemporary Russia within the greater framework of modernity, by focusing on sweeping questions of ideology and geopolitics as well as current historic models. Economic stability is not an unimportant factor, yet it is authentic traditional culture that is of equal, if not greater, importance, even if expressed through state policies.

  9. Status of fast reactor activities in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines state-of-the-art of the Russian nuclear power as of 1997 and its prospects for the nearest future. Results of the BR-10, BOR-60 and BN-600 reactors operation are described, as well as activity of the Russian institutions on scientific and technological support of the BN-350 reactor. Analysis of current status of the BN-800 reactor South-Urals NPP and Beloyarskaya NPP designs is given in brief, as well as prospects of their construction and possible ways of fast reactor technology improvement. Studies on fast reactors now under way in Russia are described. (author)

  10. The Saami Language Situation in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Scheller, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The article gives an overview of the Saami language situation in Russia, there people use four Kola Saami languages or at least have some competence in them (Kildin Saami, Ter Saami, Skolt Saami and Akkala Saami). Since the 1990's, also North Saami has been used among Kola Saami community members. Today, all four Kola Saami languages are seriously threatened by a language shift from Saami to Russian. However, a revitalization process of Kildin Saami is going on. The article starts with a gen...

  11. Russia - An elephant in the china shop? Russian gas relations with Ukraine; Russland - En elefant i glassmagasinet? Russiske gassrelasjoner med Ukraina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Roger

    2009-11-15

    This report looks into the question of whether Russia uses gas as a means of solving political conflicts in its bilateral relations with Ukraine. The report explores both gas relations and central political conflicts between the two countries. All relations are followed from the end of 1991 to the beginning of 2009. Neoclassical realism and complex interdependence are used to separate political and economic motives. The main part of the empirical material supports complex interdependence and the contention that Russia struggles to keep the gas sector and political conflicts separated. Ukraine has throughout the period been heavily indebted partly as a consequence of excess consumption of gas which the country has had problems paying for. Gazprom has clearly had an economic incentive to demand payment for this gas. However, due to Ukraine's position as a transit country for the bulk of Russian gas export, Russia has been very vulnerable. In instances when supplies to Ukraine have been reduced, Ukraine has compensated by diverting some volumes intended for Europe, which again has led to financial loss for Russia, and a dent in the image of Russia as a reliable gas provider for Europe. This vulnerability can explain why Russia has used much time and effort on negotiations and compromises with Ukraine within the gas sector during the period considered in this report.

  12. The current status of the development of renewable energy sources worldwide and in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, V. E.; Popel', O. S.

    2014-06-01

    Resorting to renewable energy sources (RESs) as one of the bases of the promising world energy industry has become a logical result of the historical development and the recognition that is necessary to diversify primary energy sources being used, with the aim of enhancing both energy and ecological security of countries, regions, and concrete energy consumers. The review of the development of new technologies used for conversion of RESs, the progress of which can be characterized by the fact that by the year 2013 the total generating capacity of RES-based power plants now in operation has amounted to 500 GW—by a factor of 1.5 more than the total generating capacity of all nuclear power stations in the world. The paper presents an analysis of the current status of RESs and problems that restrain their development in Russia. It is noted that the peculiarities of the energy situation in Russia impose the specific requirements upon drawing up the programs of the development of RESs. Along with the use of RESs as part of systems of centralized energy supply, which is a priority for most industrially developed countries and promises the most large-scale introduction of RESs in Russia, it is necessary, first of all, to give attention to the development and creation of systems for independent supply of consumers with power and heat and the development of distributed powergenerating systems using RESs.

  13. Sino-Russia Trade,Bearing Confidence in Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Kejia

    2009-01-01

    @@ Sino-Russia Trade is invariably regarded as the focus of Harbin China Harbin International Economic and Trade Fair(HFT),and it is no exception for the 20th session.Especially great attention is paid to the impact that the economic crisis brought to Sino-Russia trade and the deals during the HFT.

  14. China's Energy Strategy and China-Russia Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yishan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation are based on the estimation of China's energy supply and demand.Therefore, before we get to the main point, we need to analyze the development of energy in China first,and then discuss the issue of China's energy strategy and China-Russia energy cooperation.

  15. Modelling the Saving Behavior of Households in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina Olga; Roshchina Yana

    2000-01-01

    The project will provide a comparative analysis of financial behavior of households in Russia in the mid-90's. The data is collected from the authors' own surveys conducted in four regions of Russia. The project will evaluate parameters of regression models and construct typologies of financial behavior, with particular attention being paid to the household saving strategies.

  16. Renewable energy in Russia: The take off in solid bioenergy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pristupa, A.O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Triggered by debates on climate change and energy security, renewable energy sources are presently high on the political agenda in many countries. In this regard Russia seems to stand aside worldwide developments. Until recently Russia¿s enormous potential in renewable energy sources remained poorly

  17. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  18. The results of Implementation of the Youth Policy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibanov Ardalyon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic work with the youth in Russia should focus on trying to make the new generation successful, healthy, professionally oriented, happy, educated and appreciating the history of their country. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative composition of young people in Russia can make some conclusions about the results of the ongoing concept of work with young people

  19. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  20. Nuclear heat applications in Russia: Experience, status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extensive experience gained with nuclear district heating in Russia is described. Most of the WWER reactors in Russia are cogeneration plants. Steam is extracted through LP turbine bleeders and condensed in intermediate heat exchangers to hot water which is then supplied to DH grids. Also some small dedicated nuclear heating plants are operated. (author)

  1. The Economic Effects of a Russia-EU FTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Manchin

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the effects of Russia joining the WTO taking into account energy sector reform and the impact of a future Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the enlarged EU and Russia. The paper uses Computable General Equilibrium Modelling techniques for quantifying the different pos

  2. 75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... from Russia and Ukraine (64 FR 62653). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the... imports of solid urea from Russia and Ukraine (71 FR 581). The Commission is now conducting third reviews... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this...

  3. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... its notice of institution (75 FR 74746, December 1, 2010) were adequate and that the respondent... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  4. Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS

    2011-01-01

    The Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School recently organised a course on Synchrotron Radiation & Free Electron Lasers, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 6 to 15 April, 2011.   The school attracted 65 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Russia, Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 15 lectures each of 90 minutes, 9 hours of parallel sessions, and 6 hours of discussion/student presentation sessions. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity during the traditional one-day excursion to visit two archeological sites at the Temples of Segesta and Selinunte. The success of the school has encouraged the organisers to re-launch the Joint School, which ran on a roughly t...

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF SMALL BUSINESS CREDIT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the national economy, providing 60% of revenues in foreign countries. In Russia, this sector is developing slowly due to lack of funding. In connection with the development of small business, lending is growing in popularity in this sphere. The state develops a variety of programs to support small businesses in the form of public and private lending institutions, venture capital funds, credit unions. However, the volume of lending to small business remains relatively low, due to mistrust of banks and credit organizations in the sphere of small business. Nevertheless, it is here, according to statistics, the debt on loans is only 1.5% of the total. The article describes the features of small business lending, it analyzes the dynamics of the volume of loans granted, and the amount of debt, identifies main obstacles to obtaining loans to entrepreneurs, gives the analysis of credit conditions of small business in Russia and Germany. The problem of credit was considered from two perspectives: from the perspective of credit institutions and the banks themselves. We have developed measures to improve credit conditions, which must take into account not only credit institutions but also the state. It is necessary to provide tax incentives, encouraging the establishment and development of insurance business associations, to support the creation of specialized banks lending to small businesses, the development of cooperation of small and large banks to increase bank lending and reduce credit risks

  6. Central Asia's raging waters the prospects of water conflict in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, William B.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in Central Asia. The thesis analyzes the three most recent political eras of Central Asia, Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and independence, utilizing indicators of water tensions including: water quality, water quantity, the management of water for multiple uses, the political divisions and geopolitical setting, state institutions and national water ethos. Although water is not likely to be the sole cause of a majo...

  7. Improvements in progress for Russia's new PSA law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russian legislation making production sharing agreements (PSAs) fully legal under Russian law passed the upper house of the Russian Parliament (Federal Council) on December 19, 1995, was signed into law by President Boris Yeltsin on December 31, 1995, and took effect on January 11, 1996. While PSA legislation remains the central legal basis for large scale investment in the Russian petroleum sector, company views towards investment in this sector are tied to much more than the extent of legal guarantees. Investor attitudes are also shaped by expectations regarding political stability, behavior of Russian regulatory authorities, and prospects for the Russian economy. Furthermore, Western investors in the petroleum sector have some experience in dealing with the Russian government and existing frameworks for investment, particularly the joint venture (JV) deals with Russian entities and the often changing regulatory and tax treatment of these ventures. It is the view of the authors that attitudes among some Western companies in Russia on the political and economic environment may be too pessimistic and shaped more by press reports than actual conditions. News reports on violence, political instability, and a disastrous economy are not entirely borne out by the facts. Russian, of course, faces serious political and economic problems which must be carefully evaluated, but the overall outlook is much more complex, and some positive developments are underway. This paper reviews the economic, oil production and industry outlook as a result of the PSA law

  8. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS AND BASES OF PEOPLE SAVING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova O. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic and foreign policy transformations happening in Russia have predetermined the emergence of many social problems demanding the immediate solve. Thus social and demographic problems are the most important. Introduction of the state social programs in many respects helped to solve a problem of low birth rate. Negotiation of the demographic situation which was followed by sharp decrease of birth rate demanded considerable efforts from the state, but, despite the reached results, the situation can repeat again. And it is notable now when children of "reorganization" reached reproductive age. Thus mortality of the population continues to grow, and its rates exceed birth rates now. Annual losses of the population reached 1,5-2 million per year. In this regard the central problem of modern social and economic policy of the state is introduction of the uniform program of a people saving directed on improvement of population quality of life, achievement of material, spiritual and physical welfare for the purpose of saving of that Russian population. Along with natural losses of the population there are so-called social, preventable demographic losses which could be avoided, by predicting the situation with the help of monitoring of population quality of life that could conduce conservation of life and the social status to millions of people

  9. Continuation of Monetary Crisis of 2014 in Russia is Inevitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Fedorov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is reproducing analysis of relation of foreign currency reserves of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation and the quantity of minted money (M2 for the last 10 years. A well-founded conclusion is drawing: from after 2010 the quantity of money minted by the government of Russia was far of excess of the quantity the metallic reserve storing allowed. The maximum gap between real quantity of Rubles and currency holdings fall within the end of 2014. Unrestrained emission of Rubles allocated for defense resulted in the first correction in value of the Ruble; the point at issue is December 14, 2014- the day when the Rouble depreciated on 7 % against western currencies - the US dollar and the Euro. Taken as a whole, within a year the exchange rate of the Rouble to the dollar fall on more than 55 %, so, on pace of depreciation, the Rouble turned the one of weakest currencies in the world. However, in the author`s opinion, this correction did not affect the activities of the Russian authorities and this can result in further external imbalance in the country and in further crash of the Russian ruble.

  10. U.S. second line of defense: preventing nuclear smuggling across Russia's borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing the theft of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia is one of the central security concerns facing the US today. The dissolution of the highly centralized USSR and the resulting societal crisis has endangered Russia's ability to protect its more than 200 metric tons of plutonium and 1000 tons of highly enriched uranium (roughly 8 kg Pu or 25 kg HEU is sufficient to make a bomb). Producing this fissile material is the most difficult and expensive part of nuclear weapons production and the US must make every effort to ensure that fissile material (and nuclear-related technologies) does not reach the hands of terrorist groups, rogue states or other potential proliferators. In response to this concern, the US has undertaken a number of initiatives in partnership with Russia and other FSU states to prevent the theft of fissile material. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program (MPC and A) was begun in 1993 to prevent the theft of nuclear materials from Russian civilian complexes, that is facilities not under control of the Ministry of Defense, which is largely responsible for possession and oversight of nuclear weapons. The MPC and A program is considered the first line of defense against theft of nuclear material because its goal is to prevent theft of material at production and storage facilities. This year the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new program called the Second Line of Defense (SLD), the goal of which is to assist Russia in preventing the smuggling of nuclear material and weapons at its borders, either by land, sea or air. The SLD program represents an important phase in the overall effort to ensure the security of nuclear material and weapons in Russia. However, as the US engages Russian customs officials in this important project, Americans should keep in mind that providing equipment--even indigenous equipment--is insufficient by itself; material aid must be accompanied by rigorous inspection and

  11. The Effect of Expertise on the Quality of Forest Standards Implementation : The case of FSC Forest Certification in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Malets, O.; Tysiachniouk, M.

    2009-01-01

    The central question of the paper is how differences in expertise affect the implementation of voluntary environmental standards in the forestry sector. Specifically we analyze the experience of two large forest companies in Russia that certified their forest management under the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) forest certification program. Drawing on the literature on financial auditing we show that specific outcomes of forest management standards implementation are shaped by the difference...

  12. The analysis of security with dentists in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonova N.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to carry out the analysis of security with dentists in the country in new conditions of reforming. Materials and methods. In work the complex of methods of collecting and the analysis of materials of research is used: bibliographic, analytical, documentary (fragment of data from medical documentation, epidemiological, mathematical and statistical, current supervision. Results. The used integrated approach to tasks allowed to assess a situation on security with the orthopedic stomatologic help and its demand in a section of subjects of the country. The carried-out analysis showed that in general across Russia and in a number of its districts, coverage by routine inspections of the population has the resistant tendency to decrease which is especially expressed in the Volga Federal District (-15,8%. It led to reduction of number of the patients needing sanitation and received sanitation (it is maximum — in Ural federal district (-16,9%. According to official statistics the smallest number of the patients who received the orthopedic stomatologic help — inhabitants of North Caucasus federal district, maximum — Central Federal District. Conclusion. Thus, the analysis of a condition of stomatologic help in the country from 2006 to 2012 let us establish the highest attendance of experts in Volga (108,2% in 2006, 101,3% in 2012 and Central (100,3%-2006, 102,1 %-2012 federal districts, growth of attendance in North Caucasian (for 66,2% and Far East (for 22% federal districts. Coverage by routine inspections of the population by stomatologists had the resistant tendency to decrease which is especially expressed in the Volga Federal District (-15%. Decrease in possibility of identification of the patients needing in sanitation and number of the patients who received it was most expressed in Ural federal district: — 16,9%.

  13. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  14. State of HTGR development in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed designs of VGR50, VG400 and VGM reactors were developed in Russia. The most important result of the activity was formation of contacts between different organizations and creation of technology basis for HTGRs. At present it is assumed that advantages of HTGRs as compared to other types of reactors can be more completely demonstrated if module reactors with thermal power of about 200 MW and pebble bed core will be aimed only at process heat production, and for electricity production through gas-turbine cycle will be used module reactors with thermal power of about 600 MW and a core from prismatic blocks. To this effect, feasibility study of VGMP reactor was carried out and development of GT-MHR with gas-turbine cycle is under way. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Superconductivity in Russia: Update and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhogin, V.

    1995-01-01

    The research projects and new technological developments that have occured in Russia are highlighted in this document. Some of the research discussed includes: x-ray structure analysis of YBCO superconducting single crystals and accompanying phase transformations; the role of electron-electron interaction in High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC); the formation of Cooper pairs in crystals; the synthesis and research on a new family of superconductors based on complex copper and mercury oxides (HgBa2CuO4 + alpha and HgBa2CaCu2O6 + alpha); methods for the extraction of higher (up to C200) fullerenes and metalfullerenides has been developed; and process of production of Josephson junctions and development of SQUID's.

  16. Radioactive contamination at Chelyabinsk-65, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of poor waste management practices at Chelyabinsk-65, primarily during the first two decades of operations, the site and its surroundings were extensively contaminated, and thousands of people were unknowingly exposed to excessive levels of radiation. In terms of human health consequences, most of the damage has already been inflicted. Nevertheless, containment of the residual radioactivity in high-level waste tanks, in the reservoirs along the Techa River, and in and below Lake Karachay represents expensive challenges for which the best, or even adequate solutions, have yet to be devised. Russian scientists have the knowledge to address these problems, but lack practical experience with contemporary waste management practices. Western expertise could be helpful in quantifying the extent of the problems and devising solutions. However, the real challenge will be to mobilize the economic resources for effective cleanup at Chelyabinsk-65 in light of all the other economic and environmental problems Russia faces. 81 refs

  17. Decommissioning: from COMECON to CIS and RUSSIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP decommissioning experience in the USSR and the Commonwealth Independent States (CIS) members was actively accumulated over ten years since 1982, by Russian experts in particular. Nevertheless, it is not well renowned throughout the scientists and engineers from both Russia and other near' (the CIS) and 'distant' foreign countries. A general review on NPP decommissioning in the CIS has been published just now. An unshown before NPP decommissioning issues are presented in the report. The first program on NPP decommissioning was developed under the aegis of COMECOM with the leadership of Russian experts. The most considerable results are the feasibility studies of Armenia NPP, the Novovoronezh NPP first construction stage (two units) and Bohunice V - 1 unit. (J.P.N.)

  18. New System of Food Control in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  19. Russia's national space weather service in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Viatcheslav; Avdyushin, Sergei; Denisova, Valentina

    RWC Russia (Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow) -forecasting center unites activity of the National Heliogeophysics Service of Russia and the Regional Warning Center of ISES. Nowadays the centre operates and fulfils numerous functions such as space weather monitoring, collecting, working and handing out the data to both Russian and foreign customers, compiling and spreading various kinds of the space weather condition forecasts. The first regular space weather forecast is known to have been issued on June 10, 1974. Since then this kind of activity has been processed and issued permanently 7 days a week. During year 2009 there were more than 17000 various short terms (semi -day, 1,2,3 and five days) forecasts of the geomagnetic fields and ionosphere conditions, magnetic fields, flare activity, radiation hazard in polar zones and the satellites traces. In the end of 2008 the Institute of Applied Geophysics was provided with necessary subsidizing to support the Space Weather Center. The fundamental repairs of the Institute's building have begun and are being done at present. They are to be completed this year. The allocated funds are sufficient to start the technical renovation of the Service, including: provision of the staff with up-to-date computing machinery; up-grading the observation stations equipment; preparing the apparatus and instruments for monitoring the near-earth space by two of our satellites "Meteor" and "Electro" ("Electro" -geostationary satellite). The "Meteor" satellite (subpolar orbit on altitude of 900 km) equipped with complex including: measurements of electron fluxes with energy more than 0.15 MeV, and proton fluxes with energy more than 5 MeV (40 channels) was launched on September 2009. These data (as well as ionosphere and geomagnetic data) are available on Web page www.geospace.ru since 2 quarter of the2010.

  20. Speech by V. V. Tereshkova, President of Russia International Cooperation Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    First of all, please allow me, on behalf of the Rus-sia International Centre for Scientific and Cultural Coop-eration under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia,the Russia International Co-operation Association and the Russia-China Friendship Asso-

  1. Economy, Geopolitics, environment: the triple gas issue in the relations between the Eu and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the political tinge it has recently acquired, natural gas has taken a central position in the relations between the EU and Russia Besides energy security, the issue has three levels: the first is the opening of markets or the maintaining of monopolies, as much in Russia as in the European Union. The line of fracture is complex, and at present, in spite of rhetoric support on the opening of markets, it is rather their protection which is on the agenda. The second level is that of energy diplomacy Brussels and Moscow come face to face primarily in Central Asia, on the basis of interests and using diametrically opposite instrument. However, their policies are characterised by weighty constraints. The third level is that of the fight against climatic change. Soaring in this field, there are several convergencies between the policies of Brussels and Moscow, particularly in terms of energy efficiency. With this new order, gas could watch itself grow in significance, or otherwise drop, in which case the relation between the EU and Russian would not go uninfluenced. (author)

  2. NATO'S MISTAKES THAT PAVED THE WAY FOR RUSSIA-UKRAINE CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    OĞUZ, Şafak

    2015-01-01

    The Russia-Ukraine Crisis has been the second biggest crisis between NATO and Russia in five years. Russia occupied Georgia, a NATO candidate, in 2008 and officially recognized two breakaway regions threatening Georgia's territorial integrity. Five years later, Russia threatened the territorial integrity of Ukraine, another NATO candidate, illegaly annexing Crimea and supporting separatists in the Eastern part of the country. The Western World and NATO have been condemning Russia because of i...

  3. Hierarchy in Moldova-Russia Relations: the Transnistrian Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Crandall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effect of the Transnistrian area on Moldova-Russia relations. David Lake’s concept of hierarchy will be used as the theoretical framework. The article examines why Russia’s mechanisms of infl uence should be seen as a reflection of a hierarchical relationship between Russia and Moldova. The article begins by explaining why this work has chosen a hierarchical framework and a brief introduction of Transnistria. This is followed by two sections of analysis: security and economy.These two sections will also contain subsections on events that highlight the hierarchical nature of the Moldova-Russia relationship. This article shows that Russia clearly has a hierarchical relationship with Moldova. David Lake’s theory proves to be a useful tool in understanding Moldovan-Russian relations.

  4. Analysis of machine-building industry in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Makoveev Vitalii Nikolaevich

    2013-01-01

    The article contains a description of the main functions of the machine-building industry and an analysis of its development in Russia for the period from 2000 to 2010. Basic production assets of the domestic industry were analyzed.

  5. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terekhov, A. I., E-mail: a.i.terekhov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990-2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing 'centers of excellence.' It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia's science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  6. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  7. Stages of development of small business in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Guryanov P. A.

    2012-01-01

    In article the author's periodization of stages of development of small business is presented to Russia, and also the basic obstacles of development of small business in the Russian Federation are revealed.

  8. Current State and Prospects for Development of Tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana V. Laktionova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in Russia is a developing complex, capable of resolving a lot of social and economic issues if developed correctly. Week and strong points of Russian tourism, ways to address arising problems.

  9. Koptev announces space plans for Russia in 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    Pieson, D

    2003-01-01

    According to the head of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Yuri Koptev, the major emphasis of Russia's space program in 2003 will be supporting the nation's telecommunication satellite program (1/2 page).

  10. FEATURES OF KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY IN RUSSIA: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Zagainova A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article identifies the main problems of the knowledge market of modern Russia. The term of "knowledge economy" was clarified. We have also identified characteristic features, specifics, as well as we have proposed the ways of its development

  11. A New Digital Georeferenced Database of Soil Degradation in Russia.

    OpenAIRE

    V. Stolbovoi; Fischer, G

    1997-01-01

    Information on human-induced soil degradation in Russia has now been compiled in a new georeferenced database. It comprises the latast data on the status of soil degradation in Russia, including soil deterioration in non-agricultural regions. The information has been linked to a digital soil database, which has recently been prepared for the FAO by the Dukachaev Soil Institute. Soil degradation attributes were derived from unpublished maps compiled for the State Committee for Land Resources a...

  12. Ukraine, EU and Russia: soft power versus Realpolitik?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Barata

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine began in 1998 with the signature of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Afterwards, in 2003 Ukraine joined the European Neighbourhood Policy and in 2004 EU was already the major trade partner with Ukraine, bigger than Russia. Anticipating the approach of former soviet republics towards Euro Atlantic structures and the foreseen loss of influence in its near abroad, Putin’s Russia launched in 2011 the Eurasian Economic Union, a...

  13. Exchange Rate Regime in Russia, Evaluation and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Olga, Vasilevskaya

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies exchange rate choice in Russia with respect to social, economic and political determinants. The study deliberately narrowed the scope of the discussion to two extreme cases, i.e. fixed and floating exchange rate. Today Russia applies managed floating exchange rate arrangement and it is important to determine the direction of the further monetary policy development either towards fixed or floating exchange rate. The paper argues that the logical extension of the historical t...

  14. THE POSITION OF RUSSIA IN THE WORLD ARMS MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Tuliakova I.R.

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of Russia in the world arms market. Two world wars and arms race of the late twentieth century led to the formation of the defense- industrial complex. Russian military products are exported to many countries. Currently, Russia is the main supplier of arms to the world market. But there are serious limits to the expansion of military production

  15. Using Internet Technologies in Legal Practices and Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Vernigorova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the agenda of using computer and Internet technologies in legal practices and studies in Russia. Despite the obvious necessity for professionals to learn English, many graduates in Russia still demonstrate a very poor command of this universal language. And it has become quite impossible for a lawyer (or for any other specialist to work effectively without using the Internet and for a student – to study and to practice a foreign language.

  16. Labor leasing: economic theory, EU and Russia experience

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnykh, Larisa

    2005-01-01

    With the need in flexible business management getting acute, contingent employment comes into focus. While being widely spread all over the globe it has not been recognized in Russia for quite a long time. Today, analysts of the Russian labor market predict that this employment scheme awaits grand future. Indicative of a high demand for contingent labor in Russia is its dynamic year-on-year growth. At the same time, the use and development of contingent employment (or labor leasing) is ...

  17. THE DIFFICULTIES AND CONTRADICTIONS OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Blinov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the state of small business in Russia, the sensitive issues in this sector of the Russian economy, and the results of state support of small business. It presents scenarios of the possible development of the small private economy in Russia in the near future. In the context of these problems, the author defines the main areas of appropriate state policy in small business.

  18. CREATING CONDITIONS FOR COMPETITIVE SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Klimova N. V.; Brylyakova O. A.

    2015-01-01

    In modern Russia with market economy, formation and development of business is natural and objective process. Small business exists as independent sector of market economy, providing basic requirements of national economy. The broad movement to public recognition of a private property in the modern market relations promotes manifestation of enterprise, riskiness, effectiveness. Small business in Russia, despite already quite long term of formation of the market relations, only gains steam, an...

  19. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: the case of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sonya K.; Rizov, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38%. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for 1994 and 2004. We find a strong positive effect of diet/caloric intake and a strong negative effect of smoking on weight and BMI. Gender, education, and inc...

  20. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in Russia: Outlines of a New Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Irina, Dezhina; Alexey, Ponomarev; Alexander, Frolov

    2015-01-01

    The present article, which continues the discussion of advanced manufacturing technologies initiated in Foresight-Russia issue 2 (2014), evaluates the current state of this field in Russia. The analysis here examines the state of the relevant scientific research and the readiness of industry to adopt the new technologies developed by researchers. The study is based on bibliometric and patent analyses, as well as on expert evaluations of the markets related to different segments of advanced ma...

  1. Russia and the problem of Kosovo and Metohija

    OpenAIRE

    Simić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Nearly ten years since the 1999 NATO military intervention against Serbia and the establishment of UN administration, Kosovo and Metohija has resurfaced as a topical issue in international politics, separating the positions of the USA and Russia, and becoming a precedent in international relations, possibly with far-reaching consequences not only for the future of the western Balkans but also for many territorial disputes worldwide. Russia has only recently pulled herself out of the years-lon...

  2. Using Internet Technologies in Legal Practices and Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    V.A. Vernigorova

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the agenda of using computer and Internet technologies in legal practices and studies in Russia. Despite the obvious necessity for professionals to learn English, many graduates in Russia still demonstrate a very poor command of this universal language. And it has become quite impossible for a lawyer (or for any other specialist) to work effectively without using the Internet and for a student – to study and to practice a foreign language.

  3. Perspectives Of Introduction Sustainable Procurement In Public Procurement In Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Romodina; Maxim Silin

    2015-01-01

    The paper is about sustainable public procurement as a new global trend in the development of a sustainable economy. The main question raised is the following: how sustainable public procurement could be implemented in Russia? The study aims to investigate the prospects of the implementation of sustainable public procurement in Russia. The author presents the findings of survey, covering public procurement practices of 51 contracting authorities and documentation analysis of 400 public tender...

  4. Chief Editor’s Note on Arbitration Reform in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Russia is a party to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The USSR was one of the original Member States to sign the Convention in 1958. There is a distinction between international and domestic arbitration. Arbitration in Russia was regulated by the Federal Law on Arbitral Tribunals in the Russian Federation (2003) (domestic arbitration) and the Federal Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1993) (international arbitration). This law w...

  5. Will The Kyoto Protocol Affect Growth in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Lecocq, Franck; Shalizi, Zmarak

    2004-01-01

    In light of the recent argument that rapid economic growth in Russia over the next decade, might result in emissions higher than the Kyoto target, thereby putting much-needed growth at risk, the authors revisit the discussion on the costs and benefits of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Russia. They conclude that even under a very high economic growth assumption, and even under very c...

  6. THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeev, A.

    2009-01-01

    This section “Forum” is about the pharmaceutical industry in Russia. We were encouraged to debate this topic after the unveiling of the Strategy of Development of the Pharmaceutical Industry in the Russian Federation developed by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation. The majority of our experts, who are authorities in the federal government, business, academia, and industrial science, believe that Russia needs a fully developed pharmaceutical industry. What are the mai...

  7. Analysis of Russia Ukraine Relations in Context of Crimea Problem

    OpenAIRE

    SÖNMEZ, A. Sait; BİÇAKCI, Harun; YILDIRIM, Cuma

    2015-01-01

    Ukraine and Russia, the two Slavic societies, are two different nations even if they have common historical past and cultural ties. In the post-Cold War period, Russian and Ukrainian relations progressed in a problematic way. The strategic importance of Ukraine has increased more with the introduction of the transfer of energy sources in the former Soviet Union to the West. Ukraine as a country in the role of an energy corridor has become more important for Russia together with the increased ...

  8. Diagnosing Dutch Disease; Does Russia Have the Symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Oomes, Nienke; Kalcheva, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we assess whether recent economic developments in Russia are symptomatic of Dutch Disease. We first provide a brief review of the literature on Dutch Disease and the natural resource curse. We then discuss the symptoms of Dutch Disease, which include (1) real exchange rate appreciation; (2) slower manufacturing growth; (3) faster service sector growth; and (4) higher overall wages. We test these predictions for Russia while carefully controlling for other factors that could hav...

  9. THE EXPERIENCE OF THE STRATEGY TOOLS IMPLEMENTATION: CHINA AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGOROVA I.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the overview of the experience in strategy implementation both in China and Russia, whereas the commonalities are stressed out. As China started its way to capitalistic economy earlier than Russia, it has been revealed that Western practices proved to be inefficient in Chinese culture of business. Therefore, it is essential to customize the existing strategic tools before implementation or put more effort in research and the elaboration of the Russian-type of a business strategy.

  10. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives in Russia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rotfuß, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This work provides a descriptive overview of Russian markets for financial derivatives. Available figures for the exchange-traded and over-the-counter-traded derivatives in Russia show that the Russian derivatives markets experienced enormous growth rates since the financial crisis in 1998. Starting from a very low level, turnover of exchange-traded derivatives in Russia rose from 2000 to 2006 on average 168 percent per year and reached a total turnover of EUR 102 billion in 2006. Among futur...

  11. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Nureev Rustem, M.; Petrakov Pavel, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States). The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic produc...

  12. HOW CORRUPTION AFFECTS SOCIAL EXPENDITURES: EVIDENCE FROM RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriy Timofeyev

    2011-01-01

    This paper clarifies the main theoretical issues of corruption. An estimate and branch analysis of corruption in Russia is offered. The research concentrates on effects produced by corruption on social expenditures. The analysis demonstrates how corruption influences the poverty situation after social transfers and on the general efficiency of social payments. Using the European Commission method and a corrected method, indicators of efficiency of social spending are calculated for Russia. Al...

  13. FUTURE SCENARIOS OF IKEA SHOPPING CENTRES RUSSIA FOR 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdikov, Artem

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at developing scenarios for IKEA Shopping Centres Russia to help the company to be prepared for the future challenges and understand its own role and functions in the future. The theoretical background consists of an overview of the shopping centres industry, its past and present situation in Russia. In addition, methodologies of the future research and the PESTEL analysis were studied in order to understand the research tools and methods used in this study. As this ...

  14. The internationalization of SMEs in emerging markets: Case Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The Internationalization of SMEs in Emerging Markets: Case Russia The first goal of this study is to investigate and analyze the characteristics and challenges of the internationalization process of foreign small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to Russia. The second goal of this study is to create a model of the production unit establishment process, as designed especially for SMEs. Also, the key resources in succeeding in these processes are studied. The theoretical frame...

  15. Zimbabwe-Russia Relations in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Chigora, Percyslage; Goredema, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    The 21st century has witnessed the intensification of relations between Zimbabwe and the East and other favorable states, Russia among them. Historically under the socialist rhetoric the two countries shared a common political ideology. Zimbabwe- Russia relations dates back to the era of the liberation struggle. The Soviet Union aided Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe People's Union and later the Patriotic Front which included Mugabe's Zimbabwe National African Union. The Soviet Union aided...

  16. Fiscal federalist relations in Russia: a case for subnational autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrov, Aleksei; Litwack, John; Sutherland, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    In a federation as large and diverse as Russia, the policies of regional and local governments play a key role in determining economic outcomes. The state of intergovernmental and fiscal federalist relations directly affects the nature of these policies. Several existing studies highlight common problems in the conduct of regional and local state organs in Russia as key obstacles to the improvement of the business and investment climate. In this light, since early 1998, the Economics Depar...

  17. Crisis of corporate social responsibility and its status in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly J. Ozira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper picked a topic - the global financial crisis- to highlight several related problems. The current crisis was not caused by failed economic policies. The root cause is failed leadership. People sometimes forget that business ethics at its core is about excellence and high attainment rather than misdeeds and malfeasance.In recent years, however, more attention has been paid to the positive side of ethics. More managers in Russia are waking up to the ways in which positive values contribute to a company's effective day-to-day functioning, as well as its reputation and long-term sustainability.Contrary to Western Europe and Scandinavia, Corporate Social Responsibility is a relatively new concept in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Cultural gaps between Westerners and Locals have gradually been narrowing and becoming less divisive. Improved knowledge by foreign investors on how to operate successfully in a post-communist region, on "how to bridge the gap", greatly decreases the risk of the East-West joint venture.The views expressed in the paper are the author's own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting the official position paper on Corporate Governance.En este trabajo se enfoca la crisis financiera global con el fin de destacar los problemas más importantes relacionados con ésta. La presente crisis no fue provocada por causas meramente económicas. La causa fundamental radica en el liderazgo. A veces, la gente olvida que la ética de las relaciones juega un papel importante a la hora de llevar a cabo un negocio. Últimamente, no obstante, se presta más atención al aspecto positivo de la ética profesional. Un número creciente de gestores rusos emprenden el camino en el que los valores positivos conducen a un eficaz funcionamiento diario así como su prestigio y sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A diferencia de la concepción de la Europa occidental y escandinava de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa, en la

  18. Reconstruction of environmental chanees in Holocen in Siberian Arctic, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga; Tumanov, Oleg; Nourgaliev, Danis

    2013-04-01

    The study of Arctic palaeoenvironmental records enables qualitative and quantitative estimations of past climate changes and provides basis for prediction of future changes in the region. The timing of Holocene climate events in North Atlantic region is relatively good studied. In contrast to it, at present there are very few quantitative palaeoclimatic data for eastern Siberia and proxy records from northern Eurasia mostly document environmental changes at low temporal resolution, and are derived from pollen studies. Due to relatively small magnitude of temperature changes throughout the Holocene, reconstructions based on a single proxy must be interpreted with caution. More reliable estimate of the Holocene climate changes can be obtained only by averaging results inferred from several proxies. The basis, however, of all quantitative reconstruction approaches are regional calibration datasets from which the empirical reconstruction model (i.e. the transfer function) will be established. A 380 cm long sediment core from Lake Temje (Central Yakutia, North-Eastern Russia) was studied to infer Holocene palaeoenvironmental change in the extreme periglacial setting of eastern Siberia during the last 10,000 yrs. Data on sediment composition were used to characterize changes in the depositional environment during the ontogenetic development of the Lake Temje. The analysis of fossil chironomid remains and statistical treatment of chironomid data by the application of a newly developed transfer functions provided inferences of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) and water depths (WD). We obtained a qualitative and quantitative reconstruction of Holocene climate in Central Yakutia and recognized three stages of palaeoenvironmental changes: The early Holocene between 10 and 8 kyr BP was characterized by colder-than-today and moist summer conditions. Cryotextures in the lake sediments document full freezing of the lake water during the winter time. A general warming trend

  19. Russia and the energetic policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems for the Russian gas supply to the EU in 2006 and2009 raised the question on the relationship between these areas. The EU includes Russia in its energy policy, but as a geopolitical risk. The ground of this view is the big volume of hydrocarbons that the EU imports form Russia that implies a dependency of the former. It is assumed that Russia can influence the prices, the quantities, as well as the capability for restructuring the European gas sector. Nevertheless, this view doesn’t consider the role of the gas in Russia and, in particular, the Russian gas export strategic value from the Russian view. This paper questions that Russia could use the gas export to EU as a political vector and, by the way, proposes the geopolitical risk to have a minor relevance. So in the European energy policy the geopolitical risk of Russia should lose importance and should increase the priority about the absence of investments in the Russian gas sector that can establish limits to the imports of Russian gas in the future.

  20. Venture Capitalists’ Investment Selection Criteria in CEE Countries and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zinecker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with findings of a survey in the Central and Eastern European (CEE and Russian venture capital markets. The main aim of this study is to explore the following issues: Which criteria play an essential role in the selection of business proposals by firms investing venture capital in the CEE and Russian markets? What are the key characteristics of an investment selection process? And, in addition: Who are the investors in these markets? The nature of this study is explorative. It relies on primary data that were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were processed by statistical methods reflecting their nature and quantity. Descriptive methods served as basic statistical analyses. The survey results, which provide a number of unique insights into the field, are subsequently compared with findings which were published in similar studies undertaken in well-developed capital markets. This study supports the thesis that, when considering business proposals, above-average attention has been paid to criteria concerning the competitive advantage of the product and its potential to generate high returns. Our survey also confirms conclusions drawn from other studies which identify the size of the market and its growth rate as the most significant criteria characterizing the market. The crucial criterion in the category dedicated to management’s experience in the initial stage of the business life cycle is the management’s familiarity with the target market although investors emphasize its lower significance compared to the product and market characteristics. By publishing empirical data, an important signal regarding up-to-date evaluative criteria and their weight is sent both to prospective venture capitalists and investee companies operating under specific conditions of the CEE countries and Russia.

  1. Macroeconomic Dynamics in Russia During the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheremisinov Georgiy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The trajectory and quality of economic development of a country depend on the scale of the public entrepreneurship. The key parameters of macroeconomic dynamics are represented by the ratio between consumption and accumulation (saving in the national income, the regulation of centralized withdrawal of economic resources and the nature of their investment or expenditure. Theoretical analysis. The First World War had been changing the course of economic processes in Russia since 1914 till 1918. The funds were raised for ensuring the defense industry and supplying the troops. The incomes of population and enterprises were decreasing. The capital goods and trade ties undergone destruction processes. The besieged state turned to reducing reproduction of the gross national product. The military situation and extraordinary redistribution of resources had strengthened the economic status of the country. The funds spent on the maintenance and equipment of the army depended on the methods of resource allocation. Along with the war losses, the methods of economic regulation also contributed to the degradation of Russian economy. The devastation was caused by the armed struggle of state power for their interests and purposeful economic policy of successive governments. Conclusion. During the First World War the Russian economy had become extreme. Public withdrawal of economic resources and the impact on the economy was growing up until its overall governmentalization and transformation of the market economy into the subsistence one. The reformation processes supported each other mutually, strengthened the effect of general trends and had irreversible cumulative character. The mobilization model of the Russian economy was formed.

  2. Lunar and planetary cartography in Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladislav; Michael, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first to document in depth the history of lunar and planetary cartography in Russia. The first map of the far side of the Moon was made with the participation of Lomonosov Moscow University (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, MSU) in 1960. The developed mapping technologies were then used in preparing the “Complete Map of the Moon” in 1967 as well as other maps and globes. Over the years, various maps of Mars have emerged from the special course “Mapping of extraterrestrial objects” in the MSU Geography Department, including the hypsometric map of Mars at a scale of 1:26,000,000, compiled by J.A. Ilyukhina and published in 2004 in an edition of 5,000 copies. A more detailed version of this map has since been produced with a new hypsometric scale. In addition, maps of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars have been compiled for the hypsometric globe of Mars.  Relief maps of Venus were made in 2008, 2010, and 2011, and hypsometric maps of Phobos and Deimos at a scale of 1:60,000...

  3. Bioenergy in Russia: barriers and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulasevich, O.; Ivanov, T.; Chernyakhovskaya, Y. [Russian Energy Agency of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)], e-mail: ulasevich@rosenergo.gov.ru

    2012-11-01

    A target to increase the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the country's energy mix up to 4.5% till 2020 was set in the Russian Federation in 2009. That means commissioning of 10 GW installed capacity till 2020. The share of at least 40% should derive from bioenergy. Russian possessed a wide potential of biopower. Timber stock is evaluated at the amount of 83 billion m{sup 3}, agricultural complex wastes are considered to be not less than 773 million tons. By the development of RES and bioenegy one should bear in mind need to diversify the energy-mix for sustainable regional development in the optimal mode which is specific for each particular area. Bioenergy can make an important contribution to the technological, ecological and social development of the regions of the Russian Federation. RES and bioenergy progress in Russia requires holistic approach which includes development of institutional framework, manufacturing base, raising of market awareness, educational trainings, etc. Development of international cooperation in this sphere will allow to obtain the excess to the cutting edge technologies and know-how in order to use the huge bioenergy potential to mutual benefit of all parties.

  4. Development of regional capacity expansion plan in Russia (Application of the WASP model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is used for the development of an optimal capacity expansion plan in Russia. The object of the WASP study is the Central power pool, which is the largest power pool in Russia and has an essential share of nuclear power in electricity generation. The objective of the study is to assess the long-term competitiveness of nuclear power in electricity generation. The objective of the study is to assess the long-term competitiveness of nuclear power in the region. There are the following major features of the model of the power system developed with WASP: (1) four types of electricity generators are considered--condensing fossil fuel plants, cogeneration fossil fuel plants, nuclear power plants and hydraulic plants; (2) nine fuel categories are considered: the gas/fuel oil fuel, several types of coal and several nuclear fuels; (3) escalation of capital, operation and maintenance, and fuel costs as a result of economic transition is explicitly modeled. Under these assumptions, a regional optimal capacity expansion plan is developed that showed the following: (1) until 2004 there is no need for new electricity generation capacities due to the drop in demand in the 90s, certain lifetime margin of existing capacities, predetermined inputs of cogenerators and planned refurbishment/repowering measures; (2) the structure of the optimal capacity mix confirms that nuclear power can retain its role as one of the major electricity generation sources in the region; (3) the application of WASP has proved that the model can serve as a valuable planning tool at the power pool level in Russia

  5. Development of advanced nuclear reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several advanced reactor designs have been so far developed in Russia. The AES-91 and AES-92 plants with the VVER-1000 reactors have been developed at the beginning of 1990. However, the former design has been built in China and the latest which is certified meeting European Utility Requirements is being built in India. Moreover, the model VVER-1500 reactor with 50-60 MWd/t burn-up and an enhanced safety was being developed by Gidropress about 2005, excepting to be completed in 2007. But, this schedule has slipped in favor of development of the AES-2006 power plant incorporating a third-generation standardized VVER-1200 reactor of 1170 MWe. This is an evolutionary development of the well-proven VVER-1000 reactor in the AES-92 plant, with longer life, greater power and efficiency and its lead units are being built at Novovoronezh II, to start operation in 2012-13. Based on Atomenergoproekt declaration, the AES-2006 conforms to both Russian standards and European Utility Requirements. The most important features of the AES-2006 design are mentioned as: a design based on the passive safety systems, double containment, longer plant service life of 50 years with a capacity factor of 92%, longer irreplaceable components service life of 60 years, a 28.6% lower amount of concrete and metal, shorter construction time of 54 months, a Core Damage Frequency of 1x10-7/ year and lower liquid and solid wastes by 70% and 80% respectively. The presented paper includes a comparative analysis of technological and safety features, economic parameters and environmental impact of the AES-2006 design versus the other western advanced reactors. Since the Bushehr phase II NPP and several other NPPs are planning in Iran, such analysis would be of a great importance

  6. Forecast of the Demografic Development of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Petrovich Chichkanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the contemporary issues of the reproduction of the Russian population, their reasons, and state policy toward them are considered. Relevance of the task solution of assessment of the most expected birth rate dynamics of the Russian population in future in the conditions of low norms of the parenthood status taking into account the influence of government measures for the birth rate stimulation is proved. In order to achieve this objective, on the basis of the behavior probability distribution function of crude birth rate, the probabilistic assessment of the future birth rate dynamics of the Russian population was conducted. On the basis of the modernized Hirst method, two expected dynamics trajectories of crude birth rate were constructed: the first trajectory corresponds to the scenario at which the value of crude birth rate will be in the range of 8-10,5 born / 1000 people (probability — 0,182, including the negative external impact, the second trajectory will be in the range of 13-16,5 born / 1000 people (probability — 0,618, including the positive external impact. In spite of the fact that these scenarios are quite different, the dynamics trajectories of crude birth rate predicted according to them during the period of 2015-2041 that corresponds to the time of the reliable prediction are almost identical. The analysis of the received results enabled to conclude that the state population policy cannot affect the future dynamics of the birth rate due mainly to to the conjunctural changes.These conclusions confirm the intellectual vested interest of the academic circles that government regulation of a demographic situation in Russia has to be aimed, first of all, at the health improvement and increase of the expected life interval of the population

  7. Financial Institutes of Nanoindustry Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strukova Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage Russia’s nanoindustry can be formed on the basis of new and old specialized financial and non-financial institutes, which form a milti-layered structure providing targeted investments for innovative projects. The active state fiscal policy plays a decisive role in the national nanoindustry formation at different stages of its development and approval. The article substantiates the need for state regulation of the nanoindustry development funding mechanism in Russia. The author characterizes the main principles, subjects, methods, tools and sources of nanoindustrialization financial mechanism. The article presents the system of Russian financial institutes of development, allowing to identify the goals, objectives, forms and tools for implementation of the functions of each of them in the process of innovative development. The author reveals the essence, types, role and interests of development institutes in the process of public and public-private funding of national innovation system. The problems of innovative projects funding, caused by the specific features of the Russian economy are designated; a number of measures aimed at coordinating the activities of financial institutions and consolidating the public and private financial resources in priority sectors and industries of the economy is proposed. The author substantiates the necessity of building a mechanism of institutional, organizational and informational interaction of the federal target programs regulation bodies focused on the development of innovative activity system, federal executive bodies and exchange institutes, as well as the coordinating mechanism allowing to maximize the effectiveness of using methods and tools for innovation support.

  8. Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

    2008-05-15

    Cultural development of new subpolar areas of Russia is associated with a need for detailed seismic research, including both mapping of regional seismicity and seismic monitoring of specific mining enterprises. Of special interest are the northern territories of European Russia, including shelves of the Kara and Barents Seas, Yamal Peninsula, and the Timan-Pechora region. Continuous seismic studies of these territories are important now because there is insufficient seismological knowledge of the area and an absence of systematic data on the seismicity of the region. Another task of current interest is the necessity to consider the seismic environment in the design, construction, and operation of natural gas extracting enterprises such as the construction of the North European Gas Pipeline. Issues of scientific importance for seismic studies in the region are the complex geodynamical setting, the presence of permafrost, and the complex tectonic structure. In particular, the Uralian Orogene (Fig. 1) strongly affects the propagation of seismic waves. The existing subpolar seismic stations [APA (67,57{sup o}N; 33,40{sup o}E), LVZ (67,90{sup o}N; 34,65{sup o}E), and NRIL (69,50{sup o}N; 88,40{sup o}E)] do not cover the extensive area between the Pechora and Ob Rivers (Fig. 1). Thus seismic observations in the Vorkuta area, which lies within the area of concern, represent a special interest. Continuous recording at a seismic station near the city of Vorkuta (67,50{sup o}N; 64,11{sup o}E) [1] has been conducted since 2005 for the purpose of regional seismic monitoring and, more specifically, detection of seismic signals caused by local mining enterprises. Current surveys of local seismic noise [7,8,9,11], are particularly aimed at a technical survey for the suitability of the site for installation of a small-aperture seismic array, which would include 10-12 recording instruments, with the Vorkuta seismic station as the central element. When constructed, this seismic

  9. Nuclear energy industry in Russia promoting global strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since former USSR disintegrated to birth new Russia on December, 1991, it already passed ten years. As Russian economic hardship affected its nuclear energy development, No.1 reactor of the Rostov nuclear power station (VVER-1000) established its full power operation on September, 2001 after passing eight years of pausing period as a Russian nuclear power station, at dull development of nuclear energy in the world. When beginning of its commercial operation, scale of nuclear power generation under operation in Russia will reach to the fourth one in the world by getting over the one in Germany. Russia also begins international business on reprocessing of spent fuel and intermittent storage. And, Russia positively develops export business of concentrated uranium and nuclear fuel, too. Furthermore, Russia shows some positive initiatives on export of nuclear power station to China, Iran and India, and development on advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle forecast to future. Here was introduced on international developmental development of nuclear energy industry activated recently at delayed time for this ten years. (G.K.)

  10. Geodynamic framework of large unique uranium orebelts in Southeast Russia and East Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomich, Vadim G.; Boriskina, Natalia G.; Santosh, M.

    2016-04-01

    Some of the largest uranium orebelts and deposits of Asia occur in Southeast Russia and East Mongolia. In Russia, the Elkon and Streltsovka belts are located in the Aldan (South Yakutia) and Urulyungui (Southeast Trans-Baikal area) districts, covering a distance of more than 1200 km. The superlarge Dornod deposit occurs in the North Choibalsan district of East Mongolia, ca. 300 km to the southwest of Streltsovka. These uranium occurrences are distributed in the Central Aldan and Kerulen-Argun cratonic domains, separated by the Selenga-Stanovoi (Yenisei-Trans-Baikal) and Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belts. A synthesis of the characteristics and the timing of mineralization suggest that all of these occurrences were generated synchronously. Seismic tomography data show that these deposits are mostly located above the frontal part of a stagnant oceanic slab. We envisage that slab dehydration and influx of fluids into the asthenospheric mantle and their subsequent interaction with the lithosphere aided the localization of these unique-scale uranium concentrations.

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF INSPECTION AND SUPERVISING ACTIVITY OF BANK OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Макарович Заернюк

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article established practices of the organization of control and supervision of Bank of Russia of activity of the Russian commercial banks are considered.  The analysis is carried out and the assessment of a level of development of a substantial component of bank regulation and supervision is given.Purpose: Research of tendencies and problems in the organization of control and supervising activity of Bank of Russia at the present stage.Methodology: General scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparisons, generalizations, system approach. In the course of use of the actual material methods of the economical and statistical analysis were used.Results: The conclusion that the excessive and bureaucratized control from the Central bank interferes with dynamic development of the banking sector is drawn. It is required to generation of the new thinking which is expressing in transfer of accent from need of strict, in many respects of formal, application of bank instructions and regulations on formation of professional opinion of the controler, increase of its responsibility for results of checks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-1

  12. Russia's resource capitalism—market vs political signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early post-Soviet era, when many strategically important Russian oil and gas fields were sold on unfavourable terms, the state has been seeking to regain control of these strategic assets. With Putin's return to the Presidency in 2012, Russia's U-turn over oil and gas privatizations has again caused market consternation. We examine strategic asset acquisitions by Russian O and G companies during Putin's first terms as president and suggest that there should however, be few surprises. Under Putin, strategic deals in Russia are often informal, dominated by Russian partners, subject to internecine rivalries and, we show, are ‘somehow’ known by markets prior to promulgation. Findings suggest that in Russia deals of strategic substance are recognized by financial markets prior to the announcement of political policy

  13. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  14. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990–2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing “centers of excellence.” It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia’s science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  15. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. PMID:26449508

  16. CURRENT LEVELS OF MEDICAL EXPOSURE IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered conditions of patients’ medical radiation exposure in Russian diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine basing on the data of our own research, of the Unified system of individual dose control and of some relevant literature. We analyzed the data on the number of diagnostic examinations, patients’ individual and collective doses and their distribution by examination types. Time trends of the studied parameters are presented for the period between 1999 and 2013. Current level of Russian patients’ medical exposure is the lowest over the whole observation period and one of the lowest among the developed countries. The annual number of X-ray diagnostic examinations is 1.8 per capita. In 2013 median effective dose of medical exposure per capita in Russia was 0.45 mSv and median dose per procedure was 0.25 mSv. The major contribution to collective dose of medical exposure was from computed tomography and radiography; the largest individual doses were caused by interventional radiology, computed X-Ray and nuclear medicine tomographic examinations. The range of median doses comprises about four orders of magnitude, i.e. from several microSv in dental X-ray examinations up to several tens of milliSv in interventional and multistage tomographic examinations. The median effective dose of adult patients increases by about an order of magnitude with each transition from dental X-ray examinations to conventional radiology and further to computed tomography and interventional radiology examinations. During interventional X-Ray examinations, absorbed skin doses at radiation beam entrance site may reach several Gray, which may lead to deterministic radiation effects in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Due to replacement of low-dose ‘functional’ nuclear medicine examinations with more informative modern scintigraphy and tomography examination, patient doses substantially increased over the last decade. With current trend for re-equipment of

  17. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  18. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51–2.10 t ha−1, or 44–52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14–3.30 t ha−1, or 62–63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha−1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets. (letter)

  19. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Faramarzi, Monireh; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Koch, Friedrich J.; Müller, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51-2.10 t ha-1, or 44-52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14-3.30 t ha-1, or 62-63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha-1) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets.

  20. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991 has increased significantly. Methods. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

  1. New Geopolitical Role of Central Asia within Foreign Policy Interests of World Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem Kulnazarov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the fall of the Soviet Union, the leading global and regional players have started their occupation of the geopolitical and geo-economical vacuum in Central Asia. This article is targeted to trace the competition growth with regard to establishment of control over the Central Asian region by global players, in particular, by Russia, seeking to return Central Asia, and China, striving to entangle the region into its orbit of influence. Within two post-Soviet decades, the world players still have not managed to develop a general cooperation scheme against each other in Central Asia. Although, at the beginning of the XXI century, Russia and China attempted to build up a scheme of the Russian-Chinese-Central Asian cooperation within the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, however this scheme cannot be called effective due to the absence of common vision of long-term interests in Russia, China and Central Asian countries. As it seems, even at very short by historical standards period of time, after the fall of the Soviet Union we observe clear interests in the Central Asian’s policies of Russia and China.  

  2. Floating nuclear heat. And power station 'Pevec' with KLT-40S type reactor plant for remote regions of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floating small nuclear power plants power for local energy systems of littoral regions of Russia, located far from central energy system, open a new line in nuclear power development. Designing a floating power unit of a lead nuclear heat and power generating station for port Pevec at the Chuckchee national district is currently nearing completion. Most labor-intensive components are being manufactured. The co-generation NPP Pevec is to be created on the basis of a floating power unit with KLT-40S type reactor plant. KLT-40S reactor plant is based on similar propulsion plants, verified at operation of Russia's nuclear-powered civil ships, evolutionary improved by elimination of 'weak points' revealed during its prototypes operation or on the basis of safety analysis. KLT-40S reactor plant uses the most wide-spread and developed in the world practice PWR-type reactor. KLT-40S meets contemporary national and international requirements imposed to future reactor plants. The NHPS description, its main technical-economic data, environmental safety indices, basic characteristics of KLT-40S reactor plant are presented. Prospects of small NPPs utilization outside Russia, particularly as an energy source for sea water desalination, are considered. (author)

  3. Problems of development of fuel-power complex of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems on developing the fuel-power complex (FPC) in Russia which provides for vital activities of other branches of the national economy of the country are discussed. The taxation policy of the State plays an important role in stabilization of the financial situation at the FPC enterprises. Special attention is paid to the improvement of the system for the FPC products price formation. The forecast of the FPC development in Russia for the period of 2005 to 2010 years is presented. The diagrams for the coal, natural gas and oil mining and electrical power production by two scenarios of the FPC development for 2000 up to 2010 years are also presented

  4. PRIVATISATION IN RUSSIA: Hard Choice, First Results, New Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Radygin

    2013-01-01

    The privatisation wave that spread all over the world in the 1980s at last reached the shores of Russia in the 1990s and near the bastions of the administrative system it came to rest in a rather indecisive way. If in the 1980s the issue of privatisation was of real interest only for a narrow circle of academics, and again only as it was applicable to the nations of the West and the developing nations, the autumn of 1990 in Russia was a starting point for extremely vigorous deliberations over...

  5. Hi-Tech Skills Anticipation for Sustainable Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gurtov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that there is a heightened importance in Russia attributed to ensuring that students develop skills, which will enable them to be more productive and engaged citizens. This article deals with a skills anticipation methodology for seven hi-tech industries in Russia that resulted in the development of models for both soft and hard skills. There is a variety of widely applied methods – qualitative projection of labor market parameters, desk studies, documents analysis, foresight sessions, employers' and experts' surveys. As a result, new skills models are to help the specialists to effectively overcome the challenges, apply innovative decisions, and increase their technological knowledge.

  6. Scenarios for Russia's natural gas exports to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world's largest natural gas reserves and it is the world's largest exporter of natural gas. Despite a recent reduction in Russia's exports to Europe, it plans to build new pipelines. We explore the long-term (up to 2050) scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe and Asia using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. We found that over the next 20–40 years natural gas can still play a substantial role in Russian exports and there are substantial reserves to support a development of the gas-oriented energy system both in Russia and in its current and potential gas importers. Based on the considered scenarios, Russia does not need any new pipeline capacity to the EU unless it wants to diversify its export routes to supply the EU without any gas transit via Ukraine and Belarus. Asian markets are attractive to Russian gas and substantial volumes may be exported there. Relatively cheap shale gas in China may sufficiently alter the prospects of Russian gas, especially in Asian markets. In the Reference scenario, exports of natural gas grow from Russia's current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. Alternative scenarios provide a wider range of projections, with a share of Russian gas exports shipped to Asian markets rising to more than 30% by 2030 and almost 50% in 2050. Europe's reliance on LNG imports increases, while it still maintains sizable imports from Russia. - Highlights: • In the Reference scenario exports of natural gas grow from Russia’s current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. • In alternative scenarios a share of Russian exports to Asian markets is rising to about 30% by 2030 and 50 % in 2050. • Cheap shale gas in China can sufficiently alter Russian natural gas export. • Reduction in nuclear generation in Europe can lead to increased exports of natural gas from

  7. Welfare Analysis of Lifting the GM Ban in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chetvertakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of genetically modified crops is prohibited in Russia, however, Russian politicians are currently discussing this technology. This article evaluates the potential welfare effects of adopting genetically modified crops in Russia, focusing on the potential benefits to Russian producers who adopt herbicide tolerant corn and soybeans. Calculations are based on supply and demand functions of current market situations and their potential shifts. The results quantify the potential monetary gains from open markets to genetic engineering technology and explain the potential additional costs related to technology adoption.

  8. Intra-industry trade between Sweden and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to determine whether Russia has changed its intra-industry trade pattern with Sweden between the years of 1997 and 2003. To be able to see any changes five products, vehicles, grain, forest, optical instruments and jewellery has been chosen. With the Grubel-Lloyd index the products will be analysed and the index will also measure the extent of the intra-industry trade between Sweden and Russia Theories predict that countries with similar factor endowments and inco...

  9. The perspectives of family policy in Russia amid increasing cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Mitrofanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Russia has long been characterized by early and universal marriage. After the Soviet Union collapse, the average age of marriage has been rising, and cohabitations have become common. Many scholars explain the causes of this trend through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition. The aim of this research was to define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, reveal the factors of entrance to non-marital unions in order to discuss how and why non-marital union is implicated in recent dialogues about family policy. In order to achieve the aim, such methods as Event History Analysis and Sequence Analysis were used.

  10. Ukraine/Russia. Gas dimension of a conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas is not absent from the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, as both a cause and a consequence of long-term disagreements between the two countries. The 2006 and 2009 'gas crises' had partly revealed disputes relating to both the price of gas and the total debt of Kiev. While negotiations continue on these issues, the break-up seems to have reached the point of no return: Moscow is seeking to oust Ukraine as a transit country between Russia and Europe, while Kiev dreams of total emancipation of Russia's gas. (author)

  11. The Reasons for the Growth of Extremism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Belousov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A favourable situation for growth of extremist moods still remains in modern Russia. This report deals with the main social problemswhich make possible such state of affairs. Lack of social lifts in the society, shortage of ways of legal personal self-fulfillmentfor young people, lack of due level of public morals are among the main drivers for growth of extremism. There are organizations,propagating extremism in one form or another actively working in this situation. Global advancement of the Internet promotes theiractivity effectively. The situation with extremism in Russia is also aggravated by critical labour migration streams.

  12. Russia to lift oil price controls April 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia will lift domestic price controls on crude oil and refined products Apr. 15, according to Tass news agency, quoting unnamed officials. Tass the the federation's government also may consider a 50% tax on crude oil and products. This paper reports that the news agency the crude oil prices in Russia will increase to 2,000-2,500 rubles/metric ton, excluding tax, from 350 rubles/ton at the first of the year. At current exchange rates, that works out to only about $3.65-4.57/bbl, a fraction of world market prices

  13. Chief Editor’s Note on Arbitration Reform in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Russia is a party to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The USSR was one of the original Member States to sign the Convention in 1958. There is a distinction between international and domestic arbitration. Arbitration in Russia was regulated by the Federal Law on Arbitral Tribunals in the Russian Federation (2003 (domestic arbitration and the Federal Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1993 (international arbitration. This law was drafted on the basis of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration.

  14. Market prospects of meat and meat products in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2001-01-01

    This is a brief overview of the market of meat and meat products in Russia. Food products account for a significant portion of the costs residents of Russia. In 2000, these costs amount to more than 50% of all household expenditure. In this case the cost of meat and meat products 14.6% of all household expenditures. This shows how important place is the market of meat and meat products and its development prospects. Since the mid-sixties, then in the Soviet Union saw an increase in consumptio...

  15. Russia's Challenges as Chair of the G-8

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Aslund

    2006-01-01

    Russia's chairmanship of the G-8 raises questions about its fitness for the task. While it is certainly a market economy, Russia can no longer lay claims to being even semidemocratic. The G-8 should not be swept up in a celebration of Putin's authoritarian power during the St. Petersburg summit. While there are pitfalls, the G-8 can still accomplish important work if the democratic members work together. These members should convene a mini-summit in a Baltic capital such as Vilnius on their w...

  16. Legal regulation of assisted reproduction treatment in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitnev, Konstantin

    2010-06-01

    Russia remains one of the countries with a most favourable approach towards human reproduction in Europe, allowing almost everybody wanting to have a child of their own through assisted reproduction treatment to fulfill their dream. The legal situation around assisted reproduction treatment in Russia is very favourable; surrogacy, gamete and embryo donation are permitted, even on a commercial level. Gestational surrogacy is an option for heterosexual couples and single women, although a court decision might be needed to register a 'surrogate' child born to a couple who are not officially married or a single woman. However, it is not explicitly allowed nor prohibited for single men. PMID:20435519

  17. Understanding and Developing Educational Tourism from Russia to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tenitskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on researching educational tourism from Russian degree stu-dents’ point of view and sources of information which Russian students and applicants utilize. The research paper intends to compare the educational systems of two partner countries Fin-land and Russia, aiming to uncover main tendencies in educational tourism from Russia to Fin-land. The thesis is also a project with an aim to research the motivation of Russian students as well as difficulties in a proce...

  18. Russia's Interests in the Syrian Conflict: Power, Prestige, and Profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the crimes against humanity committed by Bashar Assad's regime in Syria and despite the growing international pressure, Russia provided steadfast international political support to the regime during the development of the conflict in Syria in March 2011-July 2012. The article examines Russia's position and analyzes the reasons behind its support for the regime, arguing that it was primarily motivated not by material interests but rather by the foreign policy doctrine of multipolarity and the wish to maintain influence and reputation in the region.

  19. Assessment of energy wood resources in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Y. email: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi; Karjalainen, T.

    2009-07-01

    The energy wood procurement possibilities for the eight regions making up Northwest Russia were assessed. Wood byproducts from roundwood harvesting and sawmilling were considered for energy production based on actual harvesting, sawmill and plywood production figures for 2006. Of the total calculated potential of 31 million solid m3 (62 TWh), nearly 70% (21.8 million m3) is from harvesting. The remainder (9 million m3) is from saw and plywood milling. The approximate available energy wood by region would be: 2.3 million m3 from the Republic of Karelia, 2.7 million m3 from the Republic of Komi, 5.4 million m3 from Arkhangelsk, 4.6 million m3 from Vologda, 3.8 million m3 from Leningrad, 2.0 million m3 from Novgorod, 0.8 million m3 from Pskov, and 41,000 m3 from the Murmansk regions. There are large differences in the potentials between and within the regions. This is due to the differences in their forest resources; differences in their utilisation of these resources; the available intrastructures; some limitations on wood harvesting. A part of this calculated potential is already utilised, since some non-industrial roundwood from central processing yards sawmills and plywood mills are currently used in energy production. Nearly 65% of all the potential energy wood from roundwood harvesting is non-industrial roundwood, 19% is spruce stumps removed after final felling, 8% is unused branches and tops, and 8% is defective wood resulting from logging. About 58% of the total potential energy wood from roundwood harvesting is coniferous. However, there are large differences between the regions and within the regions in the species proportions. Currently about 40% of the allowable cut is used. This means that it would be possible to intensify the utilisation of the forest resources and thereby also to increase the use of wood for energy production. Full implementation of the allowable cut could provide 73.5 million m3 of energy wood (147 TWh). In addition, if the technical

  20. Present Russia in a sociological mirror (about Zinaida Golenkov's studies related to social structure of contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In many aspects, sociological thought in present Russia is a mirror of the condition and key social processes occurring in that large country. They are basically the same as the processes which have already been under way in the majority of other societies in the region of former real-socialism. Therefore the results acquired by the sociological thought in Russia specially those from empirical researches, are significant for the scientific and broader social public in other countries, too. In that sense, the findings obtained by Zinaida Golenkova in the research about the changes of the social structure in present Russia are representative and very indicative. Her researches concentrate on the social stratification. She concludes that the government, income and ownership are the main factors in social stratification, thus revealing the main factors in the creation and reproduction of social inequalities - which are very deep in present Russia - then the basis of the formation of a new social structure in that country and the division into losers and winners in the ownership-structural changes. The key relation is the relation between these changes and "deetatization". The middle class in Russia is underdeveloped, more than a half of the specialists with the high and secondary education is poor. In spite of the widespread poverty, there are no larger social protests, disturbances and strikes in Russia. This could be explained by the tradition of forbearance political aparthy, struggle for survival, as well as by the additional income of one part of the unemployed population. Material-status inequalities and life perspectives intersect with ethnic inequalities and with the destiny of numerous migrants of Russian and non-Russian origin.

  1. The Influence of Geopolitical Factors on the Tax Policy of Russia at the Contemporary Stage of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorletskiy Aleksandr Igorevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems analyzed in the article are new to the domestic financial and tax research due to their emergent character. The article considers the influence of geopolitical factors on the tax policy of the Russian Federation and marks the most visible implemented or prospective changes in the Russian tax system under the influence of the facts and circumstances related to the geopolitical component of modern development. The focus is made on the three factors of geopolitical nature, the influence of which on public finances and taxes of Russia has already been or may be the most noticeable in the future. These factors include the growth of military spending on the backdrop of escalating tensions in the political relations between Russia and Western countries; the exchange of trade and economic sanctions between Russia and Western countries; the pursuit of enhanced tax sovereignty of the regions in the framework of the current centralized model of fiscal federalism. The possible consequences of the policy of sanctions imposed as the result of the new round of geopolitical confrontation between Russia and Western countries are analyzed. Among these consequences we should name the use of tax incentives to compensate the losses of exporters; the use of tax regulators at the financial market; the search for new sources of tax revenues for regional budgets; anti-offshore policy in relation to the Russian tax residents; the limitation of the benefits of using the consolidated groups of taxpayers; the possibility of creating a special (free economic zone in Crimea with the regime of preferential taxation. It is proved that the manifestation of geopolitics requires the serious understanding of its consequences in all spheres, including the system of public finances and taxes.

  2. Imperial Russia as Dar al-Islam? Nineteenth-Century Debates on Ijtihad and Taqlid among the Volga Tatars

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, M

    2015-01-01

    The Muslims of the Russian Empire provide us with some interesting cases of how local Islamic scholars used the language and genres of Islamic law to describe their situation in a "northern" and non-Muslim state. The development of Islamic law in nineteenth-century Russia was influenced by close contacts to the Islamic centers of learning in Central Asia, by the restraints imposed by the Russian Empire on Muslims, and by the internal dynamics of the Volga-Urals region. In this article, I disc...

  3. Feudalism in Russia, then and Now: Vladimir Shlapentokh’s concept of a ‘feudal society’

    OpenAIRE

    Гальперин Чарльз

    2015-01-01

    Based upon medieval European history Vladimir Shlapentokh’s Contemporary Russia as a Feudal Society defines «feudalism» as a Weberian «ideal type» characterized by a weak central government which produces multiple power centers, increased crime and corruption, private security, and the dominance of personal relations in politics and the economy. This article concludes that his «ideal type» is based too much upon evidence from outside the medieval period. Shlapentokh has deduced rather than de...

  4. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific

  5. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the Maly Semlyachik volcano, which is part of the Karymsky volcano group on Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The image is centered at 54.2 degrees north latitude and 159.6 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on September 30, 1994, during the second flight. The image channels have been assigned the following colors: red corresponds to data acquired on April 9; green corresponds to data acquired on September 30; and blue corresponds to the ratio between data from April 9 and September 30, 1994. Kamchatka is twice as large as England, Scotland and Wales combined and is home to approximately 470,000 residents. The region is characterized by a chain of volcanoes stretching 800 kilometers (500 miles) across the countryside. Many of the volcanoes, including the active Maly Semlyachik volcano in this image, have erupted during this century. But the most active period in creating the three characteristic craters of this volcano goes back 20,000, 12,000 and 2,000 years ago. The highest summit of the oldest crater reaches about 1,560 meters (1,650 feet). The radar images reveal the geological structures of craters and lava flows in order to improve scientists' knowledge of these sometimes vigorously active volcanoes. This seasonal composite also highlights the ecological differences that have occurred between April and October 1994. In April the whole area was snow-covered and, at the coast, an ice sheet extended approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) into the sea. The area shown surrounding the volcano is covered by low vegetation much like scrub. Kamchatka also has extensive forests, which belong to the northern frontier of Taiga, the boreal forest ecosystem. This region plays an important role in the world's carbon cycle. Trees require 60 years to

  6. Space Radar Image of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the bright white peak surrounded by red slopes in the lower left portion of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 25th orbit on October 1, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 30 kilometers by 60 kilometers (18.5 miles by 37 miles) that is centered at 56.18 degrees north latitude and 160.78 degrees east longitude. North is toward the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the current activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The Kamchatka River runs from left to right across the image. An older, dormant volcanic region appears in green on the north side of the river. The current eruption included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). New lava flows are visible on the flanks of Kliuchevskoi, appearing yellow/green in the image, superimposed on the red surfaces in the lower center. Melting snow triggered mudflows on the north flank of the volcano, which may threaten agricultural zones and other settlements in the valley to the north. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars

  7. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  8. Russia : Towards Improving the Efficiency of Public Investment Expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the current levels and patterns of public investment in Russia, analyzes the institutional arrangements in place for investment budgeting, and develops short- and medium-term recommendations where policy or institutional strengthening is required for improving the efficiency of investment expenditures. The analysis of public investment is based primarily on the federa...

  9. Development of the geothermal power engineering in Russia and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper generalizes the published data on application of geothermal heat on the basis of various procedures. Paper describes the present-day results of the efforts to develop the domestic geothermal power engineering and to design geothermal power plants. Paper presents the most essential lines of development of heat and power supply based on the geothermal resources available both in Russia and abroad

  10. Engineering Education in Russia in an Era of Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianenko, M. V.; Polezhaev, O. A.; Churliaeva, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering education in Russia is undergoing reforms, but the history of this form of higher education does not indicate that it will succeed in bringing it into line with current world standards, or even making it more able to contribute at a high level to Russian economic growth. (Contains 5 notes.)

  11. John Arquilla Interview: Russia's Military is Now "Nimbler, More Networked"?

    OpenAIRE

    Arquilla, John

    2012-01-01

    PRI's The World The Cold War is over but the "Cool War" is on. Professor Arquilla tells host Lisa Mullins that Russia's military is reasserting itself on the world stage and that in the "quiet arms race" the Russians are gaining a step on America.

  12. CMS Virtual Visit from Russia - 16 November 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Belotelov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This event gathered 200+ high school students selected from all over Russia from three places: - high school students from "Experimental Physics Olympics" at Sirius center, Sochi - students from European Gymnasium, Moscow - interested people at "White leaf" lecturing space Pictures show the CMS Virtual Visit, preparation lecture and masterclass activity. CMS Guides for the Virtual Visit: Nikolay Voytishin & Alexey Kamenev

  13. Shipment of VINCA Institute's HEU fresh fuel to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows, for the first time, the basic data related to the recent shipment of the fresh HEU fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to Russia for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gives its contribution to the RERTR program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist action against nuclear material potentially usable for production of nuclear weapons. (author)

  14. Trends of tourism and hospitality industry development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Sergei Konstantinovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes trends in the Russian tourism industry. The study analyzed the following parameters: the number of Russian tourists who went abroad, the number of foreigners visiting Russia, Russian receipts from foreign tourists. Proposed specific measures for the development of the tourism industry.

  15. «Miterikon»: history of the book in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Morozova Yuliya Grigoryevna

    2015-01-01

    The article presents history of an ancient Greek book «Miterikon». In Russia, the book was reprinted several times with typos, errors and inaccuracies, which is, from scientific point of view, the most important moment in the life of a text and its perception by a reader.

  16. In Russia, Corruption Plagues the Higher-Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtsova, Anna

    2008-01-01

    From the top down, says the writer, Russia's universities are impoverished by bribery and insider deals large and small. A new president's dorm at Nizhniy Novgorod is one example of what anti-corruption watchdogs say is widespread mismanagement, and in some cases outright corruption, throughout the country's higher-education system. Presidents use…

  17. About the Progressive Tax System of Labor Remuneration in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Y. Ibragimov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research aimed at improvement of the taxation of wages in Russia. It analysesthe problem of determining the progressive income tax scale as being a more socially equitable than the currentflat rate in Russia with 13% tax rate on income. Proposed tax scale of tax rates exempts the poor citizens fromincome tax, shifting the tax burden from the poor to the rich. In accordance with the principle of redistributionthat leads to a reduction in income inequality in Russia.The most important source of budget revenues are taxes. In Russia, as in most countries, the tax on personalincome (referred to as PIT is one of the main sources of budget revenues. Its share of the budget is directlydependent on the level of economic development. This is one of the most popular taxes in the world payable onpersonal incomes. PIT is linked to consumption, and it can either stimulate consumption or reduce it. Therefore,the main challenge of income taxation is to achieve optimal balance between economic efficiency and socialjustice of the tax. In other words, such tax is required, which would provide the maximum equitableredistribution of income with minimal damage to the interests of taxpayers from taxation. Analysis of tax onpersonal income shows that it, as well as the whole tax system in the Russian Federation is constantlydeveloping.

  18. Food Security in Russia: Monitoring, Trends and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Shagaida; Vasiliy Uzun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on monitoring, assessment and threats of food security in Russia. The authors propose methodologies and submit calculations of aggregate indices of assessment of the food security. Economic accessibility of food for groups of population with different income levels in the country as a whole and in the constituents of the Russian Federation.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium bovis Strain BCG-1 (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, Evgeniya A; Shitikov, Egor A; Malakhova, Maja V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Ilina, Elena N; Atrasheuskaya, Alena V; Ignatyev, Georgy M; Vinokurova, Nataliya V; Gorbachyov, Vyacheslav Y

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovisBCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) is a vaccine strain used for protection against tuberculosis. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence ofM. bovisstrain BCG-1 (Russia). Extensive use of this strain necessitates the study of its genome stability by comparative analysis. PMID:27034492

  20. GENDER APPROACH TO PROCESSES AT HIGHER TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    MELKUMYAN ANAID

    2015-01-01

    Higher technical education in Russia is considered from a gender point of view. Gender asymmetry in higher education is explored through the analysis of official statistics and study of training of petroleum engineers. The results of statistical processing and sociological survey and interviews of students of Gubkin Russian State Oil & Gas University are represented.

  1. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well

  2. Determinants of obesity in transition economies: The case of Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.; Huffman, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines human obesity, measured as weight and body mass index (BMI), and its determinants in Russia. Obesity increased dramatically during transition from a planned to a market economy, by 38 percent. We determine the factors contributing to rising obesity using individual level data fro

  3. Financing Education in Transitional Societies: Lessons from Russia and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Borevskaya, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Compares changing patterns in educational finance in Russia and China, drawing on the literature concerning educational change in societies moving from socialism to market economies. Discusses economic and political contexts in the two countries, public and private educational expenditures, decentralization of financial responsibilities, increased…

  4. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement) are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  5. Customs and Tariff Policy and Promotion of Innovations in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Prikhodko; Nadezhda Volovik; Galina Balandina

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the normative and legal basis which regulates Russian customs and tariff policy. The authors analyze the features of customs and tariff regulation in Russia and main directions of its improvement in the medium term perspective.

  6. Patriotism in the political culture of modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomin Oleg Nikolaevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the priorities change in Russian political thought. Different types of patriotism such as state-patriotic patriotism, ‘negative’ dissident patriotism, and humanistic patriotism actualizes at different periods in Russian history. The author explores Russian modern patriotic members and difficulty of its formation in Russia nowadays.

  7. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... with prospective agents, distributors and end-users in Russia's aerospace market. Participating U.S...,798 3,841 Imports from the U.S 513 597 694 The Russian aviation industry remains an important... corporation established in 2006, spearheads the development of the national aviation industry. In 2009,...

  8. Some Problems and Support for Small businesses in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlina R. Sitnikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on key issues of small businesses in today’s market conditions. Implementation of suggested measures will ensure the sustainable development of small businesses in Russia eliminating down sides in the government support system for small businesses.

  9. Identifying structural shocks behind loan supply fluctuations in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Deryugina, Elena B.; Ponomarenko, Alexey A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the drivers behind loan supply fluctuations in Russia using Bayesian vector autoregressive model with sign restrictions on impulse response functions. We identify two types of structural innovations: loan supply shock and monetary stance shock. We find that contractionary shocks of both types contributed significantly and in the roughly equal measure to the decrease of bank lending after the Lehman Brothers collapse.

  10. A view from the top: Russia's minister Viktor N. Mikhailov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minister Viktor N. Mikhailov has logged thousands of miles in his Moscow-Washington, DC orbit since he was appointed head of the Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) of the Russian Federation two years ago. First, Commerce's uranium dumping case. Next, the suspension agreements. And, today, the landmark HEU deal between America and Russia in which he and his ministry are leading the Russian negotiating team. The view from Minatom is very revealing. It's giving us a fuller picture of Russia's fissile inventories. What the Minister confirmed during the course of his interview with the NUKEM Market Report on September 9, 1993 was fairly remarkable-that the 500 metric tons of warhead HEU up for sale represent from 30 to 40 per cent of Russia's entire HEU stockpile. That is upwards of 1,250 metric tons. Until recently, the best estimates for Russia's HEU supply were still in the 500-600 metric-ton range. Mikhailov, a gifted scientist and scholar turned government leader, puts his stamp on the ministry he runs

  11. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  12. The Social and Pedagogical Protection of Orphans in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantiukhina, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the provision of children's care ("prizrenie") in Russia which provides evidence that the desire to help those close to one, especially orphans and the poor, was a traditional trait of the Russian national character. The system of children's welfare as it took shape over many centuries is unique in its own…

  13. Russia to invest 200 million Swiss Francs in international accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Russia will invest 200 million CHF in the LHC project, according to first deputy industry, science and technologies minister. The results of scientific research in the center will be use in various industries, enabling new Russian technologies to enter the world market.

  14. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... magnesium (also known as magnesium metal) from China and Russia (70 FR 19928-19931). The Commission is... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609...

  15. Empowering Communities : The Local Initiatives Support Program in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shulga, Ivan; Sukhova, Anna; Khachatryan, Gagik

    2014-01-01

    Prosperity from economic growth is not shared evenly among Russia's population and regions. Local communities and rural territories face serious development challenges: including poor living conditions, infrastructure, and services and lack of citizens' participation in decision-making processes. The Russian Federation Local Initiatives Support Program (RF LISP) aims to address community c...

  16. Trends of tourism and hospitality industry development in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov Sergei Konstantinovich

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes trends in the Russian tourism industry. The study analyzed the following parameters: the number of Russian tourists who went abroad, the number of foreigners visiting Russia, Russian receipts from foreign tourists. Proposed specific measures for the development of the tourism industry.

  17. Russia and the problem of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Predrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly ten years since the 1999 NATO military intervention against Serbia and the establishment of UN administration, Kosovo and Metohija has resurfaced as a topical issue in international politics, separating the positions of the USA and Russia, and becoming a precedent in international relations, possibly with far-reaching consequences not only for the future of the western Balkans but also for many territorial disputes worldwide. Russia has only recently pulled herself out of the years-long Chechnya crisis, and facing similar problems in her 'new neighborhood' (Abkhazia, South Ossetia Transdniestria, is among the countries that might be affected by this precedent. Secondly, with her bad experience in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, Russia has become sensitive not only to any disturbance in the balance of power in the Balkans but also to any change to the existing international order. Moscow has not forgotten that during the 1990s many Westerners saw Serbia as a 'metaphor for Russia' and that the NATO interventions against the Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1995 and against Serbia (1999 revealed Russia's weakness, sending her the message to give up her interests in the Balkans and Europe. Thirdly, diverging American and Russian policies on Kosovo and Metohija coincide with their strained relations over the deployment of an antimissile 'shield' in Poland and the Czech Republic, the war in Iraq, policy towards Iran and other issues currently at the top of the list of international problems. Fourthly, meanwhile Russia has managed to recover from the disintegration of the USSR and to consolidate her economic and political power in Europe and the world, owing above all to oil and gas exports, but also to the export of industrial products (military in particular. The precedent that an independent Kosovo and Metohija would constitute in international relations is therefore a test of Russia's role as a permanent member of the UN Security Council

  18. Russia: New stage in nuclear policy and in the struggle for winning public trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nuclear unit was commissioned in Russia in 1993), has begun to show great interest to it again, especially after the nuclear specialists have 'passed from words to deeds' and launched intensive works in order to start the Rostov NPP, the construction of which had been suspended in 1990. The struggle for Rostov NPP commissioning, going on with considerable antagonism of various forces (including such a specific Russian public force, as the Cossacks), has become the beginning of a principally new stage in Russian nuclear specialists' relations with the public. The key principle of this new approach was to refuse from 'defending position'. A good example of Minatom's 'attack action' was shown by the proposal concerning Russia's going out to the world market of nuclear fuel reprocessing, supported by a portfolio of legislative initiatives, which include the draft law on environmental programs for rehabilitation of the country's radiation contaminated areas, financed from foreign trade operations with irradiated nuclear fuel. It should be noted, that the first attack of the 'greens' in connection with this Minatom's initiative - in form of collecting the signatures in support of all-Russia antinuclear referendum - has petered out in the Central Election Commission. Further steps of Russian nuclear leaders - active position in the open discussion of the structural reform in the energy sector and proposals on nuclear branch's consolidation - continue the course aimed at changing the role of Russia's nuclear development opponents to that of 'running after'. In these conditions Minatom, with active support of the Nuclear Society of Russia, has adopted a decision to reconsider its very organisation of PR activities. Its main features - adequate financing and appropriate material support, establishment of a 'brain centre' - a public council supported by a team of the best national and international experts, as well as creation of a structure of public information centres on regional

  19. Russia-Turkey: A Relationship Shaped by Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepening ties in between Turkey and Russia in the energy sector prompt questions as to where the balance of power between the two countries lies, with the former relying heavily on the latter for its energy needs. In light of Europe's efforts to diversify its energy sources and of tensions in its relationship with Ukraine, Russia is building the South Stream pipeline under the Black Sea (through Turkish territorial waters). At the same time, Turkey is strengthening its position in South Stream's rival pipeline projects, which aim to supply the European Union with gas from the Caspian Sea region. This means there is a difficult balance between the two countries as they try to negotiate a compromise on the basis of several lines of economic interest. While Russia attempts to protect its European revenues, Turkey is trying to enhance its status as an energy hub between Europe, the Caucasus and the Middle East. As well as the major pipeline projects, the Turkish government and, increasingly, private Turkish operators are developing an energy partnership with Russia in a growing number of fields, including nuclear power. At first glance, this would appear to make Turkey more dependent on Russia. However, the strategic maneuvers surrounding competing regional pipeline projects could give Turkey more room for negotiation and allow it to mitigate its energy dependency. Lastly, the economic significance and the timescales of all these common energy projects explain the desire of the two countries to play down their contrasting political interests in the Middle East. (author)

  20. Use of INAA, AAS and XRF in studying health impacts of toxic elements consumed through foodstuffs contaminated by industrial activities in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current economic situation in Russia results in that vegetables and plants grown in private small-holdings account for over 50% of the population's diet. In some regions of Russia (Ural, Altai) mining and metallurgical works remain the sole economic factor of existence and development despite the obvious damage to the environment through contamination with heavy and toxic metals. Crop rotation is actively being extended to the land immediately bordering on the zones of industrial enterprises within the range of 1-5 km. This land has been affected by waste discharged from the enterprises for many years. The cultivated soil may contain high gross concentrations of toxic elements. Problems of contamination of natural media with toxic metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc) has not been systematized in Russia on the state level so far. The monitoring strategy for Belovo lead-zinc enterprise in Kemerovo Region of West Siberia, Gus Khrustalny in Vladimir Region, and Voskresensk in Moscow Region of Central Russia is discussed as well as analytical methods to be used (INAA, AAS and XRF). Examples from the previous experience of the authors are given. (author)

  1. XXVI ALL-RUSSIA YOUTH CONFERENCE “LITHOSPHERE STRUCTURE AND GEODYNAMICS”, IRKUTSK, RUSSIA, APRIL 20–25, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sklyarov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The report presents a chronicle of the XXVI All-Russia youth conference “Lithosphere structure and Geodynamics”, dedicated to the 85th anniversary of academician Nikolai A. Logachev – outstanding geologist, specialist on the continental rifting. The major events are highlighted and a thematic review of the conference papers is given.

  2. Radionuclide therapy in Russia: Experience, problems, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radionuclide therapy in Russia has more than 50-years history. Radioiodine has been successfully used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and toxic goiter. Au-198 colloidal solution was used in the therapy of synovitis as well as mesothelioma. P-32 was used for polycythemia vera and metastatic bone pain palliation. The treatment was routinely performed in various radiological clinics. However, after the Chernobyl accident and due to more stringent radiation safety measures, it is now exclusively performed in the clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center RAMS, Obninsk. For the last 20 years, more than 10000 patients have been treated in the clinic including 200 children, mainly from the contaminated regions of Chernobyl accident. The palliative treatment of bone metastases is performed with home-produced 89Sr chloride in outpatient clinics and 153Sm-oxabifore in the clinic of MRRC. Nowadays majority of the 160 radionuclides of 80 chemical elements are produced in Russia and exported. Of these, only three are commonly used for therapy purposes, most common being the 131I for treatment of toxic goiter and thyroid differentiated cancer (about 2000 GBq annually). In Russia more than 50 thousand patients suffer from thyroid diseases. Other therapies include bone metastases with marked pain syndrome and hard bone and joint diseases. Radionuclide therapy in Russia is being expanded with the creation of radionuclide therapy departments in each region including Center of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmaceutics (CNMAR) in Obninsk. This city has many research and medical institutes, nuclear-physical and radiochemical departments with highly skilled personnel and industrial production of medical radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Obninsk has a convenient geographical location for easy transportation of radiopharmaceuticals and patients. Under the aegis of CNMAR, many research works are being carried out to make radionuclide therapy more

  3. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  4. Energy wealth and tax reform in Russia and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resource-rich states throughout the developing world are prone to rent-seeking, excessive borrowing, wasteful spending, and unbalanced growth as well as states with weak institutions and authoritarian regimes. Are the five energy-rich Soviet successor states necessarily doomed to repeat this experience, often referred to as the 'resource curse'? This paper advances and tests the hypothesis that Russia and Kazakhstan are more likely to avoid the 'resource curse' than Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan because they privatized their energy sectors. Specifically, we find that privatization offers a potential path out of the 'resource curse' when it involves a transfer of ownership to domestic actors. Although Kazakhstan initially appeared to be developing a viable tax regime in response to foreign investors, over the long term Kazakhstan's tax regime has become increasingly volatile and dependent upon these foreign investors. In contrast, domestic oil companies are helping to foster the development of an increasingly viable tax regime in Russia. (author)

  5. The Establishment and Development of Muftiates in Tsarist Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Alp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, muftiates which was founded in Tsarist Russia, composed important part of policy of Russian government on Muslim people and Islam religion and lasted for a long time was analyzed. Factors which influenced foundation process of Orenburg Ecclesiastical Assembly, Crimean Muftiate, Southern Caucasia Sunnite and Shiite Muftiates, their duties and authorities were put forward. It was mentioned that religious organizations which have equal rights and authorities were not formed in regions where Muslim people were dominant in Russia. The difference between perspective of Tsardom government and Muslim people towards muftiates were determined, the reflection of this situation on relation between Empire and Muslim people was stated in the sense of policy.

  6. Experience in education and training of gas engineers in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained in training and retraining of engineers for gas industry is considered in the report. The report contains the material on modern state of higher technical education in Russia in view of the reforms taking place in this country. The report deals with questions concerning the experience gained in a specialized training of gas engineers at higher educational establishments of Russia including training of specialists for foreign countries. Conditions under which retraining of engineers involved in gas industry takes place are presented in the report. The report is based mainly on the experience gained by the Russian leading higher educational establishment of oil and gas profile, that is the State Gubkin Oil and Gas Academy. (au)

  7. Catching air? Climate change policy in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan have each participated actively in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conferences of the Parties, and each is developing domestic rules and institutions to address UN obligations under the treaties. Russia and Ukraine are each Annex I/Annex B countries. Kazakhstan will become Annex I upon ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, but has not yet established itself as Annex B. Each state has evolved a distinct set of policies and priorities in the domestic and the international arena. Drawing largely on interviews in each country, this article presents brief histories of the evolution of climate policy, focusing on each state's behavior in the international arena, the sources of domestic policy leadership, and the forces that led to change in each national approach. Current policies and practices are evaluated with an eye towards learning from the successes and failures in each state

  8. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill. PMID:24779543

  9. Veterans’ Policy in Russia: a Puzzle of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Danilova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Every war creates a new “lost generation”, veterans of wars and military operations. After the end of wars, states develop different ways of rewarding ex-soldiers for their service to the state. This paper analyzes veterans’ policy in the Soviet Union, its transformation after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the new veterans’ policy in modern Russia. The paper reviews different historical stages in developing a veterans’ policy, and examines the main differences among the population of veterans. It outlines how the position of the most preferred group, the veterans of the Great Patriotic War, is supported by politics and expressed in civil-military relations. Further, the paper shows the gradual development in the welfare of veterans for other subgroups of veterans. In conclusion, it discusses the consequences of the modern veterans’ system in Russia.

  10. Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils: Russia and contiguous countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, E. D.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Sabodina, E. P.

    2014-03-01

    The development of the Red Data Book of Eurasian Soils is a challenge necessitated by the intensive and exhaustive use of soil resources. The long-term strategy of interaction between humans and the environment should be directed towards the creation of favorable conditions for the development of society and saving of nature via application of new legislative norms aimed at preservation of pedodiversity and especially valuable soils. It is important to develop pedology as a fundamental science and to harmonize the relation-ships between humans and nature. The 30-year-long experience of Russia in the development of the Red Data Books of Soils is analyzed, and several conclusions aimed at improving the efficiency of special protection of soils in Russia and contiguous countries are made.

  11. The US plutonium materials conversion program in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress has been made in Russia towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO2) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease the available weapons-grade Pu. A similar agenda is being followed in the US to address disposition of US surplus weapons-grade Pu. In Russia a conversion process has been selected and a site proposed. This paper discusses the present state of the program in support of this future operating facility that will process up to 5 metric tons of plutonium a year. (authors)

  12. Gli studi umanistici in Russia e la svolta del 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Dovgopolova Aleksej Kamenskich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentiamo la cronaca del seminario scientifico-didattico internazionale Gumanitarnaja škola v Rossii i perelom 1917 g.: èkzistenciajl’noe izmerenie / Humanities in Russia and the Break of 1917: the Existential Dimension, svolto nella filiale di Perm’ dell’Università di ricerca internazionale «Higher School of Economics» dal 25 al 28 agosto 2015. We present the chronicle of the international scientific-didactic seminar Gumanitarnaya shkola v Rossii i perelom 1917 g .: ekzistentsiajlnoe izmerenie / Humanities in Russia and the Break of 1917: the Existential Dimension, held in Perm filial of Narional Research University "Higher School of Economics» (25-28 August 2015.

  13. International participation in Russia's oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active role of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in the oil and gas sector of the former Soviet Union was discussed. The EBRD was formed in 1991 with a mandate to help Central and Eastern European countries, particularly countries of the former Soviet Union, to make a transition from the command economy to a market economy. To date, the EBRD has made 15 investments in oil and gas projects with total project costs of nearly $2 billion US. The first projects were joint venture projects with western oil companies. Some of these were the Chernogorskoye project in the Nizhnevortovsk oil region, the Polar Lights project in the Russian Timan-Pechora region, the KomiArctic Oil project in the Komi region of the Russian Federation, two Fracmaster projects and the Geoilbent project. The first years of the projects were difficult, due to the strains of trying to adapt to new challenges and changes. The fiscal regime has changed with time and new taxes have been added and others changed. Many of the legal issues with past projects have been solved. One area of concern with the joint ventures is the export of the produced oil to western markets to achieve international market prices. At present, the joint ventures export between 30 to 50 per cent of their production, but the the Russian Federation would like to increase its export capacity. Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) have been found to be particularly suitable for the development of large oil fields such as the offshore Sakhalin Island project in the far east of the Russian Federation. Western companies such as Shell, Marathon, Mitsui and Mitsubishi are involved in the first of these developments. Azerbaijan and the Caspian Sea area are other regions outside the Russian Federation which have important potential for international participation in the development of oil fields. Efforts are being made to rehabilitate the fields and to partially rebuild existing pipelines and to construct new

  14. The European Union and Russia - English School and sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Schack, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of the actions taken by the European Union, and the Russian Federation in the Ukraine Crisis, as well as a general timeline. By making use of English School theory, specifically by Hedley Bull and Barry Buzan, and applying it to the above actors, it is determined that the European Union and the Russia Federation subscribe to very different values and institutions. These differences in values and institutions, attempt to explain the foundation for their differe...

  15. Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy abroad and in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    T. E. Popova; N. A. Shnayder; M. M. Petrova; T. Ya. Nikolaeva; E. A. Kantimirova

    2015-01-01

    Current article provides an overview of the results of epidemiological studies of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in Russia and abroad. It is shown that the prevalence of CIDP is different in countries, due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. It should be noted that the reliability of epidemiological prevalence and incidence is affected by difficulties of diagnosis of atypical forms of the disease.

  16. Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy abroad and in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current article provides an overview of the results of epidemiological studies of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP in Russia and abroad. It is shown that the prevalence of CIDP is different in countries, due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. It should be noted that the reliability of epidemiological prevalence and incidence is affected by difficulties of diagnosis of atypical forms of the disease.

  17. Dismantling Russia's Northern Fleet Nuclear Submarines: environmental and proliferation risks

    OpenAIRE

    Snell, Benjamin Aaron.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines the 1986 Chernobyl accident and its consequences as the basis for an analysis of the possible dimensions of the nuclear catastrophes that could occur during the dismantlement process of Russia's Northern Fleet nuclear submarines. It assesses the potential demographic, ecological, and economic consequences of a nuclear accident. Given the systemic problems at Russian nuclear facilities, the risks of a catastrophic event in the poorly maintained and operated submarine yards...

  18. Mobile Banking in Russia: User Intention towards Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Belousova; Nikolay Chichkanov

    2015-01-01

    Mobile banking is one of the most dynamic developing types of distance banking services. For the recent years in Russia, the amount of individual bank accounts with the ability of the distance access through mobile devices increased more than by 20 times. Every year more and more banks start to offer mobile banking services. Despite this, the popularity of mobile banking applications is lower than the popularity of other banking services. Thus the problem of mobile ...

  19. Heuristic model selection for leading indicators in Russia and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Ivan; Winker, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Business tendency survey indicators are widely recognized as a key instrument for business cycle forecasting. Their leading indicator property is assessed with regard to forecasting industrial production in Russia and Germany. For this purpose, vector autoregressive (VAR) models are specified and estimated to construct forecasts. As the potential number of lags included is large, we compare full–specified VAR models with subset models obtained using a Genetic Algorithm enabling ’holes’ in mul...

  20. China's Oil Giants Increase Oil Imports from Russia's Yukos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ To relieve the shortage in crude supply, sharp reduction of crude production by Daqing Oil Field in particular, Sinopec Corp has recently signed an agreement with OAO Yukos Oil Company to import 17 million tons of crude oil from Russia's second largest oil firm via a railway over the next four years.The first batch of the Russian oil will be delivered starting May 1 by a rail link from Russian territory to Erlianhaote in China's Inner Mongolia.

  1. DEMONIZATION OF RUSSIA: HOW IS IT MADE AND WHAT FOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. ZHEREBKIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyses the reasons for unprecedentedsystemic geopolitical and economic pressure on Russia from the USA and the Western world. The author stresses that demonization of Russia is happening. As a matter of fact, it is a humanitarian aggression of the Western forces, which try to deprive our country of its glory of the winner in the Great Patriotic War, to promote false versions in social conscience, to ruin our memory of the Great Victory. At the same time, they strive to discredit Russian position regarding the civil war in Ukraine, and convince the world community of the aggressiveness of our country. The analysis of the current facts and the insight into the recent past allows the author to outline two important aspects of the Russian-Western opposition. The scenario of demonization of Russia is not new; it was successfully implemented16 years ago in Yugoslavia, when the Americans and their European allies were defaming the Serbians. Special attention is paid to understanding of interdependence and inter-conditionality of two factors: the growth of Russian economic power, assertion of its independent position on major international issues and activization of counteracting its efforts, organization of financial and economic blockade. Within this counteraction, Russia defends its independence and its free future development.

  2. BUSINESS PLAN BLUEPRINT OF A CAFE IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Geraskin, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    This thesis provides an insight into business plan core chapters from the viewpoint of a starting company in North-Western Russia. The aim of the thesis was to comprehend the main steps on the way to the successful business plan such as the marketing plan, risk management issues, human resource management features and to facet the business idea itself with the help of the project commissioner. Catering business, marketing, risk management and other special literature was used along with i...

  3. Foreign Direct Investment and Governance Quality in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Kuzmina; Natalya Volchkova; Tatiana Zueva

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of poor governance quality on foreign direct investment in Russia. Using a survey of businesses across forty administrative districts, we find that higher frequency of using illegal payments and higher pressure from regulatory agencies, enforcement authorities, and criminals, negatively affect foreign direct investment. Our identification strategy builds on the exogenous cross-regional variation in worker strikes during 1895-1914, the period before the October Re...

  4. Russia's Interests in the Syrian Conflict: Power, Prestige, and Profit

    OpenAIRE

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-01-01

    Despite the crimes against humanity committed by Bashar Assad’s regime in Syria and despite the growing international pressure, Russia provided steadfast international political support to the regime during the development of the conflict in Syria in March 2011-July 2012. The article examines Russia’s position and analyzes the reasons behind its support for the regime, arguing that it was primarily motivated not by material interests but rather by the foreign policy doctrine of...

  5. Development of the geothermal power engineering in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of potential total capacity of geothermal power stations on the territory of Russia and the present level of the use of geothermal power are presented. Description of scientific and technical developments and the most promising research and commercial projects on creating GEOTTPs in the volcanic regions (Kamchatka, Kuril Islands) and on the base of the thermal water deposits in the Northern Caucasia, is given

  6. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  7. Aerobic Methanotrophs in Natural and Agricultural Soils of European Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Kravchenko; Andrey Yurkov; Anna Kizilova

    2013-01-01

    Human activities such as land management and global warming have great impact on the environment. Among changes associated with the global warming, rising methane emission is a serious concern. Therefore, we assessed methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight soil types (both unmanaged and agricultural) distributed across the European part of Russia. Using a culture-independent approach targeting pmoA gene, we provide the first baseline data on the di...

  8. Quality of Tourism and Hospitality Management Systems in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Markaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of quality standards (ISO, their application in Russia, analyzes Quality Awards, awarded to Russian producers, such as the Award of the Government of the Russian Federation in the field of Quality, National Tourism Award named after Yu. Senkevich, Travel Award «Golden Meridian», Moscow “Guiding Star” Award. The objectives of management system for Sochi resorts and hotels were determined

  9. Informal Employment in Russia: Combining Disadvantages and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Merkuryeva

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of informal employment in Russia, its structure and the factors contributing to the individual decisions making when choosing specific employment type. Informal employment is a highly diverse area comprising individuals with different profiles and motivations to prefer specific informal options over formal employment. Empirical findings using the 2003 NOBUS dataset confirm that defined groups of informally employed individuals are consistently different accordi...

  10. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R and D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as 'Quantum dots,' 'Carbon nanotubes,' 'Atomic force microscopy,' and 'Scanning electron microscopy,' while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion.

  11. Georgia War within the context of the NATO - Russia relations

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Iulia IULIAN

    2013-01-01

    The Russian-Georgian conflict represented a turning point in the International Relations, putting on another basis the relation between Russia and Western countries, in general, and between Rusia and NATO, especially. Although it was a short war (8-13 August 2008), it became a key element in the future evolution of NATO to the East, influencing the Russian position towards the West and toward the near abroad. Russia’s military action completed its political action initiated at the NATO Summit...

  12. Preconditions for Sustainable Development of Pacific Russia Seaside Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Ya. Baklanov

    2011-01-01

    A geographical position and objective processes of globalization become leading factors of the orientation of the Russian east areas in the long-term development to interaction with the countries of the Asian-Pacific region (APR) and also to various natural resources and transport potential of the Pacific Ocean.In terms of economic-geographical attraction to the Pacific Ocean as a whole within Russia,it is possible to allocate three zones (Baklanov 2009):

  13. Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Protassova, Ekaterina; Alòs i Font, Hèctor; Bulatova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The languages of Russia are a valuable resource of knowledge about the life of the indigenous peoples and a challenge for all the specialists in linguistic typology. As is widely known, they are undergoing the process of loss, mainly because the quantity of speakers diminishes and the quality of their speech deteriorates. The article discusses the situation of Udmurt and Chuvash in education on the basis of legal texts, statistical data, interviews to parents, teachers and school officials an...

  14. Barriers and obstacles to foreign direct investment (FDI) into Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shevtsova, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The transition from socialism to capitalism in Russia is both a political and an economic process. An important aspect of the latter is the possibility of integration into the world economy (through trade and capital flows) is a crucial and related element of the former. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a particularly important element of the transition process itself and economic integration, because it opens not only possibilities for accelerated growth, technical innovation and enterpris...

  15. Agricultural Land Market in Russia: Living with Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Shagaida

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the laws relating to land privatisation and land transactions in Russia and describes the ownership structure of agricultural land after more than a decade of reforms. The main transactions in land are analysed on the basis of data collected in a 2003 survey of corporate farms and individual land users. Low demand for agricultural land, limited access to market information, and bureaucratic complexity are identified as the main obstacle to the development of a land market....

  16. Built-in appliances distribution and brand image in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Volpe; Mariano Peluso

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a qualitative and quantitative study of the distribution of built-in appliances in Russia as well as an analysis of the trade satisfaction of the main brands of built-in appliances present in the Russian market. The research also includes an overview of the Russian kitchen furniture market providing data on production, consumption international trade, distribution and prices. Tables and data show the sales breakdown of built-in appliances purchases by supplier (appliance ...

  17. STUDENT CIVIC ENGAGEMENT AND PROTEST ACTIVITIES IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Savchenko Daria Sergeevna

    2012-01-01

    Recent political events in Russia and the understanding that the society needs some strong consolidation motive contribute to the surging interest for civic awareness of the young, and especially students. The article focuses on the protest activity of students and analyses its factors and forms. The article is based on solid research and survey carried out by the author in a number of Russian regions. The author con cludes with the comprehensive analysis covering special features of student ...

  18. Human Resource Management in Russia: Some Unwritten Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Western companies have been actively developing the Russian market over the last twenty years, they are still faced with the Soviet-era heritage in human resource management. This paper gives an overview of the common Soviet human resource practices of the past. Understanding traditional human resource practices in the Soviet Union prior to the end of communism will help practitioners to design human resource management systems for Russia more effic...

  19. Mobile Banking in Russia: User Intention towards Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Belousova; Nikolay Chichkanov

    2015-01-01

    Mobile banking is currently one of the most dynamic and rapid growth types of distance banking services. In recent years in Russia, the number of individual bank accounts that can be accessed remotely using mobile devices has increased by more than 20 times. With every year, an increasing number of banks offer mobile banking services. Nevertheless, the popularity of mobile banking applications is lower than the popularity of other banking services. Thus the problem of mobile banking adoption ...

  20. HUGE ADVANTAGES OF ENERGY COOPERATION AMONG CHINA, RUSSIA AND KAZAKHSTAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In November 30 to December 2,2005, Beijing successfully hosted the "2nd Sino-Russo-KazakhOil Forum", on which the participants discussed the ways to find the crossing points of their common benefit. In addition to the participants from China,Russia and Kazakhstan, some representatives from the petroleum industries of other countries such as Ukraine,Turkmenistan, England and Netherlands also attended the meeting.

  1. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  2. Development possibilities in municipal energy sector in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Veli-Matti

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency and municipal energy systems in Russia has been a goal for a number of different development projects. Most of the projects have been aimed to achieve better energy efficiency with some technical improvements. But the energy efficiency and quality of energy services has improved very little if at all. It is essential to understand the importance of the whole energy system and system level planning. Most of the energy losses and lowered efficiency as well as po...

  3. Modern trends in the institutional investing in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitina, Tatjana; Repeta, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In this article we analyse main tendencies and trends driving institutional investing in Russia nowadays. Russian specifics of institutional investors market is that historically banks played key role and thus became the largest intermediaries in the financial system. Other institutional investors being insurance companies, pension funds and other mutual funds are still in development stage and have extensive opportunities to grow. However, total assets of non-bank institutional investors in ...

  4. Stock Market Reaction to Debt Financing Arrangements in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe J. Godlewski; Fungacova, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates stock market reaction to debt arrangements in Russia. The analysis of the valuation of debt arrangements by stock markets provides information about the use of debt by Russian companies. We apply the event study methodology to check whether debt announcements lead to abnormal returns using a sample of Russian listed companies that issued syndicated loans or bonds between June 2004 and December 2008. We find a negative reaction of stock markets to debt arrangements that...

  5. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-11-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge diffusion patterns. Significant and consistent growth in nanotechnology papers are noted in the three countries. Between 2000 and 2007, the average annual growth rate was 31.43% in China, 11.88% in Russia, and 33.51% in India. During the same time, the growth patterns were less consistent in patent publications: the corresponding average rates are 31.13, 10.41, and 5.96%. The three countries' paper impact measured by the average number of citations has been lower than the world average. However, from 2000 to 2007, it experienced rapid increases of about 12.8 times in China, 8 times in India, and 1.6 times in Russia. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) were the most productive institutions in paper publication, with 12,334, 6,773, and 1,831 papers, respectively. The three countries emphasized some common research topics such as "Quantum dots," "Carbon nanotubes," "Atomic force microscopy," and "Scanning electron microscopy," while Russia and India reported more research on nano-devices as compared with China. CAS, RAS, and IIT played key roles in the respective domestic knowledge diffusion. PMID:21170128

  6. Trends for nanotechnology development in China, Russia, and India

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xuan; ZHANG, Pengzhu; Li, Xin; Chen, Hsinchun; Dang, Yan; Larson, Catherine; Roco, Mihail C.; Wang, Xianwen

    2009-01-01

    China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976–2007). Bibliographic, content map, and citation network analyses are used to evaluate country productivity, dominant research topics, and knowledge ...

  7. Performance assessment of innovation infrastructure facilities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Barinova, Vera; Sorokina, Alla

    2014-01-01

    Performance assessment of innovation infrastructure facilities might be seen as one of the most topical issues of regional development in Russia. Due to the variety of infrastructure types, it's difficult to select the assessment indicators, for there are no generally accepted and integrated performance assessment measures, based on verifiable data according to the enquiries of the stakeholders. The article discusses ways to evaluate the efficiency of innovation infrastructure facilities in R...

  8. Pure Profit for Russia: Benefits of Responsible Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimchuk, Ivetta; Ilyumzhinova, Kamila; Schorn, Alistair; Kraft, Georg; Smith, Kevin; Lottmann, Juergen; Eckstein, Mark; Khmeleva, Ekaterina; Perelet, Renat; Shvarts, Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a post financial crisis handbook that will help both financiers and environmentalists in Russia to cooperate in establishing a ‘greener’ and less risky financial system in a similar manner to which this process is underway in other emerging markets such as China, Brazil and South Africa. The report provides an overview of the evolution of international mechanisms of environmental and social responsibility in the global financial sector, quantifies the...

  9. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  10. LAND REFORM AND DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKETS IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Zvi; SHAGAIDA Natalya

    2005-01-01

    Russia has experienced dramatic changes in land ownership and land tenure since the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991: agricultural land has been largely privatized, individual landowners now have legal rights to most agricultural land in the country, and previous prohibitions on buying and selling of land have been removed by recent laws. The necessary preconditions for the development of agricultural land markets have been met and we are beginning to witness transactions th...

  11. China and Russia: Institutional Coherence between the Banking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vernikov, A.

    2014-01-01

    We use statistical data from 2000 to 2013 to compare the macro-level structure and the core institutions of the banking systems in China and Russia. Our main hypothesis is that, differences in the absolute size and socio-cultural features notwithstanding, these two systems are typologically similar. We consider the institutional structure, the market structure and concentration, the industrial policy of the government, and the banks’ involvement in the financing of the non-financial economy. ...

  12. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities. Summer 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications

  13. Labour Supply in the Informal Economy in Russia during Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Alexandre

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the informal labour market in Russia in late 1995 and estimates a labour supply function in the informal sector using nationally representative micro-data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, Round VI. The findings show that the informal economy constitutes a considerable source of additional income for many families, though it is associated with a large degree of wage and gender inequality. Informal job holding appears to be a safety valve for several indi...

  14. Social networking as an advertising tool in Russia and abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study contrasts the behavioural patterns of users on Facebook with those on VKontakte using data collected by Facebook and a survey of Russian VKontakte users. The authors analyse the key differences between the two popular social networks, including what users perceived to be the most attractive options, the amount of time spent online and attitudes toward advertising. The results have been used to evaluate the potential of social networks (SMM for business promotion in Russia.

  15. JINR and Russia Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The collaboration of JINR scientists and specialists with Russian colleagues, large institutes and industrial enterprises of the JINR host countries dates back its founding. These fruitful contacts cover virtually all research areas of JINR and largely determine new trends in scientific research. Geographically, JINR co-operation with scientific and educational centres and industry in Russia embraces over 150 organisations and over 40 Russian towns.

  16. Business valuation for mergers and acquisitions in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaderienko, Dmitrii

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study is to find out relevant issues of business valuation for conducting mergers and acquisitions in Russia and elaborate recommendations for increasing effectiveness of business amalgamation processes. In order to achieve this objective, there are specific milestones: to determine basics of mergers and acquisitions, to analyze patterns and models of business consolidation; to assess the role of valuation procedures in mergers and acquisitions; to ide...

  17. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Karnachev, Igor P.; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Background. According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. Methods. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published i...

  18. Informal Employment in Russia: Incidence, Determinants and Labor Market Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, H.; A. Zaiceva

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of informal employment in Russia analyzing its incidence and determinants. Using the regular waves and an informality supplement of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) it develops several measures of informal employment and demonstrates that the incidence varies widely across the different definitions. We also show that the determinants of informal employment are roughly stable across the different measures: workers who are males, relatively young, unskill...

  19. Development of the regional capacity expansion plan in Russia. Application of the WASP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) has been used for the development of an optimal capacity expansion plan for the power sector in Russia. The object of the WASP study is the Central Power Pool, which is the largest power pool in Russian and has an essential share of nuclear power in electricity generation. The objective of the study is to assess the long term competitiveness of nuclear power in the region. Major features of the model of the power system have been developed with WASP; the following items have been considered: four types of electricity generators: condensing fossil fuel plants, cogeneration fossil fuel plants, nuclear power plants and hydropower plants; nine fuel categories: the gas/fuel oil fuel, several types of coal and several nuclear fuels; and a model of the escalation of capital, operation and maintenance and fuel costs as a result of the economic transition. A regional optimal capacity expansion plan has been developed. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Until the year 2004, there will be no need for new electricity generation capacities because of the drop in demand in the 1990s, a certain lifetime margin of existing capacities, predetermined inputs of cogenerators and planned refurbishment/repowering measures. (2) The structure of the optimal capacity mix confirms that nuclear power can retain its role as one of the major electricity generation sources in the region. The most important factor with a positive effect upon the competitiveness of nuclear power plants is the projected escalation of the price of fossil fuels. (3) The application of WASP has proved that the model can serve as a valuable planning tool for power pools in Russia. (author). 13 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  20. Health financing in Brazil, Russia and India: what role does the international community play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Devi; Gómez, Eduardo J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether Brazil, Russia and India have similar financing patterns to those observed globally. We assess how national health allocations compare with epidemiological estimates for burden of disease. We identify the major causes of burden of disease in each country, as well as the contribution HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria make to the total burden of disease estimates. We then use budgetary allocation information to assess the alignment of funding with burden of disease data. We focus on central government allocations through the Ministry of Health or its equivalent. We found that of the three cases examined, Brazil and India showed the most bias when it came to financing HIV/AIDS over other diseases. And this occurred despite evidence indicating that HIV/AIDS (among all three countries) was not the highest burden of disease when measured in terms of age-standardized DALY rates. We put forth several factors building on Reich's (2002) framework on 'reshaping the state from above, from within and from below' to help explain this bias in favour of HIV/AIDS in Brazil and India, but not in Russia: 'above' influences include the availability of external funding, the impact of the media coupled with recognition and attention from philanthropic institutions, the government's close relationship with UNAIDS (UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS), WHO (World Health Organization) and other UN bodies; 'within' influences include political and bureaucratic incentives to devote resources to certain issues and relationships between ministries; and 'below' influences include civil society activism and relationships with government. Two additional factors explaining our findings cross-cutting all three levels are the strength of the private sector in health, specifically the pharmaceutical industry, and the influence of transnational advocacy movements emanating from the USA and Western Europe for particular diseases. PMID:20400535

  1. Gazprom: Russia's strategy; Gazprom: Strategie de la Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizin, A.M.; Zeisler, N

    2007-01-15

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  2. FINANCIAL STABILITY AND CENTRAL BANK TRANSPARENCY IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan CAPRARU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the transparency level in the field of financial stability, using the Sotom-ska-Krzysztofik and Szczepanska index for the central banks from the European Union countries and European Central Bank (ECB – 28 central banks, Norway, Switzerland, Iceland, Russia and 3 candidates to EU: Turkey, Macedonia and Croatia, totally 35 central banks. Also, we do a comparison between our results in 2010 and Sotomska-Krzysztofik and Szczepanska calculation in 2004, for the central banks that was commonly assessed. We conclude that the preoccupations of central bank communication policy in the field of financial stability have increased in the last period. The main factors that have been influencing these trends were the process of European integration and the actual international financial crises.

  3. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  4. COSTS OF THE HEALTH CARE IN RUSSIA ASSOCIATED WITH SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze costs of health care in Russia associated with smoking in 2009. Material and methods. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD were included in the analysis. Calculation was performed on the basis of the relative risks of diseases associated with smoking, and obtained from foreign surveys, official statistics on morbidity and health system resources expenditure, and costs of health-seeking in line with state program of guaranteed free medical care.  Results. In 2009 total costs of the health care system associated with smoking exceeded RUR 35.8 bln. It corresponded to 0.1% of gross domestic product in Russia in 2009. The costs structure was the following: hospitalization – RUR 26.2 bln, emergency calls – RUR 1.4 bln, and outpatient health-seeking – RUR 8.2 bln. Costs of outpatient pharmacotherapy were not included into analysis because of lack of baseline data needed for calculations. Cardiovascular diseases caused 62% of the health care costs associated with smoking, cancers – 20.2%, and COPD – 17.8%. Conclusion. The smoking in Russia is associated with significant health care costs. It makes needed resources investment in preventive programs to reduce smoking prevalence.

  5. Nationalism and state control in Russia: A weakened social consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Laruelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nationalism in Russia is played out on several registers. It is the instrument by which the ruling elites succeed in effacing (at least superficially their internal divisions and unifying the political spectrum under their banner. It can also be likened to a new form of state-proposed social contract, an attempt to remobilise society to its advantage by drawing on those elements of its cultural reservoirs that form a consensus around the theme of patriotism. Lastly, for the tiny proportion of the population committed to radical right-wing parties, it makes it possible to mobilise against the “other” at a time when massive social discontent is being expressed in xenophobic terms. Nationalism is therefore akin to an amalgam that reveals the multiplicity of current social and cultural experiences in contemporary Russia. Through nationalism, those who have lost out as a result of the reforms formulate their critique of the present and their nostalgia for the past, whereas the elites and the middle classes that have gained from these changes express their satisfaction and belief that Russia will win the game of globalisation.

  6. A new energy policy of Russia: implementation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A.; Mastepanov, A.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Energy Studies

    1999-12-01

    In 1992 the Russian government approved a concept for the nation's energy policy under the new economic conditions and developed an 'Energy Strategy of Russia' (ESR). The article describes the main provisions of the ESR and its implementation of policies on energy conservation, pricing, taxes and investment, energy production, and pollution control. At present, shaping of a revised ESR is under way to develop energy policy through to 2020. The two scenarios that have been developed for future energy demand, favourable and probable, are discussed. Natural gas will be the main priority in energy production. The coal industry will continue to play a significant role in supplying fuel and energy to Russia but the economic performance of the industry must be improved. By 2005, upgrading of nuclear power plants will be essential. The forecast increased generating capacity up to 2015 will be met by hydro, nuclear and thermal power plant generation, with economic policy in the investment sphere focusing on motivation for more investments, rather than consumption alone, and creation of conditions to encourage adequate use of funds. Measures necessary to reduce emissions, discharges and environmental pollution in general are discussed. The importance of foreign international cooperation in the stability of Russia's fuel and energy sector and its effective future development is stressed. 18 tabs.

  7. Carbon taxation and market structure: A CGE analysis for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russia is one of the world's major sources of carbon based energy as well as one its most intensive users. Introducing carbon taxes can lead to a reduction in emissions and encourage investment in energy efficiency. We investigate the economic effects of carbon taxes on the Russian economy under perfect competition and a Cournot oligopoly in output markets. The main findings are: (i) substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can yield a strong double dividend in Russia; however, welfare gains strongly depend on the labour supply elasticity and elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, and energy. (ii) Under the assumption of a Cournot oligopoly with homogenous products and symmetric firms in the markets for natural gas, petroleum and chemical products, metals, and minerals, welfare costs of the environmental tax reform can be higher than under perfect competition. This is because introducing carbon taxes leads to a reduction in already sub-optimal output, thereby exacerbating pre-existing distortions arising from imperfect competition. (iii) Furthermore, increases in energy costs can result in higher mark-ups in some markets because of less competition resulting from firms' exit. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes in Russia can yield a double dividend. ► The labour supply elasticity and substitution possibilities between factors are crucial. ► Introducing carbon taxes can exacerbate distortions from imperfect competition. Increases in energy costs result in higher mark-ups because of less competition.

  8. Life Insurance In Russia: Features Of Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Leonidovna Prokopjeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance is the economic tool allowing to accumulate large monetary funds at the level of the country, regions and certain insurers, and also providing growth of a standard of living of citizens and social stability in society. Subject matter of the research is the economic aspects of development of life insurance in regions of Russia. The purpose of the work — to carry out the comparative analysis of functioning of the markets for life insurance in territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, to reveal regularities and distinctive features of development of the markets and to define further prospects of branch. Methods of research: analysis, comparison, induction, analogy, mathematical modeling were used. The main results of research: life insurance — a demanded financial product in Moscow, but in regions of Russia demand for it is extremely limited; economic indicators of the market have low values and vary on territorial subjects of the Russian Federation; statistics of a variation confirm heterogeneity of functioning of the life insurance marketin comparison with the insurance market in general; life insurance volumes in regions of Russia significantly depend on activity of real sector of economy, thus have practically no close interrelation with the income of the population. Collaboration of authorities of all levels and insurance community is necessary for effective development of the life insurance marketin regions. The special attention has to be paid to price policy of insurers, increase of transparency of the movement of their financial streams and guarantees of recoverability of means of insurers.

  9. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-07-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  10. Russia and innovative projects INPRO and Generation-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Presented is a comparative analysis of Generation-IV and INPRO projects, projected are possible contributions of Russia to both these international programs, outlined are the pathways for interaction between these two projects and their rapprochement, as well as recommendations on further actions. Main conclusions of the comparative analysis are: The technology goals of Generation-IV and user requirements produced so far by the INPRO have many similar or even identical statements. More often this is the case for issues of safety, environment, fuel cycle and waste, and proliferation resistance; Generation-IV addresses mostly the demands of a few industrially developed countries, while INPRO is biased for a more in-depth consideration of nuclear power use in developing countries, for the assessment of regional, institutional, and infrastructural aspects of a global nuclear power organization. In this context, of special value may be INPRO's user requirements for cross-cutting issues; As of today, INPRO does not address the problems of physical protection and materials disposition, while Generation-IV provides for the consideration of these important issues in a single package with proliferation resistance; Generation-IV is essentially limited by taking out of detailed consideration the innovative technologies for fuel breeding in reactors of various types, the technologies of fuel reprocessing, and those of a closed fuel cycle implementing at once uranium, plutonium, and thorium. At the same time, the mere fact that closed fuel cycles and innovative recycle technologies are mentioned within Generation-IV is a very positive sign. Providing the membership of Russia in Generation-IV this year and beyond, i.e., when relevant R and D would be started and in progress, appears a practical task for the following reasons: first, Russia may find partners for joint development of the priority trends as defined in the 'Strategy of Atomic Power Development in Russia in

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA: SYMBIOSIS OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Corduneanu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and trust between Russia and the European Union (EU, two of the most important international actors, have reached the lowest level since the Cold War. The main bone of contention has been the future of countries situated in Eastern Europe, in the so-called ‘in-between’/’buffer’ region. On the one hand, the EU aims at strengthening links with the six Eastern European partners – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine – by encouraging reforms and by luring them to embrace European core values. However, Russia’s counteractions have mitigated the EU’s plans towards its vicinity - as the case of Ukraine best points out. Apart from the geopolitical competition over the ‘shared’ neighbourhood, the EU-Russia relation has started to depend heavily on the energy issues further complicating the already complex background. Russia uses the energy card as tool to influence the shape of the regional context, whereas the EU responds with a superior technological advantage and a more attractive economic and political agenda. Having this a backdrop, this paper aims to underline that a clear competition between the two players exists, fomented by a fundamental ideological difference in perceiving the outside world.

  12. Defence nuclear waste disposal in Russia. International perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive waste have been generated in Russia during the production of nuclear weapons, and there is an urgent need to find suitable ways to manage these wastes in a way that protects both the current population and future generations. This book contains contributions from pure and applied scientists and other representatives from Europe, North America, and Russia, who are, or have been, actively involved in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal. First-hand experience of specific problems associated with defence-related wastes in the USA and the Russian Federation is presented, and current plans are described for the disposal of solid wastes arising from civilian nuclear power production programmes in other countries, including Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Germany and the UK. The book provides a good insight into ongoing research at local and national level within Russia, devoted to the safe disposal of defence-related radioactive waste. It also demonstrates how existing expertise and technology from civilian nuclear waste management programmes can be applied to solving the problems created by nuclear defence programmes. Contributions address methods of immobilisation, site selection methodology, site characterisation techniques and data interpretation, the key elements of safety/performance assessments of planned deep (geological) repositories for radioactive waste, and radionuclide transport modelling. Concerns associated with certain specific nuclear waste disposal concepts and repository sites are also presented. refs

  13. An update on emergency care and emergency medicine in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigin, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    Russia's national healthcare system is undergoing significant changes. Those changes which affect healthcare financing are particularly vital. As has often been the case in other nations, the emergency care field is at the forefront of such reforms. The ongoing challenges constitute the environment in which the hospital-based specialty of emergency medicine needs to develop as part of a larger system. Emergency care has to evolve in order to match true needs of the population existing today. New federal regulations recently adopted have recognized emergency departments as the new in-hospital component of emergency care, providing the long-needed legal foundation upon which the new specialty can advance. General knowledge of Western-style emergency departments in terms of their basic setup and function has been widespread among Russia's medical professionals for some time. Several emergency departments are functioning in select regions as pilots. Preliminary data stemming from their operation have supported a positive effect on efficiency of hospital bed utilization and on appropriate use of specialists and specialized hospital departments. In the pre-hospital domain, there has been a reduction of specialized ambulance types and of the number of physicians staffing all ambulances in favor of midlevel providers. Still, a debate continues at all levels of the medical hierarchy regarding the correct future path for emergency care in Russia with regard to adaptation and sustainability of any foreign models in the context of the country's unique national features. PMID:26608599

  14. Development of nuclear power plant technology in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to its disintegration the Soviet Union was one of the leading nuclear powers in the world. This also applied to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The broad spectrum of developments in nuclear power plant technology is astounding. Three reactor lines were developed and built independently: the VVER pressurized water reactor line up to VVER-1000 (water-water power reactor); the graphite-moderated RBMK boiling water reactor line up to RBMK-1500 (high-power reactor with channels), and the sodium cooled fast breeder reactors up to BN-600. The associated scientific installations and the nuclear machine building industry were mainly concentrated in Russia and remained there as a core capability in nuclear power plant technology also after the end of the Soviet Union. The current lines of small, medium-sized and large reactors under development, designed for construction in Russia proper and for exports, are presented in the article. Alongside technical developments, Russia rearranged the economic capacities of her nuclear industry so as to be able to meet her objectives in building nuclear power plants in the country and abroad. The main parts of the nuclear industry are combined in the 'AtomEnergoProm' holding. (orig.)

  15. Genre Formatting in Periodic Printed Media of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertytchny A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of genre formatting in printed media in Russia are analyzed in the article. A number of printed periodicals are investigated, namely “Ekonomika i zhizn’”, “Vedomosti”, “Schastlivye roditeli” (more than 1200 texts and 5 regional Moscow newspapers (“Kolomenskaya Pravda”, “Zarya”, “Orekhovo-Zuevskaya Pravda”, “Serebryanoprudsky Vestnik”, “Khimkinskie Novosti” comprising more than 400 texts. The author states that formatting of modern printed media and formatting of the used genres occur within the main tendencies of journalism development. They are PR, Westernization, glamorization and usage of Western journalism patterns. It leads to distribution of new text types, such as an advertising article, an ordered article, an image and supporting articles. Some changes in the process of genre formatting in Russia are determined: traditional genre forms characteristic for Russia are reduced and hybrid genres appear instead whereas journalism genres mutate and Western ones are widely applied. This results in news reports as the most popular genres whereas high quality analytical and art-journalistic genres are reduced.

  16. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  17. Central Russia agroecosystem monitoring with CO2 fluxes analysis by eddy covariance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulia Meshalkina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The eddy covariance (EC technique as a powerful statistics-based method of measurement and calculation the vertical turbulent fluxes of greenhouses gases within atmospheric boundary layers provides the continuous, long-term flux information integrated at the ecosystem scale. An attractive way to compare the agricultural practices influences on GHG fluxes is to divide a crop area into subplots managed in different ways. The research has been carried out in the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (RTSAU, Moscow in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant # 11.G34.31.0079, EU grant # 603542 LUС4С (7FP and RF Ministry of education and science grant # 14-120-14-4266-ScSh. Arable Umbric Albeluvisols have around 1% of SOC, 5.4 pH (KCl and NPK medium-enhanced contents in sandy loam topsoil. The CO2 flux seasonal monitoring has been done by two eddy covariance stations located at the distance of 108 m. The LI-COR instrumental equipment was the same for the both stations. The stations differ only by current crop version: barley or vetch and oats. At both sites, diurnal patterns of NEE among different months were very similar in shape but varied slightly in amplitude. NEE values were about zero during spring time. CO2 fluxes have been intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 µmol/s∙m2 for emission, and from 5 to 20 µmol/s∙m2 for sink. Stabilization of the fluxes has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. Average NEE was negative only in June and July. Maximum uptake was observed in June with average values about 8 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1. Although different kind of crops were planted on the fields A and B, GPP dynamics was quite similar for both sites: after reaching the peak values at the mid of June, GPP decreased from 4 to 0.5 g C CO2 m-2 d-1 at the end of July. The difference in crops harvesting time that was equal two weeks did not significantly influence the daily GPP patterns. Cumulative assimilation of CO2 at the end of the growing season was about 150 g C m−2 for both sites. So the difference in NEE was the consequence of essentially higher respiration rates in case of vetch and oats (about 350 g C m−2 comparing to barley (250 g C m−2 that needs additional research. The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of CO2 emission too as a result of different and contrasted conditions: crop type, crop development stage, soil moisture and air temperature. Obtained unique for Russian agriculture data are useful for land-use practices environmental assessment, for soil organic carbon dynamics analysis and agroecological evaluation.

  18. Agroecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in Chernozems at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Sergey; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in soil cover of the agroecosystems is the important issue of the regional agroecological monitoring which results are actively used for landscape-adaptive land-use design with rational, environmental friendly fertilizing systems. The virgin forest-steppe plots without anthropogenous impacts are usually used as background data of microelements content in dominated zonal Chernozems. The average background content of zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese mobile forms (extracted with рН 4,8 buffer) in 10-20 cm layer of virgin Leached Chernozem at the federal reserve «Belogorye» (monitoring site «Jamskaya Steppe») are accordingly 0.75, 0.19, 0.14 and 12.8 mg/kg. According to RF actual evaluation scale for arable soils the background microelements content in the investigated virgin Chernozems have been corresponded to low level for mobile forms of zinc, copper and cobalt, and to middle level - for manganese ones that essentially limits their natural fertility. The results of carried out in the Belgorod Region in 2010-2014 agroecological monitoring have shown, that most of the arable soils are characterized by low content of the mobile forms of manganese (60 %) zinc (99,2 % of total area), cobalt (94,1 %) and copper (100 %) too that became a serious problem for intensive farming active development in the region. During active agroecological monitoring period since 1990-1994 to 2010-2014 the average regional contents of the principal microelements mobile forms have been essentially decreased: from 1,44 to 0,53 mg/kg in case of zinc, from 17,5 to 9,2 mg/kg in case of manganese - due to low level of micronutrient fertilizers and manure application. It determined the current priority in the agrochemical service development in the region with new DSS-supported agrotechnologies design and essentially increased level of profitable application of traditional and non-traditional organic and mineral-organic fertilizers.

  19. Gas-emission crater in Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia, a new permafrost feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Marina; Kizyakov, Alexandr; Khomutov, Artem; Dvornikov, Yury; Streletskaya, Irina; Gubarkov, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    The Yamal crater is a hole funnel-shaped on top and cylinder-shaped down to the bottom, surrounded by a parapet. Field study of the crater included size measurements, photo- video-documentation of the feature and the surrounding environment, and geochemical sampling. The upper part of the geological section within the crater consisted of stratified icy sediments, underlain by almost pure stratified ice of nearly vertical orientation of the layers. The volume of discharged material (volume of the void of the crater) was 6 times larger than the volume of material in the parapet. The difference was due to a significant amount of ice exposed in the walls of the crater, emitted to the surface and melted there. Remote sensing data was processes and validated by field observations to reveal the date of crater formation, previous state of the surface, evolution of the crater and environmental conditions of the surrounding area. Crater formed between 9 October and 1 November 2013. The initial size derived from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) had diameter of the vegetated rim 25-29 m. It turned through a sharp bend into a cylinder with close to vertical sides and diameter 15-16 m. Depth of the hole was impossible to estimate from DEM because of no light reaching walls in the narrow hole. By the time of initial observation in July 2014, water was found at the depth exceeding 50 m below the rim. In November 2014 this depth was 26 m. By September 2015 almost all the crater was flooded, with water surface about 5 m below the rim. The plan dimensions of the crater increased dramatically from initial 25-29 to 47-54 m in 2015. Thus, it took two warm seasons to almost entirely fill in the crater. We suppose that during the next 1-2 years parapet will be entirely destroyed, and as a result the crater will look like an ordinary tundra lake. Excluding impossible and improbable versions of the crater's development, the authors conclude that the origin of this crater can be attributed to the air temperature warming trend along with the extreme of 2012. The increased ground temperature and amount of unfrozen water in the permafrost, expanding of cryopegs, formation of a pingo-like mound and its outburst due to high pressure produced by gas hydrate decomposition within permafrost are the main controls. Similar temperature anomalies may increase in number in the future decades, presenting risks for human activities in the region. This conclusion is supported by recent studies of gas-hydrate behavior in the upper permafrost as well as by subsea processes in gas-bearing provinces where analogue mechanism is known to produce pockmarks - subsea depressions. As the crater is surrounded by the parapet, thus is resulting from expulsion of ice and rocks from beneath to the surface and should not be treated as a "sinkhole", "thermokarst" or "collapse".

  20. RUSSIA, THE WEST, AND THE SCO COUNTRIES IN THE CENTRAL EURASIA ENERGY PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    In the near future energy will remain a geopolitical category. This is especially true of the oil and gas sphere. Indeed, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA), organic fuels will remain the main energy source until 2030 in the world, where the developed countries consume the greater part of the oil and gas produced. In 2006, the United States, which consumes 24.6 percent of the world oil production, imported 60.2 percent of its domestic consumption. The EU members, which in 2006...