Sample records for central russia tver

  1. Air pollution studies in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions) using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    Ermakova, E.V.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Povtorejko, E.A.; Steinnes, E.; Cheremisina, Ye.N.


    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived

  2. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N


    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  3. Review of human osseal remains from XVI-XVIII centuries cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad (Tver, Russia

    Andrei V. Zinoviev


    Full Text Available Human osseal remains from the cemetery of Zatveretsky Posad at the historical Russian city of Tver revealed the data on its population in XVI-XVIII centuries. Obtained data generally agreed with the material from other contemporaneous necropoles of the city. Domination of male burials and underrepresentation of younger individuals are accompanied by the signs of poor oral hygiene. Caries has not only often destroyed majority of molars in males and females by the age of 45-50 years, but affected teeth of teenagers and even younger individuals. The heavily developed dental calculus is one of the signs of insufficient oral hygiene in adults. Possible kinship between buried is manifested by similar genetically determined cranial anomalies.


    M. Schletterer


    Full Text Available Within the joint Russian-Austrian monitoring programme “REFCOND_VOLGA (2006 – 20XX”, monitoring sites were established in the headwaters of the Volga (Tver Region. River Tudovka, a right tributary to the Volga River, was included within this monitoring programme as its catchment is partly protected and has only few anthropogenic activities. The monitoring activities include physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters as well as biota with a focus is on benthic organisms (diatoms and macrozoobenthos. In this work, the longitudinal patterns in community structure are classified in the lowland river Tudovka using a novel feature-based approach taken from signal processing theory. The method first clusters field sampling data into longitudinal classes (upper, middle, lower course. Community features based on the relative frequency of individual species occurring per class are then generated. We apply both generative and discriminative classification methods. The application of generative methods provides data models which predict the probability of a new sample to belong to an existing class. In contrast, discriminative approaches search for differences between classes and allocate new data accordingly. Leveraging both methods allows for the creation of stable classifications. On this basis we show how the community features can be used to predict the longitudinal class. The community features approach also allows for a robust cross-comparison of investigation reaches over time. In cases where suitable long-term data set are available, predictive models using this approach can also be developed.

  5. The First Sprite Observation from Moscow in the Direction of Tver Region Associated with Repetitive Lightning Discharge

    Sorokin, L.V.


    The summer thunderstorms 2016 in the central part of Russia produced heavy precipitations and were accompanied by huge amount of lightning. During these events we provide the Sprite observation from Moscow. On the 18 August we caught two Sprites on the distance from 260 km to 290 km in the Tver region. It is important to underline that both Sprites occurred after the rare repetitive lightning discharge and the multiple lightning discharge. These types of lightning are rare in the Moscow region and more habitual for the tropical thunderstorms in Equator area. Due to the Climate Change and Global Warming the Sprites are common for the Russian Federation now. (author)

  6. The Botanic Garden of Tver State University

    Volkova O M; Notov A A


    The Botanic Garden of Tver State University is situated at the meeting place of the Volga and Tvertza rivers. It is one of the main green spaces of Tver. The history of the Garden goes back to 1879. It was planted by the merchant Ilya Bobrov at the former territory of Otroch monastery. After the October Revolution the Garden be- came national property and was used as a leisure center. The main planting occurred between 1938 and 1941 but a great number of plants disappeared during ...

  7. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Anastasia Likhacheva


    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  8. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  9. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Bergsager, Henrik


    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  10. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Anastasia Likhacheva


    In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed,...

  11. Ecological networks and nature policy in central Russia : peat bogs in central and northern Meshera

    Butovsky, R.O.; Reijnen, R.; Otchagov, D.M.; Aleshenko, G.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, E.


    In central and northern Meshera, Russia, the habitat of many characteristic peat bog species now show a very fragmented pattern. Peat mining and other human influences are the most important causes. As a result the potentials for viable populations ofcharacteristic peat bog species have decreased

  12. Oil sector developments: Russia, Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Ebel, R.E.


    The level of resource development in Russia, Azerbaijan and in the countries of Central Asia was discussed. The resources of crude oil and natural gas in the area are considered more than sufficient to support any reasonable expansion for the foreseeable future and this should mean higher exportable surpluses. The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in the emergence of 15 sovereign and independent nations, collectively known as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The end of the cold war opened the CIS's oil sector to foreign investors. However, access to these markets has been blocked by the physical isolation of Azerbaijan and Central Asia. According to forecasters, by the year 2005, the annual oil production of the CIS shall reach 7.9 million barrels per day, approximately 11.3 per cent higher than in 1996. Natural gas production is expected to increase by about 30 per cent to 900 billion cubic meters per year. Western capital will be key to the future of resource development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. It was suggested that by 2010, the exportable oil from the Caspian Sea and Central Asia will represent 3 to 4 per cent of world oil supply. This projection emphasizes the fact that this new oil would be in addition to, and not in place of oil from the Persian Gulf. Some of the economic and political problems that have had a delaying effect on the development of pipelines through these regions were also reviewed

  13. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Feng, Dan


    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  14. "A Crucial Sphere for Our Security": Russia in Central Asia after 9/11

    Opdahl, Ingerid M.


    After 11 September 2001, Russia entered into a strategic alignment with the United States and the West in the war against terrorism, and the alignment included Russian support for a Western military presence in Central Asia. At the same time, Russian policy in Central Asia focused on military and security cooperation, and Russian or Russian-led military bases were established in the region. This study investigates the Russian response to the appearance ofWestern bases in Central Asia....

  15. Morphology and ecological characteristics of Sparganium × longifolium (Typhaceae in the Central part of European Russia

    E. A. Belyakov


    Full Text Available The increasing impact of anthropogenic factors and climate change affect the growth of a number of taxa of hybrid nature. These taxa are widespread among various taxonomic groups of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. The genus Sparganium L. В is not an exception. In that regard, the aim of this study is to conduct biomorphological investigation of Sparganium × longifolium Turcz. ex Ledeb., evaluate qualitative and quantitative criteria for the hybrid similarities and differences with its parental species, as well as to analyze data on its habitat characteristics. Samples were collected in 2014–2016 from waterbodies in European Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl oblasts. In the study on biomorphology of S. × longifolium we used live and fixed materials, as well as herbarium funds of IBIW, MXA and MW. To establish and specify taxonomic features of the hybrid under study, indicating to its similarity with a certain ancestral species, our data on the morphology and ecology of S. emersum Rehm. and S. gramineum Georgi. are used. During field studies, the type of water object where the hybrid was detected, ecological characteristics of its habitat (type of soil, depth, water temperature and pH are determined; the list of taxa which enter into the cenosis composition is compiled. The biomorphological investigation of S. × longifolium shows that by life form this hybrid, as well as its parental species, is a vegetative-mobile evidently-polycentric annual or biennial plant of vegetative origin with a racemose root system. The following should be attributed to the characteristic features justifying the hybrid origin of S. × longifolium: 1 a wider, slightly carinated lamina (as in S. emersum; 2 a branched inflorescence (as in S. gramineum; 3 the lower covering leaf of inflorescence, often exceeding the total length of the latter; 4 fruits with a straight (as in S. emersum as well as bent (as in S. gramineum style. Interestingly, some populations of S.

  16. Civil society in modern Russia: formation and development (based on Central Federal District’s materials

    L. A. Bespalaya


    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of formation and development of civil society in contemporary Russia as an example of the Central Federal District. The author defines the necessary social, economic, political and cultural conditions for the successful development of civil society in our country.

  17. Russia's projects and investments in Central Asia: the oil and gas industry

    Paramonov, Vladimir; Strokov, Aleksei


    In the 1990s, Russia's projects and investments in the Central Asian oil and gas industry were mainly concentrated in Kazakhstan, while its interest in other states of the region were minimal. When Vladimir Putin became Russian president in 2000 and the price of hydrocarbons steadily rose, Central Asia's importance abruptly increased. This caused the Russian Federation and Russian oil and gas companies to drastically step up their activity not only in Kazakhstan, but also in Turkmenistan and ...

  18. Role of Russia in development of intra-regional integration process between countries of Central Asia

    Nureddin Kayumovich Kayumov


    Full Text Available The character of partnership of Central Asia countries is described. Prosperity of each of these countries for natural resources is analyzed. Is highlighted that the countries of region complete each other in the context of resources. In order to resist a negative influence of globalization, countries of a region should become integrated using complementarity of their economic potentials. The countries of region derived from the USSR productions united into the single technological and transport net. Meanwhile, there were more disintegration processes in the last years. China placed into the region very big investments. Chinese capital is being placed in Tajikistan, for example, into energetic, road building, agriculture. Position of Russia in the region is feeble. Critically is evaluated economic cooperation of the region with non-CIS states. Leader of integration in the region can become Russia. It is reasonable to use Russia for the organization of links. The positiveinfluence of policy of tsarist Russia on theregion in theforetimeis underlined. External and internal factors of disintegration in the region are analyzed. It is supposed to create within the SCO a research fund for solving scientific problems of an international character

  19. Soil pollution in Central district of Saint-Petersburg (Russia)

    Terekhina, Natalia; Ufimtseva, Margarita


    Analysis of soil samples of upper horizon for the content of chemical elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, Ba, Sr) was carried out by atomic emission with inductively coupled plasma. A relative indicator of soil contamination degree is a concentration coefficient, representing the ratio of metal content in tested soil samples to the local background value of the corresponding element. Total pollution index is calculated by the concentration coefficients, which are greater than 1, taking into account the hazard class of metals (1 class - Zn, Pb ,Cd; 2 - class Cr, Ni, Cu ,Со; 3 class - Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba). Analysis of trace element of urban soils demonstrated mosaic patterns of pollution for Central district. The method of correlation sets constructing and factor analysis revealed three groups of chemical elements having a strong and significant association with each other: Pb-Cu-Cd-Zn-Ba, Ni-Cr-Co, Fe-Mn. Elements of the first group are characterized by high values of concentration coefficient and are the main pollutants - their average content is 3-11 times higher than background values. Strontium does not have strong correlation with the other elements, and its lowest concentration coefficient indicates that the element can not be regarded as a pollutant. The spatial distribution of the total pollution index identified several sources of pollution, the origin of which may be different. The main reason is probably the impact of vehicle emissions, although local pollution of soil is possible (the soils, contaminated during reconstruction of lawns, dumping of construction materials, etc.). Differentiated assessment of database shows that 48% of samples refer to dangerous pollution category, 37% - to moderately dangerous category, 15% - to allowable category. Thus, almost half of the district is characterized as dangerous in terms of soil contamination. Solution of the problem of soil contamination is recommended in three ways: reducing the intensity of

  20. National innovation system dynamics in East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries and Russia

    Makkonen, Teemu


    Here, the structure and dynamics of national innovation systems are explored to produce a comprehensive picture of the current, as well as the past, performance of the countries of East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries and Russia vis-à-vis their competiveness and innovative capability....... The results highlight the importance of political and economic freedom, science and education for promoting innovation. According to the principal component analyses, the best performing countries, in terms of their national innovation systems, of the East Central Europe and the Baltic Countries have...

  1. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.


    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  2. Afghanistan in the whirlwind of US-Russia rivalry in Central Asia

    Yahia Baiza


    Full Text Available Afghanistan has been the political and military focal points of the United States (US and Russia (formerly the Soviet Union for over a half a century. Initially, from the 1950s through to the 1970s, the superpowers competed for influence through educational, economic and technical development projects. They used their international development aid as a strategic tool to penetrate the country’s political elite circles to create a space for their political and strategic influence. The nature of development aid then changed to a series of proxy military conflicts throughout the 1980s, which also changed the fate of Afghanistan from that of a developing to that of a conflict country. The current US occupation of Afghanistan (October 2001-present is the latest in the cycle of conflict and rivalry between the US and Russia in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Against this background, this article presents an analysis of how (i the US and Russia create a context and a situation in which they develop, advance, and implement their political and military discourses and strategic concepts, intending to influence each other’s areas of strategic interests; (ii the different components of conflicts and violence are interconnected with one another; and (iii their rivalry for strategic influence in Afghanistan and the broader region of Central Asia triggered a cycle of conflict and a series of continuing proxy wars in Afghanistan. This article applies Johan Galtung’s theories of conflicts as the broader theoretical framework. The developed framework combines Galtung’s three theories of conflict, namely the ABC triangle of conflict, triangle of violence and triangle of peace strategy (Galtung, 1967, 1996. The findings of this article demonstrate that both the US and Russia fight each other in Afghanistan as well as in the wider Central Asia region by supporting and maintaining their satellite countries and periphery elites in power and negotiate each other

  3. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F


    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  4. Regional Media Education Centers (For Non-Professionals in the Media Fields) in the European Part of Russia

    Levitskaya, Anastasia


    In the European parts of Russia (Archangelsk, Belgorod, Vladimir, Voronezh, Kazan, Krasnodar, Penza, Rostov-on-Don, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Smolensk, Taganrog, Tambov, Tver, Tolyatti and so on.) there is a lot of pedagogues, who strive to develop media competence among different age groups with different social status. More and more media…

  5. Cooperation of nuclear reactor controller ARM-5S and turbine TVER-02

    Wagner, K.; Lnenicka, B.; Pokorny, F.; Prochazka, F.


    Turbines of Czechoslovak make provided with controllers TVER-02 are installed in WWER-440 nuclear power plants under construction in Czechoslovakia. Reactor output is controlled using Soviet-made controllers ARM-5S which already comprise turbine controllers. The problems are analyzed of cooperation of both controllers, especially their parameters and transient processes in typical operating situations. The analysis uses the results of measurements performed during the power start-up of Unit 1 of the V-2 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The results show that two types of control modes can be selected for the operation of the entire unit: the control to constant unit output, and control of unit output varying with turbine load selected on the TVER-02 controller or given by the demand of the power network. (Z.M.)

  6. Population ‘Habitation Comfort’ Indicators for Areal Comparison in Central Russia

    Tatiana Trifonova


    Full Text Available This paper reports on research to develop local indicators of ‘habitation comfort’ that are relevant for population health in the Vladimir region, located in Central Russia. We present a conceptual model based on the literature which led us to include three groups of factors for assessing population habitation comfort: natural-anthropogenic, social and medical-ecological. To assess and display a ‘comfort map’ of socio-economic conditions, a single database has been developed Higher comfort level is associated with better social-economic conditions, and also with proximity to major economically developed regions like Moscow and Nizhniy Novgorod. The lowest comfort level index was detected in the regions with the worst natural-anthropogenic and social-economic conditions. In further analysis, demographic conditions in the Vladimir region were evaluated by administrative region, and medical-ecological zoning was carried out based on principal causes of diseases affecting the population.

  7. Outlook for the energy sector of Russia and Central Asia: structural and cultural perspectives

    Heus, R.


    The combined interaction of three factors produces unique challenges in the energy sectors of Russia and the Central Asian Republics. The first is the specific nature and history of the oil industry of the former USSR. For many decades this, the largest oil industry in the world, was run by the government of the USSR without external assistance. Furthermore, unlike any other frontier region, most oil and gas exploration and discovery was domestic. Secondly, the former USSR is a society with structural and cultural features of both the East and the West. Thirdly, there is the legacy of an autocratic decision-making structure. The integration of the energy sector of the former USSR into the world energy sector will require the challenges represented by these factors to be worked through and this may take well into the next century. (UK)

  8. Assessing the conservation potential of damaged peat bog networks in Central and Northern Meshera (Central Russia)

    Butovsky, R.O.; Reijnen, M.J.S.M.; Aleshenko, G.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, E.M.; Otchagov, D.M.


    Peat bogs are one of the most characteristic ecosystems of Central Russian landscape. Because of peat mining and transformation of peat bogs into agricultural land after drainage, suitable habitats for several characteristic species now show a very fragmented pattern. The potentials for viable

  9. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo


    First decades of XXI century actualized for soil researches the principal methodical problem of most modern geosciences: what spatial and temporal scale would be optimal for land quality evaluation and land-use practice optimizing? It is becoming obvious that this question cannot have one solution and have to be solved with especial attention on the features of concrete region and landscape, land-use history and practical issues, land current state and environmental functions, soil cover patterns and variability, governmental requirements and local society needs, best available technologies and their potential profitability. Central Russia is one of the most dynamical economic regions with naturally high and man-made complicated landscape and soil cover variability, long-term land-use history and self-contradictory issues, high potential of profitable farming and increased risks of land degradation. Global climate and technological changes essentially complicate the originally high and sharply increased in XX century farming land heterogeneity in the Central Russia that actualizes system analysis of its zonal, intra-zonal and azonal soil cover patterns according to their influence on land environmental functions, agroecological quality, and land-use and monitoring efficiency variability. Developed by the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, ecosystem modeling & prediction (LAMP / RTSAU with support of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and # regional systems of greenhouse gases environmental monitoring RusFluxNet (6 fixed & 1 mobile eddy covariance stations with zonal functional sets of key plots with chamber investigations in 5 Russian regions) and of agroecological monitoring (in representative key plots with different farming practice in 9 RF regions) allow to do this analysis in frame of enough representative regional multi-factorial matrix of soil cover patterns, bioclimatic conditions, landscape features, and land-use history and

  10. Assimilation or integration: Similarities and differences between acculturation attitudes of migrants from Central Asia and Russians in Central Russia.

    Lebedeva N. M.


    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the cultural specificities of three typical collective groups with respect to the representation of love. The research subject focuses on the cross-cultural similarities and differences in how love is conceptualized among highly educated citizens of Brazil (50, Russia (50, and Central Africa (50 (age range 21–60; M = 34. We used “The Classical ideas of love: acceptance and distancing” questionnaire (I.A. Djidaryan, E.V. Belovol, & O.V. Maslova and the “Directed associations with ‘love’ as the wordstimulus” technique (on the basis of C.G. Jung’s associative experiment and P. Vergès’s methodology. The results show similarities and differences in how love is represented among the groups. The following similarities were found: Love is seen as all that is good and kind about a person, a way to become better. At the peripheral level, the social representation of love includes friendship, patience, and passion. At the point of cross-cultural differences, it was found that: a The main emotion reflecting how love is represented for Brazilians is honesty, for Russians — suffering, for Central Africans — tenderness; b Brazilians understand love as a sensual, personal moral choice; Russians perceive love as an obstacle, a problem in itself; Central Africans conceptualize love as God-given and ennobling of the person; c love is conceptualized as something inherent and family-oriented among Russians, intrapersonal and intimate among Brazilians, and divine among Central Africans. The results mean that within peripheral confines, the notion of love among the groups matches to a certain extent R. Sternberg’s triangle of love, while its core zone is culturally specific.

  11. The strategic interests of the USA, Russia and Сhina in the central Asia at the present stage

    Tofan A.V.


    Full Text Available this article is devoted to develop and analyze the strategic concerns of key geopolitical actors in the Central Asian region. The author comes to the conclusion that the specialty of the Central Asia is a beneficial geopolitical location and great amount of nature resources that makes the region an object of world powers’ geopolitical interests. The main actors in the CA are the USA, China and Russia, which have influence on political processes inside the region, realizing their own strategies.

  12. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo


    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  13. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E


    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  14. Quintinite-1 M from the Mariinsky Deposit, Ural Emerald Mines, Central Urals, Russia

    Zhitova, E. S.; Popov, M. P.; Krivovichev, S. V.; Zaitsev, A. N.; Vlasenko, N. S.


    The paper describes the first finding of quintinite [Mg4Al2(OH)12][(CO3)(H2O)3] at the Mariinsky deposit in the Central Urals, Russia. The mineral occurs as white tabular crystals in cavities within altered gabbro in association with prehnite, calcite, and a chlorite-group mineral. Quintinite is the probable result of late hydrothermal alteration of primary mafic and ultramafic rocks hosting emerald-bearing glimmerite. According to electron microprobe data, the Mg: Al ratio is 2: 1. IR spectroscopy has revealed hydroxyl and carbonate groups and H2O molecules in the mineral. According to single crystal XRD data, quintinite is monoclinic, space group C2/ m, a =5.233(1), b = 9.051(2), c = 7.711(2) Å, β = 103.09(3)°, V = 355.7(2) Å3. Based on structure refinement, the polytype of quintinite should be denoted as 1M. This is the third approved occurrence of quintinite-1M in the world after the Kovdor complex and Bazhenovsky chrysotile-asbestos deposit.


    L. T. Timina


    Full Text Available As a result of monitoring of causative agents of diseases of vegetable crops and studying of its species specification, the genus and species of fungi and bacteria, were found. Previously unknown in the Central region of Russia pathogens of carrot were identified: Sclerotinia nevales, Gleocladium roseum, Verticillium spp, Trichotecium roseum, Streptomyces scabies, F. nivale, F. chlamidosporum, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum, Chaetomium spp., Erysiphe umbelliferum, Erwinia carotovora. Main causative agents of diseases  of carrot during storage were also described: Alternaria infectoria, A. alternatа, A. arborescens, A. radicina, A. cheiranthi, A. corotiincultae, A. cinerariae, Embellisia spp., Nimbia spp., Cladosporium spp. It was found new pathogen for onion (Aspergillus niger, garlic (Fusarium semitectum, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum, F.avenacium, red beet (Typhula ishikariensis, and radish (Drechslera Bondartseva.

  16. Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from the Mariinsky emerald deposit, Central Urals, Russia

    Baksheev, Ivan A.; Trumbull, Robert B.; Popov, Mikhail P.; Erokhin, Yuri V.; Kudryavtseva, Olesya E.; Yapaskurt, Vasily O.; Khiller, Vera V.; Vovna, Galina M.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.


    Tourmaline is abundant at the Mariinsky schist-hosted emerald deposit in the Central Urals, Russia, both in emerald-bearing phlogopite veins (type 1) and later, emerald-free pockets, lenses, and veinlets cutting the phlogopite veins (type 2). The Ca content in tourmaline is influenced by the host rocks (ultramafic and mafic rocks), associated minerals, and minerals crystallized before tourmaline (amphibole, fluorite, margarite). The Na concentration in tourmaline depends on the presence or absence of paragonite, and the association with micas also strongly influences the contents of Li, Zn, Ni, and Co in tourmaline. Type 1 tourmalines associated with phlogopite are relatively depleted in these elements, whereas type 2 tourmalines associated with margarite or paragonite are enriched. Some differences in isomorphic substitutions along with the trace element composition (Zn, V, Sr, Co, REE) may have value in exploration of emerald-bearing and emerald-free veins in schist-hosted emerald deposits. The δ11B values in tourmaline of all types fall in a narrow total range from -11.3 to -8.4‰. These values, combined with a mineralization temperature of 420-360 °C, yield an estimated δ11B fluid composition of -7.4 to -6.8‰ suggesting a mixed source of boron, likely dominated from the granitic rocks surrounding the emerald belt. The narrow range of B-isotope compositions in tourmaline from throughout the Mariinsky deposit suggests a well-mixed hydrothermal system.

  17. Windthrow and fallow-forest successions impacts in soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics in the Central Russia' reserve spruce ecosystems

    Vasenev, Ivan; Ivanov, Alexey; Komarova, Tatyana; Valentini, Riccardo


    High spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most forest soils that is especially obvious in case of their carbon stocks and GHG fluxes. This phenomenon is generally well-known but not so often becomes the object of special precision investigation in detail and small scales so there are still serious gaps in its principal factors understanding due to their high bioclimatic, regional, landscape, tree species and temporal variability. Southern taiga is one of the most environmentally important world zonal forest ecosystems due to its still comparatively intensive carbon biogeochemical cycle and huge area in the northern Eurasia with strong anthropogenic impacts by Western & Central European and Southern & Eastern Asian regions. Central Forest Biospheric Reserve (Tver region, 360 km to North-West from Moscow) is the principal southern-taiga reserve in the European territory of Russia. Since start of its research activity in 1939 the reserve became the regional center of mature spruce ecosystem structure and dynamics investigation. In 1970-1980-s there have been done complex investigations of windthrow soil patterns and fallow-forest successions. Since middle of 1990-s the ecosystem-level GHG fluxes have been observed by eddy covariance method. Since 2012 the detailed year-round monitoring is running in the southern-taiga zonal station of the regional system RusFluxNet with especial attention on the soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics due to windthrow and fallow-forest successions (in frame of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and # Soil carbon dynamics is investigated in decades-hundred-year chronosequences of dominated parcels and different-size windthrow soil cover patterns, including direct investigation during last 33 years with detailed mapping, soil profile morphometrics and bulk density, morphogenetic and statistical analysis of mass data. Morphogenetic analysis of microrelief, soil profile

  18. Analysis of landslide overgrowing rates at Vaskiny Dachi key site, Central Yamal, Russia

    Khomutov, A.


    An estimation of overgrowing of landslide-affected slopes by vegetation at three main landslide elements: shear surface, landslide body and "frontal zone" at Vaskiny Dachi key site is presented. Vaskiny Dachi key site is located in the watershed of Se-Yakha and Mordy-Yakha rivers on Central Yamal, Russia. The area is represented by highly-dissected alluvial-lacustrine-marine plains and terraces. The closest to Vaskiny Dachi climate station is Marresale, about 90 km southwest of Vaskiny Dachi, at the Kara sea coast. The weather here is probably somewhat cooler than at Vaskiny Dachi. The average annual (summer) air temperature at Marresale is -8.3° C (4.3° C) ("Russia's Weather" Server). To estimate vegetation cover dynamics on cryogenic landslides at "Vaskiny Dachi", data published by O.Rebristaya and others (1995) were used. Their observations were done in 1991-1993, and were supplemented by further field observations (Leibman et al., 2000, Khomutov & Leibman 2007) and by field and remote sensing observations in 2008. An estimation of vegetation cover dynamics on cryogenic landslides at "Vaskiny Dachi" leads to the following results. Immediately after landsliding in 1989, landslide shear surface was bare without any vegetation, landslide body had initial vegetation, and "frontal zone" was under liquefied sediment masses. "Frontal zone" formed in front of a landslide body, appears as a result of damming of drainage routes by a landslide body with flooding of the shear surface "upstream" of the landslide body, formation of a sedge-cottongrass meadow there, and swamping downstream (Khomutov & Leibman 2007). By 1993, landslide shear surface got overgrown by species subordinate in surrounding initial landscapes (Alopecurus alpinus, Festuca ovina, Calamagrostis neglecta, Poa alpigena ssp. Alpigena, etc.). Landslide body was covered by initial communities which got depressed: vitality of Salix polaris, Vaccinium vitis-idaea was reduced, dead off moss cover and overgrown


    Laira Ferreira de Campos


    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho trata da entrevista e construção de significados no Programa “Primeira Pessoa” da TVE/RS. A pesquisa sobre esse tema leva em conta a amplitude do gênero programas de entrevista na atualidade, aspectos dialógicos e jornalísticos. Com 22 anos de existência e sob a apresentação da jornalista Ivette Brandalise, o programa busca revelar a personalidade de entrevistados dos mais variados segmentos sociais. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar as potencialidades da entrevista no aprofundamento de informações. A metodologia empregada é a análise da narrativa em Motta (2013 e análise de conversação em Braga (1994 e Marcuschi (1997. Palavras-chave: Entrevista. Primeira Pessoa. Televisão. ABSTRACT This paper discusses the interview and construction of meanings in a program called “Primeira Pessoa” showed at TVE/RS. Research on this theme takes into account the extent of the genre - talk shows - in today´s world, dialogic and journalistic aspects. Having twenty-two years of existence and the journalist Ivette Brandalise as its host, the program seeks to reveal the personality of its guests coming from various social segments. The objective of this study is to verify the interview potentiality in getting further information about the guests. The methodology includes analysis of narrative from Motta (2013 and conversation analysis from Braga (1994 and Marcuschi (1997. Key words: Interview. First Person. Television.

  20. Holocene climate dynamics in the central part of the East European plain (Russia)

    Novenko, Elena


    The Holocene climate and vegetation dynamics in the broad-leaved forest zone of the central part of the East European plain have been reconstructed on the base of pollen, plant macrofossil, testate amoebae and radiocarbon data from the mire Klukva (N 53.834812, E 36.252488), located in the kast depression in the Upper Oka River basin (Tula region, European Russia). The reconstruction of main parameters of past climate (the mean annual temperature precipitation) was carried out by the "Best Modern Analog" approach. Reconstructions of vegetation show that in the early Holocene the territory was occupied mainly by birch and pine-birch forests. Significant changes in the plant cover of the Upper Oka River basin are attributed to the 7.5 cal kyr BP). The climatic conditions were favorable for development of the broad-leaved forests those persisted in this area up to industrial period. In the 17th century, when the population density greatly increased and watersheds were ploughed, natural vegetation communities were gradually destroyed and transformed into agricultural landscapes. According to obtained climatic reconstructions the period 10-8.5 cal kyr BP was relatively cold and wet, when the mean annual temperature was in 3°C lower and precipitation was in 50-100 mm higher then nowadays. The significant climate warming occurred in about 7.0-5.0 cal kyr BP (The Holocene thermal maximum): the mean annual temperature in 2°C exceeded the modern value and precipitation was close to that. The environment conditions were drier due to decrease of effective moisture. In the second part of the Holocene the sequence of second-, and even third-order climatic oscillations expressed against the background of the overall slight trend towards cooling have been determined. The most pronounced cool and wet intervals were reconstructed in 2.5-2.0 cal kyr BP and 1.5-1.3 cal kyr BP. The mean annual temperature decreased in 1.5-2 °C and precipitation rose in 200 mm in compare to modern

  1. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    A. V. Tereshchenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  2. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    A. V. Tereshchenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  3. To decentralize or to continue on the centralization track: The cases of authoritarian regimes in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Irina Busygina


    Full Text Available Decisions on decentralization versus centralization come as a result of strategic choices made by politicians after weighing their costs and benefits. In authoritarian regimes, the highest-priority political task is that of restraining political competition and securing power in the hands of the incumbent. This task incentivizes politicians to restrict political decentralization (or at least block reforms promoting such decentralization. At the same time, external economic pressures (e.g. globalization place the task of national competitiveness in the global markets on the agenda, and increase incentives for fiscal and administrative decentralization. Thus, political and economic pressures create contradicting incentives, and in weighing costs and benefits, politicians in different authoritarian regimes make different choices that lead to variation in the form, degree and success of decentralization/centralization policies. In this article we compare authoritarian decentralization in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  4. Siting of large diameter well type repositories for the central region of Russia

    Dmitriev, A.S.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Prozorov, L.B.; Guskov, A.V.; Korneva, S.A.


    To date only 14 from 16 RADON facilities are in operation. Most of them have not more than about 10% of their repositories free and available for new upcoming radioactive waste. Construction of new repositories and selection of new perspective sites is very actual problem for RAW management in Russia now. Near surface repositories are considered to be acceptable for storage of wastes with low and intermediate activity levels (LILW), which decay to safe levels in some hundreds of years. However, the experience with LILW isolation in the near surface facilities in Russia has shown that a lot of operational and natural factors impact on the engineered barriers and may cause failure of the isolation. In addition, the exploitation of the old repositories and construction of new ones require more area. Significant increase in LILW isolation reliability and area saving may be achieved by wastes disposal/storage in Large Diameter Wells (LDW), drilled in homogeneous sediments with low permeable properties. It could be considered as an intermediate between near-surface and geological repositories, and its specific features should be taken into account when choosing new sites for RAW disposal or long-term storage. (author)

  5. A view on ''On-the-Job Training'' in the central and eastern European countries, Russia and Ukraine

    Deffrennes, M.


    The G-24 Training Working Group visited the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEESs), Russia and Ukraine in the course of 1993/94, in order to define priorities for further financial support by the Donor Countries. As a result, it appeared that Nuclear Training needed strong improvements since it is mainly based on OJT (On the Job Training), not SAT (Systematic Approach to Training) oriented and relying essentially on the line supervisor of the trainee. Recommendations were provided to support a SAT based approach development and to provide adequate equipment. In view of the importance of OJT in the training courses, and that probably for some more years, a specific effort should be made in better defining the goals and objectives of the OJT and its coherent integration in the overall training system. In addition, the OJT ''instructors'' have to be trained in the specific teaching skills required to successfully run OJT. (author). 3 figs

  6. A Mega-fire event in Central Russia: fire weather, radiative, and optical properties of the atmosphere, and consequences for subboreal forest plants

    Nataly Y. Chubarova; Nickolay G. Prilepsky; Alexei N. Rublev; Allen R. Riebau


    In 2002, a major drought and prolonged high temperatures occurred in central Russia that resulted in unprecedented wildland fires. These fires occurred under extreme fire danger conditions and were impossible for the Russian authorities to extinguish. It is perhaps somewhat unique that the fires were first burning peat bogs and later forests, causing very massive smoke...

  7. China-Russia relations in Central Asia. Energy policy, Beijing's new assertiveness and 21{sup st} century geopolitics

    Eder, Thomas Stephan [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Ostasienwissenschaften


    Publication in the field of social sciences. As China rises to global power status, its relations with other major powers, including Russia, are constantly renegotiated. Energy figures prominently in both countries' foreign policy. An extensive analysis of Chinese language sources - academic debate 1997-2012 - confirms a collision of interests over Central Asian reserves. While unanimous appeals to compromise render previous predictions of impending confrontation unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian energy relations as ''central to energy security'', and the explicit rejection of a Russian ''sphere of influence'', also exclude a retreat. In the long term, China will likely replace Russia as the dominant force in Central Asia's energy sector, causing the Kremlin to perceive another ''encroachment''. The current notion of a ''strategic partnership'' will inevitably be challenged.

  8. Cartographic modeling of heterogeneous landscape for footprint analysis of Eddy Covariance Measurements (Central Forest and Central Chernozem reserves, Russia)

    Kozlov, Daniil


    The topographical, soil and vegetation maps of FLUXNET study areas are widely used for interpretation of eddy covariance measurements, for calibration of biogeochemical models and for making regional assessments of carbon balance. The poster presents methodological problems and results of ecosystem mapping using GIS, remote sensing, statistical and field methods on the example of two RusFluxNet sites in the Central Forest (33° E, 56°30'N) and Central Chernozem (36°10' E, 51°36'N) reserves. In the Central Forest reserve tacheometric measurements were used for topographical and peat surveys of bogged sphagnum spruce forest of 20-hectare area. Its common borders and its areas affected by windfall were determined. The supplies and spatial distribution of organic matter were obtained. The datasets of groundwater monitoring measurements on ten wells were compared with each other and the analysis of spatial and temporal groundwater variability was performed. The map of typical ecosystems of the reserve and its surroundings was created on the basis of analysis of multi-temporal Landsat images. In the Central Chernozem reserve the GNSS topographical survey was used for flux tower footprint mapping (22 ha). The features of microrelief predetermine development of different soils within the footprint. Close relationship between soil (73 drilling site) and terrain attributes (DEM with 2.5 m) allowed to build maps of soils and soil properties: carbon content, bulk density, upper boundary of secondary carbonates. Position for chamber-based soil respiration measurements was defined on the basis of these maps. The detailed geodetic and soil surveys of virgin lands and plowland were performed in order to estimate the effect of agrogenic processes such as dehumification, compaction and erosion on soils during the whole period of agricultural use of Central Chernozem reserve area and around. The choice of analogous soils was based on the similarity of their position within the

  9. The Qing and Russia in Central Asia : A Comparative Study of Motives for Political Expansion

    Løvold, Thomas Ohren


    The Peoples Republic of China’s Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, or eastern Central Asia, is an area that has recently seen large scale ethnic unrest, as the native Uygurs have protested violently against Chinese domination in the region. This thesis is a discussion of the background for why Xinjiang today is under Chinese rule. To and a half centuries ago, in 1755-59, the Manchu Qing dynasty (1636-1911) conquered Xinjiang and incorporated it into their state, and this conquest contributed s...

  10. Modeling of the interest rate policy of the central bank of Russia

    Shelomentsev, A. G.; Berg, D. B.; Detkov, A. A.; Rylova, A. P.


    This paper investigates interactions among money supply, exchange rates, inflation, and nominal interest rates, which are regulating parameters of the Central bank policy. The study is based on the data received from Russian source in 2002-2016. The major findings are 1) the interest rate demonstrates almost no relation with inflation; 2) ties of money supply and the nominal interest rate are strong; 3) money supply and inflation show meaningful relations only in comparison to their growth rates. We have developed a dynamic model, which can be used in forecasting of macroeconomic processes.

  11. Genetic markers for inherited thrombophilia are associated with fetal growth retardation in the population of Central Russia.

    Reshetnikov, Evgeny; Zarudskaya, Oksana; Polonikov, Alexey; Bushueva, Olga; Orlova, Valentina; Krikun, Evgeny; Dvornyk, Volodymyr; Churnosov, Mikhail


    The aim of this study was to examine the role of hereditary thrombophilia in the development of fetal growth retardation (FGR) in the population of Central Russia. The case-control study sample included 497 women in the third trimester of pregnancy recruited during 2009-2013. The participants were enrolled into two groups: patients with FGR (n = 250) and controls without FGR (n = 247). The participants were genotyped for four genetic markers of hereditary thrombophilia: factor V Leiden (G > A FV, rs6025), prothrombin (G > A FII, rs1799963), factor VII (G > A FVII, rs6046), and fibrinogen (G > A FI, rs1800790). The genetic factors for an increased risk of FGR were allele G of rs6046 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34) and genotype GG of rs6046 (OR = 2.64), whereas genotype GA of rs6046 had the protective value (OR = 0.42). A combination of alleles G of rs1799963, A of rs6046, and G of rs1800790 (OR = 0.31) reduces the risk of FGR. Polymorphism rs6046 of the FVII gene is associated with the development of FGR. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Effect of summer fire on cursorial spider (Aranei and beetle (Coleoptera assemblages in meadow steppes of Central European Russia

    Polchaninova Nina


    Full Text Available Fire is an important structuring force for grassland ecosystems. Despite increased incidents of fire in European steppes, their impact on arthropod communities is still poorly studied. We assessed short-term changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages after a summer fire in the meadow steppe in Central European Russia. The responses of spider and beetle assemblages to the fire event were different. In the first post-fire year, the same beetle species dominated burnt and unburnt plots, the alpha-diversity of beetle assemblages was similar, and there were no pronounced changes in the proportions of trophic groups. Beetle species richness and activity density increased in the second post-fire year, while that of the spiders decreased. The spider alpha-diversity was lowest in the first post-fire year, and the main dominants were pioneer species. In the second year, the differences in spider species composition and activity density diminished. The main conclusion of our study is that the large-scale intensive summer fire caused no profound changes in cursorial beetle and spider assemblages of this steppe plot. Mitigation of the fire effect is explained by the small plot area, its location at the edge of the fire site and the presence of adjacent undisturbed habitats with herbaceous vegetation.

  13. Financial and Emotional Support in Close Personal Ties among Central Asian Migrant Women in Russia.

    Kornienko, Olga; Agadjanian, Victor; Menjívar, Cecilia; Zotova, Natalia


    This study advances research on the role of personal networks as sources of financial and emotional support in immigrants' close personal ties beyond the immediate family. Because resource scarcity experienced by members of immigrant communities is likely to disrupt normatively expected reciprocal support, we explored multi-level predictors of exchange processes with personal network members that involve (1) only receiving support, (2) only providing support, and (3) reciprocal support exchanges. We focus on an understudied case of Central Asian migrant women in the Russian Federation using a sample of 607 women from three ethnic groups-Kyrgyz, Tajik, Uzbek-who were surveyed in two large Russian cities-Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan. The survey collected information on respondents' demographic, socioeconomic, and migration-related characteristics, as well as characteristics of up to five individuals with whom they had a close relationship. Multi-level multinomial regression analyses were used to account for the nested nature of the data. Our results revealed that closer social relationships (siblings and friends) and greater levels of resources (income and regularized legal status) at both ego and alter levels were positively related to providing, receiving, and reciprocally exchanging financial and emotional support. Egos were more likely to provide financial assistance to transnational alters, whereas they were more likely to engage in mutual exchanges of emotional support with their network members from other countries. Personal network size and density showed no relationship with support exchanges. These findings provide a nuanced picture of close personal ties as conduits for financial and emotional support in migrant communities in a major, yet understudied, migrant-receiving context.

  14. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Vasenev, I.


    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  15. Agrogenic transformation of soil organic C in conditions of southern-taiga zone, European Russia

    Yashin, Ivan; Vasenev, Ivan; Atenbekov, Ramiz


    The principal regional features of soil organic carbon (SOC) agrogenic transformation and water-soluble organic substances (WSOS) genesis and environmental functions have been investigated in the Podzols and Podzoluvisols of the representative natural and agro- ecosystems in the southern taiga subzone of the European part of Russia. Especial attention has been done to the role of SOC agrogenic degradation and WSOS with acidic and ligand properties in soil carbon dioxide emission. The long-term agroecological investigations run in the regional set of representative agrolandscape monitoring stations in the educational farm "Mikhailovskoye" (Podolsk district, Moscow region), Field experimental station and Forest experimental station (RTSAU campus, Moscow) and in the Central Forest biosphere reserve (Nelidovo district, Tver region). Field research methods include sorption lysimetry and radioactive tracers. The laboratory ones - chromatography and spectrophotometry. There were used activated charcoal brand "Carbolite", chemically purified quartz sand and barley plant residues (2-3 mm), totally labeled with 14C in the soil-horizontally distributed sorption columns. Obtained results became useful for quantitative assessment of the principal stages and processes in soil CO2 emission, including the water-soluble organic substances formation (3.0 g of SOC per 100 g of plant litter or 60-75 g of SOC per square meter of the organo-mineral horizon A0 per year) and CO2 emission. In the middle taiga ecosystem conditions (with relatively low soil biological activity) the highest emission of CO2 (83,0±4.1 % of the newly formed WSOS) was in case of arable Podzoluvisols, and lowest one (32,4±2,5%) - in their semihydromorphic versions.

  16. Platinum-Group Minerals and Other Accessory Phases in Chromite Deposits of the Alapaevsk Ophiolite, Central Urals, Russia

    Federica Zaccarini


    Full Text Available An electron microprobe study has been carried out on platinum-group minerals, accessory phases, and chromite in several chromite deposits of the Alapaevsk ophiolite (Central Urals, Russia namely the Bakanov Kluch, Kurmanovskoe, Lesnoe, 3-d Podyony Rudnik, Bol’shaya Kruglyshka, and Krest deposits. These deposits occur in partially to totally serpentinized peridotites. The microprobe data shows that the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Tiny platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 µm in size, have been found in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, accompanied by minor cuproiridsite and alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru. A small grain (about 20 μm was found in the interstitial serpentine of the Bakanov Kluch chromitite, and its calculated stoichiometry corresponds to (Ni,Fe5P. Olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, has a mantle-compatible composition in terms of major and minor elements. Several inclusions of amphibole, Na-rich phlogopite, and clinopyroxene have been identified. The bimodal Cr–Al composition of chromite probably corresponds to a vertical distribution in the ophiolite sequence, implying formation of Cr-rich chromitites in the deep mantle, and Al-rich chromitites close to the Moho-transition zone, in a supra-subduction setting. The presence of abundant hydrous silicate inclusions, such as amphibole and phlogopite, suggests that the Alapaevsk chromitites crystallized as a result of the interaction between a melt enriched in fluids and peridotites. Laurite and cuproiridsite are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at high temperatures. The sulfur fugacity was relatively high to allow the precipitation of Ir-bearing sulfides, but below the Os–OsS2 buffer. The alloys in the system Os–Ir–Ru are classified as secondary PGM, i.e., formed at low temperature during the serpentinization process. The

  17. Interaction of rock, water, and plants in central Siberia (Russia) dominated by continuous permafrost: biotic versus abiotic fluxes

    Viers, J.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Beaulieu, E.; Dupre, B.


    Boreal forests mainly located between the latitudes 46°N and 66°N play a key role in regulating global carbon cycle and climate of the Earth. These forests store about 42 gigatons of carbon (Gt C) of above ground biomass and 200 Gt C of soil organic matter that represents about 8 and 13% of the global amounts (Jarvis et al., 2001 and references therein). The last technical paper on climate change and water of the IPCC reports abnormal thawing of permafrost, increase of the active period, increase of river runoff and changes in the distribution of plants and their productivity for artic and sub-arctic regions ( and references therein). Within the context of global warming, forested permafrost regions appear to be very sensitive and are likely to be deeply modified in a near future. In return, these modifications affecting the functioning of these ecosystems will influence the whole Earth system. Among forested boreal regions, Central Siberia (Russia), that spreads over more than 4,000,000 km2, is very interesting due to the presence of permafrost within the specific geological substratum. Indeed, this area offers large basaltic surface and chemical weathering of basaltic rocks is considered to be the main process removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere over geological time scale (Dessert et al., 2003). The sampling site is located in the drainage basin of the Nizhniya Tungunska River (eastern tributary of the Yenissey River) on the basaltic plateau of Putorana. Climate is cold with a mean annual air temperature of -9.5°C and annual precipitation of 350mm. 60% of rain is falling during the active period when the surface soil temperature is above zero degrees (end of May to September). At local scale, there are north-facing and south-facing slopes that receive equivalent precipitation but exhibit totally different heat input and consequently above-ground biomass and active layer thickness. Larches and mosses account for more than 85% of the above

  18. Biomorphology and rhythm of seasonal development of the relic species Lobelia dortmanna in oligotrophic lakes of Tver region

    A. G. Lapirov


    Full Text Available This article covers the morphology of the vegetative and generative sphere of a rare relic species, Lobelia dortmanna L. (Lobelioideae. This is the first time that using the modular approach a study has analysed the shoot system of this species and described the structures of all three categories: elementary (EM, universal (UM and basic (OM. This paper describes the life form and analyses the rhythm of seasonal development of the species in the lakes of Tver oblast, and provides data on the seed productivity. As a life form, L. dortmanna is a herbaceous polycarpic, un clearly polycentric shallow-rooted plant with a fibrous root system and non-specialized morphological disintegration. The sympodially growing shoot-system of the plant is formed by two types of different-aged anisotropic replacement shoots: dicyclic vegetative-generative semirosette and annual vegetative rosette shoots. The indicator of actual seed productivity equals on average up to 1621 ± 451 seeds per single vegetative-generative shoot. The module structure of L. dortmanna is presented by 10 variants of elementary modules. The main modules are formed on the basis of a monocarpic dicyclic anisotropic monopodial shoot with the following morpho-functional zones distinguished: 1 the lower zone of inhibition; 2 the recovery zone; 3 the upper zone of inhibition 4 the latent generative zone; 5 the main inflorescence. The functional role of the first three morpho-functional zones of a monocarpic shoot is performed by a minimum number of variants of elementary modules. In the rhythm of seasonal development, the authors distinguished 7 consecutive stages: 1 the period of relative rest; 2 vegetative phase; 3 the phase of budding; 4 flowering; 5 frui ting; 6 secondary activities. By the character of rhythm of seasonal development, L. dortmanna belongs to the group of evergreen plants with a long growing season and middle-late summer flowering.

  19. Carbon balance at represenative agroecosystems of Central European Russia with different crops assessed by eddy covariance method

    Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya


    Despite the fact that in Russia cropland's soils carbon loses 9 time higher than forest's soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), agroecosystems were not given sufficient attention and most of the papers are devoted to forestry and natural ecosystems. Carbon balance was calculated at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia, for two agroecosystems with different crops from the same crop rotation studied for 2 years. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured with eddy covariance technique, statistical method to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers (Burba, 2013). Crop rotation included potato, winter wheat, barley and vetch and oat mix. Two fields of the same crop rotation were studied in 2013-2014. One of the fields (A) was used in 2013 for barley planting (Hordeum vulgare L.). The field B was in 2013 used for planting together vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Inversely oats and vetch grass mixt was sown in 2014 on field A. Winter wheat was sown on field A in the very beginning of September. On the second field (B) in 2014 winter wheat occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering, after harvesting it in mid of July, white mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the field with winter wheat and white mustard; perhaps because the two crops were cultivated on the field within one growing season. Three other cases showed CO2 emission. Great difference in 82 g C m-2 per year in NEE between two fields with vetch and oat mix was related to higher difference in grass yields. NEE for barley field was positive during the whole year; considering only the growing season, NEE for barley was 100 g C m-2 lower and was negative. Closed

  20. The impact of extreme weather conditions on the life of settlers in the Central Russia in X - XVI centuries

    Graves, Irina; Nizovtsev, Viacheslav; Erman, Natalia


    resulted in crop damage and famine. From the XIV century the little Ice Age began. Year average temperature becomes lower by 1.4°C and summer temperature - by 2-3°C. In the XIV century the chronicles mentioned a total of 100 extreme natural phenomena, as a result of which Russia experienced more than 37 years of famine. The climate was particularly variable in late XIV - early XV century and XVI - XVII centuries, when there were years of particularly cold winters and increased humidity (due to winter precipitation). The duration of the crop growing season was reduced by three weeks. At the beginning of the XVII century spruce became dominant in the spruce-deciduous forests and co-dominant in deciduous forests. There was a transfer of settlements and agricultural land to interfluve areas and higher river valleys. The determining factors were demographic, socio-economic and historical factors, but the role of natural factors cannot be overlooked. The end of the XVI century was marked by the most severe political and economic crisis in the Russian State (oprichnina (political and administrative apparatus established by Ivan IV) and Livonian Wars by Ivan IV), which, combined with deteriorating environmental conditions (increased humidity of the climate, the average annual temperature drop) caused massive desolation of the lands. Many hundreds of villages turned into wasteland. In this period the Moscow land was reported as a "wild desert, covered with shrubs, bogs and imbanks", there were also memories of the past navigation on small rivers, data on mills on the streams. The climate deterioration caused the agrarian revolution in Russia in XIV-XVI centuries. Slash-and-burn and shifting cultivation was replaced by plow farming system (two- and three-field), which was more adapted to the harsh climatic conditions. The work is performed under project № 17-05-00662of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research

  1. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A


    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Improvement of hygiene and the combat of epidemics as Russian state concerns during World War I: Prince Alexander von Oldenburg and the POWs of the Central Powers in Russia].

    Nachtigal, Reinhard


    When Russia joined the war against the Central Powers in 1914, she immediately faced problems of public health care among the masses of people who were forced to move across far distances in the country: soldiers, refugees, and prisoners of war. Because of poor organisation and the unexpectedly long duration of the war, the POWs fared worst of all war victims in Russia. Subjected to an overstrained military organisation in the rear, the fate of this broadly neglected group illustrates how and with what success Russia strove to meet its deficiencies in administrative structure during wartime. The "Evacuation and Sanitation Section" was put under the command of a member of the Imperial family, Prince Alexander of Oldenburg, a high ranking official of German origin. This amateur scientist and initiator of medical institutions was an energetic and courageous personality who became vital for the fate of millions of POWs in epidemic-stricken Russia. The role of this "silent" ally of the German and Austro-Hungarian governments has hitherto been unknown. Newly found sources in Russian archives now shed an interesting light on a weak spot of Russia's administration and a generally neglected chapter of the history of medicine, the handling of epidemics and of deficits in hygiene.

  3. Rethinking Russia

    Paulauskas, Kęstutis


    The article argues that the period of “high” politics in the ever-problematic relations between Lithuania and Russia is over. At the same time, it is agued that tensions remain at the level of “low” politics, when the agenda of bilateral relations is dominated by the security interests related to Kaliningrad Oblast and Russia’s energy policy. The author claims that Lithuania should take a more pragmatic approach in her day-to-day relations with Russia and follow a more flexible policy towards...

  4. Russia report

    Along with cementing the joint Shuttle-Mir Program in late June with a $400 million contract, the U.S. and Russia signed a deal to team up on global environmental issues. Under the agreement, U.S. and Russian scientists will establish modern facilities for petroleum research, including advanced geographic systems technology, petroleum geochemistry, and seismic processing to help Russia transition to a “market” economy, Interior Secreary Bruce Babbitt reports. The program, to be funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, will produce maps, technical reports, and other data for investment decisions.

  5. Palaeoecological data as a tool to predict possible future vegetation changes in the boreal forest zone of European Russia: a case study from the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve

    Novenko, E. Yu; Tsyganov, A. N.; Olchev, A. V.


    New multi-proxy records (pollen, testate amoebae, and charcoal) were applied to reconstruct the vegetation dynamics in the boreal forest area of the southern part of Valdai Hills (the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve) during the Holocene. The reconstructions of the mean annual temperature and precipitation, the climate moisture index (CMI), peatland surface moisture, and fire activity have shown that climate change has a significant impact on the boreal forests of European Russia. Temperature growth and decreased moistening during the warmest phases of the Holocene Thermal Maximum in 7.0-6.2 ka BP and 6.0-5.5 ka BP and in the relatively warm phase in 3.4-2.5 ka BP led to structural changes in plant communities, specifically an increase in the abundance of broadleaf tree species in forest stands and the suppression of Picea. The frequency of forest fires was higher in that period, and it resulted in the replacement of spruce forests by secondary stands with Betula and Pinus. Despite significant changes in the climatic parameters projected for the 21st century using even the optimistic RCP2.6 scenario, the time lag between climate changes and vegetation responses makes any catastrophic vegetation disturbances (due to natural reasons) in the area in the 21st century unlikely.

  6. The research station "Vaskiny Dachi", Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia – a review of 25 years of permafrost studies

    Marina O. Leibman


    Full Text Available The research station "Vaskiny Dachi" on the Yamal Peninsula was established in 1988. Activities aimed at monitoring of permafrost and related environmental features under a relatively low level of nature disturbances caused by gas field development. Cryogenic processes that may affect the environment and their structures have been of primary interest. Landslides are the most common cryogenic processes in Central Yamal in general and also in the proximity of the station. Field surveys of numerous landslides, analysis of their dependence on climatic parameters and their fluctuations resulted in novel classification of cryogenic landslides based on mechanisms of their development. Dating by radiocarbon and dendrochronology allows the separation of cycles of landslide activation. Cryogenic landslides control the development of other processes, such as thermal erosion, river channel erosion and thermokarst. It also affects topography, vegetation pattern, geochemistry of vegetation, ground water and soils. As a result, permafrost parameters, specifically active layer depth and ground temperature, moisture and ice content in the active layer, depend indirectly on landsliding. Monitoring within the framework of the main programs of the International Permafrost Association, such as Circumarctic Active Layer Monitoring (CALM, since 1993 and Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP, since 2011, play an important role among the research activities. From the collected data one can conclude that ground temperature increased on average by about 1 °C since the 1990s. At the same time, active layer fluctuations do not exactly follow the air temperature changes. Spatial changes in ground temperature are controlled by the redistribution of snow which is resulting from strong winds characteristic for tundra environments and the highly dissected relief of Central Yamal. Temporal variations rather depend on air temperature fluctuations but the rate differs in various

  7. Results of Paleomagnetic Investigation of Angara - Taseeva Depression and Central Part of Tunguska Syncline (Siberian Trap Province, Russia)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Pavlov, V.


    Results of paleomagnetic investigation of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and central part of Tunguska syncline) are performed here. Our work was dedicated to the estimation of dynamics and duration of magmatic activity during Siberian Traps emplacement. The conclusions are based on paleomagnetic study of large dolerite sills in the periphery of Siberian Trap province, tuffaceous deposits, small intrusions and lava flows of Tunguska syncline, and on geochronological data (Ivanov et al., 2013; Reichow et al., 2009). The presented data show that formation of Siberian Traps in these regions took place as several short bursts of magmatic activity led to large sill intrusions and eruptions of tuffs. This data are in agreement with the pulsating character of magmatic activity in the Northern part of Siberian platform (Pavlov et al., 2014). The most powerful burst of magmatic activity in Angara-Taseeva syncline is supposed to be synchronous to the main phase of volcanic eruptions in the Northern part of Siberian platform and emplacement of ore-bearing intrusions in Noril'sk district. This study was funded by grant RFBR # 14-05-31447.

  8. Environmental assessment of water-salt regime of irrigated soils in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Rumyantseva, Irina


    A large part of Central Chernozem Region is located in the zone of risky agriculture. This led to intensive use of soil in the irrigation system. Therefore, a detailed analysis of water-salt regime of irrigated soils required for ecological state assessment of soils for irrigation. In the investigated area the fone component of the soil cover on the levelled plateau are chernozems. On the slopes formed a meadow-chernozem soils. Parent material is a cover loess-like calcareous non-saline clay. In these soils, our studies found component-quantitative composition of the aqueous extract, the chemism of salinity, which allowed us to make conclusions about the direction of the salinisation process in soils when used in the system of irrigated agriculture. By quantity water extract chernozems are non-saline, the ratio of anions and cations are chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. In the composition of easily soluble salts dominated by Ca(HCO3)2. On sum of toxic salts in the soils are non-saline. This type and chemism of salinity deep brackish groundwater (more than 5 m) can be actively used in the system of rational irrigation. The meadow-chernozem soils formed under conditions of increased surface and soil moisture in the shallow brackish water at a depth of 3-5 m. These soils by quantity water extract are non-saline, anionic-cationic ratio - chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. Permanent components of salt associations are Ca(HCO3)2, MgCl2, Na2SO4. On sum of toxic salts in the soil is not saline throughout the profile. The chemism of salinity and the proximity of groundwater at irregular watering can lead to the rise of groundwater level, the development of gleyed and sodium alkalinization. Thus, the introduction of intensive irrigated agriculture on chernozems and hydromorphic analogues may lead to the development in them of negative consequences. The most dynamic indicator is the water-salt regime, the systematic monitoring and control which

  9. Springtime Flood Risk Reduction in Rural Arctic: A Comparative Study of Interior Alaska, United States and Central Yakutia, Russia

    Yekaterina Y. Kontar


    Full Text Available Every spring, riverine communities throughout the Arctic face flood risk. As the river ice begins to thaw and break up, ice jams—accumulation of chunks and sheets of ice in the river channel, force melt water and ice floes to back up for dozens of kilometers and flood vulnerable communities upstream. Via a comparative analysis between two flood-prone communities in Alaska and Yakutia (Siberia, this study examines key components of flood risk—hazards, exposure, and vulnerability, and existing practices in flood risk reduction in rural Arctic. The research sites are two rural communities—Galena (Yukon River and Edeytsy (Lena River, which sustained major ice-jam floods in May 2013. The data was acquired through a combination of direct observations on site, review of documents and archives, focus group discussions, and surveys. Five focus groups with US and Russian representatives from disaster management agencies revealed a few similar patterns as well as significant differences in flood risk reduction strategies. The main differences included higher reliance on mechanical and short-term ice jam and flood mitigation efforts (e.g., ice-jam demolition in the Russian Arctic, and lack of a centralized flood management model in the US. Surveys conducted among population at risk during the site visits to Edeytsy (November 2015 and Galena (March 2016 revealed higher satisfaction levels with the existing flood risk reduction efforts among Edeytsy residents. Survey respondents in Galena indicated the lack of ice jam removal and other flood prevention measures as the key drawback in the existing flood management. Historical analysis, conducted via the disaster Pressure and Release (PAR model, revealed that springtime flood risk in both regions results from complex interactions among a series of natural processes that generate conditions of hazard, and human actions that generate conditions of communities’ exposure and vulnerability. The analysis

  10. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer


    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  11. Daily activity patterns of large and medium-sized mammals based on camera traps data in the Central Forest Nature Reserve, Valdai Upland, Russia

    Sergey S. Ogurtsov


    Full Text Available Here are presented the results of the analysis of daily activity patterns obtained from the data of camera traps for five large mammals (elk Alces alces, wild boar Sus scrofa, brown bear Ursus arctos, grey wolf Canis lupus, Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and three medium ones (European badger Meles meles, raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, mountain hare Lepus timidus for the territory of the Central Forest Nature Reserve, Valdai Upland, Russia. Data were collected in the period 2010–2017 and the trap effort was 30 158 camera days from 21 locations. Most of the mammals surveyed showed activity at night and twilight hours (71% of the pictures. The hare was most active among all and dominant at night. In many respects it is similar to the activity of a raccoon dog, which type can be defined as nocturnal too. Unlike a hare, a raccoon dog has a weak peak in the daytime and less activity in the night. Badgers movements are confined to the twilight and nighttime. The share of nocturnal activity of large ungulates such as elk and wild boar was approximately the same and amounted to about 45% of all registrations. The wild boar is slightly more active during the day and in the evening and is not active at all in the morning. The elk is active in the morning, and in the daytime and to a lesser extent in the evening. The lynx and the bear have similar cathemeral activity patterns: almost half of all their meetings occurred at daylight hours and only slightly – less than 40% – at night. The brown bear had the maximum number of registrations in the daytime among all the studied species. Despite the fact that the main object of lynx feeding in the reserve is the hare, there was no high degree of overlap between them (γˆ = 0.75. In the group of large carnivores, the wolf was noticeably distinguished, more than half of its registrations were at night, and a third – on daytime. Daily activities of the wolf and its main prey elk showed a large overlap (

  12. Aging in Russia.

    Strizhitskaya, Olga


    Russia has always been at an intersection of Western and Eastern cultures, with its dozens of ethnic groups and different religions. The federal structure of the country also encompasses a variety of differences in socioeconomic status across its regions. This diversity yields complexity in aging research; aging people in Russia differ in terms of nationality, religion, political beliefs, social and economic status, access to health care, income, living conditions, etc. Thus, it is difficult to control for all these factors or to draw a picture of an "average" Russian older adult. Nevertheless, there is a great deal of research on aging in Russia, mainly focusing on biomedical and social aspects of aging. Most such research is based in the Central and Western regions, whereas the Siberian and Far East regions are underrepresented. There is also a lack of secondary databases and representative nationwide studies. Social policy and legislation address the needs of older adults by providing social services, support, and protection. The retirement system in Russia enables adults to retire at relatively young ages-55 and 60 years for women and men, respectively-but also to maintain the option of continuing their professional career or re-establishing a career after a "vocation" period. Though in recent years the government has faced a range of political issues, affecting the country's economy in general, budget funds for support of aging people have been maintained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  13. Exporting to Russia?

    Thomsen, Lotte


    the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we......This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  14. Agricultural crops and soil treatment impacts on the daily and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes in the field agroecosystems at the Central region of Russia

    Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Berezovskiy, Egor; Djancharov, Turmusbek


    The problem of greenhouse gases' concentrations increasing becomes more and more important due to global changes issues. The main component of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. The researches focused on its fluxes in natural and anthropogenic modified landscapes can help in this problem solution. Our research has been done with support of the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # and of FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C in the representative for Central Region of Russia field agroecosystems at the Precision Farming Experimental Field of Russian Timiryazev State Agrarian University with cultivated sod podzoluvisols, barley and oats - vetch grass mix (Moscow station of the RusFluxNet). The daily and seasonal dynamics of the carbon dioxide have been studied at the ecosystem level by the Eddy covariance method (2 stations) and at the soil level by the exposition chamber method (40 chambers) with mobile infra red gas analyzer (Li-Cor 820). The primary Eddy covariance monitoring data on CO2 fluxes and water vapor have been processed by EddyPro software developed by LI-COR Biosciences. According to the two-year monitoring data the daily CO2 sink during the vegetation season is usually approximately two times higher than its emission at night. Seasonal CO2 fluxes comparative stabilization has been fixed in case the plants height around 10-12 cm and it usually persist until the wax ripeness phase. There is strong dependence between the soil CO2 emission and the air temperature with the correlation coefficient 0.86 in average (due to strong input of the soil thin top functional subhorizon), but it drops essentially at the end of the season - till 0.38. The soil moisture impact on CO2 fluxes dynamics was less, with negative correlation at the end of the season. High daily dynamics of CO2 fluxes determines the protocol requirements for seasonal soil monitoring investigation with less limitation at the end of the season. The accumulated monitoring data will be

  15. Russia and the BRICS:

    Skak, Mette

    Russia's role as driver behind the BRICS is critically examined via the original RIC concept of Primakov. Today, there are mixed feelings about the BRICS in Russia.......Russia's role as driver behind the BRICS is critically examined via the original RIC concept of Primakov. Today, there are mixed feelings about the BRICS in Russia....


    M. A. Demidova


    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the cost structure for pharmacotherapy of patients with stable angina (SA, in particular, to compare the cost of pharmacotherapy with drugs, both included and not included into the official Standard of care (SC. Material and methods. Medical records of patients with SA (n=100 admitted to the cardiology department of Tver Regional Clinical Hospital in January-July 2010 were studied retrospectivelly. Costs of treatment with drugs specified in SC for patients with SA as well as drugs not included in SC were considered. Costs of pharmacotherapy and cost structure were determined. Pharmacoeconomical methods, especially ABC analysis, were partially used.  Results. Totally 65502.39 ruble was spent for pharmacotherapy of 100 patients with SA. Cost structure was the following: 32679.34 ruble was spent for drugs recommended by SC, 23698.18 ruble — for drugs not included in SC, and 9124.87 ruble — for drugs to treat concomitant diseases which are not taken into account by SC for patients with SA. Conclusion. SA pharmacotherapy counts 50% of the total cost for drugs recommended by SC, 36% — for drugs not included in SC but belonged to pharmacological class presented in SC, and 14% — drugs from pharmacological class not included in SC. In the process of new SC elaboration for SA patients it is necessary to take into account treatment costs of concomitant diseases especially diabetes mellitus which can account up to 9.5% of total treatment cost of SA patients.

  17. Restless Russia

    Andrew Wilson


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate how and why after a twelve-years period of stability Putinist social contract seemingly broke down and Russia stepped into a new period of uncertainty and crisis. The author underlines that, unwillingly, Medvedev’s presidency paved the way for the protests from the winter of 2011-2012 and fostered the regime’s crisis of legitimacy. Specifically, Medvedev’s relatively liberal rhetoric led to rising expectations among the ‘winners’ of first Putin-Medvedev era and to a growing gap between rhetoric and delivery. Moreover, the ‘Putin consensus’ was also fraying from below during the 2000s, given the population’s fading memory about the 1990s, flourishing of corruption, and migration becoming a hot issue in a booming economy and collapsing native demographics of Russian society. Finally, Putin made several crucial tactical mistakes in the run-up to the Duma elections of the 2011, failing to provide a coherent narrative for the elections, loosing some leading manipulators of the political system, and ousting some powerful regional bosses that ran powerful local machines which traditionally delivered the vote.

  18. Energy and Russia

    Corbeau, A.S.; Noel, P.; Finon, D.; Baudrand, D.; Zaki, M.; Chevallier, Bruno


    Five issues are addressed concerning energy and Russia: energy perspectives in Russia (according to world energy outlook for 2011 and to Russia energy outlook), notably in terms of energy mix by 2035; the relationship between geopolitics and the gas market in Russia and for the European Union; the possibility of a European common foreign policy in front of a supposed Russian risk (involved actors, the issue of corridors); the refining industry in Russia (key figures, obstacles to its competitiveness improvement); and Total as a major company operating in Russia (context, projects). Questions concerning these issues are briefly answered

  19. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    Lizin, A.M.; Zeisler, N.


    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  20. Focus on Russia. Russia versus Gazprom

    Mehdiyeva, N.


    Rising domestic demand and the depletion of traditional natural gas fields mean that Russia will have to make choices as to where to send its gas. But the priorities of Gazprom and the Russian government often conflict, a trend likely exacerbated by the deteriorating relationship between Russia and the West

  1. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    N. M. Shalenna


    Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10%) that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many gover...

  2. Safety Regulations in organizations and enterprises under supervision of Federal environmental, industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia (Rostechnadzor), Central Region. Short overview of sites which potentially are dangerous for terrorist threat

    Gasselblat, A.D.


    Full text: Federal environmental, industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia carries out inspections over safety of atomic energy sites on the territory of Russian Federation, which are used for peaceful purposes. Currently under control of Supervision Service on the whole territory of Russia 2000 (2179) (1.) organizations (enterprises), business entities in the field of atomic energy use (industry, medicine, scientific research, agriculture, geological survey, education and etc.) using in their activity radionuclide sources. Approximately 6000 (5955) territorially separated or technologically independent radiation-dangerous sites are counted in their structure, which are dealing with radionuclides. The total number of sealed radionuclide sources is more than 1000 pieces. More than thousands radiation-dangerous entities are dealing with unsealed radionuclide sources and radioactive wastes. At such scales of activity, when evident dynamic of source movement is observed, it is very important for regulatory authority to update information on source location, condition, safe use and security, as well as physical protection and prevention of its use in terrorist purposes. In its structure industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia has 7 big subdivisions (according to directions regulation in the field of atomic energy use) - inter regional territory administrations on control over nuclear and radiation safety, ensuring control over whole territory of Russian Federation, each in within its border of Federal region of Russian Federation. Central inter regional territory administration on control over nuclear and radiation safety is the biggest according to its personnel and number of controlled sites by territorial subdivision of Federal environmental, industrial and nuclear supervision service of Russia (in the field of atomic energy use, according to Federal Law dated 21.11.1995, №170-Federal Low On atomic energy use) and carries out its activity

  3. Quantitative and Qualitative Composition of Diet of the Ural Owl, Strix Uralensi (Strigidae, Strigiformes, in the Central Part of European Russia (The Example of the Republic of Mordovia

    Andreychev A.


    Full Text Available The results of the study of the Ural Owl feeding spectrum are presented. In Russia the Ural owl eats over twenty species of mammals, thirty bird species and a number of animals of other classes. The research tasks included the identification of the species of the victims of a large owl in Mordovia, their quantitative data and the characteristics of osteological material from pellets. It was found out that mammals, in particular rodents, are the basis for the Ural owl food. The Ural Owl’s diet consists mainly of gray voles (47.7 %. On the second place there is a red vole (31.4 %. The share of mice is only 7.3 %. Th e predator hunts for the forest mouse most oft en. In pellets the mass fraction of bone remains varies in the range from 3.4 to 44.8 %. Th e average proportion of bone remains is, as a rule, up to 25 %, with the content of only one or two small rodents in pellets; the remains of three to six individuals - up to 45 % of the weight of dry pellet. Among all the bones of mammals, the lower jaws, femoral and tibia bones give the greatest information about the number and composition of victims of the Ural owl. In pellets the brachial and nameless bones of the victims are presented in smaller numbers.

  4. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    N. M. Shalenna


    Full Text Available Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10% that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many government representatives and by the leaders of social and religious organizations and movements. Russian Muslim Ummah nowadays is far from being homogeneous and integrated, that predisposes some groups to radicalization of sentiments, ideas and activities and inevitably causes significant destabilization in the religious, social and political spheres within certain subjects of the Russian Federation and at the national level. The article focuses on the complex investigation of the influence of Islam on the social and political processes in contemporary Russia. It reveals the main principles of the Russian administration policy in the field of religion in general and towards Muslims in particular. Specific features of Muslim communities’ formation and factors of their institutionalization are determined. This research covers the reasons of major contradictions existing within the Russian Ummah. The article stresses on the importance of this study in the context of Ukrainian-Russian conflict in Crimea and in eastern regions of Ukraine. Current policy of Russia towards the Crimean Tatar population is analyzed.


    Dementiev N. P.


    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  6. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du


    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  7. Russia - Nato. The military balance

    Daugaard, Søren Bech; Jacobsen, Karen Vestergård; Aigro, Signe; Skarequist, Anne


    This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neoclassical realist framework. The project consists in three analytical parts of respectively, 1: The military capabilities balance between NATO and Russia; 2: How the international system puts pressure on Russia; and 3: How the strategic culture of Russia can explain its balancing. This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neo...

  8. Radcure developments in Russia

    Rot, A.; Zaks-rot, I.


    The survey dwells on three main parts: 1. Insight into the state of radiation curing technology in Russia. 2. Scope of the scientific potential. 3. Certain regard on forecasts, opportunities and prospects for Russian RadTech market

  9. Where is Russia heading?

    Natalija Pliskevič


    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  10. Why Russia is not a state

    Stern, J.E.


    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  11. Security of fissile materials in Russia

    Bukharin, O.


    The problem of security of huge stocks of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia against theft or diversion remains a serious nonproliferation concern. During the Cold War, the security of Soviet nuclear materials was based on centralization and discipline, protection by the military, and intrusive political oversight of the people. The recent fundamental societal changes have rendered these arrangements inadequate, and the security of nuclear materials has decreased. Safeguarding nuclear materials in Russia is particularly difficult because of their very large inventories and the size and complexity of the nation's nuclear infrastructure. Russia needs a reliable and more objective technology-based system of nuclear safeguards designed to control nuclear materials. The Russian government and the international community are working towards this goal

  12. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy

    Bourdillon, Y.


    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  13. Capital Flight from Russia

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro


    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  14. Russia air management program

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)


    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  15. Russia air management program

    Pace, T.G.; Markin, S.; Kosenkova, S.V.


    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  16. Russia air management program

    Pace, T G [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S V [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)


    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  17. Reinsurance Market in Russia Requires a Restart

    I. S. Voronin


    Full Text Available Purpose: main objective of this article is to analyze dynamics and structure of the reinsurance market in Russia. Market research is conducted to understand the main trends in Russian reinsurance during period of economic sanctions. As these sanctions, affect incoming and outgoing reinsurance, as well as the development of the industry in the whole country. To achieve this goal, the article needs to address the following objectives: conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the reinsurance market; to identify the current structure of the reinsurance market in Russia; to evaluate the influence of the Russian national reinsurance company in the insurance market of the Russian Federation. Methods: this article is based on the Central Bank of Russia consolidated data on the insurance market. Results: in the period imposed against our country economic sanctions by Western countries, the topic of import substitution is relevant not only in the productive sectors of the economy and the financial markets. In particular, in the present period it is necessary to obtain additional capacity with the market of international capital loans and improve the domestic investment climate in the country. Current international practice shows that the development of any financial industry would be impossible without effective sharing of different kinds of risks and their maximum leveling. Conclusions and Relevance: analysis conducted in the article allows to identify current trends in the insurance market in Russia from both internal and external players perspectives. The data demonstrates the main problem areas of the reinsurance community in Russia and ways of solving them. In addition, the article makes predictions about the development of the reinsurance market in Russia with the imposition of a new player – the national reinsurance company. 

  18. The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity

    Avksentev, Alexey; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana; Moiseeva, Evgenya


    The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity Alexey Avksentev, Elena Negrobova, Tatiana Kramareva, Evgenya Moiseeva 394000 Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, 1 Voronezh State University Nitrous oxide is emitted by soil as a result of microbiological processes, ranks third in the list of aggressive greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide is formed during nitrification and denitrification of ammonia that enters the soil during microbial decomposition of complex organic compounds. Denitrification can be direct and indirect. In the microbiological process of recovery of nitrates involved of the organic substance. In aerobic conditions microorganisms denitrificator behave like normal saprotrophs and oxidize organic matter in the act of breathing oxygen. Thus, they operate at different times two enzyme systems: the electron transport chain with an oxygen acceptor in aerobic and restoration of nitrates under anaerobic conditions. Investigation of the emission of nitrous oxide by ordinary Chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region showed that it depends on the type of cenosis and the content of available forms of nitrogen. Natural ecosystems emit nitrous oxide more than the soil of arable land. The dependence of the emission of nitrous oxide from the humus content shows positive trend, but the aggregation of data, significant differences are not detected. Research shows that nitrous oxide emissions are seasonal. So the autumn season is characterized by nitrous oxide emissions than spring. Enzymatic processes are an important link in the biological cycle of elements and, consequently, participate in the process of decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and other processes. Analysis of the data on enzyme activity of ordinary Chernozem and the intensity of emission of N20 shows a clear relationship between

  19. Russia energy survey 2002

    Murray, Isabel


    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  20. Geopolitical warm spots : Russia

    Lee, J.


    Oil production in Russia has increased by 50 per cent since 1999 and future growth appears to be promising. Major companies are being encouraged to re-invest in Russia's upstream sector due to high oil prices and a stable domestic business environment. The Centre for Global Energy Studies has conducted a study which reveals that in the next 10 years, Russian oil production could exceed the levels reached in the last years of the Soviet era. Oil production could reach 10 million barrels per day (mbpd) within 3 years, and 13 mbpd by 2015. All excess oil produced will be exported. The factors that may limit the expansion of the oil industry in Russia include political interference from Moscow, insufficient pipeline capacity to transport the oil to export terminals, and lower international oil prices. The greatest potential for increased oil production lies in West Siberia. Although West Siberia will continue to dominate Russia's oil production, companies will also need to focus on less mature regions such as East Siberia, the North Caspian and the Far East. tabs., figs

  1. Gazprom, Russia's weapon

    Paniouchkine, V.; Zigar, M.


    World number one producer of natural gas, Russia owns a third of the proven reserves. Gazprom company, under the control of the government and with a capital close to Microsoft's or Exxon Mobil's one, exploits this fabulous richness. Some highlights of its recent history show the dimension of the stakes: on January 1, 2006, Russia interrupts its gas supplies towards Ukraine. The immediate consequence is a voltage drop in Italy and France: the European Union is dependent at 26% of the Russian gas, Finland at 100%, France at 25%.. In May 2008, Dmitri Medvedev, president of Gazprom's supervisory board becomes the President of the Russian Federations and in August 2008, Russia seizes the opportunity of the Georgian conflict to solve the problem of the gas paths in the Caspian area. Several anecdotes are presented in this book which aim at demonstrating the tight links between the history of Gazprom, who aspires to become one of the very first World companies, and the foreign policy of Russia. (J.S.)

  2. Russia energy survey 2002

    Murray, Isabel


    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  3. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs


    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  4. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    Podvig, Pavel


    that relies on strategic nuclear deterrent as a central element of security strategy, regardless of whether nuclear deterrence has any actual role in addressing those problems. The emphasis on strategic stability in the bilateral relationship with the United States was evident in the important role that Russia assigned to the U.S.-Russian arms control negotiations. Resumption of the legally binding arms control process was one of the key elements of the largely successful 'reset' policy pursued by the Obama Administration in its relationships with Russia. Also, during the negotiations Russia strongly emphasized its interest in those issues that it believed might directly affect its deterrent potential - missile defense and conventional strategic launchers. Russia's extremely cautious approach to the next round of nuclear disarmament talks suggests that these issues did not lose their importance after New START - looking at nuclear disarmament in the context of strategic stability, Russia expressed concerns that deep reductions could undermine its nuclear deterrent if, for example, the United States proceeds with deployment of its missile defense system. Whether or not these concerns are justified, they do play an important role in how Russia looks at the future of nuclear disarmament. However, the opposite is true as well - the nuclear disarmament process can change Russia's security policy in a variety of ways by addressing some of its concerns or failing to address others. After the successful conclusion of the New START negotiations, the direction of change in Russia's nuclear policy will depend on how the subsequent dialogue addresses a number of key issues. First, the arms control process will have to reconcile the U.S. and Russian strategic modernization programs with deeper nuclear reductions. In Russia's case this would critically depend on whether the two countries could resolve their differences on missile defense. They would also have to address the issue of

  5. Germany, Russia, and energy

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre


    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  6. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia

    Kurbatova, J; Tatarinov, F; Varlagin, A; Avilov, V; Molchanov, A; Kozlov, D; Ivanov, D; Valentini, R


    Soil, tree stems, and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56° N 33° E) during the growing seasons of 2002–2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere–biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of the total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of the ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability, ranging from 0.7 to 10 μmol m −2  s −1 . Generally, the soil respiration depended on the soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions, the soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. The stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September, and in October it dramatically decreased. The tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3–5 μmol m −2  s −1 for dominant trees and about 1–2 μmol m −2  s −1 for subdominant trees. The respiration of living tree stems was about 10–20% of the ER. (letter)

  7. German Business in Russia

    Irakliy D. Gvazava


    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  8. American Studies in Russia

    Antsyferova, Olga


    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  9. Russia and Global Climate Politics

    Tynkkynen, Nina


    Russia, as the fourth largest greenhouse-gas emitter in the world, and a major supplier of fossil fuels causing these emissions, played a decisive role in the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol, the main instrument of global climate policy so far. Domestically, serious political measures to combat climate change have yet to be taken. Thus, Russia's performance in global climate politics indicates that goals other than genuinely environmental ones, such as political or economic benefits, are the main motivation of Russia's participation. Also, Russia's national pride and its status as a great power are at stake here. This paper scrutinizes Russia's stance in global climate politics, offering an overview of Russia's engagement in international climate politics and its domestic climate policy. In the second part of the paper, Russia's engagement in global environmental politics is discussed in the context of Russia's world status and the great-power concept. Accordingly, the paper aims to shed light on how and why Russia behaves in global climate politics in the way it does. This may be of interest to actors in international environmental politics in general, and relevant to future climate negotiations in particular. (author)

  10. Evolution of Russia''s geopolitical interests and priorities in Transcaucasia

    Kuznetsov, Oleg


    The author presents his conception of the evolution of Russia's geopolitical interests in Transcaucasia (the Central and part of the Southern Caucasus) caused by a gradual transformation of the military-strategic, political, ideological (including religious) ideas of the Russian elites at different periods. The author relies on a wide range of recent historical and political scientific studies, as well as historiographic surveys and scholarly works of the imperial and Soviet periods, to clari...

  11. Russia at GHG Market

    Golub, A.; Strukova, E.


    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  12. Russia's population sink.

    Nelson, T


    Russia's public health problems, which are a result in part of uncontrolled development, are a lesson for developing countries. Trends in births and deaths in Russia indicate that as socioeconomic conditions declined in recent years, the death rate increased. During 1992-93 the death rate increased from 12.1 per 1000 population to 14.5, with 75% of the increase due to cardiovascular disease, accidents, murder, suicide, and alcohol poisoning. Quality of health care was given as one reason for the high cardiovascular disease rate that included deaths due to even mild heart attacks. 20-30% of deaths are attributed to pollution. 75% of rivers and lakes in the former Soviet Union are considered unfit for drinking, and 50% of tap water is unsanitary. An estimated 15% of Russia's land area is considered to be an ecological disaster zone. Births declined from a peak of 2.5 million in 1987 to 1.4 million in 1994. During this same period deaths increased from 1.5 million to 2.3 million. In 1994 deaths exceeded births by 880,000. Life expectancy declined from 65 to 57 years for men and from 75 years to 71 years for women. Infant mortality is rising. 11% of newborns had birth defects, and 60% showed evidence of allergies or vitamin D deficiencies. The death rate during pregnancy was 50 per 1000 births, and 75% of Russian women experienced complications during pregnancy. Women's health in the reproductive years was compromised by gynecological infections. A survey in 1992 revealed that 75% of Russian women gave insufficient income as a reason for reduced childbearing. The social conditions in Russia and the former Soviet republics reflect a lack of confidence in the future. Demographic trends are affected by a complex set of factors including economic collapse, economic change and uncertainty, inadequate health care, and poor environmental conditions. These changes occurred during the mid-1980s and before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

  13. Focus on Russia

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.


    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  14. The Features of Naturalization of Invasive Fraction of Flora in the Voronezh Region and in Some Regions of the European Part of Russia

    Vladimirov D.R.


    Full Text Available The article is about naturalization features of invasive fraction of flora in Voronezh and some other regions of the European part of Russia. The summary table represents all invasive and potentially invasive plants of the European part of Russia with their level of naturalization (or invasive status. Invasive fraction of flora in the Voronezh region numbers 120 plants. All of them are on different stages of naturalization process in an anthropogenic areal. Invasive plants represent by agriophyts – 41 (34,1 % species, epecophyts – 75 (62,5 % species and colonophyts-epecophyts – 4 (3,4 % species. Totally there are 201 species of invasive and potentially invasive plants spread within European part of Russia (Northern-West Russia, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Tver, and Voronezh regions. They formed the “black list” of European Russia. 10 species are common to all invasive fractions. These are Acer negundo, Amelanchier x spicata, Aster x salignus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, Impatiens parviflora, Juncus tenuis and Lupinus polyphyllus. The analysis of the general list of invasive fractions of European Russia shows that 120 species of the list are invasive or potentially invasive in the Voronezh region (100 and 20 species in accordance, adventives naturalized species – 31, native species – 19, archaeophyts – 2, apophyts – 4. 26 species from the list were not found in the Voronezh region. Apparently, the region is a transit area for many invasive plants, which migrate from South to North, from East to West etc. Not only its natural and climatic potential, but also high level of transformation of local landscapes enabled immigrant-plants to naturalize within the bounds of the region. Furthermore, for many years the Voronezh region was the center of introduction of alien plants. Many of those became a part of invasion fraction of regional flora. In recent decades green building took place of

  15. The FSU/Russia

    Lee, J.


    The London-based Centre for Global Energy Studies claims that geopolitics has played a significant role in determining the current level of global oil production. It estimates that geopolitical events in a small group of countries have deprived the world of about 2 mbpd and nearly 8 mbpd of potential oil production since 2000. In particular, growth in oil production in 2005 in the Former Soviet Union (FSU)/Russia was at a standstill following 3 years of a steady growth rate of almost 10 per cent per year. Although a slowdown in the rate of output was anticipated, the near suspension of Russian output was mostly due to administrative intervention which discouraged the Russian oil industry from investing in new upstream capacity. The administrative conflicts included large tax hikes to the oil industry, resulting in fears of losing licences, ownership changes, and rising costs of new developments and transportation. It was concluded that while Russia has the resources to improve oil production, the incentive for the oil industry to grow will depend greatly on the actions of the federal government and the policies it puts forward to regulate its oil industry. tabs., figs

  16. Life sciences research at JINR, Dubna, Russia

    Frontasyeva, M.V.


    Within the broad spectrum of activities in the Life Sciences at JINR such as nuclear medicine and pharmacy, radiation biology, radioecology, radioisotope production radioanalytical investigations play a special role due to the long-term experience in multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the reactor IBR-2 of FLNP, JINR. INAA is presently being used in several projects on air pollution studies using bio monitors (moss, lichens, tree bark). The results for some selected areas of Central Russia, South Urals, and countries of Europe (Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Slovakia, Western Ukraine) are reported to the European Atlas of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition edited under the auspices of the Environmental Commission of the United Nations. Battering-ram studies using NAA were initiated also in Turkey, China and South Korea. Applied to the analysis of air filters, INAA is successfully used in assessing quality of London underground air, Sahara desert impact on the Greater Cairo Area. Epithermal activation analysis in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry and energy-disperse X-ray fluorescence allowed source evaluation of metals in soil from some industrial and metropolitan areas of Russia (South Urals, Cola Peninsula) and the USA (Minneapolis). The analytical possibilities of NAA are favorably used in biotechnology, (i) for investigation of bacterial leaching of metals, including uranium and thorium from low-grade ores, rocks and industrial wastes; (i i) in the development of new pharmaceuticals based on the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Occupational health studies are carried out at several fertilizer plants in Russia, Uzbekistan, Poland, Romania, Denmark and the Netherlands in the framework of the 5th Programme Copernicus. The quality of foodstuffs grown in some contaminated areas of Russia is investigated in the framework of IAEA Coordinated Research Programme. In

  17. Information Needs Research in Russia and Lithuania, 1965-2003

    Maceviciute, Elena


    Introduction: The invisibility of research on information needs from the East and Central Europe in the West suggested an exploration of the published research output from Lithuania and Russia from 1965 to 2003. Method: The data were collected from the abstracting journal Informatika-59. The publications were retrieved from Lithuanian and Russian…

  18. Diverse phytoplasmas associated with leguminus crops in Russia

    A large scale survey of diseased legume plants (mainly clover and alfalfa in the Fabaceae family) was conducted from 2009-2013 in four Economic Regions of Russia - Northern (Arkhangelsk and Vologda oblast), Central (Moscow oblast), Volga (Samara oblast) and West Siberian (Novosibirsk oblast). The m...

  19. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Elena Sidorova


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  20. Nuclear Weapons in Russia's approach to conflict

    Johnson, Dave


    President Putin has moved nuclear weapons to the foreground of the European security landscape. New risks and dangers arise from the apparent coupling of nuclear weapons capabilities with Moscow's revanchist and irredentist foreign and defence policies toward its neighbours. Nuclear weapons are the central feature and capstone capability in Russia's evolving concept of strategic deterrence and are important tools for achieving Russia's geopolitical aims. Russian thinking on the role and place of nuclear weapons in upholding national security and in achieving strategic aims is reflected in military policy, force structure and posture, and exercises and operations. Russia's political and military leaders are not only re-conceptualising the role of nuclear weapons. They are also building the military capabilities that can credibly threaten the calibrated employment of nuclear weapons for deterrence, de-escalation and war-fighting from the regional to large-scale and global levels of conflict. New and still developing concepts for the employment of conventional long-range precision weapons in tandem with nuclear weapons for regional deterrence and containment of local and regional conflicts add volatility to the regional tensions and uncertainties created by recent Russian aggression. Russia's reliance upon integrated conventional and nuclear capabilities in reasserting its influence in its perceived sphere of special interest, intended to contain conflicts at a manageable level, could actually increase the risk of the potential employment of nuclear weapons. NATO nations collectively, and the three NATO nuclear powers (Great Britain, France, and the United States) individually, have recognized this new reality and have begun to adapt to it. In that context, the aim of this paper is to elaborate a clearer understanding of the place and role of nuclear weapons in Russia's approach to conflict, based on nuclear-related policy statements and military-theoretical writing

  1. Ukraine and Russia in Crisis

    Stoklosa, Katarzyna


    In order to comprehend Poland’s support for its Ukrainian neighbour in the Ukraine-Russia conflict, it is important to go back to the difficult Polish-Ukrainian neighbouring relations following the Second World War....

  2. Medical exposure in Russia

    Kalnisky, S.A.; Bazukin, A.B.; Ivanov, E.V.; Jakubovskiy-Lipsky, Y.O.; Vlasova, M.M.; Gontsov, A.A.; Ivanov, S.I.


    Recently there have been considerable changes in radiology, which is because of coming to a new form of property, reforms of health services and crisis in the society. Big area, bad means of communication and low density of population in most regions of the country should be also mentioned among the factors influencing the level of both health protection and radiology services. All these factors don't allow to create an effective radiology system in a short time. Meanwhile the main nearest task of radiology is the integration and optimization of all means of visualization on the basis of solving fundamental problems of health protection according to the Federal program, normative acts and decrees of the government. In this connection it seemed to be an urgent task to estimate various aspects of radiology activity of Russian health in the dynamics for the recent period of time. The data of the state statistics are to be used to cope with this task. These data on the basis of the computer program 'Region', the quantity indices of various visualization methods used in Russia and the doses of exposure of the population have been estimated and the reference book 'Medical irradiation of the population in Russia. 1980-1997 years' has been published. It turned out that the average annual number of X-ray examinations per thousand population in Russia before 1988 year was constantly up to 1600. And only then because of Chernobyl accident its increase stopped and its gradual decline began (table 1). Such high frequency of the examinations was caused mainly by the large scales of mass preventive photofluorography (more than 40%), held for early tuberculosis exposure. It was as a result of reorganization of fluorographic examination system started in the late 80s and early 90s that this pernicious tendency was overcome and the number of fluorography was reduced almost twice from 90 to 56 millions a year, which considerably contributed to reducing the exposure. Unfortunately as

  3. The estimation of labor life quality in regions of Russia

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva


    Full Text Available The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity are allocated and proved. On the basis of an author’s calculation method of an integrated index of labor life quality of the population in regions of Russia are calculated and analyzed in dynamics. Regularities of formation of an integrated index of labor life quality in regions of Russia are revealed, ways of an assessment of efficiency of realized state programs in the social and labor sphere are planned.

  4. Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia

    Bolshov, L.; Linge, I.; Arutyunyan, R.; Ilushkin, A.; Kiselev, V.; Melikhova, E.; Ossipiants, I.; Pavlovsky, O.


    Information system 'Chernobyl' of EMERCOM of Russia included the following: Central bank of generalized data, Bank of models, Information system for federal and local authorities. The analysis of many phenomena demanded retrospective data collection. In that way, banks of primary data were created and experience of analysis of directly accident information was acquired. The main element of the system-analytic support is the administrative information system of the Department for elimination of consequences of radiological and other disaster of EMERCOM of the Russian Federation. Administrative information system is intended for providing specialized program-technical complexes and systematized data related to the Chernobyl accident effects and measures on their elimination for heads and specialists of Central staff and territorial and regional administrative bodies, all other interested ministries, departments and organization

  5. Japan in the Russia - U.S. Relations

    Sergei V. Volkov


    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of the crisis in Russia - U. S. relations in connection with the events surrounding Ukraine on the world system and its key component - the Asia-Pacific region where Japan plays a crucial role. The author assumes that the international relations have no common understanding of the rules of engagement between the USA, the Group of Seven, Russia and the BRICS countries. As a result, the leading countries of the world are guided by conflicting scenarios. The article deals with the American scenario in relation to China and the Russian Federation and the Russian one in relation to polycentric and the U. S. - centered world orders. The most important element of the American scenario in relation to Beijing is Japan. This country is central to Washington's policy to contain China. Tokyo is headed for the rapid rejection of pacifist principles of its foreign policy. Russian scenario for the international system is in an active course to establishing a polycentric world order. United States' scenario against Russia in this regard is a containment strategy of Moscow. The central component of this strategy, as it can be assumed, is a violation of the strategic balance in US - Russian relations. However, Ukraine has become a major springboard to contain Russia. Instead of establishing equal Russian - American relations United States and their allies (under American pression have chosen a policy of isolating Moscow, but such actions are blocking the Russian - Japanese rapprochement beneficial both for Tokyo and Kremlin, which is interested in deepening its ties with Japan in order to diversify its relations with Asia-Pacific area. The author concludes that the long-term interests of Russia and Japan dictate both sides to move closer, but the policy of the U.S. administration towards Russia on the Ukranian question blocks this possibility.

  6. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  7. Russia skyshine experiment analysis

    Tsubosaka, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawabe, Toshiaki [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueki, Kohtaro [National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    Experimental studies of neutron and gamma-radiation skyshine at nuclear reactor are proceeding in cooperation with Russia, Kazakhstan and Japan as a project of international science technology center (ISTC). Fast neutron streaming from the vertical experimental hole of IVG.1M reactor which has a cylindrical core are analyzed by a monte carlo n-particle transport code (MCNP) with variance reduction methods, in which a weight window method and a cell importance method can be selected. Calculation results on radial distribution of fast neutron flux at 100 cm above the reactor is compared with the experimental values. The calculated values of neutron flux by using the cell importance method, however, is very different from the experimental values at close distance of 10 cm from the center. Skyshine analysis of neutron radiation streaming from the reactor are also carried out by the equivalent source model in which a point source and the detectors are located at 10 cm and 1 m above the ground, respectively. The calculated values of total neutron flux distribution are very close to the experimental values. The effects of the air composition on neutron flux calculation are also investigated. (M. Suetake)

  8. Russia: the energy weapon?

    Bensebaa, F.; Du Castel, V.


    A few weeks ahead of the Russian presidential elections and in the current context of hydrocarbon prices rises, Futuribles is publishing an article this month on the return of the state to the heart of the Russian energy sector. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian government has carried out an important restructuring of the national energy sector around major public and private companies. The main objectives of this reorganization were to sustain the economic growth of Russia and also - increasingly, in the view of Faouzi Bensebaa and Viviane du Castel - gain the country greater influence on the international scene. In this article, the authors present an assessment of the Russian energy sector and turn the spotlight on a number of projects (Sakhalin 1 and 2, Khariaga) which particularly illustrate the Russian strategy of controlling hydrocarbon resources for economic and geopolitical ends. They show, in this way, how the state is gradually taking over control of national energy resources (including by going back on agreements struck with foreign partner companies) and using that control for political ends (particularly towards 'nearby foreign countries'). At the end of their article, they nevertheless stress the factors militating against this renewed control of the energy sector: contradictions internal to the Russian regime, technological backwardness, international financial inter-linkages... (authors)

  9. SCWR Concept in Russia



    An increase in the efficiency of NPPs with light-water reactors through ‘nuclear’ steam superheating was one of the problems solved in the field of nuclear power industry. The commissioning of the Beloyarsk NPP, Units 1&2 with the channel-type reactor in the sixties of the 20th century showed the potential of realization of this idea and the necessity to solve a series of problems in technology and materials science. The NPP operation experience, elaboration and operational experience of steam superheating channels are extremely important in choosing the ways of design development of Generation IV reactors with supercritical pressure coolant water. The first technical proposal on a supercritical water cooled reactor of vessel type made in Russia in 1986 was the design of a two-circuit reactor plant (RP). The concept of the two-circuit RP of integrated type VVER-SCP-I with electric power of 500 MW was proposed in 1990. The design activities on these projects were performed at OKB GIDROPRESS and the analyses were carried out at the RRC Kurchatov Institute. The State Science Center of the Russian Federation Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF IPPE) has been performing the computational studies of a single-circuit RP VVER-SCP since 2001. In 2006 OKB GIDROPRESS launched the design effort and computational analyses to corroborate the design of a single loop RP.

  10. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.


    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  11. Vertical and horizontal variation of carbon pools and fluxes in soil profile of wet southern taiga in European Russia

    Santruckova, H.; Kastovska, E.; Liveckova, M. (Univ. of South Bohemia, Faculty of science, Branisovska (CZ)); Kozlov, D. (Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Geographical Dept., Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F. (A.N. Severtson Inst. of ecology and evolution RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Shibistova, O. (V.N.Sukachev Forest Inst., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)); Lloyd, J. (Earth and Biosphere Inst., Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom))


    Vertical and horizontal distributions of soil organic carbon, potential microbial activity and basic soil properties were studied in a boreal mixed forest (Central Forest Reserve, TVER region) to elucidate whether the soil CO{sub 2}-efflux is related to basic soil properties that affect the C pool and activity. Soil cores (0-100 cm depth) were taken from two transects every 50 meters (44 points) immediately after completion of soil CO{sub 2}-efflux measurements. Soil was separated into layers and moisture, bulk density, root density and bacterial counts were determined within one day after soil was taken. Microbial respiration, biomass, CN contents and pH were measured within few months. The variability in the soil CO{sub 2}-efflux and microbial activity was mainly explained by soil bulk density. Results further indicate that laboratory measurements of microbial respiration can represent heterotrophic soil respiration of a distinctive ecosystem in natural conditions, if microbial respiration is measured after the effect of soil handling disappears. (orig.)

  12. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Alexander A. Yanykin


    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  13. Russia-Scandinavia: dangerous liaisons?

    Godzimirski, Jakub M.


    After a description of the geopolitical and strategic background of the relationships between Russia and Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) as some of these Scandinavian countries belong either to the EU or to NATO, the author more particularly addresses the energetic dimension of this geopolitical relationship. He discusses the level of energy dependence of the different Scandinavian countries, their energy consumptions regarding the different energy types, their imports and exports from and to Russia, and the historical dimension of relationships with Russia as well as their present technological exchanges in the field of energy infrastructures (mainly oil and gas pipelines, but also in the field of renewable energies). In conclusion, the author outlines the Nordic dimension of the Russian Grand Energy Strategy

  14. The White Sea, Russia


    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  15. Military aspects of Russia's Arctic policy

    Zysk, Katarzyna


    Russia's Arctic policies have a strong bearing on the regional strategic environment for a number of factors. One obvious reason is the geography and the fact that Russia's Arctic shoreline covers nearly half of the latitudinal circle, which gives the country a unique potential to influence future Arctic activities. Second, despite radical changes in the regional security environment after the end of the Cold War, the Arctic and the High North (the European Arctic), in particular has maintained its central role in Russian strategic thinking and defense policy. Russia still has a strong military presence in the region, with a variety of activities and interests, despite weaknesses and problems facing the Russian armed forces. Third, and finally, Russia has enormous petroleum and other natural riches in the Arctic, and the leadership is laying on ambitious plans for development of commercial activities in the region. Understanding Russia's approaches to security is thus clearly important to surrounding Arctic nations and other stakeholders. Russian military activity in the Arctic has tangibly increased in recent years, adding perhaps the most controversial topic in debates on the region's future security. Combined with political assertiveness and rhetorical hostility toward the West, which was a particular feature of Vladimir Putin's second presidential term (2004#En Dash#2008), the intensified presence of the Russian naval and air forces operating in the region has drawn much of the international attention and contributed to the image of Russia as the wild card in the Arctic strategic equation.(Author)

  16. Safety Regulation Implemented by Gosatomnadzor of Russia

    Gutsalov, A.T.; Bukrinsky, A.M.


    The principles and approaches used by Gosatomnadzor of Russia in establishing safety goals are described. The link between safety goals and safety culture is demonstrated. Information on nuclear regulatory activities in Russia is also presented

  17. The petroleum dilemma of Russia

    Roubinski, Y.


    Russia is confronted with major choices in the research of an optimum petroleum strategy. Now the first world exporter, Russia takes advantage of the Usa policy, first importer, which aim to diversify their supply sources since the 11 september 2001, to decrease their dependence from the Saudi Arabia and more generally from the instable Middle East. In another hand, Moscow wants to minimize the dependence of the petroleum benefit and the oils prices fluctuations, by a diversification of its economy structure. These choices define a part of the russian policy in the context of the presidential elections of march 2004. (A.L.B.)

  18. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    Matveeva, Anna


    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  19. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia


    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  20. Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis

    Rothuizen, Jeppe Damgaard; Pedersen, Jonas Gejl; Götz, Karl Elias Immanuel


    Da Institut for Statskundskab på Aarhus Universitet afholdt konferencen ”Europe, Russia and the Ukraine Crisis”, blev der præsenteret en række forskellige forklaringer på, hvorfor forholdet mellem Rusland og Vesten har udviklet sig, som det er tilfældet samt, hvordan Vesten fremadrettet på...... intelligent vis kan håndtere den store nabo mod øst. Således ønsker artiklen, udfra tre overordnede analyserammer, at belyse: (1) Hvad er de centrale årsager bag Ruslands adfærd i Ukraine? (2) Hvor farlig er Rusland? Skal Rusland betragtes som en revisionistisk eller en status quo-søgende aktør? (3) Hvordan...

  1. The estimation of labor life quality in regions of Russia

    Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva; Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova


    The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity) are allocated and proved. On...

  2. Patterns of partnership formation among lone mothers in Russia

    Cordula Zabel


    This study examines the determinants of partnership formation among lone mothers in Russia, using data from the Russian Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) and the Education and Employment Survey (EES). The central research question is whether difficult economic circumstances pressure lone mothers to enter new partnerships sooner than they would under other circumstances, limiting their freedom of choice of type of living arrangement. The empirical results show that while occupation influence...

  3. Entrepreneurial proliferation: Russia`s nuclear industry suits the buyers market. Master`s thesis

    Whalen, T.D.; Williams, A.R.


    The Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, bringing an end to four decades of the Cold War. A system of tight centralized controls has given way to chaotic freedom and un-managed, entrepreneurial capitalism. Of immediate concern to most world leaders has been the control and safety of over 30,000 Soviet nuclear weapons. After 1991, the Soviet, centralized system of management lost one key structural element: a reliable `human factor` for nuclear material control. The Soviet systems for physical security and material control are still in place in the nuclear inheritor states - Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhnstan, and Belarus - but they do not restrain or regulate their nuclear industry. In the chaos created by the Soviet collapse, the nonproliferation regime may not adequately temper the supply of the nuclear materials of the new inheritor states. This could permit organizations or states seeking nuclear weapons easier access to fissile materials. New initiatives such as the United States Cooperative Threat Reduction program, which draws upon U.S. technology and expertise to help the NIS solve these complex problems, are short-tern tactics. At present there are no strategies which address the long-tern root problems caused by the Soviet collapse.This thesis demonstrates the extent of the nuclear control problems in Russia. Specifically, we examine physical security, material control and accounting regulation and enforcement, and criminal actions. It reveals that the current lack of internal controls make access to nuclear materials easier for aspiring nuclear weapons States.

  4. Towards a New Russia Policy


    Johnson’s Russia List, February 27, 2006, available at On Korea, see C. Kenneth Quinones, “ Dualism in the Bush Administration’s North... Foster -Carter, “Pyongyang Watch: Six-Party Glacier: Did the US Melt?” Asia Times Online, June 28, 2004, The author can attest to


    Т. А. Сухопарова


    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on > Buy now

  6. Russia and Egypt: Reproachment Trend

    - Mohamed Abdou Hassan Ahmed


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of Egypt’s foreign policy after Muhammed Morsi’s dismissal as a result of the political crisis in July 2013. The author considers the shift in the regional balance of power and draws a special attention to political, military and economic aspects of the collaboration between Egypt and Russia.

  7. Towards sustainable ecological networks of peat bogs in central Russia; development of local environmental action program (LEAP) as a practical tool for protection and restoration of peat bogs in Egorievsk sub region

    Butovsky, R.O.; Reijnen, R.; Bondartchuk, E.A.; Otchagov, D.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, E.M.


    In central and northern Meshera the habitats for many characteristic peat bog species now show a very fragmented pattern. As a result, the potential for viable populations of characteristic peat bog species has decreased considerably. Peat-mining and other human influences are the most important

  8. Underground gasification in Russia


    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  9. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    Podvig, Pavel


    to the traditional view that relies on strategic nuclear deterrent as a central element of security strategy, regardless of whether nuclear deterrence has any actual role in addressing those problems. The emphasis on strategic stability in the bilateral relationship with the United States was evident in the important role that Russia assigned to the U.S.-Russian arms control negotiations. Resumption of the legally binding arms control process was one of the key elements of the largely successful 'reset' policy pursued by the Obama Administration in its relationships with Russia. Also, during the negotiations Russia strongly emphasized its interest in those issues that it believed might directly affect its deterrent potential - missile defense and conventional strategic launchers. Russia's extremely cautious approach to the next round of nuclear disarmament talks suggests that these issues did not lose their importance after New START - looking at nuclear disarmament in the context of strategic stability, Russia expressed concerns that deep reductions could undermine its nuclear deterrent if, for example, the United States proceeds with deployment of its missile defense system. Whether or not these concerns are justified, they do play an important role in how Russia looks at the future of nuclear disarmament. However, the opposite is true as well - the nuclear disarmament process can change Russia's security policy in a variety of ways by addressing some of its concerns or failing to address others. After the successful conclusion of the New START negotiations, the direction of change in Russia's nuclear policy will depend on how the subsequent dialogue addresses a number of key issues. First, the arms control process will have to reconcile the U.S. and Russian strategic modernization programs with deeper nuclear reductions. In Russia's case this would critically depend on whether the two countries could resolve their differences on

  10. Isotope paleohydrology at the northern Boreal treeline, Canada and Russia (paleohydrology climate change)

    Wolfe, B.B.


    A Canada-Russia international research project was established to better understand the relationship between the northern treeline region and climate change. The study involved the oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of lake sediment cores using several different sedimentological, biological and geochemical techniques. The study has provided an insight into Holocene paleohydrology and watershed carbon cycling in arctic Canada and Russia. Results showed that periods of treeline advance and climate warming in central Canada and central and eastern Russia were characterized by distinct changes in moisture conditions. During these intervals, summer relative humidity increased by 10 to 15 per cent in central Canada. Central Russia was also wetter, but a drier climate was associated with treeline advance in eastern Russia. Carbon isotope records have suggested that lake carbon reservoirs at boreal treeline were greatly influenced by catchment hydrology as well as soil and vegetation development. Nitrogen isotope composition of lacustrine bulk organic matter was also useful for determining nutrient dynamics in these watersheds. It was concluded that lake sediment organic isotope tracers are an effective approach for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

  11. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom


    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘winning’ or ‘conquering’ the Arctic and putting power, including military power, behind Russia's national interests in the area. Opposed to this is an IR-liberalism, international law-inspired and modernisation-focused discourse, which puts cooperation first and emphasises ‘respect for international law......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  12. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  13. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

    Elena F. Parubochaya


    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  14. Strengthening Strategic Stability with Russia


    political stabil - ity. From the current Russian perspective, both of these compo- nents were thrown out of balance in the 1990s, creating instability ...part of the United States in the early 2000s, stra- tegic stability was replaced with instability and military- political defeats for Russia.27...overall strategic balance of the world political system.8 (As discussed later, the official Russian definition of strategic stability is broadening in

  15. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Carmen Claudín


    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  16. Letter to Russia

    Tobin, J.G.


    Below is the referee report. It is not as bad as it seems at first. The manuscript has not been rejected. Instead, the referee is 'not recommending publication.' On the APS website, the status is 'with authors,' instead of 'not under consideration.' Thus, this manuscript is still alive, but we will need to work on it. Please take a look at what the referee says below and let me know how you would respond. I will do the same. Hopefully, we will be able to respond well and find a way for this manuscript to get into PRB. According to the introduction of their manuscript, the authors intend to study the electronic structure of clusters of Pu atoms and, among other things, to illustrate how the properties of the cluster's central region approach those of the bulk Pu metal as the cluster size increases. It is then somewhat surprising to find out that all the 'cluster' calculations discussed in the paper are in fact set up in such a way that they model the bulk properties - the clusters are embedded in a kind of mean field that is designed to approximate the rest of an infinite lattice (the authors call it the extended cluster scheme). Consequently, all the observed finite-size effects are essentially artificial since they represent the inaccuracies of the embedding procedure. The results for the finite clusters themselves do not carry a direct physical meaning (which contradicts authors statements from the introduction), only the extrapolation to the infinite cluster would, if done properly. The authors propose that the number of 5f electrons n( ) 5f is a linear function of the cubic root of N, where N is the number of atoms in the cluster. This function fits the calculated data well (Fig. 8), but, as the authors indeed note, it cannot hold for very large N where n( ) 5f must saturate at a finite value. The calculated data show no sign of such saturation (Fig. 8), which indicates that the considered clusters are too small to draw conclusions about the bulk properties. I

  17. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    Imblum, Mark A


    .... The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes...

  18. Russia-Ukraine balance of military power

    Jokull Johannesson


    The Russia-Ukraine conflict is the most serious test of European security in the 21st century and the forgone conclusion is that Russia can easily prevail in the conflict, but this has not been the case. This article uses balance of military power analysis to report findings on the plausible outcome of a war between Ukraine and Russia. I report findings based on realist theoretical perspectives that indicate Russian victory is unlikely because of relative balance of power where Russia has to ...


    Ekaterina B. Makarova


    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the modern economy of Russia. In modern conditions, small enterprises can be credited in various credit institutions, the most significant and popular among which are banks and microfinance organizations. The volume of the microfinance market is many times smaller than the banking one, although the number of registered microfinance organizations exceeds the number of banking credit institutions by more than 3 times. Microfinance institutions are actively developing, although in recent years, due to the economic and political situation, there has been a slowdown in their growth rates. To date, microfinance organizations are becoming a more significant element of the financial infrastructure that supports and stimulates the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises, which in turn serves as an effective tool for combating poverty and improving the living standards of the country’s population. Microfinance in the narrow interpretation is understood only as the provision of small monetary loans (loans, and in a broader context, “microfinance” includes, in addition to direct lending, operations to attract savings, payments, insurance, leasing and a number of other financial services. This article is devoted to the specifics of microfinance in Russia. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the domestic microfinance system with the systems of a developed and a developing country, namely, the USA and India, the features of providing microfinance services for small and medium businesses, as well as for nonprotected sections of the population, are revealed. The analysis of foreign experience is very important for Russia since the mechanisms of microfinance in this country are only being formed.

  20. [The demographic potential of Russia].

    Vishnevskii, A


    This is a general review of current demographic trends in Russia. The author analyzes the decline in population size that is taking place at the end of the twentieth century, and traces its origins as far back as the disturbances associated with World War I, the Communist revolution, and the civil war that followed it. Political repression during the Stalinist period and the tribulations experienced during World War II also contributed to the current demographic crisis. The author discusses the changes in migration patterns and the declining fertility and increasing mortality rates. The decline in life expectancy is also addressed. Some comparisons are made with the demographic situation in other European countries.

  1. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott


    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  2. The Apatity nuclear heating plant project: modern technical and economic issues of nuclear heat application in Russia

    Adamov, E.O.; Romenkov, A.A.


    Traditionally Russia is a country with advanced structure of centralized heat supply. Many thermal plants and heating networks need technical upgrading to improve their technical and economic efficiency. Fossil fuelled heating capacities have a negative influence on ecology, which can be seen especially in the northern regions of Russia. Furthermore, fossil fuel prices are rising in Russia. The above factors tend to intensify the need for alternative heat sources being capable of solving the problem. Nuclear heat sources may be the alternative. In this paper, the main features of a proposed NHP in the Murmansk region are summarized. (author)

  3. Political chaos reins progress on new joint ventures in Russia



    This paper reports that frustration is mounting among foreign petroleum companies chasing business opportunities in Russia. Political uncertainty continues to block large oil and gas exploration and production deals there. Most foreign officials believe Russia's transformation from a centrally planned economy to a market economy is irreversible. But enough political, social, and economic uncertainty persists that Russian leaders are hesitant to approve deals with foreign companies. The lack of certainty among leaders of the former Soviet republic about who controls Russia's natural resources, who can approve contracts, and who determines winners of bid tenders is causing confusion among foreign companies trying to negotiate major E and P deals. With no clearly successful path apparent for completing large deals, various secondary negotiating strategies are prevailing. Russian industry specialists say those secondary strategies work best for small deals involving relatively small players in less prospective regions. Meantime, countervailing political forces within the country, the world's top producer of oil and gas, continue to buffet petroleum companies that are negotiating deals or getting projects off the ground

  4. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia


    ... Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2...

  5. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia


    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third Review)] Uranium From Russia... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that termination of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be... within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the Commission's...

  6. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Terekhov, Alexander I.


    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  7. National RAM transport regulations implementation in Russia

    Gubanov, V.A.


    A brief review is given of the main provisions of the state regulation and safety assurance of RAM transport in Russia. This appears to be useful to various persons and organisations abroad, concerned with such transport in Russia. Two aspects of the system are presented - regulatory documents (normative-technical documentation) and regulatory and control activities of state organisations. (Author)

  8. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander


    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  9. Institutional Determinants of International Production in Russia

    N A Volgina


    Full Text Available The article analyses institutional determinants of foreign direct investment that substantially influences international production in Russia. Author pays special attention on the following determinants as legal infrastructure, protection property rights, including intellectual property, effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms, and corruption. Author comes to a conclusion that without development of proper institutions Russia would hardly expect dynamic development of international production.

  10. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia



    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  11. Russia-Ukraine balance of military power

    Jokull Johannesson


    Full Text Available The Russia-Ukraine conflict is the most serious test of European security in the 21st century and the forgone conclusion is that Russia can easily prevail in the conflict, but this has not been the case. This article uses balance of military power analysis to report findings on the plausible outcome of a war between Ukraine and Russia. I report findings based on realist theoretical perspectives that indicate Russian victory is unlikely because of relative balance of power where Russia has to face multiple threats diverting its military power while Ukraine can concentrate its military power for a single purpose. The findings suggest implication for policy in Russia, Ukraine, EU and the United States of America.

  12. Alternative energy as a factor of ecological and energy security: features of Russia

    Boris Nikolaevich Porfiryev


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the current situation in the sphere of alternative energy engineering in Russia. On the one hand, the national economy and the population in general do not have problems with energy supply and Russia in general is the world's largest exporter of energy. On the other hand, centralized energy supply covers only one third of its territory and two-thirds are in the area of decentralized and autonomous power supply. In the current situation, energy sources that are independent of centralized networks based on clean technologies are a promising alternative. The paper assesses the current state of alternative energy development in the world and in Russia, its potential and prospects. It was found out that development and qualitative improvement of the regulatory framework should have priority for alternative energy mastering in Russia as well as active joint action of government, business and civic leaders to gradually consolidate in public consciousness and behaviour of a new culture of energy consumption based on the rules of economy and environmental safety. The analysis of the proposals for the development of alternative energy industries in Russia was made. Particular attention is paid to energy saving experience and energy efficiency in housing services and public utilities. Questions on the creation and development of formal and informal institutions of non-conventional energy sources usage are asked.

  13. Russia's control over the Stan's and the implications for European Security of Energy Supplies

    Komduur, R.


    An outline is given of the relationship between the Russian Federation and its energy-rich neighbours in Central Asia. Within a couple of years the availability of 'Russian' gas that Europe imports will depend on the amounts of gas Russia is able to import from Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan: in this paper referred to as the Stan's

  14. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Yury F. Lukin


    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  15. Azerbaijan-Russia Borderline Security

    Ekaterina V. Arkhipova


    Full Text Available The Azerbaijan-Russia borderline mainly goes by the Caucasian mountain range and close to the Samur riverbed. Main border posts are situated close to the Caspian seashore while the locals living in the Upper Dagestan area have difficulties with crossing borderline. The locals are represented by the so called “divided peoples” whose living area was divided with the state border after 1991. The former inner borders ignored ethnic areas but now they became the lines crossing the ethnic groups of Legins, Avars, Tzakhurs and Rutuls. Certainly, those peoples are interested in specific rules for crossing the border. At the same time, their areas have not got the equipped border offices and they have to spend a lot of time and money for travelling to the neighboring districts via Baku or Vladikavkaz. Such problems arouse the radical demands among locals. The Lezgin movement for an independent Lezgistan is the most famous among them. Its supporters were involved in a terrorist attack in Baku in 1990-s and now they collect files about any problems connected with border issues, including the results of a demarcation process. They attract attention to the facts of all assignments made by Russian representatives. The activity of other ethnic groups was comparatively lower and they could make an agreement with local authorities about division of powers. Obviously, any solution about development of the border infrastructure may stabilize the separatism activity in the area. The author determines the key challenges and threats to cross-border security at Azerbaijan-Russia borderline on the basis of analysis of Federal and regional media, declarations made by representatives of the local and borderline authorities, as well as online activities of national movements. The author reveals the infrastructure factors of ensuring cross-border activity, social and economic conditions of borderline districts development. The suggestion is made on the need to develop

  16. Radioactive waste problems in Russia

    Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.


    The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)

  17. Russia's atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Reams, C.A.


    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia's nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia's vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia's nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia's nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia's decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia's nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia

  18. Chinese Policy Toward Russia and the Central Asian Republics

    Burles, Mark


    ...: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. In addition, it discusses what factors will determine the evolution of China's relationships with these countries and how they might affect U.S...

  19. Central Asia and the southern Caucasus: geopolitical value for Russia

    Lounev, Sergey


    The world has been moving toward the regionalization of international economic and political relations for some time now. This is manifested in two ways: -In a shift toward a multipolar world, which seems quite probable and will most likely be realized through cooperation; this will divide the world into clearly discernable zones of influence of the world powers within which regional contacts will rapidly develop; -In the emergence of "gray zones" for which the world centers will not take (or...

  20. Indian Defense Procurements: Advantage Russia or USA?


    premiers of both the countries. The recent visit of President Obama saw Mr. Modi breaking the protocol to greet him with a bear hug on his arrival at New...between Russia and US. 56 Ritesh Srivastava, India caught between Russia and US. 57 Ankit Panda , “Pakistan Courts Both US and Russia on submarine-project-17058.html (accessed 3 February 2015). Panda , Ankit. “Pakistan

  1. Overview of internet development in Russia.

    Gronskaya-Palesh, O


    Internet use in Russia has been growing steadily. In the last four years the number of Russian Internet users grew from a few hundred thousand to over one million. Russian websites are diverse, and range from educational-informative to purely entertaining. This paper discusses several interesting and controversial Russian websites and possible implications associated with their use. It aims to understand and analyze a typical Internet user in Russia, by answering questions about their interests and demographics. The paper also discusses several other studies that were conducted in Russia on Internet use and looks at the currently available psychological resources on the Russian Internet.

  2. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.


    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia

  3. Multiplying sources as the best strategy for EU-Russia energy relations

    Thumann, M.


    Energy security and gas supply have become issues of central concern for the European Union as reserves in the North Sea are dwindling. Russia is offering to replace the North Sea supplies in the future, but the EU should be aware that Moscow will not be able to fully meet Europe's demand in the future. Russia will remain a significant supplier, but the EU needs to look for other possible sources of gas supply in Northern Africa, in the Caspian Sea region, in the Barents Sea, and in the Persian Gulf. Diversification is the best strategy for enhancing European energy security. (author)

  4. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    Jordaan Jacob A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be

  5. Primorskii Borderland on the "Map of Russia" Aguk-yeojido

    Vradiy, Sergey Yu.


    This paper analyzes a rare manuscript that is of considerable interest to those who study the nineteenth century history of border interactions between Russia, Korea and China, or the history of the Korean community in the Primorskii region of Russia. Aguk-yeojido (or "Map of Russia") is the first attempt to represent nineteenth century Russia by Koreans, and it could be evidence of a strengthening relationship between Russia and a Korean royal court striving to break out of Chinese guardians...

  6. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    Beck, R.J.


    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  7. Financial Crisis in Russia: Cuases and Prospects

    Seungweon Suh


    Full Text Available Although we cannot exclude the reason for financial crisis in Russia's foreign exchange is the depreciation of Rupees and a loss for foreign investment caused the currency crisis in Asia, but most people predicted that by the support of the Russian government and the deflation efforts it will soon go back to stable. And other people said that there is no possibility of causing the world economic chaos but also no possibility for this situation to evolve into a situation where old policy replaced by new one and where there is Country moratorium. At the time when the prediction was made, since the Korea-Russia relationship is still weak, this Russian Crisis caused small influence on Korean Economy. But some section like exporting electronic products and food which rely Russia quite a lot, should analyze the situation carefully in order to face the shrinkage of market demand of Russia.

  8. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues


    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  9. Legacy of Cold War still plagues Russia

    Popova, L. [Socio-Ecological Union`s Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Seventy years of communist rule and a half-century of nuclear-arms development have left Russia the world`s most polluted country, reports Lydia Popova, director of the Center for Nuclear Ecology and Energy Policy in Moscow. {open_quotes}Russia`s communist government invested enormous sums of money in the military but paid scant attention to environmental protection,{close_quotes} Popova writes. Most of Russia`s radioactive pollution has resulted from poor reprocessing technology, inadequate waste management, nuclear testing, and accidents in the nuclear-power sector. Though the end of the Cold War has been accompanied by disarmament programs, Popova insists that these initiatives will create an additional burden on the environment of the former Soviet Union in the form of nuclear waste products.

  10. Russia ends pact to curb uranium use

    Allen, Michael


    The Russian government has terminated an agreement between the country's nuclear body, Rosatom, and the US Department of Energy (DOE) into the feasibility of converting research reactors in Russia to low-enriched uranium (LEU).

  11. Features of formation of philosophy of Russia

    Baranov G. V.


    in article the main content of problems and achievements of philosophy of Russia on initial stage of its history is researched; urgent achievements of the Russian philosophy in their value for modern humanitarian culture are characterized.

  12. Emissions trading and green investments in Russia

    Moe, A.; Tangen, K.; Berdin, V.; Pluzhnikov, O.


    In simple terms a Green Investment Scheme entails connecting revenues from emissions trading to investments in environmental activities in Russia. This article presents insights derived from an international project on the GIS, focusing on issues that must be addressed if the concept is to become operational, on the background of the domestic, as well as international interests connected to a GIS. GIS is a worthwhile concept with the potential to bring real environmental benefits and meet profound concerns from several of the key actors in the Kyoto regime. However, establishing a well-functioning GIS means removing many of the current barriers that hold back investments in Russia. At the time of writing, Russia has still not decided whether it will ratify Kyoto Protocol. GIS illustrates that there will be substantial benefits for Russia from ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, which is a prerequisite for its entering into force. (Author)

  13. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.


    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  14. Outreach and educational activities in Russia

    Gritsevich, M.; Kartashova, A.


    We present an overview of the major internal as well as international meetings and events held in Russia and dedicated to the integration, development and expanding of knowledge in Planetary Research. The report is complemented by the Europlanet activities in Russia over the last year, achieved goals and lessons learned. Additionally, we highlight current problems and possible future improvements to the present educational and outreach techniques.

  15. Recent Vegetation Fire Incidence in Russia

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi


    MODIS hotspot data from NASA have now become a standard means of evaluating vegetation fires worldwide. Remote sensing is the most effective tool for large countries like Russia because it is hard to obtain exact, detailed forest fire data. Accumulated MODIS hotspot data of the nine years from 2002 to 2010 may allow us to assess recent changes in the vegetation fire incidence in Russia. This kind of analysis using various satellites is useful in estimating fire intensity and sever...

  16. Russia power engineering and power safety

    D'yakov, A.F.


    Results of work of the International consultative meeting: Russian-Europe: strategy of energy safety is described. The purpose of the meeting consisted in discussion of energy situation in Russia and Europe, prospects for provision of reliability, efficiency and safety of fuel and power supply in Russia and the role of the Russian fuel and power resonances in energy supply of Europe. The reporters at the meeting dealt with various aspects related to energy safety

  17. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    Ignatov, A.I.


    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  18. There is Still a Chance For Russia

    Alexey A. Tokarev


    Full Text Available The authors study the sociological grounds of Georgia's foreign policy based on the long-term researches conducted by American and Georgian NGOs, yet applying a critical approach to the provided data and figures. Despite the aggressive rhetoric of Georgian politicians towards Russia and apparent social consensus as regards EU and NATO integration, the article concludes that Russia has not completely "lost" Georgia. The results of the sociological surveys show that up to one third of the population of Georgia are ready to consider Russia as main partner of their country, and this figure depends to a certain extent on the Georgian authorities' policy. In addition, the potential of the Eurasian integration of Georgia is not equal to zero, and it is supported by around one fifth of the population. In the authors' view, Georgia may appreciate help with solving its domestic economic problems far more than being called "a beacon of democracy" or "a truly European state". Although according to the results of the most surveys Russia takes the first place in the list of the threats to Georgia, exceeding even the figures for the banned "Islamic State", around one third of the population of Georgia consistently consider Russian threat exaggerated. Together with those who do not regard Russia as a threat at all, these citizens of Georgia almost equal the number of people who believe that "Russia poses a threat to Georgia". Even if Russia does not change its position on the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and the West remains the goalpost of Georgia's foreign policy, the ties between the people, cultures, and economies of the two countries will not be severed. However, negligence towards the potential of developing the bilateral relations with no efforts taken on a mutual basis may significantly weaken the ties between Russia and Georgia by undermining the chances of strengthening them.

  19. The Media and Democracy in Russia

    Deppe, Kendra M


    ... freedoms. These include laws that restrict coverage of elections, terror events and the Chechen region. The lack of freedom has resulted in the inability for the media to serve their purpose in civil society. This has contributed to civil society's lack of ability to ensure that Russia's government remains democratic. If present trends continue the future does not look good for Russian democracy or the freedom of Russia's media.

  20. Politics and Economics in Putins Russia


    from 28.9 to 42.2 between 1992 and 2009. Social stresses have been similarly magnified. Given that federal spending on social services in 2007-2008...demonstration that supreme power in Russia will be undivided and unaccount- able. With Medvedev humiliated, previously heated speculation over who...that Russia has come to look like a modern society. It is true that the townscapes of major cities like Mos- cow and St. Petersburg are presently

  1. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Gale, B.G.


    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  2. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.


    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  3. The radiation legacy of Russia

    Lebedev, V.A.


    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  4. CERN: From Russia with krypton



    Full text: Arecent arrival at CERN is a cryostat built under the auspices of thelnternational Science and Technology Center (ISTC), a programme funded by the European Union, Japan, Russia, and the US which aims to promote the integration of former Soviet Union scientists and industry into global research and development activities. The new cryostat, built by Moscowbased Krunichev Enterprises, better known for its involvement in the ''Proton'' space rocket and the ''Mir'' space station, will form a vital part of the NA48 experiment at the SPS synchrotron. NA48, a Cagliari/Cambridge/CERN/ Dubna/Edinburgh/Ferrara/Mainz/Orsay/Perugia/Pisa/Saclay/Siegen/ Turin/Vienna collaboration, aims to study the small asymmetry in the properties of matter and antimatter known as CP violation, and should be fully ready to collect data next year. Through its links with Dubna's Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR), near Moscow, NA48 has launched a number of initiatives designed to involve Russian physicists and industry in the experiment. The bargain 22 tonnes of krypton for NA48's energy-measuring calorimeter were manufactured at a specially- built factory in Russia. INTAS, the European Union-backed scheme for the promotion of cooperation with former Soviet Union scientists, provides funds for Dubna physicists to visit Western Europe. INTAS will also provide computing and networking infrastructure allowing the Russian physicists to participate fully in NA48's programme. As well as the cryostat, NA48's collaborating institutes have placed other orders with Russian suppliers. INFN Pisa has ordered 14,000 electrical feed-though contacts from the Budker Institute in Novosibirsk, whilst Saclay has placed contracts elsewhere for vacuum and other equipment. The new cryostat forms part of a joint project of INFN Pisa and CERN, involving scientists from Dubna, Edinburgh, and Saclay. The Russian part was built by Krunichev

  5. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality



    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  6. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality


    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them

  7. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia.

    Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoykhet, Yakov N; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Odnokurtsev, Valeriy A; Loskutova, Kyunnyay S; Lukmanova, Gulnur I; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Spiridonov, Sergey; Alshinecky, Mikhail V; Sivkova, Tatyana N; Andreyanov, Oleg N; Abramov, Sergey A; Krivopalov, Anton V; Karpenko, Sergey V; Lopatina, Natalia V; Dupal, Tamara A; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira


    In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus.

  8. The Influence of Institutional Decision Making Mechanism in Russia on the Relations with the European Union

    Nikita Chernyshev


    Full Text Available This article examines the influence of internal factors (such as decision-making processes, political culture, and the connection between government and society on Russia’s foreign policy toward the European Union in the context of neoclassical realism. Excessive personalization and a closed decision-making structure do not encourage effective reactions to emerging challenges and affect the possibility of cooperation in the post-Soviet space. Institutional mechanisms and their impact on a country’s foreign policy are extremely important in the theory of neoclassical realism. This article also analyses EU-Russia relations over major periods and the role of internal factors in Russian policy. Despite an orientation toward long-term cooperation between the EU and Russia, a contradiction remains between Russia’s over-centralized decision-making structure and the EU’s decentralized system. In addition, political leaders and elites play less of a role in the EU, where there is a real separation of powers and competencies. These factors hamper EU-Russia cooperation because Russia prefers to establish bilateral relations with each state. As a result of all these factors, long-term relations may be at risk. However, the decentralization of power, increased efficiency of political institutions and the active participation of civil society will improve the level of mutual trust and overcome the current issues in EU-Russia relations.

  9. The control of Russia's oil

    Khartukov, E.M.


    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. As this drama privatization process was poorly masterminded, evidently misguided, hardly transparent and highly controversial, its early fruits are difficult to digest. Indeed, the rapid and controversial privatization of Russian oil is far from completion and its current ownership and management patterns leave too much room for questioning and speculation. Not surprisingly, few Western analysts are able to properly determine a scope and degree of the remaining state control over the industry. Russian observers too are badly informed. Consequently, assessments of currents state stake in, say, the country's largest oil company LUKoil typically oscillate from zero to 51% whereas, in fact, excluding 24.5% of its shares put aside for new holders, at present the State definitely owns just under 11.6% of the company equity. (author)

  10. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    S. Z. Gontcharov


    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  11. Contemporary Russia Policy for the Southern Caucasus

    Karen P. Marabyan


    Full Text Available The bilateral relations between Russia on the one hand, and the countries of the Southern Caucasus region on the other hand are examined in the article. The main directions of Russian policy in the Southern Caucasus region are examined there. The article focusses attention to the value of the Southern Caucasus region for Russia and also to the key role of Russia in the Southern Caucasus region. The overview of Russian-Azerbaijani, Russian-Armenian and Russian- Georgian relations is given in the article. Russian relations with unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and with partially recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia are examined in the context of above-mentioned bilateral relations. The Caucasian direction of Russian foreign policy is of great importance in questions of ensuring Russian national security. The Caucasian crisis of2008 showed potential conflictness of the region and safety hazard of Russia. Now other processes proceed already in the region. Armenian intention to join the Customs union, the change of Georgian leadership and signing of the agreement on association with EU by Georgia start new mechanisms of interaction between the region countries on the one hand and Russia on the other hand. The relation format between region republics can be changed. The main purpose of the article is to show Russian role in questions of the South Caucasus regional security. The region has the conflict territories, from which the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the Abkhazian Republic and the South Ossetia Republic are distinguished especially. And Russia won't be able to keep aloof in case of escalation of the conflicts around above-mentioned subjects. The vital questions for the region are peace and stability. And Russia plays a key role in these questions.

  12. Energetic dialog EU and Russia slows

    Hirman, K.


    European Union maintains an individual dialog with Russia about cooperation in energy sphere since joint summit in Paris in October 2000. Both sides agreed there to create four export groups: for energy strategy, investments, infrastructure and technologies, efficiency and ecology. European Union expects that Russia will unequivocally take over the obligations by creation of suitable climate for investors. European Union considers as key preconditions the restructuring of the largest national monopoles. These conditions are also the important component of asking strategy of EU by the discussions about integration of Russia to WTO. One of the most important requests of Brussels is the restructuring of Gazprom concern, what means its division to mining and transport part. Russian part refuses all steps in this sphere. Author analyses the strategic interests of Russian government and of president Putin by planning and mining of oil and gas as like as by investments to the pipelines and gas lines. International Energetic Agency (IEA) assumes that the investments to oil and gas mining in Russia will be around 330 million USD till 2030. The similar situation is also in oil sector. More than half of huge oil deposits with the highest output are already mined. The oil mining in Russia reached 421 million tons in 2003. According to pessimistic estimations the gas mining will reach from 550 to 560 billion m 3 in the following decades, according to optimistic scenario it can reach up to 730 billion m 3 per year. In this case the netto export of oil from Russia could rise from present around 175 billion m 3 to 280 billion m 3 in 2030. IEA warns that these plans should be fulfilled only if massive foreign investments enter this sector. IEA also warns before concerns of investors about Russian legislation, property protection, cooperative regulation and transparentness of undertaking. Proposed pipelines among Russia, Near East, Africa and European Union are shown

  13. Learning Russia's ropes : 2 international negotiating pros share lessons they learned while doing business in post-Soviet Russia

    Lorenz, A.W.


    This article addressed the issue of oil field services negotiators who travel to Russia to establish joint ventures in post-Perestroika Russia. Canadian Fracmaster Ltd. was the first Canadian company to sign a contract with Russia's ministry of oil. The contract was based on a guarantee that the Canadian company would finance the project and ensure that Fracmaster's 2000 horsepower pumpers would boost Russian production. Increases in production were divided equally between Russians and Canadians. At their first well, the pumpers increased production levels from 70 to 350 barrels per day. The 51 per cent Russian, 49 per cent Canadian-owned joint venture became a model for future business negotiations with other companies. Not wanting to rely on the unstable ruble, Gulf Canada negotiated payment-in-kind in return for the significant investments in the Russian oil and gas sector. Negotiations were often complicated by the fact that Russian government officials were arguing over who would be in charge of new initiatives, and new Russian republics were determined to gain control over their resources from the central government. Business people negotiating with westerners were often threatened by the Russian mafia or put under surveillance by the KGB. It was concluded that companies and individuals who were involved in Russia's new economy have gone on to make lucrative contracts in other developing countries. 4 figs.

  14. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla


    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  15. Struggling to survive in Russia.

    Gadasina, A


    Abortion has long been the traditional method of family planning (FP) in Russia. Today, abortions are free, but contraception is not. The birth rate has decreased between 1989 and 1995, and the death rate has increased. The present economic situation has had a marked adverse effect on women who are expected to juggle jobs, household duties, and child care responsibilities. In order to survive, women sometimes must engage in work that compromises their health. Many women have resorted in prostitution, and this has caused an unprecedented explosion in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis. The number of people newly registered as HIV-positive in the first half of 1997 exceeded the total for 1996. While sex education is still restricted, erotica and pornography is widely available. Cases of syphilis are increasing among the young, and, in 1996, about 2500 girls under age 15 gave birth and an equal number had abortions. Only 12% of all pregnant women and 25% of newborn infants can be considered healthy. In 1994, the government launched a FP program that is being carried out by a few public and private organizations. One of these, the Russian FP Association, has created more than 50 branches in different regions, opened youth centers, and provided sex education and reproductive health counseling. The overall effort has led to a 27% reduction in abortions, and a 25% reduction in abortion mortality. These efforts, however, have been opposed by "pro-life" forces and by the Communist wing of the government that reduced the budget. The FP Association is fighting back by lobbying and explaining the need for its work.

  16. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Olga Yu. Redkina


    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  17. [Human ecology. Which is the main challenge to Russia?].

    Velichkovskiĭ, B T


    The main direction in the study of human ecology in Russia today is to provide evidence for how to maintain environmental balance in the biosphere of the Earth, though the above factor also exerts a constantly growing negative impact on the health and life quality of the population. During the years of the reforms in the country, all the principal medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes. To overcome the medicodemographic crisis should be now a priority problem to be solved in human ecology in Russia. The crisis was mainly caused by the "shock" strategy of the reforms. To eliminate the negative medicodemographic consequences, a strong working motivation should be firstly created for the population, that is to create such conditions that allow people to earn well-deserved living by honest work. All this requires the development of small business, democratization of private property forms of private property, and changes in the Government's policy concerning work payment. Medical scientists should clarify how biological mechanisms, that is negative social, economic and psychological factors, cause a drastic increase in mortality, particularly in the able-bodied population. This process is likely to involve three regulation levels; the central nervous system (dynamic stereotype break, as called by I. P. Pavlov), the neuroendocrine system (great stress, as described by G. Selye), molecular-cellular free radical processes (phenoptosis, as outlined by V. P. Skulachev). Five factors that most negatively affect human health and demographic processes were identified.

  18. Why Russia still wants nuclear power

    Perera, J.


    Despite a recent explosion at the Tomsk uranium reprocessing plant in Siberia, and the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, support for nuclear power is still firm in Russia. The Russian nuclear industry employs around two million people and their employment security is one of the chief factors in support of the nuclear power industry despite its safety record. The other major reason is energy shortages. Despite huge natural deposits of petroleum and gas, electric power shortages are widespread. Eighty per cent of Russia's electric power comes from oil-fired power stations, but oil supplies are unreliable. Production is dropping and, at the same time, an increasing proportion of the oil produced is exported to earn foreign currency. The concerns of environmental groups may have to be shelved, until Russia's infrastructure is efficient enough to maintain power supplies reliably. (UK)

  19. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    T. V. Moskvina


    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  20. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.


    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  1. Banks and Banking Business in Russia in the Face of International Sanctions

    Galina S. Panova


    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of banks and the banking business in the face of international sanctions. It identifies current trends, problems and the risks of banks and banking in Russia and in the world. Special attention is paid to the analysis of sectoral international sanctions against the Russian banks and the need to minimize negative impact of sanctions on the banking business, both nationally and internationally. Great value in these conditions has the state monetary policy. Anti-crisis policy pursued by the Bank of Russia, in a context of stagnating economy, leads to a reduction in the Russian share in the world economy and increases in the standard of living gap with the developed countries. The article argues that Russia's economic growth opportunities in 2016 are limited by restriction level of bank interest, the high volatility of the exchange rate of the national currency, insufficient development of credit relations, tough, high-budget (at the level of developed Europe tax burden, increasing administrative costs, dramatically increasing the concentration of risks of subjective decisions at the present stage of the electoral cycle. In a situation of uncertainty of predictions regarding the scope and duration of the application of sanctions, the Russian Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had rightly seek to use a combination of anti-sanctions measures of austerity measures on introduction of contra-sanctions to create more comfortable conditions for doing business in Russia and her allies from member countries of Eurasian Economic Union, SCO, BRICS. The article examines the strategic aspects of development banks and banking business in Russia under the new circumstances. Given the practical recommendations on improvement of the development strategy of banks in Russia. The necessity to improve the theoretical, conceptual, methodological, her reasoning

  2. Colloquium on Central Asia


    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  3. Encyclopedic approach to Marine History of Russia

    Andrey V. Ishin


    Full Text Available Marine direction of foreign policy is for Russia one of key. It is determined geographical position of the Russian state banks of which is washed plenty of Maureies. Also it is related to that considerable part of population lives on the coast of Russian Maureies, and industry, located in an off-shore bar brings, in a large contribution to the economy.Many Russian marine travelers were the discoverers of «new» earths. The contribution of the Russian scientists to the hydrophysical, geological and biological study of Maureies and Oceans is great. Russia possesses a navy, to the constituents approximately one-third of total tonnage of world VMF and one of large in the world a rybopromyslovym fleet. Transport ships under the flag of Russian Federation it is possible to meet planets in the remotest corners. In a number of areas of military shipbuilding and civil shipbuilding Russia had and continues to save priority.Enhanceable interest to the Seas and Oceans found the reflection in the fundamental Russian documents, including, in the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation, ratified Russia President in 2015. In it the value of marine spaces for the Russian state is marked. In the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation is writtenin: «The skilled providing, marine teaching and education play an important role in the increase of efficiency of marine activity. They are directed on preparation, bringing in and maintainance of skilled shots of all levels, maintenance of professionalism, marine traditions and not indifferent relation of citizens to marine history of country, serve positive presentation, propaganda and support of national marine policy, to marine activity and marine service in society».Marine direction, marine science about regions found a reflection in the publications of row of the Russian authors, devoted research of policy of Russia in such regions, as: Black Sea region, Caspian region, Arctic, and also in the series of Encyclopaedias

  4. Russia is on brink of AIDS epidemic.

    Ingram, M


    Russia, and in particular Moscow, is on the brink of an AIDS epidemic, the president of the Russian Medical Academy told doctors gathered in Moscow for a national AIDS seminar. Although Russia has officially registered only 1269 cases of HIV infection, a quarter of them in Moscow, and 193 deaths since the first case appeared in Russia in 1987, health officials are alarmed by the recent rise in the rate of infection. In 1995, 200 new cases were registered, but 205 cases had already been registered in the first 6 months of 1996. The rapid spread of intravenous drug use is the main factor contributing to the rise in HIV infection. According to the head of the Russian AIDS Center, the real number of people infected with HIV in Russia is 3-4 times higher than official numbers, while AIDS activists believe that the real figure is 10-20 times higher. Russia has traditionally blamed its AIDS problem on foreigners and introduced an obligatory HIV test as a visa requirement for long-term visitors. Now neighboring Ukraine and Belarus are being blamed for the latest crisis. Of 1000 known intravenous drug users tested in Svetlogorsk, Belarus, 158 are HIV positive, with 20 results still outstanding. Previously, only 130 people in Belarus were known to be infected with HIV. In the Ukraine, where HIV testing has shown that over 5000 people are HIV positive and where a further 20,000 are estimated to be infected, a special subtype of HIV-1 has been discovered. In 1995 there were 1021 new cases of HIV infection, but in the first 4 months of this year there were 1805 new cases. Although the chief AIDS specialist at Russia's health ministry agrees that health education is more important than scare tactics against foreigners, in 1995 the health ministry received only 49% of the funds allocated for national AIDS education.

  5. Environmental security: The problems of Northwestern Russia

    Yablokov, A.V.


    The review of main existing environmental problems of North-West Russia covers the radioactive pollution, atmospheric pollution, destroying of the tundra and forest ecosystems, inland and water pollution, consequences of space activities. This region includes: Karelia and Komi republics; Yamalo-Nenetzk autonomous region; Murmansk; Leningrad and Vologda regions; White Sea; Southern and eastern parts of Barents Sea; eastern part of Kara Sea; and eastern part of the Baltic (Finnish Bay). The environmental situation in northwestern Russia is extremely unsafe. The fundamental reason for this situation is Soviet over-militarization in the past. There is an urgent need now to tackle the international environmental security in the Arctic and Scandinavian regions at least in two fields: 1. The existing radioactive pollution (mostly connected with military activities), and even more dangerous - the potential radioactive pollution of the Arctic and Scandinavia. 2. Atmospheric pollution (long distance transportation of pollutant, mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, from melting factories on Kola Peninsula). Several other problems relating to the environmental security of the region (among them deforestation, oil/gas pollution of the ocean, development of the diamond industry) need international attention in the nearest future. It is unrealistic to think that Russia alone can overcome these long-standing problems in the foreseeable future: we need international support for this. But foreign money for solving our environmental problems is not the solution, firstly, because for environmental restoration and recovery Russia needs much more than the international community can allocate; secondly, because there is much money inside Russia (every month, during 1993-1996, up to two billions US dollars were flowing out from Russia to western banks). To utilize this money in a proper way, we drastically need international help to awaken the Russian public environmental awareness

  6. Russia After Yeltsin: Implications for U.S. National Security

    Lee, Charles


    With the recent health problems of Russia's President Yeltsin it becomes prudent to ask who would assume control of Russia if Yeltsin were suddenly to die, or become incapacitated for a lengthy period of time...

  7. Seismicity Characterization and Velocity Structure of Northeast Russia

    Mackey, Kevin G; Fujita, Kazuya


    A seismicity catalog and associated list of phases for many events has been compiled for northeast Russia using published and unpublished data from the regional networks operating in eastern Russia...

  8. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Zakirova, Venera


    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Macroeconomic determinants of remittance flows from russia to tajikistan

    Mirzosaid Sultonov


    In this paper, we assess the macroeconomic determinants of remittance flows from Russia to Tajikistan. Applying quarterly time series and an econometric model with regression analyses, we find that Russia's economic growth and Tajikistan's inflation have positive and statistically significant effects on remittances, and Russia's unemployment has negative and statistically significant effects.

  10. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine


    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  11. Russia wants to supply gas to both East and West

    Malhotra, T.C.


    Russia's plans of distributing gas to both Europe and Asia are analysed. In Russia the main oil and gas assets have been put back under state control, and there is a fear that Russia will use its massive oil and gas reserves as a political tool to strengthen its national security interests

  12. 75 FR 48360 - Magnesium From China and Russia


    ... and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of full five-year... from Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of full reviews pursuant to... Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably...

  13. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia


    ... China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission... and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be likely to lead to...

  14. Fast reactor development program in Russia

    Rachkov, Valery


    The large-scale NP can be developed on the basis of new generation of CNFC and FR technologies being in compliance with “natural safety” criteria. Within the FTP we are planning to develop alternative technologies with the goal to select by 2020 the best technological option for the large-scale nuclear power development in Russia in 21 century

  15. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Halikova Je.A.


    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.


    L. V. Skitnevskaya


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the influence of alcohol problems in women of childbearing age during pregnancy on the unborn child. The concept of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. We describe the stages of the research project "Prevention of fetal FAS in Russia."

  17. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Young, Simon


    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  18. National aspects of food security of Russia

    Karanina Elena


    Full Text Available Instability of a foreign policy situation and deepening of financial crisis actualize need of monitoring of food security’s condition as objective condition of economic sovereignty of Russia. Modern approaches to definition of food security of the state are considered in article. Critical evaluation of separate provisions of the Doctrine of food security of the Russian Federation is given. The analysis of a condition of food security of Russia in the directions of independence, economic and physical availability of the food is carried out on the basis of statistical data. Food security in Russia was reflected in the political decisions that defined the new economic policy of the state in the foreign market. modern import substitution program has shown its effectiveness, which is based on the absence of alternative paths of development. An important condition is the slow pace of development of the internal economy of Russia in conditions when domestic markets competition is virtually nonexistent. Food is a priority in the development of society, ensuring political and social balance, therefore, organizational solutions discussed in this material has a transdisciplinary character. The author’s conclusions can be useful to researchers who are trying to decide how macroeconomic objectives, and conducting research for innovative solutions in many sectors of the economy.

  19. Economic sovereignty. An agenda for Militant Russia

    Silvana Malle


    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia has embarked on a difficult path to economic sovereignty and heightened security to withstand rising antagonism from the West that culminated with the application of punitive sanctions against Russia's positioning on Ukraine. With the aim of lessening economic dependence on trade with the EU, its major trade partner for decades, Russia tries to work out a patriotic model of growth based on two vectors: import and trade partner substitution. The pursuit of self-sufficiency in foodstuffs adds an important pillar to security concerns as reflected earlier in the 2010 Doctrine on Food Security. But import substitution will be costly and difficult to manage. Fiscal balances and exchange rates will need to adjust to the new challenges. Finding new partners eastwards is also complicated. Trade with China, in hydrocarbons or other commodities, requires massive infrastructural work that neither the government nor private investors can afford in a situation of financial stringency. Investment from China is slow to materialize as the economic slowdown also impinges on China's projects. Nonetheless important deals on gas and infrastructure have been agreed and are pursued despite difficulties. A favourable institutional framework aimed at attracting investors to the Far East is in place. It will be up to the local administrations to make the best of it and venture capital to run the risk. The outlook is long-term, but both Russia and China have learnt from history to be patient.

  20. Who pays for the sanctions on Russia?

    Giumelli, Francesco


    The EU’s sanctions on Russia mark the low point in relations between Brussels and Moscow since the end of the Cold War. Though there is a fierce debate over the impact of these sanctions on the Russian economy, much less attention is paid to their cost to EU Europe.

  1. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.


    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  2. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich


    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  3. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov


    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  4. STS-71 astronauts training in Russia


    Astronauts Norman E. Thagard and Bonnie J. Dunbar in cosmonaut space suits in the Training Simulator Facility at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (Star City), near Moscow, Russia. In March 1995, astronaut Thagard is scheduled to be launched in a Russ

  5. Development of NPP safety regulation in Russia

    Vishnevsky, Y.G.; Gutsalov, A.T.; Bukrinsky, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.


    The presentation describes the organisation scheme of Russian safety regulatory bodies, their tasks and responsibilities. Legislative and regulatory basis of NPP safety regulations rely on the federal laws: Law on the Use of Nuclear Energy and Law on Radiation Safety of the Population. Role of international cooperation and Improvement of regulatory activities in Russia are emphasised

  6. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy


    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self


    Loredana Maria Simionov


    Full Text Available Every EU enlargement signified a step towards Central and Eastern Europe, therefore, the 2004 „big bang enlargement”, followed by the one in 2007, modified the geopolitical context within the „old continent” and also increased the importance of the European Union regionally, as well as globally. Integrating the ex-soviet countries into the EU meant taking them out of the Russian sphere of influence, as well as attempting to super size the EU territory in order to increase the European power on a long term. Despite the weakening of Russia after the Cold War, the federation still represents a challenge regarding „pax europea”, as Russia still has an amazing military capacity, as well as important natural resources. The entrance into the Russian sphere of influence, the European energetic dependency on Russia, the conflicts within the separatist regions situated at the EU eastern borders are just few of the many challenges regarding the relations between the European Union and Russia.


    Э Р Бурангулов


    Full Text Available The article reveals and compares the features and trends of the public policy in the sphere of higher education in Russia and Kazakhstan on the materials of programs, concepts, regulations and speeches of officials in the sphere of educational cooperation. The general factors defining orientation of such inter-action (following to the Bologna agreement and orientation to reconstruction of uniform educational space and also particular factors are allocated (decentralization and aspiration to nation-building in Kazakhstan, centralization of an education system in Russia. Such problem as transformation of the Bologna system into the channel of recruiting by the leading countries of the most successful and perspective university graduates of Russia and Kazakhstan is accented. The main bilateral educational projects are considered: Network University of the CIS and University of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Two main conclusions are drawn. First, that orientation to the Bo-logna system became the response to changes of social installations and economic situation in the world. Second, such development and the actual strategies of public policy in the sphere of educational cooperation need to be adjusted in accordance with national traditions with the aim of preserving and enhancing the ac-cumulated intellectual, scientific and technical, cultural potential and sustainable socio-political development of Russia and Kazakhstan.

  9. Trends in Summer Season Climate for Eastern Europe and Southern Russia in the Early 21st Century

    Lebedeva, Maria G.; Krymskaya, Olga V.; Lupo, Anthony R.; Chendev, Yury G.; Petin, Alexandr N.; Solovyov, Alexandr B.


    The goal of this research is to evaluate changes in temperature and precipitation in the Central Chernozem Region of southwestern Russia during the summer and relate these to large-scale circulation types and synoptic circulation processes. Some of these circulation regimes result in extreme weather conditions over the region. Using a classification system for Northern Hemisphere large-scale flow regimes and observations of weather within the Central Chernozem Region, the role of individual s...

  10. Russia And East Asia: New Opportunities And Challenges

    Anna A. Kireeva


    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.


    Anna A. Kireeva


    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  12. “Empire is a state of mind” – Imagining Eurasia in Russia

    Vehkasalo, Veera Kaisa


    In this thesis I study the Neo-Eurasianist movement in Russia and the ways the activists of the movement construct Eurasia as a unified entity and an empire. The central research questions of this work are: What is the empire and what are its central motivations and themes? How is the idea of empire constructed or understood, and how can this be interpreted? What could be seen to be the effects of their ways of imagining Eurasia? My material consists of interviews that were collected during t...

  13. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    . Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine

  14. Will the world SNF be reprocessed in Russia?

    Gagarinski, A.


    Russia's possibilities in nuclear fuel reprocessing are well known. RT-1 plant with 400 tons/year in the Chelyabinsk region can provide reprocessing of fuel from Russian and Central European WWER-440 reactors, as well as from transport and research reactors. Former military complex Krasnoyarsk-26 with unique underground installations situated in rock galleries, already has an aqueous facility for storage of 6000 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), half-built plant RT-2 for nuclear fuel reprocessing with 1500 tons/year capacity, as well as the projects of dry storage facility for 30000 tons of SNF and of MOX fuel production plant. Russian nuclear specialists understand well, that the economic efficiency of nuclear fuel reprocessing industry is shown only in case of large-scale production, which would require consolidation of the countries, which develop nuclear energy. They also understand, that Russia has all the possibilities to become one of the centers of such a consolidation and to use these possibilities for the benefit of the country. The idea of foreign nuclear fuel reprocessing (for a long time realized for East and Central European countries, which operate Soviet-design reactors) has existed in the specialists' minds, and sometimes has appeared in the mass media. On the other hand, rehabilitation of territories of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises in Russia continues, including the Karachai lake, which contains 120 million Curie of radioactivity. Unfortunately, Russia simply has no money for complete solution of the problems of radiation military legacy. During discussion of the budget for 2000, the Russian Minatom has made a daring step. A real program, how to find money needed for solving the 'radiation legacy' problem, was proposed. With this purpose, it was proposed to permit storage and further reprocessing of other countries' SNF on Russian territory. It is well known, that another countries' SNF is accepted for reprocessing by UK and France, and Russia

  15. Rosneftegazstroy - Russia's premier oil and gas contractor



    This special Petroleum Economist Sponsored Supplement looks at the present condition and future prospects of the Russian oil and gas industry. Russia's chief oil and gas contractor, Rosneftegazstroy, a joint stock company formed in 1991, took over from the former Soviet Union's Ministry of Oil and Gas Construction and from Neftegazstroy, the State concern. Responsible for the exploration and exploitation of the country's huge oil and gas reserves, Rosneftegazstroy has a mammoth task ahead to modernize and create an adequate infrastructure for its new commercial basis. Its foreign investment projects are described and plans for rebuilding and new developments are discussed. Russia's fuel and energy industries now show clear signs of increasing activity, amid a backdrop of falling production overall. (UK)


    Esaulov I. A.


    Full Text Available In the article the author polemicizes with the ideas of formalists, which claim the existence of a law of destruction of meaning through form in the works of art. These views of the necessary deformation of the meaning are put in the historical context of destruction of the Russian tradition in the USSR. The author emphasizes two periods of the deformation of the Russian tradition in the Soviet culture and sets against this deformation the works of Russian authors in exile: Bunin, Shmelev, B. Zaytsev. The latter have depicted the conciliar (sobornaya Russia in their creative works. In the article the Bakhtin’s concept of outsidedness ('vnenakhodimost' of the author is corrected from the Christian standpoint and the receptive mechanism of the resurrection of historical Russia is shown based on the material of Bunin’s texts.

  17. Nordic Seminar on Waste Problems in Russia

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow


    This presentation describes a Nordic seminar held in 1998 that focused on radioactive waste disposal in Northwest Russia and that gave special attention to a repository which planned on Novaya Zemlya. The existing plans originated in a programme formulated by the Russian Federation for the period 1996-2005 and titled The Federal Programme: The Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel - Treatment and Final Disposal. The sea around Novaya Zemlya is important to the fishery industry in both Norway and Russia. And there is great Norwegian concern about the vulnerable Arctic environment. Geological conditions are of course crucial to waste disposal, and according to Russian experts, the permafrost bedrock on Novaya Zemlya will provide added safety. Permafrost is a source of a major complex of uncertainties, but there is Western expertise available that might provide international assessment of the construction plans

  18. Development of radiobiological dentistry in Russia

    Lidenbraten, L.D.


    History of the radiological dentistry progress in Russia from the first report on the application of biomedical radiography techniques to dental practice in Russia in 1901 is briefly described. The first special X-ray room was open in 1921 in Petrograd. First scientific papers and guides on the radiological dentistry made their appearance. The second period in the development of Russian radiological dentistry was connected with the World War 2 and wounds of maxillo-facial wounds. Postwar time is characterized by application of the novel techniques, wide range of scientific researches in the radiological dentistry. The modern history of radiological dentistry began from 1983 due to computerized tomography used in case of malignant tumors of maxilla and nose cavity

  19. More natural gas from Russia, but when?

    Van Gelder, J.W.


    The fourth article in a series about changes in the European natural gas market focuses on Russia, a country with gigantic potential reserves (216,000 billion m 3 ) and a production unequalled in the world (780.4 billion m 3 in 1992 in the Russian Federation), but also with enormous economic and technical problems. The question is what role Russia is able to play in the European natural gas supply. Attention is paid to the organizational structure in former Soviet Union regarding the natural gas industry, the environmental effects of exploration and exploitation, the need for foreign capital, and the disappointing progress of the 1991 Energy Charter. On a short term the infrastructure must be improved. Also the conflicts on the price of natural gas transport between the transfer countries Ukraine, Slovenia and Czechoslovakia and the West-European clients must be solved. 1 fig., 7 ills., 2 tabs

  20. Developments of nuclear power in Russia

    Konowalow, V.; Tytschkow, J.; Terentjew, W.


    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union the economy, and thus also the nuclear industry in Russia, which is supervised by the Ministry for Atomic Energy, is in a process of structural change. The process is to result in a diversification of the products manufactured for use in the power industry and the nuclear fuel cycle, and also in enhanced productivity. Science and research, which enjoy a high reputation worldwide, must be preserved and expanded. Nuclear technology in Russia is to be developed further in three stages. In the renewal phase up until 2000, older nuclear power stations will be phased out and a new generation of reactors will be developed, which will be built and connected to the power grid in the second stage, which will extend until 2010. In the third phase, after 2010, the installed capacity of the nuclear generating units equipped with new reactors is to rise to 30 or 40 million kW. (orig.) [de

  1. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva


    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  2. Russia pushes ahead with new pipelines



    The start of the construction of an oil export pipeline from Eastern Siberia to the Pacific Ocean marks an important new phase in Russia's policy of diversifying its exports away from Europe. Sales to the former Comecon nations of Eastern Europe have been eroded over the last decade-and-a-half since the countries there have tried to import crude oil from the North Sea and elsewhere, following the collapse of the Soviet economic bloc with its barter system of trade in oil and major commodities. Recently, Western Europeans have expressed concerns about the share of Russian supplies in their energy balances, particularly since the argument between Russia and Ukraine over gas supplies at the beginning of 2006 (see 'Gas and Power', February 2006). Since then, the European Commission has been warning of the danger of the European Union's becoming over-reliant on Russian energy. (author)

  3. LGBT Rights Activism and Homophobia in Russia.

    Buyantueva, Radzhana


    This article explores how lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual (LGBT) people's perception of increasing conservative trends and negative public attitudes affected the development of LGBT rights activism in Russia. It includes following sections: (1) the analysis of the development of LGBT community and activism in Russia; (2) the investigation of public perception of same-sex relations and how LGBT people's views of it affected their readiness to join activism; and (3) the examination of the state's policy toward LGBT people in a wake of conservative discourse and its impact on LGBT activism and LGBT people's willingness to get involved in it. The article concludes by considering implications that LGBT rights activism face nowadays in order to survive and continue its existence.

  4. Russia and Ukraine: Media Literacy Education Approaches

    Alexander V. Fedorov


    Full Text Available For many decades of the Soviet period the development of media education in Russia and Ukraine has been practically coinciding. Media educational lessons (mainly on the material of cinematography and the press were of optional and focal character and depended on the enthusiasm of certain teachers. In theory and methodology the aesthetic and practical approaches predominated. In the 1960es – 1980es the most active was the Kiev group of Ukrainian film educators. Besides study groups, elective courses (aesthetic approach and film/photo/video studious, school and university amateur newspapers and magazines (practical approach media education was developing in an integrating form – within the compulsory subjects as literature, history, Russian, Ukrainian and foreign languages. The situation changed in modern times: Russia is leading in media education literacy researches, and Ukraine - in the practical media education in schools.

  5. Russia's strategic forces: policy, evolution and prospects

    Fedorov, Y.E.


    The well-know 1980 joke, according to which the Soviet Union was nothing else than Upper Volta armed with nuclear missiles, was literally not quite correct. On top of its nuclear missiles, the former Soviet Union had a lot of nuclear and conventional submarines, combat aircraft, tanks and other deadly weaponry. Yet it was true that the global ambitions of the high military commanders, the captains of the Soviet military-industrial complex, and the CPSU chiefs burdened the weak Soviet economy. In fact, military related expenditures, mounting up to 25 percent of the USSR GDP, were among the most fundamental causes of the Soviet economic and political collapse. By the 1990, the joke had become even more credible. Yeltzin Russia, affected by severe economic and social crises, kept only two attributes of its former superpower status: a seat on the UN Security Council and a substantial yet decreasing nuclear arsenal. Russia recent economic revival and political transformation, from the embryonic and chaotic democracy of Yeltzin into an authoritarian regime pillaring itself on the security sector and the post-Soviet bureaucracy, provoke critical questions in regards to the nation future role in the emerging international system, primarily in the Eurasian region. Two of these questions are whether Russia will be able to maintain the world second largest strategic nuclear arsenal, and how Russia ruling class will view the roles and missions of nuclear weapons. To answer these questions it is necessary to assess (a) the governmental policy that determines the development of Russian nuclear force; (b) the structure and quantity of the current nuclear force; and (c) the capacity of missile and submarine-building industries. (author)


    V. D. Solovey


    Full Text Available Abstract: Among both Russian and international authors there are wide-spread stereotypes regarding typical values of Russians. However, sociological studies on systems of values and patterns of behaviour frequent among citizens of Russia contradict with the myths of special “Russian path”. Domination of the “ideals of achievement” in Russian places it in line with other European countries.

  7. Corruption and extortions : extortion groups in Russia

    Brousser, Pavel Alexandrovich


    This research is devoted to the Extortion Groups (EG) activities as the appeared substances and substitutes to the law system in Soviet Union and Russia further. Such establishments are considering as the transition process product. The appearance of these groups is due to the perishing of the old-type Soviet economy and transition shocks in connection with the job losing and unrequired men s work force especially under the situation which was between two points of time after Afganistania...


    I. T. Balashova


    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  9. Has Banks’ Financial Intermediation Improved in Russia?

    Fungachova, Z.; Solanko, L.


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the increasing importance of banks in the Russian economy over the period following the financial crisis of 1998. We use several measures to assess the role of banks in domestic financial intermediation in Russia. The traditional macro-level view is complemented by the analysis of sectoral financial flows as well as by insights from micro-level studies. All of these confirm that banks are becoming increasingly important in financial intermediation. We find ...

  10. Laser techniques in conservation in Russia

    Parfenov, Vadim


    The introduction of laser technologies into the field of art conservation, which was started more than thirty years ago in Italy, has revolutionary changed this field in many countries around the world. Though the dissemination of lasers in conservation in Russia goes slowly, it has a long and interesting history. This paper describes early projects concerned with the use of lasers in Cultural Heritage preservation and presents review of most important recent Russian case studies. (Author)


    Klimova N. V.; Shapovalova G. I.


    Small business is the basis for the development of the national economy, providing 60% of revenues in foreign countries. In Russia, this sector is developing slowly due to lack of funding. In connection with the development of small business, lending is growing in popularity in this sphere. The state develops a variety of programs to support small businesses in the form of public and private lending institutions, venture capital funds, credit unions. However, the volume of lending to small bu...

  12. Entrepreneurship in Brazil, China, and Russia

    Simeon Djankov; Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya


    We study the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur in Russia, China, and Brazil, using unique survey data at the individual level. We find that entrepreneurs have many common characteristics relative to non-entrepreneurs in all three countries. They are more likely to have entrepreneurs among their relatives and friends, place a higher value on work, are happier and perceive themselves as more successful. There are also a few important differences. Russian and Chinese entrepr...

  13. Parkinson's disease in Russia: prevalence and incidence

    Razdorskaya V.V.


    Full Text Available The results of the regional studies on the frequency of Parkinson's disease (PD and the incidence of it in Russia have been generalized, the main factors that determine the quality of the estimates of this disease epidemiological indicators have been identifyd. The article summarizes data from 19 original studies on the epidemiology of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Russia published between 2005-2015. Due to the statistical heterogeneity of the primary results computational analytics was not applied to the data; however, data consolidation allowed to perform a trend analysis of epidemiological indicators. The methodological basis of the majority of studies was medical aid appealabil-ity; two of the studies used door-to-door surveys. One of the studies returned questionably low epidemiological indicators obtained from the medical records, and the rest showed the standardized prevalence of 30.0-139.9/100,000 and incidence of 7.63-21.8/100,000 per year. Contribution of Parkinson's disease to the nosological structure of parkinsonism was >61.3%. Estimate of the number of patients with PD in Russia is approximately 210,000 people. Conclusions are made regarding the prevalence of PD in Russia according to the cross-cutting research on the level of indicators in the Western countries. The prevalence of PD by appealability is 2-3 times less than the prevalence in continuous research, both national and foreign. The incidence of PD, demonstrated in half of the studies, is stable from region to region and is comparable with the universally recognized values.

  14. Unwritten rules of HR management in Russia

    Stepanova, N. A.; Степанова, Н. А.


    In spite of the fact that Western companies have been actively developing the Russian market over the last twenty years, they are still faced with the Soviet-era heritage in human resource management. This paper gives an overview of the common Soviet human resource practices of the past. Understanding traditional human resource practices in the Soviet Union prior to the end of communism will help practitioners to design human resource management systems for Russia more efficiently today. More...

  15. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Olga Khrushcheva


    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  16. Energy statistics of pre-revolutionary Russia

    N. S. Simonov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of creation and development of the energy statistics of the Russian Empire of the initial stage of electrification and the formation of the energy economy, which is related to: 1 the economic upsurge of the 1890s; 2 the new economic recovery of 1907–1913 and 3 the militarization of industry in 1914–1916. The real technical and economic indicators and complex statistical data of the pre-revolutionary electric power industry were either hushed up or deliberately distorted during the Soviet era. Even in the encyclopaedic literature it was considered that pre-revolutionaryRussia“was on one of the last places in the world” for the production of electricity. The author analyzes statistical surveys (censuses of the manufacturing industry for 1900 and 1908 (the “varzar censuses”, which gave the first material on the state of its energy sector, namely: the composition, quantity and power of primary engines and electric motors. For the first time in historiography, the data of the “energy censuses” of the Ministry of Finance for 1905 and 1913 on the number and capacity of central public power stations and private power stations (block stations of industrial enterprises, organizations and institutions are cited. The data of the census were conducted with the participation of the apparatus of factory and factory inspections in 1906 and in1916 inall provinces of the Russian Empire, with the exception of six provinces of the frontline zone. A lot of work was done to record electricity production / consumption, which was conducted by the Russian electrotechnical community. According to incomplete data published in 1917 by the Secretariat of the Standing Committee of the VII All-Russia Electrotechnical Congress, from 1905 to 1913 (that is, for 8 years the total number of power stations in the Russian Empire increased by 1.7 times, and the amount of electricity produced by them Has grown in 3,8 times. The

  17. What is Russia trying to defend?

    Andrei Yakovlev


    Full Text Available Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015 associated with the accession of Crimea to Russia and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, in this study, I stress that serious changes in Russian domestic policy (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, as well as the fight against “foreign agents’ became visible in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the “global order” (introduced by the USA after the collapse of the USSR and the increased role of Russia in “global governance” were declared by leaders of the country much earlier, with Vladimir Putin's famous Munich speech in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources is a new economic superpower. In this paper, I will show that the concept of “Militant Russia” in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and, especially, the Arab Spring and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, the Russian ruling elite made mostly “militant” attempts to defend its power and assets.

  18. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Shamtsyan, Mark


    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Legal issues in the harmonization of different levels of public authority in Russia: The case of natural resource development

    Borodach, M. V; Keeping, J.


    One of the key challenges faced by policy makers in Russia is working out a reasonable division of responsibilities between the central government -- the government of the Russian Federation -- and the various political units which comprise the country. Unfortunately, the 1993 Constitution is not in all respects clear on division of powers and responsibilities. As a result, many inter-jurisdictional questions arise that unless resolved, will have incalculable impact on the development of Russia's natural resources. This article discusses some of the factors that must be considered in addressing the total harmonization of powers of the various levels of authority in Russia which have a bearing on the development of subsoil resources. These include: (1) clarification of powers possessed by different levels of public authority in the Russian federation with regard to subsoil resources; (2) mechanisms for harmonizing the powers of the various levels of public authority in Russia, (3) special features of the political organization of the Tyumen region, Russia's most important oil and gas producing area, and (4) the role of new political and territorial units in the system of Russian federalism. 6 end-notes.

  20. Choice of fuels, generating and distribution technologies for remote regions in Russia

    Stolyarevski, A.


    This paper gives a very brief description of the various regional concepts of energy supply to remote settlements being under consideration in Russia. In Russia, nuclear power is used almost exclusively in central regions with high density of population. The use of small capacity nuclear power plants (SCNPP) for decentralized energy users is technically feasible, but has only been applied in Bilibino NPP (4x12 MWe) constructed during 1974-1976 in Chucot region (north of Russian Far East). The feedback from an equivalent of 80 reactor-years of good operating experience Bilibino NPP as well as the acquired knowledge from the construction and operation of test and ship nuclear reactors has been an integral part of the modern concepts for energy supply of separate energy users located in remote regions

  1. Women's employment and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context in Russia

    Magdalena Muszynska


    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of women's employment on the risk of union disruption within the centrally planned economy and transition period in Russia. The empirical part is based on two retrospective surveys conducted in Russia in 2004/2005, covering the years 1967-2004. These are analyzed using hazard regression. The results show that within two periods (1967-1991 and 1992-2004 the risk of union dissolution was similar among women who worked and those who did not work. No differences were found between various employment groups during socialism. In the transition period, however, a variation in the risk of union dissolution among groups of working women existed. The biggest differences are related to company ownership type, with women who worked in private enterprises having the highest risk of union dissolution.

  2. Religious Europe, Russia and Serbia past and present: Arguments of empirical evidence: The case of Russia

    Blagojević Mirko


    Full Text Available This article is the sequel to the author's text in the previous issue of the magazine 'Philosophy and Society'. The author discusses the evolution of religious consciousness among the population of Russia and the mutual relationship between society, religion and church describing it as a sort of religious balance. By examining the motion of the balance, the author analyzes the religious situation and the confessional structure of tzarist, soviet and modern Russia. Three types of confessional structure may be postulated during the period in question: a stable confessional structure of pre-revolutionary Russia, a destabilized confessional structure in soviet time, a restabilized structure during the nineties of the previous century, and a new stabilized confessional structure in recent years.

  3. Nuclear power development in Russia. Russia's energy industry preparing for the free market economy



    The energy industry in Eastern Europe is preparing for the free market economy. The ambitions goal is to get fit and prepared for joining the free market economy as a competitor, and within the shortest possible time at that, struggling against the sharp wind of change that will blow, and trying to make the best of actually very unfavourable economic and political conditions. Priority has been given to privatisation of power plants and electricity networks, and to a speedy connection to the Western grids. However, all parties concerned are well aware that this task cannot be accomplished out of Russia's own resources alone. Whether the economy in Russia can be put on a stable footing and develop stable structures will depend on the development and efficient use of nuclear power, as the most important resources of Russia's energy industry are concentrated in the eastern part of the country, while 70% of electricity generation and demand is concentrated in the European part. (orig.) [de

  4. Governors, Oligarchs, and Siloviki: Oil and Power in Russia

    Mehdi, Ahmed; Yenikeyeff, Shamil


    The contest for control of Russia's oil industry has been an integral feature of the country's politics ever since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Therefore, an assessment of political elite dynamics and the competition for control over Russia's oil sector can explain why this industry has been subject to such rapid management changes, including the rise and demise of Russia's private oil corporations and the emergence of Rosneft as a national oil company (NOC). Whilst the 1990's and 2000's saw different management styles evolve in the industry, much of that competition took place during a time when Russia could exploit its Soviet-era legacy fields. The rise of Rosneft as Russia's super National Oil Company (NOC) has been driven just as much by internal political elite dynamics as it has by the challenges which Russia's oil industry faces, as it attempts to tap more remote fields in East Siberia and the Arctic

  5. Policy in Transition. New Framework for Russia's Climate Policy

    Kotov, V.


    In 2000, Russia entered the second round of radical reforms of its economic and political system. These changes affect the institutions of the macro- and microeconomic policy, of the energy policy, as well as the institutions of the climate policy. Thus, the framework is currently being built in Russia within which the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol are being and will be implemented. Success, or failure, in Russia's interactions with the international community in implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol would depend, particularly, on whether it would be able to establish renovated climate policy institutions in the nearest future. Main provisions of the Kyoto Protocol open good perspectives for the climate policy of Russia. For these favourable perspectives to become a reality, Russia will have to accomplish quite a lot at the domestic, national level. Here, Russia is facing some serious problems. Among them are recently emerged problems with ratification of Kyoto Protocol

  6. The condition and prospects of nuclear industry development in Russia

    Kiricenko, A. M.


    In this presentation author analyses perspectives of nuclear industry development in Russian Federation. State of NPPs in Russia on 2005 year is presented. NPP output, NPP capacity factor as well as NPP operation events in Russia in the period of 1992-2010 are analysed. The energy strategy of Russia and scenario for electricity production development as well as main challenges of 'Rosenergoatom' including life extension of NPP power units in Russian Federation are discussed


    S. S. Zhiltsov


    Full Text Available Growth of volumes of production of shale gas in the USA compelled Russia to pay attention to this type of resourses. The interest to shale gas in Russia was limited to discussions at the level of experts and reflection of importance of this problem in statements of politicians. In the next years in Russia don't plan production of shale gas commercially. It is connected with existence in Russia of considerable reserves of traditional natural gas, absence of exact data of reserves of shale gas, high costs of production, and also environmental risks which accompany development of fields of shale gas.

  8. Russia in the World Water Management

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina


    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  9. Competitiveness of Russia ; problems and perspectives

    Dimitry V. Kuzin


    Full Text Available This paper reviews general contemporary issues of competitiveness of Russia on a global stage and suggests some possible scenarios of further development which could improve the world ratings of Russia. After a brief introduction devoted to modern concepts of national competitiveness, the author analyse current competitive positioning of Russia using the results of the world's most influential research reports and rankings. This part of the paper reveals the most serious indicators of Russia's lag behind the leading and other similar in size, as well as potential and development stage countries.The next three parts of the paper analyze both positive and negative trends of recent Russia's development over the last 6 years as it is viewed from Russian expert' point of view. The essence of the current debate on the future of the country, after the next Presidential election, is also presented with emphasis on several feasible strategies and their potential influence on the future competitiveness of the country. At the end the paper addresses the issue of values modernization in Russia which seems to be crucial not just to improve competitiveness but to ensure the future development of the country.The views and estimates expressed in the paper except for references to different expert opinions are the authors own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting an official position on these issues.El presente trabajo hace una revisión general de los aspectos contemporáneos de la capacidad competitiva de Rusia a nivel global e indica posibles situaciones para un desarrollo que pueda mejorar la valoración mundial de Rusia. Tras una breve introducción, dedicada a conceptos modernos de competitividad nacional, el autor analiza la situación competitiva actual de Rusia utilizando los resultados de los informes y clasificaciones más influyentes a nivel mundial. Esta sección del artículo facilita los indicadores más rigurosos de la posici

  10. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Kotelnikova, Zoya


    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  11. Development of a petrochronology laboratory in Russia

    Yavryan, M.; Powerman, V.; Nourgaliev, D. K.


    Each year more and more U-Pb detrital zircon studies are coming from Russia. However, the latest developments in zircon studies, namely combining U-Pb age with the measurements of REE concentrations and Lu-Hf isotopy on the same grain, have been unavailable in Russia. Kazan Federal U. has undertaken certain efforts in order to develop Russia's first petrochronology laboratory. The following equipment was recently purchased, installed and put into operation: Neptune Plus HR MC ICPMS, with jet-interface and RPQ filter. iCAP-Qc quadruple ICPMS. 2 x NWR213 laser ablation systems; one of them equipped with the TwoVol2 ablation chamber. Helium gas is used to flush the ablation chamber; 5 ml/min. of nitrogen is mixed downstream before plasma in order to increase the signal. The following methods have been set up at KFU on the Neptune Plus ICPMS: (1) U-Pb geochronology on zircons. A set of standards have been dated (R33, 91500, Plesovice, Mudtank, GJ-1, AS-3); (2) U-Pb geochronology on perovskites. We have collected, separated and analyzed Baikal Tazheran 463 Ma perovskite, previously dated on TIMS (e.g., Ireland et al., 1990; Li et al., 2010), using 91500 zircon as a primary standard. We intend to start using Tazheran perovskite as an in-house standard for dating perovskites. (3) Lu-Hf isotopy on a set of standard zircons. All results will be presented during the poster session. Our next steps will include setting the (a) U-Pb geochronology and (b) REE measurements on the quadruple MS; (c) splitting the ablation stream into two and directing them to Neptune for Lu-Hf measurements and to iCAP for either U-Pb, or REE, or both types of measurements; (d) experimenting with pre-ablation in order to diminish common lead, with (e) rastering during ablation to diminish downhole fractionation, with (f) squid signal smoothing device.

  12. Central Asia's raging waters the prospects of water conflict in Central Asia

    Hartman, William B.


    This thesis examines the prospects of conflict caused by water scarcity in Central Asia. The thesis analyzes the three most recent political eras of Central Asia, Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and independence, utilizing indicators of water tensions including: water quality, water quantity, the management of water for multiple uses, the political divisions and geopolitical setting, state institutions and national water ethos. Although water is not likely to be the sole cause of a majo...

  13. Temporary employment in Russia: why mostly men?

    Tatiana Karabchuk


    Full Text Available The paper deals with temporary employment in the Russian labour market. The main focus is the gender difference regarding determinants of temporary employment. Unlike most European countries, where women are more likely to have temporary work, in Russia men predominantly have this status, comparable to the situation in many developing countries. This paper seeks to understand why this is the case. The household survey of NOBUS (held in 2003 by State Statistical Centre with World Bank participation is used to answer this question: the results suggest that gender differences in temporary employment do exist, and that the main factors that explain these differences are education, and marital status.

  14. Status of fast reactor activities in Russia

    Poplavski, V.M.; Ashurko, Yu.M.; Zverev, K.V.


    This paper outlines state-of-the-art of the Russian nuclear power as of 1997 and its prospects for the nearest future. Results of the BR-10, BOR-60 and BN-600 reactors operation are described, as well as activity of the Russian institutions on scientific and technological support of the BN-350 reactor. Analysis of current status of the BN-800 reactor South-Urals NPP and Beloyarskaya NPP designs is given in brief, as well as prospects of their construction and possible ways of fast reactor technology improvement. Studies on fast reactors now under way in Russia are described. (author)

  15. Iran and Russia signed nuclear agreement



    This paper deals with signing of agreement between Russian Federation and Iran about nuclear fuel for nuclear power plant which is constructed. It was happened only three days after Bratislava Summit between presidents G. Bush and V. Putin. Supply of nuclear fuel should be started up to two months and the nuclear power plant with value eight hundred U. S. dollars should be commissioned next year. According to this agreement spent fuel will be sent back to Russia. After this manner it should be prevented the possibility that Iran will use spent fuel for producing of nuclear bomb

  16. Foreign investment in Russia: obstacles and opportunities

    Moody-Stuat, M.


    An overview of recent developments with regard to foreign investment in the Russian oil industry is presented. Progress has already been made in the oil and gas sector but some important issues which still remain insufficiently resolved for the potential Western investor are examined. These are: the settlement of the internal division of responsibilities; a stable legal and fiscal framework for foreign investment; decisions on what Russia wants from foreign oil companies; only difficult and costly fields are on offer; reserve estimates are not based on economic criteria; implementation of environmental and operational standards. (UK)

  17. Price implications for Russia's oil refining

    Khartukov, Eugene M.


    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. This fully applies to the industry's downstream sector. Still unlike more dynamic E and C operations, the country's refining has turned out better fenced off competitive market forces and is less capable to respond to market imperatives. Consequently, jammed between depressed product prices and persistent feedstock costs, Russian refiners were badly hit by the world oil glut - which has made a radical modernization of the obsolete refining sector clearly a must. (author)

  18. Staff Training for Nanoindustry in Russia

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich


    Full Text Available The nanotechnology industry represents such a direction of the development of science, technologies and industries by means of which Russia will be able to achieve advanced positions in the world. For the last decade the necessary regulatory base for nanotech industry development was created in the country, beginning with the concept of nanotechnological works, and the strategy of nanotech industry development, and finishing by the program of nanotech industry development in Russia till 2015. The special place is allocated for education in the field of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. The system of staff training for nanotech industry is developing very quickly. The departments of nanotechnologies are established almost in all leading higher education institutions of Russia, the institutes of scientific and educational centers as well as the centers of collective use are introduced in the country, the national nanotechnological network is functioning. RUSNANO State Corporation of Nanotechnologies makes significant contribution to the training of innovation staff. The corporation is planning to create at least 100 educational programs of staff training and retraining for the needs of nanotech industry. The fund of infrastructure and educational programs was established in RUSNANO which in 2012 launched the project on creation of training system in the field of nanotechnology in the e-Learning mode. In 2013 the fund created the autonomous non-profit organization “Electronic Education for Nanotech Industry” (“eNano” which became the leading developer of innovative branch educational resources and the operator on rendering educational services for nanotech industry. Since 2011 in RUSNANO there is a School League which set for itself the task to make the contribution to improvement of the situation in teaching naturalscience disciplines at schools. At the same time, according to the results of students enrolment in Russia in 2011-2014, the

  19. Pressurized Water Reactor containment in Russia

    Taymouri, Majid.


    One of the most important systems of nuclear power plants from an economical point of view and view point of safety is containment; Therefore, the containments designed in Russia were studied in the first chapter. Russian general rules and requirements of structure of accident localization system were illustrated. Methods of accident localization system rooms tested for tightness and strength are presented in chapter three. Russian specialists have been working hard to ensure the safety culture in building structures and operational procedures and the have successfully implemented these objectives in new nuclear power plant designs and rules

  20. The Quest for Rural Sustainability in Russia

    Stephen K. Wegren


    Full Text Available Rural depopulation and the disappearance of villages in rural Russia occurred as part of the historical process of urbanization and industrialization. Rural depopulation also occurred for structural reasons having to do with village location, and for behavioral reasons whereby villagers react to primitive living conditions and poor economic prospects. Three possible strategies for addressing the problem of sustainable villages are considered. The government is attempting to improve rural living conditions, but rural depopulation is likely to continue. Characteristics of sustainable villages are outlined. Agro-tourism is analyzed for its potential to support sustainable villages.


    V.К. Tatochenko


    Full Text Available This article presents new calendar of immunoprophylaxis in Russia, functioning since 2008, with author’s comments to its innovations. Mass vaccination against influenza was added to other ones, presenting in calendar earlier. The age limits of vaccination against hepatitis B, rubella, and measles were enlarged, and scheme of vaccination against hepatitis B was changed. This article describes new opportunities of immunoprophylaxis, that didn’t find its place in calendar yet.Key words: children, immunoprophylaxis, vaccination calendar.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:114-120

  2. Finland – Russia Business cooperation 2014 - 2015

    Kononova, Polina


    During the years of 2014 and 2015 a lot of changes have happened in Russia’s and Fin-land’s foreign policy. It could really affect the business cooperation between those two countries, so in my thesis I want to take a look into this situation, since this is a really hot topic to-day. The purpose of this thesis was to analyze changes in cooperation between Finland and Russia during embargo on products and to find out how companies keep their positions on Russian market. Another purpose was...

  3. Russia - An elephant in the china shop? Russian gas relations with Ukraine; Russland - En elefant i glassmagasinet? Russiske gassrelasjoner med Ukraina

    Johansen, Roger


    This report looks into the question of whether Russia uses gas as a means of solving political conflicts in its bilateral relations with Ukraine. The report explores both gas relations and central political conflicts between the two countries. All relations are followed from the end of 1991 to the beginning of 2009. Neoclassical realism and complex interdependence are used to separate political and economic motives. The main part of the empirical material supports complex interdependence and the contention that Russia struggles to keep the gas sector and political conflicts separated. Ukraine has throughout the period been heavily indebted partly as a consequence of excess consumption of gas which the country has had problems paying for. Gazprom has clearly had an economic incentive to demand payment for this gas. However, due to Ukraine's position as a transit country for the bulk of Russian gas export, Russia has been very vulnerable. In instances when supplies to Ukraine have been reduced, Ukraine has compensated by diverting some volumes intended for Europe, which again has led to financial loss for Russia, and a dent in the image of Russia as a reliable gas provider for Europe. This vulnerability can explain why Russia has used much time and effort on negotiations and compromises with Ukraine within the gas sector during the period considered in this report.

  4. Russia - An elephant in the china shop? Russian gas relations with Ukraine; Russland - En elefant i glassmagasinet? Russiske gassrelasjoner med Ukraina

    Johansen, Roger


    This report looks into the question of whether Russia uses gas as a means of solving political conflicts in its bilateral relations with Ukraine. The report explores both gas relations and central political conflicts between the two countries. All relations are followed from the end of 1991 to the beginning of 2009. Neoclassical realism and complex interdependence are used to separate political and economic motives. The main part of the empirical material supports complex interdependence and the contention that Russia struggles to keep the gas sector and political conflicts separated. Ukraine has throughout the period been heavily indebted partly as a consequence of excess consumption of gas which the country has had problems paying for. Gazprom has clearly had an economic incentive to demand payment for this gas. However, due to Ukraine's position as a transit country for the bulk of Russian gas export, Russia has been very vulnerable. In instances when supplies to Ukraine have been reduced, Ukraine has compensated by diverting some volumes intended for Europe, which again has led to financial loss for Russia, and a dent in the image of Russia as a reliable gas provider for Europe. This vulnerability can explain why Russia has used much time and effort on negotiations and compromises with Ukraine within the gas sector during the period considered in this report.

  5. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine


    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record...

  6. 76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia


    ... and Russia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. The Commission also determines,\\2... antidumping duty order on magnesium from Russia would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. 77 FR 51825 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia


    ... Nitrided Vanadium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1...

  8. Russia's smart power in Crimea : sowing the seeds of trust

    Roslycky, Lada L.


    The purpose of this article is to determine whether a 'dark side' exists to Russia's trust-building in the Black Sea region. An empirical analysis is made of whether, and how, Russia uses soft power to deter democratization by anchoring the promotion of pro-Russian separatism in Crimea to the

  9. Dutch Agribusiness in Russia: a review of enterpreneurs' perspectives

    Belt, J.C.; Berkum, van S.; Roza, P.


    Russia¿s economy is booming; that¿s no news. Certainly not for Dutch agribusiness, looking at the steady increase of Dutch exports and investments in Russia. Not only our bigger agro-industries are involved, also medium size companies have found their way to access a market of 143 million consumers.

  10. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia

    South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia. 1918-1920. Cdr W.M. Bisset*. South Africa's role in the Civil War in ... the war or were later to receive awards for their services in Russia. Perhaps the most remarkable ... Bolshevik territory and he was taken prisoner. Another remarkable South African officer who served in North ...

  11. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela


    ... from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50, 7202.21.75, 7202.21.90, and... with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela. Accordingly...

  12. Carbon storage in forests and peatlands of Russia

    V.A. Alexeyev; R.A. Birdsey; [Editors


    Contains information about carbon storage in the vegetation, soils, and peatlands of Russia. Estimates of carbon storage in forests are derived from statistical data from the 1988 national forest inventory of Russia and from other sources. Methods are presented for converting data on timber stock into phytomass of tree stands, and for estimating carbon storage in...

  13. Russia Today : Ruslands internationale spreekbuis voor 'soft power'?

    Kraft van Ermel, Nicolaas


    The tense current relations between Russia, Ukraine and the West are characterised by a true media war. This media war is fought in the old as well as in the new media, for example on television. One of the players in this game is the Russian English language television station Russia Today (since

  14. Nuclear heat applications in Russia: Experience, status and prospects

    Mitenkov, F.M.; Kusmartsev, E.V.


    The extensive experience gained with nuclear district heating in Russia is described. Most of the WWER reactors in Russia are cogeneration plants. Steam is extracted through LP turbine bleeders and condensed in intermediate heat exchangers to hot water which is then supplied to DH grids. Also some small dedicated nuclear heating plants are operated. (author)

  15. Single Mothers in Russia : Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty

    Lokshin, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Popkin, Barry


    The authors describe trends in single parenthood in Russia, examining factors that affect living arrangements in single-mother families. Before economic reform, single mothers and their children were somewhat protected form poverty by government assistance (income support, subsidized child care, and full employment guarantees). Economic reform in Russia has reduced government transfers, el...

  16. The Economic Effects of a Russia-EU FTA

    M. Manchin (Miriam)


    textabstractThe paper examines the effects of Russia joining the WTO taking into account energy sector reform and the impact of a future Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the enlarged EU and Russia. The paper uses Computable General Equilibrium Modelling techniques for quantifying the different

  17. Russia and the Issues of the Korean Peninsula

    George D. Toloraya


    Full Text Available The importance of Korean Peninsula in Russian foreign strategy is based on the need to preserve peace and stability in the Russia's Far East "soft underbelly" and to be a part of international efforts to solve the Korean problem, as well as to promote regional economic cooperation. In 1990-s Russia's position on the peninsula weakened, mainly because of the rupture of ties with North Korea, while relations with South Korea were reactive in nature. Rebalancing relations with the two Koreas in 2000-s increased Russia's involvement into Korean settlement, including the 6- party format. Russia/s relations with North Korea are now based on good neighborhood principle, however, they are far from idyllic as Russia disapproves of Pyongyang's behavior, especially its nuclear and missile activities. However to influence the situation more Russia should deepen its ties with the current Pyongyang leadership regardless of how irritating its behavior might be. Relations with the ROK are aimed at becoming strategic, but in reality are limited due to ROK's alliance with the USA. However South Korea has become the third most important economic partner in Asia. Russia is especially interested in three- party projects, such as Trans-Korean railroad (linked to Transsiberan transit way, gas pipeline and electricity grid. However implementation of these project is negatively influenced by the tensions in Korean peninsula. It can be solved only by multilateral efforts for comprehensive solution combining security guarantees for North Korea and its abandonment of nuclear option.

  18. Economic security of modern Russia: the current state and prospects

    Karanina Elena


    Full Text Available In the conditions of instability of the world economy and the introduction of sanctions against Russia by a number of countries, the problem of ensuring national economic security has become particularly relevant. This topic also has a high scientific, practical and social significance, as it allows to identify possible gaps in the economic security of modern Russia and timely develop mechanisms to eliminate them to protect the national interests of the state. The purpose of this article is to determine the state and prospects of improving the economic security of modern Russia. This can be achieved by solving the following tasks: review of existing methods to evaluate the economic security of country, conduct a SWOT analysis of economic security of modern Russia, the development of suggestions for its improvement. This research analyzes various aspects of the economic security of modern Russia. As a result, the author developed an integrated method to ensuring the economic security of the country, as well as a matrix of economic security within this method. The way of increase of economic security of modern Russia is offered. Thus, to overcome the threats for the economic security of modern Russia, it is necessary to implement the recommendations developed by the authors, including the establishment of their own production and the construction of an innovatively oriented model of the economy. This will ensure the economic security of modern Russia and its stable development in the future.

  19. The NATO and Russia: is the Antiterrorist Cooperation Possible?

    Надежда Викторовна Шуленина


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the questions of the NATO-Russia antiterrorist cooperation organization. Problems which partners face organizing it are considered by authors. The sight is given not only from Russia's point of view, but also from the position of NATO.

  20. Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers

    Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.


    An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

  1. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    Rybakova, L. N.


    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  2. The Reality and Prospects of the Academic Degree in Russia

    Laptev, V. V.; Pisareva, S. A.; Triapitsyna, A. P.


    With the move toward mass higher education in Russia, academic degrees have lost much of their prestige. It is now necessary to look more closely at the reasons for this devaluation, to explore ways to optimize the training of researchers in graduate school programs, and to integrate Russia's system of science training into the European system.…

  3. Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School



    The Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School recently organised a course on Synchrotron Radiation & Free Electron Lasers, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 6 to 15 April, 2011.   The school attracted 65 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Russia, Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 15 lectures each of 90 minutes, 9 hours of parallel sessions, and 6 hours of discussion/student presentation sessions. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity during the traditional one-day excursion to visit two archeological sites at the Temples of Segesta and Selinunte. The success of the school has encouraged the organisers to re-launch the Joint School, which ran on a roughly t...

  4. Improvements in progress for Russia's new PSA law

    Pugliaresi, L.; Hensel, A.C.


    Russian legislation making production sharing agreements (PSAs) fully legal under Russian law passed the upper house of the Russian Parliament (Federal Council) on December 19, 1995, was signed into law by President Boris Yeltsin on December 31, 1995, and took effect on January 11, 1996. While PSA legislation remains the central legal basis for large scale investment in the Russian petroleum sector, company views towards investment in this sector are tied to much more than the extent of legal guarantees. Investor attitudes are also shaped by expectations regarding political stability, behavior of Russian regulatory authorities, and prospects for the Russian economy. Furthermore, Western investors in the petroleum sector have some experience in dealing with the Russian government and existing frameworks for investment, particularly the joint venture (JV) deals with Russian entities and the often changing regulatory and tax treatment of these ventures. It is the view of the authors that attitudes among some Western companies in Russia on the political and economic environment may be too pessimistic and shaped more by press reports than actual conditions. News reports on violence, political instability, and a disastrous economy are not entirely borne out by the facts. Russian, of course, faces serious political and economic problems which must be carefully evaluated, but the overall outlook is much more complex, and some positive developments are underway. This paper reviews the economic, oil production and industry outlook as a result of the PSA law

  5. U.S. second line of defense: preventing nuclear smuggling across Russia's borders

    Ball, D. Y.


    Preventing the theft of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia is one of the central security concerns facing the US today. The dissolution of the highly centralized USSR and the resulting societal crisis has endangered Russia's ability to protect its more than 200 metric tons of plutonium and 1000 tons of highly enriched uranium (roughly 8 kg Pu or 25 kg HEU is sufficient to make a bomb). Producing this fissile material is the most difficult and expensive part of nuclear weapons production and the US must make every effort to ensure that fissile material (and nuclear-related technologies) does not reach the hands of terrorist groups, rogue states or other potential proliferators. In response to this concern, the US has undertaken a number of initiatives in partnership with Russia and other FSU states to prevent the theft of fissile material. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program (MPC and A) was begun in 1993 to prevent the theft of nuclear materials from Russian civilian complexes, that is facilities not under control of the Ministry of Defense, which is largely responsible for possession and oversight of nuclear weapons. The MPC and A program is considered the first line of defense against theft of nuclear material because its goal is to prevent theft of material at production and storage facilities. This year the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new program called the Second Line of Defense (SLD), the goal of which is to assist Russia in preventing the smuggling of nuclear material and weapons at its borders, either by land, sea or air. The SLD program represents an important phase in the overall effort to ensure the security of nuclear material and weapons in Russia. However, as the US engages Russian customs officials in this important project, Americans should keep in mind that providing equipment--even indigenous equipment--is insufficient by itself; material aid must be accompanied by rigorous inspection and

  6. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Dmitry Filippenko


    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  7. Solar water heaters: possibilities of using in the climatic conditions of the Russia medium area

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.


    On the basis of mathematical simulation of the simplest solar water heating facility using up-to-date software and data of typical meteorological year it was shown that under the real climatic conditions peculiar to Russia central region it is appropriate to use seasonal solar water heaters operating from March up to September. It is shown that to promote solar water heaters in the Russian market one should elaborate engineering approaches and should introduce new materials ensuring reduction of cost of solar water heaters with the availability of high quality and durability [ru

  8. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.


    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  9. Strategic prospects of the electric power industry of Russia

    Makarov, A. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Makarova, A. S.; Novikova, T. V.; Pankrushina, T. G.


    The prospects for the development of the electric power industry of Russia adopted at a regular stage of working out the Energy Strategy and the General Plan of Distribution of the Electric Power Facilities are discussed. The monitoring of the progress in the implementation of the Energy Strategies for the periods until 2020 and 2030 adopted in 2003 and 2009 has, in general, validated the correctness of the estimated volumes of the energy resource production under overestimation of the expected domestic demand owing to an excessively optimistic forecast of the real development of the economy. The priority lines of the national energy policy in electric power and allied industries proposed in the Energy Strategy for the period until 2035 are considered. The tools for implementation of most of the proposals and the effectiveness of their implementation have yet to be defined more concretely. The development of the energy sector and the electric power industry under the conservative and optimistic scenarios of the development of the country's economy has been predicted using the SCANER modeling and information system, viz., the dynamics of the domestic consumption, export, and production of the primary energy and the electric power has been determined and the commissioning and structure of the required generating capacities and the consumption of the basic types of the energy resources by the electric power industry and the centralized heat supply systems has been optimized. Changes in the economic efficiency of the nuclear and thermal power plants under the expected improvements on their cost and performance characteristics and an increase in the domestic fuel prices are presented. The competitiveness of the wind and solar power production under Russian conditions has been evaluated considering the necessity of reservation and partial duplication of their capacities when operated in the power supply systems. When optimizing the electric power industry as a subsystem

  10. System Prerequisites for Economic Recovery of Russia

    Sergei Semenovich Gubanov


    Full Text Available In the latest issue of the Journal we informed our readers about the 7th International Conference “Strategy and Tactics of Socio-Economic Reforms” that was held in December 2015 in Vologda. The event was dedicated to the 25th anniversary of ISEDT RAS. Renowned Russian scientists, chief editors of social science publications and representatives of regional and local authorities delivered their reports at the plenary sessions of the conference. The report delivered by Sergei Gubanov, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Chief Editor of the journal “Economist”, was considered to be of great interest by the conference participants. Here we outline the main provisions of the report* touching upon the key issues that would help resolve economic and social problems that Russia is facing at the current stage of its development

  11. Security of Europe's energy supply. Russia's role

    Goffaux, P.


    A conference on ''Europe's Energy supplies by Russia'', has been organised march 17th 1994 by the Energy and Raw Materials Geopolitics Centre and the Moscow Energy Club, with participation of the World Energy Council. The round-table on petrol outlined the Eastern Europe dependency and the skepticism of western petroleum companies concerning Russian's deposits. The round table on gas outlined the importance of Russian's gas deposits and the development of its european exportations. The round table on nuclear power stated the heavy costs of security improvements, and argued for the taking off, after year 2000, of a new generation of reactors jointly designed by western and russian engineers. (D.L.). 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Russia's defense spending and the economic decline

    Susanne Oxenstierna


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the development of Russian military spending in light of weak and negative growth of the Russian economy and to look at the reasons for the economic decline that has developed after the economic crisis in 2009 and is due to long-term internal structural factors that have existed since the mid-2000s. The confidence crisis resulting from Russia's aggression against Ukraine 2014, Western sanctions and falling oil prices has further aggravated these tendencies and the economy is now contracting. The main conclusions are that the share of the defense budget in GDP has risen substantially, but there is still a trade-off between defense and other public spending in the budget. Political reform would be necessary to implement market institutions and revive the economy.

  13. Radioactive contamination at Chelyabinsk-65, Russia

    Cochran, T.B.; Norris, R.S.; Suokko, K.L.


    As a consequence of poor waste management practices at Chelyabinsk-65, primarily during the first two decades of operations, the site and its surroundings were extensively contaminated, and thousands of people were unknowingly exposed to excessive levels of radiation. In terms of human health consequences, most of the damage has already been inflicted. Nevertheless, containment of the residual radioactivity in high-level waste tanks, in the reservoirs along the Techa River, and in and below Lake Karachay represents expensive challenges for which the best, or even adequate solutions, have yet to be devised. Russian scientists have the knowledge to address these problems, but lack practical experience with contemporary waste management practices. Western expertise could be helpful in quantifying the extent of the problems and devising solutions. However, the real challenge will be to mobilize the economic resources for effective cleanup at Chelyabinsk-65 in light of all the other economic and environmental problems Russia faces. 81 refs

  14. The development of Social Pedagogy in Russia

    Tatiana Romm


    Full Text Available The way social pedagogy is developing nowadays has been paved by a centuries-old tradition of social and pedagogical work, historical experience of the theoretical research on the prob- lems of interactions between the man and the environment, and experience of successful problem solution of proper socialization in educational organizations at different stages of social pedagogy (pre- soviet, soviet and modern periods. Modern state of social pedagogy is related to the issues of deter- mining the status of social pedagogy, finding the main methodology parameters, as well as the research-specific issues. This paper  also presents the characteristics of the main concepts of social pedagogy in Russia and the peculiarities of professional work done by social pedagogues.

  15. The development of sports industry in Russia

    Sergeev A.A.


    Full Text Available the authors believe that Russia today loses the strategic directions of sports development: effective interaction between the state and business, management of sports industry, sport propaganda, attraction of investments and innovative technologies, at the same time, the state is realistic about the sport today and is moving in the direction of changes for the better. According to the authors, an example of this can be the implementation of the strategy of development of physical culture and sport for the period up to 2020. The article notes that the state should increasingly focus on creating favorable conditions in the direction of decentralization of management activities, preferential tax treatment, to give place to business in the sports industry, promote healthy lifestyles and to strengthen control over the fulfillment of social functions of sport development.

  16. Safeguarding nuclear weapon: Usable materials in Russia

    Cochran, T.


    Both the United States and Russia are retaining as strategic reserves more plutonium and HEU for potential reuse as weapons, than is legitimately needed. Both have engaged in discussions and have programs in various stages of development to dispose of excess plutonium and HEU. These fissile material disposition programs will take decades to complete. In the interim there will be, as there is now, hundreds of tons of separated weapon-usable fissile material stored in tens of thousands of transportable canisters, each containing from a few to several tons of kgs of weapon-usable fissile material. This material must be secured against theft and unauthorized use. To have high confidence that the material is secure, one must establish criteria against which the adequacy of the protective systems can be judged. For example, one finds such criteria in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations for the protection of special nuclear materials

  17. Recognition of higher medical institutions in Russia.

    Severyanova, L; Lazarev, A


    The Russian Federation of higher medical institutions get State accreditation, if their activity conforms to criteria determined by the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. Kursk State Medical University (KSMU) has a confirmed to requirement of accreditation by the Russian Federation, to conduct annually training of about 5000 students at 12 faculties. KSMU carries out pre-medical undergraduate and postgraduate training in the specialty "Doctor of medicine". For the first time in Russia KSMU was allowed to conduct a 6-year medical training with the use of English as an intermediary language by the Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Education. In this relation programmes of training teachers for conducting instruction with the use of an intermediary language (English) and training students Russian with the level necessary for free communication with Russian patients and staff of the clinics have been developed and realized.


    Tatiana V. Dikareva


    Full Text Available We analyzed, for the first time ever, the geographical distribution of the main allergenic plants in Russia. All materials were organized as database and attached to the map in GIS Mapinfo. For each region of Russian Federation, two indices were calculated: the total number of allergenic plants in the region and the “allergenic index”. A series of maps wascompiled: the number of spring-flowering species, the number of summer-flowering species,the total number of species flowering during the whole year, the overall allergen danger during spring and summer seasons, respectively, and the overall allergen danger during the whole year. In terms of the number of allergenic species and by the “allergenic index,” the most dangerous regions appeared to be the Ryazan and Voronezh Oblasts, while the less dangerous – the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, and the Magadan Oblast. The maps may serve as a reference source for allergologists and allergy sufferers.

  19. Wage discrimination against foreign workers in Russia

    Elena Vakulenko


    Full Text Available We try to determine with the help of the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition technique whether foreign workers are discriminated against in Russia. We use the Russian Ministry of Labor (Rostrud data on migrants’ applications and the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS, provided by the Higher School of Economics for the period 2009–2013. We show that there is significant discrimination against foreign workers. The average salary of Russian workers with the same level of productivity as migrants exceeds migrants’ average salary by 40%. The industries in which the workers are employed have made most substantial contribution to the discrimination gap. Moreover, there is evidence that the lower salaries of foreign workers do not reduce the salaries of Russians employed in similar positions.

  20. New System of Food Control in Russia

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  1. Social Cost of Substance Abuse in Russia.

    Potapchik, Elena; Popovich, Larisa


    To summarize results of studies that estimate the social costs of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug abuse in Russia. The purpose of these studies was to inform policymakers about the real economic burden of risky behaviors and to provide conditions for evidence-based and well-informed decision making in this area. The cost-of-illness method was applied to estimate the social cost of substance abuse. The intangible cost was not included in estimation. A prevalence-based approach was applied to estimate the tangible cost. For the estimation of direct costs, a top-down method was used. Indirect costs were estimated using two methods: the human capital and the friction cost. In 2008, the social cost of substance abuse in Russia comprised 677.2 billion rubles if the friction cost method is applied and 1965.9 billion rubles if the human capital method is used. The social cost of substance abuse is defined to the greatest extent by alcohol consumption, comprising about 45% of the economic burden. Illicit drug use comprises about 30% of the economic burden and tobacco consumption 25%. The results of economic studies demonstrated that psychoactive substances impose a considerable economic burden on society. Analysis of the substance abuse social cost pattern shows that the main losses that society bears because of these behavioral risk factors fall outside the health care system and lay in other sectors of the economy such as social care, law enforcement, and productivity losses. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic transition and health transition: comparing China and Russia.

    Liu, Y; Rao, K; Fei, J


    Drawing on experiences from China and Russia (the world's two largest transitional economies), this paper empirically examines the impact of economic reforms on health status. While China's overall health status continued to improve after the economic reform, Russia experienced a serious deterioration in its population health. The observed differences in health performance between China and Russia can be explained by the different impacts of economic reforms on three major socioeconomic determinants of health. Depending on whether or not the reform improves physical environment (as reflected in income level and nutritional status), social environment (including social stability and security system), and health care, we would observe either a positive or a negative net effect on health. Despite remarkable differences in overall health development, China and Russia share some common problems. Mental and social health problems such as suicides and alcohol poisoning have been on the rise in both countries. These problems were much more serious in Russia, where political and social instability was more pronounced, associated with Russia's relatively radical reform process. With their economies moving toward a free market system, health sectors in China and Russia are undergoing marketization, which has had serious detrimental effect on the public health services.

  3. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.


    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  4. The first ever Cochrane event in Russia and Russian speaking countries - Cochrane Russia Launch - Evidence-based medicine

    Ziganshina, Liliya Eugenevna; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl


    Kazan hosted Russia's second International Conference QiQUM 2015 on Cochrane evidence for health policy, which was entirely independent of the pharmaceutical or other health industry, bringing together 259 participants from 11 countries and 13 regions of the Russian Federation. The Conference......, Tajikistan and Russia introduced the concept of Cochrane systematic review and the Use of Cochrane evidence in WHO policy setting. Websites document conference materials and provide interface for future collaboration: http......:// and

  5. Economy, Geopolitics, environment: the triple gas issue in the relations between the Eu and Russia

    Bourguignon, D.


    With the political tinge it has recently acquired, natural gas has taken a central position in the relations between the EU and Russia Besides energy security, the issue has three levels: the first is the opening of markets or the maintaining of monopolies, as much in Russia as in the European Union. The line of fracture is complex, and at present, in spite of rhetoric support on the opening of markets, it is rather their protection which is on the agenda. The second level is that of energy diplomacy Brussels and Moscow come face to face primarily in Central Asia, on the basis of interests and using diametrically opposite instrument. However, their policies are characterised by weighty constraints. The third level is that of the fight against climatic change. Soaring in this field, there are several convergencies between the policies of Brussels and Moscow, particularly in terms of energy efficiency. With this new order, gas could watch itself grow in significance, or otherwise drop, in which case the relation between the EU and Russian would not go uninfluenced. (author)

  6. An information model of a centralized admission campaign in ...

    The aim of the work is to structure individual application environments of the information model of a centralized admission campaign in higher education institutions in Russia by modifying the corresponding structure of the Federal information system supporting state final examination and admission procedures. , The ...

  7. Current State and Prospects for Development of Tourism in Russia

    Ulyana V. Laktionova


    Full Text Available Tourism in Russia is a developing complex, capable of resolving a lot of social and economic issues if developed correctly. Week and strong points of Russian tourism, ways to address arising problems.

  8. History of auditing in Russia. Periodization and challenges of development

    Iurii N. GUZOV


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the recent history of auditing in Russia from 1987 to the present time. This kind of research, such as any inquiry into history, calls for a well-grounded periodization. For the purposes of this study, factors were determined which influence the regulatory and methodological support of auditing; in accordance with the results of the analysis of their time intersections – the logical addition – qualitative leaps in the development of auditing in Russia were identified, which are represented as stages of its evolution. Through the application of this method, four stages in the recent history of auditing in Russia were identified: pre-history (the birth of the Russian auditing, the “wild” auditing; establishment of auditing in Russia; government regulation and licensing; self-regulation of audit activity.

  9. The military dimension of a more Militant Russia

    Julian Cooper


    Full Text Available The article analyses the development of the military dimension of Russia's economy over the past decade or more, including the significant growth of military expenditure and its principal driver, spending on the ambitious state armament programme to 2020. For the first time for almost twenty-five years Russia once again possesses capable armed forces. With greater economic and military strength Russia's leadership now feels able to be more assertive, even militant, on the world stage. These developments threaten to be constrained by the poor performance of the economy, facing the government with a policy challenge. However, for Russia and the main Western powers there can be no going back to the status quo ante.

  10. The EU-Russia Energy Dialogue: Competition Versus Monopolies

    Milov, V.


    Russia and the European Union have clearly entered a new stage in their energy relations, defined by a growing asymmetry between a strengthened national monopoly on the supply side and a gradual opening of markets in Europe. In this context, a multitude of new approaches to EU Russia energy relations have been voiced recently by a wide variety of experts. Unfortunately, many of them involve 'defensive' solutions, driven by lack of mutual trust on both sides. Is a positive approach nevertheless still possible? The paper argues that competition is a key universal value in the development of a new and sustainable energy relationship between Russia and Europe. It is clear that EU competition regulators should take the lead in setting up a new framework for EU-Russia energy relations in the future. The success of their endeavors will not only determine the security of energy supply for European consumers, but also that of the Russian and Eurasian energy markets. (author)

  11. RLC Forest Fire Images in Russia, 1998-1999

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is made up of images of forest fires in Russia from NOAA's Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) archive (

  12. RLC Forest Fire Images in Russia, 1998-1999

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is made up of images of forest fires in Russia from NOAA's Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) archive ( for the 1998...

  13. Koptev announces space plans for Russia in 2003

    Pieson, D


    According to the head of the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Yuri Koptev, the major emphasis of Russia's space program in 2003 will be supporting the nation's telecommunication satellite program (1/2 page).

  14. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  15. The role of financial groups in Russia's banking crisis

    Perotti, E.C.


    This article reviews the role of financial groups in financial crises, and then applies the lessons learnt to Russia though a detailed analysis of the ruble collapse, the GKO default and the banking crisis.

  16. The Regional Institution of Higher Learning in Today's Russia

    Karamurzov, B. S.


    The regional universities in Russia are an important resource for the development of Russian society, but more needs to be done to increase their effectiveness, including tackling corruption and leveraging local competitive advantages.

  17. Priority Fields of E-learning Development in Russia

    Filippova, Tatyana


    The paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning application by all the subjects of educational process in Russia. Hereon, the fields that allow increasing the efficient use of e-learning in educational process were shown.

  18. Energy Globalization: Oil Geopolitics in Central Asia Big Race for the Caspian Oil



    The research aims to show causal relations between recent global change in geopolitics towards energy resources, its effect on foreign policies of Russia, the USA and China; as well as the role of oil factor in their rivalry, development of the newly formed Central Asian (the Caspian region) states-donors and international relations in general . Globalization, geopolitics, oil factor, Russia, the USA, China, the Caspian Sea, international relations, Asia

  19. Parenthood and life satisfaction. Russia in comparative perspective

    Mikucka, Malgorzata; The 4th LCSR International Annual Research Conference: 'Cultural and Economic changes under cross-national perspective'


    The literature on life satisfaction trajectories during parenthood rests so far mainly on data from Western countries. This paper fills this gap by estimating the dynamics of life satisfaction associated with parenthood in Russia, a country which is different not only in terms of economic and historical factors, but also has a peculiar pattern of fertility and parenthood. We use the data of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE and fixed effects regression for panel data to estimat...


    E. A. Bozhilina


    Full Text Available The content and the construction of legends map section «Climate» for the ecological Atlas of Russia: «climate Types», «Evaluation of discomfort climatic conditions», scale 1: 30 000 000. Given a brief description of types of climate the territory of Russia. Approaches to the assessment of climate discomfort. Outlines the steps of creating a map discomfort of the climatic regions and given their description.

  1. Russia's 'dictatorship-of-the-law' approach to internet policy

    Nocetti (Julien)


    As international politics' developments heavily weigh on Russia's domestic politics, the internet is placed on top of the list of "threats" that the government must tackle, through an avalanche of legislations aiming at gradually isolating the Russian internet from the global infrastructure. The growth of the Russian internet market during the last couple of years is likely to remain secondary to the "sovereignisation" of Russia's internet. This article aims at understanding these contradicto...

  2. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline

    Bourdillon, Y


    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  3. The regulatory system of nuclear safety in Russia

    Mizoguchi, Shuhei


    This article explains what type of mechanism the nuclear system has and how nuclear safety is regulated in Russia. There are two main organizations in this system : ROSATOM and ROSTEKHADZOR. ROSATOM, which was founded in 2007, incorporates all the nuclear industries in Russia, including civil nuclear companies as well as nuclear weapons complex facilities. ROSTEKHNADZOR is the federal body that secures and supervises the safety in using atomic energy. This article also reviews three laws on regulating nuclear safety. (author)

  4. High speed trains Velaro for Russia; Hochgeschwindigkeitszuege Velaro fuer Russland

    Lipp, Andreas; John, David [Siemens AG, I MO TR HI RUS, Erlangen (Germany); Mangler, Ruediger [Siemens AG, I MO TR DH, Krefeld (Germany); Nazarov, Aleksander S. [OAO RZD, Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Technical Policy; Nazarov, Oleg N. [VNIIZhT Moscow (Russian Federation); Shilkin, Vitali P. [OAO RZD, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    From December 2008 on, eight ten-piece high-speed trains from the Velaro family from Siemens will be delivered to Russia. The two electrical multiple unit versions - single and double system trains equipped with distributed traction - will be put into service on the existing Moscow - St. Petersburg and Moscow - Nizhni Novgorod lines. The technical design and the special features for deployment in Russia are described. (orig.)

  5. Exchange Rate Regime in Russia, Evaluation and Recommendations

    Olga, Vasilevskaya


    This paper studies exchange rate choice in Russia with respect to social, economic and political determinants. The study deliberately narrowed the scope of the discussion to two extreme cases, i.e. fixed and floating exchange rate. Today Russia applies managed floating exchange rate arrangement and it is important to determine the direction of the further monetary policy development either towards fixed or floating exchange rate. The paper argues that the logical extension of the historical t...

  6. Foreign Exchange Markets in Russia: Understanding the Reforms

    Linda S. Goldberg


    This paper analyzes and interprets the changes that took place in Russia's exchange rate system during 1992. The multiple exchange rate regime that existed in Russia prior to July 3, 1992, created strong incentives for exporters to refrain from repatriating foreign exchange earnings, induced both importers and exporters to participate in unofficial markets for foreign exchange, and encouraged international barter transactions. Efforts to manage the exchange rate through heavy foreign exchange...

  7. Exchange-Rate Unification with Black Market Leakages; Russia 1992

    Linda S. Goldberg


    In 1992 Russia unified the multiple exchange rates that had applied to international transactions. This paper describes the multiple exchange rate system that existed in Russia prior to mid-1992 and undertakes a theoretical exploration of the effects of the exchange rate unification that took place in July 1992. The model developed here allows for leakages between official and black markets and permits flexibility of the exchange rates in both official and parallel currency markets. Within th...


    Natalya V. Stapran


    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  9. Russia's Participation In Multilateral Mechanisms In East Asia

    Natalya V. Stapran


    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  10. Russia’s Next Revolution: Reclaiming Lost Freedom


    Western partnerships with Russia to promote stability while recognizing legitimate security, political, economic , and domestic concerns as well as its... economic trouble, which could lead to unrest and even revolution. This paper reviews Russia’s historical propensity for revolutionary change, discusses...their rights back through a revolution and regime change. If this happens, it could lead to political instability in Russia, which would create

  11. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives in Russia: An Overview

    Rotfuß, Waldemar


    This work provides a descriptive overview of Russian markets for financial derivatives. Available figures for the exchange-traded and over-the-counter-traded derivatives in Russia show that the Russian derivatives markets experienced enormous growth rates since the financial crisis in 1998. Starting from a very low level, turnover of exchange-traded derivatives in Russia rose from 2000 to 2006 on average 168 percent per year and reached a total turnover of EUR 102 billion in 2006. Among futur...

  12. Cryolithozone of Western Arctic shelf of Russia

    Kholmyanskii, Mikhail; Vladimirov, Maksim; Snopova, Ekaterina; Kartashev, Aleksandr


    We propose a new original version of the structure of the cryolithozone of west Arctic seas of Russia. In contrast to variants of construction of sections and maps based on thermodynamic modeling, the authors have used electrometric, seismic, and thermal data including their own profile measurements by near-field transient electromagnetic technique and seismic profile observations by reflection method. As a result, we defined the spatial characteristics of cryolithozone and managed to differentiate it to several layers, different both in structure and formation time. We confirmed once again that the spatial boundary of cryolithozone, type and thickness of permafrost, chilled rocks and thawed ground are primarily determined by tectonic and oceanographic regimes of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent land in different geological epochs. Permafrost formed on the land in times of cold weather, turn to submarine during flooding and overlap, in the case of the sea transgression, by marine sediments accumulating in the period of warming. We have been able to establish a clear link between the permafrost thickness and the geomorphological structure of the area. This can be explained by the distribution of thermodynamic flows that change the temperature state of previously formed permafrost rocks. Formation in the outer parts of the shelf which took place at ancient conversion stage can be characterized by the structure: • permafrost table - consists of rocks, where the sea water with a temperature below 0 °C has replaced the melted ice; • middle horizon - composed of undisturbed rocks, and the rocks chilled through the lower sieving underlay; As a result of the interpretation and analysis of all the available data, the authors created a map of types of cryolithozone of the Western Arctic shelf of Russia. The following distribution areas are marked on the map: • single-layer cryolithozone (composed of sediments upper Pleistocene and Holocene); • monosyllabic relict

  13. A Qualified Optimistic Analysis of Imperial Russia

    Christine D. Worobec


    Full Text Available In his magnum opus on Russia’s imperial history B.N. Mironov characterizes himself as a positivist thinker who marshals impressive amounts of statistics and other types of hard evidence, and employs economic theory, sociological paradigms to understand Russian social structures and development, political analysis, anthropology, and at times psychology to Russia over the longue durée. With this arsenal at hand, he argues against Russian exceptionalism and identifies Russia instead as a typical European state. In so doing, he emphasizes Imperial Russia’s successes as a state, the social and economic foundations of which, he argues, did not cause revolution and attributes revolution to political causes. As he has tried to do previously, the author does not begin with the revolutions of the early twentieth century and largely does not read history backwards, but rather delineates Russia’s historical development within a robust comparative European context (occasionally broadening that context to include the United States. More specifically, B.N. Mironov charts Russia’s modernization through the creation of well-defined estates in the late eighteenth century and the subsequent breakdown of those estates in the post-reform period as a result of greater social mobility; gradual urbanization; industrialization; the beginnings of a demographic transformation; improvements in the standard of living; an increase in literacy; the development of a civil society; the spread of private property among all social groups; the growth of individualism; and the eventual establishment of the rule of law, all of which constitute the attributes of a modern European state. The author’s largely negative perceptions of the Russian peasants’ mentalité, however, sit uneasily with his claims about advancements in the countryside by the turn of the twentieth century. Equating peasants’ collectivism with authoritarianism and conflating it with the Bolshevik

  14. Crisis of corporate social responsibility and its status in Russia

    Vitaly J. Ozira


    Full Text Available This paper picked a topic - the global financial crisis- to highlight several related problems. The current crisis was not caused by failed economic policies. The root cause is failed leadership. People sometimes forget that business ethics at its core is about excellence and high attainment rather than misdeeds and malfeasance.In recent years, however, more attention has been paid to the positive side of ethics. More managers in Russia are waking up to the ways in which positive values contribute to a company's effective day-to-day functioning, as well as its reputation and long-term sustainability.Contrary to Western Europe and Scandinavia, Corporate Social Responsibility is a relatively new concept in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Cultural gaps between Westerners and Locals have gradually been narrowing and becoming less divisive. Improved knowledge by foreign investors on how to operate successfully in a post-communist region, on "how to bridge the gap", greatly decreases the risk of the East-West joint venture.The views expressed in the paper are the author's own responsibility and should not be interpreted as presenting the official position paper on Corporate Governance.En este trabajo se enfoca la crisis financiera global con el fin de destacar los problemas más importantes relacionados con ésta. La presente crisis no fue provocada por causas meramente económicas. La causa fundamental radica en el liderazgo. A veces, la gente olvida que la ética de las relaciones juega un papel importante a la hora de llevar a cabo un negocio. Últimamente, no obstante, se presta más atención al aspecto positivo de la ética profesional. Un número creciente de gestores rusos emprenden el camino en el que los valores positivos conducen a un eficaz funcionamiento diario así como su prestigio y sostenibilidad a largo plazo. A diferencia de la concepción de la Europa occidental y escandinava de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa, en la

  15. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir


    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.


    K. P. Aleksandrova


    Full Text Available Relevance of research topic is related to the significant influence of the venture capital industry on the Russian economy. Innovative development of our country depends mainly on the effective commercialization of research and development, but the technology companies access to financial resources is a key factor in the innovation process . Venture capital plays a major role in this respect: it provides a fast and timely financial support to local entrepreneurs breakthrough ideas and enhances the competitiveness of the Russian economy as a whole. Objective - Analysis of Venture Investment in Russia , identifying issues and current trends in development. In the process, a set of methods has been applied economic and statistical analysis: methods of synthesis, comparison and analysis of economic and statistical information. In the study, it was determined that the current Russian venture market is characterized by an increase in the number of venture capital funds and private equity funds, as well as increasing their capitalization; an increasing number of companies financed, but about 90 % of all investments allocated for funding mature companies and only 10 % - for companies at the venture development stages; Central Federal District continues to firmly hold the leadership of the share of the total investment of all federal districts . Identified the following problems: lack of funding companies in the initial stages of development, infrastructure venture industry, inadequate legislation and taxation system , the problems associated with the protection and registration of intellectual property, the problem of lack of professional management, the lack of a well-functioning stock market, high-tech industries unattractive for investment.Purchase on > Buy nowDOI:

  17. Macroeconomic Dynamics in Russia During the First World War

    Cheremisinov Georgiy


    Full Text Available Introduction. The trajectory and quality of economic development of a country depend on the scale of the public entrepreneurship. The key parameters of macroeconomic dynamics are represented by the ratio between consumption and accumulation (saving in the national income, the regulation of centralized withdrawal of economic resources and the nature of their investment or expenditure. Theoretical analysis. The First World War had been changing the course of economic processes in Russia since 1914 till 1918. The funds were raised for ensuring the defense industry and supplying the troops. The incomes of population and enterprises were decreasing. The capital goods and trade ties undergone destruction processes. The besieged state turned to reducing reproduction of the gross national product. The military situation and extraordinary redistribution of resources had strengthened the economic status of the country. The funds spent on the maintenance and equipment of the army depended on the methods of resource allocation. Along with the war losses, the methods of economic regulation also contributed to the degradation of Russian economy. The devastation was caused by the armed struggle of state power for their interests and purposeful economic policy of successive governments. Conclusion. During the First World War the Russian economy had become extreme. Public withdrawal of economic resources and the impact on the economy was growing up until its overall governmentalization and transformation of the market economy into the subsistence one. The reformation processes supported each other mutually, strengthened the effect of general trends and had irreversible cumulative character. The mobilization model of the Russian economy was formed.

  18. Russia's nuclear industry - an overview; Russlands Kernenergiewirtschaft: Zustand, Probleme, Perspektiven

    Tscherkassov, V. [Konzern ROSENERGOATOM, Moskau (Russian Federation)


    After the Chernobyl disaster, improvements in materials and in training were made everywhere. As a result, the quality of operation of Russian reactors now is in third place after Germany and Japan. At the present time, it is becoming more and more evident that Russia will have no future in the absence of a nuclear power industry. This is due not only to the country's geographic and socio-economic features, its large territory, and the mismatch between the major energy resources in Siberia and the centers of energy consumption in the European part of Russia, but also to the fact that there is no technology other than nuclear at present which would be able to generate the volume of electricity required after the end of the 'natural gas break'. The generation of electricity in nuclear power plants contributed from 1999 on amounted to a share of approx. 15 per cent in all of Russia; 30 per cent in the European part of Russia and in the central supply region; of this share, 60 per cent in the central Chernozem region; 41 per cent in the northwestern supply region; 70 per cent in the northwest of the autonomous Chukchen region; 40 per cent in the FOREM single electricity market. The same percentages apply to electricity exports. (orig.) [German] Nach der Katastrophe von Tschernobyl wurden ueberall Verbesserungen bei Material und Ausbildung umgesetzt. Die Folge ist, dass heute die Betriebsqualitaet der russischen Reaktoren direkt hinter Deutschland und Japan rangiert. Kernkraftwerke spielen in der Wirtschaft des Landes eine wesentliche Rolle. Rentabel wirtschaftende KKW grosser Leistung werden an den Knotenpunkten des Versorgungsnetzes im Grundlastbereich betrieben und sichern einen stabilen Betrieb des gesamten Energieverbundsystems Russlands. Aus diesem Grund ist Russland an einem stabilen und sicheren Betrieb seiner KKW interessiert. Gegenwaertig zeigt sich immer deutlicher, dass Russland ohne Kernenergiewirtschaft keine entsprechende Zukunft hat. Dies

  19. Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Collected in 2011-2012, Russia.

    Nikolay N Kartsev

    Full Text Available Enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (ETEC are one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries and travel diarrhoea in adults. Pathogenic properties of ETEC associated with their ability to produce a heat-stable (ST and/or heat-labile (LT enterotoxins, as well as adhesins providing bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. This study presents the molecular characterization of the ETEC isolates collected from the Central and Far-Eastern regions of Russia in 2011-2012. It was shown that all ETEC under study (n=18 had the heat-labile enterotoxin-coding operon elt, and had no the genes of the heat-stable enterotoxin operon est. DNA sequencing revealed two types of nucleotide exchanges in the eltB gene coding subunit B of LT in isolates collected from Cherepovets city (Central region, Russia and Vladivostok city (Far-East region, Russia. Only one ETEC strain carried genes cfaA, cfaB, cfaC and cfaD coding adhesion factor CFA/I. Expression of LT in four ETEC isolates in the agglutination reaction was detected using a latex test-system. The isolates were assigned to serogroups O142 (n = 6, О6 (n = 4, О25 (n = 5, О26 (n = 2, and O115 (n = 1. Genotyping showed that they belonged to an earlier described sequence-type ST4 (n = 3 as well as to 11 novel sequence-types ST1043, ST1312, ST3697, ST3707, ST3708, ST3709, ST3710, ST3755, ST3756, ST3757 and ST4509. The ETEC isolates displayed different levels of antimicrobial resistance. Eight isolates were resistant to only one drug, three isolates-to two drugs, one isolate-to three drugs, two isolates-to four antibacterials, and only one isolate to each of the five, six and ten antibacterials simultaneously. Genetic determinants of the resistance to beta-lactams and other classes of antibacterials on the ETEC genomes were identified. There are blaTEM (n = 10, blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1, class 1 integron (n = 3 carrying resistance cassettes to aminoglycosides and

  20. Molecular Characterization of Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli Collected in 2011-2012, Russia.

    Kartsev, Nikolay N; Fursova, Nadezhda K; Pachkunov, Dmitry M; Bannov, Vasiliy A; Eruslanov, Boris V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A


    Enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (ETEC) are one of the main causative agents of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries and travel diarrhoea in adults. Pathogenic properties of ETEC associated with their ability to produce a heat-stable (ST) and/or heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins, as well as adhesins providing bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. This study presents the molecular characterization of the ETEC isolates collected from the Central and Far-Eastern regions of Russia in 2011-2012. It was shown that all ETEC under study (n=18) had the heat-labile enterotoxin-coding operon elt, and had no the genes of the heat-stable enterotoxin operon est. DNA sequencing revealed two types of nucleotide exchanges in the eltB gene coding subunit B of LT in isolates collected from Cherepovets city (Central region, Russia) and Vladivostok city (Far-East region, Russia). Only one ETEC strain carried genes cfaA, cfaB, cfaC and cfaD coding adhesion factor CFA/I. Expression of LT in four ETEC isolates in the agglutination reaction was detected using a latex test-system. The isolates were assigned to serogroups O142 (n = 6), О6 (n = 4), О25 (n = 5), О26 (n = 2), and O115 (n = 1). Genotyping showed that they belonged to an earlier described sequence-type ST4 (n = 3) as well as to 11 novel sequence-types ST1043, ST1312, ST3697, ST3707, ST3708, ST3709, ST3710, ST3755, ST3756, ST3757 and ST4509. The ETEC isolates displayed different levels of antimicrobial resistance. Eight isolates were resistant to only one drug, three isolates-to two drugs, one isolate-to three drugs, two isolates-to four antibacterials, and only one isolate to each of the five, six and ten antibacterials simultaneously. Genetic determinants of the resistance to beta-lactams and other classes of antibacterials on the ETEC genomes were identified. There are blaTEM (n = 10), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1), class 1 integron (n = 3) carrying resistance cassettes to aminoglycosides and

  1. Judicial Reforms in Russia: 1864 to 2014

    Irina Reshetnikova


    Full Text Available In 2014 we celebrate the 150th anniversary of the Judicial Reform in Russia. The 1860s are known as a time of major reforms in various spheres of life, one of them being the Judicial Reform adopted in 1864. Before 1864 civil procedure was considered to be the classical form of inquisitorial justice1 with active judges and passive parties. Inquisitorial procedure was a written process conducted in secret with no legal representatives in court, and with formal evaluation of evidence (otsenka dokazatel’stv. Instead of an inquisitorial procedure the Judicial Reform introduced an adversarial system with active parties and more or less passive judges, an open, oral (public process, legal representatives, and free evaluation of evidence. So, for Russian procedure it was a revolution as it happened in other countries of Europe, which turned away from an inquisitorial to an adversarial system of justice.

  2. Lunar and planetary cartography in Russia

    Shevchenko, Vladislav; Michael, Gregory


    This book is the first to document in depth the history of lunar and planetary cartography in Russia. The first map of the far side of the Moon was made with the participation of Lomonosov Moscow University (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, MSU) in 1960. The developed mapping technologies were then used in preparing the “Complete Map of the Moon” in 1967 as well as other maps and globes. Over the years, various maps of Mars have emerged from the special course “Mapping of extraterrestrial objects” in the MSU Geography Department, including the hypsometric map of Mars at a scale of 1:26,000,000, compiled by J.A. Ilyukhina and published in 2004 in an edition of 5,000 copies. A more detailed version of this map has since been produced with a new hypsometric scale. In addition, maps of the northern and southern hemispheres of Mars have been compiled for the hypsometric globe of Mars.  Relief maps of Venus were made in 2008, 2010, and 2011, and hypsometric maps of Phobos and Deimos at a scale of 1:60,000...


    Ekaterina I. Golovina


    Full Text Available Water is a key component of our environment; it is a renewable, limited and vulnerable natural resource, which provides economic, social, and environmental well-being of the population. The most promising source of drinking water supply is groundwater usage. Drinking and industrial groundwater is one of the most important components of the groundwater mineral resource base in the Russian Federation. Modern system of groundwater extraction management and state regulation is currently imperfect and has definite disadvantages, among them - lack of control over natural resources by the state, an old system of tax rates for the use of groundwater, commercialization stage of licensing, the budget deficit, which is passed on other spheres of the national economy. This article provides general information about the state of groundwater production and supply in Russia, negative trends of groundwater usage, some actions for the improvement in the system of groundwater’s fund management are suggested. The most important amendments of the law “About mineral resources” are overviewed, effects of these changes are revealed and recommendations for future groundwater extraction regulation are given.

  4. Fusion safety studies in Russia in 2003

    Kolbasov, B.N. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Guseva, M.I. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Khripunov, B.I. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Martynenko, Yu.V. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zimin, A.M. [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Bauman ul. 5, 107005 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stankevich, V.G. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Svechnikov, N.Yu. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartenev, S.A. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskij Prospect 28, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    The paper presents a review of the fusion safety studies performed in Russia in 2003. Among the findings is the effect of tungsten sputtering by subthreshold energy ions at high temperature, which tends to decrease with irradiation dose. The size distribution of W-erosion products (spherical droplets or flakes) depends on the positioning of the collector. Studies of Be + D(H) films revealed that D/Be ratio in co-deposited Be-D films decreases from 0.15 at 375 K to 0.05 at 575 K. Hydrogen concentration in Be + C films, exposed to acetylene ion flux at 670 K, decreased from 20-24 to 6 at.% with increase in irradiation dose from 10{sup 23} to 10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The analysis of spectroscopic characteristics of C-D films deposited inside the T-10 tokamak vacuum chamber provides qualitative insight into the physical and chemical reasons behind the preferential retention of the heavier hydrogen isotope in the tokamak erosion films. An extraction scheme for radiochemical reprocessing of activated V-Cr-Ti alloy after a fusion reactor decommissioning was developed and checked experimentally. It takes 48 extraction steps to recover V, Cr and Ti down to an effective dose rate <12.5 {mu}Sv/h, permitting the refabrication of these metals without any biological shielding from ionizing radiation.

  5. Prospects of Cooperation between Russia and Turkey

    Elvin Aghayev


    Full Text Available Russian – Turkish relations go deep into the past. From the Cold War and the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States certainly there has not been a more complicated relationship in international relations. Both countries have different strategic positions, a different dominant religion, a different past, but their relationship largely depends on the future of Eurasia. This paper will deal with relations between the two countries since the establishment of the first diplomatic contacts in the 15th century, through the relationship during the time of Peter the Great, and will mention the periods of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Cold War era. Special attention will be focused on the current relations between the two countries, especially after the conflict in 2015, when Turkey shot down a Russian plane over Syria. Special attention will be focused on energy policy and the potential for building a nuclear power plant in Mersin, and the continuation of Turkish stream. The paper will deal with economics and trade exchange, which have almost disappeared following the 2015 incident, security cooperation and Turkey’s plans to buy the defense system S-400 from Russia, as well as relations between the two countries towards NATO. The paper will end with the projection of the prospects for the economic relations between the two countries.

  6. Forest pyrology in Russia: achievements and problems

    P. A. Tsvetkov


    Full Text Available The state of Russian forest pyrology from the beginning of XXI century to present time was examined in the article. Main problems of basic and applied research of fire scientists for the last years were revealed. The identification of fire role as permanent ecological and evolutional factor of origin, development, and growth of forests was considered to be the aim of basic research. Applied research includes improvement and increase of efficiency of forest protection, estimation, and reasonable usage of positive fire role in a forest. The results of main basic and applied research of scientists from Siberia, Far East, European part of country, and Ural were examined. It was emphasized that to present time forest pyrology accumulated a significant amount of theoretical and applied knowledge. The results of investigations are the basis for planning of fire fighting, selection of means and methods of fire suppression, increase of efficiency of forest protection, estimation and reasonable usage of positive fire role. The foundations of pyroecology as a science of ecological and evolutional role of forest fires were laid down. In total, the results of investigations of Russian scientists were considered as the uniform system of knowledge of forest fire nature and methods of fire suppressions. In spite of this, modern state of forest pyrology in Russia could not be evaluated as satisfactory, especially after enactment of new RF Forest code since January 1, 2007. The main reasons of such state were determined. The suggestions of its improvement were provided.

  7. The social dynamics of employees in Russia

    Z T Golenkova


    Full Text Available The article describes the specific features of the socio-structural processes that take place in the Russian economy over the past decades, determine the dynamics of interaction between social groups, and change the criteria of social inequality and differentiation. The authors believe that the transformation of property relations in the Russian society led to a sharp polarization in income and changed the structure of employment. In the first part of the article, the authors analyze the employment by economic sectors, identify general characteristics of the labor market at different levels (macro- and micro-levels in the field of socio-economic and socio-labor relations. In the second part of the article, the authors on the basis of their own empirical studies estimate the positions of employees working in both the public and private sectors, but focus on the private sector employees as a new social class. The authors describe how a class of employees is forming in Russia; indicate the general characteristics of this community, as well as the factors that determine the social differences within it, and the nature of these differences, which depend on the sector of employment, employee professional and educational level, his age, and job position.

  8. A Rússia Americana The American Russia

    João Marcelo Ehlert Maia


    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar interpretações do Brasil assentadas na idéia de que seríamos uma "Rússia Americana". Para tanto, analiso as contribuições de Gilberto Freyre, Otávio Velho e Vicente Licínio Cardoso, e apresento brevemente o caso russo, a partir das obras clássicas de Franco Venturi e Isaiah Berlin. Argumento ao longo do texto que essa percepção de que o Brasil teria uma geografia social "russa" implica a produção de um americanismo específico, que encontra sua maior expressão no pensamento de Vicente Licínio Cardoso e em suas idéias que conjugam fordismo e arielismo.This article seeks to analyse Brazil's interpretations founded on the idea that we would be an "American Russia". in order to do so, I analyse the contributions of Gilberto Freyre, Otávio Velho and Vicente Licínio Cardoso, and I briefly present the russian case, using the works of Franco Venturi and Isaiah Berlin. I suggest that this perception implies the production of an especific type of americanism, wich finds its greater expression on the unusual combination between fordism and arielism made by Vicente Licínio.

  9. The use of automatic weather stations to measure the soil temperature in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia in 2016

    Oleg G. Grishutkin


    Full Text Available The article presents the soil temperature data obtained using two automatic weather stations located in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (Russia. Measurements were carried out at the soil surface and at depths of 20 cm, 40 cm and 60 cm. The meteorological stations are located 15 km apart, in general, in similar landscapes. This caused similar results of meteorological measurements. Differences in the average of the daily temperature at corresponding depths are less than 2°C. The average annual temperature differs less than 0.5°C, i.е. within a sensor's error. The annual temperature trend is typical for Central Russia. And it is characterised by well warming in summer and stagnation in winter. The diurnal amplitudes are small. This can be explained by the location of both weather stations under the forest canopy and a well-developed ground vegetation cover.


    V. Romanchukevych


    Full Text Available The article reveals approaches to evaluate transparency of the central banks and, operating indices, measures it for the National bank of Ukraine. The quantitative analysis of the informational disclosure of the central banks of Ukraine, Czech Republic, Poland, and Russia is allocated. The aspects of the communications of the National Bank of Ukraine in the process of the monetary regime transformation are explored.

  11. Features Of The Local Government Development In Pre-Revolutionary Russia

    Lyubov I. Rogacheva


    Full Text Available In the present article historical development of the municipal government institutes in the pre-revolutionary Russia are analyzed. Author emphasizes that in Russia at different stages of the statehood historical development a great experience of various forms and institutes of self-government were developed. History shows that municipal government in Russian conditions cannot develop in full in the conditions of weakening government. Without support of the strong state, municipal government have weak chances, but strong government may also suppress, crush self-government. In the Russian history the balance of public administration and self-government was quite often broken into the favor of the first, what may be explained by political and geographical factors of the country development which caused need of the strong centralized government existence. Reforms in the middle of the XIX century aggravated a question of the municipal government reforming, on the creation of new system instead of imperfect and outdated former structure. Elimination of the serfdom which changed legal status of the considerable part of population in the country caused the need of country estate involvement in the solution of various economic tasks at the municipal level. This task in a certain degree was solved during the reforms of the second half of the XIX century. However model created during this period was not ideal, it suffered from many defects, inherent for the long time by the system of the state and public relations in Russia. At the beginning of the XX century questions of the municipal government reforming were again actively discussed by scientists and public figures, on this subject there were numerous publications. However, revolutionary events made questions of municipal government almost irrelevant for the long time.

  12. Agent-Based Approach for Modelling the Labour Migration from China to Russia

    Valeriy Leonidovich Makarov


    Full Text Available The article describes the process of labour migration from China to Russia and shows its modelling using the agent-based approach. This approach allows us to simulate an artificial society in a computer program taking into account the diversity of individuals under consideration, as well as to model a set of laws and rules of conduct that make up the institutional environment in which the members of this society live. A brief review and analysis of agent-based migration models presented in the foreign literature are given. The agent-based model of labour migration from China to Russia developed by the Central Economic Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences simulates human behaviour close to reality, which is based on their internal purposes, determining the agents choice of territory as a place of residence. Therefore, at the development of the agents of the model and their behaviour algorithms, as well as the organization of the environment in which they exist and interact, the main characteristics of the population of two neighbouring countries and their demographic processes have been considered. Using the model, two experiments have been conducted. The purpose of the first of them was to assess the effect of depreciation of the rubble against the yuan on the overall indexes of labour migration, as well as its structure. In the second experiment, the procedure of the search of the information by agents for the migratory decision-making was changing. Namely, all generalizing information on the average salary by types of activity and skill level of employees, both in China and Russia, became available to all agents irrespective of their qualification level.

  13. Financial Institutes of Nanoindustry Development in Russia

    Strukova Tatyana Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available At the present stage Russia’s nanoindustry can be formed on the basis of new and old specialized financial and non-financial institutes, which form a milti-layered structure providing targeted investments for innovative projects. The active state fiscal policy plays a decisive role in the national nanoindustry formation at different stages of its development and approval. The article substantiates the need for state regulation of the nanoindustry development funding mechanism in Russia. The author characterizes the main principles, subjects, methods, tools and sources of nanoindustrialization financial mechanism. The article presents the system of Russian financial institutes of development, allowing to identify the goals, objectives, forms and tools for implementation of the functions of each of them in the process of innovative development. The author reveals the essence, types, role and interests of development institutes in the process of public and public-private funding of national innovation system. The problems of innovative projects funding, caused by the specific features of the Russian economy are designated; a number of measures aimed at coordinating the activities of financial institutions and consolidating the public and private financial resources in priority sectors and industries of the economy is proposed. The author substantiates the necessity of building a mechanism of institutional, organizational and informational interaction of the federal target programs regulation bodies focused on the development of innovative activity system, federal executive bodies and exchange institutes, as well as the coordinating mechanism allowing to maximize the effectiveness of using methods and tools for innovation support.

  14. Development of advanced nuclear reactors in Russia

    Sotoudeh, M.; Silakhori, K.; Sepanloo, K.; Jahanfarnia, G.; Moattar, F.


    Several advanced reactor designs have been so far developed in Russia. The AES-91 and AES-92 plants with the VVER-1000 reactors have been developed at the beginning of 1990. However, the former design has been built in China and the latest which is certified meeting European Utility Requirements is being built in India. Moreover, the model VVER-1500 reactor with 50-60 MWd/t burn-up and an enhanced safety was being developed by Gidropress about 2005, excepting to be completed in 2007. But, this schedule has slipped in favor of development of the AES-2006 power plant incorporating a third-generation standardized VVER-1200 reactor of 1170 MWe. This is an evolutionary development of the well-proven VVER-1000 reactor in the AES-92 plant, with longer life, greater power and efficiency and its lead units are being built at Novovoronezh II, to start operation in 2012-13. Based on Atomenergoproekt declaration, the AES-2006 conforms to both Russian standards and European Utility Requirements. The most important features of the AES-2006 design are mentioned as: a design based on the passive safety systems, double containment, longer plant service life of 50 years with a capacity factor of 92%, longer irreplaceable components service life of 60 years, a 28.6% lower amount of concrete and metal, shorter construction time of 54 months, a Core Damage Frequency of 1x10 -7 / year and lower liquid and solid wastes by 70% and 80% respectively. The presented paper includes a comparative analysis of technological and safety features, economic parameters and environmental impact of the AES-2006 design versus the other western advanced reactors. Since the Bushehr phase II NPP and several other NPPs are planning in Iran, such analysis would be of a great importance

  15. European Uunion Energy Security and Russia

    Nodari A. Simonia


    Full Text Available The article deals with the retrospective of relations between Russia, USA and EU in the sphere of energy security, as well as their interaction regarding the current political crisis in the Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the key actors'positions and the development of their relations within the framework of the regulatory regimes established by the most significant agreements in the energy sphere. In conclusion the authors claim that what they say in their article not only does substantially reinforce the arguments set forth by Professor Giuseppe Guarino, who argues about the negative consequences caused by the dictatorship of the Brussels's bureaucracy within the EU, but also inflicts another blow on the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Lisbon in terms of external policy and trade, since the both Treaties were designed to convert the EU in a real competitor of the United States in the then forming multipolar World. The Brussel's bureaucracy, having turned into a dutiful instrument of the US geopolitical strategy, hindered the movement of the EU in that direction, while its dictatorship in energy security aggravates the crisis situation of the EU, almost pushing the EU to the brink of collapse and disintegration. We have lately witnessed an evolving and growing phenomenon of the so called "Euroscepticism". The results of the Europarliament elections in late May, 2014, were a graphic demonstration of the symptoms of this alarming for the EU disease, when the anti-EU parties in the four out 22 EU countries won the elections (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Greece Those results, regardless of the panic headlines in mass media and statements like "shocking" or "earthquake" made by some politicians, were not able to significantly affect the nature of the European Parliament, though they can significantly complicate its work. This is so far the first "alarming bell" tolling for the EU.

  16. Nuclear energy industry in Russia promoting global strategy

    Kobayashi, Masaharu


    Since former USSR disintegrated to birth new Russia on December, 1991, it already passed ten years. As Russian economic hardship affected its nuclear energy development, No.1 reactor of the Rostov nuclear power station (VVER-1000) established its full power operation on September, 2001 after passing eight years of pausing period as a Russian nuclear power station, at dull development of nuclear energy in the world. When beginning of its commercial operation, scale of nuclear power generation under operation in Russia will reach to the fourth one in the world by getting over the one in Germany. Russia also begins international business on reprocessing of spent fuel and intermittent storage. And, Russia positively develops export business of concentrated uranium and nuclear fuel, too. Furthermore, Russia shows some positive initiatives on export of nuclear power station to China, Iran and India, and development on advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle forecast to future. Here was introduced on international developmental development of nuclear energy industry activated recently at delayed time for this ten years. (G.K.)

  17. Russia-India: New Horizons For Historical Partnership

    G. A. Ivashentsov


    Full Text Available Russia’s relations with India have been close to those of an alliance. However the changes that have taken place in Russia and in the general global situation as well as India’s mighty economic upswing and the rise of its geopolitical ambitions on that basis have introduced new accents and nuances to these relations. With the coming to power in 2014 of Bharatiya Janata or Indian People’s Party whose ideology is Hindutwa, the nationalism, based on Hindu religious traditions, India’s foreign policy has acquired a new assertiveness. The present Prime Minister N.Modi has declared his plan to make India a leading power on the international arena. An important feature of India’s foreign policy of recent years is its active building bridges with the US which it view first of all as a potential counterweight to China. The Indian diaspora in the US of 3Million has played its role in that process. However New Delhi maintains the line of the privileged strategic partnership with Russia. India’s global and regional interests coincide more often with those of Russia than witch othegreat powers. As for Russia, it never had any conflict with India in the past. Three main pillars of our partnership beyond the foreign affairs framework are those of cooperation in energy, including nuclear power, military technologies and space exploration. Russia-India partnership has proved its viability and efficiency. It helps to promote global peace and security.

  18. Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review

    Evans, Meredydd; Kholod, Nazar; Kuklinski, Teresa; Denysenko, Artur; Smith, Steven J.; Staniszewski, Aaron; Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Liang; Bond, Tami C.


    This study presents a comprehensive review of estimated black carbon (BC) emissions in Russia from a range of studies. Russia has an important role regarding BC emissions given the extent of its territory above the Arctic Circle, where BC emissions have a particularly pronounced effect on the climate. We assess underlying methodologies and data sources for each major emissions source based on their level of detail, accuracy and extent to which they represent current conditions. We then present reference values for each major emissions source. In the case of flaring, the study presents new estimates drawing on data on Russia's associated petroleum gas and the most recent satellite data on flaring. We also present estimates of organic carbon (OC) for each source, either based on the reference studies or from our own calculations. In addition, the study provides uncertainty estimates for each source. Total BC emissions are estimated at 688 Gg in 2014, with an uncertainty range 401 Gg-1453 Gg, while OC emissions are 9224 Gg with uncertainty ranging between 5596 Gg and 14,736 Gg. Wildfires dominated and contributed about 83% of the total BC emissions: however, the effect on radiative forcing is mitigated in part by OC emissions. We also present an adjusted estimate of Arctic forcing from Russia's BC and OC emissions. In recent years, Russia has pursued policies to reduce flaring and limit particulate emissions from on-road transport, both of which appear to significantly contribute to the lower emissions and forcing values found in this study.

  19. Migration, legality, and fertility regulation: Abortion and contraception among migrants and natives in Russia

    Victor Agadjanian


    Full Text Available Background: Migrant-vs.-native differentials in reproductive behavior are typically examined through the prism of socioeconomic and cultural constraints that characterize the migration process and experiences. However, the literature seldom factors in migrant legal status because necessary data is rarely available. Objective: The study seeks to fill this important gap by looking at variations in induced abortion and contraceptive use not only between migrants and nonmigrants but also among migrants of different legal statuses in the Russian Federation. Methods: We use unique survey data collected in urban Russia from Central Asian working migrant women of different legal statuses - regularized vs. irregular - as well as their native counterparts. Binomial and multinomial logistic regressions are fitted to model abortion experience and current contraceptive use and method choice. Results: The results point to higher overall use of abortion among natives, but also to significant differences between migrants with regularized and irregular legal statuses. With respect to contraception, while no variation in overall use between migrants and natives or between migrants of different legal statuses is detected, instructive migrant-vs.-native differences in method choice emerge. Conclusions: The findings underscore the importance of migrants' legal status, along with their other characteristics, for a better understanding of their reproductive behavior and for more effective corresponding policies. Contribution: The study offers pioneering insights into the intersection of migration, legality, and fertility in contemporary Russia and contributes to the cross-national scholarship on migration and reproductive behavior and health.

  20. The Creative Component Development in Educational Systems of the United Kingdom, the USA and Russia

    Y. V. Sergeyeva


    Full Text Available To ensure the competitiveness and integration of the Russian educational system in the global educational environment it is necessary to study the experience of the leading countries faced by the problem of creativity fostering. The paper provides the comparative analysis of the content, approaches to and organizational forms of the creative faculty formation in educational systems of the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia. According to the author, the creative component is the inherent part of educational systems of the given countries, though its place in the system might be different. At the state level, the interest to creativity development is demonstrated by the statutory documents, official statements and legislative acts; their content reveals that both in Russia and the USA the interest to creativity fostering results from the state strategic policy, while in the UK the focus is on the economic prospects. The author mentions the centralized projects supported by the British government and aimed at stimulating creativity, though the participation of universities in the projects is optional. The didactic and methodological materials acquired by the author have the practical implications and can be used in teachers’ training at various levels. The research materials were introduced at several Russian and International scientific conferences, discussed at seminars, round-table talks, and in the course of the International Creative Project performed by the students of Yekaterinburg and York in 2007–2013. 

  1. Epidemiological characterization of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Russia in 2016.

    Sprygin, A; Artyuchova, E; Babin, Y; Prutnikov, P; Kostrova, E; Byadovskaya, O; Kononov, A


    In 2015, the lumpy skin disease virus spread throughout the Russian Federation. Following a modified stamping-out campaign, the disease re-emerged with a greater incidence across 16 regions of Southern and Central Russia. A total of 313 outbreaks were reported to OIE. The highest outbreak frequency was observed in the republics of Chechnya (108), Kalmykiya (57), and Ingushetiya (35). The disease cases predominantly occurred in June and July 2016, starting from May to December; however, no association between outbreaks and altitudes was identified (p > .05). Samples taken from infected cattle were subjected to PCR analysis, which identified the genome of the virus most frequently in skin nodules (78%), nasal swabs (23.4%), blood (13%) and sera (14.5%). Interestingly, LSDV genome was occasionally identified in lung and milk samples. Based on the PRO30 sequence analysis, lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) strains circulating in Russia were all identical and fell within the cluster of field LSDV found worldwide. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Admixture and gene flow from Russia in the recovering Northern European brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tobiassen, Camilla; Tirronen, Konstantin F; Danilov, Pjotr I; Hagen, Snorre B


    Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia.


    Dementiev N. P.


    Full Text Available The article examines the role of foreign direct investment (FDI in the economic development of Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic in recent decades. It is shown that the high rates of economic growth achieved by these countries in the pre-crisis years were closely linked to large foreign loans. The governments placed special emphasis on the attraction of FDI in high-tech export industries having very high growth rates (motor vehicles, machinery, equipment, computers, electronics and optics. For this purpose, central banks maintained an undervalued exchange rate of national currencies. As a result, adverse foreign trade balance in each of the three countries has shown a surplus in recent years. Furthermore, the disadvantages of excessive foreign loans are listed: high interest and dividend payments to foreign investors, reduction of national and economic sovereignty. For example, more than half of the Czech economy is under the control of foreign investors. Foreign direct investment in the Russian economy is also briefly discussed. It is shown by comparing the data of the Bank of Russia and the Eurostat that more than half of FDI in Russia is made through so-called special purpose entities (SPE and would be only formally considered a direct investment.

  4. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond

    Danishevskiy Kirill D


    Full Text Available Abstract In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching.

  5. Constitutional Models of Semi-Presidential Systems of Government in Russia and Poland

    Davor Boban


    Full Text Available The establishment of new political systems in Central and Eastern Europe after the collapse of communist regimes implied a decision on a new system of government instead of the earlier proclaimed assembly system. The position of the framers of the Constitution on the need for a strong institution of state presidency during the transition process, and the correlation of forces between diff erent actors in the political arena, have resulted in the establishment of the semi-presidential system in many of these countries. In Russia and Poland, with the fi rst modifi cations of their Constitutions, some elements of semi-presidentialism were adopted, and then the whole concept of semi-presidentialism has been accepted. The constitutional models in the two countries are compatible with the criteria of semi-presidential systems – they have a dual structure of the executive branch of government and a fi xed term of the state president elected on the general elections and politically unaccountable to the parliament. The political practice in these countries during the last fi fteen years has shown diff erent eff ects of the established system. In Russia, the state president dominated so much over the political system that the system was virtually presidential, while in Poland the constitutional changes in 1990, 1992 and 1997 have resulted in the change of the correlation of forces within the dual structure of the executive branch of government.

  6. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    Pridemore, William Alex


    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  7. HCTISN: no secret export of nuclear wastes to Russia



    Recently a controversy has broken out about the EDF's exports of depleted uranium to Russia. This depleted uranium comes from 2 sources: the tailings of uranium enrichment (from EURODIF plant) and the recycling of spent fuels (from La Hague plant). Depleted uranium is sent to Russia to be enriched by centrifugation process, this enrichment generates new depleted uranium that is kept by Russia, enriched uranium is sent back to France. As it is stipulated in all enrichment contracts the company that operates the enrichment keeps the depleted material, it is the case of Tenex the Russian company. This depleted uranium can not be considered as a waste because it is stored to be used as fuel for future fast reactors. (A.C.)

  8. Some Stylistic Aspects of Social Advertising in Russia

    Aigul F. Khanova


    Full Text Available The article considers some stylistic aspects of advertising database in Russia. It examines linguistic and stylistic properties and peculiarities of social advertising and the impact it has on public consciousness. It determines that social advertisements in Russia are characteristic of the vocabulary belonging to the low language norms which reflects cultural and ethical context. Figurative language and stylistic devices aim at appealing to emotions and make the advertisement more memorable. The authors deem it necessary to create a common database on social advertising in Russia in order to facilitate the analysis of economic impact and evaluate the capacity to exert effect on mainstream audience as well as determine strategies to build advertising campaigns.

  9. Russia's 'dictatorship-of-the-law' approach to internet policy

    Julien Nocetti


    Full Text Available As international politics' developments heavily weigh on Russia's domestic politics, the internet is placed on top of the list of "threats" that the government must tackle, through an avalanche of legislations aiming at gradually isolating the Russian internet from the global infrastructure. The growth of the Russian internet market during the last couple of years is likely to remain secondary to the "sovereignisation" of Russia's internet. This article aims at understanding these contradictory trends, in an international context in which internet governance is at a crossroads, and major internet firms come under greater regulatory scrutiny from governments. The Russian 'dictatorship-of-the-law' paradigm is all but over: it is deploying online, with potentially harmful consequences for Russia's attempts to attract foreign investments in the internet sector, and for users' rights online.


    Kostikova E. K.


    Full Text Available The article lists factors affecting the socio-economic situation and questions concerning unemployment in Russia are discussed specifically. The purpose is to identify weak points in the labor market. Visual support reflects the dynamics of unemployment in Russia during economy crisis. Unemployment trends by federal districts, the causes of regional unemployment imbalances are examined. The novelty of the author’s approach is to forecast the unemployment rate for future periods with expert assessments to determine the risk of deviation of unemployment from trend. Data were analyzed in terms of unemployment level in Europe and comparison with Russian indicators was conducted. Based on the research, causes of unemployment in Russia and ways of its decline were discovered. Appropriate conclusions were made.

  11. Caspian Pipeline Consortium, Bellwether of Russia's Investment climate?

    Dellecker, A.


    The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), a shipper-owned oil pipeline carrying Caspian oil to Russia's Black Sea port of Novorossyisk, remains to this day the only oil export pipeline on Russian territory that is not under the control of the state company Transneft. Completed in 2001, the CPC was, from the start, the product of a fragile balance of power between states eager to maintain control of hydrocarbon flows and private companies able to finance the necessary infrastructure. Despite its economic success, the future of the CPC currently hinges on a share-holding dispute pitting Russia against private shareholders. This essay places the CPC dossier in the broader context of Russia's investment climate and argues that the dispute's dynamic is an important bellwether of the Russian energy policy. (author)

  12. Price elasticities of alcohol demand: evidence from Russia.

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin


    In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand of several types of alcoholic drinks, using 14 rounds of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE, collected from 1994 until 2009. We deal with potential confounding problems by taking advantage of a large number of control variables, as well as by estimating community fixed effect models. All in all, although alcohol prices do appear to influence consumption behaviour in Russia, in most cases the size of effect is modest. The finding that two particularly problematic drinks-cheap vodka and fortified wine-are substitute goods also suggests that increasing their prices may not lead to smaller alcohol consumption. Therefore, any alcohol pricing policies in Russia must be supplemented with other measures, such as restrictions on numbers of sales outlets or their opening times.

  13. Russia and Myanmar – Friends in Need?

    Ludmila Lutz-Auras


    Full Text Available To date, few political scientists have researched the political, economic, and social relationships between Russia and Myanmar. The two countries, which at first glance may seem to have little in common, have intensified their cooperation in recent years. This article explores the ties between the two countries, not only the historical development and the dimensions of the relationship, but it also examines the current advantages and disadvantages of the relationship. Is Myanmar Russia’s open door to the region in order for it to become a significant player in the Asia-Pacific region? Can Russia provide a ‘counterbalance’ for the smaller Southeast Asian countries against the great powers such as China and India? Will this relationship be a pivotal one for both countries in the future, or will it remain a limited partnership, restricted to particular interests?

  14. Russia's nuclear doctrine: The end of the period of transition?

    Sokov, N.


    The Russian Federation issued a draft Military Doctrine in October 1999, widely circulating it for study and reactions. In January 2000, Russia published its 2000 National Security Concept and on 4 February, the Security Council approved its new military doctrine. Nuclear weapons are seen as the only reliable means to dissuade NATO from using force against Russia. There is a distinct focus in the new doctrine on the immediate military utility of nuclear weapons. Russia, like NATO, is continuing to reduce its nuclear weapons, though at a slower clip than foreseen by the START agreements. The doctrine reasserts the policy of first use of nuclear weapons in response to a conventional attack. Its policy provides for the use of nuclear weapons in response to an attack in which other weapons of mass destruction (chemical or biological) are used. (author)

  15. Russia's resource capitalism—market vs political signalling

    Kretzschmar, Gavin L.; Simpson, Ewan; Haque, Mujibul


    Since the early post-Soviet era, when many strategically important Russian oil and gas fields were sold on unfavourable terms, the state has been seeking to regain control of these strategic assets. With Putin's return to the Presidency in 2012, Russia's U-turn over oil and gas privatizations has again caused market consternation. We examine strategic asset acquisitions by Russian O and G companies during Putin's first terms as president and suggest that there should however, be few surprises. Under Putin, strategic deals in Russia are often informal, dominated by Russian partners, subject to internecine rivalries and, we show, are ‘somehow’ known by markets prior to promulgation. Findings suggest that in Russia deals of strategic substance are recognized by financial markets prior to the announcement of political policy

  16. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W


    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program ( The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.


    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges


    Arkady Tishkov


    Full Text Available High biodiversity and degree of endemism of mountain biota strengthen the mountain regions’ status for the territorial nature conservation. Analysis of the protected areas’ representativeness in various mountain regions of Russia shows some discrepancy between their quantity, square and regional biodiversity originality. The biggest divergences are marked for the Northern Caucasus. The main problems: small area of the protected territories and also cluster character of their spatial distribution, mostly in the high mountains are not supposed to conform with the highest values of the regional flora’s and fauna’s uniqueness, to compensate representativeness of the protected biota and, in anyway, to correspond with the purpose of nature protection frame—the protected territories ecologic network’s forming. The situation in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East seems to be better. The large areas of the protected territories are in general agreement with the high originality of the nature ecosystems. Nevertheless each concrete case needs analysis of the regional biota’s and ecosystems’ biodiversity distribution within the protected areas, including character and (or unique elements of the regional biodiversity to be held. The development of the effectual territorial conservation of mountain regions needs differential approach. The creation of the large representative parcels of nature landscapes in the key-areas has the considerable meaning in the low-developed regions, difficult to access. And well-developed regions have the necessity of nature protected territories’ network development and the planning of the ecological frame’s forming. The territorial biodiversity conservation, including the system of federal, regional and local levels with protective conservation of the rare species has to be combined with ecosystem’s restoration, especially in the zones disturbed by erosion, recreation and military actions. Also it is


    M. I. Balonov


    Full Text Available We considered conditions of patients’ medical radiation exposure in Russian diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine basing on the data of our own research, of the Unified system of individual dose control and of some relevant literature. We analyzed the data on the number of diagnostic examinations, patients’ individual and collective doses and their distribution by examination types. Time trends of the studied parameters are presented for the period between 1999 and 2013. Current level of Russian patients’ medical exposure is the lowest over the whole observation period and one of the lowest among the developed countries. The annual number of X-ray diagnostic examinations is 1.8 per capita. In 2013 median effective dose of medical exposure per capita in Russia was 0.45 mSv and median dose per procedure was 0.25 mSv. The major contribution to collective dose of medical exposure was from computed tomography and radiography; the largest individual doses were caused by interventional radiology, computed X-Ray and nuclear medicine tomographic examinations. The range of median doses comprises about four orders of magnitude, i.e. from several microSv in dental X-ray examinations up to several tens of milliSv in interventional and multistage tomographic examinations. The median effective dose of adult patients increases by about an order of magnitude with each transition from dental X-ray examinations to conventional radiology and further to computed tomography and interventional radiology examinations. During interventional X-Ray examinations, absorbed skin doses at radiation beam entrance site may reach several Gray, which may lead to deterministic radiation effects in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Due to replacement of low-dose ‘functional’ nuclear medicine examinations with more informative modern scintigraphy and tomography examination, patient doses substantially increased over the last decade. With current trend for re-equipment of

  20. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic.

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Karnachev, Igor P; Odland, Jon Øyvind


    According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs) and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991) has increased significantly. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980-2010. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers' rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices--violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3-6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

  1. Occupational accidents in Russia and the Russian Arctic

    Alexey A. Dudarev


    Full Text Available Background. According to official statistics, the rate of occupational accidents (OAs and fatal injuries in Russia decreased about 5-fold and 2-fold, respectively, from 1975 to 2010, but working conditions during this period had the opposite trend; for example, the number of people who work in unfavourable and hazardous conditions (particularly since 1991 has increased significantly. Methods. This review summarises the results of a search of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in Russia and official statistics on OAs and occupational safety in Russia and the Russian Arctic in 1980–2010. Results. The occupational safety system in Russia has severely deteriorated in the last 2 decades, with legislators tending to promote the interests of industry and business, resulting in the neglect of occupational safety and violation of workers’ rights. The majority of workers are employed in conditions that do not meet rules of safety and hygiene. More than 60% of OAs can be attributed to management practices – violation of safety regulations, poor organisation of work, deficiency of certified occupational safety specialists and inadequate personnel training. Research aimed at improving occupational safety and health is underfunded. There is evidence of widespread under-reporting of OAs, including fatal accidents. Three federal agencies are responsible for OAs recording; their data differ from each other as they use different methodologies. The rate of fatal OAs in Russia was 3–6 times higher than in Scandinavian countries and about 2 times higher compared to United States and Canada in 2001. In some Russian Arctic regions OAs levels are much higher. Conclusions. Urgent improvement of occupational health and safety across Russia, especially in the Arctic regions, is needed.

  2. Ukraine, EU and Russia: soft power versus Realpolitik?

    Pedro Barata


    Full Text Available The relationship between the European Union (EU and Ukraine began in 1998 with the signature of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. Afterwards, in 2003 Ukraine joined the European Neighbourhood Policy and in 2004 EU was already the major trade partner with Ukraine, bigger than Russia. Anticipating the approach of former soviet republics towards Euro Atlantic structures and the foreseen loss of influence in its near abroad, Putin’s Russia launched in 2011 the Eurasian Economic Union, an economic bloc formed by some of the Russia’s former satellite States - Belarus and Kazakhstan – and through a carrot and stick policy tried to attract also Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, in order to thwart the Chinese economic development and to impose itself in the regional and global markets. In November 2013, during the 3rd EU’s Eastern Partnership Summit, in Vilnius, Lithuania, Ukraine’s President, Viktor Yanukovych surprised the world refusing to sign the Commercial Agreement with EU, turning back to a EU possible integration. On the other hand, Russia offered to reduce the natural gas rates plus a fifteen billion dollars loan, throwing Ukraine in a quasi civil war, and leaving EU and Russia on opposite sides. Considering this situation what to expect from Ukraine? To continue being a Russian satellite or head towards the Euro Atlantic geopolitical space? This paper intents to analyse the actual situation in Ukraine following Barry Buzan’s approach of multidimensional security, focusing on the different postures assumed by each one of the actors - EU and Russia - which have been between complementarity and division. The scope of the analysis is to contribute to the academic debate about security dynamics between EU, Russia and Ukraine during the post-USSR period, arguing that in the geopolitical dispute for the post-soviet space where Ukraine is integrated, the Russian Realpolitik prevails the EU soft power.

  3. Quantifying yield gaps in wheat production in Russia

    Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander V; Koch, Friedrich J; Müller, Daniel; Faramarzi, Monireh


    Crop yields must increase substantially to meet the increasing demands for agricultural products. Crop yield increases are particularly important for Russia because low crop yields prevail across Russia’s widespread and fertile land resources. However, reliable data are lacking regarding the spatial distribution of potential yields in Russia, which can be used to determine yield gaps. We used a crop growth model to determine the yield potentials and yield gaps of winter and spring wheat at the provincial level across European Russia. We modeled the annual yield potentials from 1995 to 2006 with optimal nitrogen supplies for both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Overall, the results suggest yield gaps of 1.51–2.10 t ha −1 , or 44–52% of the yield potential under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, yield gaps of 3.14–3.30 t ha −1 , or 62–63% of the yield potential, were observed. However, recurring droughts cause large fluctuations in yield potentials under rainfed conditions, even when the nitrogen supply is optimal, particularly in the highly fertile black soil areas of southern European Russia. The highest yield gaps (up to 4 t ha −1 ) under irrigated conditions were detected in the steppe areas in southeastern European Russia along the border of Kazakhstan. Improving the nutrient and water supply and using crop breeds that are adapted to the frequent drought conditions are important for reducing yield gaps in European Russia. Our regional assessment helps inform policy and agricultural investors and prioritize research that aims to increase crop production in this important region for global agricultural markets. (letter)

  4. Floating nuclear heat. And power station 'Pevec' with KLT-40S type reactor plant for remote regions of Russia

    Veshnyakov, K.B.; Kiryushin, A.I.; Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V.I.


    Floating small nuclear power plants power for local energy systems of littoral regions of Russia, located far from central energy system, open a new line in nuclear power development. Designing a floating power unit of a lead nuclear heat and power generating station for port Pevec at the Chuckchee national district is currently nearing completion. Most labor-intensive components are being manufactured. The co-generation NPP Pevec is to be created on the basis of a floating power unit with KLT-40S type reactor plant. KLT-40S reactor plant is based on similar propulsion plants, verified at operation of Russia's nuclear-powered civil ships, evolutionary improved by elimination of 'weak points' revealed during its prototypes operation or on the basis of safety analysis. KLT-40S reactor plant uses the most wide-spread and developed in the world practice PWR-type reactor. KLT-40S meets contemporary national and international requirements imposed to future reactor plants. The NHPS description, its main technical-economic data, environmental safety indices, basic characteristics of KLT-40S reactor plant are presented. Prospects of small NPPs utilization outside Russia, particularly as an energy source for sea water desalination, are considered. (author)

  5. Big interest for climate actions in Northwest Russia

    Borchsenius, Hans


    There is a large potential for projects in Northwest Russia aiming at reducing CO 2 and other greenhouse gas emissions. Many countries are currently showing interest in buying carbon credits from Russia in order to meet their Kyoto agreement commitments. Even though the body of rules is not yet in place there are a number of efforts at identifying possible projects that may give Norway and other countries much needed carbon credits, and simultaneously provide Russian industry and municipalities with investment aid that can make industry processes and district heating systems more effective. The Nordic countries have established an experimental scheme for joint implementation in the Baltic region (ml)

  6. Ukraine, Russia and the EU: linked by gas

    Furfari, Samuele


    The Ukrainian crisis serves as a reminder just how much Ukraine plays a determining role for the European Union in energy matters, being the funnel through which most of Russian gas has to pass to reach Western Europe. One inevitable conclusion is already obvious: Russia and the EU are intimately linked and Moscow is as dependent on the EU for foreign exchange as is the EU on Russia for its gas. Nevertheless, the absence of stability in Ukraine constitutes a permanent threat to supplies to member states of the EU, especially Germany. (author)

  7. [Epidemiological features of automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad].

    Iakunin, S A


    The article presents updated epidemiological information on specific features and causes of high automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad for the last 5 years. The number of road accidents and road accident fatalities now not only present a great social-medical problem in Russia but also a problem of national security as road accident mortality is far ahead of the developed countries and showed no trend to lowering. This threatening situation is caused by out-of-date transport infrastructure, social factors, old cars without modern safety systems, absence of special emergency medical care for road accident victims. The experience of foreign countries on reducing road traumatism is analysed.

  8. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    Matveeva, Anna [Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)


    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK).

  9. Ukraine/Russia. Gas dimension of a conflict

    Bayou, Celine


    Gas is not absent from the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, as both a cause and a consequence of long-term disagreements between the two countries. The 2006 and 2009 'gas crises' had partly revealed disputes relating to both the price of gas and the total debt of Kiev. While negotiations continue on these issues, the break-up seems to have reached the point of no return: Moscow is seeking to oust Ukraine as a transit country between Russia and Europe, while Kiev dreams of total emancipation of Russia's gas. (author)

  10. Hi-Tech Skills Anticipation for Sustainable Development in Russia

    Valery Gurtov


    Full Text Available It is evident that there is a heightened importance in Russia attributed to ensuring that students develop skills, which will enable them to be more productive and engaged citizens. This article deals with a skills anticipation methodology for seven hi-tech industries in Russia that resulted in the development of models for both soft and hard skills. There is a variety of widely applied methods – qualitative projection of labor market parameters, desk studies, documents analysis, foresight sessions, employers' and experts' surveys. As a result, new skills models are to help the specialists to effectively overcome the challenges, apply innovative decisions, and increase their technological knowledge.

  11. National Framework for GHG Emission Trading in Russia

    Kotov, V.; Nikitina, E.


    If Russia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), domestic implementation of its international commitments under this international regime will require special national responses, i.e. institutional capacity building for application of its mechanisms. The Kyoto Protocol and its mechanisms, particularly, international emission trading (IET) and joint implementation (JI), mark a turning point, with opportunities for Russia to benefit from an economic and environmental standpoint from international cooperation. Russia might wish to sell to other parties a surplus in its assigned amount for the first commitment period in 2008-2012, as according to existing estimates its GHG emissions are expected to be below their 1990 base level. In order to participate in international emission trading, Russia has to meet several international requirements, including providing national inventory and reporting and establishing national registry compatible with the standard international format. It is to establish a domestic institutional regime defining laws and rules of behaviour for its participants, the administrative frameworks, and designing major schemes for domestic emission trading programme. Russia's emission trading system is not formed yet. This is a challenging innovation for Russia, as in its previous environmental management practices it did not have any experience in domestic emission trading with other air pollutants. The paper examines the key elements suggested in a number of existing proposals, assessments, and approaches of the government, parliamentarians and non-governmental experts for its institutional design which is at the core of ongoing climate policy debates in the country. These approaches and practical suggestions define the current state-of-the-art in domestic emission trading regime formation and channel the paths of its institutional development in the future. This paper analyses peculiarities


    Sergey Gorshkov


    Full Text Available Russia has more than 2200 reservoirs and large ponds. As time went by, ponds lost their importance in some aspects of human life, while newly created man-made seas impacted the nature and the people in two ways. The costs involved in designing, constructing, and operating the artificial seas, especially on the plains, have been too high to consider them as an undisputed achievement of the Soviet scientists transforming the nature. This paper discusses the problem of ponds and man-made seas in Russia.

  13. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant


    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested.


    Aristov Denis Ivanovich


    Full Text Available The outlook of the facades market in its most important segments: translucent facades, hinged ventilated facades, plaster facades with insulation, fire safety of facades, has become the subject of the discussion on The Second Congress of the Facades Market Facades of Russia+ 2015, which took place in September 2015. The Congress was attended by the leading experts of the facades market from sectoral institutions, higher education institutions, oversight bodies, leaders of manufacturers of facade materials and installation companies from different regions of Russia, from the near and far abroad

  15. Russia set to dominate global gas supplies. Special report

    Skrebowski, C.


    This series of linked articles offers an historical prespective on the development of the gas industry in Russia as July 1996 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the completion of the Saratov-Moscow pipeline, marking, as it did, the start of that industry. The highly successful Gazprom, the leading Russian full supplier, looks set to dominate the European and even global market via exports of gas from Russia's huge natural gas reserves. With Western investment becoming available, the industry is likely to see a new era of expansion and development. Natural gas, as a possible alternative fuel for automobiles and aircraft, is considered. (UK)


    V.N. Lazhentsev


    Full Text Available It is shown, that national safety of Russia with reference to the North in many respects is determined natural-historical, commercial and industrial, infrastructural and defensive by factors. It is proved, that one of dangerous threat of national safety is increasing export of resources of the North which essentially constrains formation of a home market. The author marks, that infrastructural aspects of national safety and food safety of Russia are connected to same problem. The problems of the North are systematized and the order of their decision is determined.

  17. Licensing of spent nuclear fuel dry storage in Russia

    Kislov, A.I.; Kolesnikov, A.S.


    The Federal nuclear and radiation safety authority of Russia (Gosatomnadzor) being the state regulation body, organizes and carries out the state regulation and supervision for safety at handling, transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel. In Russia, the use of dry storage in casks will be the primary spent nuclear fuel storage option for the next twenty years. The cask for spent nuclear fuel must be applied for licensing by Gosatomnadzor for both storage and transportation. There are a number of regulations for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel in Russia. Up to now, there are no special regulations for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Such regulations will be prepared up to the end of 1998. Principally, it will be required that only type B(U)F, packages can be used for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Recently, there are two dual-purpose cask designs under consideration in Russia. One of them is the CONSTOR steel concrete cask, developed in Russia (NPO CKTI) under the leadership of GNB, Germany. The other cask design is the TUK-104 cask of KBSM, Russia. Both cask types were designed for spent nuclear RBMK fuel. The CONSTOR steel concrete cask was designed to be in full compliance with both Russian and IAEA regulations for transport of packages for radioactive material. The evaluation of the design criteria by Russian experts for the CONSTOR steel concrete cask project was performed at a first stage of licensing (1995 - 1997). The CONSTOR cask design has been assessed (strength analysis, thermal physics, nuclear physics and others) by different Russian experts. To show finally the compliance of the CONSTOR steel concrete cask with Russian and IAEA regulations, six drop tests have been performed with a 1:2 scale model manufactured in Russia. A test report was prepared. The test results have shown that the CONSTOR cask integrity is guaranteed under both transport and storage accident conditions. The final stage of the certification procedure

  18. Scenarios for Russia's natural gas exports to 2050

    Paltsev, Sergey


    Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world's largest natural gas reserves and it is the world's largest exporter of natural gas. Despite a recent reduction in Russia's exports to Europe, it plans to build new pipelines. We explore the long-term (up to 2050) scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe and Asia using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. We found that over the next 20–40 years natural gas can still play a substantial role in Russian exports and there are substantial reserves to support a development of the gas-oriented energy system both in Russia and in its current and potential gas importers. Based on the considered scenarios, Russia does not need any new pipeline capacity to the EU unless it wants to diversify its export routes to supply the EU without any gas transit via Ukraine and Belarus. Asian markets are attractive to Russian gas and substantial volumes may be exported there. Relatively cheap shale gas in China may sufficiently alter the prospects of Russian gas, especially in Asian markets. In the Reference scenario, exports of natural gas grow from Russia's current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. Alternative scenarios provide a wider range of projections, with a share of Russian gas exports shipped to Asian markets rising to more than 30% by 2030 and almost 50% in 2050. Europe's reliance on LNG imports increases, while it still maintains sizable imports from Russia. - Highlights: • In the Reference scenario exports of natural gas grow from Russia’s current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. • In alternative scenarios a share of Russian exports to Asian markets is rising to about 30% by 2030 and 50 % in 2050. • Cheap shale gas in China can sufficiently alter Russian natural gas export. • Reduction in nuclear generation in Europe can lead to increased exports of natural gas from

  19. China-Russia Alliance - a common choice of the two countries

    Ma Hang


    Full Text Available Compared with Sino-Soviet Alliance and NATO countries alliance, China -Russia Alliance should have its own characteristics. China-Russia Alliance can further enhance strategic mutual trust betweeneach other, enhance cooperation quality and space, to promote the mutualprogress and prosperity, achieve national revival of China and Russia as soon as possible, which is the ultimate goal of theChina-Russia Alliance.

  20. Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia


    As a consequence of its capability to retrieve cloud-top elevations, stereoscopic observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) can discriminate clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya Sibir, are portrayed in these views from data acquired on May 28, 2002.The left-hand image is a natural color view from MISR's nadir camera. On the right is a height field retrieved using automated computer processing of data from multiple MISR cameras. Although both clouds and ice appear white in the natural color view, the stereoscopic retrievals are able to identify elevated clouds based on the geometric parallax which results when they are observed from different angles. Owing to their elevation above sea level, clouds are mapped as green and yellow areas, whereas land, sea ice, and very low clouds appear blue and purple. Purple, in particular, denotes elevations very close to sea level. The island of Novaya Sibir is located in the lower left of the images. It can be identified in the natural color view as the dark area surrounded by an expanse of fast ice. In the stereo map the island appears as a blue region indicating its elevation of less than 100 meters above sea level. Areas where the automated stereo processing failed due to lack of sufficient spatial contrast are shown in dark gray. The northern edge of the Siberian mainland can be found at the very bottom of the panels, and is located a little over 250 kilometers south of Novaya Sibir. Pack ice containing numerous fragmented ice floes surrounds the fast ice, and narrow areas of open ocean are visible.The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are almost always covered by snow and ice, and tundra vegetation is very scant. Despite continuous sunlight from the end of April until the middle of August, the ice between the island and the mainland

  1. The Influence of Geopolitical Factors on the Tax Policy of Russia at the Contemporary Stage of Development

    Pogorletskiy Aleksandr Igorevich


    Full Text Available The problems analyzed in the article are new to the domestic financial and tax research due to their emergent character. The article considers the influence of geopolitical factors on the tax policy of the Russian Federation and marks the most visible implemented or prospective changes in the Russian tax system under the influence of the facts and circumstances related to the geopolitical component of modern development. The focus is made on the three factors of geopolitical nature, the influence of which on public finances and taxes of Russia has already been or may be the most noticeable in the future. These factors include the growth of military spending on the backdrop of escalating tensions in the political relations between Russia and Western countries; the exchange of trade and economic sanctions between Russia and Western countries; the pursuit of enhanced tax sovereignty of the regions in the framework of the current centralized model of fiscal federalism. The possible consequences of the policy of sanctions imposed as the result of the new round of geopolitical confrontation between Russia and Western countries are analyzed. Among these consequences we should name the use of tax incentives to compensate the losses of exporters; the use of tax regulators at the financial market; the search for new sources of tax revenues for regional budgets; anti-offshore policy in relation to the Russian tax residents; the limitation of the benefits of using the consolidated groups of taxpayers; the possibility of creating a special (free economic zone in Crimea with the regime of preferential taxation. It is proved that the manifestation of geopolitics requires the serious understanding of its consequences in all spheres, including the system of public finances and taxes.

  2. Why have China and Russia become Uzbekistan’s biggest energy partners? Exploring the role of exogenous and endogenous factors

    Oybek Madiyev


    Full Text Available In the 1990s, there was an expectation that Uzbekistan, along with other countries in Central Asia, would gradually move towards the West by distancing itself from the sphere of Russian influence. However, in spite of the West’s significant investment in the region’s economies and attempts to enter the local markets through both bilateral and multilateral channels, this shift never materialised. In fact, since the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR, Uzbekistan’s trade cooperation with Russia has remained robust, and only in 2014 did China overtook Russia as Uzbekistan’s biggest trading partner. This article aims to understand why Russia and China have become Uzbekistan’s biggest economic partners, especially in the energy sector. To understand this, I believe that it is important to analyse the nature of both domestic and international factors and their interaction. First of all, there are international factors: globalisation, the rise of China and an increase in global demand for natural resources; the role of the China-initiated the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and the Silk Road Economic Belt; and Russia’s attempt to reclaim its “great power” status since 2000 and Putin’s attempt to build and expand the Eurasian Economic Union. Second, there are domestic factors: understanding Russia’s and China’s foreign trade policy linked not only with economic growth but also with the structure of foreign economic policy decision-making, or “power vertical,” among other domestic elements. This article will draw on Critical International Political Economy (CIPE to argue that this tradition is well equipped and offers an important framework to understand foreign economic policy of powers such as Russia and China. The CIPE does not simply combine the domestic and international factors but also insists on their indivisibility and engages with cultural, ideological and social elements in their historical

  3. Micromorphological characteristics of sandy forest soils recently impacted by wildfires in Russia

    Maksimova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Evgeny


    Two fire-affected soils were studied using micromorphological methods. The objective of the paper is to assess and compare fire effects on the micropedological organisation of soils in a forest-steppe zone of central Russia (Volga Basin, Togliatti city). Samples were collected in the green zone of Togliatti city. The results showed that both soils were rich in quartz and feldspar. Mica was highly present in soils affected by surface fires, while calcium carbonates were identified in the soils affected by crown fires. The type of plasma is humus-clay, but the soil assemblage is plasma-silt with a prevalence of silt. Angular and subangular grains are the most dominant soil particulates. No evidence of intensive weathering was detected. There was a decrease in the porosity of soils affected by fires as a consequence of soil pores filled with ash and charcoal.

  4. Net ecosystem exchange in a sedge-sphagnum fen at the South of West Siberia, Russia

    Dyukarev, Egor


    The model of net ecosystem exchange was used to study the influence of different environmental factors and to calculate daily and growing season carbon budget for minerotrophic fen at South of West Siberia, Russia. Minerotrophic sedge-sphagnum fen occupies the central part of the Bakcharskoe bog. The model uses air and soil temperature, incoming photosynthetically active radiation, and leaf area index as the explanatory factors for gross primary production, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration. The model coefficients were calibrated using data collected by automated soil CO2 flux system with clear long-term chamber. The studied ecosystem is a sink of carbon according to modelling and observation results. This study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant numbers 16-07-01205 and 16-45-700562.

  5. Male Labor Migrants in Russia: HIV Risk Behavior Levels, Contextual Factors, and Prevention Needs

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B.; Avsukevich, Natalya A.; Chaika, Nikolay A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.


    Background Although the dire life circumstances of labor migrants working in Russia are well-known, their HIV risk vulnerability and prevention needs are understudied. Low socioeconomic status, lack of access to services, separation from family, and limited risk awareness all contribute to migrants’ HIV vulnerability. Methods Male labor migrants in St. Petersburg (n=499) were administered assessments of their sexual behavior practices, substance use, and psychosocial characteristics related to risk and well-being. Results Thirty percent of migrants reported multiple female partners in the past 3 months. Condom use was low, ranging from 35% with permanent to 52% with casual partners. Central Asian migrants had very low AIDS knowledge, low levels of substance use, moderate sexual risk, high depression, and poor social supports. Eastern European migrants had higher AIDS knowledge, alcohol and drug use, and sexual risk. Discussion Improved HIV prevention efforts are needed to reduce the risk vulnerability of migrants who relocate to high disease prevalence areas. PMID:20690041


    Е Г Дмитриева


    Full Text Available The range of issues associated with the study of funding mechanisms and other forms of organization of research sector of the Russian universities is discussed in the article. The central element of the integration of education and science in Russia are called to be institutions of higher education. In thisregard, it is important to ensure their effective interaction with the business community on the basis of the implementation of large target programs and individual research and production projects. According to the authors, the University received the status of the HSE, should be full participants in these processes. The estimation of foreign experience of University entrepreneurship and the prospects of cooperation in this area with foreign counterparts is also given.


    Dorin Dusciac


    Full Text Available The Energy Union Strategy, launched in February 2015, is a vast project aiming at identifying a set of common responses to a series of present and future challenges in the field of energy. The question of energy security occupies a central position in EU’s relationships with its neighbours. In this context, economic and political ties with the Russian Federation in its role of major supplier of energy resources to EU member states are of crucial importance. Acquiring a higher degree of independence from the Russian supply of natural gas has been proclaimed as a national priority by several ex-Soviet republics. Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia have recently signed Association Agreements with the EU. We look into the early stages of the implementation of AA’s and analyse their consequences on the EU – Russia relations in the energy field. A series of common characteristics and possible developments in the field of energy are analysed.

  8. Kazakhstan's economic soft balancing policy vis-à-vis Russia: From the Eurasian Union to the economic cooperation with Turkey

    Lyailya Nurgaliyeva


    When Russia started asserting its economic and political power over the Central Asian and Caspian regions, Nazarbayev once again resorted to the economic soft balancing policy, but this time by relying on outside players. Part 2 of this article discusses two cases of such external economic soft balancing efforts: participation in the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC pipeline project, and the economic cooperation with Turkey as part of a free trade zone. The BTC pipeline project and the close economic cooperation with Turkey ended up being a more productive soft balancing effort than the earlier Eurasian Union initiative.

  9. Forming Factors of Russia International Image in the Conflict between Georgia and South Ossetia

    I Y Glinskaya


    Full Text Available The author analyses the factors of determining the international political image of Russia in the context of Russian policy in the Northern Caucasus. Relations between Russia and Georgia, as well as changes of international image of Russia are evaluated.

  10. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes


    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  11. The Triangle Offense: Using Social Movement Theory to Analyze Russia’s Gray Zone Strategy


    Russia is time. Russia remains in a demographic spiral, with an overall life expectancy lower than Bangladesh, Eritrea, and Yemen .30 Russia faces an... infrastructure , and air defense facilities that could delay Russian reinforcements from arriving in the theater.23 Despite Russia’s overt aggression in

  12. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.


    ... Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4 to this part 744 (Entity...

  13. 76 FR 78888 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia


    ... Sunset Review: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia AGENCY: Import Administration... and nitrided vanadium from the Russian Federation (Russia), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff... vanadium from Russia, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...

  14. Single center study on ethnic and clinical features of Behcet's disease in Moscow, Russia.

    Lennikov, Anton; Alekberova, Zemfira; Goloeva, Regina; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Denisov, Lev; Namba, Kenichi; Takeno, Mitsuhiro; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Nasonov, Eugeny; Ishida, Susumu; Ohno, Shigeaki


    For the purpose of investigating Behcet's disease (BD) in Russia, 250 consecutive patients (177 men and 73 women) diagnosed with BD between 1990 and 2010 at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences in Moscow were enrolled in this study. The ethnic backgrounds of the patients were reported as follows: 23.2% (58 cases) from Russia, 12.8% (32 cases) from Azerbaijan, 14.4% (36 cases) from Armenia, 8.8% (22 cases) from Chechnya, and 21.6% (55 cases) from Dagestan. The remaining 19.2% (48 cases) were from other regions or of unknown origin. More than half (57.6%) of the Behcet's disease patients originated from Central Asia, specifically Azerbaijan, Armenia, Chechnya, and Dagestan. The mean age at disease onset was 31.5 ± 9.38 (13-60) years old, and the most typical initial manifestations were oral aphthous ulcers. Patients aged 20-39 years old were more commonly affected and displayed a wide clinical spectrum of the disease, with varieties of severe internal organ involvement. The manifestations observed throughout the course of the disease included oral aphthous ulcers (100%), various cutaneous lesions (88.8%), genital ulcers (81.2%), and ocular lesions (54.0%). Besides these, many organs/systems were implicated in patient cases, namely joint (53.2%), vascular (25.2%), neurological (8.0%), gastrointestinal (25.2%), and cardiac (5.6%) systems. Involvements of ocular (p < 0.01) and skin (p < 0.01) lesions were more frequent in men than in women. HLA-B51 and HLA-A26 typing was performed in 127 patients and 508 healthy controls. HLA-B51 was found in 63.0% of BD patients compared to 20.7% of the healthy control subjects (p < 0.001), and HLA-A26 was present in 11.3% of BD patients and 18.9% of the control group. This study shows the presence of BD in Russia, and it is suggested that its prevalence in Central Asian people is much higher than that in White Russian.

  15. Russia to invest 200 million Swiss Francs in international accelerator


    Russia will invest 200 million CHF in the LHC project, according to first deputy industry, science and technologies minister. The results of scientific research in the center will be use in various industries, enabling new Russian technologies to enter the world market.

  16. Perceived cultural distance and acculturation among exchange students in Russia

    Suanet, I.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.


    The relations of perceived cultural distance, personality, acculturation orientations and outcomes were studied among exchange students (N = 187) in Russia who came from various countries in Asia, sub‐Saharan Africa, Latin America and the former Soviet Union. The hypothesis was supported that a

  17. Climate variations and changes in extreme climate events in Russia

    Bulygina, O N; Razuvaev, V N; Korshunova, N N; Groisman, P Ya


    Daily temperature (mean, minimum and maximum) and atmospheric precipitation data from 857 stations are used to analyze variations in the space-time distribution of extreme temperatures and precipitation across Russia during the past six decades. The seasonal numbers of days (N) when daily air temperatures (diurnal temperature range, precipitation) were higher or lower than selected thresholds are used as indices of climatic extremes. Linear trends in N are calculated for each station for the time period of interest. The seasonal numbers of days (for each season) with maximum temperatures higher than the 95th percentile have increased over most of Russia, with minimum temperatures lower than the 5th percentile having decreased. A tendency for the decrease in the number of days with abnormally high diurnal temperature range is observed over most of Russia. In individual regions of Russia, however, a tendency for an increasing number of days with a large diurnal amplitude is found. The largest tendency for increasing number of days with heavy precipitation is observed in winter in Western Siberia and Yakutia

  18. "No Truer Truth" : Sincerity Rhetoric in Soviet Russia

    Rutten, E.; Dhooge, B.; De Dobbeleer, M.


    In contemporary discourse about human emotions, concerns about the sincerity of individuals, groups, and institutions thrive. This article thickens recent scholarship on sincerity rhetoric with an analysis of emotional regimes in Soviet Russia – a time and place where the notion of sincerity

  19. Russia: No Strategic Partnership With China in View

    Sarsembaev, Iliyas


    This article offers a reflection on Russia’s attitude towards possible alliances in Asia. There are numerous constraints, imposed by Russian domestic issues, and such collaborations could prove difficult. In view of this it is clear that there is little practical prospect of any real strategic partnership between Russia and China at the present time.

  20. Nuclear power development status in Russia and China

    Hara, Taito


    Russia and China have clear policy for the export of nuclear reactors, and both countries conduct negotiations with the initiative of the government. In Russia, Atomenergoprom, which controls civilian nuclear power sector, is in charge, and in China, CNNC, CGN, and SPI are in charge. As for the development of new type reactors, Russian type VVER-1200 is led by NIAEP and Atomproekt, and China type CAP 1400 and Hualong-1 are led by CNNC, CGN, and SPI. The next reactor export is considered to be an improved type of the third generation. Furthermore, both countries are proceeding with the construction and planning of a variety of the fourth generation reactors. As for the power generation and construction costs of domestic nuclear reactors in each country, three countries such as South Korea, China, and Russia hold a dominant position, keeping the costs significantly lower than those in Japan, the United States, and France. In Russia and China, the governments approve government support loans of approximately 5 to 9 billion dollars per reactor for exporting reactors. For developing countries, where financial resources are limited, this system is considered to be a powerful incentive for importing nuclear reactors in combination with BOO contract system that covers from construction to operation. Japan's nuclear reactor exports are planned for the UK, Vietnam, and Turkey. In addition, a nuclear power agreement with India has been agreed in principle, and the order receipt of Japanese power plant manufacturers is expected. (A.O.)

  1. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Ananiev, V.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Shvedov, M.O.


    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well


    Yu. V. Krasilnikova


    Full Text Available Nihilistic attitude to Law is discussed as one of most serious threats to modernization currently carried out in Russia. «Law nihilism» term is defined, its social forms and influence on political and social development is discussed.

  3. Shipment of VINCA Institute's HEU fresh fuel to Russia

    Pesic, Milan; Sotic, Obrad


    This paper shows, for the first time, the basic data related to the recent shipment of the fresh HEU fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to Russia for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gives its contribution to the RERTR program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist action against nuclear material potentially usable for production of nuclear weapons. (author)

  4. America and Russia in International Communications: Stereotypes and Realities.

    Aksenova, Olga; Beadle, Mary


    One barrier to international communication is cultural stereotypes. Based on a literature review and on personal experience and research, this paper explores several prevalent stereotypes about Russia and the United States, noting the influence they may have on business communication. It also discusses the opportunities for and threats to…

  5. Engineering Education in Russia in an Era of Changes

    Lukianenko, M. V.; Polezhaev, O. A.; Churliaeva, N. P.


    Engineering education in Russia is undergoing reforms, but the history of this form of higher education does not indicate that it will succeed in bringing it into line with current world standards, or even making it more able to contribute at a high level to Russian economic growth. (Contains 5 notes.)

  6. On Models of the University in Today's Russia

    Rozov, N. S.


    In current discussions of the problems that affect the development of higher education in Russia, two dimensions dominate, in which opinions diverge and positions clash. In the "first" ("the political and economic" dimension) the extreme poles are the "liberal approach" (according to which higher educational…

  7. Promoting Active Aging in Russia : Working Longer and More Productively

    Levin, Victoria


    A shrinking working-age population will be the Russian Federations biggest demographic challenge in coming decades. With workers increasingly scarce, sustainable future economic development depends on Russias ability to bring into the labor force currently under-utilized groups, such as young mothers and older people, and to maximize the productivity of every worker. This study assesses th...

  8. 75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine


    ... representative product mix); (c) The quantity and value of U.S. commercial shipments of the Domestic Like Product..., repair, and cleanup, and a typical or representative product mix); and (c) The quantity and value of your... Countries in these reviews are Russia and Ukraine. (3) The Domestic Like Product is the domestically...

  9. Teaching History in Russia after the Collapse of the USSR

    Volodina, Tatyana


    Dramatic conflicts and ideological changes occurred in Russia during the past decade. They inevitably influenced Russian education, particularly history teaching. A number of problems that have arisen in history education have been identified, including the emergence of new ideological symbols, and inequalities between schools for the rich and…

  10. Some Problems and Support for Small businesses in Russia

    Аlina R. Sitnikova


    Full Text Available The article focuses on key issues of small businesses in today’s market conditions. Implementation of suggested measures will ensure the sustainable development of small businesses in Russia eliminating down sides in the government support system for small businesses.

  11. About the Geographic Distribution of Economic Science in Asian Russia

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of modern geographic distribution of economic science in Asian Russia (i. e. three macro-regions of Russia: Far East, Siberia and the Urals Region. The study is based on an original database of articles on Economics and related disciplines which arearranged within the Elibrary platformfor 2005-2013. These articles arewritten by fellows of research organizations that are located in the Asian part of Russia.Statistical analysis of the main indicators of publication activity shows that there are significant differences in the scope, dynamics, and quality of the results of this activity among the research organizations of various types.The authors focused on the territorial structure of the study of the economy defined as a set of scientific centers of varying scale and type, as well as networks of scientific communication.It is revealed that publication activity of economic research institutions in Asian Russia has a high level of spatial concentration and the system of scientific communication, formed by the scientific journals of the region, has a high level of fragmentation

  12. The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part I. Corporate Governance Introduced

    International Finance Corporation; U.S. Department of Commerce


    The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issu...

  13. Orthodox Christian Education in Modern Russia: Structure and Content

    Sklyarova, T. V.


    The article describes Orthodox Christian education as a kind of religious education. It offers a definition of Orthodox Christian education and characterizes its structure in modern Russia. It proposes a model for the Orthodox Christian education system, including introductory, basic, professional, and advanced academic levels. The author…

  14. National Innovation Systems in Brazil, Russia, India, China and ...

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) have put innovation at the centre of their development strategies. In each case, however, there exists scant knowledge about the national innovation system and its impact on the economy. This grant will support a comparative analysis of innovation systems in the five ...

  15. The European gaseous market deregulation and its consequences for Russia

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C.


    Russia, the first world producer of gas in 2001 is also the main producer in the european gas market. In this framework the evolution of its gas exportations market is a major stake for the russian gas industry and for the country economy. The consequences of this gas market deregulation are analyzed in this document. (A.L.B.)

  16. Impact of Tobacco Taxes and Price Increases in Ukraine, Russia ...

    Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus share similar demographics, health problems, ... Tobacco taxation policies remain one of the most effective tobacco control ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ... (DHSC)—are partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions from Russia's electricity sector: future scenarios

    Steenhof, Paul A.; Hill, Malcolm R.


    This article investigates future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for Russia's electricity sector, a topic of importance since Russia's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in November 2004. Eleven scenarios are constructed to the year 2020 considering economic and technological details in both the demand and supply sides of the sector. The scenarios are based upon a thorough review of the different factors controlling carbon dioxide emissions, including potential economic growth, changes in energy efficiency and technological development, and that Russia may export large amounts of natural gas to European and Asian markets. The most likely scenario is that Russia will double industrial output over the next 10 years, increase energy efficiency in the demand sector, will remain consistent to the goals of the Energy Strategy 2020 and will implement more efficient technology in the electricity supply sector. Consequently, carbon dioxide emissions will still be 102 million tonnes below 1990 levels in 2010, representing a significant source for emission reduction credits available to be sold on international markets or transferred to the next crediting period. (Author)

  18. Re-thinking copyright through the copy in Russia

    Sezneva, O.


    How one copy of a film or a single is made illegal, while its identical twin is treated as legitimate? By drawing from the material collected in Russia on the illegal copying and distribution of video and musical contents, this paper moves beyond the definition of media piracy in legal terms, and

  19. Indicators of the Education Potential of the Population of Russia

    Tikhomirov, N. P.; Ushchev, V. I.


    The steady tendencies toward the decline in the size of Russia's population in the twenty-first century, owing to the effect of global political, social, and economic factors, are giving rise to a number of fundamental problems that have to do with the erosion of the conditions that are essential not only for the stable development of society, but…

  20. University Mergers in Russia: Four Waves of Educational Policy

    Romanenko, K. R.; Lisyutkin, M. A.


    This article is aimed at identifying distinctive features of the educational policy of university mergers--their main stages, types, and declared goals. We analyzed cases of university mergers and acquisitions (M&A) from the 1990s to the present, which allowed us to identify and describe four Russia-specific waves of educational policy. Based…

  1. Memory politics in contemporary Russia : Television, cinema and the state

    Wijermars, Mariëlle


    Since Vladimir Putin was elected president of Russia in 2000, the rhetorical use of the past has increasingly become a defining characteristic of Russian politics. Through a new national holiday, references to history in official statements, the erection of monuments and other forms of state

  2. International trends in health science librarianship part 20: Russia.

    Murphy, Jeannette; Jargin, Serge


    This is the last in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is Russia. The next feature column will initiate a new series entitled New Directions in Health Science Librarianship. The first contribution will be from Australia. JM. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.


    V. A. Nikolayev


    Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.


    V. A. Nikolayev


    Full Text Available Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  5. CMS Virtual Visit from Russia - 16 November 2015

    Belotelov, Ivan


    This event gathered 200+ high school students selected from all over Russia from three places: - high school students from "Experimental Physics Olympics" at Sirius center, Sochi - students from European Gymnasium, Moscow - interested people at "White leaf" lecturing space Pictures show the CMS Virtual Visit, preparation lecture and masterclass activity. CMS Guides for the Virtual Visit: Nikolay Voytishin & Alexey Kamenev

  6. Religious Education in Russia: A Comparative and Critical Analysis

    Blinkova, Alexandra; Vermeer, Paul


    RE in Russia has been recently introduced as a compulsory regular school subject during the last year of elementary school. The present study offers a critical analysis of the current practice of Russian RE by comparing it with RE in Sweden, Denmark and Britain. This analysis shows that Russian RE is ambivalent. Although it is based on a…

  7. Bridge over troubled water - valuing Russia's scientific landscape

    Büntgen, Ulf


    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2016), s. 95-98 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Environmental change * Brain drain * Interdisciplinary research * Paleo-archives * Russia * Scientific collaboration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.578, year: 2016

  8. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    This article reflects on the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its implications for Africa's continuous effort to search for new developmental paradigms. The core questions addressed in the article are: What are the BRICS states specifically proposing to the ...

  9. Russia and the problem of Kosovo and Metohija

    Simić Predrag


    Full Text Available Nearly ten years since the 1999 NATO military intervention against Serbia and the establishment of UN administration, Kosovo and Metohija has resurfaced as a topical issue in international politics, separating the positions of the USA and Russia, and becoming a precedent in international relations, possibly with far-reaching consequences not only for the future of the western Balkans but also for many territorial disputes worldwide. Russia has only recently pulled herself out of the years-long Chechnya crisis, and facing similar problems in her 'new neighborhood' (Abkhazia, South Ossetia Transdniestria, is among the countries that might be affected by this precedent. Secondly, with her bad experience in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, Russia has become sensitive not only to any disturbance in the balance of power in the Balkans but also to any change to the existing international order. Moscow has not forgotten that during the 1990s many Westerners saw Serbia as a 'metaphor for Russia' and that the NATO interventions against the Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1995 and against Serbia (1999 revealed Russia's weakness, sending her the message to give up her interests in the Balkans and Europe. Thirdly, diverging American and Russian policies on Kosovo and Metohija coincide with their strained relations over the deployment of an antimissile 'shield' in Poland and the Czech Republic, the war in Iraq, policy towards Iran and other issues currently at the top of the list of international problems. Fourthly, meanwhile Russia has managed to recover from the disintegration of the USSR and to consolidate her economic and political power in Europe and the world, owing above all to oil and gas exports, but also to the export of industrial products (military in particular. The precedent that an independent Kosovo and Metohija would constitute in international relations is therefore a test of Russia's role as a permanent member of the UN Security Council

  10. Russia: New stage in nuclear policy and in the struggle for winning public trust

    Gagarinski, Andrei; Kushnarev, Sergei


    nuclear unit was commissioned in Russia in 1993), has begun to show great interest to it again, especially after the nuclear specialists have 'passed from words to deeds' and launched intensive works in order to start the Rostov NPP, the construction of which had been suspended in 1990. The struggle for Rostov NPP commissioning, going on with considerable antagonism of various forces (including such a specific Russian public force, as the Cossacks), has become the beginning of a principally new stage in Russian nuclear specialists' relations with the public. The key principle of this new approach was to refuse from 'defending position'. A good example of Minatom's 'attack action' was shown by the proposal concerning Russia's going out to the world market of nuclear fuel reprocessing, supported by a portfolio of legislative initiatives, which include the draft law on environmental programs for rehabilitation of the country's radiation contaminated areas, financed from foreign trade operations with irradiated nuclear fuel. It should be noted, that the first attack of the 'greens' in connection with this Minatom's initiative - in form of collecting the signatures in support of all-Russia antinuclear referendum - has petered out in the Central Election Commission. Further steps of Russian nuclear leaders - active position in the open discussion of the structural reform in the energy sector and proposals on nuclear branch's consolidation - continue the course aimed at changing the role of Russia's nuclear development opponents to that of 'running after'. In these conditions Minatom, with active support of the Nuclear Society of Russia, has adopted a decision to reconsider its very organisation of PR activities. Its main features - adequate financing and appropriate material support, establishment of a 'brain centre' - a public council supported by a team of the best national and international experts, as well as creation of a structure of public information centres on regional

  11. Russia-Turkey: A Relationship Shaped by Energy

    Bourgeot, Remi


    Deepening ties in between Turkey and Russia in the energy sector prompt questions as to where the balance of power between the two countries lies, with the former relying heavily on the latter for its energy needs. In light of Europe's efforts to diversify its energy sources and of tensions in its relationship with Ukraine, Russia is building the South Stream pipeline under the Black Sea (through Turkish territorial waters). At the same time, Turkey is strengthening its position in South Stream's rival pipeline projects, which aim to supply the European Union with gas from the Caspian Sea region. This means there is a difficult balance between the two countries as they try to negotiate a compromise on the basis of several lines of economic interest. While Russia attempts to protect its European revenues, Turkey is trying to enhance its status as an energy hub between Europe, the Caucasus and the Middle East. As well as the major pipeline projects, the Turkish government and, increasingly, private Turkish operators are developing an energy partnership with Russia in a growing number of fields, including nuclear power. At first glance, this would appear to make Turkey more dependent on Russia. However, the strategic maneuvers surrounding competing regional pipeline projects could give Turkey more room for negotiation and allow it to mitigate its energy dependency. Lastly, the economic significance and the timescales of all these common energy projects explain the desire of the two countries to play down their contrasting political interests in the Middle East. (author)


    Н Асеф


    Full Text Available He article discusses the dynamics of the development of the economic situation in the Is-lamic Republic of Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, and the current state and prospects of development of Russian-Afghan trade and economic relations. Russia and Afghanistan have a long history of cooperation. In the XX century, the Soviet Union provided economic assistance to Afghanistan, including the financing and construction of objects of industry and infrastructure, which are now in need of rehabili-tation and modernization. The accumulated experience of cooperation makes Russia may be one of the major players in Afghani-stan and participate in reconstruction of the country. The relevance of this article stems from the fact that at the present time in conditions of economic sanctions and the deterioration of relations with countries of the West, Russia intends to renew and develop relationships with long-term partners. Today Afghanistan is trying to recover from the devastating effects of years of civil war, and invite Russia to join this process. This means that Russia had a unique chance to return and gain a foothold in the market of Afghanistan, which will be an advantage for the development of cooperation between the two countries. The task of the article is analysis of the economic situation in Afghanistan, in order to study the possibilities of deepening and development of Russian-Afghan trade and economic cooperation. The analysis of Russian-Afghan relations showed that to date, despite the existence of certain problems faced by our country, the development of trade and economic relations is a promising direction of bilateral cooperation.

  13. Creation of the uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus

    Sosnouskaya, Alena; Kotava, Aksana; Ivanov, Victor; Maksutov, Marat


    Creation of operation of uniform medical and dosimetric data banks for carrying out of collateral wide-scale radiation epidemiological researches and prediction of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident (ChA) in territory of Russia and Belarus. On the basis of medical and dosimetric data banks of the national registers of Russia and Belarus the uniform technology of collection personal of a state information of health of the population, injured from ChA . Three levels of observation are created. The first level - Bryansk area of Russia and Gomel area of Belarus, interests of research - radiation hazards of oncologic diseases of various localizations for the population living in these territories. The second level - Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Oryol area of Russia and Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk and Mogilyov area of Belarus, preferred direction of researches - thyroid cancer. The third level all territory of Russia and Belarus, area of research - medical consequences for health of the liquidators, their children and persons migrating from polluted territories. Personal uniform sub-registers are created and function on a stationary value to a basis. Is sub-registers containing information about diseases by a thyroid cancer, leukemia and breast cancer, uniform register of the liquidators and their children, uniform cancer-register of the liquidators and uniform cancer-register of the population living in territories with density of contamination on Cs 137 more than 185 kBq/m 2 . The personal information on 20440 cases of thyroid cancer, 5234 cases of a leukemia, 16679 cases of breast cancer, 252884 liquidators, 6882 cases of a cancer of various localizations among the liquidators, 35423 children of the liquidators, 11407 cases of oncologic diseases among the population living in territories with density of contamination on Cs 137 more than 185 kBq/m 2 is accumulated. (author)

  14. Demands and conditions of nuclear power development in Russia

    Sidorenko, V.A.


    A reliable power supply is necessary for Russia to find its way out of the present crisis and to develop its economy. Although there are considerable fossil fuel resources in Russia, they are not sufficient to meet future power demands. Forecasts by specialists indicate that about 30% of the necessary increase in annual electricity production should be covered until the year 2010 by new nuclear power plants (NPPs). Also, by that time, all outdated nuclear power units should be replaced by new plants of more than 8 GW capacity. The total NPP capacity in Russia should be increased until 2010 by 50-70%, thus providing the basis for further development of nuclear power, with the aim of reaching 25% of the total electricity generation before 2015. Safety assurance of operational NPPs is a major prerequisite for nuclear power development, and measures for improving safety are being implemented. New designs of power units are being developed, in accordance with modern requirements and safety standards, and the start of construction of these units is planned for the end of this decade. The economic parameters of NPPs situated in the European part of Russia are better than those of coal and gas fuelled power plants. The improved safety of NPPs, the implementation of measures for processing and storage of radioactive wastes, and economic arguments are gradually changing the negative attitude of the population to nuclear power. Extended international co-operation is a further important factor, giving additional assurances of successful and safe nuclear power development in Russia. (author). 1 tab


    Tatiana Yashchuk


    Full Text Available УДК 34The article highlights the main stages in the development of local government and self-gov-ernment in Russia. It shows the specifics of each stage. The formation of the Russian state was accompanied by the synthesis of the princely power and the community self-government. The genesis autocracy was accompanied by a struggle with the self-government institutions. The creation of rural and urban self-government in the second half of the XIX century was accom-panied by a debate on the social and public origin of these institutions.The Soviet state was based on the unity of the Soviet system. It concluded the discrete de-velopment of local self-government in Russia. There is no historical strong tradition of local government in this system.Objective of the article is to identify and characterize the main stages of development of local government and self-government in Russia. Show the discrete nature of the develop-ment of local self-government in Russia.The formation of the Russian state was accompanied by the synthesis of princely power and community self-government. Genesis autocracy was accompanied by a struggle with self-government institutions. The absence of territorial self-government in Russia was offset by the presence of social class municipality for a long time. Caste traditions tradition had a negative impact after the establishment of rural and urban self-government in the second half of the XIX century.During the preparation of the reforms and their implementation were discussions of the rela-tionship between the state and the community began in management. As a result, there is the inclusion of local authorities in the sphere of active state regulation. The desire of the county public to the political activity was suppressed by autocracy. The Provisional Government at-tempt to rely on the local self-government to create new authorities ended in failure.The Soviet state was based on a single management system. Certain powers

  16. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.; Barsukov, I. V.


    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests of the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.

  17. Radionuclide therapy in Russia: Experience, problems, and perspectives

    Tsyb, A.F.; Drozdovsky, B. Ya.; Garbuzov, P.I.


    Full text: Radionuclide therapy in Russia has more than 50-years history. Radioiodine has been successfully used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and toxic goiter. Au-198 colloidal solution was used in the therapy of synovitis as well as mesothelioma. P-32 was used for polycythemia vera and metastatic bone pain palliation. The treatment was routinely performed in various radiological clinics. However, after the Chernobyl accident and due to more stringent radiation safety measures, it is now exclusively performed in the clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center RAMS, Obninsk. For the last 20 years, more than 10000 patients have been treated in the clinic including 200 children, mainly from the contaminated regions of Chernobyl accident. The palliative treatment of bone metastases is performed with home-produced 89Sr chloride in outpatient clinics and 153Sm-oxabifore in the clinic of MRRC. Nowadays majority of the 160 radionuclides of 80 chemical elements are produced in Russia and exported. Of these, only three are commonly used for therapy purposes, most common being the 131I for treatment of toxic goiter and thyroid differentiated cancer (about 2000 GBq annually). In Russia more than 50 thousand patients suffer from thyroid diseases. Other therapies include bone metastases with marked pain syndrome and hard bone and joint diseases. Radionuclide therapy in Russia is being expanded with the creation of radionuclide therapy departments in each region including Center of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmaceutics (CNMAR) in Obninsk. This city has many research and medical institutes, nuclear-physical and radiochemical departments with highly skilled personnel and industrial production of medical radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Obninsk has a convenient geographical location for easy transportation of radiopharmaceuticals and patients. Under the aegis of CNMAR, many research works are being carried out to make radionuclide therapy more

  18. Some solutions to the Central Asian region's energy cooperation problems

    Rakhmatulina, Gulnur


    It stands to reason that the resource-rich Central Asian Region (CAR), which is located at the crossroads between the Near and Middle East, South Asia, China, and Russia and is also in direct proximity to the countries experiencing "energy starvation," is of important geostrategic significance. It is a well-known fact that CAR has vast energy potential. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have large supplies of oil and gas resources, which enjoy demand on the world market. In particular,...

  19. Central Asia in a globalizing world: current trends and prospects

    Ziadullaev, Nabi


    On the threshold of the 21st century, the strategic importance of the new sovereign states of Central Asia, endowed with huge oil, gas, uranium, gold and other mineral reserves, sharply increased. The newly formed states sought to become independent from Russia and to develop political and economic contacts with other countries on a parity basis. In a short period, they established diplomatic relations with most countries of the world, became members of the United Nations and other internatio...


    V. E. Yudaeva


    Full Text Available As a result of the research carried out in 2013-2016, the viability and originality of 1157 accessions of root vegetables have been preserved. 250 breeding accessions of carrot, beetroot and radish have been assessed for different economically valuable traits in open field and laboratory tests. Out of them, 65 accessions were selected out as sources of economically valuable traits. The early-maturing accessions of radish, such as ‘Korsar’, ‘Francuzsky Zavtrak’, ‘Mikhnevsky 1’, ‘18 Dney’, ‘Koroleva Margo’, ‘Polyna’, ‘Rozovo-Krasny s Belym Konchikom’, ‘Sofit’, ‘Kvarta’, ‘Saksa’, ‘Variant’ were regarded. The carrot accessions, such as ‘Scarlet’, ‘Koroleva Oseni’, ‘Dlinnaya Krasnaya’ were distinguished as sources of high yield capacity. The sources of high root yield in beetroot were varieties: ‘Valenta’, ‘Mestnaya iz Madagaskara’, Goldiers Super Black Beet, Zwaans Early Red Chief. The long shelf-life during wintertime was observed in beetroot varieties: ‘Slowiblot’, ‘Valenta’, ‘Lomarina’. The varieties: ‘Nevezhes’, ‘Neger Schwarz Halblange’, ‘Goldiers Super Black Beet’ were distinguished by high root marketability. With the use of world plant collection at VIR, the following varieties of root vegetables: ‘Dar Podmoskovya’ in carrot; ‘Osennya Princessa’ in beetroot; ‘Mikhnevskiy 1 ‘in garden radish; ‘Osenniy Krasavets’ in daikon; ‘Albina’ in root parsley; ‘Atlant’ in parsnip; Moscowskiy Krasavets in celery, and ‘Oseniya Udacha’ in wild radish were developed. It was also shown those varieties that had high yield capacity and root marketability were distinguished by small epidermal cell structure and large number of stomata per unit of leaf surface. It may be supposed that the large number of stomata per unit of leaf surface and small epidermal cell structure was the evidence of adaptive capacity of accessions taken for the study.