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Sample records for central retinal thickness

  1. Full-Thickness Retinochoroidal Incision in the Management of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Ni Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO treated with full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions and to compare whether there is difference in treatment response in ischemic and nonischemic CRVO. Methods. Retrospective study of patients of CRVO receiving full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions in Changhua Christian Hospital. Fluorescein angiography (FA, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect funduscopy, best corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness (CMT measured by optical coherence tomography were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients were divided into an ischemic and nonischemic group according to the findings of FA. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year. Results. Twenty-eight eyes (14 ischemic and 14 nonischemic CRVO were included. Functional retinochoroidal venous anastomosis (RCVA was achieved in 48 of the 65 retinochoroidal incisions (73.8%. Central macular thickness (CMT and retinal hemorrhage decreased significantly after the surgery. Significant visual gain was observed postoperatively in the nonischemic group, but not in the ischemic group. Postoperative complications included vitreous hemorrhage (17.8%, neovascular glaucoma (7.1%, and preretinal fibrovasular membrane (10.7%, all of which were in the ischemic group. Conclusions. RCVA formation induced by retinochoroidal incisions could improve venous flow, and decrease CMT and retinal hemorrhage. However, only eyes with nonischemic CRVO showed visual improvement.

  2. Early change of central macular thickness after intravitreous triamcinolone or bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema or retinal vein occlusion.

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    Sonoda, Yasushi; Arimura, Noboru; Shimura, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the immediate changes after intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide or intravitreous bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema (DME). A nonrandomized interventional study. Type 2 diabetic patients were included. Intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg) was injected for 22 eyes with DME and IVB (1.25 mg) for 18 eyes with DME. The early time-dependent changes of central macular thickness were evaluated by optical coherence tomography before and from 1 hour to 1 month after intervention. Intravitreous bevacizumab was also tested in patients with retinal vein occlusion as a control of non-DME. Visual acuity was also examined. Compared with the baseline, central macular thickness of eyes with DME decreased significantly 1 hour after intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide (P central macular thickness was observed significantly from 3 hours after IVB in retinal vein occlusion (P retinal vein occlusion than DME after IVB. Visual acuity improved significantly in DME with intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide or IVB at 1 month (P retinal vein occlusion. Although no conclusion can be drawn, immediate decrease in central macular thickness after intravitreous triamcinolone acetonide might indicate the possible involvement of a nongenomic pathway of triamcinolone acetonide action.

  3. The Effect of Age and Initial Central Retinal Thickness on Earlier Need of Repeat Ozurdex Treatment for Macular Edema Due to Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Retrospective Case Series.

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    Lin, Chun-Ju; Chen, Huan-Sheng; Su, Cheng-Wen; Tien, Peng-Tai; Lin, Jane-Ming; Chen, Wen-Lu; Kuo, Chung-Yuan; Lai, Chun-Ting; Tsai, Yi-Yu

    2017-09-26

    To evaluate the effects of dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex) and identify risk factors for repeated treatment in patients with macula edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Patients followed up for at least 6 months were enrolled from 2013 to 2016. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant was given as the baseline treatment. For evaluation of dexamethasone intravitreal implant effects and complications, the demographics, medical history, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure, and central retinal thickness (CRT) were recorded. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model and logistic regression were used to identify factors for repeated treatment. Twenty-three BRVO and 11 CRVO patients were enrolled. There were 15 males and 19 females. Fifteen (44.12%) patients needed only one dexamethasone intravitreal implant. The peak CRT and BCVA significantly improved. Comparing single-injection with multiple-injection group, age and initial CRT more than 400 μm were significantly higher in the multiple-injection group. From multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis, patients with age older than 55 years and initial CRT more than 400 μm had higher risk for multiple injections. Patients receiving as-needed schedule of dexamethasone intravitreal implant had significant peak CRT and BCVA improvement. Age older than 55 years and initial CRT more than 400 μm were significant risk factors associated with repeated dexamethasone intravitreal implant treatment.

  4. Decreased Lamina Cribrosa Beam Thickness and Pore Diameter Relative to Distance From the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Lucy, Katie A.; Schuman, Joel S.; Sigal, Ian A.; Richard A Bilonick; Kagemann, Larry; Kostanyan, Tigran; Lu, Chen; Liu, Jonathan; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Fujimoto, James G.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how the lamina cribrosa (LC) microstructure changes with distance from the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT), and to determine how this change differs in glaucoma. Methods: One hundred nineteen eyes (40 healthy, 29 glaucoma suspect, and 50 glaucoma) of 105 subjects were imaged using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The CRVT was manually delineated at the level of the anterior LC surface. A line was fit to the distribution of LC microstructural par...

  5. Retinal oxygen saturation in relation to retinal thickness in diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob

    to retinal thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: We included 18 patients with DME that all had central retinal thickness (CRT) >300 µm and were free of active proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Optical coherence tomography (Topcon 3D OCT-2000 spectral domain OCT) was used...... for paracentral edema, the oxygen saturation in the upper and lower temporal arcade branches were compared to the corresponding upper and lower subfield thickness. Spearman’s rank was used to calculate correlation coefficients between CRT and retinal oximetry. Results: Median age and duration of diabetes was 59....... 92.3%, p=0.52). We found no correlation between CRT and retinal oxygen saturation, even when accounting for paracentral edema (p>0.05). Furthermore, there was no difference in retinal oxygen saturation between the macular hemisphere that was more or less affected by DME (p>0.05). Conclusion: Patients...

  6. Endovascular cannulation with a microneedle for central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Yamane, Shin; Arakawa, Akira; Inoue, Maiko; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Uchio, Eiichi; Yanagi, Yasuo; Amano, Shiro

    2013-06-01

    We developed a new surgical treatment in which a microneedle is used for retinal endovascular cannulation to treat eyes with central retinal vein occlusion by flushing thrombus out of the central retinal vein as it passes through the lamina cribrosa. The eyes of 12 consecutive patients (12 eyes) with central retinal vein occlusion were successfully treated using this novel treatment. At 24 weeks after surgery, 9 of 12 eyes had gained more than 15 letters in best-corrected visual acuity, and the mean decrease in central foveal thickness was 271.1 μm. Few complications were observed. The microneedle is stiff and sharp enough to facilitate retinal endovascular cannulation in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion. This new technique is a promising treatment of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion.

  7. Quantitative assessment of macular thickness in normal subjects and patients with diabetic retinopathy by scanning retinal thickness analyser

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Y.; Emi, K.; Yamanishi, S.; Motokura, M.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the scanning retinal thickness analyser (RTA), a novel non-invasive imaging instrument, in diagnosing and quantitatively characterising diabetic macular oedema, and to investigate the relation between central macula thickness measured by RTA and other clinical examinations.
METHODS—Central macular thickness was measured using the RTA in 40 normal subjects and 60 patients with diabetic retinopathy. The reproducibility of the retinal thickness measurements was evaluated by calc...

  8. Choroidal thickness profiles in retinitis pigmentosa.

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    Ayton, Lauren N; Guymer, Robyn H; Luu, Chi D

    2013-01-01

    Little quantitative information exists regarding the effect that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has on the choroid. The aim of this study was to determine choroidal thickness profiles in patients with RP. Prospective. Forty-two RP and 22 control subjects participated in the study. RP patients had mild to severe disease, with a visual acuity range of logMAR 0.1 to no light perception. Images of the retina and choroid were obtained using the enhanced depth-imaging method and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Choroidal thickness measures were determined via manual segmentation of the OCT image. The thickness profiles of the normal and RP groups were compared. The associations between choroidal thickness, visual acuity and duration of RP were determined. The choroid was thickest in the control eyes at the subfoveal location (336.60 ± 70.42 μm), and the thickness gradually decreased towards the peripheral retina (temporal 8° = 295.55 ± 60.52 μm; nasal 8° = 251.68 ± 49.93 μm). In RP, the mean thickness was also greater at the fovea (215.60 ± 94.91 μm) than the temporal (191.66 ± 72.42 μm) and nasal (149.91 ± 57.42 μm) retina, but all values were significantly lower than those of the controls (P ≤ 0.001). Subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly correlated with visual acuity (r = -0.46, P choroid than controls. Patients with poorer visual acuity or longer duration of symptoms tended to have thinner choroids. Knowledge of choroidal thickness profile in RP is important for the field of restorative vision research and the development of suprachoroidal retinal prostheses. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Progressive retinal nonperfusion in ischemic central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Wykoff, Charles C; Brown, David M; Croft, Daniel E; Major, James C; Wong, Tien P

    2015-01-01

    Serial wide-field fluorescein angiography was performed on eyes with preproliferative (ischemic) central retinal vein occlusion to evaluate retinal perfusion. Serial wide-field fluorescein angiography was performed on 12 preproliferative central retinal vein occlusion eyes in the 3-year Rubeosis Anti-VEGF (RAVE) trial using the Staurenghi lens (Ocular Staurenghi 230SLO Retina Lens) with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg HRA Spectralis). "Disk area" was defined anatomically for each eye. Mean total field of gradable retina was 290 disk areas (range, 178-452). All eyes demonstrated extensive areas of retinal nonperfusion; at baseline, mean area of retinal perfusion was 106 disk areas (range, 37-129), correlating with a mean of 46.5% perfused retinal area (range, 19.1-56.4%). The area of retinal nonperfusion increased in all eyes with a mean loss of approximately 8.1% of perfused retinal area per year (range, 4.3-12.4%), which corresponded to a mean 15-disk areas (range, 12-35) of retina evolving from perfused to nonperfused annually. The extent of baseline and final nonperfusion was not significantly different between eyes that developed neovascularization and eyes that did not. In this population of severe central retinal vein occlusion eyes, profound retinal nonperfusion was observed with wide-field fluorescein angiography at baseline and the extent of nonperfusion progressed while undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.

  10. Central retinal vessel blood flow after surgical treatment for central retinal vein occlusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crama, N.; Gualino, V.; Restori, M.; Charteris, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of radial optic neurotomy and retinal endovascular surgery on retinal blood flow velocity in patients with central retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: A prospective interventional case series. RESULTS: Six patients with a central retinal

  11. Retinal vessel tortuosity associated with central retinal vein occlusion: an optical coherence tomography study.

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    Muraoka, Yuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Kumagai, Kyoko; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Ogino, Ken; Murakami, Tomoaki; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-07

    We studied morphologic changes of the retinal vasculature in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) through the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Major retinal vessels in 35 eyes from 35 consecutive patients with acute CRVO were examined prospectively and longitudinally with sequential thin sectioning and circumpapillary scanning. Anteroposterior venous tortuosity associated with CRVO was quantified on longitudinal OCT images of a randomly selected major temporal vein. On OCT sections of a given vein, we identified the innermost and outermost points of the vessel wall. The degree of anteroposterior venous tortuosity was defined as the difference between the vertical distances from the retinal pigment epithelium to the center of the venous lumen at these two points. The OCT images revealed that the major retinal veins traveled tortuously through the swollen neurosensory retina from the inner retinal surface to the retinal pigment epithelium. The degree of anteroposterior venous tortuosity was correlated with poor visual acuity (r = 0.457, P = 0.017), increased mean foveal thickness (r = 0.671, P retinal detachment was detected around the optic disc, which correlated with anteroposterior venous tortuosity. In 14 (40%) eyes, elongated major retinal veins disrupted the boundary between retinal vessels and parenchyma, which resulted in juxtavenous splitting of the neurosensory retina. In eyes with CRVO, OCT can be used to visualize anteroposterior venous tortuosity and associated structural changes to the retinal parenchyma.

  12. Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer in primate eyes.

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    Radius, R L

    1980-09-01

    Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer is studied in the eyes of three primate species. Measurements are made at various points throughout the fundus, including the peripapillary, arcuate, macular (area centralis), equatorial, and peripheral parts of the retina. Anatomic findings are compared with the clinical appearance of retinal light reflexes in these way. It is proposed that the nature of this light reflex is, in part, determined by the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

  13. Baseline Factors Associated With 6-Month Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness Outcomes in Patients With Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion or Hemiretinal Vein Occlusion: SCORE2 Study Report 4.

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    Scott, Ingrid U; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Ip, Michael S; Blodi, Barbara A; Oden, Neal L; King, Jacqueline; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Peters, Mark A; Tolentino, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Macular edema (ME) is the leading cause of decreased visual acuity (VA) associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Identifying factors associated with better outcomes in RVO eyes treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy may provide information useful in counseling patients. To investigate baseline characteristics associated with 6-month VA and central subfield thickness (CST) outcomes in participants in the Study of Comparative Treatments for Retinal Vein Occlusion 2 (SCORE2). A total of 362 patients with central RVO or hemi-RVO were enrolled between September 17, 2014, and November 18, 2015, and randomized 1:1 in a masked fashion to receive bevacizumab or aflibercept. At month 6, 348 participants (96%) had VA outcomes measured and 335 participants (93%) had spectral domain optical coherence tomography outcomes measured. The current data analysis was conducted from February 27, 2017, to April 7, 2017. Eyes were randomly assigned to receive an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, 1.25 mg, or aflibercept, 2.0 mg, at baseline and every 4 weeks, with the primary outcome measured at 6 months. Change from baseline in VA letter score (VALS), VALS gain of 15 or more, change from baseline in CST, CST less than 300 µm, and resolution of ME. Baseline factors associated with 6-month outcome at the 0.05 level in univariate regressions were included in multivariate regressions, with those significant after multiplicity control by the Hochberg method reported. The mean (SD) age of patients was 69 (12) years, and 43% were women. Younger patient age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95 per year of age; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98; P = .007) and lower baseline VALS (OR, 0.96 per letter; 95% CI, 0.94-0.98; P < .001) were associated with a 6-month VALS gain of 15 or greater. Compared with bevacizumab, aflibercept treatment was associated with a higher odds of ME resolution (OR, 3.59; 95% CI, 2.22-5.80; P < .001) and CST less than 300 µm (OR,  5.30; 95% CI, 2

  14. Quantitative assessment of macular thickness in normal subjects and patients with diabetic retinopathy by scanning retinal thickness analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Y.; Emi, K.; Yamanishi, S.; Motokura, M.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the scanning retinal thickness analyser (RTA), a novel non-invasive imaging instrument, in diagnosing and quantitatively characterising diabetic macular oedema, and to investigate the relation between central macula thickness measured by RTA and other clinical examinations.
METHODS—Central macular thickness was measured using the RTA in 40 normal subjects and 60 patients with diabetic retinopathy. The reproducibility of the retinal thickness measurements was evaluated by calculating the mean of the inter- and intrasession variations. Central macular thickness was correlated with the results of visual acuity measurements, biomicroscopy, and fluorescein angiography.
RESULTS—Intra- and intersession reproducibility of the RTA in normal subjects was plus or minus 5.2% (16 µm) and plus or minus 6.1% (19 µm), respectively. The mean central macular thickness was 182 (SD 16) µm in normal subjects, 283 (116) µm in diabetic eyes without clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO), and 564 (168) µm in diabetic eyes with CSMO. Central macular thickness was significantly greater (p<0.001) in eyes with diabetic retinopathy than in normal subjects, even when macular thickening did not meet the standard for CSMO (p=0.019) measured by biomicroscopy. Although greater fluorescein leakage at the macula results in greater central macular thickness, only eyes with diffuse leakage had statistically significant macular thickening compared with normal subjects (p=0.022). Central macular thickness measured with the RTA was significantly correlated with the logarithmic converted visual acuity (r2= 0.76) in diabetic eyes.
CONCLUSION—Scanning RTA, which has good reproducibility, might be useful to quantitatively detect and monitor macular thickening in diabetic retinopathy. Central macular thickness was highly correlated with logarithmic converted visual acuity in diabetic macular oedema.

 Keywords: scanning retinal thickness analyser; macular

  15. Retinal vascular oximetry during ranibizumab treatment of central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Traustason, Sindri; la Cour, Morten; Larsen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of intravitreal injections of the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab on retinal oxygenation in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with CRVO was analysed using the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter P3, before and during 6 months of treatment with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. At presentation, retinal venous oxygen saturation was lower in eyes with CRVO than in the healthy fellow eyes (32±13% vs 59±10%, respectively, p=0.001) whereas retinal arterial saturation was higher in eyes with CRVO than in the fellow eyes (95%±8% and 91%±3%, p=0.04). Mean visual acuity increased from 51±24 letters ETDRS at baseline to 66±24 and 69±20 letters ETRDS, respectively, at 3 months and 6 months treatment (mean±SD, pcentral retinal thickness was reduced from 697±139 µm to 368±113 µm and 340±96 µm, respectively, from baseline to 3 months and 6 months treatment (pRetinal venous oxygen saturation was markedly reduced in untreated CRVO and was roughly halfway normalised during intravitreal ranibizumab treatment. Retinal artery oxygen saturation was not reduced in CRVO. NCT01360385. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Choroidal thickness profile in inherited retinal diseases in Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate changes in choroidal thickness (CT in inherited retinal diseases and its relationship with age, spherical equivalent, visual acuity, and macular thickness. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 51 eyes with features of retinal dystrophy of 26 subjects, who underwent enhanced depth imaging using spectral domain (SD optical coherence tomography (OCT, were included. The CT measurements were made at the fovea and at 5 points with an interval of 500 microns in both directions, nasal and temporal from the fovea and were compared with age-matched healthy subjects. Step-wise regression was used to find the relationship between age, spherical equivalent, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT, and subfoveal CT. Results: Disease distribution was as follows: Stargardt′s disease 18 eyes (9 subjects; Best disease 5 eyes (3 subjects; cone-rod dystrophy 26 eyes (13 subjects; and Bietti′s crystalline dystrophy 2 eyes (1 subject. Mean subfoveal CT was 266.33 ± 76 microns. On regression analysis, no significant correlation was found between subfoveal CT and any other variable such as age (P = 0.9, gender (P = 0.5, CMT (P = 0.1, spherical equivalent (P = 0.3 and BCVA (P = 0.6. While comparing with age-matched healthy subjects, no significant statistical difference was noted (P < 0.05 among all age groups. Conclusion: Our study reports quantitative changes in CT in various common inherited retinal diseases seen in Indian populations. To validate changes in choroid, a longitudinal study with larger sample size is warranted.

  17. Analysis of related factors of macular retinal thickness in high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ping Lü

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between the macular retinal thickness and diopter, dominant eye, axial length. METHODS: Totally 128 patients with high myopia group 180 eyes were selected, including the dominant eye in 79 eyes, the non dominant eye in 101 eyes. OCT was applied to measure macular and peripheral retinal thickness and A-mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment to axial length. Another 112 patients with emmetropia group in 180 eyes, including the dominant eye in 106 eyes and the non dominant eye in 74 eyes served as control. Obtained data were statistically analyzed.RESULTS: The average length of ocular axis in patients with high myopia(29.57±1.57mm were significantly prolonged, compared with the mean axial length in normal group(24.13±0.90mm(P1, below(I1, temporal(T1and foveal outer ring area(from the foveal region of 3-6mmabove(S2, below(I2, nasal(N2, temporal(T2existed correlation, while there was no correlation with macular central and nasal foveal inner ring area(N1retinal thickness. The retinal thickness of macular central area and each partition in high myopia group were obviously thinner than emmetropia group(PP>0.05between dominant and non dominant eye macular retinal thickness in high myopia.CONCLUSION: The detected values of high myopia macular retinal thickness by OCT are lower than emmetropia group. There is a negative correlation between the ocular axial length and macular retinal thickness above(S1, below(I1, temporal(T1, above(S2, below(I2, nasal(N2, temporal(T2with high myopia. Ocular dominance and non dominant eye macular retinal thickness with high myopia have no obviously difference.

  18. Baseline predictors of visual acuity and retinal thickness in patients with retinal vein occlusion.

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    Kim, Sang Jin; Yoon, Young Hee; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Seong; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, June-Gone; Park, Kyu Hyung; Jo, Young Joon; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the baseline predictors of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) at 6 months in patients with treatment-naïve branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). This multicenter, interventional case series included 208 BRVO and 123 CRVO patients with follow-up period of 6 months or more. Outcome measures of BCVA (logMAR) included absolute change from baseline and a gain or loss of ≥ 0.3 from baseline. Outcome measures of CRT included absolute change from baseline and a measurement of ≤ 250 µm or ≥ 400 µm at 6 months. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were done to find baseline predictors. For BRVO, younger age, worse baseline BCVA, and shorter duration of symptom were associated with more gain in BCVA. For CRVO, worse baseline BCVA was associated with more gain in BCVA. For CRT outcomes, higher baseline CRT predicted greater decrease at 6 months in both BRVO and CRVO. Younger age and better baseline BCVA were associated with an increased likelihood of measurement of a ≤ 250 µm outcome for BRVO and CRVO, respectively. For CRVO, smoking was associated with greater decrease from baseline and decreased likelihood of measurement of a CRT ≥ 400 µm at 6 months. In conclusion, several baseline factors including age, symptom duration, and baseline BCVA and CRT are associated with BCVA and CRT outcomes at 6 months, which may help to predict disease course for RVO patients.

  19. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual hallucinations in Parkinson's Disease.

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    Lee, Jee-Young; Kim, Jae Min; Ahn, Jeeyun; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beom S; Kim, Tae Wan

    2014-01-01

    Defective visual information processing from both central and peripheral pathways is one of the suggested mechanisms of visual hallucination in Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate the role of retinal thinning for visual hallucination in PD, we conducted a case-control study using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We examined a representative sample of 61 patients with PD and 30 healthy controls who had no history of ophthalmic diseases. General ophthalmologic examinations and optical coherence tomography scans were performed in each participant. Total macular thickness and the thickness of each retinal layer on horizontal scans through the fovea were compared between the groups. In a comparison between patients with PD and healthy controls, there was significant parafoveal inner nuclear layer thinning, whereas other retinal layers, including the retinal nerve fiber layer, as well as total macular thicknesses were not different. In terms of visual hallucinations among the PD subgroups, only retinal nerve fiber layer thickness differed significantly, whereas total macular thickness and the thickness of other retinal layers did not differ. The retinal nerve fiber layer was thinnest in the group that had hallucinations without dementia, followed by the group that had hallucinations with dementia, and the group that had no hallucinations and no dementia. General ophthalmologic examinations did not reveal any significant correlation with hallucinations. There were no significant correlations between retinal thicknesses and duration or severity of PD and medication dosages. The results indicate that retinal nerve fiber layer thinning may be related to visual hallucination in nondemented patients with PD. Replication studies as well as further studies to elucidate the mechanism of thinning are warranted.

  20. Quantification of retinal layer thickness changes in acute macular neuroretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Marion R; Beck, Marco; Kolb, Simone

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate retinal layer thickness changes in acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN). METHODS: AMN areas were identified using near-infrared reflectance (NIR) images. Intraretinal layer segmentation using Heidelberg software was performed. The inbuilt ETDRS -grid was moved ...

  1. Central retinal vessel blood flow after surgical treatment for central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crama, Niels; Gualino, Vincent; Restori, Marie; Charteris, David G

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of radial optic neurotomy and retinal endovascular surgery on retinal blood flow velocity in patients with central retinal vein occlusion. A prospective interventional case series. Six patients with a central retinal vein occlusion of retinal endovascular surgery. Five patients had decreased central venous blood flow velocity compared with the fellow eye, and one patient had similar central venous blood flow in both eyes at baseline. All study eyes had decreased central venous blood flow velocity compared with the fellow eye at 24 weeks after treatment. Two patients had a further decrease in central venous blood flow during the study. Three patients had no minimal change in central venous blood flow, and 1 patient showed a minimal increase from 3 cm/s at baseline to 4 cm/s 24 weeks after surgery. Radial optic neurotomy and retinal endovascular surgery do not alter central retinal blood flow velocity. The place of these therapies in the treatment for central retinal vein occlusion should be questioned.

  2. Fundus changes in central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Hayreh, Sohan Singh; Zimmerman, M Bridget

    2015-01-01

    To investigate systematically the retinal and optic disk changes in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and their natural history. This study comprised 562 consecutive patients with CRVO (492 nonischemic [NI-CRVO] and 89 ischemic CRVO [I-CRVO] eyes) seen within 3 months of onset. Ophthalmic evaluation at initial and follow-up visits included recording visual acuity, visual fields, and detailed anterior segment and fundus examinations and fluorescein fundus angiography. Retinal and subinternal limiting membrane hemorrhages and optic disk edema in I-CRVO were initially more marked (P retinal epithelial pigment degeneration, serous macular detachment, and retinal perivenous sheathing developed at a higher rate in I-CRVO than that in NI-CRVO (P retinal venous engorgement than NI-CRVO (P = 0.003). Fluorescein fundus angiography showed significantly more fluorescein leakage, retinal capillary dilatation, capillary obliteration, and broken capillary foveal arcade (P < 0.0001) in I-CRVO than NI-CRVO. Resolution time of CRVO was longer for I-CRVO than NI-CRVO (P < 0.0001). Characteristics and natural history of fundus findings in the two types of CRVO are different.

  3. Multifocal central serous chorioretinopathy with photoreceptor-retinal pigment epithelium diastasis in heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Pryds, Anders; Carlsen, Jørn;

    2015-01-01

    with clinical examination, enhanced depth optical coherence tomography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and fundus photography. RESULTS: At presentation, atypical central serous chorioretinopathy with multiple retinal pigment epithelial detachments, a thick subfoveal choroid, and dilated...

  4. Anti-VEGF treatment and peripheral retinal nonperfusion in patients with central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Abri Aghdam, Kaveh; Reznicek, Lukas; Soltan Sanjari, Mostafa; Klingenstein, Annemarie; Kernt, Marcus; Seidensticker, Florian

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between the size of peripheral retinal nonperfusion and the number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections in patients with treatment-naïve central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Fifty-four patients with treatment-naïve CRVO and macular edema were included. Each patient underwent a full ophthalmologic examination including optical coherence tomography imaging and ultrawide-field fluorescein angiography. Monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections were applied according to the recommendations of the German Ophthalmologic Society. Two ophthalmologists quantified the areas of peripheral retinal nonperfusion (group 1= less than five disc areas, group 2= more than five disc areas). Correlation analyses between the size of nonperfusion with best-corrected visual acuity, central subfield thickness, and the number of intravitreal injections were performed. Best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly after intravitreal injections (Pcentral subfield thickness after treatment did not significantly differ between both groups (P=0.92, P=0.96, respectively). Mean number of injections in group 1 and group 2 was 4.12±2.73 and 9.32±3.84, respectively (Pretinal nonperfusion in patients with CRVO correlates significantly with the number of needed intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Ultrawide-field fluorescein angiography is a useful tool for detection of peripheral retinal ischemia, which may have direct implications in the diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment of these patients.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RETINAL THICKNESS AND VISUAL ACUITY IN EYES WITH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION TREATED WITH DEXAMETHASONE IMPLANT.

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    Danis, Ronald P; Sadda, Srinivas; Jiao, Jenny; Li, Xiao-Yan; Whitcup, Scott M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) in eyes from two clinical trials of dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg for macular edema after branch or central retinal vein occlusion. Patients with vision loss as a result of macular edema (≥6-week duration) after branch retinal vein occlusion or central retinal vein occlusion were treated with a single dexamethasone intravitreal implant or sham. Prospectively defined outcomes included BCVA and CRT (as assessed by optical coherence tomography). There was a modest but statistically significant negative linear correlation between changes in CRT and changes in BCVA in both treatment groups at Days 90 and 180 (correlation coefficient: -0.23 to -0.34; P < 0.001). Improvements in BCVA at Day 180 were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in eyes that achieved and maintained CRT ≤250 μm from Day 90 to 180 (mean BCVA improvement: 14 letters; 49% of eyes with ≥15-letter gain) than in eyes that never achieved CRT ≤250 μm (mean BCVA improvement: 2 letters; 13% of eyes with ≥15-letter gain). The greatest improvements in BCVA were seen in eyes that achieved and maintained the greatest improvements in CRT.

  6. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion With Subsequent Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Zoë R; Wang, Xiaofei; DiLoreto, David A

    2016-09-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion with subsequent central retinal vein occlusion in the same eye is a rare entity. We present a 72-year-old man with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis who developed bilateral arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and a left central retinal artery occlusion. Subsequently, he developed a left central retinal vein occlusion within 2 weeks of his initial vision loss. His vision did not improve with corticosteroids.

  7. Reduction in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipponi, Stefano; Scaroni, Niccolò; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Forbice, Eliana; Rao, Renata; Liberini, Paolo; Padovani, Alessandro; Semeraro, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    Migraine is a common disorder and its pathogenesis remains still unclear. Several hypotheses about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of migraine have been proposed, but the issue is still far from being fully clarified. Neurovascular system remains one of the most important mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of migraine and it could be possible that hypoperfusion might involve other areas besides brain, including the retina. This is, for example, of particular interest in a form of migraine, the retinal migraine, which has been associated with hypoperfusion and vasoconstriction of the retinal vasculature. Although vasoconstriction of cerebral and retinal blood vessels is a transient phenomenon, the chronic nature of the migraine might cause permanent structural abnormalities of the brain and also of the retina. On this basis, a few studies have evaluated whether retina is involved in migraine patients: Tan et al. have not found differences in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between migraine patients and healthy subjects, while Martinez et al. have shown that RNFL in the temporal retinic quadrant of migraineurs is thinner than in normal people. The aim of our study was to analyze if there are differences in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness between migraine patients and normal subjects by studying 24 consecutive migraine patients who presented at the Headache Center of our Neurological Department. Migraine diagnosis has been made according to the International Classification of Headache disorder (ICHD-II). Patients have been recruited according to strict inclusion criteria; then patients have undergone a complete ophthalmological examination at the Ophthalmological Department. All patients and controls who met the ophthalmological criteria have been examined with ocular coherence tomography spectral domain (OCT-SD) after pupillary dilation. OCT-SD is an optical system designed to acquire the retinal layer images simultaneously with fundus

  8. Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosanović-Jaković Natalija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. Specific laboratory investigations and fluorescein angiography excluded the presence of vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, hypercoagulable state and antiphospholipid syndrome. Conclusion. The patient met all the five of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria for the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and hyperuricemia. Measurement of C-reactive protein is useful for the assessment of therapeutic systemic effect on any abnormality in the metabolic syndrome. Individual therapy for all risk factors in the metabolic syndrome is necessary to prevent complications such as cardiovascular, retinal vascular diseases and stroke.

  9. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HEMORRHAGIC PATTERNS AND PERFUSION STATUS IN EYES WITH ACUTE CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Yuki; Uji, Akihito; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ooto, Sotaro; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Ayako; Iida, Yuto; Miwa, Yuko; Hata, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate peripheral retinal hemorrhagic patterns in eyes with acute central retinal vein occlusion, and to explore their clinical relevance in differentiating for the retinal perfusion status, through a prospective, and cross-sectional study. Fifty eyes with acute central retinal vein occlusion were included. Retinal hemorrhagic patterns at the equator and retinal perfusion status were evaluated by ultra-wide field fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Retinal perfusion was categorized as nonischemic in 29 eyes, ischemic in 18 eyes, and undeterminable in 3 eyes. None of the examined eyes had flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages in the periphery. All hemorrhages were rounded-dot or blot and were variable in size. Particle analysis was performed to quantify hemorrhage size, and showed higher values in eyes having larger blot hemorrhages, and lower values in eyes having dot or smaller blot hemorrhages. Mean size of maximum peripheral dot or blot hemorrhage was larger in eyes classified as ischemic (10,763.0 ± 5,946.3 pixels) than as nonischemic (2,839.9 ± 1,153.6 pixels, P retinal perfusion status, which was 0.963 (P retinal hemorrhagic patterns at the equator in eyes with acute central retinal vein occlusion using particle analysis. The resulting hemorrhage size measurement was considered to be often useful in determining retinal perfusion status. Because they can be noninvasively evaluated with readily available equipment, peripheral hemorrhagic patterns might be good clinical markers of retinal perfusion.

  10. Investigation of retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a mouse model of retinal branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebneter, Andreas; Agca, Cavit; Dysli, Chantal; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2015-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is a leading cause of visual impairment. Experimental models of this condition based on laser photocoagulation of retinal veins have been described and extensively exploited in mammals and larger rodents such as the rat. However, few reports exist on the use of this paradigm in the mouse. The objective of this study was to investigate a model of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the mouse and characterize in vivo longitudinal retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal veins were experimentally occluded using laser photocoagulation after intravenous application of Rose Bengal, a photo-activator dye enhancing thrombus formation. Depending on the number of veins occluded, variable amounts of capillary dropout were seen on fluorescein angiography. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were markedly elevated early and peaked at day one. Retinal thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed significant swelling (pretinal vein occlusion model in the mouse carries several advantages over its use in other larger species, such as access to a vast range of genetically modified animals. Retinal changes after experimental retinal vein occlusion in this mouse model can be non-invasively quantified by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and may be used to monitor effects of potential therapeutic interventions.

  11. Optic coherence tomography measurement of choroidal and retinal thicknesses after uncomplicated YAG laser capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa Yuvacı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Optic coherence tomography (OCT evaluation of the choroid, retina, and retinal nerve fiber layer after uncomplicated yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG laser capsulotomy. Methods: OCT analysis of retinal and choroidal structures was performed in 28 eyes of 28 patients following routine examinations before and 24 h, 72 h, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after YAG laser capsulotomy. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: Data collected before YAG capsulotomy and at the above mentioned follow-up visits are summarized as follows. Mean central subfoveal choroidal thickness before YAG capsulotomy was 275.85 ± 74.78 µm; it was 278.46 ± 83.46 µm, 283.39 ± 82.84 µm, 280.00 ± 77.16 µm, 278.37 ± 76.95 µm, and 278.67 ± 76.20 µm after YAG capsulotomy, respectively. Central macular thickness was 272.14 ± 25.76 µm before YAG capsulotomy; it was 266.53 ± 26.47 µm, 269.14 ± 27.20 µm, 272.17 ± 26.97 µm, 270.91 ± 26.79 µm, and 273 ± 26.63 µm after YAG capsulotomy, respectively. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness before YAG was 99.89 ± 7.61 µm; it was 98.50 ± 8.62 µm, 98.14 ± 8.69 µm, 99.60 ± 8.39 µm, 99.60 ± 8.39 µm, and 99.60 ± 8.35 µm after YAG capsulotomy, respectively. No observed change was statistically significant. No significant changes were observed with regard to mean intraocular pressure. Conclusions: After YAG laser capsulotomy, no statistically significant changes were found in choroidal, retinal, and optical nerve fiber layer thicknesses, although slight thickness changes in these structures were observed, particularly during the first days.

  12. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Revealing Coelic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana ZOUBEIDI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thrombosis has been widely reported in coeliac disease (CD but central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is rarely described. Case presentation: A 27-year-old woman presented with acute visual loss and was diagnosed with CRVO. Her protein S and protein C levels were low and CD was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic, immunological and histological results. A gluten-free diet resulted in favourable evolution. Conclusion: CD should be considered in young patients with thrombosis, especially if in an unusual location. Treatment is based on a gluten-free diet.

  13. Choroidal thickness and retinal abnormalities by optical coherence tomography in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Abalem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cortisol has been suggested as a risk factor for choroidal thickening, which may lead to retinal changes. Objective: To compare choroidal thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT in patients with endogenous active Cushing’s syndrome and to evaluate the occurrence of retinal abnormalities in the same group of patients. Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Outpatient clinic.Patients: Eleven female patients with Cushing’s syndrome in hypercortisolism state as determined by the presence of at least two abnormal measurements from urinary cortisol 24h, no suppression of cortisol with low dose dexamethasone suppression test and nocturnal salivary cortisol levels and 12 healthy controls.Methods: Choroidal and retinal morphology was assessed using OCT. Main outcome measures: Choroidal thickness measurements and the presence of retinal changes. Results: The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 372.96 ± 73.14 μm in the patients with Cushing’s syndrome and 255.63 ± 50.70 μm in the control group, (p<0.001. One patient (9.09% presented with central serous chorioretinopathy and one patient (9.09% with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy. Conclusions: Choroidal thickness is increased in the eyes of patients with active Cushing’s syndrome compared to healthy and matched control. Also, 18.18% of patients presented with macular changes, possibly secondary to choroidal thickening. While further studies are necessary to confirm our findings excess corticosteroid levels seems to have a significant effect on the choroid and might be associated with secondary retinal diseases.

  14. FEATURES OF THE MACULA AND CENTRAL VISUAL FIELD AND FIXATION PATTERN IN PATIENTS WITH RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayman Muslubas, Isil; Karacorlu, Murat; Arf, Serra; Hocaoglu, Mumin; Ersoz, Mehmet Giray

    2017-02-07

    To evaluate macular features and fixation pattern in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) compared with healthy controls, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and MP-1 microperimetry. Eighty-one eyes of 81 patients with RP and 90 eyes of 90 healthy subjects were assessed. The central foveal thickness, subfoveal choroidal thickness, ellipsoid zone length, and the mean retinal sensitivities and fixation characteristics were evaluated by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and MP-1 microperimetry. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with central macular thinning had lower best corrected visual acuity, central foveal thickness, ellipsoid zone length, retinal sensitivity, and visual field than patients with cystoid macular edema or no macular change (all P central foveal thickness, ellipsoid zone length, retinal sensitivity, and visual field were statistically significant (all P centralized and stabilized fixation than patients with central foveal thinning and cystoid macular edema. The spectrum of macular features from the nearly normal retina to complete chorioretinal atrophy can be seen in RP patients without associations with age or duration of symptoms. Unlike other macular degenerations, most patients with RP obtained at least a central 2° of visual field, with foveal and stable fixation.

  15. Concurrent central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion in giant cell arteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Edward R.; Chen, Celia S

    2010-01-01

    Edward R Chu, Celia S ChenDepartment of Ophthalmology, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Ophthalmic involvement in giant cell arteritis can manifest in a number of ways. Central retinal artery occlusion is one of the common causes of visual loss in giant cell arteritis. On the contrary, branch retinal vein occlusion is rarely associated with the latter. We report an 89-year-old lady with acute left central retinal artery occlusion on a backg...

  16. Physiological variation of retinal layer thickness is not caused by hydration: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lisanne J; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Petzold, Axel

    2014-09-15

    There is evidence for physiological variation of retinal thicknesses as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We tested if such changes could be explained by hydration and would exceed what may be expected from normal ageing. Subjects (n=26) of a previous study were re-assessed and were randomised to 3 groups of a hydration escalation trial (no hydration, 1× hydration, 2× hydration). Automated retinal layer segmentations were performed for the macular retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL). The averaged volumes were calculated for the central foveola, 3 mm and 6 mm circles of the ETDRS grid. Following oral hydration there were no significant differences of retinal layer thicknesses between the three randomised groups in any of the ETDRS regions at any time-point. Ageing related changes were significant over an 18 month period for the GCL. The negative outcome of this trial implies that, until the causes for the observed variation are resolved, investigators may need to accept, and include into trial power calculations, a small degree of variation (<1%) of quantitative SD-OCT imaging either due to human physiology or instrument/software related factors.

  17. Radiation Retinopathy Associated with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Liu; FengWen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of radiation retinopathy associated with central retinal vein occlusion.Methods: The clinical features and fundus fluorescein angiography of this case were analyzed.Results: The patient had been treated with radiotherapy for her nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. The funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography showed the features of radiation retinopathy in both eyes, and central retinal vein occlusion in the left eye.Conclusions: Radiation retinopathy can be associated with central retinal vein occlusion in the same eye, and it seems that the endothelial cell loss caused by radiation retinopathy may lead to retinal vein occlusion.

  18. Retino-choroidal ischemia in central retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Nazimul; Hussain, Anjli

    2014-01-01

    A 41-year-old gentleman with insulin dependent diabetes had decreased vision in the right eye due to non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. One month following intravitreal ranibizumab, he developed retino-choroidal ischemia with further loss of vision. Authors show the fluorescein angiographic transition from non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion to retino-choroidal ischemia.

  19. Choroidal and Retinal Thickness in Children With Different Refractive Status Measured by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peiyao; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng; Xu, Xun; Jin, Jiali; Chang, Ta Chen; Lu, Lina; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Sifei; Yan, Bo; He, Jiangnan; Wang, Mingjin; He, Xiangui

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the choroidal and retinal thickness in myopic, emmetropic, and hyperopic Chinese children by swept-source longer-wavelength optical coherence tomography. Cross-sectional study. Two-hundred and seventy-six schoolchildren aged 7-13 years underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations, including cycloplegic refraction, and swept-source optical coherence tomography measurements. The thickness of the choroid, retina, ganglion cell layer, and nerve fiber layer were compared among children of different refractive status. The topographic variation and factors related to the thickness of the choroid and retinal layers were analyzed. Compared to emmetropic subjects, those with myopia had a significantly thinner choroid in all regions (P choroid in most regions (P .05). The axial length and refractive diopters were independently related to central foveal choroidal thickness (R(2) = 0.17, P thicknesses (R(2) = 0.10, P choroidal and retinal thickness were unrelated in children of different refractive status (P > .05). Choroidal thickness, but not retinal thickness, correlated closely with axial length and refractive diopters in Chinese children. Choroid thinning occurs before retina thinning early in myopic progression. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age, Sex, and Ethnic Variations in Inner and Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thickness on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafiq, Rinoza; Mathew, Raeba; Pearce, Elizabeth; Abdel-Hey, Ahmed; Richardson, Matthew; Bailey, Thomas; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate age, sex, and ethnic variations in inner and outer retinal and choroidal thickness and foveal pit, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Single-center observational cross-sectional study. Ninety randomly selected, healthy individuals of white, black, and South Asian origin underwent SD OCT raster and enhanced depth imaging scan. Manual measurements of inner and outer retinal thickness and choroidal thickness up to 3 mm nasal and temporal to the fovea were performed. The age, sex, and ethnic differences in these parameters were analyzed. The mean inner retinal thickness was lower by approximately 12 μm in black subjects across the central retina compared to white subjects (P thickness below the foveal pit was lower in eyes of blacks compared to South Asians (12 μm, P = .035) and white subjects (18 μm, P thickness decreased by 0.5 μm per year of age of subjects and was thinner by 6.1 μm (P choroidal thickness did not vary between ethnic groups but the temporal choroid was significantly thinner in black subjects (P choroid showed an age-related decline in thickness of 2 μm per year of age of the subjects. Interethnic differences include wider fovea, lower central foveal thickness, and thinner inner retina in eyes of black subjects compared to their white and South Asian counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endovascular Management of Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Gala, Nihar B; Baumrind, Benjamin; Hansberry, David R; Thabet, Ahmad M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-11-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmologic emergency due to the sudden cessation of circulation to the inner retinal layer. Without immediate treatment, permanent blindness may ensue. Several treatment options exist, ranging from noninvasive medical management to thrombolysis. Nonetheless, ongoing debate exists regarding the best therapeutic strategy. The authors present the case of a 78-year-old woman with a medical history of hypercholesterolemia and rheumatoid arthritis who experienced complete loss of vision in her left eye. Following ophthalmologic evaluation demonstrating left CRAO, anterior chamber paracentesis was performed. Endovascular intervention was performed via local intra-arterial fibrinolysis with alteplase. Her vision returned to 20/20 following the procedure. In general, conventional therapies have not significantly improved patient outcomes. Several management options exist for CRAO. In general, conservative measures have not been reported to yield better patient outcomes as compared to the natural history of this medical emergency. Endovascular approaches are another option as observed with this case reported. In cases of CRAO, therapeutic strategies such as intra-arterial fibrinolysis utilize a local infusion of reactive tissue plasminogen activator directly at the site of occlusion via catheterization of the ophthalmic artery. Although several case series do show promising results after treating CRAO with intra-arterial fibrinolysis, further studies are required given the reports of complications.

  2. Retinal vascular oximetry during ranibizumab treatment of central retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; la Cour, Morten; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of intravitreal injections of the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab on retinal oxygenation in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS: Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with CRVO was analysed using the Oxymap Retinal...... in eyes with CRVO than in the fellow eyes (95%±8% and 91%±3%, p=0.04). Mean visual acuity increased from 51±24 letters ETDRS at baseline to 66±24 and 69±20 letters ETRDS, respectively, at 3 months and 6 months treatment (mean±SD, pcentral retinal...... Oximeter P3, before and during 6 months of treatment with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. RESULTS: At presentation, retinal venous oxygen saturation was lower in eyes with CRVO than in the healthy fellow eyes (32±13% vs 59±10%, respectively, p=0.001) whereas retinal arterial saturation was higher...

  3. Investigation of retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a mouse model of retinal branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ebneter

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is a leading cause of visual impairment. Experimental models of this condition based on laser photocoagulation of retinal veins have been described and extensively exploited in mammals and larger rodents such as the rat. However, few reports exist on the use of this paradigm in the mouse. The objective of this study was to investigate a model of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the mouse and characterize in vivo longitudinal retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal veins were experimentally occluded using laser photocoagulation after intravenous application of Rose Bengal, a photo-activator dye enhancing thrombus formation. Depending on the number of veins occluded, variable amounts of capillary dropout were seen on fluorescein angiography. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were markedly elevated early and peaked at day one. Retinal thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed significant swelling (p<0.001 compared to baseline, followed by gradual thinning plateauing two weeks after the experimental intervention (p<0.001. Histological findings at day seven correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. The inner layers were predominantly affected by degeneration with the outer nuclear layer and the photoreceptor outer segments largely preserved. The application of this retinal vein occlusion model in the mouse carries several advantages over its use in other larger species, such as access to a vast range of genetically modified animals. Retinal changes after experimental retinal vein occlusion in this mouse model can be non-invasively quantified by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and may be used to monitor effects of potential therapeutic interventions.

  4. Vitreous inflammatory factors and serous retinal detachment in central retinal vein occlusion: a case control series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noma Hidetaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the vitreous fluid levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 were associated with the occurrence of serous retinal detachment (SRD in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Methods We recruited 33 patients with CRVO and macular edema, as well as 18 controls with nonischemic ocular diseases. Eighteen of the 33 patients with CRVO showed SRD on optical coherence tomography of the macula (defined as subretinal accumulation of fluid with low reflectivity, while the other 15 patients only had cystoid macular edema (CME, defined as hyporeflective intraretinal cavities. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion using fluorescein angiography and the public domain Scion Image program, while central macular thickness (CMT was examined by optical coherence tomography. Vitreous fluid samples were obtained during pars plana vitrectomy and levels of the target molecules were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Ischemia was significantly more common in the SRD group (17/18 patients than in the CME group (5/15 patients (P ptrendptrend = 0.019. On the other hand, the vitreous fluid level of PEDF showed a significant decrease across the three groups (56.4 ± 40.0 ng/ml, 24.3 ± 17.3 ng/ml, and 16.4 ± 12.6 ng/ml, respectively, ptrend Conclusions Higher levels of inflammatory factors (sICAM-1 and sVEGFR-2 and lower levels of anti-inflammatory PEDF were observed in macular edema patients with SRD, suggesting that inflammation plays a key role in determining the severity of CRVO.

  5. An unusual central retinal dystrophy associated with ichthyosis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, O A; Ozbek, Z; Köse, S; Durak, I; Kavukçu, S

    2000-06-01

    A number of ichthyosis syndromes may have retinal abnormalities such as the retinitis pigmentosa-like diffuse rod-cone dystrophy in Refsum's syndrome and the maculopathy in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome. We present two sisters who have an unusual, almost identical, bilaterally symmetric central retinal dystrophy associated with ichthyosis vulgaris in the absence of other systemic disorders. We believe that this dystrophy has not been previously described in patients with any of the known varieties of ichthyosis.

  6. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie; Sagoo, Mandeep S; Tufail, Adnan; Balaggan, Kamaljit S; Patel, Praveen J

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). A prospective study consisting of patients with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Patients underwent three 12×9 mm macular raster scans using the deep range imaging (DRI) OCT-1 SS-OCT (Topcon) device in a single imaging session. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were calculated for the ETDRS macular subfields. Repeatability was calculated according to methods described by Bland and Altman. 39 eyes of 39 patients with nAMD were included with a mean (±SD) age of 73.9 (±7.2) years. The mean (±SD) retinal thickness of the central macular subfield was 225.7 μm (±12.4 μm). The repeatability this subfield, expressed as a percentage of the mean central macular subfield thickness, was 23.2%. The percentage repeatability of the other macular subfields ranged from 13.2% to 28.7%. The intrasession coefficient of repeatability of choroidal thickness of the central macular subfield was 57.2 μm with a mean choroidal thickness (±SD) of 181 μm (±15.8 μm). This study suggests that a change >23.2% of retinal thickness and 57.2 μm choroidal thickness in the central macular subfield is required to distinguish true clinical change from measurement variability when using the DRI OCT-1 device to manage patients with nAMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. EDI-OCT evaluation of choroidal thickness in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, Andrea; Lenzetti, Chiara; Murro, Vittoria; Caporossi, Orsola; Mucciolo, Dario P; Bacherini, Daniela; Cipollini, Francesca; Passerini, Ilaria; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2017-06-09

    To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT). A retrospective analysis of a group of patients with RP who underwent EDI-OCT was performed. Choroidal thickness measurements were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. In the RP group, the possible association between subfoveal CT and some clinical parameters (visual acuity, age, age at disease onset, duration of the disease, macular thickness, visual field loss, electroretinography [ERG]) was evaluated. The study recruited 39 patients with RP with an average age of 43.3 ± 11.3 years while the control group consisted of 73 healthy subjects with an average age of 42.9 ± 12.10 years. On average, CT was significantly thinner in the RP group compared to the controls (p<0.0001). In the RP group, we could not find any significant association between CT and the considered clinical parameters even if there was a trend for decreasing CT with increasing age (r = -0.23, p = 0.096). In the control group, subfoveal CT showed a slightly significant correlation with age (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) but not with macular thickness and visual acuity. In our series, CT was significantly lower in the RP group in comparison with the controls, as measured by EDI-OCT, but did not correlate with age, age at onset, duration of the disease, macular thickness, visual acuity, visual field loss, or ERG responses. Although the clinical implications of choroidal changes in RP have not yet been clearly determined, the evaluation of choroidal features may provide information that could be useful to clarify the pathophysiology of the disease.

  8. Retrospective, controlled observational case study of patients with central retinal vein occlusion and initially low visual acuity treated with an intravitreal dexamethasone implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhalter, Sibylle; Vom Brocke, Gerrit Alexander; Pilger, Daniel; Eckert, Annabelle; Schlomberg, Juliane; Rübsam, Anne; Klamann, Matthias Karl; Gundlach, Enken; Dietrich-Ntoukas, Tina; Joussen, Antonia Maria

    2016-10-27

    Patients with initially low visual acuity were excluded from the therapy approval studies for retinal vein occlusion. But up to 28 % of patients presenting with central retinal vein occlusion have a baseline BCVA of less than 34 ETDRS letters (0.1). The purpose of our study was to assess visual acuity and central retinal thickness in patients suffering from central retinal vein occlusion and low visual acuity (central retinal vein occlusion, which were treated with a dexamethasone implantation. Visual acuity, central retinal thickness and intraocular pressure were measured monthly. Analyses were performed separately for eyes with visual acuity central retinal thickness, however, was reduced in both groups, falling from 694 to 344 μm (1 month; p = 0.003,) to 361 μm (2 months; p = 0,002) and to 415 μm (3 months; p = 0,004) in the low visual acuity group and from 634 to 315 μm (1 month; p central retinal vein occlusion and initially low visual acuity, a dexamethasone implantation can lead to an important reduction of central retinal thickness but may be of limited use to increase visual acuity.

  9. Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Arai,1 Tsutomu Sakai,1 Kiichiro Okano,1 Ranko Aoyagi,1 Ayano Imai,2 Hiroshi Takase,2 Manabu Mochizuki,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka11Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, toxoplasma retinochoroiditis

  10. Enface Thickness Mapping and Reflectance Imaging of Retinal Layers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Francis

    Full Text Available To present a method for image segmentation and generation of enface thickness maps and reflectance images of retinal layers in healthy and diabetic retinopathy (DR subjects.High density spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images were acquired in 10 healthy and 4 DR subjects. Customized image analysis software identified 5 retinal cell layer interfaces and generated thickness maps and reflectance images of the total retina (TR, inner retina (IR, outer retina (OR, and the inner segment ellipsoid (ISe band. Thickness maps in DR subjects were compared to those of healthy subjects by generating deviation maps which displayed retinal locations with thickness below, within, and above the normal 95% confidence interval.In healthy subjects, TR and IR thickness maps displayed the foveal depression and increased thickness in the parafoveal region. OR and ISe thickness maps showed increased thickness at the fovea, consistent with normal retinal anatomy. In DR subjects, thickening and thinning in localized regions were demonstrated on TR, IR, OR, and ISe thickness maps, corresponding to retinal edema and atrophy, respectively. TR and OR reflectance images showed reduced reflectivity in regions of increased thickness. Hard exudates appeared as hyper-reflective spots in IR reflectance images and casted shadows on the deeper OR and ISe reflectance images. The ISe reflectance image clearly showed the presence of focal laser scars.Enface thickness mapping and reflectance imaging of retinal layers is a potentially useful method for quantifying the spatial and axial extent of pathologies due to DR.

  11. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion AssociatedWith Sildenafil (Viagra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Obiudu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion - Central retinal vein occlusion is a possible adverse effect of sildenafil use. Physicians should be vigilant while prescribing thismedication and avoid its use in patients with elevated intraocular pressure

  12. Macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion: correlation between optical coherence tomography, angiography and visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Virginie; Guigui, Benjamin; Glacet-Bernard, Agnès; Zourdani, Alain; Coscas, Gabriel; Soubrane, Gisèle; Souied, Eric H

    2012-08-01

    To analyze the characteristics and the course of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine correlations between clinical, tomographic and angiographic data, in particular including retinal ischemia. In this retrospective study, 53 consecutive patients with CRVO were included. At each follow-up visit, patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and OCT. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline and on demand during follow-up. 243 OCTs were analyzed. Mean age was 61 years and mean follow-up 13 months. The first structural change, observed very early after the onset of the occlusion, was a diffuse increase at the level of the outer nuclear layer without change at the level of the inner retina. This early change seemed characteristic of retinal vein occlusion. Cystoid spaces were subsequently observed in all retinal layers and were combined with serous retinal detachment in 51 %. During the first 6 months, central retinal thickness was higher in ischemic CRVO (mean, 691 μm) than in non-ischemic CRVO (mean, 440 μm, p central retinal thickness without subretinal fluid) of 700 μm or greater, peripheral ischemia was present in 69 % of eyes, final BCVA was 20/200 or less in 75 % and never reached 20/40 during follow-up. The integrity of the junction of the photoreceptors' inner and outer segments was correlated with a better prognosis (p < 0.05). Foveal thickness was inversely correlated to BCVA at each visit and could have a prognostic value. OCT examination in CRVO revealed useful data for the diagnosis of CRVO and its prognosis. The largest macular edemas seemed to be the hallmark of ischemic CRVO.

  13. Ocular neovascularization associated with central and hemicentral retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh; Zimmerman, M Bridget

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the incidence of ocular neovascularization (NV) in central and hemicentral retinal vein occlusion. The study comprised consecutive 912 (673 nonischemic and 239 ischemic) central retinal vein occlusion and 190 (147 nonischemic, 43 ischemic) hemicentral retinal vein occlusion eyes. Ophthalmic evaluation at initial and follow-up visits included recording visual acuity, visual fields, and detailed anterior segment and fundus examinations and fluorescein fundus angiography. In ischemic central retinal vein occlusion, within 6 months from time of onset, the cumulative probability of development of iris NV was 49%, angle NV 37%, NV glaucoma 29%, retinal NV 9%, and disk NV 6%. More severe peripheral retinal hemorrhages were significantly associated with iris NV (P = 0.005), angle NV (P = 0.0004), and NV glaucoma (P = 0.012). Eyes that developed disk NV had more cotton wool spots (P = 0.058) than those without. In ischemic hemicentral retinal vein occlusion, within 12 months of onset, the cumulative probability of development of retinal NV was 29%, disk NV 12%, and iris NV 12%; within 6 months of onset, angle NV was found in 10% and NV glaucoma in 5%. Anterior chamber flare was associated with anterior segment NV and may precede the development of NV. Patients who developed NV were significantly younger, and there was a greater prevalence of NV glaucoma in patients with primary open angle glaucoma. In ischemic central retinal vein occlusion, anterior segment NV is much more common than posterior segment NV, and the cumulative chance of developing anterior segment NV is maximum during the first 6 months. In ischemic hemicentral retinal vein occlusion, posterior segment NV is much more common than anterior segment NV.

  14. Ratiometric analysis of in vivo retinal layer thicknesses in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Motl, Robert W.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-09-01

    We performed ratiometric analysis of retinal optical coherence tomography images for the first time in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The ratiometric analysis identified differences in several retinal layer thickness ratios in the cohort of MS subjects without a history of optic neuritis (ON) compared to healthy control (HC) subjects, and there was no difference in standard retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT). The difference in such ratios between HC subjects and those with mild MS-disability, without a difference in RNFLT, further suggests the possibility of using layer ratiometric analysis for detecting early retinal changes in MS. Ratiometric analysis may be useful and potentially more sensitive for detecting disease changes in MS.

  15. Central retinal artery occlusion (reversible in sickle trait with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Finkelstein, D

    1976-01-01

    We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion in an 18-year-old black woman with sickle-trait haemoglobinopathy and acute glaucoma after hyphaema. The central retinal artery occlusion occurred immediately after treatment of the glaucoma with osmotic agents, raising the possibility that they played a precipitating role. We suggest that osmotic agents be used with extreme caution in sickle patients with glaucoma. The occlusion was treated by anterior chamber paracentesis with eventual return of good vision. The reversibility of retinal and optic nerve function after total ischaemia is discussed. PMID:952815

  16. The Impact of Chronic Tobacco Smoking on Retinal and Choroidal Thickness in Greek Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilita M. Moschos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effect of more than 25-year cigarette smoking on choroidal and retinal thickness, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods. Thirty-one smokers and 25 age- and sex-matched nonsmokers, serving as control group, were submitted to slit-lamp biomicroscopy and dilated fundoscopy, SD-OCT, measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT, and axial length (AL. Heidelberg Spectralis was used to calculate choroidal thickness (CT, ganglion cell complex (GCC, outer retina layers (ORL, and macular thicknesses (MT. Results. The smokers’ group consisted of 17 males and 14 females with mean age of 57.8 ± 4.5 years, while the controls’ group consisted of 14 males and 11 females with mean age of 68.0 ± 4.1 years. CT and GCC thicknesses were significantly reduced in smokers compared to control group. The differences in thicknesses of ORL were marginally significant between two groups. The measurements of MT, IOP, CCT, and AL had the same distributions between smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusions. Tobacco smoking seems to result in thinner choroid and retina compared to nonsmokers. This is the first study in literature that investigates the anatomical effect of smoking for more than 25 years on the choroid and retina.

  17. Physiological variation of segmented OCT retinal layer thicknesses is short-lasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lisanne; Mayer, Markus; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Petzold, Axel

    2013-12-01

    The application of spectral domain optical coherence tomography as a surrogate for neurodegeneration in a range of neurological disorders demands better understanding of the physiological variation of retinal layer thicknesses, which may mask any value of this emerging outcome measure. A prospective study compared retinal layer thicknesses between control subjects (n = 15) and runners (n = 27) participating in a 10-km charity run. Three scans were performed using an eye-tracking function (EBF) and automated scan registration for optimal precision at (1) baseline, (2) directly after the run, and (3) following a rehydration period. Retinal layer segmentation was performed with suppression of axial retinal vessel signal artifacts. Following the run, there was an increase in the relative retinal nerve fibre layer (p = 0.018), the combined inner plexiform/ganglion cell layer (p = 0.038), and the outer nuclear layer (p = 0.018) in runners compared to controls. The initial increase of thickness in the outer nuclear layer of runners (p < 0.0001) was likely related to (noncompliant) rehydration during exercise. Following a period of rest and rehydration, the difference in thickness change for all retinal layers, except the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) (p < 0.05), disappeared between the two groups. There is a quantifiable change in the axial thickness of retinal layersthat which can be explained by an increase in the cellular volume. This effect may potentially be caused by H2O volume shifts.

  18. Corrective Change of Retinal Thickness Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography and Histologic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GeJ; LuoRJ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate the correlation of retinal thickness between optical coherence tomography(OCT)images and histologic slides.Methods:Retinal thickness was measured in 16 rabbit retinal histologic slides.The same eyes has been previously measured by OCT fr the comparison of results between two methods.Retinal thickness of each OCT image section was measured using both the manually assisted(requiring localization of reflectivity peaks by observer)and automated modes of the computer software.Results:Retinal thickness measured by OCT demonstrated a high degree of correlation with retinal histologic study.The automated method(Cc=0.66,P<0.01) was less reliable than the manually assisted one (Cc=0.84,P<0.001).The former had an error in 95% confidence interval,ranged between-0.71 and 11.09μm.The latter had a less error,ranged from -2.99 to 5.13μm.Conclusion:OCT can quantitatively measure the retinal thickness.However,automatical identification of the reflective boundaries by computer may result in errors in some cases.To masure the retinal thickess by manually assisted mode can increase the accuracy.

  19. Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Arnow, Sam; Wilson, James A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most patients with multiple sclerosis without previous optic neuritis have thinner retinal layers than healthy controls. We assessed the role of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness and macular volume in eyes with no history of optic neuritis as a biomarker of dis...

  20. Decreased retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Hille W. van; Verbraak, Frank D.; Kok, Pauline H. B.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan; Lee, Kyungmoo; DeVries, J. Hans; Michels, Robert P. J.; Velthoven, Mirjam E. J. van; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Abramoff, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To determine which retinal layers are most affected by diabetes and contribute to thinning of the inner retina and to investigate the relationship between retinal layer thickness (LT) and diabetes duration, diabetic retinopathy (DR) status, age, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and the sex

  1. Intravitreal ranibizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risard, Sarah M; Pieramici, Dante J; Rabena, Melvin D; Basefsky, Jessica C; Avery, Robert L; Castellarin, Alessandro A; Nasir, Ma'an A; See, Robert F; Couvillion, Stephen S

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Patients with macular edema secondary to perfused central retinal vein occlusion were enrolled in this ongoing, prospective, open-label study. Treatment was initiated with monthly intravitreal ranibizumab for 3 months. In the first year, additional injections were administered for edema in quarterly intervals as needed (PRN) for Cohort 1 (n = 10) and monthly PRN for Cohort 2 (n = 10). In the second year of treatments, all patients received monthly PRN treatment. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness, fundus photographs, and fluorescein angiograms were evaluated, and the incidence and severity of adverse events were documented. Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness improved during the induction phase in both groups. During the remainder of the first year for Cohort 1, initial gains were lost during quarterly treatment but returned with monthly PRN treatment in the second year. For Cohort 2, improvement in best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness from the induction phase was maintained through Month 24. Nineteen of 20 patients experienced a reduction in intraretinal hemorrhage, optic nerve swelling, and/or venous diameter after treatment. One myocardial infarction, one cerebrovascular accident, and no serious ocular adverse events were reported. Iris neovascularization was developed in none of the eyes. Ranibizumab was well tolerated and associated with a greater reduction in macular edema and improvement in visual acuity in the monthly PRN regimen compared with quarterly treatment. Vision lost during the quarterly PRN injection intervals in the first year of Cohort 1 could be regained by switching to monthly PRN dosing.

  2. Effect of suction on macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness during LASIK used femtosecond laser and Moria M2 microkeratome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Zhang; Yue-Hua; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To compare the effect of suction on the macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness during laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK) used Ziemer FEMTO LDV femtosecond laser(Ziemer group) and Moria M2 automated microkeratome(Moria group) for flap creation.· METHODS: Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography(FD-OCT) was used to measure macular thickness, ganglion cell complex thickness and RNFL thickness of 204 eyes of 102 patients with the Ziemer femtosecond laser(102 eyes) and the Moria M2microkeratome(102 eyes) before surgery and 30min; 1,3d; 1wk; 1, 3mo; 1y after surgery.· RESULTS: The average foveal thickness and parafoveal retinal thickness 30 min after the surgery were statistically more than that before surgery(Ziemer P <0.001,P =0.003 and Moria P=0.001, P=0.006) and the effect was less in the Ziemer group than that in the Moria group(P all <0.05). The ganglion cell complex thickness was not significantly changed in both groups(P all >0.05). The RNFL thickness was statistically less 30 min after surgery in both groups(P=0.014, P <0.001), but the influence was less in Ziemer group than that in Moria group(P =0.038).However, the RNFL thickness had recovered to the preoperative level only 1d after surgery.·CONCLUSION: The suction of femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome led to the increase in macular central fovea thickness and the decrease in RNFL thickness values at the early stage after LASIK. The effect of suction on macular and the RNFL thicknesses in Ziemer group is smaller than that in Moria group.

  3. Microperimetric changes after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Fevzi; Ozdemir, Hakan; Karacorlu, Murat; Karacorlu, Serra Arf; Uysal, Omer

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide on macular function in cases of macular edema because of central retinal vein occlusion. Twelve eyes of 12 patients with central retinal vein occlusion were included in this study. In each eye, at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, macular sensitivity, fixation stability and fixation location by MP-1 microperimetry, and foveal thickness by optical coherence tomography were assessed. Patients' ages ranged from 50 to 75 years (mean +/- SD, 59 +/- 8 years). All patients were classified as nonischemic. At 1, 3, and 6 months, the mean foveal thickness had decreased from 453 +/- 108 microm to 254 +/- 40.3 microm, 297 +/- 90 microm, and 320 +/- 82 microm and the mean retinal sensitivity had increased from 5.5 +/- 3.3 dB to 9.4 +/- 3.5 dB, 7.8 +/- 3.3 dB, and 7.2 +/- 4.2 dB, respectively. At baseline, fixation was stable in one, relatively unstable in six, and unstable in five eyes. However, 6 months after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection, fixation was stable in 8, relatively unstable in 3, and unstable in one. At baseline, in eyes with macular edema, fixation location was predominantly central in 2, poor central in 4, and predominantly eccentric in 6. And 6 months after treatment, fixation location was predominantly central in 8, poor central in 3, and predominantly eccentric in 1. In eyes with macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion, a short-term improvement in retinal sensitivity and fixation properties can be achieved by intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection.

  4. Central retinal vein occlusion concomitant with dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Velaitham, Punithamalar; Vijayasingham, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. There are case reports on branch retinal vessel occlusions. Most of the ocular complications are attributed to the bleeding tendency and transudative process in dengue viral infection. This is a case report of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) concomitant with dengu...

  5. Central retinal vein occlusion concomitant with dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Velaitham, Punithamalar; Vijayasingham, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. There are case reports on branch retinal vessel occlusions. Most of the ocular complications are attributed to the bleeding tendency and transudative process in dengue viral infection. This is a case report of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) concomitant with dengu...

  6. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Associated with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yuri; Kim, Min; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Park, Jae Jun; Lee, Sung Chul

    2016-12-01

    To report a case of central retinal vein occlusion without macular edema associated with ulcerative colitis and its novel treatment with intravitreal dexamethasone. A 40-year-old man with ulcerative colitis presented with sudden visual disturbances. An initial fundus examination showed subtle yellow-to-white patches within the inner retina of the right eye superotemporal to the fovea. There were intraretinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots within the superior vascular arcade and nasal to the optic disc. Despite initiation of systemic corticosteroids, 2 weeks later there was an increase in retinal hemorrhages, formation of cotton wool spots, and development of optic disc swelling in the right eye. The patient was eventually diagnosed with nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion associated with ulcerative colitis. He received sustained-release intravitreal dexamethasone, which led to the resolution of retinal hemorrhage, optic disc swelling, and cotton-wool spots. Three months after the injection, retinal hemorrhages were not detectable. However, ocular coherence imaging showed marked thinning of the inner retina at the locations that were previously hyper-reflective. Central retinal vein occlusion is an uncommon ophthalmologic manifestation associated with ulcerative colitis. Injection of intravitreal dexamethasone could be a viable treatment option in these patients even without the presence of macular edema.

  7. Effect of age and sex on retinal layer thickness and volume in normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jae Yon; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Young-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sex and age on the thickness of the retinal layer in normal eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Fifty healthy subjects between the ages of 20 and 80 had their retinal layers measured using SD-OCT at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Mean thickness and volume were measured for 9 retinal layers in the fovea, the pericentral ring, and the peripheral ring. The differences of sex- and age-related thickness and volume in each retinal layer were analyzed.The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), and outer plexiform layer (OPL) were thinnest in the fovea area, whereas the outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptor layer (PHL), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were thickest at similar locations. Mean thickness of the RNFL, GCL, IPL, and OPL was significantly greater in men than women. However, mean thickness of the ONL was greater in women than in men. When compared between patients 60 years of age, the thickness and volume of peripheral RNFL, GCL, and pericentral and peripheral IPL were significantly larger in the younger group than the older group. Conversely, the thickness and volume of foveal INL and IR were larger in the older group than in the younger group.The thickness and volume of the retinal layer in normal eyes significantly vary depending on age and sex. These results should be considered when evaluating layer analysis in retinal disease.

  8. Retinal vessel diameters and their correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet; Cuneyt; Ozmen; Zeynep; Aktas; Burcin; Kepez; Yildiz; Murat; Hasanreisoglu; Berati; Hasanreisoglu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare retinal artery-vein diameters(RAVDs)of patients with pseudoexfoliation(PSX) syndrome with healthy controls and investigate the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness parameters and RAVDs.METHODS: Seventeen eyes with PSX and 17 eyes of age-matched controls were included in the study. All participants underwent routine ophthalmological examination, Humphrey visual field and RNFL examination by using Stratus OCT. Retinal images were obtained by using a retinal camera(Topcon 501X).RAVDs were measured from inferior nasal, inferior temporal, superior nasal and superior temporal arcuates by using IMAGEnet software. Superior, inferior, nasal,temporal and average RNFL thicknesses were recorded.RAVDs and RNFL parameters in groups and correlations were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U and Spearmann correlation tests.RESULTS: Only inferior quadrant and average RNFL thickness were detected thinner in the PSX group compared with control group(P =0.009, P =0.038,respectively). No statistically significant difference regarding RAVDs was found between two groups.CONCLUSION: RAVDs seems to be comparable in the PSX and control group. RNFL is thinner in the inferior quadrant in the PSX group. RNFL thickness and RAVDs show significant correlations in both groups. This correlation doesn’t seem to be specific to PSX.

  9. RETINAL BLOOD FLOW AFTER INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB IS A PREDICTIVE FACTOR FOR OUTCOMES OF MACULAR EDEMA ASSOCIATED WITH CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Makiko; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Tsuiki, Eiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Kitaoka, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether retinal blood flow levels after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) treatment are correlated with the outcomes of patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. This retrospective observational case study enrolled 44 cases nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion. In each patient, visual acuity, central retinal thickness, and mean blur rate, which was measured by laser speckle flowgraphy and represents retinal blood flow velocity, were examined. At the end of the follow-up period (19.8 ± 8.8 months), 4 of 44 eyes (9.1%) converted to the ischemic type (converted group), whereas 40 (90.9%) remained unchanged (nonischemic group). Mean central retinal thickness significantly decreased and mean visual acuity significantly improved at 1 month after the first IVB injection in each group. Mean mean blur rate in the nonischemic group significantly increased, whereas it was unchanged in the converted group. The difference between the two groups was already significant after the first IVB injection. Subsequently, visual acuity worsened in the converted group. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the strongest correlation was between the last visual acuity and the last mean blur rate. Blood flow measurements are useful for evaluating IVB treatments. Blood flow after IVB can predict outcomes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  10. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome Presenting as Bilateral Central Retinal Artery Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven S. Saraf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 22-year-old African American woman presented with bilateral vision loss associated with headache. Her ocular examination was significant for bilateral retinal arterial “boxcarring,” retinal whitening, retinal hemorrhages, and cherry red spots. She was diagnosed with bilateral central retinal artery occlusions and was hospitalized due to concomitant diagnosis of stroke and hypercoagulable state. She was also found to be in heart failure and kidney failure. Rheumatology was consulted and she was diagnosed with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in association with systemic lupus erythematosus. Approximately 7 months after presentation, the patient’s vision improved and remained stable at 20/200 and 20/80.

  11. Decreased central corneal thickness in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortak, Huseyin; Inanır, Ahmet; Demir, Selim; Uysal, Alper; Şahin, Şafak; Sağcan, Mustafa; Önder, Yalçın; Alim, Sait; Demir, Ayşe Kevser

    2014-04-01

    Central corneal thickness and dry eye tests were evaluated in a study population consisting of 68 ankylosing spondylitis patients diagnosed according to the modified New York criteria, and 61 age-matched controls without ankylosing spondylitis. A full ophthalmological evaluation was performed on each subject. All subjects were screened for age, gender, HLA-B27, tear break-up time test, Schirmer test, and duration of disease. Central corneal thickness was measured under topical anesthesia with an ultrasonic pachymeter. The mean central corneal thickness was 537.3 ± 30.6 μm, range 462-600 μm, in ankylosing spondylitis patients, whereas it was 551.7 ± 25.2 μm, range 510-620 μm, in controls (p = 0.005). The Schirmer test result was 7.3 ± 5.9 mm for the ankylosing spondylitis patients and 11.7 ± 5.8 mm for the control group (p = 0.002). Tear break-up time was 7.3 ± 3.2 s for the ankylosing spondylitis patients and 14.0 ± 4.5 s for the control group (p ankylosing spondylitis. In addition, attention must be given to lower dry eye tests in surgical interventions such as photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis in ankylosing spondylitis patients.

  12. Mortality in Patients with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Christoffersen, Nynne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess mortality in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN: Registry-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Four hundred thirty-nine photographically verified CRVO patients and a control cohort of 2195 unexposed subjects matched by age and gender and alive.......03-1.56) and in women 60 to 69 years of age (SMR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.22-3.08). CONCLUSIONS: Central retinal vein occlusion was associated with an overall increase in mortality compared with controls that was attributed statistically to cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. We recommend treatment of hypertension...

  13. Area of peripheral retinal nonperfusion and treatment response in branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael; Tan, Colin S; Bell, Darren; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the extent of peripheral retinal nonperfusion in retinal vein occlusion and to determine its effect on the severity of macular edema and response to treatment. This prospective clinic-based cohort study included 32 consecutive patients with retinal vein occlusion and refractory macular edema evaluated using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and wide-field fluorescein angiography. Areas of ischemia were calculated as a percentage of the total visible retina (ischemic index), which was evaluated when macular edema was present (foveal central subfield >300 μm) and when edema had resolved (foveal central subfield ≤ 300 μm). Ischemic index was the main outcome measure. The mean ischemic index at study enrollment was 14.8% and was larger when macular edema was present compared with when edema had resolved (14.8 vs. 10.3%, P 10% had thicker mean foveal central subfield on optical coherence tomography (520.8 vs. 424.5 μm, P = 0.029) and worse visual acuity (56.3 vs. 59 letters) with the presence of macular edema and experienced greater decrease in optical coherence tomography (296.1 vs. 165.3 μm, P = 0.019) and gain in visual acuity (12.4 vs. 0.9 letters, P = 0.036) in response to treatment. The area of peripheral retinal nonperfusion is variable in patients with retinal vein occlusion and affects its clinical course and response to treatment.

  14. Updated cannulation technique for tissue plasminogen activator injection into peripapillary retinal vein for central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overdam, Koen A; Missotten, Tom; Spielberg, Leigh H

    2015-12-01

    To update the surgical technique in which a vitrectomy is performed and a retinal branch vein is cannulated and infused with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (RTPA) to treat central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in patients who present with very low visual acuity (VA). Twelve consecutive patients (12 eyes) with CRVO and low VA (logMAR >1.00) at presentation were treated using this method. Cannulation of a peripapillary retinal vein and stable injection of RTPA was successfully performed without surgery-related complications in all 12 eyes. At 12 months after surgery, 8 of the 12 patients (67%) experienced at least one line of improvement in best corrected visual acuity; 6 of the 12 (50%) improved ≥5 lines and 2 (17%) improved ≥8 lines. After additional grid laser and/or subconjunctival or intravitreal corticosteroids, the mean decrease in central foveal thickness was 260 μm, and the mean total macular volume decreased from 12.10 mm(3) to 9.24 mm(3) . Four patients received panretinal photocoagulation to treat either iris neovascularization (n = 2) or neovascularization of the retina and/or disc (n = 2). Administration of RTPA via a peripapillary vein using this updated technique provides an alternative or additional treatment option for patients with very low VA after CRVO. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, S; Shorer, R; Wollman, J; Dotan, G; Paran, D

    2017-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus. Atrophy of the corpus callosum and hippocampus have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown impaired white matter integrity, suggesting that white matter damage in systemic lupus erythematosus may underlie the cognitive impairment as well as other neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as assessed by optical coherence tomography, has been suggested as a biomarker for white matter damage in neurologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Retinal nerve fiber layer thinning may occur early, even in patients with mild clinical symptoms. Aim The objective of this study was to assess the association of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as a biomarker of white matter damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations, including cognitive impairment. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus underwent neuropsychological testing using a validated computerized battery of tests as well as the Rey-Auditory verbal learning test. All 21 patients, as well as 11 healthy, age matched controls, underwent optical coherence tomography testing to assess retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and results in eight cognitive domains assessed by the computerized battery of tests as well as the Rey-Auditory verbal learning test were assessed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, with and without neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, and compared to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in healthy controls. Results No statistically significant correlation was found between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as compared to healthy

  16. Central retinal artery resistive index and optical coherence tomography in assessment of glaucoma progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed; F.Abdel; Ghany; Samer; M.Botros; Tamer; M.El-Raggal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relation between central retinal artery(CRA) resistive index(RI) and retinal nerve fiber thickness measured by optical coherence tomography(OCT) in assessment of disease progress in cases of open angle glaucoma.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with diagnosed open angle glaucoma were included in this study. They were examined by colored duplex ultrasonography of CRA with estimation of RI of CRA and ophthalmic artery(OA)with estimation of CRA/OA RI ratio as well as OCT measurement of the average retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness in order to assess the disease progress.RESULTS: There was strong inverse relation between the increased RI in CRA as well as the increased CRA/OA RI ratio and the decrease in average RNFL thickness in cases of open angle glaucoma.CONCLUSION: Assessment of CRA RI can indirectly assess the vascular changes associated with glaucoma and can assess the degree of retinal atrophy helping in evaluating prognosis thus guiding the choice of treatment.

  17. Retinal layer location of increased retinal thickness in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea; Vujosevic, Stela

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the retinal layer predominantly affected in eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema in diabetes type 2. METHODS: A cohort of 194 type 2 diabetic eyes/patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS levels 20/35) were examined with Cirrus spectral......-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the baseline visit (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01145599). Automated segmentation of the retinal layers of the eyes with subclinical and clinical macular edema was compared with a sample of 31 eyes from diabetic patients with normal OCT and an age......-matched control group of 58 healthy eyes. RESULTS: From the 194 eyes in the study, 62 had subclinical macular edema and 12 had clinical macular edema. The highest increases in retinal thickness (RT) were found in the inner nuclear layer (INL; 33.6% in subclinical macular edema and 81.8% in clinical macular edema...

  18. Correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and fundus autofluorescence in primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznicek L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Reznicek,* Florian Seidensticker,* Thomas Mann, Irene Hübert, Alexandra Buerger, Christos Haritoglou, Aljoscha S Neubauer, Anselm Kampik, Christoph Hirneiss, Marcus Kernt Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and retinal pigment epithelium alterations in patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Methods: A consecutive, prospective series of 82 study eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous visual field defects were included in this study. All study participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination followed by visual field testing with standard automated perimetry as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT for peripapillary RNFL thickness and Optos wide-field fundus autofluorescence (FAF images. A pattern grid with corresponding locations between functional visual field sectors and structural peripapillary RNFL thickness was aligned to the FAF images at corresponding location. Mean FAF intensity (range: 0 = black and 255 = white of each evaluated sector (superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal was correlated with the corresponding peripapillary RNFL thickness obtained with SD-OCT. Results: Correlation analyses between sectoral RNFL thickness and standardized FAF intensity in the corresponding topographic retina segments revealed partly significant correlations with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.004 and 0.376 and were statistically significant in the temporal inferior central field (r = 0.324, P = 0.036 and the nasal field (r = 0.376, P = 0.014. Conclusion: Retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities correlate with corresponding peripapillary RNFL damage, especially in the temporal inferior sector of patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. A

  19. RETINAL BLOOD FLOW CORRELATES TO AQUEOUS VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR IN CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshihisa; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Makiko; Tsuiki, Eiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Harada, Takafumi; Kitaoka, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    As laser speckle flowgraphy can measure blood flow distribution in the ocular fundus, the authors analyzed the relationship between retinal blood flow and aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in central retinal vein occlusion. This prospective observational study examined 45 eyes of 45 patients with central retinal vein occlusion before treatment. Blood flow in large vessels around and at the optic disk, aqueous VEGF concentration, and arteriovenous passage time were examined. Blood flow was evaluated as mean blur rate by laser speckle flowgraphy. Fluorescein angiography found 20 ischemic and 25 nonischemic type eyes. Aqueous VEGF concentration in the ischemic type was significantly higher than that in the nonischemic type (P = 0.01). Arteriovenous passage time was significantly correlated to the logarithm of the aqueous VEGF concentration (P = 0.0001). Mean blur rate of the affected eye/mean blur rate of the unaffected eye of the ischemic type was significantly lower than the nonischemic type (P = 0.039). Additionally, mean blur rate was significantly correlated both to the logarithm of the aqueous VEGF concentration (P central retinal vein occlusion.

  20. Three-dimensional profile of macular retinal thickness in normal Japanese eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tomidokoro, Atsuo; Araie, Makoto; Otani, Tomohiro; Kishi, Shoji; Matsushita, Kenji; Maeda, Naoyuki; Shirakashi, Motohiro; Abe, Haruki; Takeda, Hisashi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Saito, Hitomi; Iwase, Aiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the three-dimensional macular thickness distribution in normal subjects by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and evaluate its association with sex, age, and axial length. Mean regional retinal thickness measurements on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) layout were obtained by three-dimensional raster scanning (6 x 6 mm) using SD-OCT in 248 normal eyes of 248 Japanese subjects. Mean foveal thickness was 222 +/- 19 microm; it was significantly greater in men (226 +/- 19 microm) than in women (218 +/- 18 microm; P = 0.002) and did not correlate with age in either sex. Mean sectoral retinal thickness was also significantly greater in the men than in the women in all the quadrants of the inner ring (1-3 mm; P eyes. Macular thickness varied significantly with sex and age. These variables should be considered while evaluating macular thickness.

  1. Assessment of ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion from inner retinal reflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning DJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available David J Browning, Omar S Punjabi, Chong Lee Department of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, P.A., Charlotte, NC, USA Purpose: To determine the relationship between different spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT signs of retinal ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO and whether they predict anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV.Design: Retrospective, observational study.Subjects: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with acute CRVO and 12 months of follow-up.Methods: We graded baseline SD-OCTs for increased reflectivity of the inner retina, loss of definition of inner retinal layers, presence of a prominent middle-limiting membrane (p-MLM sign, and presence of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM. Graders were masked with respect to all clinical information.Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs of grading–regrading by graders 1 and 2 were 0.8104, 95% confidence interval (CI (0.6686, 0.8956, and 0.7986, 95% CI (0.6475, 0.8892, respectively. The intragrader coefficients of repeatability (COR for graders 1 and 2 were 0.94 and 0.92, respectively. The ICC of graders 1 compared with 2 was 0.8039, 95% CI (0.6544, 0.8916. The intergrader COR was 0.80. SD-OCT grades of baseline ischemia were not associated with baseline visual acuity (VA, central subfield mean thickness (CSMT, or relative afferent pupillary defect; 12-month VA, CSMT, change in VA, change in CSMT, number of antivascular endothelial growth factor injections or corticosteroid injections, or proportion of eyes developing ASNV. SD-OCT grades of ischemia did not correlate with the proportion of eyes having the p-MLM sign or PAMM. PAMM and p-MLM are milder signs of ischemia than increased reflectivity of the inner retinal layers. Eyes with PAMM can evolve, losing PAMM and gaining the p-MLM sign.Conclusion: Grading of ischemia from SD-OCT in acute CRVO was repeatable within graders and reproducible across

  2. Significant Correlation between Retinal Venous Tortuosity and Aqueous Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentration in Eyes with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shunsuke; Kachi, Shu; Kondo, Mineo; Ueno, Shinji; Kaneko, Hiroki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the degree of venous tortuosity is significantly correlated with the aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in eyes with a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). We reviewed the medical records of 32 eyes of 32 patients who had macular edema due to a CRVO. All of the patients were examined at the Nagoya University Hospital and were scheduled to receive an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) or ranibizumab (IVR) within 12 weeks of the onset of the CRVO to treat the macular edema. Aqueous humor was collected just before the IVB or IVR, and the VEGF concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The venous tortuosity index was calculated by dividing the length of the retinal veins by the chord length of the same segment. The correlation between the mean tortuosity index of the inferotemporal and supratemporal branches of the retinal vein and the aqueous VEGF concentration was determined. The mean aqueous VEGF concentration was 384 ± 312 pg/ml with a range of 90 to 1077 pg/ml. The degree of venous tortuosity was significantly correlated with the VEGF concentration in the aqueous. (r = 0.49, P = 0.004), with the foveal thickness (r = 0.40, P = 0.02), and with the best-corrected visual acuity (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). The significant correlation between the aqueous VEGF concentration and the venous tortuosity indicates that the degree of retinal venous tortuosity can be used to identify eyes that are at a high risk of developing neovascularization.

  3. Macular and retinal nerve fiber thickness in recovered and persistent amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Sanaa A; Al-Tamimi, Elham R; Al-Hassan, Sultan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of increased macular or retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in amblyopic eyes, find if the increased macular or RNFLT is related to the lack of response in amblyopic eyes, and to explore whether the increased central macular thickness (CMT) in amblyopic eyes is purely related to the hyperopia. This is a prospective descriptive study. CMT and peripapillary RNFLT were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to evaluate 60 patients with unilateral-treated amblyopia (median age 11.00 year). Patients were divided into two groups: 33 patients in recovered amblyopia group and 27 patients in persistent amblyopia group. The mean CMT in the recovered group was 247.31 (±23.4) versus 246.8 (±32.7) µm (p = 0.95) for the persistent group. The mean peripapillary RNFLT was 99.13 (±12.1) versus 99.9 (±14.9) µm (p = 0.85) for the persistent group. In anisometropic amblyopia, there was no significant difference in CMT and RNFLT in either group. Also there was no relation between the type of refractive error and CMT or RNFLT. There was no significant difference in CMT and RNFLT in amblyopic eyes for both the recovered amblyopia group and the persistent amblyopia group to explain the lack of response in persistent amblyopic eyes. Additionally there was no relation between the type of refractive error and CMT or peripapillary RNFLT.

  4. The association of Helicobacter pylori with choroidal and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mehmet Erol; Kaplan, Fatma Efe; Uzel, Mehmet Murat; Kiziltoprak, Hasan; Ergun, Mustafa Cagri; Koc, Mustafa; Simsek, Gülcin

    2017-08-05

    To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on choroidal thickness (CT) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT). The study included 25 patients with H. pylori infection and 25 healthy individuals as the control group. Helicobacter pylori patients were classified as the pre-treatment (Group 1; n: 25) and the post-treatment (Group 2; n: 25). RNFLT and CT were measured before and after treatment of H. pylori infection, using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The axial length and intraocular pressure were also measured. The mean subfoveal CT was 320.96 ± 29.15 μm in Group 1 and 287.48 ± 49.17 in the control group (p = 0.007), while the mean subfoveal CT did not show any difference between Group 2 and the control group (p > 0.05). No statistically significant difference was determined between the H. pylori patients and the control group in respect of RNFLT values (p > 0.05). CT increases during H. pylori infection and returns to the normal range within 6 weeks of treatment. RNFLT does not show any change during H. pylori infection. The data related to the subfoveal CT may be useful in understanding the pathogenesis of central serous chorioretinopathy developing in H. pylori patients.

  5. Central retinal vein occlusion: A patient with systemic sclerosis

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    Karadžić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis is a severe chronic connective tissue disease, which results in involvement of numerous internal organs. Changes in the eye are the consequences of organ-specific manifestations of scleroderma or adverse effects of immunosuppressive treatment applied. Case report. We reported a 42-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis and acute deterioration of vision in the left eye, with visual acuity 0.9. After thorough clinical examination, including fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography, the diagnosis of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion was made. Further biochemical, rheumatological and immunological investigation, apart from inactive systemic sclerosis, showed normal findings. Therefore, the cause of central retinal vein occlusion could only be attributed to the microvascular changes in systemic sclerosis. After three months, visual acuity deteriorated to 0.6 due to the development of cystoid macular edema. The patient received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and after a single dose visual acuity improved to 0.9. After a 6- month follow-up, macular edema resolved and visual acuity stabilized. Conclusion. According to our knowledge and current data from the literature, central retinal vein occlusion is a rare vision threatening manifestation of scleroderma. There are only few published case reports on central vein occlusion in scleroderma patients. Examination of the ocular fundus is recommended for evaluation of vascular disease in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  6. Analysis of Retinal Layer Thicknesses and Their Clinical Correlation in Patients with Traumatic Optic Neuropathy.

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    Ju-Yeun Lee

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were 1 To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (fRNFL thickness and ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL thickness at the fovea in eyes affected with traumatic optic neuropathy (TON compared with contralateral normal eyes, 2 to further evaluate these thicknesses within 3 weeks following trauma (defined as "early TON", and 3 to investigate the relationship between these retinal layer thicknesses and visual function in TON eyes. Twenty-nine patients with unilateral TON were included. Horizontal and vertical spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT scans of the fovea were taken in patients with unilateral TON. The main outcome measure was thickness of the entire retina, fRNFL, and GCIPL in eight areas. Thickness of each retinal layer was compared between affected and unaffected eyes. The correlation between the thickness of each retinal layer and visual function parameters, including best corrected visual acuity, color vision, P100 latency, and P100 amplitude in visual evoked potential (VEP, mean deviation (MD and visual field index (VFI in Humphrey visual field analysis in TON eyes was analyzed. Thicknesses of the entire retina, fRNFL, and GCIPL in SD-OCT were significantly thinner (3-36% in all measurement areas of TON eyes compared to those in healthy eyes (all p<0.05. Whereas, only GCIPL in the outer nasal, superior, and inferior areas was significantly thinner (5-10% in the early TON eyes than that in the control eyes (all p<0.01. A significant correlation was detected between retinal layer thicknesses and visual function parameters including color vision, P100 latency and P100 amplitude in VEP, MD, and VFI (particularly P100 latency, MD, and VFI (r = -0.70 to 0.84. Among the retinal layers analyzed in this study, GCIPL (particularly in the superior and inferior areas was most correlated with these five visual function parameters (r = -0.70 to 0.71. Therefore, evaluation of morphological change

  7. Presentation of acute central retinal vein occlusion in scleroderma

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Faisal; Al Habash, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a rare complication of scleroderma. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old man who was diagnosed to have scleroderma in the rheumatology and dermatology clinic. During treatment with systemic steroids and immunosuppressive therapy the patient developed a sudden decrease of vision in the right eye and was diagnosed to have right CRVO with macular edema on fundus examination. After three consecutive Intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections for macular e...

  8. Relevance of Retinal Thickness Changes in the OCT Inner and Outer Rings to Predict Progression to Clinical Macular Edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujosevic, Stela; Varano, Monica; Egan, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize the relevance of macular thickness changes in the inner and outer rings in the progression of macular edema in eyes/patients with diabetes type 2. METHODS: A total of 374 type 2 diabetic patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (ETDRS levels 20-35) were...... included in a 12-month prospective observational study to identify retinopathy progression. Retinal thickness analyses were performed in 194 eyes/patients using Cirrus SD- OCT and 166 eyes/patients using Spectralis SD-OCT. The DRCR.net classification of subclinical and clinical macular edema was used....... A composite grading of macular edema is proposed in this study. RESULTS: A total of 317 eyes/patients completed the study. SD-OCT identified clinical macular edema in 24 eyes/patients (6.7%) and subclinical macular edema in 104 eyes/patients (28.9%) at baseline. Increased thickness of the central subfield...

  9. Peripapillary retinal thickness maps in the evaluation of glaucoma patients: a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kayoung; Mujat, Mircea; Sun, Wei; Park, B Hyle; de Boer, Johannes F; Chen, Teresa C

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To show how peripapillary spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) retinal thickness (RT) maps can complement retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness maps in the evaluation of glaucoma patients. Methods. After a complete eye exam with standard fundus photography and visual field testing, normal and glaucomatous eyes were imaged with an experimental SDOCT system. From SDOCT images, RNFL thickness and RT maps were constructed and then correlated with disc photography and visual field testing. Results. Two normal eyes of 2 patients and 5 eyes of 4 glaucoma patients were imaged. Although both RNFL and RT maps correlated well with visual field defects, glaucomatous arcuate defects were sometimes more easily identified in the RT maps. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to show that peripapillary SDOCT RT maps may provide important supplemental information to RNFL thickness maps in the evaluation of glaucoma patients.

  10. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welling JD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

  11. Retinal vessel caliber, choroidal thickness and ocular pulse amplitude measurements in essential thrombocythemia

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    Gökhan Pekel

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that choroidal thickness and pulsatile blood flow are not significantly affected in ET and under high blood platelet counts. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers are thinner in ET when compared to age.sex matched healthy controls.

  12. Choroidal thickness measurements with optical coherence tomography in branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Muge Coban-Karatas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate central macular thickness (CMT and mean choroidal thickness (MCT in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, before and after ranibizumab treatment using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: Forty-two patients with unilateral BRVO and macular edema were included in this study. There were 25 men and 17 women. Using SD-OCT, choroidal thickness was measured at 500 µm intervals up to 1500 µm temporal and nasal to the fovea. MCT was calculated based on the average of the 7 locations. All the eyes with BRVO were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 mL. Comparisons between the BRVO and fellow eyes were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Pre-injection and post-injection measurements were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and repeated measure analysis. RESULTS: At baseline, there was a significant difference between the BRVO and fellow eyes in MCT [BRVO eyes 245 (165-330 µm, fellow eyes 229 (157-327 µm] and CMT [BRVO eyes 463 (266-899 µm, fellow eyes 235 (148-378 µm (P=0.041, 0.0001, respectively]. Following treatment, CMT [295 (141-558 µm] and MCT [229 (157-329 µm] decreased significantly compared to the baseline measurements (P=0.001, 0.006, respectively. Also BCVA (logMAR improved significantly (P=0.0001 in the BRVO eyes following treatment. After treatment CMT [BRVO eyes 295 (141-558 µm, fellow eyes 234 (157-351 µm] and MCT [BRVO eyes 229 (157-329 µm, fellow eyes 233 (162-286 µm] values did not reveal any significant difference in BRVO eyes and fellow eyes (P=0.051, 0.824, respectively. CONCLUSION: In eyes with BRVO, CMT and MCT values are greater than the fellow eyes, and decrease significantly following ranibizumab injection.

  13. Effect of oral niacin on central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynon, Michael W; Paulus, Yannis M; Rahimy, Ehsan; Alexander, Janet L; Mansour, Sam E

    2017-06-01

    Niacin, a treatment for dyslipidemia, is known to induce vasodilation as a secondary effect. Previous instances of patients with chronic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and cystoid macular edema (CME) have been observed to spontaneously improve when placed on systemic niacin for hypercholesterolemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of niacin on CRVO and associated ocular complications. A prospective, single-center, non-randomized, interventional case series of niacin for CRVO was conducted. Best-correct visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and ocular complications were analyzed in 50 patients over 1 year. Eight patients were controls. The mean initial logMAR BCVA was 0.915, and improved with niacin to 0.745 (P = 0.12), 0.665 (P = 0.02) and 0.658 (P = 0.03) after 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up, respectively. At baseline, mean CMT was 678.9 μm, and improved to 478.1 μm (P = 0.001), 388.6 μm (P < 0.001), and 317.4 μm (P < 0.001) for the same time points. The control group had a mean initial logMAR BCVA of 1.023, which gradually deteriorated to 1.162 (P = 0.36) after 12 months, and baseline CMT of 700.0 μm at baseline, which gradually improved to 490.9 μm (P = 0.06) after 12 months. Panretinal photocoagulation for neovascularization was required in 5 patients (13.2%) receiving niacin and 3 (37.5%) controls. These data suggest that niacin may be associated with functional and anatomic improvements in eyes with CRVO. Future investigations will help ascertain whether there is a role for niacin as an adjunct therapy to intravitreal injections in the management of CRVO.

  14. Reading Center Characterization of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography During the COPERNICUS Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroos, Francis Char; Stinnett, Sandra S; Heydary, Cynthia S; Burns, Russell E; Jaffe, Glenn J

    2013-11-01

    To determine the impact of segmentation error correction and precision of standardized grading of time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans obtained during an interventional study for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A reading center team of two readers and a senior reader evaluated 1199 OCT scans. Manual segmentation error correction (SEC) was performed. The frequency of SEC, resulting change in central retinal thickness after SEC, and reproducibility of SEC were quantified. Optical coherence tomography characteristics associated with the need for SECs were determined. Reading center teams graded all scans, and the reproducibility of this evaluation for scan quality at the fovea and cystoid macular edema was determined on 97 scans. Segmentation errors were observed in 360 (30.0%) scans, of which 312 were interpretable. On these 312 scans, the mean machine-generated central subfield thickness (CST) was 507.4 ± 208.5 μm compared to 583.0 ± 266.2 μm after SEC. Segmentation error correction resulted in a mean absolute CST correction of 81.3 ± 162.0 μm from baseline uncorrected CST. Segmentation error correction was highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.99-1.00). Epiretinal membrane (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, P < 0.0001), subretinal fluid (OR = 2.1, P = 0.0005), and increasing CST (OR = 1.6 per 100-μm increase, P < 0.001) were associated with need for SEC. Reading center teams reproducibly graded scan quality at the fovea (87% agreement, kappa = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.82) and cystoid macular edema (92% agreement, kappa = 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.94). Optical coherence tomography images obtained during an interventional CRVO treatment trial can be reproducibly graded. Segmentation errors can cause clinically meaningful deviation in central retinal thickness measurements; however, these errors can be corrected reproducibly in a reading center setting. Segmentation errors are common

  15. Comparison of visual evoked potentials and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in Alzheimer‘s disease

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    Robert eKromer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAlzheimer‘s disease is a long term progressive neurodegenerative disease and might affect the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness of the eye. There is increasing evidence that visual evoked potentials, which are an objective way to indicate visual field loss, might be affected by the disease as well.Material and Methods22 patients (mean age: 75.9 ± 6.1 years; 14 women with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer‘s disease and 22 sex-matched healthy patients were examined. We compared the use of visual evoked potentials and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness using latest high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography with eye-tracking capabilities for optimised peripapillary scan centring for the first time in Alzheimer‘s disease patients.ResultsThe mean MMSE score was 22.59 ± 5.47 in the Alzheimer‘s disease group, and did not significantly correlate with the visual evoked potentials latencies. We found no significant difference between the visual evoked potentials latencies of the Alzheimer‘s disease patients and those of the control patients. No peripapillary sector of the retina had a retinal nerve fibre layer thickness significantly correlated with the visual evoked potentials latencies.DiscussionWe demonstrated that pattern visual evoked potentials did not show any significant correlation despite subtle loss in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness. It remains open whether additional flash visual evoked potentials combined with retinal nerve fibre layer thickness analysis may be useful in diagnosing Alzheimer‘s disease, particularly for mild-to-moderate stages of the disease.

  16. Antivascular endothelial growth factors in the treatment of macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangwen; Gao, Jianping; Xu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion is a major cause of vision loss. Intraocuclar anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection is a promising treatment but lacks clinical evidence of its safety and efficacy. Meta-analysis. Patients from previously reported randomized, controlled trials comparing intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor versus sham injections. A comprehensive search in MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE was conducted for reports published by April 2013. A meta-analysis of the retrieved data was conducted in RevMan 5.2 software. Primary outcome measures were changes in best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness from baseline. Secondary outcome measures were the proportion of eyes changing 15 or more letters on the Early Treatment in Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, the proportion with neovascularization and changes in the 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire. Severe adverse events were summarized to assess safety. Six trials involving a total of 940 eyes were included in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in 6-month changes in best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness for the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor group were 15.2 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters (P central retinal vein occlusion. The efficacy was rapid and robust. Further trials are needed to determine the detailed indications and therapeutic regimens of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Central retinal artery occlusion resembling Purtscher-like retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etomi T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Takuji Kurimoto1, Norio Okamoto2, Hidehiro Oku1, Yuko Kanbara1, Tomohiko Etomi1, Masahiro Tonari1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan; 2Okamoto Eye Clinic, Suita, Osaka, JapanAbstract: This paper reports three cases of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO with Purtscher-like retinopathy and good recovery of visual function. The three cases of CRAO had similar fundus changes, ie, cotton wool patches surrounding the optic disc and whitening of the retina surrounding the fovea with a cherry red spot. Fluorescein angiography showed a delay of arm-to-retina circulation time and a partial defect of choroid circulation. Although the three cases were treated by different regimens of steroid pulse therapy and antiplatelet therapy, visual function recovered well and all disturbances of the retinal and choroid circulations resolved. Although eyes with a CRAO normally have a poor visual prognosis, our three cases responded well to the treatments and recovered good visual function. Thus, cases showing fundus changes similar to our three cases may have a pathogenesis different from that of a complete CRAO.Keywords: central retinal artery occlusion, cotton wool patches, Purtscher retinopathy, steroid therapy

  18. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is associated with lesion length in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, K; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Sander, B

    2010-01-01

    included 41 patients with unilateral optic neuritis and 19 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated and examined within 28 days of onset of symptoms. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), an objective quantitative measure of optic nerve head edema, was measured by optical...... coherence tomography and the length and location of the inflammatory optic nerve lesion were evaluated using MRI. RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopically, 34% of the patients had papillitis. The retinal nerve fiber layer in affected eyes (mean 123.1 microm) was higher during the acute phase than that of fellow eyes...... (mean 98.1 microm, p eyes (mean 97.1 microm, p

  19. Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal and Choroidal Thickness Metric Repeatability in Age-related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2016-01-01

    ) macular subfields. Center point thickness and total macular volume were also included in the analysis. Manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements were made by a masked observer. RESULTS: A total of 40 eyes of 40 patients were included in this analysis (mean [± standard deviation] age: 74.1 [± 7...... for the center point was 47.5 μm (95% CI 46.2-48.7 μm). Images were also reviewed for the presence of segmentation error in the central macular subfield, and after exclusion of these eyes the revised CR for this subfield was 13.7 μm (95% CI 13.3-14.1 μm). The intrasession CR of subfoveal choroidal thickness...... was 34.7 μm (95% CI 33.7-35.7 μm). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a change of greater than 31 μm in Spectralis SDOCT-derived retinal thickness measurement of the central macular subfield and 35 μm in subfoveal choroidal thickness is necessary to detect true clinical change associated with disease...

  20. Central Corneal Thickness in Adult Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The central corneal thickness (CCT) in age 48 years or less of Chinese was characterized and its relationship with gender, age, refraction and intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated.Right eyes of 1669 participants were included in this study (880 men, 52.7 % and 789 women,47.3 %). Mean age of the samples was 23.8±5.9 years. After the examination of corneal topography and refraction, Goldman applanation tonometry was carried out by one physician. Tonometric values were the mean of three consecutive readings. Subsequently, another physician carried out ultrasonic pachymetry with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter. Six measuremen ts were made at the center of the cornea of each eye. The mean value was used for analysis. The results showed that mean CCT of male participants was 551.33± 34. 62 μm, 5.79 μm more than that of female participants. Linear regression analyses revealed that CCT was negatively related with age only in female and no association was found between refractive status and CCT. IOP was positively related to CCT, and there was a difference in IOP of 1.5 mmHg (1 mmHg=0. 133 kPa) per 100 μm difference in CCT. Ocular hypertension group was prone to have thicker cornea than average. The results indicated that in adult Chinese CCT tended to decrease with aging in female only. IOP measured by Goldmann tonometry was positively related with CCT so that CCT should be measured along with IOP.

  1. The Effect of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroid Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Süleyman; Yılmaz, Uğur; Küçük, Erkut; Ulusoy, M Döndü; Ataş, Mustafa; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2017-01-01

    To investigate thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroid thickness in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG) compared to healthy volunteers. This cross-sectional, prospective study included 43 patients with PXG, 45 patients with PEX syndrome, and 48 healthy volunteers. The RNFL and macular thickness were analyzed with standard OCT protocol while choroidal thickness was analyzed with EDI protocol in all subjects. The RNFL thickness was higher in the PEX and control groups compared to the PXG group (pchoroid thickness was significantly higher in the control group compared to the PXG and PEX groups (pchoroid circulation by accumulating in choroid vessels. The thinner choroid in the PXG group suggests that ischemia affects the duration of PEX and has a role in the development of glaucoma.

  2. Comparison of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness measurements with Stratus OCT and OPKO/OTI OCT devices in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet; Ozkok; Julide; Canan; Umurhan; Akkan; Nevbahar; Tamcelik; Mehmet; Erdogan; Didar; Ucar; Comlekoglu; Rengin; Yildirim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) and macular thickness measurements obtained with the Stratus optical coherence tomography(OCT) and OPKO/OTI OCT devices.METHODS: Included in the study were 59 eyes of 30 participants. All measurements for each eye were done on the same day with both devices. Student’s paired t-tests were used to compare the central macular thickness and RNFL measurements of the Stratus OCT and OPKO/OTI OCT. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relationship between the devices. Coefficient of variation(COV) was calculated to assess intersession repeatability.RESULTS: Using both the Stratus OCT and OPKO/OTI OCT, respectively, the measured mean average RNFL thicknesses were 98.9±11.1 μm and 115.1±9.6 μm(P =0.001),and the measured mean central retinal thicknesses(CRT)were 196.2 ±18.8 μm and 204.5 ±21.1 μm(P <0.001).Measured by the two devices, the RNFL thickness values were correlated in all quadrants, as were the retinal thickness values except the inferior outer sector. COV for average RNFL and CRT thickness were 2.9% and 4.6%for Stratus OCT, and 2.1% and 4.2% for OPKO/OTI OCT,respectively.CONCLUSION: We found good reproducibility of RNFL and retina thickness measurements for both Stratus OCT and OPKO/OTI OCT devices. However, even though the two OCT systems provided statistically correlated results,the values for both RNFL and macular thickness were statistically different. RNFL and macular thickness measurements with the OPKO/OTI OCT were higher than that of the Stratus OCT; therefore, the two OCT systems cannot be used interchangeably for the measurements of RNFL and macular thickness.

  3. Exploration of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by measurement of the linear dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoun, Olivier Karim; Dorr, Valérie Louis; Allé, Paul; Sablon, Jean-Christophe; Benoit, Anne-Marie

    2005-11-01

    An electro-optic device mounted on a slit lamp to assess the degree of polarization of a light beam that has double passed through the retina about the optic-nerve head in the living human eye is described. The asymmetric structure of the retinal nerve's fiber layer possesses a linear-form dichroism and will partially polarize an unpolarized light beam that is scattered at the fundus of the eye and has double passed the ocular media (cornea, lens, retina). This partial polarization is a function of the retinal nerve's fiber layer thickness, and its measurement may be used for exploring glaucoma and other retinal neuropathies. Experimental conditions allow us to neglect corneal dichroism. The first clinical measurements show a different degree of polarization between normal and glaucomatous eyes and a good correlation with the results obtained by optical coherence tomography.

  4. Impact of Valsalva maneuver on central choroid, central macula, and disk fiber layer thickness among high myopic and hyperopic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurultay-Ersan, Isil; Emre, Sinan

    2017-05-11

    To evaluate the alterations in mean central choroidal, central macular, and disk retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) during Valsalva maneuver among patients with high refractive errors. A total of 60 high myopic (≥-6.0 D) and 50 high hyperopic (≥ + 3.0 D) eyes of 58 patients aged 19-65 years with visual acuity of 20/20 and without any ophthalmologic or systemic diseases were evaluated by OCT before and after the Valsalva maneuver. The choroidal thickness was measured with enhanced depth imaging OCT method. Central macular thickness, disk RNFL thickness, and axial length were also assessed. Mean choroidal thickness increased significantly from 275.0 ± 27.2 μm at rest to 279.8 ± 31.6 μm after Valsalva maneuver in high myopic patients, and from 308.2 ± 27.3 μm to 313.6 ± 28.5 μm in high hyperopic patients (pchoroidal thickness was noted with axial length (r = -0.509, pthickness was 242.9 ± 44.4 μm and 254.0 ± 22.8 μm, while mean disk RNFL thickness was 81.6 ± 12.4 μm and 98.4 ± 13.3 μm in high myopic and hyperopic patients, respectively. Valsalva maneuver was not associated with significant change in central macular or disk RNFL thickness. Significant association of Valsalva maneuver with an increase in choroidal thickness was noted among patients with high degree of myopia and hyperopia. Our findings emphasize the likelihood of increase in choroidal volume due to venous distension to be responsible for the increase observed in choroidal thickness after Valsalva maneuver.

  5. Effect of Hemodialysis on Retinal Thickness in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy, with and without Macular Edema, Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azem, Nur; Spierer, Oriel; Shaked, Meital; Neudorfer, Meira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Effects of hemodialysis (HD) treatment on retinal thickness and macular edema are unclear. Objective. To evaluate changes in retinal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR), with and without diabetic macular edema (DME), undergoing HD. Methods. Nonrandomized prospective study. Forty eyes of DR patients with ESRD treated with HD were divided into two groups: patients with macular edema and patients without macular edema. Both eyes were analyzed. Patients underwent an ophthalmic examination including OCT measurements of retinal thickness, blood albumin and hemoglobin A1C levels, blood pressure, and body weight, 30 minutes before and after HD. Results. We found no significant effects of HD on retinal thickness among patients both with and without DME. The former showed a trend towards reduction in retinal thickness in foveal area following HD, while the latter showed an increase. There was no correlation between retinal thickness and mean blood pressure, weight, kinetic model value-Kt/V, glycemic hemoglobin, or albumin levels before and after HD. Conclusions. HD has no significant effect on retinal thickness among patients with or without DME. Further studies on larger cohorts and repeated OCT examinations are needed to confirm the preliminary findings in this study.

  6. Effect of Hemodialysis on Retinal Thickness in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy, with and without Macular Edema, Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Effects of hemodialysis (HD treatment on retinal thickness and macular edema are unclear. Objective. To evaluate changes in retinal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT in end stage renal disease (ESRD patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR, with and without diabetic macular edema (DME, undergoing HD. Methods. Nonrandomized prospective study. Forty eyes of DR patients with ESRD treated with HD were divided into two groups: patients with macular edema and patients without macular edema. Both eyes were analyzed. Patients underwent an ophthalmic examination including OCT measurements of retinal thickness, blood albumin and hemoglobin A1C levels, blood pressure, and body weight, 30 minutes before and after HD. Results. We found no significant effects of HD on retinal thickness among patients both with and without DME. The former showed a trend towards reduction in retinal thickness in foveal area following HD, while the latter showed an increase. There was no correlation between retinal thickness and mean blood pressure, weight, kinetic model value—Kt/V, glycemic hemoglobin, or albumin levels before and after HD. Conclusions. HD has no significant effect on retinal thickness among patients with or without DME. Further studies on larger cohorts and repeated OCT examinations are needed to confirm the preliminary findings in this study.

  7. Reversibility of retinal ischemia due to central retinal artery occlusion by hyperbaric oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadanny A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Amir Hadanny,1,2 Amit Maliar,1 Gregory Fishlev,1 Yair Bechor,1 Jacob Bergan,1 Mony Friedman,1 Isaac Avni,2,3 Shai Efrati1,2,4,5 1Sagol Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Research, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 3Opthalmology Department, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zeirifin, Israel; 4Research and Development Unit, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel; 5Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel Purpose: Ischemic retinal damage can be reversed by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT as long as irreversible infarction damage has not developed. However, the time window till irreversible damage develops is still unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of HBOT and determine possible markers for irreversible retinal damage.Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of 225 patients treated with HBOT for central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in 1999–2015. One hundred and twenty-eight patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria: age >18 years, symptoms <20 hours, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA <0.5 logMAR.Results: Time delay from symptoms to treatment was 7.8±3.8 hours. The BCVA was significantly improved after HBOT, from 2.14±0.50 to 1.61±0.78 (P<0.0001. The proportion of patients with clinically meaningful visual improvement was significantly higher in patients without cherry-red spot (CRS compared to patients with CRS at presentation (86.0% vs 57.6%, P<0.0001. The percentage of patients with final BCVA better than 1.0 was also significantly higher in patients without CRS vs patients with CRS at presentation (61.0% vs 7.1%, P<0.0001. There was no correlation between CRS and the time from symptoms. HBOT was found to be safe, and only 5.5% of patients had minor, reversible, adverse events.Conclusion: HBOT is an effective treatment for non-arteritic CRAO as long as CRS has not formed. The fundus findings, rather

  8. Central retinal vein occlusion concomitant with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaitham, Punithamalar; Vijayasingham, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. There are case reports on branch retinal vessel occlusions. Most of the ocular complications are attributed to the bleeding tendency and transudative process in dengue viral infection. This is a case report of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) concomitant with dengue fever. A 41 year old Malay female was admitted to medical ward and diagnosed to have "dengue fever with warning signs". On the day of admission she noted sudden onset of right eye blurring of vision. She presented to our clinic 1 week later. Ocular examination revealed right eye visual acuity of <20/1000 and ischaemic CRVO with macular edema. She had no other risk factors to develop retinal vein occlusion. She progressively developed proliferative retinopathy and received multiple laser therapy. There was no anterior segment neovascularization. However, her vision improved to only 20/400 despite of resolution of macular edema and new vessels elsewhere. Dengue virus infection is known to cause thrombocytopenia which can result in hemorrhagic events. It can also cause procoagulant state which can result in thrombotic events secondary to immune reaction. Awareness among treating physicians of such ocular complication which can result in significant morbidity for patient is necessary.

  9. Ranibizumab in preproliferative (ischemic) central retinal vein occlusion: the rubeosis anti-VEGF (RAVE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David M; Wykoff, Charles C; Wong, Tien P; Mariani, Angeline F; Croft, Daniel E; Schuetzle, Karri L

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in eyes with preproliferative (ischemic) central retinal vein occlusion. In this prospective, phase I/II, open-label clinical trial, eyes at high risk of neovascular complications were identified; all eyes met ≥ 3 of 4 high-risk criteria: 1) the best-corrected visual acuity being ≤ 20/200, 2) loss of the 1-2e isopter on Goldmann visual field, 3) relative afferent pupillary defect being ≥ 0.9 log units, and 4) electroretinogram B-wave reduction to ≤ 60% of the corresponding A-wave. Monthly intravitreal ranibizumab treatment for 9 months, monthly monitoring for 3 months, and then monthly examination with pro re nata retreatment on evidence of disease activity for 24 months were performed. Therefore, the total study duration was 36 months. The main outcome measures were mean change in the best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness by optical coherence tomography, proportion of patients with neovascular complications, and the incidence and severity of ocular and nonocular adverse events. Twenty patients were enrolled in the Rubeosis Anti-VEgf trial, and the mean number of intravitreal treatments administered through Months 24 and 36 were 14.1 and 17.2, respectively. The mean best-corrected visual acuity letters gained were +21.1 and +21.4 at 9 and 36 months, respectively. The mean central macular thickness improved -294 μm from baseline after 9 monthly treatments. Subsequently, after 3 months of observation, the mean central macular thickness increased +203 μm. On initiation of pro re nata ranibizumab retreatment, the mean central macular thickness then improved -191 μm at Month 36 compared with Month 12. Nine patients developed neovascular complications, being diagnosed after a mean of 24-month follow-up (range, 3-44 months), with 2 patients developing neovascularization after completion of the 36-month trial endpoint (at Months 42 and 44 after study enrollment). Intravitreal ranibizumab

  10. Do different spectral domain OCT hardwares measure the same? Comparison of retinal thickness using third-party software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Birgit; Ahmad Al-Abiji, Hajer; Kofod, Mads

    2015-01-01

    ,or if they are caused by the segmentation algorithms. Methods Thirty-seven healthy eyes were examined within the same session with a Cirrus OCT and a Spectralis OCT, the latter using averaged B-scans. Scans from similar positions and passing the fovea were analyzed by custom-made software. Thickness was analyzed...... at the fovea, the central 1-mmline and the 6-mm line. Results When Cirrus and Spectralis scans were analyzed with the same software, the retinal thickness at the foveal center was 225.92 μm (SD 17.0) using the Cirrus and 228.70 μm(SD 18.4) using the Spectralis; the difference of 2.78 μm wasnot significant (p=0...... did Cirrus, with a mean of3.32 μm (psoftware of the instruments, and by less than 3 μm when analyzed with the same custom-made software, indicating that the major...

  11. Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Johansen, Sven; Hamann, Steffen Ellitsgaard

    2006-01-01

    describe the clinical features and evolution of the case after treatment. RESULTS: A combined occlusion of the central retinal artery and central retinal vein was diagnosed by the funduscopic appearance of retinal whitening, macular cherry-red spot, papilloedema, retinal haemorrhages in all four quadrants...... a very poor prognosis for vision, due to the resulting retinal ischaemia, and a poor general prognosis due to the late stage of the systemic disease. Corticosteroids should be instigated promptly in order to prevent further systemic or ocular vasculitis....

  12. Correlation of optic neuritis and retinal nerve fibre thickness using optical coherence tomography in a cohort of multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izanne Roos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a fast, non-invasive imaging technology that produces 3D, high-resolution images of the retina. Direct visualisation of the retina allows a unique opportunity to study the effects of multiple sclerosis (MS-associated neurodegeneration on retinal ganglion cells as well as effects of retrobulbar demyelination on axonal and retinal architecture through measurement of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness and total macular volume (TMV. These findings are clinically important as axonal loss is irreversible and correlates with disability.Aim: To determine the role and usefulness of OCT in a local cohort of MS patients.Setting: Neurology Clinic, Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: Nineteen patients with MS currently being treated with interferon β-1b underwent OCT examination of both eyes. RNFL thickness and macular volume were measured and correlated with clinical disease characteristics, history of optic neuritis and level of disability.Results: Mean RNFL thickness was 77.3 μm with no significant difference in mean RNFL in eyes with a history of optic neuritis (ON and those without (p = 0.4. Eyes with a history of ON did, however, have significantly thinner RNFL compared with the contralateral eye (p = 0.04. Despite a strong correlation between TMV and RNFL (p = 0.001, a subset of patients with normal RNFL had TMV that was less than 1% of what was expected. There was no correlation between RNFL and disability scores.Conclusion: OCT enables a direct axonal ‘optical biopsy’, for monitoring disease progression and treatment response in MS. RNFL thinning occurs independently of a history of optic neuritis and may represent a chronic optic neuropathy in patients with MS.Keywords: Multiple sclerosis; optical coherence tomography

  13. Central retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana (headstand posture

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    Shah Nikunj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO following Sirsasana, a head-down postural yoga. A 55-year-old male patient presented to us, with sudden-onset loss of vision following Sirsasana, in the right eye. The patient had suffered from pulmonary thromboembolism 5 years earlier and was receiving warfarin prophylaxis. Over 6 months of follow-up, the patient developed neovascularization of the iris and was subjected to panretinal laser with no improvement in visual acuity. Sirsasana could be an important risk factor for CRVO especially in predisposed patients.

  14. DEXAMETHASONE IMPLANT FOR MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION IN PATIENTS YOUNGER THAN 50 YEARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Iacono, Pierluigi; Sacconi, Riccardo; Parravano, Mariacristina; Varano, Monica; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of dexamethasone implant for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion in patients younger than 50 years. Patients with no previous treatment, macular edema with central foveal thickness >250 μm and best-corrected visual acuity between 1.30 LogMAR and 0.30 LogMAR were prospectively recruited for a 12-month follow-up study. After baseline dexamethasone implant, re-treatment was performed starting from the fourth month if a best-corrected visual acuity deterioration with central foveal thickness >250 μm occurred after an initial improvement. The primary outcome was the change in the best-corrected visual acuity. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of eyes gaining at least 3 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study lines, the change in the central foveal thickness, and the number of treatments. Mean best-corrected visual acuity changed significantly from 0.60 ± 0.38 LogMAR at baseline to 0.43 ± 0.48 at the 12-month examination (P = 0.03). Eight of 16 eyes (50%) gained 3 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study lines. Mean central foveal thickness improved significantly from 705 ± 202 μm at baseline to 408 ± 196 μm at 12-month visit (P central retinal vein occlusion.

  15. Macular Microcysts in Mitochondrial Optic Neuropathies: Prevalence and Retinal Layer Thickness Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carbonelli

    Full Text Available To investigate the thickness of the retinal layers and to assess the prevalence of macular microcysts (MM in the inner nuclear layer (INL of patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathies (MON.All patients with molecularly confirmed MON, i.e. Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON and Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA, referred between 2010 and 2012 were enrolled. Eight patients with MM were compared with two control groups: MON patients without MM matched by age, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness, and visual acuity, as well as age-matched controls. Retinal segmentation was performed using specific Optical coherence tomography (OCT software (Carl Zeiss Meditec. Macular segmentation thickness values of the three groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc corrections.MM were identified in 5/90 (5.6% patients with LHON and 3/58 (5.2% with DOA. The INL was thicker in patients with MON compared to controls regardless of the presence of MM [133.1±7μm vs 122.3±9μm in MM patients (p<0.01 and 128.5±8μm vs. 122.3±9μm in no-MM patients (p<0.05], however the outer nuclear layer (ONL was thicker in patients with MM (101.4±1mμ compared to patients without MM [77.5±8mμ (p<0.001] and controls [78.4±7mμ (p<0.001]. ONL thickness did not significantly differ between patients without MM and controls.The prevalence of MM in MON is low (5-6%, but associated with ONL thickening. We speculate that in MON patients with MM, vitreo-retinal traction contributes to the thickening of ONL as well as to the production of cystic spaces.

  16. Macular Microcysts in Mitochondrial Optic Neuropathies: Prevalence and Retinal Layer Thickness Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonelli, Michele; La Morgia, Chiara; Savini, Giacomo; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Borrelli, Enrico; Chicani, Filipe; do V. F. Ramos, Carolina; Salomao, Solange R.; Parisi, Vincenzo; Sebag, Jerry; Bandello, Francesco; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Carelli, Valerio; Barboni, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the thickness of the retinal layers and to assess the prevalence of macular microcysts (MM) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathies (MON). Methods All patients with molecularly confirmed MON, i.e. Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA), referred between 2010 and 2012 were enrolled. Eight patients with MM were compared with two control groups: MON patients without MM matched by age, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and visual acuity, as well as age-matched controls. Retinal segmentation was performed using specific Optical coherence tomography (OCT) software (Carl Zeiss Meditec). Macular segmentation thickness values of the three groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc corrections. Results MM were identified in 5/90 (5.6%) patients with LHON and 3/58 (5.2%) with DOA. The INL was thicker in patients with MON compared to controls regardless of the presence of MM [133.1±7μm vs 122.3±9μm in MM patients (p<0.01) and 128.5±8μm vs. 122.3±9μm in no-MM patients (p<0.05)], however the outer nuclear layer (ONL) was thicker in patients with MM (101.4±1mμ) compared to patients without MM [77.5±8mμ (p<0.001)] and controls [78.4±7mμ (p<0.001)]. ONL thickness did not significantly differ between patients without MM and controls. Conclusion The prevalence of MM in MON is low (5-6%), but associated with ONL thickening. We speculate that in MON patients with MM, vitreo-retinal traction contributes to the thickening of ONL as well as to the production of cystic spaces. PMID:26047507

  17. Reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using Spectral Domain OCT in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo Toscano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements in normal eyes and eyes with glaucoma using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT. METHODS: One eye of 79 normal and 72 glaucoma patients was analyzed. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity testing; intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy; and the glaucoma group underwent achromatic perimetry with the 24-2 SITA Fast Humphrey Field Analyzer. All patients' eyes were scanned using the spectral domain optical coherence tomography - Spectralis® and one of them was chosen randomly. Three consecutive circular B-scan centered at the optic disc were performed in one visit. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, coefficient of variation and test-retest variability for the mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were respectively: 0.94, 2.56% and 4.85 µm for the normal group and 0.93, 4.65% and 6.61 µm for the glaucomatous group. The intraclass correlation coefficient for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in all quadrants were all excellent in both groups, with the superior quadrant having the highest ICCs (0.964 in glaucomatous eyes and nasal quadrant measurements having the lowest (0.800, but still excellent in eyes without glaucoma. The coefficient of variation was between 2.56% - 8.74% and between 4.65% - 11.44% in normal and glaucomatous group respectively. The test-retest variability was between 4.85 µm and 11.51 µm in the normal group and between 6.61 µm and 14.24 µm in the glaucomatous group. The measurements in glaucomatous eyes were more variable than normal eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed excellent reproducibility with regard to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements in normal and glaucomatous eyes.

  18. Preliminary Studies on the Application of Retinal Thickness Analyzer in the Diagnosis of Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The patients with glaucoma underwent the examination of retinal thickness analyzer (RTA) to explore the diagnostic value of RTA in glaucoma. The retina of 6 mm×6 mm size (approximately 20°, centered on the macula) at the posterior pole was scanned by using RTA to obtain the images in 35 eyes of 22 patients with glaucoma. The images were processed by using SAS software package. The retinal thickness in the patients with glaucoma showed diffuse or local thinning. Twenty-seven eyes was definitely diagnosed as having glaucoma. There was a very significant difference in retinal thickness measurements by RTA between normal group and glaucomatous group (P=0.0012). Except the measurements at the detected point 6 having no difference, the measurements at the detected point 3 showed a significant difference and the remaining 7 detected points presented a very significant difference between the two groups. Of the detected 9 points, the changes at the points 4, 8, and 9 were the most obvious. The discrete analysis was performed on the glaucomatous patients by a discriminant function established through the data at the detected points 4, 8 and 9 and the accurate estimate rate for the diagnosis of glaucoma was up to 80.77 %. The measurements of RTA examination was consistent with the results of the vision field test. It was suggested that diffuse or local thinning of retinal thickness exists in the patients with glaucoma. The temporal inferior arcuate fibers and the papillomacular bundle between the macular and optic nerve heads showed a serious damage. The sensitivity of RTA examination was higher than visual field test.

  19. Clinical outcome after switching therapy from ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab to aflibercept in central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Maximilian; Fassnacht-Riederle, Heidi; Becker, Matthias D; Graf, Nicole; Michels, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    After 48 months, unresolved macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is present in more than half of the patients treated with ranibizumab/bevacizumab. Switching therapy to aflibercept, a more recent vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) inhibitor, as well as VEGF-B and placental growth factor inhibitor, might improve the clinical outcome in patients with CRVO who respond insufficiently to ranibizumab/bevacizumab. The presented study is a retrospective analysis of CRVO patients (n = 13) responding insufficiently to ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab (requiring treatment every 6 weeks or more frequently). Treatment in these patients was switched to aflibercept, which was administered based on a 'treat and extend' regime. The injection interval, relapse-free interval, central retinal thickness, central retinal volume, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated prior to switching to aflibercept and at month 6 and year 1 after switching therapy. From baseline to year 1 after switching therapy to aflibercept, the mean injection interval (primary end point) increased by 0.51 months (p = 0.023) and the relapse-free interval by 3.02 weeks (p = 0.003). The mean central retinal thickness decreased by 195.84 µm and the mean central retinal volume (6 mm diameter) by -1.81 mm3 (p = 0.007). Correspondingly, the mean ETDRS score increased from 66.15 at baseline to 76.54 letters at year 1 after switching therapy to aflibercept (+10.38 letters, p = 0.021). The IOP was not statistically significantly affected (-1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.196). Switching therapy from intravitreal ranibizumab/bevacizumab to aflibercept in insufficiently responding macular edema secondary to CRVO elongates the injection interval and the relapse-free interval and provides an improved anatomical as well as functional outcome. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of Media Opacity on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements by Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Woong Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the effect of ocular media opacity on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurements by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: In this prospective, non-randomized clinical study, ocular examinations and OCT measurements were performed on 77 cataract patients, 80 laser refractive surgery patients and 90 patients whose signal strength on OCT was different on two consecutive measurements. None of the eyes had preexisting retinal or optic nerve pathology, including glaucoma. Cataracts were classified according to the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS III. All eyes were scanned with the Stratus OCT using the Fast RNFL program before and three months after surgery. Internal fixation was used during scanning and all eyes underwent circular scans around the optic disc with a diameter of 3.4 mm. Results: Average RNFL thickness, quadrant thickness and signal strength significantly increased after cataract surgery (P<0.05. Cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts, but not nuclear cataracts, had a significant influence on RNFL thickness measurements (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between OCT parameters before and after laser refractive surgery. In eyes for which different signal strengths were observed, significantly larger RNFL thickness values were obtained on scans with higher signal strengths. Conclusion: OCT parameters are affected by ocular media opacity because of changes in signal strength; cortical cataracts have the most significant effect followed by posterior subcapsular opacities. Laser refractive procedures do not seem to affect OCT parameters significantly.

  1. Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex in a Case with Unilateral Simultaneous Central Retinal Vein and Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion

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    Taylan Ozturk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous branch retinal artery and vein occlusion is a rare condition that may cause severe visual loss, and its treatment is often unrewarding. Herein, we report a case with simultaneous central retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion; it was successfully treated with a single dexamethasone intravitreal implant. The affected eye attained a visual acuity level of 20/25 from the visual acuity of hand motions at presentation with a residual, but relatively diminished, altitudinal scotoma during a follow-up period of 6 months.

  2. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-09-01

    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  3. Relationship between Retinal Layer Thickness and the Visual Field in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Jennifer H.; Smith, R. Theodore; Hood, Donald C.; Greenstein, Vivienne C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify and compare the structural and functional changes in subjects with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and microperimetry. Methods. Twenty-one eyes of 21 subjects with early AMD were examined. MP-1 10-2 visual fields (VFs) and SD-OCT line and detail volume scans were acquired. The thicknesses of the outer segment (OS; distance between inner segment ellipsoid band and upper retinal pigment epithelium [RPE] border) and RPE layers and elevation of the RPE from Bruch's membrane were measured using a computer-aided manual segmentation technique. Thickness values were compared with those for 15 controls, and values at locations with VF total deviation defects were compared with values at nondefect locations at equivalent eccentricities. Results. Sixteen of 21 eyes with AMD had VF defects. Compared with controls, line scans showed significant thinning of the OS layer (P = 0.006) and thickening and elevation of the RPE (P = 0.037, P = 0.002). The OS layer was significantly thinner in locations with VF defects compared with locations without defects (P = 0.003). There was a negligible difference between the retinal layer thickness values of the 5 eyes without VF defects and the values of normal controls. Conclusions. In early AMD, when VF defects were present, there was significant thinning of the OS layer and thickening and elevation of the RPE. OS layer thinning was significantly associated with decreased visual sensitivity, consistent with known photoreceptor loss in early AMD. For AMD subjects without VF defects, thickness values were normal. The results highlight the clinical utility of both SD-OCT retinal layer quantification and VF testing in early AMD. PMID:23074210

  4. Importance of Central Retinal Sensitivity for Prediction of Visual Acuity after Intravitreal Bevacizumb in Eyes with Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ichio, Atsushi; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the baseline retinal sensitivity can predict the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 month after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in eyes with macular edema (ME) associated with a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). We evaluated 16 eyes of 16 patients who had ME associated with a BRVO. The mean ± standard deviation age was 69.1 ± 8.9 years, and all had a single IVB injection. The BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT), integrity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) of the photoreceptors, and retinal sensitivity were determined before (baseline) and at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month following the IVB. The average threshold retinal sensitivity (AT) within the central 10° was determined by Macular Integrity Assessment. The correlations between the BCVA at 1 month and the CMT, integrity of the EZ, and AT at each visit were determined. One month after IVB, the BCVA improved significantly from 0.56 ± 0.27 logMAR units to 0.32 ± 0.28 logMAR units, and the CMT from 611.4 ± 209.3 μm to 258.7 ± 64.0 μm (P retinal sensitivity (r = 0.76) were moderately correlated with the BCVA at 1 month. These results indicate that both the integrity of the EZ and the AT at 1 day after the IVB can predict the BCVA after treatment for ME associated with BRVO. There is a possibility that these parameters will predict the effectiveness of IVB for each case.

  5. EFFICACY AND FREQUENCY OF INTRAVITREAL AFLIBERCEPT VERSUS BEVACIZUMAB FOR MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Ayman; Solaiman, Kamal A M; Abdelrahman, Ayman; Samir, Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    To compare the safety, efficacy, and frequency of intravitreal injection of aflibercept and bevacizumab for treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Prospective, comparative, randomized, interventional study. Eyes with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion were randomized between two groups according to the intravitreal injection used. Group A included eyes treated with intravitreal aflibercept, and Group B included eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. The inclusion criteria were macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion and follow-up duration of at least 12 months after the first injection. Exclusion criteria were macular ischemia, associated diabetes, hypertensive or renal retinopathy, other retinal disease, and previous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection. The main outcome measures are central foveal thickness, best-corrected visual acuity, time intervals between injections, improved retinal nonperfusion, and any reported complication. Group A included 39 patients with a mean age of 57.4 ± 8.2 years. Group B included 40 eyes with a mean age of 56.5 ± 9.1 years. Twelve months after the first injection, central foveal thickness significantly improved from 475.45 ± 71.05 m to 259.11 ± 20.67 m in Group A and from 460.22 ± 89.38 m to 264.29 ± 32.05 m in Group B; best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved from 0.81 ± 0.16 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/125) to 0.34 ± 0.14 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/40) in Group A and from 0.73 ± 0.15 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/100) to 0.33 ± 0.17 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/40) in Group B; the mean number of injections was 3.72 ± 2.93 in Group A and was 5.44 ± 2.85 in Group B (P Retinal nonperfusion improved in 9/12 eyes in Group A and in 3/8 eyes in Group B (P central retinal vein occlusion without significant complications. However

  6. Prospective Study on Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness Changes in Isolated Unilateral Retrobulbar Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon S. K. Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness after unilateral acute optic neuritis using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Patients and Methods. This prospective cohort study recruited consecutive patients with a first episode of isolated, unilateral acute optic neuritis. RNFL thickness and visual acuity (VA of the attack and normal fellow eye were measured at presentation and 3 months in both the treatment and nontreatment groups. Results. 11 subjects received systemic steroids and 9 were treated conservatively. The baseline RNFL thickness was similar in the attack and fellow eye (P≥0.4. At 3 months, the attack eye had a thinner temporal (P=0.02 and average (P=0.05 RNFL compared to the fellow eye. At 3 months, the attack eye had significant RNFL thinning in the 4 quadrants and average thickness (P≤0.0002 compared to baseline. The RNFL thickness between the treatment and nontreatment groups was similar at baseline and 3 months (P≥0.1. Treatment offered better VA at 3 months (0.1 ± 0.2 versus 0.3 ± 0.2 LogMAR, P=0.04. Conclusion. Generalized RNFL thinning occurred at 3 months after a first episode of acute optic neuritis most significantly in the temporal quadrant and average thickness. Visual improvement with treatment was independent of RNFL thickness.

  7. Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy versus photodynamic therapy for idiopathic choroidal neovascularization: a comparative study on visual acuity, retinal and choroidal thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xuehui; Wei Wenbin; Zhang Cong

    2014-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been recommended as a main treatment for idiopathic choroidal neovascularization (I-CNV).But the visual results of PDT were inconsistent and variable,and PDT may bring severe damage to the retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaries.In recent years,intravitreal ranibizumab therapy,showing favorable visual outcomes,has developed as an advanced treatment for choroidal neovascularization (CNV).Although both methods have been reported to be effective in treating I-CNV,there is no detailed comparative report between the two methods.This study aimed to compare visual outcomes,retinal and choroidal thickness between intravitreal ranibizumab therapy and PDT in the treatment of I-CNV,and investigate the correlation of visual outcomes with retinal and choroidal thickness in each of the two groups.Methods Thirty-seven eyes of 37 patients with I-CNV were involved in this study; 19 eyes were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab therapy and 18 eyes were treated with PDT.The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was recorded before and at each follow-up visit after treatments (IogMAR).Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) was used to evaluate the retinal structural changes,and to measure central retinal thickness (CRT) and central choroidal thickness (CCT).Results Mean BCVA was 0.64±0.27 in PDT group and 0.69±0.22 in ranibizumab group at baseline (P=0.55).When compared with the baseline,mean BCVA in PDT group was improved significantly at 3-month after PDT (0.41±0.16,P=0.002),then changed little (0.42±0.25 at 12-month,P=0.88).Whereas mean BCVA in Ranibizumab group was improved significantly at each follow-up visit.It improved much more obviously in the first month and then remained stable.The mean BCVA in the ranibizumab group was significantly better at each follow-up visit than that in PDT (P <0.05).When compared with the baseline,mean CRT in PDT group decreased significantly since 3-month visit

  8. The Study of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness of Normal Eyes Using Scanning Laser Polarimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Liu; Jingjing Huang; Jian Ge; Yunlan Ling; Xiaoping Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpoe: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements in local normal Chinese subjects of different age groups and analyse the correlation of RNFL thickness with age using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP, GDxVCC). To assess the reproducibility of RNFL thickness measurement with GDxVCC.Methods: The RNFL thickness of 67 normal subjects (123 eyes) were measured by GDxVCC. The average TSNIT parameters were calculated. The differences of RNFL thickness between sex, right and left eyes, superior and inferior were compared. The relationship between RNFL thickness and age was analyzed with correlation analysis and linear regression analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of three images in every eye were calculated.Results: The average peripapillary RNFL thickness at the superior, inferior and whole ellipse regions in 123 eyes of 67 normal subjects were (70.30±6.76)μm, (67.35±6.77) μm and (56.87±4.53) μm, respectively. The average TNSIT standard deviation was 23.68±4.61 and the average inter-eye symmetric value was 0.86±0.11. There were significant difference of RNFL thickness between superior and inferior (t=4.952,P <0.001 ). There were significant difference of inferior RNFL thickness and TNSIT standard deviation between right and left eyes (P=0.005 and 0.002),while not significant difference of superior RNFL thickness and whole mean RNFL thickness between right and left eye (P=0.086 and 0.529). There was no significant difference in TSNIT parameters between different genders. There was a slight negative correlation average RNFL thickness in superior sector with age (decreased approximately 0.15 microns per year,P=0.047) in the subjects aged below 60 years old. The ICC values of RNFL thickness were >0.8 in superior, inferior and global.Conclusions: The RNFL thickness can be measured accurately by GDxVCC and the reproducibility of RNFL thickness measurement by GDxVCC is good. There was a slight negative correlation between

  9. BETTER PROGNOSIS FOR EYES WITH PRESERVED FOVEAL DEPRESSION AFTER INTRAVITREAL RANIBIZUMAB INJECTION FOR MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Shuta; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuki; Ueno, Shinji; Iwase, Takeshi; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-05-18

    To determine the prognosis of eyes with central retinal vein occlusion that had a preserved foveal depression at the baseline and were treated by intravitreal ranibizumab injections (IRIs). The authors reviewed the medical records of 23 eyes of 23 consecutive treatment-naive patients who received IRIs to treat the macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. Eyes were classified by the pre-IRI presence or absence of a foveal depression. A foveal depression was defined as a central foveal thickness that was central fovea. The characteristics of the two groups were compared. Seven of 23 eyes had a preserved foveal depression before the IRI. The mean number of injections within 12 months after the initial IRI was significantly fewer (P central retinal vein occlusion.

  10. [Foveolar effects of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in central retinal vein occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbov, M M; Fayzrakhmanov, R R; Gil'manshin, T R; Gilyazova, I I

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate functional and morphometric parameters of the central retina in patients with postocclusive macular edema treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implant injection. We examined 5 patients (5 eyes) with newly diagnosed central retinal vein occlusion complicated by macular edema, including 4 men and 1 woman aged 55.8±3.65 years (experimental group). All the patients received a single injection of dexamethasone intravitreal implant. The maximum follow-up period was 12 months. The control group consisted of 5 presbiopic patients (10 eyes) aged 59.14±3.14 years. One month after injection, the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal light sensitivity improved (from 0.09±0.03 to 0.19±0.05 and from 3.18±0.19 to 11.07±0.97 dB, correspondingly), while foveolar thickness decreased from 425.36±57.87 to 273.75±36.65 µm. One year after the treatment, BCVA remained high and averaged 0.21±0.14. The total light sensitivity also remained higher than that at baseline, however, decreased down to 4.8±0.76 dB. Optical coherence tomography showed some flatness of the fovea. Foveolar thickness appeared 1.5 times higher than that in the control group and 1.2 times higher than that at the 1-month follow-up after dexamethasone intravitreal implant injection. Over the whole follow-up period, IOP has never significantly exceeded the baseline, optical media remained clear. 1. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant has been shown effective in resolving postocclusive macular edema, improving visual functions, and increasing central retinal light sensitivity within the first month after injection. 2. Positive changes in morphometric parameters of the central retina induced by the injection involve inner segments of photoreceptors as well as the outer nuclear, outer plexiform and inner nuclear layers. The morphofunctional effect persists for no less than 12 months after injection. 3. Over the 1-year follow-up period, there has been no negative influence of the

  11. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in normal Indian pediatric population measured with optical coherence tomography

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    Neelam Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in normal Indian pediatric population. Subjects and Methods: 120 normal Indian children ages 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. RNFL thickness was measured with stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT. Children with strabismus or amblyopia, with neurological, metabolic, vascular, or other disorders and those with abnormal optic discs were excluded. One eye of each subject was randomly selected for statistical analysis. The effect of age, refraction and gender on RNFL thickness was investigated statistically. Result: OCT measurements were obtained in 120 of 130 (92.3% subjects. Mean age was 10.8 ± 3.24 years (range 5-17. Average RNFL thickness was (± SD 106.11 ± 9.5 μm (range 82.26-146.25. The RNFL was thickest inferiorly (134.10 ± 16.16 μm and superiorly (133.44 ± 15.50 μm, thinner nasally (84.26 ± 16.43 μm, and thinnest temporally (70.72 ± 14.80 μm. In univariate regression analysis, age had no statistical significant effect on RNFL thickness (P = 0.7249 and refraction had a significant effect on RNFL thickness (P = 0.0008. Conclusion: OCT can be used to measure RNFL thickness in children. Refraction had an effect on RNFL thickness. In normal children, variation in RNFL thickness is large. The normative data provided by this study may assist in identifying changes in RNFL thickness in Indian children.

  12. Predictive factors for functional improvement following intravitreal bevacizumab injections after central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Feltgen, Nicolas; Pielen, Amelie; Spitzer, Bernhard; Rehak, Matus; Spital, Georg; Dimopoulos, Spyridon; Meyer, Carsten H; Szurman, Gesine B

    2017-03-01

    Vision loss in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is mostly caused by macular edema (ME) and can be treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. The goal of this study was to identify predictive factors for improvement in visual acuity. Three hundred and sixteen eyes of six centres having received intravitreal bevacizumab for ME due to CRVO were enrolled in this multicentre, retrospective, interventional case series. The follow-up time was 24 to 48 weeks. Investigated patient characteristics were pretreatment, duration of CRVO prior to the first injection, initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), baseline central retinal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography, gender, eye, age, comorbidity with glaucoma, systemic hypertension, or diabetes mellitus. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the following baseline predictive factors for an increase in visual acuity: low BCVA (p  0.1). Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in a routine clinical setting effectively improved and stabilized BCVA in CRVO. Our large multicenter study identified initial BCVA, baseline CRT, and pre-treatment as prognostic factors for visual improvement.

  13. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is associated with lesion length in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, K; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Sander, B;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute optic neuritis occurs with and without papillitis. The presence of papillitis has previously been thought to imply an anterior location of the neuritis, but imaging studies seeking to test this hypothesis have been inconclusive. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study...... included 41 patients with unilateral optic neuritis and 19 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated and examined within 28 days of onset of symptoms. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), an objective quantitative measure of optic nerve head edema, was measured by optical...... in the development of optic nerve head edema in optic neuritis....

  14. Macular and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qing Wu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and macular thickness in the amblyopic eye with that in the sound eye of children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT.METHODS: A prospective, nonrandom, intraindividual comparative cohort study includes 72 children with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia in a single center. Macular thickness, macular foveola thickness, and peripapillary RNFL thickness were compared between the amblyopia eyes and the contralateral sound eyes.RESULTS:There were 38 male and 34 female patients, with a mean age as 9.7±1.9 years (range, 5–16 years. Hyperopic was +3.62±1.16D (range +2.00D to +6.50D in the amblyopic eyes, which was significantly higher in the control eyes with +0.76±0.90D (range 0D to +2.00D (P P = 0.02. The mean macular foveola thickness was significantly thicker in the amblyopic eyes than the contralateral sound eyes (181.4±14.2µm vs 175.2±13.3µm, P CONCLUSION:Eyes with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia are found thicker macular foveola and peripapillary RNFL than the contralateral eyes in children.

  15. CHOROIDAL BLOOD FLOW AND THICKNESS AS PREDICTORS FOR RESPONSE TO ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY IN MACULAR EDEMA SECONDARY TO BRANCH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masahiro; Yamashita, Mariko; Sakamoto, Taiji; Ogata, Nahoko

    2017-02-23

    To determine the choroidal blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with macular edema secondary to a BRVO were treated with a single intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) and were followed for 2 months. The central retinal thickness and SCT, and the retinal and choroidal blood flows were evaluated, and they were compared between the recurrent and resolved groups. At the baseline, the SCT of eyes with a BRVO was significantly thicker than that of the fellow eye (P retinal blood flow was found only after 1 week in the resolved group. The SCT and choroidal blood flow were significantly reduced during the follow-up period in the resolved group but not in the recurrent group. The choroid is involved in the pathology of BRVO and the SCT at the baseline may be a predictive factor in the treatment of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab for macular edema secondary to BRVO.

  16. Dendritic thickness: a morphometric parameter to classify mouse retinal ganglion cells

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    L.D. Loopuijt

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the dendritic morphology of retinal ganglion cells in wild-type mice we intracellularly injected these cells with Lucifer yellow in an in vitro preparation of the retina. Subsequently, quantified values of dendritic thickness, number of branching points and level of stratification of 73 Lucifer yellow-filled ganglion cells were analyzed by statistical methods, resulting in a classification into 9 groups. The variables dendritic thickness, number of branching points per cell and level of stratification were independent of each other. Number of branching points and level of stratification were independent of eccentricity, whereas dendritic thickness was positively dependent (r = 0.37 on it. The frequency distribution of dendritic thickness tended to be multimodal, indicating the presence of at least two cell populations composed of neurons with dendritic diameters either smaller or larger than 1.8 µm ("thin" or "thick" dendrites, respectively. Three cells (4.5% were bistratified, having thick dendrites, and the others (95.5% were monostratified. Using k-means cluster analysis, monostratified cells with either thin or thick dendrites were further subdivided according to level of stratification and number of branching points: cells with thin dendrites were divided into 2 groups with outer stratification (0-40% and 2 groups with inner (50-100% stratification, whereas cells with thick dendrites were divided into one group with outer and 3 groups with inner stratification. We postulate, that one group of cells with thin dendrites resembles cat ß-cells, whereas one group of cells with thick dendrites includes cells that resemble cat a-cells.

  17. Radial Optic Neurotomy for Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    Alireza Ramezani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    When several and very different treatment modalities exist for one ailment, it usually means that none of them is generally effective or superior to others. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is a condition for which various types of management have been proposed. However, the only standard care suggested by the Central Vein Occlusion Study Group (CVOSG is panretinal photocoagulation when the condition is complicated by iris neovascularization. In 2001, radial optic neurotomy (RON was suggested by Opremcak for treatment of CRVO. This therapeutic modality has raised much debate among authorities. Herein, we present the opposing views of two vitreoretinal specialists regarding this issue.

  18. Outcomes of Patients Initially Treated with Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: Long-Term Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajric, Jasmina; Bakri, Sophie J

    2016-01-01

    To assess outcomes of visual acuity (VA) and central retinal thickness (RT) in patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) who were initially treated with bevacizumab and followed for up to four years. In this observational case series, 51 patients with non-ischemic and ischemic CRVO who had initial treatment with bevacizumab were included. Main outcome measures were VA and RT at one year, with follow-up of up to four years. Mean VA improved from 20/214 at baseline to 20/107 at one year (p = 0.0009) and this improvement was maintained clinically at four years. RT decreased from 595 μm to 339 μm at one year (p = 0.0027) and this was maintained at four years. Patients who received bevacizumab as initial therapy for ME from CRVO maintained VA and RT improvement for up to four years.

  19. Iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after carotid body tumor embolization and excision

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    Rangel, Carlos M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of iatrogenic central retinal artery occlusion after embolization and surgical resection of carotid body paraganglioma.Methods: Case report Results: One adult female patient presented with persistent unilateral visual loss after embolization with Embosphere and Contour microparticles of carotid body tumor. Fluorescein angiography revealed intraluminal microspheres in the central retinal artery ramifications. OCT revealed intraretinal spherical, hyporeflective particles with posterior shadowing. Conclusions: Central retinal artery occlusion should be assessed as a possible complication after surgical repair of head and neck paragangliomas.

  20. Acute Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Secondary to Reactive Thrombocytosis after Splenectomy

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    Nursen Oncel Acir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of central retinal vein occlusion was reported in a young patient. Central retinal vein occlusion was probably related to secondary to reactive thrombocytosis after splenectomy. The patient was treated with steroids for papilledema and administered coumadin and aspirin. The symptoms resolved, and the findings returned to normal within three weeks. Current paper emphasizes that, besides other well-known thrombotic events, reactive thrombocytosis after splenectomy may cause central retinal vein occlusion, which may be the principal symptom of this risky complication. Thus, it can be concluded that followup for thrombocytosis and antithrombotic treatment, when necessary, are essential for these cases.

  1. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS CHANGES AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH SILICONE OIL TAMPONADE FOR PROLIFERATIVE VITREORETINOPATHY RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odrobina, Dominik; Gołębiewska, Joanna; Maroszyńska, Iwona

    2016-12-28

    To access the potential effect of vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade on the choroid. Eighteen patients (18 eyes) who had undergone pars plana vitrectomy with 1,000-cSt silicone oil tamponade for proliferative vitreoretinopathy retinal detachment were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations before treatment and 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade. Choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering) in a horizontal and vertical section beneath the fovea. Choroidal thickness statistically significantly decreased till 3 months after pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade: under the center of the fovea (P = 0.014) and in the temporal (P = 0.029), superior (P = 0.046), and inferior areas, determined at 1,500 μm from the center of the fovea (P = 0.030). After 6 months, the desired effect in the form of a decrease in the choroidal thickness was even more prominent, both under the center of the fovea (P tamponade. Silicone oil tamponade may have an impact on the structure and proper functioning of the choroid. The measurements of the choroidal thickness by optical coherence tomography might be a very good tool to detect early changes in choroidal thickness and impact the decision when to remove silicone oil.

  2. Detection of underdiagnosed concurrent branch retinal artery occlusion in a patient with central retinal vein occlusion using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, Anushavan; Ouyang, Pingbo; Tang, Luo Sheng; Zeng, Jiexi; Ying, Michele Dominique Li

    2014-07-12

    Combined branch retinal artery and central retinal vein occlusion is a rare condition that has been infrequently reported. This case report, aside from reporting the above-mentioned condition, highlights the importance of performing spectral domain optical coherence tomography in establishing a complete diagnosis, especially in uncertain and complicated cases. We also present spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings of a case of combined unilateral simultaneous central retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion. We present a single case of an initially missed, unilateral branch retinal artery occlusion combined with central retinal vein occlusion in a 51-year-old female Chinese patient without a significant past medical history, who experienced sudden, painless vision diminution in her right eye eleven days prior to presentation. She eventually recovered visual acuity to 0.60, despite having presented with poor vision. Combined unilateral central retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion may occur in patients with no medical history of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus and can achieve a relatively good visual outcome. This case reaffirms the significance of performing a spectral domain optical coherence tomography examination in patients suffering from central retinal vein occlusion with suspicion of unilateral simultaneous branch retinal artery occlusion to identify the affected pathological areas.

  3. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Periorbital Region Complicated by Combined Central Retinal Artery Occlusion, Central Retinal Vein Occlusion, and Posterior Ciliary Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Harris; Malik, Amina; Li, Helen K; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Lee, Andrew G

    A 50 year-old man on immunosuppressive agents presented with left eye vision loss, periorbital swelling, pain, and ophthalmoplegia. The patient was clinically found to have a central retinal artery and vein occlusion. A CT scan was performed which demonstrated intraorbital fat stranding, however the patient lacked sinus disease. The etiology of the orbital infection was held in question. The area was debrided in the operating room, and the specimen demonstrated group A streptococcal species consistent with necrotizing fasciitis. Periorbital necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in patients with rapidly progressive orbital symptoms without sinus disease as lack of surgical intervention can result in poor outcomes. The unusual aspect to this case is the mechanism of vision loss, as the authors hypothesize that there was vascular infiltration of the infection resulting in the central retinal artery occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion which have not been previously reported secondary to necrotizing fasciitis of the orbit.

  4. Vision Loss by Central Retinal Vein Occlusion After Kaatsu Training: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozawa, Yoko; Koto, Takashi; Shinoda, Hajime; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    .... However, no medical guidelines or risk factors for its use have been established.We report a case involving a 45-year-old man who suffered from 2 episodes of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO...

  5. SDOCT Thickness Measurements of Various Retinal Layers in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy due to OPA1 Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Schild

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To specify thickness values of various retinal layers on macular spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT scans in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA compared to healthy controls. Methods. SDOCT volume scans of 7 patients with ADOA (OPA-1 mutation and 14 healthy controls were quantitatively analyzed using manual grading software. Mean thickness values for the ETDRS grid subfields 5–8 were calculated for the spaces neurosensory retina, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, ganglion cell layer (GCL, a combined space of inner plexiform layer/outer plexiform layer/inner nuclear layer (IPL+INL+OPL, and a combined space of outer nuclear layer/photoreceptor layers (ONL+PL. Results. ADOA patients showed statistically significant lower retinal thickness values than controls (. RNFL ( and GCL thicknesses ( were significantly lower in ADOA patients. There was no difference in IPL+INL+OPL and in ONL+PL thickness. Conclusion. Manual subanalysis of macular SDOCT volume scans allowed detailed subanalysis of various retinal layers. Not only RNFL but also GCL thicknesses are reduced in the macular area of ADOA patients whereas subjacent layers are not involved. Together with clinical findings, macular SDOCT helps to identify patients with suspicion for hereditary optic neuropathy before genetic analysis confirms the diagnosis.

  6. Measurement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular thickness in anisometropia using spectral domain optical coherence tomography: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Rohatgi, Jolly; Gupta, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To study whether there is a difference in central macular thickness (CMT) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between the two eyes of individuals having anisometropia >1 diopter (D) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods One hundred and one subjects, 31 with myopic anisometropia, 28 with astigmatic anisometropia, and 42 with hypermetropic anisometropia, were enrolled in the study. After informed consent, detailed ophthalmological examination was performed for every patient including cycloplegic refraction, best corrected visual acuity, slit lamp, and fundus examination. After routine ophthalmic examination peripapillary RNFL and CMT were measured using spectral domain OCT and the values of the two eyes were compared in the three types of anisometropia. Axial length was measured using an A Scan ultrasound biometer (Appa Scan-2000). Results The average age of subjects was 21.7±9.3 years. The mean anisometropia was 3.11±1.7 D in myopia; 2±0.99 D in astigmatism; and 3.68±1.85 D in hypermetropia. There was a statistically significant difference in axial length of the worse and better eye in both myopic and hypermetropic anisometropia (P=0.00). There was no significant difference between CMT of better and worse eyes in anisomyopia (P=0.79), anisohypermetropia (P=0.09), or anisoastigmatism (P=0.16). In anisohypermetropia only inferior quadrant RNFL was found to be significantly thicker (P=0.011) in eyes with greater refractive error. Conclusion There does not appear to be a significant difference in CMT and peripapillary RNFL thickness in anisomyopia and anisoastigmatism. However, in anisohypermetropia inferior quadrant RNFL was found to be significantly thicker. PMID:28260856

  7. Effect of Reduced Meal Frequency during Ramadan Fasting on Retinal and Choroidal Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersan, Ismail; Tufan, Hasan Ali; Arikan, Sedat; Kara, Selcuk; Gencer, Baran; Hondur, Ahmet Murat

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on central foveal thickness (CFT) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in healthy individuals using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). The EDI-OCT scans of 42 healthy individuals obtained after about 12 hours of fasting on at least the twenty-first consecutive day of fasting were compared to scans of the same patients taken one month after the last day they had fasted. CFT values were similar for both time periods (p > 0.05). The SFCT was significantly higher after consecutive fasting days towards the end of Ramadan, compared to the SFCT after one month of no fasting (one month after Ramadan ended) (p fasting may lead to a significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness without affecting the central foveal thickness.

  8. Clinical, anatomical, and electrophysiological assessments of the central retina following intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukianou, Eleni; Brouzas, Dimitrios; Chatzistefanou, Klio; Koutsandrea, Chrysanthi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term visual, anatomical and electrophysiological outcomes of repeated intravitreal injections of bevacizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and investigate any possible toxic effects on the central fovea. This is a prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients with macular edema secondary to RVO were treated with 1.25 mg/0.05 ml intravitreal bevacizumab. Nine patients had nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and 24 patients had branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness (CRT), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) responses changes at baseline, 1 month after the third injection and at the end of the 2-year long follow-up period. Patients with CRVO had mean best-corrected Snellen visual acuity of 0.10 at baseline, which improved significantly to 0.31 after 2 years (P = 0. 028).The mean CRT at presentation was 756.28 μm and reduced significantly to 439.14 μm after 2 years (P = 0.05). Patients with BRVO had mean best-corrected Snellen visual acuity of 0.19 at baseline, which improved significantly to 0.40 after 2 years (P central 10° (ring1, ring2) showed statistically significant differences on P1 parameters in terms of response density and implicit time after 2 years in both CRVO and BRVO patients. Repeated intravitreal bevacizumab injections for macular edema due to either CRVO or BRVO resulted in long-term improvement of visual acuity, a reduction in CRT and statistically significant changes in the mfERG responses with nondemonstrable toxic effects on the central fovea.

  9. Management of acute central retinal artery occlusion: Intravenous thrombolysis is feasible and safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préterre, Cécile; Godeneche, Gaelle; Vandamme, Xavier; Ronzière, Thomas; Lamy, Matthias; Breuilly, Christophe; Urbanczyk, Cédric; Wolff, Valérie; Lebranchu, Pierre; Sevin-Allouet, Mathieu; Guillon, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Background Although acute central retinal artery occlusion is as a stroke in the carotid territory (retinal artery), its management remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of intravenous thrombolysis delivered within 6 h of central retinal artery occlusion in French stroke units. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated with intravenous alteplase (recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator), based on stroke units thrombolysis registers from June 2005 to June 2015, and we selected those who had acute central retinal artery occlusion. The feasibility was assessed by the ratio of patients that had received intravenous alteplase within 6 h after central retinal artery occlusion onset among those who had been admitted to the same hospital for acute central retinal artery occlusion. All adverse events were documented. Results Thirty patients were included. Visual acuity before treatment was limited to "hand motion", or worse, in 90% of the cases. The mean onset-to-needle time was 273 min. The individuals treated with intravenous alteplase for central retinal artery occlusion represented 10.2% of all of the patients hospitalized for central retinal artery occlusion in 2013 and 2014. We observed one occurrence of major bleeding, a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion When applied early on, intravenous thrombolysis appears to be feasible and safe, provided that contraindications are given due consideration. Whether intravenous thrombolysis is more effective than conservative therapy remains to be determined. In order to conduct a well-designed prospective randomized control trial, an organized network should be in place.

  10. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS CHANGE AFTER INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR TREATMENT IN RETINAL ANGIOMATOUS PROLIFERATION AND ITS RECURRENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Park, Sang Jun; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2016-08-01

    To investigate choroidal thickness changes after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) and correlate choroidal thickness with disease recurrence. Twenty-six eyes from 21 patients with RAP were treated with 3 monthly intravitreal anti-VEGF injections and additional injections as needed. RAP was divided according to the component of pigment epithelial detachment. The subfoveal choroidal thickness and choroidal thickness under the RAP lesion were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and compared between recurrence and nonrecurrence groups during the first year. The subfoveal choroidal thickness and choroidal thickness under the RAP lesion showed a significant decrease during the first 3 months; however, this was not maintained for the first year. The recurrence group showed a significantly thicker subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.021) and choroidal thickness under the RAP lesion (P = 0.020) during the first year in those with only drusen or drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment without serous component. A significant increase and decrease in choroidal thickness was observed during the recurrence and remission period. Increased choroidal thickness was associated with a higher rate of recurrence after anti-VEGF treatment in RAP with only drusen or drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment. Choroidal thickness could also reflect disease activity, even before manifestation of retinal disease activity.

  11. Evaluation of peripapillary choroidal and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with tilted optic disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Ozcımen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and peripapillary choroidal thickness in eyes with tilted optic disc in order to identify characteristic RNFL and peripapillary choroid patterns verified by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: Twenty-nine eyes of 29 patients with tilted optic discs were studied with spectral-domain (SD-OCT and compared with age and sex-matched control subjects in a prospective design. The imaging of RNFL was performed using circular scans of a diameter of 3.4 mm around the optic disc using OCT. For measurements of peripapillary choroidal thickness, the standar d protocol for RNFL assessment was performed. Results: SD-OCT indicated significantly lower superotemporal (p<0.001, superonasal (p=0.001, and global (p=0.005 RNFL thicknesses in the tilted disc group than those of the control group. Peripapillary choroid was significantly thicker at the site of the elevated rim of eyes with tilted disc (p<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a clinical characterization of the main tilted disc morphologies that may be helpful in differentiating a tilted disc from other altered disc morphologies. Further studies are recommended to study the comparison between glaucoma and tilted disc groups.

  12. Clinical analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular fovea in hyperopia children with anisometropia amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze the clinical significance of axial length, diopter and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in hyperopia children with anisometropia amblyopia. METHODS: From January 2015 to January 2017 in our hospital for treatment, 103 cases, all unilateral, were diagnosed as hyperopia anisometropia amblyopia. The eyes with amblyopia were as experimental group(103 eyes, another normal eye as control group(103 eyes. We took the detection with axial length, refraction, foveal thickness, corrected visual acuity, diopter and the average thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer. RESULTS: Differences in axial length and diopter and corrected visual acuity were statistically significant between the two groups(PP>0.05. There was statistical significance difference on the foveal thickness(PP>0.05. The positive correlation between diopter with nerve fiber layer thickness of foveal and around the optic disc were no statistically significant difference(P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Retinal thickness of the fovea in the eye with hyperopic anisometropia amblyopia were thicker than those in normal eyes; the nerve fiber layer of around the optic disc was not significantly different between the amblyopic eyes and contralateral eyes. The refraction and axial length had no significant correlation with optic nerve fiber layer and macular foveal thickness.

  13. [New perspectives in the approach to central retinal vein occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, M S

    2015-03-01

    The COPERNICUS and GALILEO trials were designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injection of 2mg of aflibercept in the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Two phase III randomized, double-masked trials: COPERNICUS in North America (188 patients) and galileo in Europe and Asia (177 patients). In COPERNICUS, the patients in the treatment group received monthly injections of 2mg aflibercept for 6 months and later continued with strict PRN treatment with monthly follow-up every 6 months and with a minimum of 3-monthly follow up for 1 year. Patients in the placebo group could receive treatment after the sixth month, with similar treatment regimens and follow-up to the treatment group. In contrast, in galileo, the placebo group received no PRN treatment until 1 year of follow-up and during the first 6 months, followup visits were bi-monthly. The treatment group in COPERNICUS showed a mean improvement of 13 letters versus the placebo group (1.5 letters) at week 100 of follow-up. In galileo, the mean best corrected visual acuity at 76 weeks were 13.7 and 6.6 in the treatment and placebo groups, respectively. Early treatment with intravitreal afliberceptin achieves better results than when treatment is delayed by 6 months or 1 year. The visual benefits obtained with the drug are affected by the reduction in the frequency of monitoring during follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in 2 Patients Using Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Taki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our findings in 2 patients who developed a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO and were chronic users of antipsychotic medications. Case Presentation: Case 1 was a 62-year-old woman who had a sudden reduction of vision in her right eye to 20/2,000. Her fundus showed signs of an impending CRVO with marked macular edema. She had been taking antipsychotic drugs (quetiapine fumarate and risperidone for about 2 years. She refused anti-VEGF therapy for her macular edema but selected systemic kallidinogenase. Two days later, the macular edema was significantly reduced but the number of cotton wool spots (CWS was increased. Ten days later, the macular edema was resolved and her BCVA improved to 20/60. The CWS gradually disappeared, and her BCVA improved to 20/20. Case 2 was a 43-year-old man who presented with vision reduction in his right eye of 1 week’s duration. His BCVA was 20/50 and his fundus showed signs of a CRVO-related macular edema with CWS in the peripapillary area. He had been taking sulpiride (DogmatylTM for depression for 1 year, and his blood test showed an increase in red blood cells and hematocrit. Anti-VEGF therapy was performed, and the macular edema was resolved with vision improving to 20/20. There has been no recurrence to date in both cases. Conclusions: These results indicate that a CRVO can be a complication of chronic use of antipsychotic medications. However, early treatment can lead to good outcomes. Clinicians should question patients who develop a sudden CRVO whether they are using antipsychotic medications.

  15. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement following laser in situ keratomileusis using scanning laser polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Tanuj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK on the measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry using customized corneal compensation in myopes. Materials and Methods: Scanning laser polarimetry was performed on 54 eyes of 54 healthy patients with myopia using the glaucoma diagnostics variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC instrument (Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, California before and a week after LASIK. The various parameters were compared using the Student′s t test. Results: No statistically significant change was observed in any of the retinal nerve fiber layer parameters before and after LASIK. Conclusions: While the measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by scanning laser polarimetry is affected by anterior segment birefringent properties and LASIK would be expected to produce changes in the same, customized corneal compensation using the GDx VCC seems to adequately compensate for these changes.

  16. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in subgroups of multiple sclerosis, measured by optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.M. Siepman (Theodora); M. Wefers Bettink-Remeijer (Marijke); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOptical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx ECC) are non-invasive methods used to assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, which may be a reliable tool used to monitor axonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objectives of this study are (1) to com

  17. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: A prospective study consisting of patients with...

  18. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikmazkara, Ipek; Ugurlu, Seyda Karadeniz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: 102 female patients who had IDA (hemoglobin <12 g/dl, serum transferrin saturation <15%, serum iron <50 μg/dl, and serum ferritin <15 μg/dl) were enrolled in the study. Optic disc and RNFL parameters obtained by Cirrus high-definition OCT 4000 were compared with those of 49 age and sex-matched nonanemic individuals. The time between blood analysis and OCT measurements was 3.14 ± 5.6 (range, 0–28) days in the anemia group, and 3.5 ± 6.7 (range, 0–27) days in the control group (P = 0.76). Results: Average ages of 102 patients and 49 control subjects were 35.76 ± 10.112 (range, 18–66) years, and 36.08 ± 8.416 (range, 19–57) years (P = 0.850), respectively. The average RNFL thickness was 94.67 ± 9.380 in the anemia group, and 100.22 ± 9.12 in the control group (P = 0.001). Temporal, nasal, and lower quadrant average RNFL thicknesses of IDA group were thinner than the control group (P = 0.001, P = 0.013, P = 0.008). Upper quadrant RNFL thicknesses in IDA and control groups were similar. Correlation analysis revealed positive correlation between mean RNFL thickness and hemoglobin (r = 0.273), iron (r = 0.177), ferritin (r = 0.163), and transferrin saturations (r = 0.185), while a negative correlation was found between total iron binding capacity (r = −0.199) and mean RNFL thickness. Conclusions: Peripapillary RNFL thickness measured by OCT is thinner in adult female patients with IDA. It may have a significant influence on the management of many disorders such as glaucoma and neuro-ophthalmological diseases. PMID:27146929

  19. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Saenz-Frances; Martha; Cecilia; Bermúdez-Vallecilla; Lara; Borrego-Sanz; Luis; Jaez; J; osé; Marìa; Martinez-de-la-Casa; Laura; Morales-Fernandez; Enrique; Santos-Bueso; Julián; Garcia-Sanchez; Julián; Garcia-Feijoo

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness(pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex.·METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex(AT),minimum corneal thickness(MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center(PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT(MD)and PT(PD) were calculated and their quadrant position(taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined:point of minimum thickness(MC) and point of central thickness(PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume(determined using the Pentacam)and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.·RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex(79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume(B =-0.024; 95% CI:-0.043 to-0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logisticregressions for MC and PC.·CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferiortemporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  20. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Saenz-Frances

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness (pupil center in relation to the corneal apex.METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex (AT, minimum corneal thickness (MT and corneal thickness at the pupil center (PT were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT (MD and PT (PD were calculated and their quadrant position (taking the corneal apex as the reference determined:point of minimum thickness (MC and point of central thickness (PC depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume (determined using the Pentacam and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models.RESULTS: MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex (79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant. PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume (B=-0.024; 95%CI:-0.043 to -0.004. No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logistic regressions for MC and PC.CONCLUSION: MT was typically located at the inferior-temporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume.

  1. Evaluation of RNFL thickness and serum cytokine levels after retinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreous Conbercept injection treatment of diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Na

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of retinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreous Conbercept injection in RNFL thickness, serum cytokine levels and other aspects of diabetic retinopathy.Methods:A total of 92 patients with diabetic retinopathy (126 eyes) who received inpatient treatment in our hospital from December, 2013 to December 2015 were included in the study and divided into observation group 46 cases (62 eyes) and control group 46 cases (64 eyes) according to random number table, control group received retinal photocoagulation therapy alone, observation group received retinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreous Conbercept injection treatment, and then differences in RNFL thickness, hemodynamic indexes, serum levels of cytokines and others were compared between two groups after treatment.Results: Average RNFL thickness of inner optic disc top, bottom, bitamporal and nasal ring area as well as the average full-cycle 360° RNFL thickness of observation group after treatment was less than those of control group; PSV and EDV values of CRA were higher than those of control group while RI value was lower than that of control group, and PSV, EDV and RI values of CRV were lower than those of control group; serumβ2-GPⅠ, Hcy, VEGF and SDF-1 levels were lower than those of control group while C-peptide and APN levels were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Retinal photocoagulation combined with intravitreous Conbercept injection can significantly reduce the RNFL thickness of the patients with diabetic retinopathy and optimize the retinal hemodynamic status, and helps to improve patients’ overall conditions.

  2. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and ganglion cell complex (GCC thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and Methods: Average, inferior, and superior values of RNFL and GCC thickness were measured in 123 patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The values of participants with DM were compared to controls. Diabetic patients were collected in Groups 1, 2 and 3. Group 1 = 33 participants who had no diabetic retinopathy (DR; Group 2 = 30 participants who had mild nonproliferative DR and Group 3 = 30 participants who had moderate non-proliferative DR. The 30 healthy participants collected in Group 4. Analysis of variance test and a multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The values of RNFL and GCC in the type 2 diabetes were thinner than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: This study showed that there is a nonsignificant loss of RNFL and GCC in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Crustal-thickness variations in the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George; Myers, Stephen C.; Wallace, Terry C.; Silver, Paul G.; Drake, Lawrence

    1996-05-01

    We estimated the crustal thickness along an east-west transect across the Andes at lat 20°S and along a north-south transect along the eastern edge of the Altiplano from data recorded on two arrays of portable broadband seismic stations (BANJO and SEDA). Waveforms of deep regional events in the downgoing Nazca slab and teleseismic earthquakes were processed to isolate the P-to-S converted phases from the Moho in order to compute the crustal thickness. We found crustal-thickness variations of nearly 40 km across the Andes. Maximum crustal thicknesses of 70 74 km under the Western Cordillera and the Eastern Cordillera thin to 32 38 km 200 km east of the Andes in the Chaco Plain. The central Altiplano at 20°S has crustal thicknesses of 60 to 65 km. The crust also appears to thicken from north (16°S, 55 60 km) to south (20°S, 70 74 km) along the Eastern Cordillera. The Subandean zone crust has intermediate thicknesses of 43 to 47 km. Crustal-thickness predictions for the Andes based on Airy-type isostatic behavior show remarkable overall correlation with observed crustal thickness in the regions of high elevation. In contrast, at the boundary between the Eastern Cordillera and the Subandean zone and in the Chaco Plain, the crust is thinner than predicted, suggesting that the crust in these regions is supported in part by the flexural rigidity of a strong lithosphere. With additional constraints, we conclude that the observation of Airy-type isostasy is consistent with thickening associated with compressional shortening of a weak lithosphere squeezed between the stronger lithosphere of the subducting Nazca plate and the cratonic lithosphere of the Brazilian craton.

  4. Comparison between intravitreal Ranibizumab and Tramicinolone acetonide for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab to those of triamcinolone acetonide(TAinjection for the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO.METHODS:This retrospective study included 40 eyes of 40 patients with macular edema associated with CRVO. Twenty patients 20 eyes were treated with intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide(1mg, 0.1mL, the other 20 patients 20 eyes accepted intravitreal ranibizumab(0.5mg, 0.05mL. The change of best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, central macular thickness(CMT, and intraocular pressure(IOPbefore treatment and at 1, 2wk, 1, 2,3,6mo post-injection in the two groups were observed. RESULTS:BCVA was improved at 1, 2wk, 1, 2,3,6mo post-injection in the TA group(PPP>0.05. CMT decreased significantly within each group(PP>0.05. In the TA group, the IOP was significantly higher at 2wk and 4wk than before treatment(PP>0.05. However, the IOP at 1mo was significantly higher in the TA group than that in the ranibizumb group(PCONCLUSION:Intravitreal ranibizumab is an effective and safe treatment method for macular edema secondary to CRVO. It can effectively improve BCVA and reduce CMT without ocular and systemic complications compared with intravitreal TA.

  5. Effect of retinal image defocus on the thickness of the human choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Samuel T-H; Phillips, John R; Backhouse, Simon

    2015-07-01

    To describe the time-course and amplitude of changes to sub-foveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) induced by imposed hyperopic and myopic retinal defocus and to compare the responses in emmetropic and myopic subjects. Twelve East Asian subjects (age: 18-34 years; six were emmetropic and six had myopia between -2.00 and -5.00 dioptres (D)) viewed a distant target (video movie at 6 m) for 60 min on two separate occasions while optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the choroid were taken in both eyes every 5 min to monitor SFCT. On each occasion, one eye was optimally corrected for distance with a contact lens while the other eye wore a contact lens imposing either 2.00 D hyperopic or 2.00 D myopic retinal defocus. Baseline SFCT in myopic eyes (mean ± S.D.): 256 ± 42 μm was significantly less than in emmetropic eyes (423 ± 62 μm; p < 0.01) and was correlated with magnitude of myopia (-39 μm per dioptre of myopia, R(2) = 0.67: p < 0.01). Repeated measures anova (General Linear Model) analysis revealed that in both subject groups, 2.00 D of myopic defocus caused a rapid increase in SFCT in the defocussed eye (significant by 10 min, increasing to approximately 20 μm within 60 min: p < 0.01), with little change in the control eye. In contrast, 2.00 D of hyperopic defocus caused a decrease in SFCT in the experimental eye (significant by 20-35 min. SFCT decreased by approximately 20 μm within 60 min: p < 0.01) with little change in the control eye. Small but significant changes in SFCT (5-8%) were caused by retinal defocus. SFCT increased within 10 min of exposure to 2.00 D of monocular myopic defocus, but decreased more slowly in response to 2.00 D of monocular hyperopic defocus. In our relatively small sample we could detect no difference in the magnitude of changes to SFCT caused by defocus in myopic eyes compared to emmetropic eyes. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  6. Retinal vessel diameters decrease with macular ganglion cell layer thickness in autosomal dominant optic atrophy and in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Grønskov, Karen; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate retinal trunk vessel diameters in subjects with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) and mutation-free healthy relatives. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 52 ADOA patients with the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) exon 28 (c.2826_2836delinsGGATGCTCCA) mutation (age 8...... ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.0057, respectively). CONCLUSION: Narrow retinal arteries and veins were associated not only with the severity of ADOA but with ganglion cell volume in patients with ADOA and in healthy subjects. This suggests that narrow vessels...

  7. Comparative study of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness performed with optical coherence tomography and GDx scanning laser polarimetry in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, Jaromir T; Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona

    2012-03-01

    We compared the parameters of retinal nerve fibre layer in patients with advanced glaucoma with the use of different OCT (Optical Coherence Tomograph) devices in relation to analogical measurements performed with GDx VCC (Nerve Fiber Analyzer with Variable Corneal Compensation) scanning laser polarimetry. Study subjects had advanced primary open-angle glaucoma, previously treated conservatively, diagnosed and confirmed by additional examinations (visual field, ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve, gonioscopy), A total of 10 patients were enrolled (9 women and 1 man), aged 18-70 years of age. Nineteen eyes with advanced glaucomatous neuropathy were examined. 1) Performing a threshold perimetry Octopus, G2 strategy and ophthalmoscopy of optic nerve to confirm the presence of advanced primary open-angle glaucoma; 2) performing a GDx VCC scanning laser polarimetry of retinal nerve fibre layer; 3) measuring the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness with 3 different optical coherence tomographs. The parameters of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness are highly correlated between the GDx and OCT Stratus and 3D OCT-1000 devices in mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in the upper sector, and correlation of NFI (GDx) with mean retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in OCT examinations. Absolute values of the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (measured in µm) differ significantly between GDx and all OCT devices. Examination with OCT devices is a sensitive diagnostic method of glaucoma, with good correlation with the results of GDx scanning laser polarimetry of the patients.

  8. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason lll JO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV rate in eyes with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO or a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, and to study factors that may influence the ONV rate secondary to CRAO.Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients (286 total eyes: 83 CRAOs and 203 BRAOs who were diagnosed with a retinal artery occlusion from 1998 to 2013 at the Retina Consultants of Alabama and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between hypothesized risk factors and ONV development.Results: Twelve (14.5% of the 83 eyes with a CRAO developed ONV. Eleven of 12 eyes (91.7% had iris neovascularization, ten of 12 eyes (83.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and two of 12 eyes (16.7% had neovascularization of the optic disc. The average time for ONV development secondary to CRAO was 30.7 days, ranging from the date of presentation to 137 days. Only two (<1.0% of the 203 eyes with a BRAO developed iris neovascularization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was a risk factor for ONV development following a CRAO with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–19.8 (P=0.02.Conclusion: ONV is an important complication of CRAO and is a less-frequent complication of BRAO. Patients with a CRAO, especially those with diabetes mellitus type 2, should be closely monitored for the first 6 months for ONV. Keywords: neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, central

  9. Image registration reveals central lens thickness minimally increases during accommodation

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    Schachar RA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald A Schachar,1 Majid Mani,2 Ira H Schachar31Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 2California Retina Associates, El Centro, 3Byers Eye Institute of Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAPurpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth, central crystalline lens thickness and lens curvature during accommodation.Setting: California Retina Associates, El Centro, CA, USA.Design: Healthy volunteer, prospective, clinical research swept-source optical coherence biometric image registration study of accommodation.Methods: Ten subjects (4 females and 6 males with an average age of 22.5 years (range: 20–26 years participated in the study. A 45° beam splitter attached to a Zeiss IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Jena, Germany biometer enabled simultaneous imaging of the cornea, anterior chamber, entire central crystalline lens and fovea in the dilated right eyes of subjects before, and during focus on a target 11 cm from the cornea. Images with superimposable foveal images, obtained before and during accommodation, that met all of the predetermined alignment criteria were selected for comparison. This registration requirement assured that changes in anterior chamber depth and central lens thickness could be accurately and reliably measured. The lens radii of curvatures were measured with a pixel stick circle.Results: Images from only 3 of 10 subjects met the predetermined criteria for registration. Mean anterior chamber depth decreased, −67 µm (range: −0.40 to −110 µm, and mean central lens thickness increased, 117 µm (range: 100–130 µm. The lens surfaces steepened, anterior greater than posterior, while the lens, itself, did not move or shift its position as appeared from the lack of movement of the lens nucleus, during 7.8 diopters of accommodation, (range: 6.6–9.7 diopters.Conclusion: Image registration, with stable invariant references for image correspondence, reveals that during accommodation a

  10. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Relationship with the Position of the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk.

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    Baek-Lok Oh

    Full Text Available To determine the factors influencing the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC surface depth (LCD in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG, focusing on the association between LCD and the position of the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT at the anterior LC surface.Optic nerve heads of 205 OAG eyes were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT. After processing the images using adaptive compensation, the LCD was determined from 11 horizontal B-scan images that divided the optic disc vertically into 12 equal parts. Eyes were divided into two groups (central or peripheral according to where the CRVT exits from the anterior LC surface. The influence of CRVT position on LCD was evaluated, taking into account age, gender, untreated intraocular pressure (IOP, IOP at optic-disc scanning, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness, visual-field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, and axial length.Patients in the peripheral CRVT group were younger and more myopic, and had a larger mean LCD and thinner global RNFL than those in the central CRVT group (all P≤0.023. On multivariate analysis, the peripheral CRVT location was significantly associated with a larger LCD (P = 0.002, together with the significant association of younger age (P<0.001, higher untreated IOP (P = 0.010, and thinner RNFL (P = 0.003 on the larger LCD.In OAG, CRVT location was an independent factor influencing the LCD, together with age, untreated IOP, and global RNFL thickness. The data indicate that the CRVT may contribute to the resistance of the LC against deformation. A longitudinal prospective observation is required to clarify this relationship.

  11. Case Report of Optic Disc Drusen with Simultaneous Peripapillary Subretinal Hemorrhage and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    David Zhiwei Law

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old Chinese gentleman presented with right eye floaters and photopsia over one week. His visual acuities were 20/20 bilaterally. Posterior segment examination showed a right eye swollen optic disc and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO associated with an area of subretinal hemorrhage adjacent to the optic disc. Fundus fluorescein (FA and indocyanine green angiographies (ICGA of the right eye did not demonstrate choroidal neovascularization (CNV, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, or retinal ischemia. Ultrasound B-scan revealed optic disc drusen (ODD. In view of good vision and absence of CNV, he was managed conservatively with spontaneous resolution after two months. Commonly, ODD may directly compress and mechanically rupture subretinal vessels at the optic disc, resulting in peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage, as was likely the case in our patient. Mechanical impairment of peripapillary circulation also results in retinal ischemia and may trigger the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV and/or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, leading to subretinal haemorrhage. Compromise in central venous outflow with increased retinal central venous pressure from the direct mechanical effects of enlarging ODD results in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Patients with subretinal hemorrhage and CRVO from ODD should be monitored closely for the development of potentially sight-threatening complications.

  12. Ultra-high resolution profiles of macular intra-retinal layer thicknesses and associations with visual field defects in primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Huang, Shenghai; Ma, Qingkai; Lin, Huiling; Pan, Mengmeng; Liu, Xinting; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao

    2017-02-01

    The structural characteristics of the outer retinal layers in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) are still controversial, and these changes, along with those in the inner retinal layers, could have clinical and/or pathophysiological significance. A custom-built ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) combined with an automated segmentation algorithm can image and measure the eight intra-retinal layers. The purpose of this study is to determine the thickness characteristics of the macular intra-retinal layers, especially the outer layers, in POAG patients. Thirty-four POAG patients (56 eyes) and 33 normal subjects (63 eyes) were enrolled. Thickness profiles of the eight intra-retinal layers along a 6-mm length centred on the fovea at the horizontal and vertical meridians were obtained and the regional thicknesses were compared between two groups. The associations between the thicknesses of each intra-retinal layer and the macular visual field (VF) sensitivity were then analysed. POAG affected not only the inner retinal layers but also the photoreceptor layers and retinal pigment epithelium of the outer retina. However, the VF loss was correlated mainly with the damage of the inner retinal layers. UHR-OCT with automated algorithm is a useful tool in detecting microstructural changes of macula with respect to the progression of glaucoma.

  13. Ultra-high resolution profiles of macular intra-retinal layer thicknesses and associations with visual field defects in primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Huang, Shenghai; Ma, Qingkai; Lin, Huiling; Pan, Mengmeng; Liu, Xinting; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristics of the outer retinal layers in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) are still controversial, and these changes, along with those in the inner retinal layers, could have clinical and/or pathophysiological significance. A custom-built ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) combined with an automated segmentation algorithm can image and measure the eight intra-retinal layers. The purpose of this study is to determine the thickness characteristics of the macular intra-retinal layers, especially the outer layers, in POAG patients. Thirty-four POAG patients (56 eyes) and 33 normal subjects (63 eyes) were enrolled. Thickness profiles of the eight intra-retinal layers along a 6-mm length centred on the fovea at the horizontal and vertical meridians were obtained and the regional thicknesses were compared between two groups. The associations between the thicknesses of each intra-retinal layer and the macular visual field (VF) sensitivity were then analysed. POAG affected not only the inner retinal layers but also the photoreceptor layers and retinal pigment epithelium of the outer retina. However, the VF loss was correlated mainly with the damage of the inner retinal layers. UHR-OCT with automated algorithm is a useful tool in detecting microstructural changes of macula with respect to the progression of glaucoma. PMID:28169283

  14. Retinal oximetry measures systemic hypoxia in central nervous system vessels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasdottir, Thorunn Scheving; Bragason, David; Hardarson, Sveinn Hakon; Vacchiano, Charles; Gislason, Thorarinn; Kristjansdottir, Jona Valgerdur; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Stefánsson, Einar

    2017-01-01

    Determination of the blood oxyhemoglobin saturation in the retinal vessels of the eye can be achieved through spectrophotometric retinal oximetry which provides access to the state of oxyhemoglobin saturation in the central nervous system circulation. The purpose of this study was to test the capability of the Oxymap T1 oximeter to detect systemic hypoxemia and the effect of supplemental oxygen on retinal vessel oxyhemoglobin saturation. Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in retinal arterioles and venules was measured in 11 subjects with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long term oxygen therapy. Measurements were made with and without their daily supplemental oxygen. Eleven healthy age and gender matched subjects were measured during ambient air breathing for comparison of oxyhemoglobin saturation in retinal arterioles and venules. Retinal arteriolar oxyhemoglobin saturation in COPD subjects inspiring ambient air was compared with finger pulse oximetry and blood samples from radial artery. COPD subjects had significantly lower oxyhemoglobin saturation during ambient air breathing than healthy controls in both retinal arterioles (87.2%±4.9% vs. 93.4%±4.3%, p = 0.02; n = 11) and venules (45.0%±10.3% vs. 55.2%±5.5%, p = 0.01). Administration of their prescribed supplemental oxygen increased oxyhemoglobin saturation in retinal arterioles (87.2%±4.9% to 89.5%±6.0%, p = 0.02) but not in venules (45.0%±10.3% to 46.7%±12.8%, p = 0.3). Retinal oximetry values were slightly lower than radial artery blood values (mean percentage points difference = -5.0±5.4, 95% CI: -15.68 to 5.67) and finger pulse oximetry values (-3.1±5.5, 95% CI: -14.05 to 7.84). The noninvasive Oxymap T1 retinal oximetry detects hypoxemia in central nervous system vessels in patients with severe COPD compared with healthy controls. The instrument is sensitive to changes in oxygen breathing but displays slightly lower measures than finger pulse oximetry or radial artery

  15. Morphologic and vasculature features of the choroid and associated choroid-retinal thickness alterations in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrahimzadeh, Solmaz; Felli, Lorenzo; Plateroti, Rocco; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Giustini, Sandra; Calvieri, Stefano; Recupero, Santi Maria

    2015-06-01

    A normal structural and functional choroid is essential in supplying blood flow to the retina. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurocristopathy where the choroid is altered due to the presence of nodules. The present transversal study was conducted to examine choroidal nodules and their effect on choroidal and retinal thickness in NF1 patients. Near-infrared reflectance and optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging were used to evaluate choroidal morphology and vasculature in 19 patients with NF1 and 19 healthy, age-matched control subjects. Choroidal thickness, neuroepithelium thickness, photoreceptors together with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) thickness and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness were measured at the fovea and 1000 μm nasal, temporal, superior and inferior to the fovea in NF1 patients and control subjects. Choroidal and neuroepithelium thickness were assessed overlying and adjacent to nodules in NF1 patients. Choroidal nodules were classified as 'dome-shaped' or 'placcoid' subtypes in 17 patients. Small and medium calibre choroidal vessels were observed above dome-shaped nodules where choroidal thickness was significantly reduced. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean choroidal thickness (p=0.013) in NF1 patients with respect to control subjects. The neuroepithelium, photoreceptors together with RPE and ONL had a statistically significant reduction in mean thickness in NF1 patients (pchoroidal nodules which alter choroidal morphology and thickness. There is reduction in mean choroid thickness with generalised thinning of the neuroepithelium, photoreceptors together with RPE and ONL in NF1 patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Investigation of relationship of iris color with retinal nerve fiber layer, macula and choroid thickness in healthy individuals

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    Süleyman Demircan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine whether there was a significant relationship between eye iris color with axial length, intraocular pressure, retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFLthickness, macular thickness and choroidal thickness.METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 92 eyes of 92 healthy volunteers. These were divided into dark colored-eye(DCEand light-colored eye(LCEgroups according to iris color. The RNFL and macular thicknesses were analysed with standard optical coherence tomography(OCTprotocol while choroidal thickness was analysed with electronic data interchange(EDIprotocol in all subjects. Choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea, 1500 μm nasal and 1500 μm temporal to the fovea in a horizontal section.RESULTS: Of the 92 eyes included, 62(67.4%were dark-colored while 30(32.6%were light-colored. The mean age was 29.22±5.86y in the subjects with DCE and 28.86±6.50y in those with LCE. No significant difference was detected in mean age, axial length, macular thickness, choroidal thickness and intraocular pressure(IOPbetween the groups(P>0.05. However, RNFL thicknesses varied depending on the quadrant measured, and were lower in both global and the nasal and temporal quadrants for individuals with LCE(P≤0.022.CONCLUSION: No significant differences were found in IOP, macular thickness and choroid thickness between individuals with DCE and LCE. Meanwhile, the RNFL thickness is lower.

  17. Short-term results of endovascular surgery with tissue plasminogen activator injection for central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Masaaki; Abe, Shinya; Nakagawa, Takuya; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-08-12

    To examine the effects of retinal endovascular surgery (REVS) with tissue plasminogen activator injection into the retinal vein in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) eyes. Sixteen consecutive CRVO patients with macular edema and decreased visual acuity who were referred to Toyama University Hospital between March 2014 and February 2016 were included in this study. Changes in visual acuity (VA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) were evaluated up to 6 months after REVS. Staining and leakage of the retinal veins in fluorescein angiography (FA) was graded in nine patients. Ten of 16 eyes were determined to be non-ischemic while the remaining six were ischemic. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) of VA was significantly improved from 0.98 ± 0.58 (mean ± standard deviation) at baseline to 0.78 ± 0.61 at 3 months (p = 0.002), and 0.64 ± 0.60 at 6 months (p = 0.003) after REVS. At 6 months, VA was improved in eight eyes (50%), while the other eight (50%) showed no change; none showed worsening. In the 10 eyes with non-ischemic CRVO, the mean VA was significantly improved at 6 months (p = 0.002), whereas no improvement was found in the six eyes with ischemic CRVO, . In all eyes, the mean CRT was significantly improved from 804 ± 343 μm at baseline to 506 ± 304 μm at 2 months (p = 0.014), 332 ± 229 μm at 3 months (p = 0.0001), and 305 ± 235 μm at 6 months (p = 0.00001). The postoperative complications observed were prolonged vitreous hemorrhage in one eye and neovascular glaucoma in two eyes. For postoperative recurrence of macular edema, sub-tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide was given to five eyes, and intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF agent was given to five eyes. Pan-retinal photocoagulation was performed on six eyes with ischemic type CRVO. The FA score was significantly improved after REVS (p = 0.018). REVS using a specially made micro-needle may be a surgical treatment

  18. Retinal Nonperfusion in the Posterior Pole Is Associated With Increased Risk of Neovascularization in Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke; Vazquez-Alfageme, Clara; Patrao, Namritha V; Triantafyllopolou, Ioanna; Bainbridge, James W; Hykin, Philip G; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2017-10-01

    To review the definition of ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and stratify the risk of neovascular complication based on wider areas of visible retinal non-perfusion. Retrospective consecutive case series and image analysis study. Setting: Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Forty-two consecutive treatment-naïve eyes with CRVO imaged with ultra-widefield angiography with a minimum of 12 months follow-up. The spatial location and total area of retinal nonperfusion (measured in disc areas, DA) were determined using the validated concentric rings method. The area was corrected for projection distortion. The images were graded by 2 retinal physicians and average measurements used. Development of neovascular complications. The percentage of eyes developing new vessels increased from none in eyes with less than 10 DA of nonperfusion in total to 14.3% in eyes with 10-30 DA, 20.0% for 30-75 DA, and 80% risk with 75-150 DA of nonperfusion. From 13 (31.0%) eyes with a perfused posterior pole (an area encompassing a 5 disc diameter radius centered at the fovea) and more than 10 DA of nonperfusion isolated in the periphery (beyond the posterior pole), only 1 (7.7%) eye developed new vessels, odds ratio (OR) 0.12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 1.03]. Comparatively, for 13 (31.0%) eyes with more than 10 DA of nonperfusion in the posterior pole, 11 (84.6%) developed new vessels, OR 74.25 [95% CI: 9.26, 595.30], P < .001. With ultra-widefield angiography, we have ascertained that posterior pole nonperfusion of more than 10 DA remains the key risk factor for new vessel development compared to areas of nonperfusion confined to the periphery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Refractive Correction Error on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness: A Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Chen, Yutong; Liu, Xianjie; Ning, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and assessing retinal nerve fiber layer defects are important for diagnosing and managing glaucoma. We aimed to investigate the effect of refractive correction error on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Material/Methods We included 68 participants: 32 healthy (normal) and 36 glaucoma patients. RNFL thickness was measured using Spectralis SD-OCT circular scan. Measurements were made with a refractive correction of the spherical equivalent (SE), the SE+2.00D and the SE–2.00D. Results Average RNFL thickness was significantly higher in the normal group (105.88±10.47 μm) than in the glaucoma group (67.67±17.27 μm, Prefractive correction error significantly affected measurements of average (Prefractive correction error significantly increased average (Prefractive correction. However, −2.00D of refractive correction error did not significantly affect RNFL thickness measurements in either group. Conclusions Positive defocus error significantly affects RNFL thickness measurements made by the Spectralis SD-OCT. Negative defocus error did not affect RNFL measurement examined. Careful correction of refractive error is necessary to obtain accurate baseline and follow-up RNFL thickness measurements in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. PMID:28030536

  20. PERIPAPILLARY CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY: Is Choroid Outside the Macula Also Thick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Cheolmin; Oh, Jaeryung; Han, Ji Yun; Hwang, Soon-Young; Moon, Sang Woong; Huh, Kuhl

    2015-09-01

    To investigate peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT) outside the macula in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). We reviewed the medical records of 34 patients with unilaterally symptomatic idiopathic CSC and 34 age-matched controls. Subfoveal and peripapillary CT were measured from images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The nasal peripapillary CT of the choroid outside the macula was determined. The subfoveal CT of CSC (369.74 ± 54.17 μm) and fellow eyes (316.18 ± 54.68 μm) of the patient group were thicker than those of the normal controls (281.90 ± 40.97 μm, all P thick choroids both within and outside the macula, especially when subfoveal CT is increased.

  1. Changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness after spinal surgery in the prone position: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Gencer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in ocular perfusion play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic optic neuropathy. Ocular perfusion pressure is equal to mean arterial pressure minus intraocular pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the intraocular pressure and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients undergoing spinal surgery in the prone position. METHODS: This prospective study included 30 patients undergoing spinal surgery. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured one day before and after the surgery by using optical coherence tomography. Intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen six times at different position and time-duration: supine position (baseline; 10 min after intubation (Supine 1; 10 (Prone 1, 60 (Prone 2, 120 (Prone 3 min after prone position; and just after postoperative supine position (Supine 2. RESULTS: Our study involved 10 male and 20 female patients with the median age of 57 years. When postoperative retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements were compared with preoperative values, a statistically significant thinning was observed in inferior and nasal quadrants (p = 0.009 and p = 0.003, respectively. We observed a statistically significant intraocular pressure decrease in Supine 1 and an increase in both Prone 2 and Prone 3 when compared to the baseline. Mean arterial pressure and ocular perfusion pressure were found to be significantly lower in Prone 1, Prone 2 and Prone 3, when compared with the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown increase in intraocular pressure during spinal surgery in prone position. A statistically significant retinal nerve fiber layer thickness thinning was seen in inferior and nasal quadrants one day after the spinal surgery.

  2. Prospective study of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide versus bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiaqing; Hu, Xuting; Yu, Shanshan; Pan, Jianying; Tang, Shibo

    2011-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT) versus intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) for the treatment of macular edema (ME) secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Prospective, consecutive, clinical interventional study. A total of 31 consecutive patients (32 eyes) with ME associated with central retinal vein occlusion were randomized to 2 groups. Sixteen eyes were treated with intravitreal injection of 4 mg/0.1 mL preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide; 16 eyes received IVB 1.25 mg/0.05 mL. Patients were given additional injections if they had ME as determined by optical coherence tomography 3 months after the first treatment or visual acuity loss of at least 2 lines in a Snellen chart. Best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, the number of required injections, and adverse events were recorded during the 9-month follow-up period. Best-corrected visual acuity was significantly improved at 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after injection in both the IVT and IVB groups, but no statistical difference was found between the 2 treatment groups during the 9-month follow-up period. The mean central macular thickness decreased at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after injection within each treatment group, and no statistical difference was found between the 2 treatment groups at any time during the follow-up period (P > 0.05). Patients who received IVT treatment appeared to have quicker visual recovery and improved central macular thickness at Week 2 compared with those who received IVB treatment. Five of 16 eyes in the IVT group and 12 of 16 eyes in the IVB group required a repeated injection because of recurrent ME or unresolved intraretinal or subretinal fluid. The mean number of treatment was 1.31 ± 0.48 in the IVT group, as compared with 2.38 ± 1.04 in the IVB group. Significant intraocular pressure increase was found only in the IVT

  3. Concomitant multiple myeloma spectrum diagnosis in a central retinal vein occlusion: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic plasma-cell disorder resulting from malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. It can cause a hyperviscosity syndrome secondary to the paraproteinaemia associated with the disease. The increased hyperviscosity can lead to retinal vein occlusions and other ocular problems that may challenge clinicians. In patients with multiple myeloma and hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus, retinal changes appear similar and changes due to one disease or the other may be difficult to determine. A 48-year-old white female presented to the clinic with a complaint of blurry vision in her left eye. A full comprehensive ocular examination revealed a central retinal vein occlusion presumably from the patient's history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia. Further bloodwork revealed monoclonal protein in the patient's serum and an increased percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow. She was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, part of the multiple myeloma disease spectrum. She was referred to a retinal specialist for initiation of intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Multiple myeloma has been implicated in younger patients as an underlying cause of retinal vein occlusions. Multiple myeloma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal vein occlusions, even if other risk factors for venous occlusion like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia are present. Timely referral to the patient's primary care physician and haematologist is important for appropriate treatment and control of underlying systemic conditions. © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  4. A patient with acute macular neuroretinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirooka K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kiriko Hirooka,1 Wataru Saito,1,2 Kousuke Noda,1,2 Susumu Ishida1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 2Department of Ocular Circulation and Metabolism, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanPurpose: The precise mechanism causing acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN is still unknown. A recent report suggested that choroidal circulation impairment correlates with its pathogenesis. We report a rare case with simultaneous onset of AMN and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO, which is a retinal circulation disorder.Methods: Case report.Results: A 44-year-old woman complained of central visual loss of the left eye for the previous 2 weeks. The patient’s visual acuity was 0.5 in the left eye (OS. Fundoscopic examination revealed a wedge-shaped, dark reddish-brown lesion at the macula, and CRVO-like retinal hemorrhages OS. Fluorescein angiography revealed retinal vasculitis and hypofluorescence corresponding to the macular lesion. The patient’s scanning laser ophthalmoscopy infrared imaging result led to a diagnosis of AMN. Two weeks after corticosteroid pulse therapy, her visual acuity improved to 1.2 OS, with improvement of macular findings and Humphrey perimetry. When the dose of oral corticosteroid was decreased, the AMN lesion worsened, with recurrence of retinal hemorrhages. Visual functions improved again after an increased dose of corticosteroid.Conclusion: These results suggest that circulatory disorders almost simultaneously occurred in choroidal and retinal vessels, resulting in the onset of both AMN and CRVO.Keywords: choroidal circulation, optical coherence tomography, retinal circulation, systemic corticosteroid therapy

  5. UNILATERAL OPTIC NEURITIS AND CENTRAL RETINAL VASCULITIS DUE TO OCULAR SYPHILIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murtaza S; Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Popli, Tanav A; Moorthy, Ramana S; Mackay, Devin D

    2017-08-14

    Report a case of concurrent unilateral optic neuritis and central retinal artery occlusion as the presenting signs of syphilis. A case report of a 22-year-old man with progressive unilateral vision loss. With no known previous history of syphilis, genital lesions, or other extraocular manifestations, the patient presented with pain with eye movements and decreased color vision. His vision dramatically worsened after a course of oral steroids. Examination was remarkable for severe right optic disk edema with a macular cherry-red spot and mild posterior uveitis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits with contrast revealed enhancement and enlargement of the distal right optic nerve. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated delayed filling of the right central retinal artery, suggestive of impending central retinal artery occlusion. Syphilis serologies were positive from the serum, and cerebrospinal fluid Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test was reactive, consistent with neurosyphilis. Oral steroids were discontinued and vision improved with 2 weeks of intravenous penicillin. This unusual case highlights one of the possible initial presentations of syphilis: unilateral optic neuritis and central retinal artery vasculitis with mild posterior uveitis. The worsening of vision after administration of oral steroids also highlights a potential complication of oral steroid use in the absence of a known etiology of vision loss. A thorough history and examination may be helpful in identifying risk factors for infectious causes, including syphilis, and should prompt additional evaluation.

  6. Individualized Ranibizumab Regimen Driven by Stabilization Criteria for Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Boscia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the 12-month efficacy and safety profile of an individualized regimen of ranibizumab 0.5 mg driven by stabilization criteria in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN: A 24-month, prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter...

  7. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Tasanee; Nanji, Afshan A; Lindsley, Kristina; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-01-01

    greater than or equal to 15 letters (3 lines) on the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of participants with a loss of 15 letters or more of BCVA, the mean change from baseline BCVA, the mean change in central retinal thickness (CRT), the number and type of complications or adverse outcomes, and the number of additional interventions administered. Where available, we also presented quality of life and economic data. Main results We found six RCTs that met the inclusion criteria after independent and duplicate review of the search results. These RCTs included 937 participants and compared outcomes at six months to sham injection for four anti-VEGF agents: aflibercept (VEGF Trap-Eye, Eylea), bevacizumab (Avastin), pegaptanib sodium (Macugen) and ranibizumab (Lucentis). Three trials were conducted in Norway, Sweden and the USA, and three trials were multicentre, one including centres in the USA, Canada, India, Israel, Argentina and Columbia, a second including centres in the USA, Australia, France, Germany, Israel, and Spain, and a third including centres in Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Australia, Japan, Singapore and South Korea. We performed meta-analysis on three key visual outcomes, using data from up to six trials. High-quality evidence from six trials revealed that participants receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment were 2.71 times more likely to gain at least 15 letters of visual acuity at six months compared to participants treated with sham injections (risk ratio (RR) 2.71; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.10 to 3.49). High-quality evidence from five trials suggested anti-VEGF treatment was associated with an 80% lower risk of losing at least 15 letters of visual acuity at six months compared to sham injection (RR 0.20; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.34). Moderate-quality evidence from three trials (481 participants) revealed that the mean reduction from baseline to six months in central

  8. Retinal Oxygen Saturation Correlates With Visual Acuity but Does Not Predict Outcome After Anti-VEGF Treatment in Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Signe Krejberg; Bek, Toke

    2017-05-01

    Occlusion of the central retinal vein (CRVO) is a frequent cause of visual loss. The occlusion induces hypoxia in the retina and the larger retinal veins, but the significance of retinal oxygen saturation for visual acuity at diagnosis and after anti-VEGF treatment for CRVO has not been studied in detail. Retinal oximetry was performed in 91 patients consecutively referred for specialist evaluation of CRVO. The correlation between oxygen saturation in larger retinal vessels and visual acuity at the primary examination and the predictive value of oxygen saturation for visual prognosis after three monthly intravitreal injections with anti-VEGF medication were studied. At referral, the oxygen saturation in larger retinal vessels of the affected eye was significantly higher in arterioles (100.7 ± 1.4% vs. 96.3 ± 0.6%) and significantly lower in venules (37.8 ± 2.6% vs. 58.2 ± 1.3%) than in the unaffected eye (P retinal arterioles (P = 0.002) and a significant positive correlation with the saturation in retinal venules (P = 0.013). Multiple linear regression showed that BCVA, but not oxygen saturations, contributed significantly to predicting visual outcome after three monthly intravitreal injections with VEGF inhibitor. The correlation between retinal oxygen saturation and BCVA at the time of diagnosis of CRVO may help understanding hemodynamic and visual changes in the acute stages of the disease. However, retinal oximetry cannot replace measures of retinal function as a predictive parameter for the visual outcome in CRVO after three monthly intravitreal anti-VEGF injections.

  9. Three intravitreal bevacizumab versus two intravitreal triamcinolone injections in recent onset central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Alireza; Esfandiari, Hamed; Entezari, Morteza; Moradian, Siamak; Soheilian, Masoud; Dehsarvi, Babak; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of repeated intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB) versus triamcinolone acetonide (IVT) in the treatment of acute central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). In this randomized clinical trial, 86 eyes with recent onset (central macular thickness (CMT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) changes. Mean BCVA improved significantly at 6 months in both groups; from 0.87 ± 0.49 to 0.41 ± 0.35 logMAR in IVB group, and from 0.81 ± 0.45 to 0.62 ± 0.48 logMAR in IVT group (p < 0.001). However, between-group differences reach a significant level at months 4 (p = 0.003) and 6 (p < 0.001) in favour of the IVB group. In terms of CMT reduction, the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002) at month 6. Significant differences were noted more in the ischaemic cases in favour of the IVB group. Mean IOP rise was significantly higher in the IVT group at all visits. Both 3-times monthly IVB injections and 2-times IVT injections could be effective in cases with recent onset CRVO up to 6 months. However, considering the better outcomes after IVB injections and the potential complications of IVT injections, we would recommend prescheduled repeated IVB injections for such cases. The observed favourable responses were more pronounced in the ischaemic types; nevertheless, this should be confirmed in larger studies. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparison between ranibizumab and aflibercept for macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saishin, Yoshitsugu; Ito, Yuka; Fujikawa, Masato; Sawada, Tomoko; Ohji, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of bimonthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (IVR) with that of bimonthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept (IVA) in two prospective, consecutive groups of patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Eyes with ME after CRVO received either bimonthly IVR (ranibizumab group; n = 13) or IVA (aflibercept group; n = 13) injections and were followed monthly for 6 months. Three patients in the ranibizumab group and two in the aflibercept group were lost to follow-up and excluded from the study. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness (CFT) on optical coherence tomography, and aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations were evaluated before and after treatment. From baseline to month 6, significant improvements occurred in mean logMAR BCVA (ranibizumab group: 0.78-0.47; p < 0.05; aflibercept group: 0.74-0.54; p < 0.05) and mean CFT (ranibizumab group: 685-311 µm; p < 0.05; aflibercept group: 695-230 µm; p < 0.05). Fluctuations in CFT were seen at months 2, 4, and 6 in the ranibizumab group. Mean aqueous VEGF concentration decreased from baseline to month 2 in the ranibizumab group (509.9-348.2 pg/ml) and aflibercept group (412.1 pg/ml to undetectable limits in eight of 11 eyes and to 13.6, 15.6, and 24.1 pg/ml in the other three eyes, respectively). There was no significant improvement of visual acuity in one group compared with another; VEGF may not be completely neutralized by bimonthly injections of ranibizumab.

  11. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Ahmet; Altun, Gulengul; Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat Fazil

    2013-01-01

    A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmo-logic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye.

  12. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Resolving After Orbital Decompression in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Seanna R; Yoon, Michael K

    A 49-year-old male presented with proptosis and was found to have optic nerve edema with peripapillary hemorrhages. Diagnostic testing showed a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone. CT orbits showed homogenous tendon-sparing enlargement of the medial and inferior rectus muscles, characteristic of thyroid eye disease. Intravenous methylprednisolone was administered given the concern for compressive optic neuropathy. He initially had improvement of his symptoms, so orbital decompression was deferred. Subsequently he presented with worsening diplopia and right proptosis, a new afferent pupillary defect, and a cecocentral visual field defect. Dilated examination revealed significant optic nerve head edema and diffuse retinal hemorrhages in all 4 quadrants consistent with a central retinal vein occlusion. The patient underwent an urgent 3-wall orbital decompression on the right. Close follow up postoperatively showed resolution of the central retinal vein occlusion and the associated optic disc edema, peripapillary hemorrhages, and macular edema. Orbital decompression is known to improve many manifestations of thyroid eye disease, but this is the first report of orbital decompression resulting in resolution of a central retinal vein occlusion.

  13. Crustal Thickness Along the Central American Volcanic Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, L. S.; Abers, G. A.; Rondenay, S.; Fischer, K. M.; Syracuse, E. M.; Protti, J. M.; Gonzalez, V.; Strauch, W.

    2007-12-01

    Subduction zone processes alter the upper plate in a number of ways, including accretion, magmatic addition, serpentinization of the mantle wedge and formation of mafic cumulates in the lower crust. All of these changes affect seismic velocities, and characterizing the structure of underlying terranes in Central America establishes a baseline for composition and continental growth. Tomography Under Costa Rica and Nicaragua (TUCAN) is a PASSCAL deployment of broadband seismometers over an 18-month period. The network has two dense cross arc lines and two along arc lines that cross terrane boundaries. Teleseismic P and PP arrivals recorded on the TUCAN network have been used to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs, and to develop receiver function images. Surface reflected mode conversions (Ppms and Psms) enhance resolution. Crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 44 km with formal errors ranging 1.6-9.2 km. The thinnest crust (24.6 +/- 3.5 km) lies directly beneath the arc in Nicaragua, whereas the thickest crust (43.5 +/- 2.5 km) lies in the backarc in Nicaragua and beneath the Costa Rican arc (37.9 +/- 5.2). Changes in crustal thickness and Vp/Vs show two distinct terrane boundaries crossing the arc. Vp/Vs indicate continental crust (Vp/Vs=1.71-1.77) in Nicaragua, with a transition to gabbroic crust (Vp/Vs=1.82-1.88) in Costa Rica where fragments of the Caribbean large Igneous Province have been found. Crustal thickness beneath the arc in Costa Rica yields a crustal growth rate of 16-36 km3/km/Ma, assuming a base crustal thickness of 30-32 km with 6-14 Ma of magmatism. The Moho shows strong velocity contrasts throughout the study area, and is the only interface seen in the backarc, but it is complicated by interferences caused by shallow structure beneath the arc and forearc. Forward modeling indicates that reverberations in sediment layers interfere with the Ps arrival, however surface reflected arrivals (Ppms) require a velocity contrast on the order of 0.5-1.0 km

  14. Regarding optical coherence tomography grading of ischemia in central retinal venous occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Koushik TripathyDepartment of Vitreoretina and Uvea, ICARE Eye Hospital & Postgraduate Institute, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaThe author read with interest the article by Browning et al.1 The author humbly wants to discuss a few facts.1. The article1 discusses grading of retinal ischemia based on optical coherence tomography features in central retinal venous occlusion. As coexisting central retinal arterial occlusion or cilioretinal arterial occlusion may also cause inner retinal hyper-reflectivity, exclusion of such cases is an important consideration before implicating central retinal venous occlusion for the ischemia. Extensive intraretinal hemorrhages are other important hindrances to the evaluation of the perfusion status of the retina using both fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomography.2. It would be interesting to know the gonioscopic findings, especially neovascularization of the anterior chamber angle if it was performed at presentation and during the follow-ups.3. The manuscript documented that the incidence of anterior segment neovascularization at 1 year was 8.9% in severe ischemia group.1 The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization in perfused groups was higher (15.4% and 17.6% for mild and moderate ischemia, respectively. Although the sample size was low, such findings are contrary to the literature2 and require further discussion. Authors' replyDavid J Browning, Omar S Punjabi, Chong LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, P.A., Charlotte, NC, USA We thank Dr Tripathy for his interest in our article and would respond to his above-mentioned points.1. We agree that excluding eyes with cilioretinal artery and central retinal artery occlusions is necessary to be able to attribute inner retinal reflectivity changes to central retinal vein occlusion. Cilioretinal artery occlusion is associated with a band of ischemic retinal whitening and central retinal artery occlusion

  15. Clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy in monkeys with experimental glaucoma and temporary central retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy. Materials and Methods: The study included 16 eyes of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta - 4 eyes with experimental glaucoma, 11 eyes after experimental temporary occlusion of the central retinal artery, and 1 normal eye. On histological sections, we measured zones with different histological characteristics.On fundus photographs, alpha zone and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy were measured and correlated with the histological data. Results: The size of the clinical alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy was significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium (P = 0.05; correlation coefficient r = 0.49 and with the size of the histological region with a decreased density of retinal photoreceptors (P = 0.01; r = 0.60. The size of clinical beta zone of parapapillary atrophy significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (P <0.001; r = 0.91, with the size of the histological zone with a complete loss of photoreceptors (P <0.001; r = 0.81, and with the size of the histological zone with a closed choriocapillaris (P <0.001; r = 0.89. Conclusions: The clinically seen alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological parapapillary irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium and decreased density of retinal photoreceptors. The clinically seen beta zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium and of the photoreceptors, and a closure of the choriocapillaris.

  16. Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, J; Kankipati, L; Strang, C E

    2014-01-01

    ). The ipRGCs regulate other nonimage-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behavior, and light-induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP-immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we......-expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing colocalized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex...... including the pregeniculate nucleus, the pretectal olivary nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, the brachium of the superior colliculus, and the superior colliculus. In conclusion, PACAP-immunoreactive projections with colocalized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey...

  17. RETINAL MICROVASCULATURE AND VISUAL ACUITY AFTER INTRAVITREAL AFLIBERCEPT IN EYES WITH CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegarner, Andrew; Wakabayashi, Taku; Hara-Ueno, Chikako; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Busch, Caleb; Fukushima, Yoko; Sayanagi, Kaori; Nishida, Kentaro; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-09-07

    To investigate vascular perfusion and foveal avascular zone area in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) after intravitreal aflibercept therapy in central retinal vein occlusion eyes and their association with best-corrected visual acuity. Thirty-five subjects with central retinal vein occlusion and macular edema were evaluated. After macular edema resolution following intravitreal aflibercept, subjects underwent optical coherence tomography angiography to measure SCP and DCP perfusion and the foveal avascular zone within a 3 × 3-mm area. Correlations between best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography angiography measurements were examined. After intravitreal aflibercept therapy, mean retinal vascular area was 3.41 ± 0.74 mm in the SCP and 3.25 ± 0.91 mm in the DCP. Foveal avascular zone area was 1.03 ± 1.04 mm in the SCP and 1.78 ± 1.73 mm in the DCP. Improved best-corrected visual acuity was significantly associated with better SCP and DCP perfusion (both P retinal perfusion and less retinal ischemia are associated with better visual outcomes after aflibercept in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion.

  18. Incidence and Clinical Features of Neovascularization of the Iris following Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kyu Hyung; Han, Moon-Ku; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of neovascularization of the iris (NVI) and clinical features of patients with NVI following acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). A retrospective review of 214 consecutive CRAO patients who visited one tertiary hospital between January 2009 and January 2015 was conducted. In total, 110 patients were eligible for this study after excluding patients with arteritic CRAO, a lack of follow-up, iatrogenic CRAO secondary to cosmetic filler injection, or NVI detected before CRAO attack. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was applied until retinal arterial reperfusion was achieved, typically within 1 to 3 months. The incidence of NVI was 10.9% (12 out of 110 patients). Neovascular glaucoma was found in seven patients (6.4%). The mean time to NVI diagnosis after CRAO events was 3.0 months (range, 1 week to 15 months). The cumulative incidence was 5.5% at 3 months, 7.3% at 6 months, and 10.9% at 15 months. Severely narrowed ipsilateral carotid arteries were observed in only three patients (27.3%). The other nine patients (75.0%) showed no predisposing conditions for NVI, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy or central retinal vein occlusion. Reperfusion rate and prevalence of diabetes were significantly different between patients with NVI and patients without NVI (reperfusion: 0% [NVI] vs. 94.7% [no NVI], p < 0.001; diabetes: 50.0% [NVI] vs. 17.3% [no NVI], p = 0.017). CRAO may lead to NVI and neovascular glaucoma caused by chronic retinal ischemia from reperfusion failure. Our results indicate that follow-up fluorescein angiography is important to evaluate retinal artery reperfusion after acute CRAO events, and that prophylactic treatment such as panretinal photocoagulation should be considered if retinal arterial perfusion is not recovered.

  19. Incidence and Clinical Features of Neovascularization of the Iris following Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kyu Hyung; Han, Moon-Ku; Jung, Cheolkyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of neovascularization of the iris (NVI) and clinical features of patients with NVI following acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). Methods A retrospective review of 214 consecutive CRAO patients who visited one tertiary hospital between January 2009 and January 2015 was conducted. In total, 110 patients were eligible for this study after excluding patients with arteritic CRAO, a lack of follow-up, iatrogenic CRAO secondary to cosmetic filler injection, or NVI detected before CRAO attack. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was applied until retinal arterial reperfusion was achieved, typically within 1 to 3 months. Results The incidence of NVI was 10.9% (12 out of 110 patients). Neovascular glaucoma was found in seven patients (6.4%). The mean time to NVI diagnosis after CRAO events was 3.0 months (range, 1 week to 15 months). The cumulative incidence was 5.5% at 3 months, 7.3% at 6 months, and 10.9% at 15 months. Severely narrowed ipsilateral carotid arteries were observed in only three patients (27.3%). The other nine patients (75.0%) showed no predisposing conditions for NVI, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy or central retinal vein occlusion. Reperfusion rate and prevalence of diabetes were significantly different between patients with NVI and patients without NVI (reperfusion: 0% [NVI] vs. 94.7% [no NVI], p < 0.001; diabetes: 50.0% [NVI] vs. 17.3% [no NVI], p = 0.017). Conclusions CRAO may lead to NVI and neovascular glaucoma caused by chronic retinal ischemia from reperfusion failure. Our results indicate that follow-up fluorescein angiography is important to evaluate retinal artery reperfusion after acute CRAO events, and that prophylactic treatment such as panretinal photocoagulation should be considered if retinal arterial perfusion is not recovered. PMID:27729755

  20. Compound 49b Restores Retinal Thickness and Reduces Degenerate Capillaries in the Rat Retina following Ischemia/Reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that Compound 49b, a novel β-adrenergic receptor agonist, can significantly reduce VEGF levels in retinal endothelial cells (REC grown in diabetic-like conditions. In this study, we investigated whether Compound 49b could protect the retina under hypoxic conditions using the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R-induced model in rats, as well REC cultured in hypoxic conditions. Some rats received 1mM topical Compound 49b for the 2 (5 rats each group or 10 (4 rats in each group days post-I/R. Analyses for retinal thickness and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer was done at 2 days post-I/R, while numbers of degenerate capillaries and pericyte ghosts were measured at 10 days post-I/R. Additionally, REC were cultured in normal oxygen or hypoxia (5% O2 only or treated with 50 nM Compound 49b for 12 hours. Twelve hours after Compound 49b exposure, cells were collected and analyzed for protein levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF and its receptor (KDR, angiopoietin 1 and its receptor Tie2 for Western blotting. Data indicate that exposure to I/R significantly decreased retinal thickness, with increasing numbers of degenerate capillaries and pericyte ghosts. Compound 49b treatment inhibited these retinal changes. In REC cultured in hypoxia, levels of IGFBP-3 were reduced, which were significantly increased by Compound 49b. Hypoxia significantly increased protein levels of VEGF, KDR, Angiopoiein 1, and Tie2, which were reduced following Compound 49b treatment. These data strongly suggested that Compound 49b protected the retina against I/R-induced injury. This provides additional support for a role of β-adrenergic receptor actions in the retina.

  1. Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Altun,1 Gulengul Altun,2 Osman Okan Olcaysu,3 Sevda Aydin Kurna,1 Suat Fazil Aki11Clinic of Ophthalmology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pediatrics, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Clinic of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Region Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyAbstract: A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye.Keywords: retina, artery, occlusion, fibromuscular, dysplasia

  2. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Combined with Artery Occlusions in A Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Haitai Li; Ruiduan Liao; Dezheng Wu

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This is the first report of a bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusionscombined with artery occlusions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS). Methods: Case report. Results: A 22-year-old Chinese(male) with a positive human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection developed bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusions combinedwith artery occlusions and severe vision loss. The manifestations of the fundus andfluorescein angiography were similar in both eyes.Conclusion: This case report provides the evidences that central retinal vein and arteryocclusions are probably part of the spectrum of AIDS vascular diseases.

  3. The Feasibility of Central Retinal Artery Doppler Ultrasonography in Patients with Sudden Visual Disturbance that's Caused by Retinal Vascular Occlusion

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    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    We evaluated the usefulness of central retinal artery Doppler ultrasonography for assessing the patients with sudden visual disturbance that's caused by retinal vascular occlusion. The blood flow velocity and the resistive and pulsatile indexes were measured at the central retinal arteries of 65 patients with sudden visual disturbance. For all the subjects, the patient's affected eye was compared with the non-affected eye. We investigated the efficacy of the Doppler ultrasonography parameters to predict a significant visual loss on the Snellen test (<20/400). A significantly lower central retinal arterial flow velocity was measured in the affected eye as compared with the unaffected normal eye for all the subjects (p < 0.05). The ROC curves showed that the mean velocity was the best parameter to predict significant visual loss (p < 0.05). If a mean velocity of 4.3 cm/sec was chosen as the cutoff value to predict significant visual loss, then the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 89%, 95%, 95%, 88% and 92%, respectively (estimated area = 0.958, p-value <0.01). Central retinal artery Doppler ultrasonography was helpful for predicting significant visual loss in patients who complain of sudden visual disturbance. In addition to the other ophthalmologic diagnostic modalities, Doppler ultrasonography may be a feasible modality to depict impending further visual loss of an ischemic origin.

  4. Relationship Between Peripapillary Choroid and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in a Population-Based Sample of Nonglaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Preeti; Cheung, Carol Y; Baskaran, Mani; Tian, Jing; Marziliano, Pina; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To describe the relationship between peripapillary choroidal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in a population-based sample of nonglaucomatous eyes. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 478 nonglaucomatous subjects aged over 40 years were recruited from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES-2). All participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination, including Cirrus and Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the measurements of RNFL thickness and peripapillary choroidal thickness, respectively. Associations between peripapillary choroidal thickness and RNFL thickness were assessed using linear regression models with generalized estimating equations. Of the 424 included subjects (843 nonglaucomatous eyes), 60.9% were women, and the mean (SD) age was 66.74 (10.44) years. The mean peripapillary choroidal thickness was 135.59 ± 56.74 μm and the mean RNFL thickness was 92.92 ± 11.41 μm. In terms of distribution profile, peripapillary choroid was thickest (150.04 ± 59.72 μm) at the superior and thinnest (110.71 ± 51.61 μm) at the inferior quadrant, whereas RNFL was thickest (118.60 ± 19.83 μm) at the inferior and thinnest (67.36 ± 11.36 μm) at the temporal quadrant. We found that thinner peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPCT) was independently associated with thinner RNFL thickness globally (regression coefficient [β] = -1.334 μm for per-SD decrease in PPCT, P = .003), and in the inferior (β = -2.565, P = .001) and superior (β = -2.340, P = .001) quadrants even after adjusting for potential confounders. Thinner peripapillary choroid was independently associated with thinner RNFL globally and in the inferior and superior regions. This structure-structure relationship may need further exploration in glaucomatous eyes prior to its application in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography in patients with schizophrenia: A short report

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    Francisco J. Ascaso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Our study aims to assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in patients affected by schizophrenia. Methods: Ten schizophrenic patients (mean age 39 +/- 13 years, best corrected visual acuity > 20/20, refractive error between +/-2 diopters, and intraocular pressure <18 mmHg were enrolled. They were compared with 10 age-matched controls. In all subjects, optic nerve head (ONH measurements, peripapillary RNFL thickness, macular thickness and volume were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Results: Schizophrenic patients showed an statistically significant reduction of the overall RNFL thickness (95+/-13 µm, range: 53-110 compared with those values observed in control eyes (103+/-8 µm, range: 88-119 (p = 0.047, Mann-Whitney U test. We also observed reduced peripapillary RNFL thickness in nasal quadrant in schizophrenic patients (75+/-17 µm, range: 41-111 when compared with controls (84+/-10 µm, range: 67-105 (p = 0.048, Mann-Whitney U test. The remaining peripapillary RNFL quadrants, macular thickness and volume did not reveal differences between both groups. No statistically significant differences were observed between the control group and schizophrenia patients with regard to ONH measurements, macular thickness and volume. Conclusions: Schizophrenia patients had a reduction of peripapillary RNFL thickness evaluated by OCT. To our knowledge, neither reduced RNFL thickness nor macular thickness and volume have been previously documented in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that neuronal degeneration could be present in the retina of schizophrenic patients as previously observed in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Effect of macular hole volume on postoperative central macular thickness

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    Taylan Ozturk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the association between macular hole volume (MHV and postoperative central macular thickness (CMT using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods: Thirty-three eyes of 30 patients with a large full-thickness idiopathic macular hole with or without vitreomacular traction who underwent surgical intervention were included in this cross-sectional study. Complete ophthalmological examination, including SD-OCT, was performed for all participants during the pre- and postoperative visits. MHV was preoperatively measured using SD-OCT, which captured the widest cross-sectional image of the hole. For normal distribution analysis of the data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed, and for statistical analyses, chi-square, Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were performed. Results: Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and MHV were found to be 0.99 ± 0.36 (range, 0.3-2.0 logMAR and 0.139 ± 0.076 (range, 0.004-0.318 mm3, respectively. Mean follow-up was 16.3 ± 14.3 (range, 3-50 months. No statistical correlations were found between MHV and postoperative BCVA (p=0.588 and between MHV and disease recurrence (p=0.544. A weak negative correlation existed between MHV and final CMT scores (p=0.04, r=-0.383. Conclusions: Greater MHV was found to be weakly associated with lower postoperative CMT scores.

  7. Relationship between white matter hyperintensities and retinal nerve fiber layer, choroid, and ganglion cell layer thickness in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyigundogdu, Ilkin; Derle, Eda; Asena, Leyla; Kural, Feride; Kibaroglu, Seda; Ocal, Ruhsen; Akkoyun, Imren; Can, Ufuk

    2017-01-01

    Aim To compare the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on brain magnetic resonance imaging and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), choroid, and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thicknesses in migraine patients and healthy subjects. We also assessed the role of cerebral hypoperfusion in the formation of these WMH lesions. Methods We enrolled 35 migraine patients without WMH, 37 migraine patients with WMH, and 37 healthy control subjects examined in the Neurology outpatient clinic of our tertiary center from May to December 2015. RFNL, choroid, and GCL thicknesses were measured by optic coherence tomography. Results There were no differences in the RFNL, choroid, or GCL thicknesses between migraine patients with and without WMH ( p > 0.05). Choroid layer thicknesses were significantly lower in migraine patients compared to control subjects ( p thicknesses ( p > 0.05). Conclusions The 'only cerebral hypoperfusion' theory was insufficient to explain the pathophysiology of WMH lesions in migraine patients. In addition, the thinning of the choroid thicknesses in migraine patients suggests a potential causative role for cerebral hypoperfusion and decreased perfusion pressure of the choroid layer.

  8. Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, J.; Kankipati, L.; Strang, C.E.; Peterson, B.B.; Dacey, D.; Gamlin, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide PACAP. The ipRGCs regulate other non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behaviour and light induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer Cholera Toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining. In the retina, PACAP and melanopsin were found to be co-stored in 99% of melanopsin expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing co-localized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex (LGN) including the pregeniculate nucleus (PrGC), the pretectal olivary nucleus (PON), the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), the brachium of the superior colliculus (BSC), and the superior colliculus (SC). In conclusion, PACAP immunoreactive projections with co-localized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey, and support previous retrograde tracer studies demonstrating that melanopsin containing retinal projections reach areas in the primate brain involved in both image and non-image-forming visual processing. PMID:24752373

  9. Central projections of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, J; Kankipati, L; Strang, C E; Peterson, B B; Dacey, D; Gamlin, P D

    2014-07-01

    Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). The ipRGCs regulate other nonimage-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behavior, and light-induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP-immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining. In the retina, PACAP and melanopsin were found to be costored in 99% of melanopsin-expressing cells characterized as inner and outer stratifying melanopsin RGCs. Two macaque monkeys were anesthetized and received a unilateral intravitreal injection of CtB. Bilateral retinal projections containing colocalized CtB and PACAP immunostaining were identified in the SCN, the lateral geniculate complex including the pregeniculate nucleus, the pretectal olivary nucleus, the nucleus of the optic tract, the brachium of the superior colliculus, and the superior colliculus. In conclusion, PACAP-immunoreactive projections with colocalized CtB represent retinal projections of ipRGCs in the macaque monkey, supporting previous retrograde tracer studies demonstrating that melanopsin-containing retinal projections reach areas in the primate brain involved in both image- and nonimage-forming visual processing.

  10. Accelerated ischemic vascular retinopathy after intravitreally injected bevacizumab for central retinal vein occlusion in elderly patients

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    Isola V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vincenzo Isola,1 Alfredo Pece,1,2 Claudio Massironi,1 Simone Reposi,1 Fabio Dimastrogiovanni11Department of Ophthalmology, Melegnano Hospital, 2Fondazione Retina 3000, Milano, ItalyBackground: Ischemic changes in the retinal circulation are an uncommon but severe adverse vascular reaction to intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA/Roche, Basel, Switzerland for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. In the two cases reported here, ischemic changes in the retina vasculature following intravitreal bevacizumab for CRVO were observed with the aim of describing the clinical and angiographic features of these changes.Methods: Two elderly patients with recent-onset CRVO received one off-label intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 0.05 mL/1.25 mg.Results: In Case 1, the patient's pre-treatment visual acuity was 20/400. At 3 weeks post injection, the patient could count fingers at a distance of 1 ft (30 cm and fluorescein angiography showed reduction in intraretinal hemorrhages and areas of retinal non-perfusion. However, at 6 weeks these were markedly increased compared with those seen in the photograph taken 3 weeks after treatment. In Case 2, the patient's pre-treatment visual acuity was 20/200. At 1 month post injection, vision had decreased to 20/400 and fluorescein angiography showed severe macular ischemia with a remarkable capillary dropout throughout the macula.Conclusion: Ischemic retinal injury may be an uncommon but severe adverse vascular reaction to intravitreal bevacizumab for CRVO. Although progression of retinal ischemia in CRVO could be observed shortly after intravitreal bevacizumab, whether this is a drug- or procedure-related effect or part of the natural history of the condition remains uncertain.Keywords: Avastin, ischemia, macular infarction, intraretinal hemorrhage, retinal non-perfusion

  11. Pattern Visual Evoked Potential, Pattern Electroretinogram, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Patients with Migraine during and after Aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, Amany Abd El-Fattah; Farweez, Yousra Ahmed; Hamdi, Momen Mahmoud; El-Sherbiny, Noha Ezzat

    2017-09-01

    To study pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP), pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with migraine during and after aura. We included 60 eyes of 60 patients with migraine (Group 1) and 30 healthy volunteers (30 eyes) as controls (Group 2). Group 1 was studied twice, during a visual aura (1-a) and in between attacks (1-b). All participants underwent full ophthalmological examination, PVEP, PERG, and optical coherence tomographyOCT imaging of the RNFL thickness for each patient. RNFL thickness was found to be thinner in patients during the aura compared to controls. It increased significantly post-aura but remained lower than the controls. Prolonged P100 latency and decreased amplitude were found in patients during aura compared to controls with significant change in between attacks to values comparable to the controls. We found prolonged N95 latency and decreased amplitude in patients during aura compared to controls with significant change post-aura to values comparable to the controls. There was positive correlation between average RNFL thicknesses and VA and spherical equivalent; but it showed negative correlation with duration of migraine, attack duration, and aura duration. Multiple regression analysis showed that the most important determinants of average RNFL thickness in patients of migraine were attack and aura duration (beta = -0.21 and -0.26 and p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Migraine attacks impose both functional and structural retinal changes. The functional changes are fully reversible after the aura but not the structural ones. So, vigorous prevention of migraine attacks would be protective for retina.

  12. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness of middle aged or elderly people measured by 3D optical coherence tomography

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    Li Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To build the reference values of normal eye retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFLthickness on middle aged people between 40~69 years old, and infer the baseline data for early diagnosis of glaucoma. METHODS:A total of 180 eyes from 90 healthy subjects(age ranged from 40~69 years oldwere recruited for this study. Topcon 3D optical coherence tomography(OCT-2000(Ver 8.0was used to measure RNFL thickness. Each subject was performed circular scans around the optic nerve with a circle size of 3.4mm. Clock-hour, quadrant and total average RNFL thicknesses were recorded. The data was analyzed with SPSS statistical. The relationship between age, gender and laterality was analyzed, and the reference value for normal eye RNFL thickness parameters was obtained, RESULTS:Normal RNFL thickness distribution was bimodal curve type in 40~69 year-old middle aged or elderly people. RNFL thickness was decreased for temporal quadrant, followed by nasal, superior, inferior. RNFL thickness at 10 o'clock, 5 o'clock, 6 o'clock, superior got thinner with age prolong. Except 10 o'clock(PP>0.05. The RNFL thickness at 11 o'clock was associated with different gender. the RNFL thickness at 11 o'clock, 12 o'clock, 1 o'clock, 4 o'clock, superior, nasal was associated with different eyes, the differences was statistically significant between different eyes(PCONCLUSION: Topcon 3D OCT-2000 is effectively used to measure the RNFL thickness of 40~69 years people and provide diagnostic basis for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  13. Case Report: Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis Due to Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

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    Ender Sener

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this case, it was reported that a 48 year old male patient with spontaneous central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO due to calcific aortic valve stenosis. He had no other systemic disease. CRAO usually occurs in elder patients with systemic risk factors. CRAO results in sudden, painless and severe vision loss. Altough, CRAO is seen rarely under 50 year old, it may appear in younger patient with aortic valve disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis caused cardiac disease.

  14. Collateral vessel presence in branch and central retinal vein occlusions and their impact on visual acuity and anatomical gains: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rishi P; Lee, Tamara J; Yau, Linda; Rubio, Roman G

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the incidence of collateral vessel formation and to determine their impact on best-corrected visual acuity and central foveal thickness in patients with branch or central retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, CRVO) receiving 0.3 mg or 0.5 mg of ranibizumab, or sham. This retrospective analysis was performed in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion who received 6 monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (0.3 mg or 0.5 mg), or sham, followed by 6 months of as-needed treatment. Collateral vessel presence, change from baseline best-corrected visual acuity, and change from baseline central foveal thickness were assessed at baseline and months 3, 6, 9, and 12. At month 12, 19.6% of BRVO patients receiving sham/0.5 mg and 16.7% receiving ranibizumab (0.3 mg and 0.5 mg pooled) manifested collaterals at the disk, whereas 48.2% and 47.2% displayed collaterals within the retina, respectively. In CRVO patients, 57.9% and 59.2% of all groups manifested collaterals on the disk, respectively, whereas 12.1% and 15.1% displayed collaterals within the retina. Mean best-corrected visual acuity gain in ranibizumab-treated BRVO and CRVO patients was similar, irrespective of collaterals within the retina ( P > 0.05; CRVO: P > 0.05). The location of collaterals differed between retinal vein occlusion subtypes and ranibizumab treatment did not affect collateral vessel incidence. The presence of collaterals did not seem to impact best-corrected visual acuity gains at month 12 in both BRVO and CRVO patients receiving ranibizumab, whereas generally greater central foveal thickness reductions were observed with presence of collaterals in BRVO patients.

  15. Long-term changes of macular retinal thickness after idiopathic macular hole surgery

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    Yan Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the changes of regional macular retinal thickness(RTwith spectral domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCTafter successful pars plana vitrectomy(PPVsurgery with inner limiting membrane(ILMpeeling in patients with idiopathic macular hole.METHODS:A non-randomized retrospective case study on 17 patients(17 eyeswho were hospitalized between March 1, 2011 and June 30, 2013. All 17 eyes had been diagnosed with idiopathic macular hole and thereafter underwent 25G-PPV surgeries performed by the same surgeon with ILM peeling and short-term gas tamponade. In the 6mo-plus follow-up after surgery, these eyes were found to have successful closure in the macular hole. The macular RT of the nine areas in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study was measured by SD-OCT. All patients were applied by SD-OCT with linear scan of the macular. At least four examinations on the operated eye were conducted in contrast to the other normal eye: before the surgery, 3~5wk after the surgery(stage A, 2~3mo after the surgery(stage B, and >6mo after the surgery(stage C.RESULTS:In stage A, the macular RT of operated eyes in the areas of C, IS, II, IN, OS, OI, ON(263.00±39.48, 313.92±18.35, 311.00±18.02, 335.67±19.91, 280.83±33.74, 269.92±23.32, 307.00±28.40were significantly thicker than the corresponding areas of the normal fellow eyes(220.51±23.94, 292.08±21.93, 282.50±20.30, 288.33±20.76, 251.25±17.60, 247.75±21.48, 265.17±24.76μm(PP>0.01. In Stage B, the macular RT in the areas of II, IN, OS(335.67±19.20,319.75±19.20, 273.50±16.89μmwere significantly thicker than the corresponding areas of the normal fellow eyes(286.33±20.46, 293.42±17.64, 252.50±16.32μm(PP> 0.01. In Stage C, the macular RT of operated eyes with the areas of IN(321.17±19.71μmwere significantly thicker than the corresponding areas of the normal fellow eyes(296.25±19.57μm(PP>0.01. Moreover, the macular RT of operated eyes in the areas of ON, IT(307.00±28

  16. Characterization of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes associated with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, YIXIN; HUANG, HOUBIN; WEI, SHIHUI; QIU, HUAIYU; GONG, YAN; LI, HONGYANG; DAI, YANLI; JIANG, ZHAOCAI; LIU, ZIHAO

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness associated with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were examined by Cirrus high definition-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the correlation between the RNFL thickness and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was evaluated. A cross-sectional study was performed. Sixty-eight eyes from patients with LHON and 30 eyes from healthy individuals were scanned. Affected eyes were divided into 5 groups according to disease duration: Group 1, ≤3 months; group 2, 4–6 months; group 3, 7–9 months; group 4, 10–12 months; and group 5, >12 months. The RNFL thickness of the temporal, superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and the 360° average were compared between the LHON groups and the control group. The eyes in groups 1 and 2 were observed to have a thicker RNFL in the superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and a higher 360°-average RNFL thickness compared with those of the control group (P<0.05), the RNFL was observed to be thinner in the temporal quadrant in groups 1 and 2. The eyes in groups 3 and 4 showed a thinner RNFL in the temporal (P=0.001), superior and inferior (both P<0.05) quadrants, and a lower 360°-average RNFL thickness as compared with controls (P=0.001). No significant correlation was identified between BCVA and RNFL thickness. RNFL thickness was observed to undergo a unique process from thickening to thinning in the patients with LHON. Changes in different quadrants occurred at different time periods and the BCVA was not found to be correlated with RNFL thickness. PMID:24396430

  17. Characterization of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Huang, Houbin; Wei, Shihui; Qiu, Huaiyu; Gong, Yan; Li, Hongyang; Dai, Yanli; Jiang, Zhaocai; Liu, Zihao

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, the changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were examined by Cirrus high definition-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the correlation between the RNFL thickness and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was evaluated. A cross-sectional study was performed. Sixty-eight eyes from patients with LHON and 30 eyes from healthy individuals were scanned. Affected eyes were divided into 5 groups according to disease duration: Group 1, ≤3 months; group 2, 4-6 months; group 3, 7-9 months; group 4, 10-12 months; and group 5, >12 months. The RNFL thickness of the temporal, superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and the 360° average were compared between the LHON groups and the control group. The eyes in groups 1 and 2 were observed to have a thicker RNFL in the superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and a higher 360°-average RNFL thickness compared with those of the control group (P<0.05), the RNFL was observed to be thinner in the temporal quadrant in groups 1 and 2. The eyes in groups 3 and 4 showed a thinner RNFL in the temporal (P=0.001), superior and inferior (both P<0.05) quadrants, and a lower 360°-average RNFL thickness as compared with controls (P=0.001). No significant correlation was identified between BCVA and RNFL thickness. RNFL thickness was observed to undergo a unique process from thickening to thinning in the patients with LHON. Changes in different quadrants occurred at different time periods and the BCVA was not found to be correlated with RNFL thickness.

  18. EARLY CRT MONITORING USING TIME-DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY DOES NOT ADD TO VISUAL ACUITY FOR PREDICTING VISUAL LOSS IN PATIENTS WITH CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION TREATED WITH INTRAVITREAL RANIBIZUMAB: A Secondary Analysis of Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katy J L; Hayen, Andrew; Glasziou, Paul; Mitchell, Andrew S; Farris, Maria; Wright, Jonathan; Duerr, Hans-Peter; Mitchell, Paul; Irwig, Les

    2017-03-01

    Our primary purpose was to assess the clinical (predictive) validity of central retinal thickness (CRT) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 1 week and 1 month after starting treatment with ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion. The authors also assessed detectability of response to treatment. The authors used data from 325 participants in the CRUISE study, which included measurement of time-domain CRT and BCVA at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months postrandomization. Analysis of covariance models were fitted to assess clinical validity, and distributions of change were constructed to assess detectability of response. There was no evidence that 1-week CRT, and very strong evidence that 1-week BCVA were associated with baseline-adjusted BCVA at 6 months (P = 0.17 and P central retinal vein occlusion patients seemed more informative than time-domain optical coherence tomography monitoring.

  19. Photoreceptors repair by autologous transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium and partial-thickness choroid graft in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taoran; Hu, Yuntao; Li, Ying; Wu, Jianguo; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Changguan; Liu, Yuling; Yin, Zhengqin; Ma, Zhizhong

    2009-06-01

    To investigate whether autologous retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and a partial-thickness graft can repair degenerated photoreceptors overlying a mechanically damaged Bruch's membrane. Twenty-one pigmented rabbits were used in the study. Abrasive debridement of the RPE was performed with a metal cannula after superior retinal bleb detachment in 20 rabbits. The graft was prepared beneath the inferior retina and was transplanted to the debridement area 14 days later. Debridement-only sites served as the control. Tissue sections were evaluated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy at 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months after transplantation, corresponding to 21 days, 45 days, and 3 months after debridement, respectively. When analyzed at 7 days after transplantation, short buds of inner segment with regularly organized outer nuclear layer were observed. The outer segments (OS) were of insufficient length to be observed, but by 1 and 3 months, a significant elongation of the OS was detected. In control retinas from 21 days (corresponding to 7 days after transplantation) to 3 months after RPE debridement, the outer nuclear layer cells were disorganized and diminished. This study showed that autologous RPE and partial-thickness choroid graft have the capacity not only to support photoreceptor cell survival, but also to initiate early repair mechanisms, as exhibited by outer segment regeneration.

  20. Prospective study of peripheral panretinal photocoagulation of areas of nonperfusion in central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaide, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect that panretinal photocoagulation to peripheral areas of retinal vascular nonperfusion has on the visual acuity and injection frequency of ranibizumab in eyes with previous central retinal vein occlusion. Patients enrolled in a prospective study of ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion were imaged with wide-field angiography using the Optos P200 system. Laser photocoagulation was carried out and the extent of laser photocoagulation was evaluated with repeat wide-field angiography. Injection of ranibizumab was based on an as needed strategy throughout the study. The injection frequency in the 6 months before laser was compared with a 6-month period starting 2 months after the laser photocoagulation. The visual acuity was measured by Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol refraction at both the end of the 6-month follow-up period and at the time of laser photocoagulation. There were 10 patients treated in this study with a mean number of 1,757 spots of laser photocoagulation in the peripheral retina. The injection frequency in the 6-month lead-in period was 3.4 and in the 6-month follow-up period was 3.1, a difference that was not significant (P = 0.26). The visual acuity at the time of laser photocoagulation was 54.2 letters (approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/80) and at the end of the observation period was 51.4 letters, a difference that was not significant (P = 0.33). In this small study, laser photocoagulation to peripheral areas of nonperfusion as visualized by wide-field angiography did not result in either decreased injection frequency or improved visual acuity in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion treated with ranibizumab.

  1. Central retinal artery occlusion in the 9 years old girl (Clinical case report

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    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 9 years old girl was admitted to the Ophthalmological Department of Morozov Pediatric City Clinical Hospital with sudden persistent painless loss of vision of the left eye. Other organs and systems were without any changes. After ophthalmological examination (OS — white edema of central and peripapillar retina, a cherry red spot at the fovea the diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion OS was formed, and treatment was started immediately. CRAO practically does not occur in pediatric ophthalmological practice. Therefore this clinical case can be of interest to clinicians and pediatric ophthalmologists.

  2. Residual and Dynamic Range of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Glaucoma: Comparison of Three OCT Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Kim, Hanna Y.; Budenz, Donald L.; Warren, Joshua L.; Margolis, Michael; Lawrence, Scott D.; Jani, Pooja D.; Thompson, Garrett S.; Lee, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate visual field (VF) sensitivity at which retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning reaches the measurement floor and at which RNFL stops thinning (change points), the dynamic range of RNFL thickness, and the number of steps from normal to RNFL floor among three optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices. Methods Glaucomatous patients (n = 58) and healthy subjects (n = 55–60) prospectively underwent VF testing and RNFL thickness measurement with Cirrus, Spectralis, and RTVue. Change points and corresponding RNFL thicknesses were estimated with simple linear regression (SLR) and Bayesian change point (BCP) analyses. The dynamic range and number of steps to RNFL floor were determined. Results The average VF change points and corresponding residual thickness at the time RNFL stopped thinning were −22.2 dB and 57.0 μm (Cirrus), −25.3 dB and 49.2 μm (Spectralis), and −24.6 dB and 64.7 μm (RTVue). The RNFL dynamic ranges derived from SLR values were wider on Spectralis (52.6 μm) than on Cirrus (35.4 μm) and RTVue (35.5 μm); the corresponding number of steps to reach the RNFL floor were 9.0 on Cirrus, 10.6 on Spectralis, and 8.3 on RTVue. Conclusions The relative VF sensitivity at which average RNFL thickness reaches the measurement floor, the residual layer thickness, and RNFL dynamic measurement range differ among the three devices. However, the number of steps from normal to the RNFL thickness floor is comparable. PMID:26436887

  3. Sequential bilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the primary manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xuan; ZHUANG Yan; DONG Fang-tian; ZHANG Fan; CHEN You-xin

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) has been rarely reported as the primary manifestation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).The severe retinal vaso-occlusive diseases usually cause devastating and permanent damage to visual function in spite of vigorous treatment.A 42-year-old Chinese woman presented with abrupt bilateral vision loss.The diagnosis of bilateral CRAO was suggested by the ocular presentation and fluorescein angiography.Laboratory studies showed positive results of antinuclear antibody,anti-Ro/SSA anti-La/SSB; decreased levels of C3,C4 complement and normal levels of antiphospholipides antibodies (APAs).Her visual acuity deteriorated despite systemic steroid and immunosuppressant treatment.Severe vaso-occlusive retinopathy may be an earlier manifestation of SLE without elevated level of APAs.

  4. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion in a Patient with Metabolic Syndrome X

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    Sonja Predrag Cekić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in a patient with metabolic syndrome X. Case Report: A 64 year-old-man presented with abrupt, painless, and severe loss of vision in his left eye. Indirect ophthalmoscopy disclosed signs compatible with CRAO and laboratory investigations revealed erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 74 mm/h, C-reactive protein (CRP level of 21 mg/l, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Fluorescein angiography and immunological studies excluded other systemic disorders. The patient met the full criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program for metabolic syndrome X. Conclusion: In addition to different vascular complications such as stroke, and cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome X may be associated with retinal vascular occlusions.

  5. Flicker electroretinograms before and after intravitreal ranibizumab injection in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shunsuke; Kachi, Shu; Ueno, Shinji; Piao, Chang-Hua; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2015-09-01

    To compare the amplitudes and implicit times of the flicker electroretinograms before and after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) in eyes with a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). We reviewed the medical records of 15 consecutive patients who had macular oedema secondary to CRVO and had received an IVR at the Nagoya University Hospital from November 2013 to July 2014. Flicker ERGs were recorded with both the RETeval(™) system and a conventional ERG system before the IVR. One month after the IVR, recordings were repeated with only the RETeval(™) system. The mean implicit times of the flicker ERGs of the affected eyes recorded with the RETeval(™) system were significantly longer than that of the fellow eyes (32.2 ± 2.6 msec versus 28.1 ± 1.2 msec, p retinal function after anti-VEGF therapy for CRVO eyes. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusion as Presenting Feature of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

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    Narang, Subina; Gupta, Panchmi; Sharma, Anuj; Sood, Sunandan; Palta, Anshu; Goyal, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common pathology of the retinal vasculature. Patients with CRVO usually present with a drop in visual acuity. The condition bears no specific therapy; treatment is aimed at the management of potentially blinding complications, of which there are many. With majority of cases being unilateral, bilateral CRVO is usually associated with an underlying systemic illness such as a hyperviscosity syndrome. Here, we present a case of a patient, who presented with a bilateral drop in vision diagnosed as bilateral CRVO on ophthalmic evaluation. Systemic workup revealed the presence of an underlying undiagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia. An initial presentation to the ophthalmologist is a rare occurrence in leukemic patients. This case report highlights the role of the ophthalmologist in diagnosing a potentially life-threatening hematological illness.

  7. Morphological and electrophysiological outcome in prospective intravitreal bevacizumab treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Gardašević Topčić, Ivana; Šuštar, Maja; Brecelj, Jelka; Hawlina, Marko; Jaki Mekjavić, Polona

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) treatment in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinography (ERG). Twenty-two CRVO patients were treated with IVB injections and followed for 1 year. Morphological effect of treatment was observed with fluorescent angiography and OCT. Functional effect was followed with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and ERG: combined rod-cone response of the standard full-field ERG (dark adapted 3.0 ERG), photopic negative response (PhNR), and pattern ERG (PERG). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved by 18.2 letters after 6 months (p ≤ 0.001) and additional 4.7 letters by the 12th month (p ≤ 0.001). The central retinal thickness of 829.8 ± 256.7 μm decreased to 398.8 ± 230 μm (p ≤ 0.001) after 6 months and to 303.7 ± 128.9 μm during the following 6 months (p ≤ 0.001). The total macular volume (14.4 ± 4.2 mm(3)) decreased to 9.6 ± 3.2 mm(3) and 8.5 ± 2.0 mm(3) after 6 months and 1 year of treatment, respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Electrophysiological measures improved significantly after 6 months and 1 year of treatment: the a-wave implicit time of dark adapted 3.0 ERG from 25.6 ± 2.3 to 24.1 ± 2.1 and 24.1 ± 2.0 ms (p ≤ 0.01); the PhNR from -5.9 ± 6.6 to -9.4 ± 6.1 and -10.4 ± 4.6 µV (p ≤ 0.05); the PERG P50 amplitude from 0.2 ± 0.3 to 0.9 ± 0.6 and 1.1 ± 0.6 µV (p ≤ 0.001); and N95 amplitude from 0.4 ± 0.6 to 1.2 ± 0.9 and 1.6 ± 0.9 µV (p ≤ 0.001). Intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) treatment of macular edema due to CRVO improved standard morphological measures and the electrophysiological function of outer and inner retinal layers, which was most evident in central retina.

  8. Efficacy and visual prognostic factors of intravitreal bevacizumab as needed for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

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    Hirose M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Miki Hirose, Wataru Matsumiya, Shigeru Honda, Makoto NakamuraDepartment of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: Our aim was to investigate the efficacy and prognostic factors of intraocular injections of bevacizumab as needed in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO.Methods: This is a retrospective study including 28 eyes of 27 consecutive patients with macular edema due to CRVO and followed for at least 6 months. The mean age of the patients was 66.3 years. The patients underwent an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg at the initial visit. Retreatments were performed when macular edema was persistent or worsened (as-needed regimen. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. The change in central retinal thickness (CRT was evaluated as the secondary outcome. Finally, the factors useful for predicting BCVA outcome were determined.Results: The mean number of injections was 1.8 over a period of 6 months. The mean BCVA (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution was significantly improved at 1 (-0.097, 3 (-0.14, and 6 months (-0.25 after the initial injection (P<0.05, <0.01, and <0.001, respectively. The mean CRT was also improved significantly at 1 (-250.4, 3 (-150.0, and 6 months (-187.2 (P<0.001 each. Earlier treatment and better improvement in BCVA at 1 month after the initial treatment were the prognostic factors significantly associated with better visual outcomes at 6 months (P=0.047 and 0.029, respectively.Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as needed significantly improved visual acuity and macular edema in CRVO patients. Time before the treatment and early response to the treatment were important factors for the visual outcome.Keywords: central retinal vein occlusion, bevacizumab, macular edema, efficacy, prognostic factor, pro re nata regimen

  9. Reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with cirrus HD-OCT in glaucomatous eyes

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    Reza Soltani-Moghadam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the reproducibility of Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA for analysis of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in glaucomatous eyes METHODS: Forty-five eyes (one eye from each glaucomatous patient were imaged with Cirrus HD-OCT. Each eye was imaged three times by two separate operators. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, coefficient of variation (CV, and test-retest variability were evaluated for both intraobserver and interobsever measurements RESULTS: In intraobserver measurements, the average RNFL thickness ICC was 0.983. CV and test-retest variability were 2.3% and 4.4 µm respectively. In quadrants ICC ranged from 0.886 to 0.956, the lowest associated with nasal quadrant and CV ranged from 3.6% to 7.7%. In interobsever measurements, the average RNFL thickness ICC was 0.979. CV and test-retest variability were 2.4% and 4.5 µm respectively. In quadrants ICC ranged from 0.886 to 0.957, the lowest associated with nasal quadrant and CV ranged from 3.8% to 8.6%. CONCLUSION: The reproducibility of Cirrus OCT for RNFL thickness is sufficiently good to be useful clinically as a measure of glaucoma progression.

  10. Reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with cirrus HD-OCT in glaucomatous eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani-Moghadam, Reza; Alizadeh, Yousef; Kazemnezhad Leili, Ehsan; Absari Haghighi, Mohamadreza

    2015-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) for analysis of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in glaucomatous eyes. Forty-five eyes (one eye from each glaucomatous patient) were imaged with Cirrus HD-OCT. Each eye was imaged three times by two separate operators. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and test-retest variability were evaluated for both intraobserver and interobsever measurements. In intraobserver measurements, the average RNFL thickness ICC was 0.983. CV and test-retest variability were 2.3% and 4.4 µm respectively. In quadrants ICC ranged from 0.886 to 0.956, the lowest associated with nasal quadrant and CV ranged from 3.6% to 7.7%. In interobsever measurements, the average RNFL thickness ICC was 0.979. CV and test-retest variability were 2.4% and 4.5 µm respectively. In quadrants ICC ranged from 0.886 to 0.957, the lowest associated with nasal quadrant and CV ranged from 3.8% to 8.6%. The reproducibility of Cirrus OCT for RNFL thickness is sufficiently good to be useful clinically as a measure of glaucoma progression.

  11. Reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements with Cirrus HD-OCT in glaucomatous eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza; Soltani-Moghadam; Yousef; Alizadeh; Ehsan; Kazemnezhad; Leili; Mohamadreza; Absari; Haghighi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the reproducibility of Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography(HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) for analysis of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness in glaucomatous eyesMETHODS: Forty-five eyes(one eye from each glaucomatous patient) were imaged with Cirrus HD-OCT.Each eye was imaged three times by two separate operators. Intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC),coefficient of variation(CV), and test-retest variability were evaluated for both intraobserver and interobsever measurementsRESULTS: In intraobserver measurements, the average RNFL thickness ICC was 0.983. CV and test-retest variability were 2.3% and 4.4 μm respectively. In quadrants ICC ranged from 0.886 to 0.956, the lowest associated with nasal quadrant and CV ranged from 3.6%to 7.7%. In interobsever measurements, the average RNFL thickness ICC was 0.979. CV and test-retest variability were 2.4% and 4.5 μm respectively. In quadrants ICC ranged from 0.886 to 0.957, the lowest associated with nasal quadrant and CV ranged from 3.8%to 8.6%.CONCLUSION: The reproducibility of Cirrus OCT for RNFL thickness is sufficiently good to be useful clinically as a measure of glaucoma progression.

  12. Optic Disc and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Evaluation of the Fellow Eyes in Non-Arteritic Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

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    Medine Yılmaz Dağ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the fellow eyes in unilateral non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and to compare their optic disc parameters and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness with age-and refraction-matched normal controll subjects, using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 2 (HRT II. Materials and Methods: The fellow eyes of 40 patients with typical unilateral NAION (study group and one randomly chosen eye of 42 age-, sex-, and refraction-matched normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. Optic disc morphologic features (average disc area, cup area, rim area, disc volume, rim volume, cup/disc area ratio, cup depth and peripapillary RNFL thickness were evaluated using HRT II, a confoal scanning ophtalmoscopy. Results: In the study group, there were 26 (65% men and 14 (35% women, whereas there were 27 (64% men and 15 (36% women in the control group (Chi square test, p=0.89. Mean age of the patients in the study and control groups was 59.4±10.3 and 57.7±9.1 years, respectively (T test, p=0.72. There was not any statistically significant difference regarding mean spheric equivalent between the two groups (Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.203. The NAION unaffected fellow eyes had significantly smaller disc areas, cup areas, cup volumes, cup-disc area ratios (vertical and lineer, and cup depths than the control eyes (Mann-Whitney U-test; p<0.05, whereas there was no significant difference in the RNFL thickness between the two. Conclusion: A comparison of the fellow eyes in patients with unilateral NAION and the control eyes showed a significant difference in optic disc parameters and the morphology of RNFL. These differences could be important in the pathogenesis of NAION and needs to have further investigated. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 111-114

  13. Differences in aqueous concentrations of cytokines in macular edema secondary to branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Jing Feng

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigates the differential aqueous concentrations of interleukin 6, 8, 1β (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, respectively, serum amyloid A (SAA, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in eyes with macular edema as a result of a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significantly higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β, bFGF, SAA, and VEGF were found in the aqueous humor of CRVO and BRVO patients than in the aqueous humor of control patients. A significant correlation was observed between the concentration of bFGF and the inner central macular thickness (CMT of BRVO patients (r = 0.688; P = 0.02. A significant correlation was observed between the concentration of SAA and both the full and outer CMT of the ischemic group (r = 0.545 and 0.683, respectively; P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively. In the non-ischemic group, the level of IL-6 was significantly associated with inner CMT (r = 0.560; P = 0.03. The full and outer CMT was significantly reduced in CRVO patients when compared with BRVO patients (P = 0.02 and 0.02, respectively after injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB at 4 weeks. SIGNIFICANCE: Serum amyloid A as a major protein involved in the acute and chronic stages of inflammation, and IL-6 and bFGF were significantly associated with the extent of macular edema in patients with RVO. Besides VEGF, other inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesic factors may be associated with RVO. This finding may have implications for the medical treatment of RVO.

  14. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

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    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  15. Effect of cataract surgery on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters using scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC

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    Dada Tanuj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effect of cataract extraction on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness, and assessment by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP, with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC, at the glaucoma service of a tertiary care center in North India. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two eyes of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study. The subjects underwent RNFL analysis by SLP (GDx VCC before undergoing phacoemulsification cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL implantation (Acrysof SA 60 AT four weeks following cataract surgery. The RNFL thickness parameters evaluated both before and after surgery included temporal, superior, nasal, inferior, temporal (TSNIT average, superior average, inferior average, and nerve fiber index (NFI. Results: The mean age of subjects was 57.6 ± 11.7 years (18 males, 14 females. Mean TSNIT average thickness (μm pre- and post-cataract surgery was 49.2 ± 14.1 and 56.5 ± 7.6 ( P = 0.001. There was a statistically significant increase in RNFL thickness parameters (TSNIT average, superior average, and inferior average and decrease in NFI post-cataract surgery as compared to the baseline values. Mean NFI pre- and post-cataract surgery was 41.3 ± 15.3 and 21.6 ± 11.8 ( P = 0.001. Conclusions: Measurement of RNFL thickness parameters by scanning laser polarimetry is significantly altered following cataract surgery. Post the cataract surgery, a new baseline needs to be established for assessing the longitudinal follow-up of a glaucoma patient. The presence of cataract may lead to an underestimation of the RNFL thickness, and this should be taken into account when analyzing progression in a glaucoma patient.

  16. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: one year follow-up results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet; Ozgur; Zengin; Ibrahim; Tuncer; Eyyup; Karahan

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL)thickness changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) for one year follow-up. To discuss the possibility of detecting tendency of glaucoma in this population by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography(3D-OCT-2000 Spectral domain).·METHODS: After polysomnographic study, all subjects(64 OSAS patients and 40 controls) underwent detailed ophthalmological examination. After these examinations,patients with glaucoma and patients who had ophthalmological and/or systemic disease were excluded from the study.Totally, 20 patients in OSAS group and five patients in controls were excluded from the study in the first examination and follow-up period. The RNFL thickness was assessed with OCT. Forty-four OSAS patients and 35 control subjects were followed up for12 mo. RNFL thickness change and OSAS patients were evaluated for severity of disease by Apnea-Hypopnea Index(AHI).·RESULTS: Forty-four OSAS patients and 35 controls were enrolled in the study. Statistically significance was found between OSAS patients and controls at the 12 thmo.Average RNFL thickness was found to be significantly lower in last measurements in OSAS patients when compared with first measurements and control subjects(P <0.001, 0.002, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation among AHI, and RNFL thickness(P <0.05).·CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the patients with OSAS were related with a proportional decrease in the RNFL thickness. These patients should be followed up regularly for glaucomatous changes. Detecting more RNFL thinning in severe OSAS was important.

  17. Effect of cataract surgery on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters using scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC).

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    Dada, Tanuj; Behera, Geeta; Agarwal, Anand; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sihota, Ramanjit; Panda, Anita

    2010-01-01

    To study the effect of cataract extraction on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and assessment by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP), with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC), at the glaucoma service of a tertiary care center in North India. Thirty-two eyes of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study. The subjects underwent RNFL analysis by SLP (GDx VCC) before undergoing phacoemulsification cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (Acrysof SA 60 AT) four weeks following cataract surgery. The RNFL thickness parameters evaluated both before and after surgery included temporal, superior, nasal, inferior, temporal (TSNIT) average, superior average, inferior average, and nerve fiber index (NFI). The mean age of subjects was 57.6 +/- 11.7 years (18 males, 14 females). Mean TSNIT average thickness (microm) pre- and post-cataract surgery was 49.2 +/- 14.1 and 56.5 +/- 7.6 ( P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in RNFL thickness parameters (TSNIT average, superior average, and inferior average) and decrease in NFI post-cataract surgery as compared to the baseline values. Mean NFI pre- and post-cataract surgery was 41.3 +/- 15.3 and 21.6 +/- 11.8 ( P = 0.001). Measurement of RNFL thickness parameters by scanning laser polarimetry is significantly altered following cataract surgery. Post the cataract surgery, a new baseline needs to be established for assessing the longitudinal follow-up of a glaucoma patient. The presence of cataract may lead to an underestimation of the RNFL thickness, and this should be taken into account when analyzing progression in a glaucoma patient.

  18. Are Preexisting Retinal and Central Nervous System-Related Comorbidities Risk Factors for Complications Following Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy?

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    David Chalmers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To assess whether retinal and central nervous system (CNS comorbidities are risk factors for complications following robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP.Materials and Methods:A retrospective review of our RALP database identified 1868 patients who underwent RALP by a single surgeon between December 10, 2003-March 14, 2014. We hypothesized that patients with preexisting retinal or CNS comorbidities were at a greater risk of suffering retinal and CNS complications following RALP. Perioperative complications and risk of recurrence were graded using the Clavien and D'Amico systems, respectively.Results:40 (2.1% patients had retinal or CNS-related comorbidities, of which 15 had a history of retinal surgery and 24 had a history of cerebrovascular accident, aneurysm and/or neurosurgery. One additional patient had a history of both retinal and CNS events.Patients with retinal or CNS comorbidities were significantly older, had elevated PSA levels and CCI (Charlson Comorbidity Index scores than the control group. Blood loss, length of stay, surgical duration, BMI, diagnostic Gleason score and T-stage were not statistically different between groups.No retinal or CNS complications occurred in either group. The distribution of patients between D'Amico risk categories was not statistically different between the groups. There was also no difference in the incidence of total complications between the groups.Conclusions:RALP-associated retinal and CNS complications are rare. While our RALP database is large, the cohort of patients with retinal or CNS-related comorbidities was relatively small. Our dataset suggests retinal and CNS pathology presents no greater risk of suffering from perioperative complications following RALP.

  19. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness of black and Indian myopic students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

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    Chanel Murugan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL thickness in black and Indian myopic students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.Method: Eighty (40 black and 40 Indian participants of both genders and aged between 19 and 24 years (mean and standard deviation: 21 ± 1.7 years were included in the study. Refractive errors were assessed with the Nidek AR-310A auto-refractor and via subjective refraction. RNFL thicknesses were then measured using the iVue-100 optical coherence tomography device. Axial lengths were measured with the Nidek US-500 A-scan ultrasound device. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis.Results: The mean myopic spherical equivalent was significantly more negative amongst the Indian (-2.42 D ± 2.22 D than amongst the black (-1.48 D ± 1.13 D (p = 0.02 participants.The mean axial length was greater amongst the black (23.35 mm ± 0.74 mm than amongst the Indian (23.18 mm ± 0.87 mm participants but the difference was not significant. In the total sample (n = 80, the average global RNFL thickness ranged from 87 μm to 123 μm (105 μm ±9 μm. Mean global RNFL thickness was slightly greater amongst black (108 μm ± 7 μm than amongst Indian (102 μm ± 9 μm (p = 0.00 participants. Mean global RNFL thickness was similar for male (106 μm ± 7 μm and female (105 μm ± 10 μm (p = 0.79 participants.A positive and significant association between myopic spherical equivalent and global RNFL thickness was found for the total sample (r = 0.36, p = 0.00 and for Indians (r = 0.33, p = 0.04but not for the black (r = 0.25, p = 0.13 participants. There was a negative and significant correlation between axial length and global RNFL thickness amongst the Indian participants (r = -0.34, p = 0.03 but not amongst the total sample (r = -0.12, p = 0.30 or the black (r = 0.06, p = 0.73 participants.Conclusion: The findings suggest that racial differences in RNFL thickness

  20. Comparison between "early" or "late" intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implant in branch (BRVO) or central (CRVO) retinal vein occlusion: six-months follow-up.

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    Pacella, Fernanda; La Torre, Giuseppe; Basili, Stefania; Autolitano, Monica; Pascarella, Antonella; Lenzi, Tommaso; Pacella, Elena

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare early and late injections of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in patients affected by central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) with a six-months follow-up. We assessed whether an earlier treatment start (within seven days from diagnosis) could be more beneficial than a delayed (or late) treatment start (after seven days). The study included 81 patients (81 eyes) affected by retinal vein occlusion. Best corrected visual acuity was assessed through Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) while central macular thickness (CMT) was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Both types of patients had a positive therapeutic response to dexamethasone, with an increase in visual acuity (ETDRS) and CMT reduction. CRVO patients were characterized by lower ETDRS values at baseline and at the end of the follow-up as compared to BRVO. CRVO patients showed higher CMT values at baseline, after three and six months from injection. No significant differences in therapeutic response to dexamethasone were observed between patients treated early or late, regardless of RVO type. This study demonstrates that the therapeutic properties of dexamethasone implant are not significantly influenced by an early or late treatment start in patients affected by BRVO and CRVO, although its therapeutic efficacy seems greater in the former type.

  1. Frosted Branch Angiitis Secondary to Familial Mediterranean Fever Resembling Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    Serdar Ozates

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of unilateral frosted branch angiitis (FBA resembling central retinal vein occlusion associated with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF. Case Report. A 32-year-old woman presented with progressive, painless vision loss in her left eye lasting for 2 days. She was clinically diagnosed with FMF 2 months ago. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/20 in her right eye and there was light perception in the left. Ophthalmologic examination revealed severe retinal vasculitis showing clinical features of FBA in the left eye. 64 mg/day oral methylprednisolone was started. A significant improvement in retinal vasculitis was observed in two weeks. However, BCVA did not increase significantly due to subhyaloid premacular hemorrhage. Argon laser posterior hyaloidotomy was performed. One week after hyaloidotomy, visual acuity improved to 20/20 and intravitreal hemorrhage disappeared. Four months after the first attack, FBA recurred. Oral methylprednisolone dosage was increased to 64 mg/day and combined with azathioprine 150 mg. At the end of 12-month follow-up, the BCVA was 20/25 and development of epiretinal membrane was observed in the left eye. Conclusions. Frosted branch angiitis may occur with gene abnormalities as an underlying condition. Our case showed that FMF might be a causative disease.

  2. Central retinal venous pressure in eyes of normal-tension glaucoma patients with optic disc hemorrhage.

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    Ko Eun Kim

    Full Text Available To compare central retinal venous pressure (CRVP among eyes with and without optic disc hemorrhage (ODH in bilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients and NTG eyes without an episode of ODH.In this prospective study, 22 bilateral NTG patients showing a unilateral ODH and 29 bilateral NTG patients without an episode of ODH were included. Eyes were categorized into group A (n = 22, eyes with ODH, group B (n = 22, fellow eyes without ODH, and group C (n = 29, NTG eyes without an episode of ODH. A contact lens ophthalmodynamometer was used to measure CRVP and central retinal arterial pressure (CRAP.Intraocular pressure (IOP measured on the day of contact lens ophthalmodynamometry showed no difference among groups. However, the mean baseline IOP in group A was significantly lower than that in group C (P = .008. The CRVP in group A (29.1 ± 10.8 mmHg was significantly lower than that in group C (40.1 ± 8.8 mmHg, P = .001, but similar to that in group B (30.5 ± 8.7 mmHg, P = .409. A similar relationship was noted for CRAP. No significant eye-associated variable for ODH was found in group A and B by conditional logistic regression analysis (all P > 0.05. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis in groups A and C revealed that low mean baseline IOP (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.98, P = 0.043 and low CRVP (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.95, P = 0.003 were associated with ODH.CRVP was lower in NTG eyes with ODH than in eyes without an episode of ODH, but similar to that of fellow eyes without ODH. These imply less likelihood of association between increased central retinal venous resistance and ODH.

  3. Evaluation of changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual functions in cases of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thinning has been demonstrated in cases of optic neuritis (ON and multiple sclerosis (MS in Caucasian eyes, but no definite RNFL loss pattern or association with visual functions is known in Indian eyes. Aim : To evaluate RNFL thickness in cases of ON and MS, and to correlate it with visual function changes in Indian patients. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional case-control study at a tertiary level institution . Materials and Methods: Cases consisted of patients of (i typical ON without a recent episode (n = 30:39 ON eyes and 21 fellow eyes, (ii MS without ON (n = 15;30 eyes while the controls were age-matched (n = 15; 30 eyes. RNFL thickness was measured using the Stratus 3 °CT. The visual functions tested included the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis, visual evoked responses, and visual fields. Statistical analysis used: Intergroup analysis was done using ANOVA and Pearson′s correlation coefficient used for associations. Results: RNFL thickness was reduced significantly in the ON and MS patients compared to the controls (P-0.001. Maximum loss is in the temporal quadrant. Lower visual function scores are associated with reduced average overall RNFL thickness. In ON group, RNFL thinning is associated with severe visual field defects while contrast sensitivity has strongest correlation with RNFL in the MS group. Conclusions:RNFL thickness is reduced in ON and MS cases in a pattern similar to Caucasians and is associated with the magnitude of impairment of other visual parameters. Contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity are useful tests to identify subclinical optic nerve involvement in multiple sclerosis.

  4. Hereditary retinal eye diseases in childhood and youth affecting the central retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Nentwich

    2013-01-01

    Classic examinations for patients suffering from hereditary retinal dystrophies of the central retina are funduscopy - also using red-free light - visual-field tests, electrophysiologic tests as electro-retinogram [ERG] and multifocal ERG and tests evaluating color vision. Recently, new imaging modalities have been introduced into the clinical practice. The significance of these new methods such as high-resolution spectral-domain optic coherence tomography [SD-OCT] and fundus autofluorescence will be discussed as well as "next generation sequencing" as a new method for the analysis of genetic mutations in a larger number of patients.

  5. Evaluation of the retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in pituitary macroadenomas without optic chiasmal compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, G; Auriemma, R S; Cardone, D; Grasso, L F S; Velotti, N; Simeoli, C; Di Somma, C; Pivonello, R; Colao, A; de Crecchio, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this prospective study was to measure the thickness of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (cpRNFL) and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a cohort of consecutive de novo patients with pituitary macroadenomas without chiasmal compression. Patients and methods Twenty-two consecutive patients with pituitary macroadenoma without chiasmal compression (16 men, 6 women, aged 45.2±14.6 years, 43 eyes) entered the study between September 2011 and June 2013. Among them, 31.8% harboured a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a corticotrophin-secreting pituitary adenoma, and 13.6% a non-secreting pituitary tumour. Eighteen subjects (nine females, nine males, mean age 36.47±6.37 years; 33 eyes) without pituitary adenoma, with normal ophthalmic examination, served as controls. In both patients and controls, cpRNFL and GCC thicknesses were measured by SD-OCT. Results Patients were significantly older (P=0.02) than controls. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, colour fundus photography, and automatic perimetry test were within the normal range in patients and controls. Conversely, cpRNFL (P=0.009) and GCC (P<0.0001) were significantly thinner in patients than in controls. The average GCC (r=0.306, P=0.046) significantly correlated with the presence of arterial hypertension. OCT parameters did not differ significantly between patients with a tumour volume above the median and those with a tumour volume below the median. Conclusion Pituitary macroadenomas, even in the absence of chiasmal compression, may induce GCC and retinal nerve fibre layer thinning. SD-OCT may have a role in the early diagnosis and management of patients with pituitary tumours. PMID:25853400

  6. Ranibizumab versus aflibercept for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion: 18-month results in real-life data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziralli, Irini; Theodossiadis, George; Moschos, Marilita M; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional outcomes of ranibizumab versus aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in routine clinical practice. Participants in this observational study included 62 treatment-naïve patients with CRVO who received intravitreal injections of either ranibizumab or aflibercept. The demographic data, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 18 post-treatment. At month 18, the mean BCVA of ranibizumab-treated eyes increased 7.9 letters, compared to 7.4 letters for eyes receiving aflibercept, with a similar number of injections. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in letters or in central subfield thickness at month 18. At the end of the follow-up, 50% of patients in the ranibizumab group and 42.9% in the aflibercept group showed complete resolution of macular edema. Ranibizumab and aflibercept demonstrated similar anatomical and functional outcomes over 18-month follow-up in patients with macular edema due to CRVO, with a similar number of injections.

  7. Effect of change in macular birefringence imaging protocol on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters using GDx VCC in eyes with macular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Tinwala, Sana I; Dave, Vivek; Agarwal, Anand; Sharma, Reetika; Wadhwani, Meenakshi

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of two macular birefringence protocols (bow-tie retardation and irregular macular scan) using GDx VCC on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters in normal eyes and eyes with macular lesions. In eyes with macular lesions, the standard protocol led to significant overestimation of RNFL thickness which was normalized using the irregular macular pattern protocol. In eyes with normal macula, absolute RNFL thickness values were higher in irregular macular pattern protocols with the difference being statistically significant for all parameters except for inferior average thickness. This has implications for monitoring glaucoma patients who develop macular lesions during the course of their follow-up.

  8. Peripheral areas of nonperfusion in treated central retinal vein occlusion as imaged by wide-field fluorescein angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaide, Richard F

    2011-05-01

    To develop a method of imaging the retina using wide-field fluorescein angiography and use this method to investigate the areas of perfusion abnormalities in patients treated with ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion. Cross-sectional analysis of patients recruited to a prospective study. Patients in a prospective study of ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion were imaged with wide-field angiography. Fluorescein angiograms taken with the Optos P200 Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope were obtained of the posterior portion of the eye and of the periphery through ocular steering. Resultant images of the periphery were registered to the posterior image using thin-plate spline warping. A transformation was used to measure the retinal surface area. Perfusion characteristics were compared with injection frequencies and protocol refraction visual acuity measurements. Of 22 patients imaged, 7 would be classified as nonperfused by the Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Study (CVOS) angiographic criteria. However, all patients showed confluent areas of nonperfusion in the retinal periphery ranging in size from 16 disk areas to 242 disk areas. The areas of peripheral nonperfusion were not significantly different in the Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Study-perfused group versus nonperfused group. The area of peripheral nonperfusion was not correlated with the number of injections (r = -0.13, P = 0.58), but was inversely correlated with visual acuity (r = -0.52, P = 0.013). Blood vessels at the border of the peripheral nonperfusion did not show signs of neovascular growth or profuse leakage. Angiographic mapping of the retina is possible using image-processing techniques with wide-field images. Eyes with central retinal vein occlusion develop widespread peripheral vascular obliteration in regions that are difficult to image with conventional fundus cameras. These nonperfused areas may have important implications for visual function.

  9. [Cilioretinal artery occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion complicating hyperhomocysteinemia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkani, Z; Kitouni, Y; Belhadj, A; Sifi, K; Abbadi, N; Bellatrache, C; Hartani, D; Kherroubi, R

    2013-09-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is known to be a risk factor in both retinal artery and retinal vein occlusions. We report the case of a young patient with combined occlusion of the cilioretinal artery and the central retinal vein due to hyperhomocysteinemia. A 23-year-old patient without significant medical history, presented for sudden, painless visual loss in the right eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of the right eye 8/10 P2, and 10/10 P2 on the left. Anterior segment exam was normal in both eyes, while the right fundus revealed white, ischemic edema, centered around a cilioretinal artery, sparing the fovea, with some hemorrhagic spots and disc edema. Fluorescein angiography confirmed delayed filling of the right cilioretinal artery and revealed a normal disc on the left. Two weeks later, the clinical picture had evolved into a right ischemic CRVO, confirmed by a second angiogram, with a decrease in visual acuity to 3/10. A work-up was performed, including: a full lipid profile, serum electrolytes, ESR, CRP, a complete blood count (leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin were normal), a coagulation work-up (PT, PTT, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, factor V Leiden were normal), ANCA, antiphospholipid antibodies and antinuclear antibodies were negative, and finally cardiology studies (cardiac echo, carotid Doppler) and neurology (brain MRI) were ordered and came back normal. Otherwise, plasma homocysteine was moderately high on two samples, at 18.3 μmol/L and 17.78 μmol/L. Thyroid and renal work-ups were ordered. Urgent PRP was performed, and vitamin therapy (vitB12, vitB6, folic acid) was instituted. The subsequent course was remarkable for recovery of visual acuity to 10/10, P2 with persistence of an inferior altitudinal central scotoma. MTHFR C677T polymorphism was negative. Retinal vascular occlusions (RVO) are serious events, which require investigation for underlying systemic disease, which can be life-threatening. The clinical

  10. Imaging of Dual Ophthalmic Arteries: Identification of the Central Retinal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the origin of the central retinal artery (CRA is imperative in tailoring angiographic studies to resolve a given clinical problem. A case with dual ophthalmic arteries (OAs, characterized by different origins and distinct branching patterns, is documented for training purposes. Pre-clinical diagnosis of a 9-year-old child who presented with a sharp wire in the left-side eyeball was primarily corneal laceration. For imaging, a selected six-vessel angiographic study with the transfemoral approach was performed. Embolization was not required and the wire could be successfully removed. Right-side OA anatomy was normal, while left-side dual OAs with external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA origins were seen. The case presented with a left-side meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly via the ECA, marked by a middle meningeal artery (MMA (origin: Maxillary artery; course: Through foramen spinosum with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and an OA variant (course: Through superior orbital fissure with a distinct orbital branching pattern. A smaller OA (origin: ICA; course: Through optic foramen with a distinct ocular branching pattern presented with the central retinal artery (CRA. The presence of the dual OAs and the M-OA anomaly can be explained by disturbed evolutionary changes of the primitive OA and stapedial artery during development. The surgical interventionist must be aware of dual OAs and M-OA anomalies with branching pattern variations on retinal supply, because of dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomotic connections. It is of clinical significance that the origin of the CRA from the ICA or ECA must be determined to avoid complications to the vision.

  11. Association of common SIX6 polymorphisms with peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness: the Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Allingham, R Rand; Aung, Tin; Tham, Yih-Chung; Hauser, Michael A; Vithana, Eranga N; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Wong, Tien Yin

    2014-12-23

    Recently the common SIX6 missense variant rs33912345 was found to be highly associated with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between this SIX6 variant and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a population setting. Study subjects were enrolled from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES), a population-based survey of Singaporean Chinese aged 40 years or older. Subjects underwent a comprehensive ocular examination. Spectral-domain OCT was used to measure RNFL thicknesses. Genotyping of SIX6 rs33912345 (Asn141His) was performed using HumanExome BeadChip. A total of 2129 eyes from 1243 SCES subjects (mean age: 55.0 ± 7.4 years) with rs33912345 genotype data and SD-OCT images were included for the analysis. Of these, 26 eyes of 21 subjects had glaucoma. The frequency of rs33912345 risk variant C (His141) was 80% in the study subjects. Each rs33912345 C allele was associated with a decrease of 1.44 μm in RNFL thickness after adjusting for age, sex, genetic principal components, and axial length (P = 0.001). These associations remained similar in 2096 nonglaucoma eyes in which each C allele was associated with a decrease of 1.39 μm in RNFL thickness (P = 0.001). The strongest association was observed in the superior RNFL sector (a decrease of 2.83 μm per risk allele, P regions known to be particularly affected in those with glaucoma. This may be the primary mechanism for increased risk of POAG in individuals who carry the SIX6 His141 risk variant. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  12. Correlation between Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness by Optical Coherence Tomography and Perimetric Parameters in Optic Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Soltan-Sanjari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT and visual field (VF parameters in patients with optic atrophy. METHODS: This study was performed on 35 eyes of 28 patients with optic atrophy. RNFL thickness was measured by OCT (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany and automated perimetry was performed using the Humphrey Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany. The correlation between RNFL thickness and VF parameters was evaluated. RESULTS: Mean global RNFL thickness was 44.9±27.5 µm which was significantly correlated with mean deviation score on automated perimetry (r=0.493, P=0.003; however, no significant correlation was observed between visual field pattern standard deviation and the corresponding quadrantic RNFL thickness. In a similar manner, no significant association was found between visual acuity and RNLF thickness. CONCLUSION: Mean global RNFL thickness as determined by OCT seems to be correlated with VF defect depth as represented by the mean deviation score on Humphrey VF testing. OCT may be used as an objective diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with optic atrophy.

  13. Bilateral and Simultaneous Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Govetto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a case of bilateral and simultaneous central retinal vein occlusion (RVO in a young patient diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Case Report: A 38-year-old man with morbid obesity and daytime sleepiness presented with a history of bilateral vision loss. His visual acuity (VA was hand movements, and fundus examination (FE revealed bilateral central RVO. General medical examination revealed untreated hypertension and type II respiratory failure. Laboratory tests for thrombophilia showed increased hematocrit (59% and high levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein. Other causes of congenital and acquired hypercoagulability were ruled out. Pathologic polysomnography led to the diagnosis of OSAS. The patient was treated with antihypertensive drugs and continuous positive air pressure. In addition, he received intravitreal ranibizumab. At 10 months after presentation, his VA was no light perception in the right eye and hand movements in the left eye. FE revealed bilateral retinal and optic nerve atrophy, and the occurrence of a nonarteritic anterior ischemic neuropathy in the right eye was considered.

  14. Central Corneal Thickness Measurement by Ultrasound versus Orbscan II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Faramarzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare Orbscan II and ultrasonic pachymetry for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT in eyes scheduled for keratorefractive surgery. METHODS: CCT was measured using Orbscan II (Bausch & Lomb, USA and then by ultrasonic pachymetry (Tomey SP-3000, Tomey Ltd, Japan in 100 eyes of 100 patients with no history of ocular surgery scheduled for excimer laser refractive surgery. RESULTS: Mean CCT was 544.7±35.5 (range 453-637 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry versus 546.9±41.6 (range 435-648 µm measured by Orbscan II applying an acoustic factor of 0.92 (P=0.14. The standard deviation of measurements was greater with Orbscan pachymetry but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: CCT measurements by Orbscan II (applying an acoustic factor and by ultrasonic pachymetry are not significantly different; however, when CCT readings by Orbscan II are in the lower range, it is advisable to recheck the measurements using ultrasonic pachymetry.

  1. Correlation in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in uveitis and healthy eyes using scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocq, David; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Kodjikian, Laurent; Denis, Philippe

    2016-06-17

    To evaluate the correlation of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) in uveitic eyes compared with healthy eyes. A descriptive, observational, prospective, consecutive, cross-sectional, controlled, monocentre case series was conducted from May to October 2015. Clinical characteristics, best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, RNFL thickness measurement with SD-OCT and SLP using GDx variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC) were performed for each patient. An evaluation of anterior chamber inflammation with laser flare-cell meter was also carried out. Correlations between SD-OCT and GDx VCC RNFL measurement were evaluated by linear regression analysis. Fifty-four patients were included and divided into two groups: 50 healthy eyes in 29 patients and 42 uveitic eyes in 25 patients. The mean RNFL thickness was 98.08(±8.42) and 113.21(±20.53) μm in the healthy group and the uveitic group, respectively, when measured with SD-OCT (p<0.001); and 56.43(±5.24) and 58.77(±6.67) μm, respectively, when measured with GDx VCC (p=0.078). There was a strong correlation between total average RNFL thickness measured using SD-OCT and GDX (r=0.48, p<0.001) in healthy eyes but there was no correlation in the uveitic eyes (r=0.2, p=0.19). RNFL thickness was significantly greater when measured using SD-OCT in active uveitis as compared with GDx. There was no correlation between the RNFL thickness measurements obtained using the two techniques in uveitic eyes. The discrepancies between the results suggest that for these patients both techniques should be used in conjunction to obtain an accurate measurement of RNFL. IRB 00008855 Société Française d'Ophtalmologie IRB#1. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. 正常人黄斑厚度及视盘旁神经纤维频域OCT分析%Normative data for macular thickness and distribution of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber measured by SD-OCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳力敏; 华瑞; 胡悦东; 陈蕾

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用频域OCT(spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography,SD-OCT)分析正常人眼黄斑厚度、体积及视盘旁神经纤维的分布情况.方法 应用频域OCT对62名124只眼正常人(21~58岁)黄斑及视盘旁进行快速扫描,测量正常眼中心/小凹厚度(Central point thickness,CPT),黄斑部直径为3mm圆形区域内9个分区内平均厚度(Th)及体积(V);同时测量视盘旁直径为3.4mm圆形区域神经纤维分布情况.入组标准:矫正视力20/20,眼压正常,没有已知眼病.结果 124只正常眼中心小凹平均厚度为(215.11±15.475)μm,中心区为(255.56±16.709)μm),黄斑区厚度图呈开口向颞侧的马蹄形,在所有ETDRS区域中,鼻外象限厚度最大(352.87±15.886)μm;中心凹鼻侧厚度及体积大于颞侧(P<0.05);在内环区域,上下方视网膜厚度及体积无明显差异;在外环区域,上下方视网膜厚度及体积差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);视盘旁神经纤维的分布,颞下方神经纤维分布最多,鼻侧神经纤维最少差异有统计学意义.结论 应用频域OCT测量,正常人眼黄斑部中心小凹厚度为(215.11±15.475)μm,中央区为(255.56±16.709)μm,神经纤维层厚度与以往时域OCT测量结果基本一致.频域OCT成像清晰,能够精确测量黄斑视网膜厚度及视盘旁神经纤维分布情况,可为临床诊治黄斑及视神经病变提供客观、定量的指标.%Objective To determine normal values for macular thickness, volume and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFL)measured by spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT)in subjects with no known retinal disease and to examine the relationship of RNFL with macular thickness. Methods Sixty-two healthy adults(124 eyes, 21-58 years old)with no known eye disease,best-corrected visual acuity 20/20, and normal intraocular pressure were enrolled. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination to rule out any retinal diseases or glaucoma. All the

  3. Decreased retinal nerve fibre layer thickness detected by optical coherence tomography in patients with ethambutol‐induced optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Samantha J; Foroozan, Rod

    2007-01-01

    Background It is difficult to assess the degree of optic nerve damage in patients with ethambutol‐induced optic neuropathy, especially just after the onset of visual loss, when the optic disc typically looks normal. Aim To evaluate changes in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with optic neuropathy within 3 months of cessation of ethambutol treatment. Design A retrospective observational case series from a single neuro‐ophthalmology practice. Methods 8 patients with a history of ethambutol‐induced optic neuropathy were examined within 3 months after stopping ethambutol treatment. All patients underwent a neuro‐ophthalmologic examination, including visual acuity, colour vision, visual fields and funduscopy. OCT was performed on both eyes of each patient using the retinal nerve fibre layer analysis protocol. Results The interval between cessation of ethambutol treatment and the initial visit ranged from 1 week to 3 months. All patients had visual deficits characteristic of ethambutol‐induced optic neuropathy at their initial visit, and the follow‐up examination was performed within 12 months. Compared with the initial RNFLT, there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean RNFLT of the temporal, superior and nasal quadrants (p = 0.009, 0.019 and 0.025, respectively), with the greatest decrease in the temporal quadrant (mean decrease 26.5 μm). Conclusions A decrease in RNFLT is observed in all quadrants in patients with ethambutol‐induced optic neuropathy who have recently discontinued the medication. This decrease is most pronounced in the temporal quadrant of the optic disc. PMID:17215265

  4. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters in myopic population using scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Aggarwal, A; Bali, S J; Sharma, A; Shah, B M; Angmo, D; Panda, A

    2013-01-01

    Myopia presents a significant challenge to the ophthalmologist as myopic discs are often large, tilted, with deep cups and have a thinner neuroretinal rim all of which may mimic glaucomatous optic nerve head changes causing an error in diagnosis. To evaluate the retinal fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in low, moderate and high myopia using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). One hundred eyes of 100 emmetropes, 30 eyes of low myopes (0 to - 4 D spherical equivalent(SE), 45 eyes with moderate myopia (- 4 to - 8D SE), and 30 eyes with high myopia (- 8 to - 15D SE) were subjected to retinal nerve fiber layer assessment using the scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC) in all subjects using the standard protocol. Subjects with IOP > 21 mm Hg, optic nerve head or visual field changes suggestive of glaucoma were excluded from the study. The major outcome parameters were temporal-superior-nasal-inferiortemporal (TSNIT) average, the superior and inferior average and the nerve fibre indicator (NFI). The TSNIT average (p = 0.009), superior (p = 0.001) and inferior average (p = 0.008) were significantly lower; the NFI was higher (P less than 0.001) in moderate myopes as compared to that in emmetropes. In high myopia the RNFL showed supranormal values; the TSNIT average, superior and inferior average was significantly higher(p less than 0.001) as compared to that in emmetropes. The RNFL measurements on scanning laser polarimetry are affected by the myopic refractive error. Moderate myopes show a significant thinning of the RNFL. In high myopia due to peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy and contribution of scleral birefringence, the RNFL values are abnormally high. These findings need to be taken into account while assessing and monitoring glaucoma damage in moderate to high myopes on GDxVCC. © NEPjOPH.

  5. Evaluation of the Macula, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Choroid Thickness in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açmaz, Gökhan; Ataş, Mustafa; Gülhan, Ahmet; Açmaz, Banu; Ataş, Fatma; Aksoy, Hüseyin

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and choroid thickness alterations using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to compare them with healthy reproductive-age women volunteers. Study group consisted of 64 patients with PCOS and control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers. There was a statistically significant difference between PCOS and control groups for choroid thickness (P thickness and temporal inner macula were significantly thinner in the PCOS group than those in the healthy control group (P = .009 and P = .033, respectively). Contrary to these findings, nasal outer macula (NOM) and temporal outer macula (TOM) were statistically thicker in the PCOS group than those in the control group (P = .001 and P choroid thickness and RNFL may lead to increase in both retinal volume and retinal thickness in the peripheral side of the retina. Therefore, NOM and TOM region can be accepted sensitive areas in patients with PCOS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Macular Retinal Ganglion Cell Complex Thickness and Its Relationship to the Optic Nerve Head Topography in Glaucomatous Eyes with Hemifield Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji T. Takagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between the macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness, which is the sum of the retinal nerve fiber, ganglion cell, and inner plexiform layers, measured with a spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph and the optic nerve head topography measured with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope in glaucomatous eyes with visual field defects localized predominantly to either hemifield. Materials and Methods. The correlation between the mGCC thickness in hemispheres corresponding to hemifields with and without defects (damaged and intact hemispheres, respectively and the optic nerve head topography corresponding to the respective hemispheres was evaluated in 18 glaucomatous eyes. Results. The mGCC thickness was significantly correlated with the rim volume, mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and cross-sectional area of the retinal nerve fiber layer in both the intact and the damaged hemispheres (P<.05. Discussion. For detecting very early glaucomatous damage of the optic nerve, changes in the thicknesses of the inner retina in the macular area and peripapillary RNFL as well as rim volume changes in the optic nerve head are target parameters that should be carefully monitored.

  7. Correlation of retinal nerve fibre layer and macular thickness with serum uric acid among type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuthinee-Naidu, Munisamy-Naidu; Zunaina, Embong; Azreen-Redzal, Anuar; Nyi-Nyi, Naing

    2017-06-14

    Uric acid is a final breakdown product of purine catabolism in humans. It's a potent antioxidant and can also act as a pro-oxidant that induces oxidative stress on the vascular endothelial cells, thus mediating progression of diabetic related diseases. Various epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that uric acid has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and macular thickness with serum uric acid in type 2 diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eye Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan between the period of August 2013 till July 2015 involving type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with no diabetic retinopathy and with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). An evaluation for RNFL and macular thickness was measured using Spectralis Heidelberg optical coherence tomography. Six ml of venous blood was taken for the measurement of serum uric acid and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C). A total of 180 diabetic patients were recruited (90 patients with no diabetic retinopathy and 90 patients with NPDR) into the study. The mean level of serum uric acid for both the groups was within normal range and there was no significance difference between the two groups. Based on gender, both male and female gender showed significantly higher level of mean serum uric acid in no diabetic retinopathy group (p = 0.004 respectively). The mean serum uric acid was significantly higher in patient with HbA1C uric acid in both the groups. Serum uric acid showed a poor correlation with RNFL and macular thickness among type 2 diabetic patients.

  8. Relationship Between Optic Nerve Appearance and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness as Explored with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S.; Huang, Jiayan; Garrity, Sean T.; Carter, Stuart B.; Aleman, Wendy D.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Tamhankar, Madhura A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the relationship between the appearance of the optic nerve and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Records from patients with spectral domain-OCT imaging in a neuro-ophthalmology practice were reviewed. Eyes with glaucoma/glaucoma suspicion, macular/optic nerve edema, pseudophakia, and with refractive errors > 6D were excluded. Optic nerve appearance by slit lamp biomicroscopy was related to the RNFL thickness by spectral domain-OCT and to visual field results. Results Ninety-one patients (176 eyes; mean age: 49 ± 15 years) were included. Eighty-three eyes (47%) showed optic nerve pallor; 89 eyes (50.6%) showed RNFL thinning (sectoral or average peripapillary). Average peripapillary RNFL thickness in eyes with pallor (mean ± SD = 76 ± 17 μm) was thinner compared to eyes without pallor (91 ± 14 μm, P < 0.001). Optic nerve pallor predicted RNFL thinning with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 75%. Optic nerve appearance predicted RNFL thinning (with a sensitivity and specificity of 81%) when RNFL had thinned by ∼ 40%. Most patients with pallor had RNFL thinning with (66%) or without (25%) visual field loss; the remainder had normal RNFL and fields (5%) or with visual field abnormalities (4%). Conclusions Optic nerve pallor as a predictor of RNFL thinning showed fair sensitivity and specificity, although it is optimally sensitive/specific only when substantial RNFL loss has occurred. Translational Relevance Finding an acceptable relationship between the optic nerve appearance by ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain-OCT RNFL measures will help the clinician's interpretation of the information provided by this technology, which is gaining momentum in neuro-ophthalmic research. PMID:25374773

  9. PITUITARY ADENOMA- VISUAL FIELDS, RETINAL NERVE FIBRE LAYER AND GANGLION CELL-INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER THICKNESS ANALYSIS- A CORRELATIONAL STUDY

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    Jyoti Shetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary adenoma is a benign and most common tumour of the pituitary gland. It is also the most common parachiasmal tumour and accounts for approximately 10-15% of primary intracranial neoplasms. It has an annual incidence rate of 0.8–8 per 1,00,000 population. Pituitary adenomas are classified as functional and non-functional based on their hormonal activity. Functional adenomas are usually detected earlier due to clinical manifestations produced by excess of hormones. The aim of the study is to analyse visual acuity, visual fields, RNFL thickness and GCIPL thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT and to find a correlation between these parameters and tumour volume in patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS 48 patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma confirmed by MRI scan underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation (visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, fundus evaluation, perimetry using 30-2 SITA FAST strategy, (Humphrey Field Analyzer; Carl-Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, and OCT of disc (for retinal nerve fibre layer- RNFL thickness and macula (for ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL thickness using Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA at Bangalore West Lions Super Speciality Eye Hospital, between June 2014 to June 2016. Various parameters like Mean Deviation (MD, Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD and RNFL and GCIPL thickness on OCT were analysed and correlated with each other. RESULTS Mean tumour volume in patients was 12.26 ± 15.8 cm3 . Most of the patients had visual acuity 6/18 or better. Bitemporal hemianopia was seen in only 5 (12.2% patients. Superotemporal quadrantanopia, arcuate defects, tubular fields and homonymous hemianopia were the other field defects seen. Total and pattern deviation plot of visual fields correlated well with tumour volume and visual acuity. On visual field analysis, the MD (-8.18 ± 8.65 dB was depressed compared to the control group (-2.0 ± 1.8 dB, and

  10. Central corneal thickness and its association with ocular and general parameters in Indians: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Sinha, Ajit; Matin, Arshia; Kulkarni, Maithili

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT) and its associations in an adult Indian population. Population-based study. The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a rural region close to Nagpur in Central India; it included 4711 subjects (ages 30+ years) of 5885 eligible subjects (response rate, 80.1%). The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic and medical examination, including 200 standardized questions on socioeconomic background, lifestyle, social relations, and psychiatric depression. This study was focused on CCT as measured by sonography and its associations. Intraocular pressure was measured by applanation tonometry. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure. Central corneal thickness measurement data were available on 9370 (99.4%) eyes. Mean CCT was 514+/-33 microm (median, 517 microm; range, 290-696 microm). By multiple regression analysis, CCT was associated significantly with younger age (Peyes with a corneal refractive power of 45 or more diopters were excluded, the relationship between CCT and axial length was no longer statistically significant (P>0.05), whereas all other relationships remained significant. Intraocular pressure readings increased significantly (Peyes that had thick corneas or steep corneas. Central corneal thickness and steepness of the anterior corneal surface may thus both have to be taken into account when applanation tonometry is performed. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. THE RESULTS OF RADIAL OPTIC NEUROTOMY FOR TREATMENT OF CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION

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    S A Tabatabaii

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nCentral retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is the third most common blinding vascular retinal disorder. As there is no proven treatment for CRVO, we performed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of radial optic neurotomy (RON on visual acuity in eyes with CRVO. This study was designed as an interventional case series. Pars plana vitrectomy with RON was performed in 18 eyes of 16 patients with ischemic CRVO with visual acuities of 20/400 or less. Postoperative and preoperative visual acuities were compared using t paired test. Mean preoperative visual acuity was 20/1000 (range, 20/1600 to 20/630. Mean follow-up time was 3.6 months (range, 1 to 9 months. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 20/400 (range, 20/1600 to 20/50 at last follow-up and the difference was significant (P < 0.01; t paired test. Six patients (33% improved to 20/200 postoperatively. There were no major complications intraoperatively. Chorioretinal shunts developed in neurotomy site in 9 cases (50% 4 to 10 weeks after procedure which were associated with faster resolving of hemorrhage and venous dilation. There were no major complications noted with this procedure but vitreous hemorrhage and iris neovascularization was observed in the early postoperative period in 2 (11% of 18 cases. RON may improve visual acuity in eyes with CRVO. It is a technically feasible and fairly safe procedure but postoperatively it may result in some complications such as vitreous hemorrhage, iris neovascularization and retinal detachment.

  12. [Assessment of central corneal thickness in children with diabetus mellitus type I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiutiuca, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the correlations between central corneal thickness and type 1 diabetes in children. Central corneal thickness was measured for one hundred children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (study group) and one hundred healthy children (control group), using TOPCON TRK-1P autorefractokeratotonometer. The average central corneal thickness in diabetic children was 541.13 +/- 30,985 microns for the right eye and 538.28 +/- 32, 773 microns for the left eye; in control group--528.11 +/- 33,565 microns for the right eye and 526.89 +/- 30,483 microns for the left eye. Diabetic children have a significantly increased central corneal thickness when compared with non-diabetic children.

  13. Quantification of retinal tangential movement in epiretinal membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Mads; la Cour, Morten

    2012-01-01

    To describe a technique of quantifying retinal vessel movement in eyes with epiretinal membrane (ERM) and correlate the retinal vessel movement with changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and patients' subjective reports about experienced symptoms (symptoms)....

  14. [Combined central retinal vein and artery occlusion after retrobulbar anesthesia--report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rogil José de Almeida; Luchini, Andréa; Weis, Wilma; Frecceiro, Paulo Roberto; Casella, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    Two cases of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion after intraocular surgery are described. Both patients were submitted to peribulbar anesthesia. Due to the painful sensation and ocular mobility retrobulbar anesthesia was necessary. At the end of the surgery both patients received a subconjunctival injection of gentamicin associated with dexamethasone. On the very first day after the surgery the two patients showed pupillary areflexia and visual acuity of luminous perception when they were referred to our service. The confirmation of the diagnosis of combined vascular occlusion of the retina was obtained by fluorescein angiography test. The two patients never showed, any neurological alteration. However visual loss was severe and permanent. By means of surgical description, clinical history, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography we are able to discuss the possible causes of this severe retinal vascular injury emphasizing the presumed anesthesic injection that was given into the optical nerve during retrobulbar anesthesia. At the same time we discuss preventive measures to avoid such problem.

  15. The central light reflex of retinal arteries and veins in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

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    Brinchmann-Hansen, O; Myhre, K; Dahl-Jørgensen, K; Hanssen, K F; Sandvik, L

    1987-08-01

    The width (Wr/Wo) and the intensity (Ir) of the central light reflex were studied on retinal arteries and veins in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. A diabetic group (n = 45) was compared to normal subjects (n = 57), and the groups were matched according to age and blood pressure levels. A computerized scanning microdensitometer was applied across various sites on vessels in fundus photographs. The Ir of the reflected light was significantly reduced in diabetic arteries and veins compared to the vessels in the control group (P less than 0.001). This may implicate abnormalities in blood rheology of the retinal circulation in diabetes. The Wr/Wo was found narrower in veins in diabetic patients (P less than 0.001). This probably indicates differences in haemodynamics of venous flow in diabetic and normal subjects. The intensity was correlated to the duration of diabetes (P less than 0.05), while neither the width nor the intensity were found related to sex, metabolic control, intraocular pressure or retinopathy.

  16. Central retinal vein occlusion: A review of current Evidence-based treatment options

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    Amy Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO can induce an ischemic and hypoxic state with resulting sequelae of macular edema and neovascularization. Many treatment options have been studied. Our review aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of the multiple treatment options of CRVO. A PubMed and Cochrane literature search was performed. Well-controlled randomized clinical trials that demonstrated strong level 1 evidence-based on the rating scale developed by the British Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine were included. Seven clinical trials met inclusion criteria to be included in this review. These included studies that investigated the safety and efficacy of retinal photocoagulation (1 study, intravitreal steroid treatment (2 studies, and antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment (4 studies for the treatment of CRVO. In addition, studies evaluating surgical treatment options for CRVO were also included. Many treatment modalities have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in the treatment of CRVO. These treatment options offer therapeutic benefits for patients and clinically superior visual acuity and perhaps the quality of life after suffering from a CRVO.

  17. Visual Acuity, Retinal Sensitivity, and Macular Thickness Changes in Diabetic Patients without Diabetic Retinopathy after Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irman Grčar, Irena; Grčar, Rok; Pfeifer, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Functional and morphological macular study after cataract surgery in a group of diabetics without diabetic retinopathy compared to nondiabetics to evaluate the effect of surgical oxidative stress on diabetic retina. Methods. Prospective, comparative study. Preoperative eye exam, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured by ETDRS letters, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were followed by standard cataract surgery. The follow-up visits at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively included BCVA, OCT, and microperimetry, to analyze changes within and between the groups. Results. The BCVA improved significantly in diabetics and controls: 64.2 to 81.0 and 61.9 to 82.1 ETDRS at 6 months, respectively. The central macula at OCT significantly thickened in both groups, while the central 5 fields, corresponding to the microperimetry area, subclinically thickened from 284.20 to 291.18 μm at 6 months only in diabetics (p = 0.026). A matching slight decrease in the microperimetry sensitivity from 1 to 6 months was found also only in diabetics, with mean average difference −0.75 dB (p = 0.04). Conclusion. Underlying diabetes does not influence the surgical outcome in diabetics without diabetic retinopathy. However, slight thickening of wider macula and corresponding decrease in retinal sensitivity observed in diabetics 6 months postoperatively might influence visual function on long term. PMID:28243608

  18. Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the sole presenting sign of Susac syndrome in a young man: case report

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    Samira Luiza dos Apóstolos-Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 24-year-old man presenting with sudden visual loss in the left eye from a central retinal artery occlusion. An extensive clinical investigation revealed no etiology. Three weeks later, however, the patient developed hearing loss followed by encephalopathy and multiple branch retinal artery occlusions in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography confirmed retinal vascular occlusions with no sign of vasculitis. The neurological examination revealed a diffuse encephalopathy while the MRI scan disclosed several small areas of infarcts in the brain. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed on audiometry. The patient was diagnosed with Susac syndrome and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, resulting in slight improvement and stabilization. This case shows that Susac syndrome may be diagnosed late due to the absence at onset of one or more of the symptoms of the classic triad (encephalopathy, multiple branch retinal artery occlusions and hearing loss. This case also serves to emphasize that Susac syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion, even in apparently healthy young men.

  19. A REPORT OF CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION (CRAO , IN YOUNG MALES IN ITS INITIAL MANIFESTATION, AS PRIMAR Y ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME

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    Rani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM: To report a case of Central Retinal Artery Occlusi on (CRAO in young males in its initial manifestation as Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome. METHODS: 32 year healthy male, with abrupt sudden painless loss of vision in r ight eye since 48 hours, with Grade 2 Relative afferent pupillary defect, visual acuity of hand movements in OD and 6/18 in OS. Fundoscopy disclosed signs compatible of central reti nal artery occlusion confirmed with FFA. Carotid Doppler imaging and echocardiography was done to determine the source. RESULTS: Antiphospholipid antibody cofactor, beta2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies, IgM, was positive with titre of more than 94 un its/ml on two occasions, 1 2 weeks apart, with normal range being less than 20 units/ml for each isotope (IgG, IgM, or IgA .According to the 2006 revised Sapporo criteria Antiphospholipid syndrome was diagnosed. Thor ough examination excluded other system involvement. Immunological studies excluded other systemic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: In literature, prevalence of CRAO is 0.85% for every 100000 and prevalence of Antiphospholipid Syndrome in patients showing a major retinal vascula r obstruction is 5% - 33%. Antiphospholipid syndrome should be ruled out in every young patient who presents with Central retinal artery occlusion. Association must be considered, as Central retinal artery occlusion could be the initial manifestation of ant iphospholipid syndrome with high risk of recurrence.

  20. Retinal thickness measured with optical coherence tomography and risk of disability worsening in multiple sclerosis: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Arnow, Sam; Wilson, James A; Saidha, Shiv; Preiningerova, Jana Lizrova; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Brandt, Alexander U; Pablo, Luis E; Guerrieri, Simone; Gonzalez, Ines; Outteryck, Olivier; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Albrecht, Phillip; Chan, Wesley; Lukas, Sebastian; Balk, Lisanne J; Fraser, Clare; Frederiksen, Jette L; Resto, Jennifer; Frohman, Teresa; Cordano, Christian; Zubizarreta, Irati; Andorra, Magi; Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Saiz, Albert; Bermel, Robert; Klistorner, Alexander; Petzold, Axel; Schippling, Sven; Costello, Fiona; Aktas, Orhan; Vermersch, Patrick; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Comi, Giancarlo; Leocani, Letizia; Garcia-Martin, Elena; Paul, Friedemann; Havrdova, Eva; Frohman, Elliot; Balcer, Laura J; Green, Ari J; Calabresi, Peter A; Villoslada, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Most patients with multiple sclerosis without previous optic neuritis have thinner retinal layers than healthy controls. We assessed the role of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness and macular volume in eyes with no history of optic neuritis as a biomarker of disability worsening in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis who had at least one eye without optic neuritis available. In this multicentre, cohort study, we collected data about patients (age ≥16 years old) with clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients were recruited from centres in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Canada, and the USA, with the first cohort starting in 2008 and the latest cohort starting in 2013. We assessed disability worsening using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The pRNFL thickness and macular volume were assessed once at study entry (baseline) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and was calculated as the mean value of both eyes without optic neuritis for patients without a history of optic neuritis or the value of the non-optic neuritis eye for patients with previous unilateral optic neuritis. Researchers who did the OCT at baseline were masked to EDSS results and the researchers assessing disability with EDSS were masked to OCT results. We estimated the association of pRNFL thickness or macular volume at baseline in eyes without optic neuritis with the risk of subsequent disability worsening by use of proportional hazards models that included OCT metrics and age, disease duration, disability, presence of previous unilateral optic neuritis, and use of disease-modifying therapies as covariates. 879 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (n=74), relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (n=664), or progressive multiple sclerosis (n=141) were included in the primary analyses. Disability worsening occurred in 252 (29%) of 879 patients with

  1. Central retinal artery occlusion with concomitant ipsilateral cerebral infarction after cosmetic facial injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Woo, Se Joon; Jung, Cheolkyu; Chang, Jun Young; Chung, Jin-Heon; Han, Moon-Ku

    2014-11-15

    We report 2 cases of central retinal artery occlusion with concomitant ipsilateral cerebral infarction after cosmetic facial injections and a literature review. The 2 patients were two healthy women, in which cosmetic facial injections with autologous fat and filler were performed, respectively. The patients had no light perception at the final visit and their conditions led to memory retrieval disturbance in case 1 and right arm weakness, dysarthria, facial palsy, and ophthalmoplegia in case 2. Neuroimaging showed multifocal small infarctions in the ipsilateral frontal lobe with occlusion of the ophthalmic artery in case 1 and multiple infarctions in the ipsilateral anterior and middle cerebral artery territories with subsequent hemorrhagic transformation in case 2. Poor visual prognosis and neurological complications can occur in healthy adults undergoing cosmetic facial injection, and all patients should be informed of this risk before the procedure.

  2. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion and Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy Diagnosed With En Face Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Rahimi, Mansour; Iafe, Nicholas; Sarraf, David

    2016-09-01

    A 21-year-old healthy female presented with acute-onset vision loss in the left eye. Multimodal imaging, including fundus photography and fluorescein angiography, was unremarkable. En face optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) lesions in a perivenular fern-like pattern leading to the diagnosis of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). En face OCT can be an important modality to identify the distribution of abnormalities of the middle retina such as PAMM. The distribution of PAMM lesions in the posterior pole will be a critical element in the determination of the etiologic disorder. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:862-864.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Angiographically Documented Macular Ischemia after Single Bevacizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyou Ho; Kang, Eui Chun; Koh, Hyoung Jun

    2017-05-01

    This report describes a case of angiographically documented foveal avascular zone (FAZ) enlargement after a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A 71-year-old female was treated with an intravitreal bevacizumab injection for macular edema following CRVO. Despite successfully decreased edema one month after injection, the postinjection best-corrected visual acuity immediately decreased from 20/40 to 20/1000 (Snellen equivalent). The FAZ area increased from 0.37 mm² to 3.11 mm² (8.4-fold increase). While intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor is effective and should be considered as a first-line treatment for macular edema secondary to CRVO, it may aggravate macular ischemia. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  4. Ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements to identify early glaucoma

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    Tarannum Mansoori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the ability of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT parameters to distinguish normal eyes from those with early glaucoma in Asian Indian eyes. Design : Observational cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods : One hundred and seventy eight eyes (83 glaucoma patients and 95 age matched healthy subjects of subjects more than 40 years of age were included in the study. All subjects underwent RNFLT measurement with spectral OCT/ scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO after dilatation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AROC were calculated for various OCT peripapillary RNFL parameters. Results: The mean RNFLT in healthy subjects and patients with early glaucoma were 105.7 ± 5.1 μm and 90.7 ± 7.5 μm, respectively. The largest AROC was found for 12 o′clock- hour (0.98, average (0.96 and superior quadrant RNFLT (0.9. When target specificity was set at ≥ 90% and ≥ 80%, the parameters with highest sensitivity were 12 o′clock -hour (91.6%, average RNFLT (85.3% and 12 o′ clock- hour (96.8 %, average RNFLT (94.7% respectively. Conclusion : Our study showed good ability of spectral OCT/ SLO to differentiate normal eyes from patients with early glaucoma and hence it may serve as an useful adjunct for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  5. Ultrasonic evaluation of central retinal artery hemodynamics in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and the correlation with disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Xia Liu; Jing-Mian Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation between central retinal artery hemodynamic characteristics in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy and endothelial injury molecules as well as trophoblast cell apoptosis molecules.Methods: 45 healthy pregnant women, 37 patients with gestational hypertension and 24 patients with preeclampsia who gave birth in Obstetrics Department of our hospital between May 2013 and December 2015 were selected and included in the control group, GH group and PE group respectively. Central retinal artery ultrasonography was done to determine peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI), serum was collected to determine interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-24, chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and cartilage glycoprotein 40 (YKL40) content, and placenta tissue was collected to determine Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-9, XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression.Results: Central retinal artery PSV and EDV as well as XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta of GH group and PE group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05) while central retinal artery RI, serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). Central retinal artery PSV and EDV as well as XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta of PE group were significantly lower than those of GH group (P<0.05) while central retinal artery RI, serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were significantly higher than those of GH group (P<0.05). Serum IL-6, IL-17, IL-24, CXCL10 and YKL40 content as well as Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 expression in placenta were negatively correlated with PSV and EDV, and positively correlated with RI; XIAP, Survivin and Livin expression in placenta were positively

  6. Unilateral macular edema with central retinal vein occlusion in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

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    Noma H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma,1 Hiroshi Shimizu,1 Tatsuya Mimura21Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Center East, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, but the treatment of the macular edema with this disease is extremely difficult. We report a case of cystoid macular edema (CME secondary to unilateral CRVO in a patient with SLE that responded to intravitreous injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agent. A 33-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department with unilateral impairment of vision. Microperimetry (MP-1 showed a cessation of foveal sensitivity. Fluorescein angiography showed CME without ischaemia of the macular region or peripheral retina (nonischemic CRVO. A diagnosis of CME and unilateral nonischemic CRVO combined with SLE was made and intravitreous anti-VEGF therapy was given. A sample of aqueous humor was harvested at the start of intravitreous injection after obtaining informed consent. Then the levels of VEGF and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 were measured in the aqueous humor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, revealing that VEGF was 234 pg/mL and MCP-1 was 501 pg/mL. Two weeks later, left eye vision improved to 20/20. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed considerable amelioration of retinal swelling and CME. MP-1 showed a marked increase of foveal sensitivity. However, she had recurrence of edema 3 months later. After harvesting aqueous humor again, intravitreous injection of an anti-VEGF agent was repeated for CME. The aqueous VEGF and MCP-1 levels were 156 pg/mL and 360 pg/mL, respectively. These findings suggest that inflammation was improved by intravitreous injection of bevacizumab. Intravitreous injection of anti-VEGF agents may be effective for CME due to nonischemic CRVO in SLE patients

  7. Comparison of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors, laser treatments and a combination of the both for treatment of central retinal vein occlusion

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    Yoav Y. Pikkel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare changes in visual acuity and macular edema in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO treated with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab, macular grid photocoagulation combined with pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP, or both (bevacizumab+grid+PRP. METHODS: Our study is a retrospective cohort clinical study that examined patients that suffered from ischemic CRVO with macular edema. Study inclusion criteria were ischemic CRVO with macula edema and the availability of complete medical records for at least 12mo after treatment. Excluded were patients with diabetes or any other retinal disease. We reviewed the medical records of patients treated in one ophthalmology department-comparing changes in visual acuity and macular edema in patients treated with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab vs those that were treated with macular grid photocoagulation and PRP or both. The main outcome measures were the differences in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and in macular thickness, as assessed by optical coherence tomography, between the enrollment and the final follow up visits. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients met inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups in the mean changes in macular thickness as measured by ocular coherence tomography (131.5±41.2, 108.6±29.2, and 121.1±121.1, P=0.110, or in visual acuity (0.128±0.077, 0.088±0.057, and 0.095±0.065, for intravitreal injections, macular grid photocoagulation+PRP and a combination of the treatments, respectively, P=0.111. The proportions of patients with macular edema after treatment were: 26.1%, 28.6%, and 14.3%, respectively, P=0.499. CONCLUSION: Similar benefit was observed for intravitreal injections, laser photocoagulation, or a combined regimen in the treatment of CRVO. A non-statistically significant trend for reduction in macular edema was observed following combined treatment.

  8. Effects of diabetic keratopathy on corneal optical density, central corneal thickness, and corneal endothelial cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Lin, Tao; Pan, Yingzhe

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic keratopathy is an ocular complication that occurs with diabetes. In the present study, the effect of diabetic keratopathy on corneal optical density, central corneal thickness, and corneal endothelial cell count was investigated. One hundred and eighty diabetic patients (360 eyes) were enrolled in the study during the period from March, 2012 to March, 2013. The patients were divided into three age groups: 10 years, with 60 patients per group (120 eyes). During the same period, 60 healthy cases (120 eyes) were selected and labeled as the normal control group. The Pentacam was used to measure the corneal optical density, and central corneal thickness. Specular microscopy was used to examine the corneal endothelial cell density. The coefficient of partial correlation was used to control age and correlate the analysis between the corneal optical density, corneal endothelial cell density, and central corneal thickness. The stage of the disease, the medial and intimal corneal optical density and central corneal thickness was analyzed in the diabetes group. The corneal optical density in the diabetes group increased compared with that of the normal control group. The medial and intimal corneal optical density and central corneal thickness were positively correlated with the course of the disease. However, the corneal endothelial cell density was not associated with the course of diabetes. There was a positive association between the medial and intimal corneal optical density and central corneal thickness of the diabetic patients. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that medial and intimal corneal optical density and central corneal thickness were sensitive indicators for early diabetic keratopathy.

  9. Assessment of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry (GDx VCC in normal Indian children

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    Mayuri B Khamar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To obtain reference values of RNFL thickness in normal Indian children and to study the association of RNFL thickness with central corneal thickness(CCT and axial length(AL. Materials and Methods: 200 normal Indian children (mean age 8.6 ± 2.9 yrs were examined on the GDxVCC. The inferior average (IA, superior average (SA, temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT average and nerve fiber index (NFI values were recorded and compared between males and females as well as between the different age groups. The association of TSNIT average with AL and CCT was examined. Results: Values for the RNFL parameters were-SA: 64.9 ± 9.7, IA: 63.8 ± 8.8, TSNIT average: 53.5 ± 7.7 and NFI 21.5 ± 10.8. Superior, inferior and TSNIT averages did not differ significantly between males and females (P = 0.25, P = 0.19, P = 0.06 respectively; Mann-Whitney U test. No significant differences were found in TSNIT average across age groups. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between CCT and TSNIT average (r = 0.25, r 2 = 0.06, P < 0.001. The correlation TSNIT average and AL(r = −0.12; r2 = 0.01 was not significant (P = 0.2. Conclusion: Reference values for RNFL parameters reported for Indian children are similar those reported in adults. There is a small correlation between central corneal thickness and RNFL as reflected in average TSNIT.

  10. Assessment of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using scanning laser polarimetry (GDx VCC) in normal Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamar, Mayuri B; Vasavada, Vaishali; Shah, Sajani K; Trivedi, Rupal H; Thomas, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    To obtain reference values of RNFL thickness in normal Indian children and to study the association of RNFL thickness with central corneal thickness(CCT) and axial length(AL). 200 normal Indian children (mean age 8.6 ± 2.9 yrs) were examined on the GDxVCC. The inferior average (IA), superior average (SA), temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average and nerve fiber index (NFI) values were recorded and compared between males and females as well as between the different age groups. The association of TSNIT average with AL and CCT was examined. Values for the RNFL parameters were-SA: 64.9 ± 9.7, IA: 63.8 ± 8.8, TSNIT average: 53.5 ± 7.7 and NFI 21.5 ± 10.8. Superior, inferior and TSNIT averages did not differ significantly between males and females (P = 0.25, P = 0.19, P = 0.06 respectively; Mann-Whitney U test). No significant differences were found in TSNIT average across age groups. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between CCT and TSNIT average (r = 0.25, r 2 = 0.06, P < 0.001). The correlation TSNIT average and AL(r = -0.12; r2 = 0.01) was not significant (P = 0.2). Reference values for RNFL parameters reported for Indian children are similar those reported in adults. There is a small correlation between central corneal thickness and RNFL as reflected in average TSNIT.

  11. Retinal blood flow velocity in patients with active uveitis using the retinal function imager

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xing; Kedhar Sanjay; Bhoomibunchoo Chavakij

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest a link between macular edema and retinal blood flow velocity (RBFV).The effects of inflammation in the retinal blood vessels are not clearly understood.We want to evaluate the differences in retinal blood flow velocities of patients with active uveitis and healthy controls using the retinal function imager (RFI)and determine the correlation between retinal blood flow veiocity and central macular thickness in uveitis patients.Methods Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients with active anterior uveitis and 51 eyes of 51 normal control subjects were enrolled.Retinal blood flow velocities evaluated by RFI and central macular thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT) were obtained.Differences among the groups were assessed using Stata statistical software.Results Ten eyes had uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME).Median (first quartile,third quartile) venous velocity for uveitic eyes with CME,uveitic eyes without CME,and controls were 2.09 (1.92,2.44),2.64 (2.32,2.86),and 2.82 (2.39,3.53) mm/s respectively.Median (first and quartile) arterial velocity for uveitic eyes with CME,uveitic eyes without CME,and controls were 3.79 (3.61,4.09),3.46 (2.86,4.12),and 3.93 (3.35,4.65) mm/s.Uveitic eyes with CME had significantly lower venous velocity than controls (P=0.044).There was a strong linear relationship between venous velocity and central retinal thickness (P=-0.007).Conclusions Retinal venous velocities were significantly decreased in eyes with uveitic CME relative to controls.Decreased venous velocity was correlated with increased central retinal thickness in uveitic eyes.

  12. Central corneal thickness vs Goldman´ tonometry. Study in suspecting patients of Glaucoma.

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    Elsa E. Cabeza Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring of the central corneal thickness through ultrasonic pachymetry, in several opportunities can contribute to diagnose glaucoma. The main objective of this research was to determine, the central corneal thickness in suspecting patients of having glaucoma.to check if it makes influence while taking the intraocular pressure with the Tonometer of Goldman, 328 eyes were studied out of the 164 patients who attended the glaucoma provincial appointment as suspecting of suffering from this pathology, who were included according to the study in the classification, of elaborated suspected in relation with this aspect. Taking into account:ocular hypertension without papillary alteration,papillary alteration without ocular hypertension,papillary alteration with ocular hypertension.It was carried out a measuring of the intraocular pressure and ultrasonic pachymetry to all eyes to know the central corneal thickness.Several variables were studied like, age, skin color, which were no significant. The thick cornea was predominant in the masculine sex and the thin ones in the femenine. Related to refractive deffects were predominant the thick cornea in myopic patients and in those suffering from hypermetropic. There was no relation among general illness associated and the central corneal thickness. It was predominant the eyes with normal central corneal thickness followed by those having thick cornea.The technological development plays an important role in the acute and precise diagnose of glaucoma, of all those patients sent to the provincial glaucoma appointment, because of being suspected less than 1/4 needed other studies after taking ultrasonic pachymetry.

  13. Early peripheral laser photocoagulation of nonperfused retina improves vision in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (Results of a proof of concept study).

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    Rehak, Matus; Tilgner, Eric; Franke, Annegret; Rauscher, Franziska G; Brosteanu, Oana; Wiedemann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of combination of ranibizumab and laser photocoagulation to peripheral retinal areas of nonperfusion in patients with non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) without neovascularizations. This prospective, proof of concept study randomized 22 CRVO patients into two arms. The RL group (ranibizumab + laser; n = 10) received ranibizumab with additive laser photocoagulation; the control R group (n = 12) was treated with ranibizumab only. All patients received three initial monthly ranibizumab injections followed by PRN regimen. Changes in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and in central retinal thickness (CRT) were documented over 6 months. Median of BCVA improved in the RL group from 65 ETDRS letters (interquartile range IQR = 10 letters) at baseline to 70 (IQR = 23.2) letters at month 6. In the control group BCVA remained stable [baseline: 61 (IQR = 19.5) and month 6: 61 (IQR = 22) letters]. CRT decreased between baseline and final visit in the RL group from 547 (IQR = 513) μm to 246.5 (IQR = 346.3) μm, and in the control group from 637.5 (IQR = 344) μm to 423 (IQR = 737) μm. More pronounced improvements in BCVA were seen in the RL group (medians = 14 vs. 6.5 letters) although the observed group differences were not statistically significant due to small samples. The selective laser photocoagulation of peripheral areas of nonperfusion seems to lead to additional visual improvement in patients with CRVO. A larger replication trial is necessary to confirm the results of this proof of concept study.

  14. Central corneal thickness in adult Chinese. Association with ocular and general parameters. The Beijing Eye Study.

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    Zhang, Haitao; Xu, Liang; Chen, Changxi; Jonas, Jost B

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the distribution of central corneal thickness and its associations in the adult Chinese population. The Beijing Eye Study 2006 is a population-based study including 3,251 (73.3%) subjects (aged 45+ years) out of 4,439 subjects who participated in the survey in 2001 and who returned for re-examination. Central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were performed by slit lamp-based optical coherence tomography. Central corneal thickness measurement data were available for 3,100 (95.4%) subjects. Mean CCT was 556.2+/-33.1 microm (median: 553 microm; range: 429-688 microm). In multiple regression analysis, CCT was significantly associated with optic disc area (P = 0.043), urban region (P measurements (P measured by pneumotonometry) increased for each microm central corneal thickness increase by 0.03 mmHg. In the adult Chinese population, CCT was significantly associated optic disc area, urban region, and male gender. Intraocular pneumotonometric pressure measurements increased for each microm increase in central corneal thickness by 0.03 mmHg. CCT was not associated with age and refractive error.

  15. Intravitreal aflibercept injection for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion: two-year results from the COPERNICUS study.

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    Heier, Jeffrey S; Clark, W Lloyd; Boyer, David S; Brown, David M; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Kazmi, Husain; Ma, Yu; Stemper, Brigitte; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert; Haller, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) for the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Randomized, double-masked, phase 3 trial. A total of 188 patients with macular edema secondary to CRVO. Patients received IAI 2 mg (IAI 2Q4) (n = 114) or sham injections (n = 74) every 4 weeks up to week 24. During weeks 24 to 52, patients from both arms were evaluated monthly and received IAI as needed, or pro re nata (PRN) (IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN). During weeks 52 to 100, patients were evaluated at least quarterly and received IAI PRN. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of patients who gained ≥ 15 letters in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to week 24. This study reports week 100 results. The proportion of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters was 56.1% versus 12.3% (Pcentral retinal thickness was 457.2 versus 144.8 μm (P<0.001) at week 24, 413.0 versus 381.8 μm at week 52 (P = 0.546), and 390.0 versus 343.3 μm at week 100 (P = 0.366) in the IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN groups, respectively. The mean number (standard deviation) of PRN injections in the IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN groups was 2.7 ± 1.7 versus 3.9 ± 2.0 during weeks 24 to 52 and 3.3 ± 2.1 versus 2.9 ± 2.0 during weeks 52 to 100, respectively. The most frequent ocular serious adverse event from baseline to week 100 was vitreous hemorrhage (0.9% vs. 6.8% in the IAI 2Q4 + PRN and sham + IAI PRN groups, respectively). The visual and anatomic improvements after fixed dosing through week 24 and PRN dosing with monthly monitoring from weeks 24 to 52 were diminished after continued PRN dosing, with a reduced monitoring frequency from weeks 52 to 100. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion- A rare complication of oral contraceptive pills

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    Nidhi Pancholi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To propose a hypothesis of causal association between central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and oral contraceptive pills (OCPCase Summary:A case report-A 22 yr old, female presented with sudden painless loss of vision in OS [Right Eye] for 1 day. VA [Visual Activity] in OS was PL PR [Perception of Light and Projection of Rays] Faulty with RAPD [Relative Afferent Papillary Defect] with normal for fifteen minutes, given five hundred mg of acetazolamide orally stat, 0.4 ml of anterior chamber paracentesis done, 5400 IU LMW [Low Molecular Weight] heparin given SC[Subcutaneous] with carbogen inhalation. Retrospectively she was on oral contraceptives(Mala D for 1 month. She was not hypertensive or diabetic with normal blood, coagulation profile & carotid Doppler. She was evaluated by an intern to find the cause of coagulation disorder and was found to be normal. On first day FFA [Fundus Florescien Angiography] showed no blockage with normal cilioretinal artery perfusion established. Visual fields after one week showed central tubular vision and OCT [Ocular Coherent Tomography] showed normal fovea. After 2 weeks vision was 20/80 with persistent RAPD papilla macular bundle being perfused.

  17. Analisador de espessura retiniana (RTA na avaliação de buraco macular Retinal thickness analyzer (RTA in evaluation of macular hole

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    Márcio Bittar Nehemy

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados do Analisador de Espessura Retiniana (RTA em olhos com buraco macular e compará-los aos achados da biomicroscopia do segmento posterior, retinografia e fluoresceinografia. Métodos: Foram estudados por meio do analisador de espessura retiniana, biomicroscopia do segmento posterior, retinografia e fluoresceinografia, dez olhos de seis pacientes com diagnóstico de buraco macular. Destes, 8 foram examinados antes de qualquer tratamento, e dois, após o tratamento do buraco macular pela vitrectomia. Resultados: Em dois olhos com diagnóstico de buraco macular pelo exame clínico e outros exames complementares, a opacidade dos meios impediu a análise pelo analisador de espessura retiniana. O corte óptico do analisador de espessura retiniana mostrou concordância com os achados clínicos e com os observados nos oito olhos em que o exame foi possível. O corte topográfico nos dois olhos que apresentavam buraco macular fechado pela cirurgia mostraram espessura foveal média normal, e nos seis olhos com buraco macular não operado, espessura foveal média aumentada. Conclusão: O corte óptico do analisador de espessura retiniana evidenciou o buraco macular, forneceu informações sobre sua largura e profundidade e comprovou o fechamento do buraco após a vitrectomia. O corte topográfico do analisador de espessura retiniana mostrou espessura foveal média normal nos dois casos de fechamento do buraco macular e, espessura foveal média aumentada em todos os seis olhos não operados.Objective: To evaluate the Retinal Thickness Analyzer (RTA findings in eyes with macular hole and compare them to findings of retina and vitreous biomicroscopy, retinography and fluorescein angiography. Methods: The authors studied ten eyes of six patients with the diagnosis of macular hole, using retinal thickness analyzer, retina and vitreous biomicroscopy, retinography and fluorescein angiography. Eight eyes had been examined before any

  18. Clinical evaluation of low vision and central foveal thickness in highly myopic cataract eyes after phacoemulsification

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    Ji-Li Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To retrospectively evaluate central foveal thickness in highly myopic eyes with best correct visual acuity(BCVAMETHODS: In this retrospective clinical study, we consecutively recruited 70 low highly myopic cataract subjects(70 eyesunderwent Phaco. Postoperative visits were performed at 1wk, 1 and 3mo. Postoperative BCVA were recorded and further divided into 2 groups with BCVARESULTS: The ratio of BCVAPr=-0.716, PCONCLUSION: In this study, BCVA is improved after 3mo follow up. There has significant correlation between postoperative BCVA and central foveal thickness.

  19. Correlation between the optical coherence tomography and electroretinogram in retinal vein occlusion macular edema

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    Ya Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the correlation between retinal thickness and photopic flash electroretinogram(ERGparameters(Cone a-wave, Cone b-wave, and 30Hz flickerin patients with central retinal vein occlusion(CRVOand macular edema. METHODS: A total of 25 patients(25 CRVO eyes and 25 unaffected fellow eyeswith CRVO underwent the examination of optical coherence tomography(OCTand photopic falsh ERG. The amplitude and implicit time of the ERG parameters were extracted from the ERG traces. Retinal thicknesses were measured by OCT in nine macular subfields. Then the correlations between ERG parameters and macular morphological parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: The Cone b-wave and 30Hz flicker implicit time were correlated with macular retinal thickness in seven out of nine subfields, excluding the temporal subfields. CONCLUSION: The retinal thickness of the macular edema may be associated with inner retinal function in CRVO patients.

  20. Treatment of central retinal vein occlusion by radial optic neurotomy in 107 cases.

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    Hasselbach, H C; Ruefer, F; Feltgen, N; Schneider, U; Bopp, S; Hansen, L L; Hoerauf, H; Bartz-Schmidt, U; Roider, J

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the potential role of radial optic neurotomy (RON), a new surgical technique has been recently proposed for treating central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). It is hypothesized that CRVO constitutes a neurovascular compartment syndrome at the site of the lamina cribrosa, which can be alleviated by performing a radial incision at the nasal part of the optic nerve head, relaxing the cribriform plate and the adjacent sclera. One hundred and seven patients were treated with RON for CRVO at five collaborating ophthalmologic centers. All patients were evaluated by a standardized protocol. For analysis of the angiographic and fundus findings, reference images were used. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were reviewed. On 55 right and 52 left eyes of 107 patients (55.6% male, 44.4% female) with a median age of 68 years (range 21-91 years), RON was performed. The median follow-up time was 6 months (range 1-24 months). The median preoperative visual acuity (VA) was 0.05 (logMAR 1.3), increasing to a median postoperative VA of 0.08 (logMAR 1.1). Patients with an interval of more than 90 days between RON and onset of CRVO showed no significant change in VA at the 6-month follow-up. Severe peripapillary swelling of the optic nerve head prior to RON resulted in an average increase of 4.2 lines in VA at the 6-month follow-up. Angiographic findings of shunt vessels were seen in 18/30 cases after 12 months and were accompanied by an average improvement of VA of six lines. Visual field tests showed various defects in 86.8% of all cases. In one patient an iatrogenic injury of the central retinal artery occurred (0.9%). Despite the potential risk of visual field defects, RON seems to be a quite safe procedure. The majority of patients showed rapid normalization of the morphologic fundus findings, with an improvement in VA uncommon for the natural history of CRVO. No significant change in VA was seen in patients with an interval of more than 90 days between the

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor Trap-Eye for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: six-month results of the phase 3 COPERNICUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, David; Heier, Jeffrey; Brown, David M; Clark, W Lloyd; Vitti, Robert; Berliner, Alyson J; Groetzbach, Georg; Zeitz, Oliver; Sandbrink, Rupert; Zhu, Xiaoping; Beckmann, Karola; Haller, Julia A

    2012-05-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap-Eye in eyes with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Multicenter, randomized, prospective, controlled trial. One hundred eighty-nine eyes with macular edema secondary to CRVO. Eyes were randomized 3:2 to receive VEGF Trap-Eye 2 mg or sham injection monthly for 6 months. The proportion of eyes with a ≥15-letter gain or more in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at week 24 (primary efficacy end point), mean changes in BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT), and proportion of eyes progressing to neovascularization of the anterior segment, optic disc, or elsewhere in the retina. At week 24, 56.1% of VEGF Trap-Eye treated eyes gained 15 letters or more from baseline versus 12.3% of sham-treated eyes (P<0.001). The VEGF Trap-Eye treated eyes gained a mean of 17.3 letters versus sham-treated eyes, which lost 4.0 letters (P<0.001). Central retinal thickness decreased by 457.2 μm in eyes treated with VEGF Trap-Eye versus 144.8 μm in sham-treated eyes (P<0.001), and progression to any neovascularization occurred in 0 and 5 (6.8%) of eyes treated with VEGF Trap-Eye and sham-treated eyes, respectively (P = 0.006). Conjunctival hemorrhage, reduced visual acuity, and eye pain were the most common adverse events (AEs). Serious ocular AEs were reported by 3.5% of VEGF Trap-Eye patients and 13.5% of sham patients. Incidences of nonocular serious AEs generally were well balanced between both groups. At 24 weeks, monthly intravitreal injection of VEGF Trap-Eye 2 mg in eyes with macular edema resulting from CRVO improved visual acuity and CRT, eliminated progression resulting from neovascularization, and was associated with a low rate of ocular AEs related to treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of laser pan-retinal photocoagulation with or without intravitreal bevacizumab injections on the OCT-measured macular choroidal thickness of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Rony C; Mutti, Anibal; Ferraz, Daniel A; Zacharias, Leandro C; Nakashima, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Walter Y; Monteiro, Mario L R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of laser pan-retinal photocoagulation with or without intravitreal bevacizumab injections on macular choroidal thickness parameters in eyes with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: High-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients undergoing laser treatment were prospectively enrolled in this study. One eye was randomly selected for laser treatment combined with bevacizumab injections, study group, whereas the corresponding eye was subjected to laser treatment alone, control group. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging was used to measure the macular choroidal thickness prior to and 1 month after treatment. Measurements in both groups were compared. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01389505. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (38 eyes) with a mean±standard deviation age of 53.4±9.3 years were evaluated, and choroidal thickness measurements for 15 patients were used for comparison. The greatest measurement before treatment was the subfoveal choroidal thickness (341.68±67.66 μm and 345.79±83.66 μm for the study and control groups, respectively). No significant difference between groups was found in terms of macular choroidal thickness measurements at baseline or after treatment. However, within-group comparisons revealed a significant increase in choroidal thickness parameters in 10 measurements in the study group and in only 5 temporal measurements in the control group when 1-month follow-up measurements were compared to baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: The macular choroidal thickness does not appear to be significantly influenced by laser treatment alone but increases significantly when associated with bevacizumab injections in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Because bevacizumab injections reduce short-term laser pan-retinal photocoagulation-induced macular edema, our findings suggest that the choroid participates in its pathogenesis. PMID:28273240

  3. Retinal prosthesis for the blind.

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    Margalit, Eyal; Maia, Mauricio; Weiland, James D; Greenberg, Robert J; Fujii, Gildo Y; Torres, Gustavo; Piyathaisere, Duke V; O'Hearn, Thomas M; Liu, Wentai; Lazzi, Gianluca; Dagnelie, Gislin; Scribner, Dean A; de Juan, Eugene; Humayun, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    Most of current concepts for a visual prosthesis are based on neuronal electrical stimulation at different locations along the visual pathways within the central nervous system. The different designs of visual prostheses are named according to their locations (i.e., cortical, optic nerve, subretinal, and epiretinal). Visual loss caused by outer retinal degeneration in diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration can be reversed by electrical stimulation of the retina or the optic nerve (retinal or optic nerve prostheses, respectively). On the other hand, visual loss caused by inner or whole thickness retinal diseases, eye loss, optic nerve diseases (tumors, ischemia, inflammatory processes etc.), or diseases of the central nervous system (not including diseases of the primary and secondary visual cortices) can be reversed by a cortical visual prosthesis. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of current and future concepts of retinal and optic nerve prostheses. This article will begin with general considerations that are related to all or most of visual prostheses and then concentrate on the retinal and optic nerve designs. The authors believe that the field has grown beyond the scope of a single article so cortical prostheses will be described only because of their direct effect on the concept and technical development of the other prostheses, and this will be done in a more general and historic perspective.

  4. Comparison of the Abilities of SD-OCT and SS-OCT in Evaluating the Thickness of the Macular Inner Retinal Layer for Glaucoma Diagnosis.

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    Kyoung Min Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the abilities of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT (SD-OCT; Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering and swept-source OCT (SS-OCT; DRI-OCT1 Atlantis system, Topcon for analyzing the macular inner retinal layers in diagnosing glaucoma.The study included 60 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and 60 healthy control subjects. Macular cube area was scanned using SD-OCT and SS-OCT on the same day to assess the thicknesses of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL, ganglion cell layer plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL, and total retinal layer in nine subfields defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS. The abilities of the parameters to discriminate between the POAG and control groups were assessed using areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs.Glaucoma-associated mRNFL and GCIPL thinning was more common in the outer zones than inner zones for both SD-OCT and SS-OCT. The mRNFL and GCIPL measurements showed distinct pattern differences between SD-OCT and SS-OCT in each ETDRS subfield. Although the glaucoma-diagnosis ability was comparable between SD-OCT and SS-OCT for most of the parameters, AUC was significantly larger for SD-OCT measurements of the GCIPL thickness in the outer temporal zones (p = 0.003 and of the mRNFL thickness in the outer nasal zones (p = 0.001, with the former having the largest AUC for discriminating POAG from healthy eyes (AUC = 0.894.Spectralis SD-OCT and DRI SS-OCT have similar glaucoma-diagnosis abilities based on macular inner layer thickness analysis. However, Spectralis SD-OCT was potentially superior to DRI SS-OCT in detecting GCIPL thinning in the outer temporal zone, where the glaucomatous damage predominantly occurs.

  5. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY: Assessment of Haller and Sattler Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoo-Ri; Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Seung Woo; Lee, Kihwang

    2016-09-01

    To investigate subfoveal choroidal thickness and subanalyze Haller and Sattler layers in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), uninvolved fellow eyes, and eyes of healthy controls using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Ocular findings and clinical features of 31 eyes with CSC, 24 fellow eyes and eyes of 30 healthy controls were analyzed retrospectively from October, 2014 to March, 2015. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, and the thicknesses of Haller and Sattler layers were analyzed. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness and mean thickness of Haller layer were significantly greater in CSC than in fellow eyes (P = 0.043 and P = 0.036, respectively) and in normal control eyes (P thickness of Sattler layer did not differ significantly among these groups (P = 0.519). Subfoveal choroidal thickness and the thickness of Haller layer were increased not only in affected but also in uninvolved fellow eyes of CSC patients. Nonvascular smooth muscle cells of the choroid may play a role in the pathophysiology of CSC, in response to increased sympathetic tone.

  6. EVALUATION OF MACULAR ISCHEMIA IN EYES WITH CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION: An Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Study.

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    Ghashut, Rima; Muraoka, Yuki; Ooto, Sotaro; Iida, Yuto; Miwa, Yuko; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Tomoaki; Kadomoto, Shin; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2017-06-30

    To quantitatively assess macular perfusion status using optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes with aflibercept-treated central retinal vein occlusion and resolved macular edema and to investigate the impact of macular morphology and perfusion status on visual function. This prospective consecutive case series included 23 patients with central retinal vein occlusion. All patients received intravitreal aflibercept injections before analysis. Visual acuity, macular sensitivity, and the macular nonperfusion area (NPA) were evaluated in eyes without macular edema. The macular NPA was evaluated by optical coherence tomography angiography using 3 mm × 3 mm images of the macula. Foveal ellipsoid zone disruption was also analyzed. The superficial macular NPA measured 4.15 mm ± 0.71 mm (95% confidence interval 3.85-4.46), and the deep macular NPA measured 4.23 mm ± 0.97 mm (95% confidence interval 3.82-4.56). The logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was significantly associated with foveal ellipsoid zone disruption (P = 0.001), the superficial macular NPA (P = 0.015), and the deep macular NPA (P = 0.018). Macular sensitivity correlated negatively with logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (P = 0.007), the superficial macular NPA (P = 0.029), and the deep macular NPA (P = 0.040), but not with the foveal ellipsoid zone disruption (P = 0.435). Optical coherence tomography angiography is a novel technique that enables segmented evaluation of the macular perfusion status in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion and provides visual prognostic information. Enlargement of the macular NPA in the superficial and deep layers was significantly correlated with impaired visual acuity and with decreased macular sensitivity in patients with aflibercept-treated central retinal vein occlusion and resolved macular edema.

  7. Central retinal artery occlusion following laser treatment for ocular ischemic aortic arch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah, Payal J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare blinding condition generally caused by disease of the carotid artery. We describe a 69-year-old female with a 50 pack-year smoking history with aortic arch syndrome causing bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome. Methods: The patient presented with progressive visual loss and temple pain. Slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed bilateral iris neovascularization. This finding prompted a cardiovascular work up. Panretinal photocoagulation with retrobulbar block was performed in the right eye. Results: A temporal artery biopsy was negative. The carotid duplex sound showed only a 1–39% stenosis. MRA revealed a more proximal occlusion of the aortic branch for which she underwent subclavian carotid bypass surgery. At the one month follow up, the right eye suffered profound vision loss secondary to a central retinal artery occlusion. Conclusion: Ocular neovascularization may be one of the clinical manifestations of aortic arch syndrome. This case also illustrates the limitations of relying solely on carotid duplex ultrasound testing. We caution against overly aggressive panretinal photocoagulation utilizing retrobulbar anesthesia.

  8. Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Intraocular Silicone Oil Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yasin Teke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic and ocular factors may cause acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. Herein, we aimed to describe a case of CRAO due to intraocular silicone oil (SO tamponade. To the best of our knowledge, a case like our has not been reported previously. A 58-yearold male patient had undergone combined pars plana vitrectomy-lensectomy and intraocular SO for lens luxation and vitreus hemorrhage associated with a blunt ocular trauma in his right eye. Two weeks after the surgery, he presented with acute vision loss in the same eye. He was diagnosed with acute CRAO and it should be related with mechanical press or raised intraocular pressure (IOP associated with SO. He was treated by partial removal of SO immediately. In spite of the regression of retina edema, his visual acuity did not improve due to optic atrophy. SO may cause CRAO due to raised IOP and/or its mechanical pressure and this complication must be kept in mind. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 238-40

  9. Selective thrombolysis performed through meningo-ophthalmic artery in central retinal artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Halpert, Michael; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The poor natural history of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually not modified with conventional, conservative management techniques. Guidelines for selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis are still lacking. While many centers continue to perform this procedure with promising results, others are reluctant due to conflicting findings in recent studies. We present our experience in a 36-year-old male with CRAO. Based on the patient's clinical presentation, we planned to perform selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis via the ophthalmic artery. When angiography demonstrated that the retina was not supplied by the ophthalmic artery, but by a meningo-ophthalmic artery branching from the internal maxillary artery, we instead administered thrombolytic agents via the meningo-ophthalmic artery. The patient's vision recovered completely, with visual acuity and visual field examination at 30 day follow up comparable to his pre-treatment status. This case emphasizes the need for external carotid artery examination in cases of nonvisualization of the ophthalmic artery. In addition, it illustrates the successful use of the meningo-ophthalmic artery to perform selective intraarterial thrombolysis for CRAO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early panretinal photocoagulation for the treatment of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zikui; He, Naizhen

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of treating ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO)with early panretinal photocoagulation(PRP). Methods:24 eyes of 24 cases suffered from ischemic CRVO with history shorter than 3 months were included in this study. PRP treatments were completed through 3 to 5 times of laser therapy with total laser burns of 1000 to 2000(mean 1505+/-384).Patients were followed up 3 months to 2 years, mean 18.4+/-8.0 months.The neovascularization regression and visual acuity were compared before and after PRP, also the long-term complications were observed. Results:3 eyes of iris neovascularization (INV) regressed after PRP and there was no significant difference in visual acuity between prelaser and postlaser. No neovascular glaucoma(NVG) occurred and 2 eyes occurred vitreous hemorrhage during the follow up period.. Conclusions: Early panretinal photocoagulation is safe and efficacious in preventing and reducing complications of ischemic CRVO. It can save valuable treatment time for some patients

  11. Effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment on the retinal gene expression in acute experimental central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Franziska; Köferl, Patricia; Hollborn, Margrit; Wiedemann, Peter; Bringmann, Andreas; Kohen, Leon; Rehak, Matus

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies on the gene expression in the neural retina in a rat model of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The CRVO was induced by laser photocoagulation of all retinal veins. The animals were divided into 3 groups (in each, n = 16): group CRVO only without any further treatment, group CRVO with bevacizumab, and group CRVO with anti-VEGF antibodies. The intravitreal injection of bevacizumab or anti-VEGF antibodies was performed 15 min after CRVO induction. The left eyes in all animals served as untreated controls. The expression of factors which influence the development of vascular edema (VEGF-A, pigment epithelium-derived factor, PEDF), of channels implicated in retinal osmohomeostasis (Kir4.1, AQP4, AQP1) and of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 was determined by using real-time RT-PCR after 1 and 3 days of CRVO. CRVO induced a rapid transient upregulation of Vegfa after 1 day, and a delayed upregulation of Pedf after 3 days of CRVO. The expression levels of Kir4.1, Aqp4 and Aqp1 were strongly decreased, and the levels of Il1β and Il6 were strikingly increased after CRVO. Intravitreal bevacizumab and anti-VEGF antibodies fully prevented the upregulation of Vegfa after 1 day, and the upregulation of Pedf after 3 days of CRVO, and decreased the upregulation of Il1β after 1 day of CRVO. Anti-VEGF treatment had no effect on the expression levels of Kir4.1, Aqp4, Aqp1, and Il6. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect on the upregulation of Vegfa and Il1β contributes to the edema-resolving effect of anti-VEGF treatment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Changes in central retinal artery blood flow after ocular warming and cooling in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal perfusion variability impacts ocular disease and physiology. Aim: To evaluate the response of central retinal artery (CRA blood flow to temperature alterations in 20 healthy volunteers. Setting and Design: Non-interventional experimental human study. Materials and Methods: Baseline data recorded: Ocular surface temperature (OST in °C (thermo-anemometer, CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in cm/s using Color Doppler. Ocular laterality and temperature alteration (warming by electric lamp/cooling by ice-gel pack were randomly assigned. Primary outcomes recorded were: OST and intraocular pressure (IOP immediately after warming or cooling and ten minutes later; CRA-PSV and EDV at three, six and nine minutes warming or cooling. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA. Results: (n = 20; μ±SD: Pre-warming values were; OST: 34.5±1.02°C, CRA-PSV: 9.3±2.33cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.6±1.27cm/s. OST significantly increased by 1.96°C (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.37 after warming, but returned to baseline ten minutes later. Only at three minutes, the PSV significantly rose by 1.21cm/s (95% CI: 0.51to1.91. Pre-cooling values were: OST: 34.5±0.96°C, CRA-PSV: 9.7±2.45 cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.7±1.12cm/s. OST significantly decreased by 2.81°C (95% CI: -2.30 to -3.37 after cooling, and returned to baseline at ten minutes. There was a significant drop in CRA-PSV by 1.10cm/s (95% CI: -2.05 to -0.15 and CRA-EDV by 0.81 (95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14 at three minutes. At six minutes both PSV (95% CI: -1.38 to -0.03 and EDV (95% CI: -1.26 to -0.02 were significantly lower. All values at ten minutes were comparable to baseline. The IOP showed insignificant alteration on warming (95% CI of difference: -0.17 to 1.57mmHg, but was significantly lower after cooling (95% CI: -2.95 to -4.30mmHg. After ten minutes, IOP had returned to baseline. Conclusion : This study confirms that CRA flow significantly increases on warming and decreases on cooling

  13. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

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    Petr Kolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of the rare combination of central retinal vein occlusion and cilioretinal artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, Ugur Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    A 43-year-old male presented with sudden onset of painless, blurred vision in his left eye. Dilated fundoscopic examination showed signs consistent with the diagnosis of a combination of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO). He received daily 2-h sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), 253 kPa for 14 days. At the end of the HBOT course, the patient's left visual acuity had improved from 20/200 to 20/20. Dilated fundoscopic examination showed that the intra-retinal haemorrhages in the entire retina and the retinal whitening along the course of the CLRA seen at presentation had completely resolved. The combination of CLRAO and CRVO comprises a discrete clinical entity. Even though there are many hypotheses concerning this condition, it is most likely the result of elevated intraluminal pressure in the retinal capillaries due to CRVO that exceeds the pressure in the CLRA. HBOT may be an effective treatment for CRVO-associated CLRAO.

  15. Choroidal thickness following extrafoveal photodynamic treatment with verteporfin in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Anders; Larsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of verteporfin photodynamic treatment (PDT) on choroidal thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods: Choroidal thickness was measured with enhanced depth imaging- optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) before and after verteporfin PDT...... (full-dose verteporfin, half-light dose) in 16 eyes in 16 patients with serous detachment of the fovea secondary to extrafoveal angiographic fluorescein leakage. Treatment was confined to the area of leakage, whereas choroidal thickness before and after treatment was assessed over a larger area...... of the fundus using OCT. Results: Complete resolution of the serous detachment was seen in all 16 eyes within 1 month of extrafoveal PDT, while choroidal thickness in the area where PDT was applied decreased from 407 µm [mean; 95% confidence interval (CI(95) ) 356-458 µm] to 349 µm (mean; CI(95) 300-399 µm; p...

  16. Change of regional choroid thickness after reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Saki; Shiragami, Chieko; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Izumibata, Saeko; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate macular choroidal thickness after reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Prospective, consecutive, interventional case series. Twenty-two eyes with chronic CSC were treated with reduced-fluence PDT. Macular choroidal thickness was examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with a 3-dimensinonal radial scan protocol in the choroidal mode before and 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment. The mean choroidal thickness in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid (center, inner circle, and outer circle) was compared between before and after therapy, as well as between treated eyes and 54 volunteer normal eyes. Chronic CSC eyes showed significantly thicker choroids in the macular area compared with normal controls (P Choroidal thickness within the center area and inner circle showed a significant reduction at all time points after treatment (P choroidal thickness in the outer circle showed a statistically significant reduction at 1 and 3 months but not at 6 months. After treatment, the choroidal thickness reduced to the normal values at the center and inner circle, but was still significantly thicker in the outer circle (P choroids in the macular area. After reduced-fluence PDT, macular choroidal thickness became thinner within 6 months of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness assessment in patients with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tiganov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC in patients with Alzheimer`s disease and mild cognitive impairment.Methods: this study included 10 patients (20 eyes with Alzheimer`s disease, 10 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls that had no history of dementia. All the subjects underwent psychiatric examination, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and complete ophthalmological examination, comprising optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry.Results: there was a significant decrease in GCC thickness in patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared to the control group, global loss volume of ganglion cells was higher than in control group. there was no significant difference among the groups in terms of RNFL thickness. Weak positive correlation of GCC thickness and MMSE results was observed.Conclusion: Our data confirm the retinal involvement in Alzheimer`s disease, as reflected by loss of ganglion cells. Further studies will clear up the role and contribution of dementia in pathogenesis of optic neuropathy.

  18. Correlation between optic nerve head circulation and visual function before and after anti-VEGF therapy for central retinal vein occlusion: prospective, interventional case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasato, Daisuke; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Semba, Kentaro; Akaiwa, Kei; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Yoshizumi, Yuki; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-05

    To determine the correlation between the optic nerve head (ONH) circulation determined by laser speckle flowgraphy and the best-corrected visual acuity or retinal sensitivity before and after intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab for central retinal vein occlusion. Thirty-one eyes of 31 patients were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab for macular edema due to a central retinal vein occlusion. The blood flow in the large vessels on the ONH, the best-corrected visual acuity, and retinal sensitivity were measured at the baseline, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The arteriovenous passage time on fluorescein angiography was determined. The venous tortuosity index was calculated on color fundus photograph by dividing the length of the tortuous retinal vein by the chord length of the same segment. The blood flow was represented by the mean blur rate (MBR) determined by laser speckle flowgraphy. To exclude the influence of systemic circulation and blood flow in the ONH tissue, the corrected MBR was calculated as MBR of ONH vessel area - MBR of ONH tissue area in the affected eye divided by the vascular MBR - tissue MBR in the unaffected eye. Pearson's correlation tests were used to determine the significance of correlations between the MBR and the best-corrected visual acuity, retinal sensitivity, arteriovenous passage time, or venous tortuosity index. At the baseline, the corrected MBR was significantly correlated with the arteriovenous passage time and venous tortuosity index (r = -0.807, P retinal sensitivity at the baseline, and at 1, 3, and 6 months (all P retinal sensitivity at 6 months (r = 0.485, P = 0.005). The pre-treatment blood flow velocity of ONH can be used as a predictive factor for the best-corrected visual acuity and retinal sensitivity after anti-VEGF therapy for central retinal vein occlusion. UMIN000009072. Date of registration: 10/15/2012.

  19. The Effect of LASIK Procedure on Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness in Myopic Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zivkovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effect of applied suction during microkeratome-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK procedure on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness as well as macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL thickness. Methods. 89 patients (124 eyes with established myopia range from −3.0 to −8.0 diopters and no associated ocular diseases were included in this study. RNFL and GC-IPL thickness measurements were performed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT one day before LASIK and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. Results. Mean RNFL thickness prior to LASIK was 93.86±12.17 μm while the first month and the sixth month postoperatively were 94.01±12.04 μm and 94.46±12.27 μm, respectively. Comparing results, there is no significant difference between baseline, one month, and six months postoperatively for mean RNFL (p>0.05. Mean GC-IPL thickness was 81.70±7.47 μm preoperatively with no significant difference during the follow-up period (82.03±7.69 μm versus 81.84±7.64 μm; p>0.05. Conclusion. RNFL and GC-IPL complex thickness remained unaffected following LASIK intervention.

  20. Reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with spectral domain cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samin; Kim, Chan Yun; Lee, Won Seok; Seong, Gong Je

    2010-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of the new spectral domain Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) for analysis of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy eyes. Thirty healthy Korean volunteers were enrolled. Three optic disc cube 200 x 200 Cirrus HD-OCT scans were taken on the same day in discontinuous sessions by the same operator without using the repeat scan function. The reproducibility of the calculated RNFL thickness and probability code were determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), test-retest variability, and Fleiss' generalized kappa (kappa). Thirty-six eyes were analyzed. For average RNFL thickness, the ICC was 0.970, CV was 2.38%, and test-retest variability was 4.5 microm. For all quadrants except the nasal, ICCs were 0.972 or higher and CVs were 4.26% or less. Overall test-retest variability ranged from 5.8 to 8.1 microm. The kappa value of probability codes for average RNFL thickness was 0.690. The kappa values of quadrants and clock-hour sectors were lower in the nasal areas than in other areas. The reproducibility of Cirrus HD-OCT to analyze peripapillary RNFL thickness in healthy eyes was excellent compared with the previous reports for time domain Stratus OCT. For the calculated RNFL thickness and probability code, variability was relatively higher in the nasal area, and more careful analyses are needed.

  1. [A preliminary study on macular retinal and choroidal thickness and blood flow change after posterior scleral reinforcement by optical coherence tomography angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X F; Qiao, L Y; Li, X X; Ma, N; Li, M; Guan, Z; Wang, H Z; Wang, N L

    2017-01-11

    Objective: To investigate macular retinal and choroidal thickness and blood flow change using optical coherence tomography angiography after posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) surgery. Methods: Prospective study. Twenty eyes of 10 patients with high myopia were enrolled in this open-label, single-treatment group and prospective study. Radial lines and Angio retina (3 mm×3 mm) module were performed for 20 eyes using Angio-vue optical coherence tomography (Avanti, Optovue) without pupil dilation, and best corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent and axial length were compared before and 60 days after surgery. Retinal and choroidal thickness was measured in the fovea, 1 mm superior, 1 mm inferior, 1 mm nasal and 1 mm temporal to the fovea. Flow area, flow density and flow index were recorded using self-provided software in the superficial retina layer, deep retina layer, outer retina layer and choroid capillary layer, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. Data that followed normal distribution were compared with paired two-sample t-test, while others were compared with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Of the patients participating in this preliminary study, the mean age was (35.5±4.2) years, and 50% were female. No significant difference was found between before and 60 days after PSR surgery in best corrected visual acuity (t=0.99, P=0.33), spherical equivalent (t=-1.89, P=0.07) and axial length (t=0.2, P=0.08). The retinal thickness in the fovea was thinner (Z=-2.58, P=0.01), while there was no significant difference in the 1 mm superior (t=0.44, P=0.67) , 1 mm inferior (t=0.05, P=0.96) , 1 mm nasal (Z=0.87, P=0.64) and 1 mm temporal (Z=-0.78, P=0.99) to the fovea. No significant difference was found in choroidal thickness (t=-0.12, P=0.87; t=-0.25, P=0.81. t=0.53, P=0.61; t=-0.91, P=0.38. t=1.2, P=0.25) before and after surgery. The postoperative flow density in the superficial and deep retinal layers (48.18±4.56% and 31.47

  2. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David; Kvanta, Anders; Lindqvist, Pelle G

    2017-03-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) has been shown to occur more often in winter/spring season. We aimed to evaluate if patients with CRVO have more vitamin D deficiency compared to matched controls. Prospective match controlled study of 72 patients with CRVO and 144 matched controls. All new CRVO cases presenting at St. Erik Eye Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden during the study period were approached to participate. Statistics Sweden provided randomly selected controls matched for age, gender, and season. The first 18 cases of CRVO and 36 controls for each of the four seasons were included and blood was drawn for 25-OH vitamin D analysis (25(OH)D). About half of the patients (51.4%) in the CRVO group had vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D D were 55.3 nmol/l (95% CI 48.4-62.2) in the study group and 59.8 nmol/l (95% CI 55.4-64.2) in the control group (p = 0.28). In stratified analysis, the CRVO patients under 75 years had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than the matched controls (47.8 nmol/l vs. 59.0 nmol/l, p = 0.02). Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with CRVO. No significant differences in vitamin deficiency or 25(OH)D levels were found in comparison to the control group. However, the CRVO patients under 75 years had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels as compared to the control group.

  4. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Features in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Identified by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philipp; Baumann, Bernhard; Lammer, Jan; Gerendas, Bianca; Kroisamer, Julia; Bühl, Wolf; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Sacu, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    To determine the subclinical RPE lesions detected by tissue selective polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to compare PS-OCT findings to current imaging standards. In this prospective observational case series, individuals with unilateral or bilateral active CSC were imaged using PS-OCT at baseline and after resolution of serous retinal detachment. Features seen on PS-OCT were compared with corresponding lesions as seen on conventional, intensity-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Features of RPE evaluated by PS-OCT were as follows: area and volume of pigment epithelium detachment (PED), presence of RPE aggregations, RPE skip lesions, RPE thickening, and RPE atrophy. Twenty-five study eyes and 23 fellow eyes of 25 participants (2 women, 23 men; mean age ± standard deviation = 40.5 ± 7.4 years) were included and followed for 6.1 ± 3 months. Study eyes and fellow eyes with recurrent CSC showed more RPE abnormalities in PS-OCT than eyes with acute CSC, which correlated well with lesions in ICGA. Closure of the leakage site was observed only in eight (32%) eyes after resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF). All study eyes showed widespread RPE aggregates and 23 (92%) eyes showed RPE skip lesions after resolution of SRF. Features of RPE indicative of previous episodes of CSC detected by PS-OCT correspond well to choroidal lesions in ICGA. In addition, noninvasive PS-OCT imaging enables detection of RPE microrips and aggregations invisible to clinical examination or SD-OCT, thus providing valuable information about disease processes in vivo.

  5. Study on the correlation of serum lipid metabolism and central retinal artery hemodynamics with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran-Yang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation of serum lipid metabolism and central retinal artery (CRA) hemodynamics with diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods:A total of 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and divided into NDR group (non-diabetic retinopathy), NPR group (non-proliferative retinopathy), and PR group (proliferative retinopathy) with 40 cases in each group according to DR clinical staging. Moreover, 50 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations were served as the control group. The full automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. The color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) was used to detect EDV, PSV, RI, and PI of CRA and OA.Results:The levels of TG, TC, and LDL-C in NDG, NPR, and PR groups were gradually increased with the aggravation of retinopathy, HDL-C was reduced, the comparison among the three groups was statistically significant, and the comparison with the control group was statistically significant. EDV, PSV, and PI of CRA and OA in NDG, NPR, and PR groups were gradually increased with the aggravation of retinopathy, RI was reduced, the comparison among the three groups was statistically significant, and the comparison with the control group was statistically significant. Conclusions: The lipid metabolism disorder can promote the occurrence and development of DR. The change of CRA and OA hemodynamics is an important pathological basis for developing DR. Clinical detection of serum lipid level and monitoring of the changes of fundus artery hemocynamic parameters are of great significance in early detecting DR.

  6. Is Intravenous Thrombolysis Safe and Effective in Central Retinal Artery Occlusion? A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Oana M; Shen, Joanne F; Kurli, Madhavi; Aguilar, Maria I; Marks, Lisa A; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Wingerchuk, Dean M; O'Carroll, Cumara B

    2017-07-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a neurological and ophthalmologic emergency associated with poor visual recovery. There is a dilemma regarding the appropriate treatment, as formal guidelines are lacking. Despite being considered an ocular equivalent of cerebral infarction, the time window of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis administration for maximum efficacy and safety in CRAO remains uncertain. To critically assess the current evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of IV thrombolysis in the treatment of patients with CRAO. The objective was addressed through the development of a critically appraised topic that included a clinical scenario, structured question, literature search strategy, critical appraisal, assessment of results, evidence summary, commentary, and bottom-line conclusions. Participants included consultant and resident neurologists, a medical librarian, and content experts in the fields of vascular neurology and ophthalmology. A recent patient-level meta-analysis was selected for critical appraisal. The study compared the visual recovery rates after IV thrombolysis in CRAO against the natural history of this illness and conservative therapies (ocular massage, anterior chamber paracentesis, and/or hemodilution). Time to thrombolytic therapy administration had a significant impact on visual recovery in CRAO (PIV thrombolysis within the first 4.5 hours after symptom onset resulted in recovery of vision in 50.0% of the patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 32.4%-67.6%]. The rate of visual recovery was nearly 3 times higher than in the natural history cohort [odds ratio, 4.7 (95% CI, 2.3-9.6); PIV thrombolysis in CRAO seems to be safe and effective within the first 4.5 hours of symptom onset. A clinical decision based on this meta-analysis alone cannot be made due to several limitations. A randomized controlled clinical trial of early IV alteplase administration in CRAO is necessary to provide evidence-based therapeutic guidance.

  7. Morphometric evaluation of changes with time in optic disc structure and thickness of retinal nerve fibre layer in chronic ocular hypertensive monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Tomita, Goji; Taniguchi, Takazumi; Sasaoka, Masaaki; Hara, Hideaki; Kitazawa, Yoshiaki; Araie, Makoto

    2006-03-01

    We examined the time course of changes in optic disc structure by means of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT) in ocular hypertensive (experimental glaucoma) monkeys, and clarified the relationships between the histological RNFL thickness and HRT parameters. Further, the time course of changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in individual eyes was measured using a scanning laser polarimeter with fixed corneal polarization compensator (GDx FCC). In the present study, two separate experiments were carried out. A chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced by laser trabeculoplasty in the left eye in 11 cynomolgus monkeys. In Experiment 1, the HRT and GDx parameters were measured 12 weeks after the laser treatment in 10 eyes in five monkeys. In Experiment 2, the time course of changes in the HRT and GDx parameters was examined before and 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 weeks after the laser treatment in 12 eyes in six monkeys. The retardation values (thickness parameters) obtained from the GDx were used to derive thickness and ratio parameters in the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants. Ratio parameters were expressed as a ratio of superior and inferior quadrant to nasal quadrant. After the last measurements, each eye was enucleated, and retinal cross sections were prepared for histological analysis. In the left (hypertensive) eyes, IOP was persistently elevated throughout the observation periods in both Experiments 1 and 2. In the HRT measurements in Experiment 1, seven out of eight global topographic parameters (exception, disc area) were statistically different between the hypertensive and control eyes 12 weeks after the laser treatment. In Experiment 2, the HRT parameters changed in a time-dependent manner, but each of them almost plateaued at about 4 weeks after the laser treatment. Significant correlations were seen between the histological mean RNFL thickness at 1.5 disc diameters from

  8. Choroid thickness in central serous chorioretinopathy using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography

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    Xiao-Long Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the choroidal thickness in the macular area in affected and unaffected fellow eyes with central serous chorio retinopathy(CSCand in healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-six cases with unilateral CSC and controls were recruited in this study. All eyes were divided into three groups: 26 eyes in Group A(affected eyes with CSC, 26 eyes in group B(unaffected fellow eyesand 26 eyes in group C(right eyes of age and sex matched control. Enhanced depth imaging was obtained by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Subfoveal choroidal thickness and choroidal thickness at 1mm/3mm nasal, temporal, superior and inferior to the fovea were measured. RESULTS: Choroidal thickness was significantly increased in affected eyes with CSC than unaffected fellow eyes(t=5.57, P<0.01.The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCTwas 528.31±91.24μm in group A, 413.71±79.35μm in group B, and 301.31±52.46 in group C. The subfoveal choroid was significantly thicker in group A than Group C(P<0.01. SFCT in unaffected fellow eyes were thicker than the controls(P<0.01. CONCLUSION:Choroidal thickness is thicker in affected eyes with CSC and also in fellow unaffected eyes, indicating that the choroid blood vessels are high and perfusion state, may be one of the factors of the disease CSC.

  9. Changes in retinal oxygen saturation after intravitreal aflibercept in patients with diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Design of study: Three months prospective interventional study. Purpose: To evaluate changes in retinal arterial and venous oxygen saturation after intravitreal aflibercept in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: We included 17 patients with DME, central retinal thickness (CRT) >300...

  10. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togao, Osamu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: togao@dr.hosp.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors.

  11. Repeatability of central corneal thickness measurement with the Pentacam HR system

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    Ruiz Simonato Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the repeatability of central corneal thickness measurement at the geometrical center (Central Corneal Thickness - CCT given by the Pentacam High Resolution (HR Comprehensive Eye Scanner (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany over time. METHODS: Prospective, single center, observational study. Two separate CCT measurements were taken by the Pentacam corneal tomography exam (CTm 3 to 12 months apart, and compared. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen eyes (n=116 of 62 health patients were included in this study. Average CCT in first and last visits was 541.6±37 µm and 543.6±36.9 µm respectively. Mean difference between both measurements was 9.2±6.4 µm, and there was no statistically significant difference in CCT measurement between visits, with good correlation between them (P = 0.057, r² = 0,9209. CONCLUSION: Pentacam (HR CTm gives repeatable CCT measurements over time.

  12. Evaluation of Macular Retinal Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness after Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Macular Holes

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    Alfonso L. Sabater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL thickness changes after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole repair using a high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods. 32 eyes from 32 patients with idiopathic macular holes who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2011 and July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. GCIPL thickness was measured before surgery, and at one month and at six months after surgery. Values obtained from automated and semimanual SD-OCT segmentation analysis were compared (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA. Results. No significant differences were found between average GCIPL thickness values between preoperative and postoperative analysis. However, statistical significant differences were found in GCIPL thickness at the temporal macular quadrants at six months after surgery. Quality measurement analysis performed by automated segmentation revealed a significant number of segmentation errors. Semimanual segmentation slightly improved the quality of the results. Conclusion. SD-OCT analysis of GCIPL thickness found a significant reduction at the temporal macular quadrants at 6 months after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole.

  13. Evaluation of Macular Retinal Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness after Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Macular Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Villoria, Álvaro; Zapata, Miguel A.; Figueroa, Marta S.; Suárez-Leoz, Marta; Arrevola, Luis; Teijeiro, María-Ángeles; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness changes after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole repair using a high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. 32 eyes from 32 patients with idiopathic macular holes who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2011 and July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. GCIPL thickness was measured before surgery, and at one month and at six months after surgery. Values obtained from automated and semimanual SD-OCT segmentation analysis were compared (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Results. No significant differences were found between average GCIPL thickness values between preoperative and postoperative analysis. However, statistical significant differences were found in GCIPL thickness at the temporal macular quadrants at six months after surgery. Quality measurement analysis performed by automated segmentation revealed a significant number of segmentation errors. Semimanual segmentation slightly improved the quality of the results. Conclusion. SD-OCT analysis of GCIPL thickness found a significant reduction at the temporal macular quadrants at 6 months after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole. PMID:25110679

  14. Colour of the nucleus as a marker of nuclear hardness, diameter and central thickness

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    Gullapalli Vamsi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundred and thirty patients, aged above 40 years, with senile cataract were examined. Age and colour were selected as the probable preoperative indicators of nuclear hardness. The lens material collected after manual extracapsular extraction was washed and the nucleus isolated. The diameter and central thickness of the nucleus were measured; the mean diameter and mean central thickness were 7.13 mm ± 0.76 and 3.05 mm ± 0.48, respectively. The hardness of the nucleus was measured with a lens guillotine designed by us. Regression analysis was applied to the parameters measured and these were compared with the colour and age. The parameters measured had the following relationship: Colour vs hardness (r value = 0.7569 (p < 0.001 Colour vs diameter (r value = 0.3962 (p < 0.001 Colour vs central thickness (r value = 0.4785 (p < 0.001 Age vs hardness (r value = -0.0499 (p > 0.05 Age vs diameter (r value = 0.0987 (p > 0.05 Age vs central thickness (r value = 0.1700 (p > 0.05 The values showed that colour had a statistically significant relationship with all the 3 parameters (p < 0.001, while age had no significant relationship with the same parameters. The results indicated that colour can be used more reliably to predict physical characteristics of the cataractous lens nucleus, the preoperative knowledge of which would help the surgeon in planning small-incision surgery including phacoemulsification.

  15. The relationship between central corneal thickness and corneal curvature in adult Nigerians

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    E. Iyamu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to provide average values for central corneal thickness (CCT and corneal curvature (CC and also to determine a regression model for the relationship between CCT and CC in adult Nigerians without glaucoma.Methods: A total of 95 subjects consisting of 56 males and 39 females aged between 20 and 69 years with mean age of 47.1 ± 14.1 years were recruited for the study. Central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasound pachymetry (SW-1000P ultrasound pachymeter, Tianjin Suowei Electronic Technology, China and corneal curvature was measured by keratometry (Bausch & Lomb keratometer H-135A, USA.Results: The average values of 550.1 ± 33.1µm and 43.0 ± 1.1 D were obtained for CCT and CC respectively. CCT significantly correlated with age (p=0.01, and the regression model predicts a decrease of 6.0 µm in CCT per decade. No significant association was found between CC and age (p=0.56. Also, no significant association was found between CCT and CC (p=0.07. Female subjects had significantly steeper corneas than their male counterparts.Conclusion: Central corneal thickness decreases with increasing age. Neither CCT nor age appear to be significantly correlated with corneal curvature. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 44-50

  16. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

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    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  17. Comparative Diagnostic Accuracy of Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measures by Cirrus and Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

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    Julio J. González-López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate sensitivity and specificity of several optical coherence tomography (OCT measurements for detecting retinal thickness changes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, such as macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL thickness measured with Cirrus (OCT and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL thickness measured with Cirrus and Spectralis OCT. Methods. Seventy patients (140 eyes with RRMS and seventy matched healthy subjects underwent pRNFL and GCIPL thickness analysis using Cirrus OCT and pRNFL using Spectralis OCT. A prospective, cross-sectional evaluation of sensitivities and specificities was performed using latent class analysis due to the absence of a gold standard. Results. GCIPL measures had higher sensitivity and specificity than temporal pRNFL measures obtained with both OCT devices. Average GCIPL thickness was significantly more sensitive than temporal pRNFL by Cirrus (96.34% versus 58.41% and minimum GCIPL thickness was significantly more sensitive than temporal pRNFL by Spectralis (96.41% versus 69.69%. Generalised estimating equation analysis revealed that age (P=0.030, optic neuritis antecedent (P=0.001, and disease duration (P=0.002 were significantly associated with abnormal results in average GCIPL thickness. Conclusion. Average and minimum GCIPL measurements had significantly better sensitivity to detect retinal thickness changes in RRMS than temporal pRNFL thickness measured by Cirrus and Spectralis OCT, respectively.

  18. [Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion secondary to cataract surgery in a patient with persistent hyaloid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Aracil, N; Montero-Hernández, J; Gracia-García, A; Cervera-Taulet, E

    2014-04-01

    A 72 year-old woman referred for cataract surgery in her right eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a retrocapsular fibrotic tissue in communication with the optic nerve, suggesting a persistent hyaloid artery (PAH). A posterior capsule rupture unexpectedly occurred during lens hydrodissection. One day after surgery, fundus examination showed a combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion. PAH is uncommon, but its presence may alert us of this possible complication during cataract surgery. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Aggressive or Protective Factor for the Retina? Evaluation of Macular Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers Using High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography

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    José Edvan de Souza-Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare macular thickness (MT and retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and healthy women. Materials and Methods. The study included 45 women with PCOS and 47 ovulatory women undergoing clinical-gynecological and ophthalmic evaluations, including measurement of MT, RNFL, and optic disc parameters using optical coherence tomography. Results. The superior RNFL around the optic nerve was significantly thicker in PCOS than in healthy volunteers (P=0.036. After stratification according to insulin resistance, the temporal inner macula (TIM, the inferior inner macula (IIM, the nasal inner macula (NIM, and the nasal outer macula (NOM were significantly thicker in PCOS group than in control group (P<0.05. Both the presence of obesity associated with insulin resistance (P=0.037 and glucose intolerance (P=0.001 were associated with significant increase in the PC1 mean score, relative to MT. A significant increase in the PC2 mean score occurred when considering the presence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001. There was a significant interaction between obesity and inflammation in a decreasing mean PC2 score relative to macular RNFL thickness (P=0.034. Conclusion. Decreased macular RNFL thickness and increased total MT are associated with metabolic abnormalities, while increased RNFL thickness around the optic nerve is associated with hormonal changes inherent in PCOS.

  20. Measurement of Central Corneal Thickness Using Ultrasound Pachymetry and Orbscan II in Normal Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Mohammad Mehdi; Einollahi, Bahram; Einollahi, Neda; Rezaei, Javad; Roshandel, Danial; Feizi, Sepehr

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ultrasound pachymetry and Orbscan II for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) in normal eyes. Methods: The current study was performed at Labbafinejad Medical Center (LMC), Tehran, Iran. Three hundred eyes from 150 healthy individuals referred for keratorefractive surgery were assessed first by Orbscan II and then by ultrasound pachymetry, and CCT values were recorded and compared. Results: Overall, Orbscan II overestimated CCT as compared to ultrasound pachymetry by about 2.4% (mean values 547.6 ± 34.7 versus 534.8 ± 34.7, respectively, P < 0.001). The difference was more significant when CCT was less than 500 microns (mean values 493.2 ± 16.9 versus 479.9 ± 15.6, mean overestimation: 2.6%, P < 0.001). There was good linear correlation between the two methods (Pearson's correlation r = 0.968, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Orbscan II has good correlation with ultrasound pachymetry for measurement of CCT in normal eyes; however Orbscan II should not be used to evaluate corneal thickness before keratorefractive surgeries, as it tends to overestimate corneal thickness and may result in undesirable, low residual stromal thickness. PMID:26005545

  1. Subfoveal choroidal thickness after photodynamic therapy in patients with acute idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yalong; Sun, Xinfeng; Xu, Yongsheng; Mu, Yalin; Zhao, Manli; Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness after photodynamic therapy in patients with acute idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSCR). This was a retrospective observational study conducted in 63 participants. The primary outcome measure was subfoveal choroidal thickness at baseline and 3 days, one week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after photodynamic therapy. The secondary outcome measure was indocyanine green angiography at baseline and 4 weeks and 12 weeks after photodynamic therapy. Four weeks after photodynamic therapy, 20 (64.51%) symptomatic eyes showed hypofluorescence corresponding to the area of photodynamic therapy irradiation at the posterior pole. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness increased significantly from 422±132 μm at baseline to 478±163 μm at day 3 after treatment (P=0.022) and then decreased to 362±113 μm at week 4 (PPhotodynamic therapy using a one third dose of verteporfin may decrease choroidal vascular hyperpermeability and choroidal thickness in patients with acute ICSCR.

  2. Relationships between central and peripheral corneal thickness in different degrees of myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sara; Mena, Laura; Rio-San Cristobal, Ana; Martin, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship between the central corneal thickness (CCT) and mid-peripheral corneal thickness (PCT) with the degree of myopia [axial length (AL) and spherical equivalent refractive error (SE)]. Methods 175 right myopic eyes from 175 patients were divided according to the degree of SE: group #1 (n = 76, 12.00 D). The CCT and PCT (3 mm from the apex to the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal locations) were measured with the Orbscan-II. Relative peripheral index (RPI) was calculated by dividing the PCT by the CCT. The AL was measured with the IOL Master, and the SE was obtained with subjective refraction. Results AL was 25.18 ± 1.16 mm, 26.59 ± 1.26 mm and 29.45 ± 2.58 mm and SE was −3.31 ± 1.40 D, −8.32 ± 1.64 D and −16.44 ± 4.48 D for groups #1, #2 and #3, respectively. Non-statistically significant differences in central and peripheral corneal thickness were found between groups (P > 0.05 ANOVA). Non-significant relationship was found between central and peripheral corneal thickness with the AL and SE in the three study groups and in the total sample (r  0.05). The RPI values were similar between groups without significant difference between groups (P > 0.05 ANOVA). Linear relationship was found between RPI superior location in group #2 (r = −0.23; P = 0.04) and RPI nasal location in group #3 with the EE (r = 0.41; P = 0.03). Conclusion There are no significant differences among low, moderate and extremely myopic eyes related to the CCT and PCT. Corneal thickness is very similar in myopic eyes with small differences that are not clinically relevant to myopic patient management. PMID:24646900

  3. High-accuracy thickness measurement of a transparent plate with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique

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    Wu, Wang-Tsung; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wei-Yao; Chen, Yen-Liang; Su, Der-Chin

    2011-07-20

    In a modified Twyman-Green interferometer, the optical path variation is measured with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique, as the light beam is focused by a displaced microscopic objective on the front/rear surface of the test transparent plate. The optical path length variation is then measured similarly after the test plate is removed. The geometrical thickness of the test plate can be calculated under the consideration of dispersion effect. This method has a wide measurable range and a high accuracy in the measurable range.

  4. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in patients with tobacco-alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy

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    Moura Frederico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with progressive visual loss, chronic alcoholism and tabagism were submitted to a complete neuro-ophthalmic examination and to retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT scanning. Two patients showed marked RNFL loss in the temporal sector of the optic disc. However, a third patient presented RNFL measurements within or above normal limits, based on the Stratus-OCT normative database. Such findings may be due to possible RNFL edema similar to the one that may occur in the acute phase of toxic optic neuropathies. Stratus-OCT was able to detect RNFL loss in the papillomacular bundle of patients with tobacco-alcohol-induced toxic optic neuropathy. However, interpretation must be careful when OCT does not show abnormality in order to prevent diagnostic confusion, since overestimation of RNFL thickness measurements is possible in such cases.

  5. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Corresponds to Drusen Location and Extent of Visual Field Defects in Superficial and Buried Optic Disc Drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Wegener, Marianne; Sander, Birgit A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optic disc drusen (ODD) are hyaline deposits located within the optic nerve head. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning is associated with the high prevalence of visual field defects seen in ODD patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics...... of patients with ODD and to compare the peripapillary RNFL thickness to the extent of visual field defects and anatomic location (superficial or buried) of ODD. METHODS: Retrospective, cross sectional study. RESULTS: A total of 149 eyes of 84 ODD patients were evaluated. Sixty-five percent were female and 76......% had bilateral ODD. Of 149 eyes, 109 had superficial ODD and 40 had buried ODD. Peripapillary RNFL thinning was seen in 83.6% of eyes, where optical coherence tomography was performed (n = 61). Eyes with superficial ODD had greater mean peripapillary RNFL thinning (P ≤ 0.0001) and visual field defects...

  6. Avaliação da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e mácula em pacientes com ambliopia Thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, macular thickness, in patients with amblyopia

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    Juliana Mitre

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em olhos amblíopes e comparar com olhos normais e certificar se há correlação com a redução da acuidade visual. Além disso, este estudo se propõe avaliar a eficácia e eficiência em uma série de casos do protótipo de um equipamento nacional de magnificação para leitura. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 30 pacientes na faixa etária entre 9 e 80 anos (17 do sexo masculino. Foi desenvolvido um aparelho portátil, patenteado pela Unifesp (PI#020050145260, com um sistema de captura de imagens acoplado a um monitor de 5,6 polegadas proporcionando um aumento de 15 x. Foram analisadas a eficácia da acuidade visual e a eficiência de leitura após a utilização do protótipo proposto. RESULTADOS: Seis pacientes (20% apresentaram AV 8M, 12 pacientes (40% apresentaram AV 6M, 7 pacientes (23,3% apresentaram 5 M, 5 pacientes (16,7% apresentaram 4M. A média de acuidade visual antes da utilização do SLP medida pela tabela LHNV-1 logMAR foi de 5,75M e após a utilização 100% dos pacientes atingiram a eficácia de AV J1. CONCLUSÃO: O protótipo do SLP mostrou-se um recurso alternativo no processo de inclusão social das pessoas com baixa visão com diferentes níveis de resíduo visual. Também pode proporcionar incentivo psicológico, permitir conforto, mobilidade e independência àqueles que necessitam de uma leitura mais prolongada e maior distância de trabalho.OBJECTIVE: To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFLand the macular thickness of the amblyopic eye with those of the non-amblyopic eye in patients with unilateral amblyopia using optical coherence tomography (OCT. METHODS: OCT was performed for13 patients with unilateral amblyopia who had no neurologic disease. Nine male andfour female patients, whose ages ranged from 23 to 63 years, were enrolled in the study. The RNFL thickness average analysis program was used to evaluate mean

  7. Changes in retinal arterial geometry in relation to activity of proliferative diabetic retinopathy 6 months after panretinal photocoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Thomas Lee; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-01-01

    Design of study: Three months prospective interventional study. Purpose: To evaluate changes in retinal arterial and venous oxygen saturation after intravitreal aflibercept in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: We included 17 patients with DME, central retinal thickness (CRT) >3...

  8. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

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    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  9. Metabolic bone disease and central retinal degeneration in a kitten due to nutritional inadequacy of an all-meat raw diet

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    Catherine Lenox

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old castrated male Sphynx kitten presented with left hindlimb lameness shortly after adoption. Prior to adoption, the breeder had fed the kitten an exclusively raw chicken diet. Radiographs revealed generalized osteopenia and a left tibia–fibula fracture. Ophthalmic examination revealed corneal vascularization and opacity in the right eye, and lesions suggestive of feline central retinal degeneration in the left eye. The patient’s diagnoses included metabolic bone disease and feline central retinal degeneration, which can result from taurine deficiency. The kitten’s nutritional diseases were managed with a complete and balanced canned diet designed for kitten growth and with taurine supplementation.

  10. Comparison of two doses of intravitreal bevacizumab as primary treatment for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: results of the pan American collaborative retina study group at 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihteh; Arevalo, J Fernando; Berrocal, Maria H; Maia, Mauricio; Roca, José A; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Alezzandrini, Arturo A; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the injection burden, central macular thickness (CMT), and change in best-corrected visual acuity after injecting 1.25 mg or 2.5 mg bevacizumab as needed in patients with primary macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. This is an interventional, retrospective, comparative multicenter study of 86 eyes with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion that were treated primarily with intravitreal bevacizumab (44 eyes, 1.25 mg; 42 eyes, 2.5 mg). The main outcome measures were the CMT and the change of best-corrected visual acuity at 24 months. All patients completed at least 24 months of follow-up. The mean number of injections per eye were 7.2 for the 1.25-mg dose group and 8.1 for the 2.5-mg dose group (P = 0.4492). At 24 months, in the 1.25-mg dose group, the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity improved from baseline 0.35 +/- 0.57 units (P or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity and 6 (13.6%) lost >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity. In the 2.5-mg dose group, 24 (57.1 %) eyes improved >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity and 7 (16.7%) lost >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity. The CMT in the 1.25-mg dose group improved from 635 +/- 324 microm to 264 +/- 160 microm (P central retinal vein occlusion. There were no statistically significant differences between the two dose groups with regard to the number of injections, CMT, and change in visual acuity.

  11. Contours of Corcoran Clay Thickness in feet by Page (1986) for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset defines the thickness of the Corcoran Clay Member of the Tulare Formation. The complex hydrologic system of the Central Valley is simulated...

  12. Genetic covariance between central corneal thickness and anterior chamber volume: a Hungarian twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Georgina Zsofia; Racz, Adel; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Szekelyhidi, Zita; Littvay, Levente; Suveges, Ildiko; Nemeth, Janos; Nagy, Zoltan Zsolt

    2014-10-01

    Few, and inconsistent, studies have showed high heritability of some parameters of the anterior segment of the eye; however, no heritability of anterior chamber volume (ACV) has been reported, and no study has been performed to investigate the correlation between the ACV and central corneal thickness (CCT). Anterior segment measurements (Pentacam, Oculus) were obtained from 220 eyes of 110 adult Hungarian twins (41 monozygotic and 14 same-sex dizygotic pairs; 80% women; age 48.6 ± 15.5 years) obtained from the Hungarian Twin Registry. Age- and sex-adjusted heritability of ACV was 85% (bootstrapped 95% confidence interval; CI: 69% to 93%), and 88% for CCT (CI: 79% to 95%). Common environmental effects had no influence, and unshared environmental factors were responsible for 12% and 15% of the variance, respectively. The correlation between ACV and CCT was negative and significant (r ph = -0.35, p covariance significantly (0.934; CI: 0.418, 1.061) based on the bivariate Cholesky decomposition model. These findings support the high heritability of ACV and central corneal thickness, and a strong genetic covariance between them, which underscores the importance of identification of the specific genetic factors and the family risk-based screening of disorders related to these variables, such as open-angle and also angle closure glaucoma and corneal endothelial alterations.

  13. SCORE2 Report 1: Techniques to Optimize Recruitment in Phase III Clinical Trials of Patients With Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ingrid U; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Ip, Michael S; Blodi, Barbara A; Oden, Neal L; Figueroa, Maria

    2016-10-01

    To investigate recruitment rates of patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) into phase III clinical trials evaluating intravitreal pharmacotherapy for treatment of macular edema in the United States, describe recruitment techniques in the Study of COmparative Treatments for REtinal Vein Occlusion 2 (SCORE2), and assess which SCORE2 recruitment techniques were most useful to principal investigators and clinical coordinators. Retrospective survey within a randomized clinical trial. Recruitment rates of the Standard Care versus COrticosteroid for REtinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE)-CRVO trial, CRUISE Study, and SCORE2 were calculated. Techniques employed to facilitate recruitment in SCORE2 are described, and a survey was sent to the principal investigator and primary clinical coordinator of each SCORE2 site to assess the usefulness of recruitment techniques. In SCORE2, the recruitment rate of 0.39 participants/month/site was higher than in SCORE-CRVO (0.10 participants/month/site) and CRUISE (0.23 participants/month/site). For study design factors in SCORE2, investigators and coordinators rated provision of standard-of-care treatments to all study participants as having a major positive impact on recruitment. A monthly e-newsletter to site staff and communication by physician members of the SCORE2 Executive Committee to sites upon each randomization were perceived as effective means to help site staff focus on recruitment. The SCORE2 recruitment rate compares favorably to previous clinical trials investigating intravitreal pharmacotherapy for treatment of CRVO-associated macular edema. Study design factors, methods of communication with sites, and recruitment techniques implemented in SCORE2 were well received by investigators and coordinators and may be helpful in future clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of central corneal thickness, central corneal power, and axial length on intraocular pressure measurement assessed with goldmann applanation tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcura, Fatih; Aydin, Sayime; Uzgören, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    To determine the effects of central corneal thickness (CCT), central corneal power (CCP), and axial length (AL) on the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) using Goldmann applanation tonometry, and the effects of CCP and AL on CCT. Charts of 147 consecutive patients undergoing preoperative examinations for cataract surgery between April 2006 and April 2007 in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. CCT, CCP, and AL were measured by ultrasonic pachymeter (Micropach Model 200P, Sonomed, Lake Success, N.Y. USA), autorefractokeratometer (KR 8800, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan), and ultrasound biometry (EZ Scan AB 5500+ Sonomed, Lake Success, N.Y. USA). Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used as indicated, and only one eye of each subject was included in the statistical analysis. Ninety-eight eyes of 98 patients were included in the study. IOP and CCT were significantly and positively correlated (P<0.001), and CCT and CCP (P=0.001) were inversely correlated. Multiple regression analysis showed that the effect of CCT on IOP was statistically significant (P<0.001), but the effects of CCP and AL on IOP were not significant (P=0.614, P=0.831, respectively). IOP increased by 0.29 mmHg for each 10 microm increase in CCT. CCT, but not CCP or AL, significantly affected IOP readings obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry. The effect of CCP on IOP was weak and not significant despite the significant inverse correlation between CCT and CCP.

  15. Evaluation of central and peripheral corneal thicknesses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alime Gunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate central corneal thickness (CCT and peripheral corneal thickness (PCT in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to assess the relationships among the corneal parameters, dry eye disease, and clinical variables of RA.Methods:A total of 58 RA patients and 58 control subjects participated in this study. A detailed ophthalmological examination was performed on each subject. Dry eye evaluation was performed using Schirmer’s test, tear break-up time (TBUT, corneal fluorescein staining, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI. Corneal thickness at the apex point, the center of the pupil, the thinnest point, and PCT (3 mm from the apex to the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal locations were evaluated using Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam®. Additionally, the relative peripheral index (RPI was calculated by dividing the PCT by the CCT. The disease severity and quality of life were evaluated with DAS28 and HAQ, respectively. The laboratory evaluation comprised ESR and CRP.Results:The mean corneal thicknesses at the apex point, the center of the pupil, the thinnest point, and the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal points were significantly thinner in RA patients than controls. Schirmer’s test scores and TBUT were significantly lower, and corneal staining and OSDI scores were significantly higher in RA patients. There were no significant correlations between the corneal parameters and the clinical variables of RA or dry eye tests.Conclusion:The CCT and PCT were thinner in RA patients compared to those in control subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between the corneal parameters and the clinical variables of RA or dry eye tests.

  16. The changes of choroidal thickness of patients with retinal detachment after scleral buckling using enhanced depth imaging (EDI-OCT in Isfahan Feiz Hospital in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Ghanbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing interest in the role of the choroid in various chorioretinal diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in different area of choroidal thickness (CT following scleral buckling surgery using Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Methods: This prospective clinical study compared 24 patients with Retinal detachment (RD and 24 control eyes. The macular CT in the sub fovea and in four different regions, superior, inferior, temporal and nasal areas were measured using EDI-OCT at 1000 microns (S1000, I1000, T1000, and N1000. Results: The average age was 52.33±12.72 years (range 30–80 years. There was significant difference between mean subfoveal CT of operated eye in three exams (P<0.05 .This value was significantly larger at before surgery, 1st week and 1st month exams when compared with control eye (P<0.05 for all comparison. All of these thickness significantly decreased at the 1st week and 1st month follow-up exams. Mean CT of operated eye at S1000,T1000, I1000,N1000 locations was 301.68±112.39, 289.89±114.7, 219±57, 276.05±120.76, and 263±111.74µm, respectively before surgery . These macular choroidal thickness in the study eye was larger when compared with the control eye. The differences were statistically significant for the nasal (p=0.009 and superior (p=0.012 locations. Conclusions: Patients with RD had a significantly larger CT that All of these thickness significantly decreased at the 1st week and 1st month follow-up exams.

  17. Correlation Between Quadrant Specific Automatic Visual Field Defect and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness as Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Patients With Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Chen Chang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to correlate quadrant specific Humphrey visual field mean deviation (MD with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness as measured by scanning laser polarimetry (GDx, and to determine whether there is a difference in the correlation with visual field defect between the Asian normative database provided by GDx (GDx database and our native normative database (KMU database. In an age-matched study, a control group of 240 normal eyes underwent GDx. Another 60 eyes with visual field defect due to primary angle glaucoma underwent autoperimetry and GDx examination. First, we compared four GDx measurements between the control and study groups. Next, we divided the visual field into four quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal and calculated the MD of each quadrant. We correlated the MD of superior, inferior and overall visual field with RNFL thickness judged by two databases (the GDx Asian internal normative database and the database from our control group. GDx detected abnormal RNFL thickness significantly more accurately when using the KMU database (p = 0.0473 for superior quadrant; p = 0.0074 for inferior quadrant; p = 0.0011 for average thickness than when using the GDx database. There was no significant difference in the specificity between these two databases. The normal ranges in the GDx internal normative database for Asians are too wide. By using our own GDx normative database, the correlations with MD of autoperimetry were significantly improved. We suggest that every laboratory and clinic establish its own normative database of GDx in Asia.

  18. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous hydrophthalmic eyes assessed by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation in comparison with age-matched healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložánek, Martin; Ošmera, Jakub; Ležatková, Pavlína; Sedláčková, Petra; Filouš, Aleš

    2012-12-01

    To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children with age-matched healthy controls using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). Twenty hydrophthalmic eyes of 20 patients with the mean age of 10.64 ± 3.02 years being treated for congenital or infantile glaucoma were included in the analysis. Evaluation of RNFL thickness measured by GDxVCC in standard Temporal-Superior-Nasal-Inferior-Temporal (TSNIT) parameters was performed. The results were compared to TSNIT values of an age-matched control group of 120 healthy children published recently as referential values. The correlation between horizontal corneal diameter and RNFL thickness in hydrophthalmic eyes was also investigated. The mean ± SD values in TSNIT Average, Superior Average, Inferior Average and TSNIT SD in hydrophthalmic eyes were 52.3 ± 11.4, 59.7 ± 17.1, 62.0 ± 15.6 and 20.0 ± 7.8 μm, respectively. All these values were significantly lower compared to referential TSNIT parameters of age-matched healthy eyes (p = 0.021, p = 0.001, p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively). A substantial number of hydrophthalmic eyes laid below the level of 5% probability of normality in respective TSNIT parameters: 30% of the eyes in TSNIT average, 50% of the eyes in superior average, 30% of the eyes in inferior average and 45% of the eyes in TSNIT SD. No significant correlation between enlarged corneal diameter and RNFL thickness was found. The mean values of all standard TSNIT parameters assessed using GDxVCC in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children were significantly lower in comparison with referential values of healthy age-matched children. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  19. Meta-analysis of the relationship of peripheral retinal nerve fiber layer thickness to Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Meijuan; ZHU, Yinbo; SHI, Zhongyong; LI, Chunbo; SHEN, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies report that the thickness of the peripheral retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is significantly thinner than in normal controls (NC), but RNFL thickness in different quadrants of the optic nerve remains unclear. Aim Conduct a systematic review of studies that assess peripheral RNFL thickness in AD and MCI. Methods Based on pre-defined criteria, studies in English or Chinese were identified from PubMed, Embase, ISI web of knowledge, Ovid/Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP database, WANFANG DATA, and the China BioMedical Literature Service System (SinoMed). Review Manager 5.3 was used for analysis. Results The 19 cross-sectional studies identified had a pooled sample of 1455 individuals. There was substantial heterogeneity between studies that compared RNFL in AD or MCI to normal controls, but this heterogeneity was primarily restricted to low-quality studies. Combining 6 high-quality studies (n=578) indicated that total RNFL thickness and the thickness of superior and inferior RNFL quadrants in AD were significantly thinner than in normal controls. Similarly, combining 5 high-quality studies (n=541) indicated significantly thinner total RNFL thickness in MCI than in controls. Six studies (n=589) found thinner RNFL in the superior and inferior quadrants in MCI than in controls;and 6 studies (n=487) found thinner RNFL in the temporal quadrant in MCI than in controls. Finally, 7 studies (n=432) indicated that total RNFL was thinner in AD than in MCI, and 6 studies (n=364) indicated thinner RNFL in the superior and inferior quadrants in AD than in MCI. Conclusion Much of the heterogeneity in results from previous studies may be due to poor methodology. Peripheral RNFL thicknesses, particularly in the superior and inferior quadrants, becomes progressively thinner as cognitive function declines

  20. Unusual retinal manifestations of PORN combined complications of central retinal artery and vein occlusions%并发视网膜中央动静脉阻塞的特殊PORN1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E-Shawn Goh; Stephen C.B.Teoh; Albert T.H.Lim

    2008-01-01

    ·AIM:To describe an unusual combination of retinal manifestations in an AIDS patient with progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN),complicated by combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).·METHODS:A case report.·RESULTS:The patient presented with PORN with primary optic nerve involvement complicated by combined central retinal artery occlusion(CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO) as a primary manifestation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV).Aggressive treatment with intravitreal and specific systemic anti-VZV therapy,in addition to systemic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) achieved retinal quiescence with sparing of the fellow eye.Visual outcome of the affected eye was poor.·CONCLUSION:We present the first report of PORN associated with the unusual combined complications of CRAO and CRVO. Aggressive local treatment was combined with systemic therapy,which achieved local control and empirical prophylaxis for the fellow eye.%目的:报道1例艾滋病患者特殊的进行性外层视网膜坏死(PORN),同时合并视网膜中央动脉及静脉阻塞.方法:病例报告.结果:患者表现为进行性外层视网膜坏死,视神经亦受累,合并视网膜中央动静脉阻塞,与带状疱疹性视网膜病变的最初表现一样.积极的治疗包括玻璃体腔和特异性系统抗带状疱疹病毒治疗,以及强化的抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART).视网膜坏死静止,对侧眼未受累,而患眼的视力极差.结论:首次报道了1例并发视网膜中央动静脉阻塞的特殊PORN,积极的局部联合系统治疗使得局部病情控制,并预防了对侧眼发病.

  1. Clinical Features of Japanese Patients with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Complicated by Normal-Tension Glaucoma: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Teruyo; Fukumoto, Masanori; Sato, Takaki; Oku, Hidehiro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2017-01-01

    The association of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension has been reported, and lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) helps to improve the retinal circulation in eyes with CRVO. However, the clinical features of CRVOs with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) are not well known. Therefore, we investigated Japanese CRVO patients with NTG. We retrospectively investigated 234 CRVO patients over 5 years, with follow-ups of more than 12 months, and evaluated the prevalence of glaucoma. Of the 234 CRVO patients, 18 (7.7%) were diagnosed with NTGs (n = 10) or POAGs (n = 8). Seven POAG (87.5%) and 3 NTG (30%) patients had systemic hypertension. At the initial CRVO evaluation, 6 NTGs showed a significantly increased IOP; mean IOP was 13.3 mm Hg before CRVO, 16.2 mm Hg at CRVO, and 13.5 mm Hg at the final visit. The proportion of NTGs with systemic hypertension was low. IOP of NTG patients was significantly elevated at the initial CRVO evaluation, even in the presence of anti-glaucoma drugs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Direct medical costs and resource use for treating central and branch retinal vein occlusion in commercially insured working-age and Medicare populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñer, Ivan J; Margolis, Jay; Ruiz, Kimberly; Tran, Irwin; Lee, Paul

    2014-11-01

    To quantify the burden of illness for incident branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in a commercially insured working-age (commercial) and Medicare US population. Retrospective cohort analysis of health care claims from 2003 through 2008 from commercial and Medicare patients with ≥2 outpatient diagnoses for BRVO or CRVO. The index date was the first retinal vein occlusion diagnosis. Patients with medical and pharmacy benefits were followed ≥1 year preindex and then between 1 year and 3 years postindex. Incidence and prevalence of retinal vein occlusion was determined. Burden of illness was compared with matched control subjects without retinal vein occlusion. The commercial sample comprised 1,188 CRVO and 2,252 BRVO cases, whereas the Medicare sample had 2,739 CRVO and 4,573 BRVO cases. Adjusted ratio of case-to-control, all-cause expenditures for commercial patients at 1 year and 3 years postindex were 1.88 and 1.68, respectively, for BRVO and 1.42 and 1.36, respectively, for CRVO. For Medicare patients, these were 1.29 and 1.13, respectively, for BRVO and 1.23 and 1.14, respectively, for CRVO. All comparisons were significant (P Retinal vein occlusion development may be a marker for the increased severity of systemic vascular disease.

  3. Increased expression of angiogenic and inflammatory proteins in the vitreous of patients with ischemic central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Ehlken

    Full Text Available Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is a common disease characterized by a disrupted retinal blood supply and a high risk of subsequent vision loss due to retinal edema and neovascular disease. This study was designed to assess the concentrations of selected signaling proteins in the vitreous and blood of patients with ischemic CRVO.Vitreous and blood samples were collected from patients undergoing surgery for ischemic CRVO (radial optic neurotomy (RON, n = 13, epiretinal gliosis or macular hole (control group, n = 13. Concentrations of 40 different proteins were determined by an ELISA-type antibody microarray.Expression of proteins enriched in the vitreous (CCL2, IGFBP2, MMP10, HGF, TNFRSF11B (OPG was localized by immunohistochemistry in eyes of patients with severe ischemic CRVO followed by secondary glaucoma. Vitreal expression levels were higher in CRVO patients than in the control group (CRVO / control; p < 0.05 for ADIPOQ (13.6, ANGPT2 (20.5, CCL2 (MCP1 (3.2, HGF (4.7, IFNG (13.9, IGFBP1 (14.7, IGFBP2 (1.8, IGFBP3 (4.1, IGFBP4 (1.7, IL6 (10.8, LEP (3.4, MMP3 (4.3, MMP9 (3.6, MMP10 (5.4, PPBP (CXCL7 or NAP2 (11.8, TIMP4 (3.8, and VEGFA (85.3. In CRVO patients, vitreal levels of CCL2 (4.2, HGF (23.3, IGFBP2 (1.23, MMP10 (2.47, TNFRSF11B (2.96, and VEGFA (29.2 were higher than the blood levels (vitreous / blood, p < 0.05. Expression of CCL2, IGFBP2, MMP10, HGF, and TNFRSF11B was preferentially localized to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.Proteins related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and inflammation were significantly elevated in the vitreous of CRVO patients. Moreover, some markers known to indicate atherosclerosis may be related to a basic vascular disease underlying RVO. This would imply that local therapeutic targeting might not be sufficient for a long term therapy in a systemic disease but hypothetically reduce local changes as an initial therapeutic approach.

  4. Detecting central fixation by means of artificial neural networks in a pediatric vision screener using retinal birefringence scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I

    2017-04-27

    Reliable detection of central fixation and eye alignment is essential in the diagnosis of amblyopia ("lazy eye"), which can lead to blindness. Our lab has developed and reported earlier a pediatric vision screener that performs scanning of the retina around the fovea and analyzes changes in the polarization state of light as the scan progresses. Depending on the direction of gaze and the instrument design, the screener produces several signal frequencies that can be utilized in the detection of central fixation. The objective of this study was to compare artificial neural networks with classical statistical methods, with respect to their ability to detect central fixation reliably. A classical feedforward, pattern recognition, two-layer neural network architecture was used, consisting of one hidden layer and one output layer. The network has four inputs, representing normalized spectral powers at four signal frequencies generated during retinal birefringence scanning. The hidden layer contains four neurons. The output suggests presence or absence of central fixation. Backpropagation was used to train the network, using the gradient descent algorithm and the cross-entropy error as the performance function. The network was trained, validated and tested on a set of controlled calibration data obtained from 600 measurements from ten eyes in a previous study, and was additionally tested on a clinical set of 78 eyes, independently diagnosed by an ophthalmologist. In the first part of this study, a neural network was designed around the calibration set. With a proper architecture and training, the network provided performance that was comparable to classical statistical methods, allowing perfect separation between the central and paracentral fixation data, with both the sensitivity and the specificity of the instrument being 100%. In the second part of the study, the neural network was applied to the clinical data. It allowed reliable separation between normal subjects

  5. The thick-bedded tail of turbidite thickness distribution as a proxy for flow confinement: Examples from tertiary basins of central and northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Mattia; Felletti, Fabrizio; Milli, Salvatore; Patacci, Marco

    2016-07-01

    This study reviews the thickness statistics of non-channelized turbidites from four tertiary basins of Central-Northern Apennines (Italy), where bed geometry and sedimentary character have been previously assessed. Though very different in terms of size and, arguably, character of feeder system, these basins share a common stratigraphic evolution consisting in transition from an early ponded to a late unconfined setting of deposition. Based on comparison of thickness subsets from diverse locations and stratigraphic heights within the studied turbidite fills, this paper seeks to answer the following questions: i) how data collection procedures and field operational constraints (e.g. measure location, outcrop quality, use of thicknesses data from single vs. multiple correlative sections, stratigraphic thickness of the study interval) can affect statistics of sample data? ii) how depositional controls of confined vs. unconfined turbidite basins can result in different thickness-frequency distributions?; and iii) is there in thickness statistics a 'flow confinement' signature which can be used to distinguish between confined and unconfined turbidites? Results suggest that: i) best practices of data collection are crucial to a meaningful interpretation of sample data statistics, especially in presence of stratigraphic and spatial trends of turbidite bed thickness; ii) a systematic bias against cm-thick Tcd Bouma sequence turbidites exists in sample data, which can result in the low-end tail of empirical thickness-frequency distributions to depart significantly from the actual distribution of turbidite thickness; and iii) thickness statistics of beds starting with a basal Ta/Tb Bouma division bear a coherent relationship to the transition from ponded to unconfined depositional settings, consisting in reduction of variance and mean and, consequently, parameters, or even type, of best fit model distribution. This research highlights the role of flow stripping, sediment by

  6. A meta-analysis of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor remedy for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO associates with severe vision outcome and no proven beneficial treatment. Our meta-analysis intended to appraise the efficacy and safety of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents in macular edema (ME following CRVO. METHODS: Data were collected and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2.1. We employed a random-effects model to eliminate between-study heterogeneity. Nfs (called fail-safe number was calculated to evaluate the publication bias. RESULTS: We included 5 trials consisting 323 cases and 281 controls. Primary outcomes showed that overall comparison of anti-VEGF agents with placebo control yielded a 374% and 136% increased tendency for a gain of 15 letters or more on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS chart (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.43-9.23; P<0.00001; I(2 = 59%, 95% CI: 1.60-3.49; P<0.0001; I(2  = 0%, respectively at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes showed that a 90% and 77% decreased risk at 6 and 12 months for a loss of 15 letters or more. The overall mean difference showed a statistically significance in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA on each time point. However, changes of central retinal thickness (CRT lost significance at 12 months after 6-month as-needed treatment. The incidence of adverse events (AEs had no statistical difference between anti-VEGF and placebo groups. Subgroup analyses indicated that patients receiving Aflibercept got the highest tendency to gain 15 letters or more (OR = 9.78; 95% CI: 4.43-21.56; P<0.00001. Age controlled analysis suggested a weaken tendency of BCVA improvement in age over 50 (MD = 12.26; 95% CI: 7.55-16.98; P<0.00001. Subgroup analysis by clinical classification showed a strengthen difference of BCVA changes at 6 months in ischemic type (MD = 19.65 letters, 95% CI: 13.15 to 26.14 letters, P<0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that anti-VEGF agents were superior to placebo in CRVO-ME treatment with

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia, a biochemical tool for differentiating ischemic and nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion during the early acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Kapil Deb; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukherjee, Suman; Dutta, Jayanta; Datta, Himadri; Das, Harendra Nath

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to differentiate ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) from nonischemic CRVO during the early acute phase using plasma homocysteine as a biochemical marker. Fasting plasma homocysteine, serum vitamin B12, and folate levels were measured in 108 consecutive unilateral elderly adult (age >50 years) ischemic CRVO patients in the absence of local and systemic disease and compared with a total of 144 age and sex matched nonischemic CRVO patients and 120 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. Homocysteine level was significantly increased in the patients with ischemic CRVO in comparison with nonischemic CRVO patients (p = 0.009) and also in comparison with control subjects (p 0.1). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be regarded as useful in differentiating nonischemic and ischemic CRVO during the early acute phase in absence of local and systemic disease in the elderly adult (age >50 years) population.

  8. Color Doppler imaging features in patients presenting central retinal artery occlusion with and without giant cell arteritis

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    Catalin Jianu Dragos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Central retinal artery obstruction (CRAO represents an abrupt diminution of blood flow through the CRA that is severe enough to cause ischemia of the inner retina with permanent unilateral visual loss. We presented the role of color Doppler imaging (CDI of orbital vessels and of extracranial duplex sonography (EDS in the etiological diagnosis of CRAO in two patients with clinical suspicion of unilateral CRAO. Case report. Patients were examined following the protocol which included CDI of orbital vessels and EDS. Both patients had no emboli visible on ophthalmoscopy. The B-scan ultrasound evaluation of the first patient found a small round, moderately reflective echo within the right optic nerve, 1.5 mm behind the optic disc (emboli of cholesterol. CDI of retrobulbar vessels revealed the normal right ophthalmic artery (OA hemodynamic parameters, but the first patient had no arterial flow signal on CDI at the distance of 1.5 mm behind the right optic disc. In contrast, the left eye had the normal aspect on CDI of retrobulbar vessels. The right internal carotid artery EDS identified a severe stenosis at its origin as CRA’s emboli source. The second patient had characteristic CDI findings for giant cell arteritis (GCA with eye involvement: severe diminished blood flow velocities, especially end-diastolic velocities, in both CRAs. Less abnormalities were observed in the posterior ciliary arteries, and in the ophthalmic arteries. The second patient had no systemic symptoms or signs of GCA. Conclusion. In the presented cases, the ultrasound investigation enabled prompt differentiation between central retinal artery occlusion of embolic mechanism and CRAO caused by GCA.

  9. Measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with optic disc swelling by using scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography

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    Hata M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Masayuki Hata, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Akio Oishi, Yugo Kimura, Satoko Nakagawa, Takahiro Horii, Nagahisa Yoshimura Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Background: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in patients with optic disc swelling of different etiologies was compared using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: Forty-seven patients with optic disc swelling participated in the cross-sectional study. Both GDx SLP (enhanced corneal compensation and Spectralis spectral-domain OCT measurements of RNFLT were made in 19 eyes with papilledema (PE, ten eyes with optic neuritis (ON, and 18 eyes with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at Kyoto University Hospital. Differences in SLP (SLP-RNFLT and OCT (OCT-RNFLT measurements among different etiologies were investigated. Results: No statistical differences in average OCT-RNFLT among PE, ON, and NAION patients were noted. Average SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller than in PE (P<0.01 or ON (P=0.02 patients. When RNFLT in each retinal quadrant was compared, no difference among etiologies was noted on OCT, but on SLP, the superior quadrant was thinner in NAION than in PE (P<0.001 or ON (P=0.001 patients. Compared with age-adjusted normative data of SLP-RNFLT, average SLP-RNFLT in PE (P<0.01 and ON (P<0.01 patients was greater. Superior SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller (P=0.026. The ratio of average SLP-RNFLT to average OCT-RNFLT was smaller in NAION than in PE (P=0.001 patients. Conclusion: In the setting of RNFL thickening, despite increased light retardance in PE and ON eyes, SLP revealed that NAION eyes have less retardance, possibly associated with ischemic axonal loss. Keywords: optic disc swelling, scanning laser polarimetry, optical coherence tomography

  10. Measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes with optic disc swelling by using scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography.

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    Hata, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Oishi, Akio; Kimura, Yugo; Nakagawa, Satoko; Horii, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2014-01-01

    The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in patients with optic disc swelling of different etiologies was compared using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Forty-seven patients with optic disc swelling participated in the cross-sectional study. Both GDx SLP (enhanced corneal compensation) and Spectralis spectral-domain OCT measurements of RNFLT were made in 19 eyes with papilledema (PE), ten eyes with optic neuritis (ON), and 18 eyes with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic at Kyoto University Hospital. Differences in SLP (SLP-RNFLT) and OCT (OCT-RNFLT) measurements among different etiologies were investigated. No statistical differences in average OCT-RNFLT among PE, ON, and NAION patients were noted. Average SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller than in PE (P<0.01) or ON (P=0.02) patients. When RNFLT in each retinal quadrant was compared, no difference among etiologies was noted on OCT, but on SLP, the superior quadrant was thinner in NAION than in PE (P<0.001) or ON (P=0.001) patients. Compared with age-adjusted normative data of SLP-RNFLT, average SLP-RNFLT in PE (P<0.01) and ON (P<0.01) patients was greater. Superior SLP-RNFLT in NAION patients was smaller (P=0.026). The ratio of average SLP-RNFLT to average OCT-RNFLT was smaller in NAION than in PE (P=0.001) patients. In the setting of RNFL thickening, despite increased light retardance in PE and ON eyes, SLP revealed that NAION eyes have less retardance, possibly associated with ischemic axonal loss.

  11. Comparison of Central Macular Thickness Measured by Three OCT Models and Study of Interoperator Variability

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    Zaïnab Bentaleb-Machkour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare central macular thickness (CMT measurement on healthy patient using 3 different OCT devices by two operators. Methods. Prospective, monocentricstudy. Right eye’s central macular thickness (CMT of 30 healthy patients has been measured three times using a time-domain (TD OCT (Stratus OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, Ca and two spectral domain (SD OCTs (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl ZeissMeditec, Dublin, Ca and 3D-OCT 1000 (Topcon, Tokyo, Japan by two operators. Six measurements were taken randomly for each patient the same day. Results. No significant difference between measurements obtained by the two operators has been observed, whatever the studied OCT. P value was 0.164, 0.193, and 0.147 for Stratus OCT, Cirrus HD-OCT and 3D-OCT, respectively. Mean CMT significantly differed from instrument to instrument (P<0.001 and was, respectively, 197 μm, 254 μm, and 236 μm using Stratus OCT, Cirrus HD-OCT, and 3D-OCT 1000. Using Cirrus OCT and 3D-OCT 1000, CMT was, respectively, 57 μm and 39 μm thicker than using Stratus OCT (P<0.05. Conclusions. Whatever the OCT device, on healthy patients CMT was not operator dependent. CMT measurements obtained by SD-OCTs are greater than those obtained by TD-OCT. These data imply that the different OCT devices cannot be used interchangeably in clinical monitoring.

  12. Variations of midline facial soft tissue thicknesses among three skeletal classes in Central Anatolian adults.

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    Gungor, Kahraman; Bulut, Ozgur; Hizliol, Ismail; Hekimoglu, Baki; Gurcan, Safa

    2015-11-01

    Facial reconstruction is a technique employed in a forensic investigation as a last resort to recreate an individual's facial appearance from his/her skull. Forensic anthropologists or artists use facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) measurements as a guide in facial reconstructions. The aim of this study was to develop FSTT values for Central Anatolian adults, taking into consideration sex and skeletal classes; first, to achieve better results obtaining the likenesses of deceased individuals in two or three-dimensional forensic facial reconstructions and, second, to compare these values to existing databases. Lateral cephalograms were used to determine FSTT values at 10 midline facial landmarks of 167 adults. Descriptive statistics were calculated for these facial soft tissue thickness values, and these values were compared to those reported in two other comparable databases. The majority of the landmarks showed sex-based differences. Males were found to have significantly larger landmark values than female subjects. These results point not only to the necessity to present data in accordance with sexual dimorphism, but also the need to consider that individuals from different geographical areas have unique facial features and that, as a result, geographical population-specific FSTT values are required.

  13. Comparison of the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab and triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

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    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of intravitrealbevacizumab (IVB and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT in the treatment of macular edema (ME secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Materials and Methods: There were 20 patients treated with IVB (1.25 mg/0.05 mL and 16 treated with IVT (4 mg/0.1 mL. The two groups were compared with regard to best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT on optical coherence tomography (OCT, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and fundus fluorescein angiography results, intraocular pressure (IOP, numbers of injections, and adverse events. Results: The mean follow-up times in the IVB and IVT groups were 17.45±8.1 months (range: 8-33 months and 19.94±10.59 months (range: 6-40 months, respectively (P = 0.431. Visual acuity increased and CMT decreased significantly within both groups, but no differences were observed between the groups (P = 0.718. The percentages of patients with increased IOP and iatrogenic cataracts were significantly higher in the IVT group than in the IVB group. Conclusions: Treatment with IVB and IVT both resulted in significant improvement in visual acuity and a decrease in CMT in patients with ME secondary to non-ischemic CRVO, with no difference between the two treatments. The incidence of adverse events, however, was significantly greater in the IVT group than in the IVB group. IVB may be preferred over IVT for the treatment of ME in patients with non-ischemic CRVO.

  14. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous population

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    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Augustin Ellong2, Didier Owono2, Emilienne Epée2, Lucienne Assumpta Bella2, Côme Ebana Mvogo1, Jeanne Mayouego Kouam21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, CameroonAim: We performed a prospective, analytical study from 01 January to 31 March 2009 in the Ophthalmology Unit of the Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaounde, aiming to determine the profile of central corneal thickness (CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population and its relationship with intraocular pressure (IOP.Results and discussion: Four hundred and eighty-five patients (970 eyes meeting our ­inclusion criteria were selected for this study. The average CCT was 529.29 ± 35.9 µm in the right eye (95% confidence interval [CI]: 526.09–532.49, 528.19 ± 35.9 µm in the left eye (95% CI: 524.99–531.40 and 528.74 ± 35.89 µm in both eyes (95% CI: 526.48–531.00, range 440 to 670 µm. The average IOP was 13.01 ± 2.97 mmHg in both eyes (95% CI: 12.82–13.19. A rise in CCT by 100 µm was followed by an increase in IOP of about 2.8 mmHg (95% CI: 2.3–3.6 for both eyes taken together. Linear regression analysis showed that corneal thickness was negatively correlated with age and IOP was positively related with age.Conclusion: CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population was found to be lower compared with CCT values in Caucasian and Asian populations. On the basis of reference values ranging between 527 and 560 µm, an adjustment of IOP values by a correction factor is required for many Cameroonian patients. This will improve the diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma by helping to detect true ocular hypertension.Keywords: central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, Cameroon

  15. Central retinal artery occlusion after phacoemulsification under peribulbar anaesthesia: Pathogenic hypothesis.

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    Rodríguez Villa, S; Salazar Méndez, R; Cubillas Martín, M; Cuesta García, M

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old patient had uneventful cataract surgery in the right eye under peribulbar anaesthesia. The next day, a severe and progressive eyelid swelling was noted, caused by an unknown allergic reaction to povidone-iodine. The allergic signs dissapeared by the fifth day, but amaurosis and a cherry-red spot were detected. Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography confirmed an 80% ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. Retinal vascular occlusion after orbital loco-regional anaesthesia is rare. When this complication occurs, carotid disease, and local or systemic factors, should be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Thin and Thick Skinned Foreland Deformation in the Central Andes: A Numerical Simulation Study

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    Babeyko, A. Y.; Sobolev, S. V.

    2004-12-01

    The two main segments of the Central Andean plateau, Altiplano and Puna, demonstrate since the Late Miocene different styles of tectonic shortening. Initially pure shear shortening in the Altiplano plateau switched at 13-9 Ma into the simple shear mode accompanied by formation of one of the world largest thin skinned foreland belt. Further to the south, in the Puna, the pure shear shortening continued until much more recently, gradually transforming into mixed pure and simple shear mode with thick skinned deformation in the foreland (the Santa Barbara System). Through numerical simulation of thermo-mechanical processes we show that different shortening modes - pure and simple shear accompanied by thin or thick skinned tectonics - might be controlled by (i) strength of the foreland uppermost crust and (ii) temperature of the foreland lithosphere. As a numerical tool we use a 2-D parallel thermo-mechanical finite element code LAPEX-2D. The code combines explicit lagrangian finite element FLAC algorithm with particle-in-cell technique. Particles track not only material properties but also full strain and stress tensors minimizing numerical diffusion. We employ Maxwell visco-elastic rheology with temperature- and stress-dependent viscosity, simulating ductile flow, as well as Mohr-Coulomb elasto-plastic rheology, simulating brittle deformation. Both rheological models may experience strain softening. Previous geodynamic models indicated the importance of the lateral temperature variations in the lithosphere on the style of tectonic shortening. However, they failed to reproduce migration of the deformation from the Altiplano plateau into its foreland before the major uplift of the plateau. We show that deformation may easily migrate from the plateau into the foreland by rapidly propagating thin skinned thrust belt as a consequence of dramatic mechanical weakening of the Palaeozoic sediments overlying the cold lithosphere of the Altiplano foreland. The processes in the

  17. Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

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    Nobuko Enomoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationships among the optic nerve head (ONH area, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thickness, and visual field defects in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This retrospective study included 90 eyes of 90 patients with POAG. The ONH area, rim area, mGCC thickness, and cpRNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Mean deviation (MD was measured using standard automated perimetry. The relationships among clinical factors including age, refraction, the ONH area, the rim area, the mGCC thickness, the cpRNFL thickness, and MD were evaluated using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results. The significant correlation of the ONH area with refraction (r=0.362, P<0.001, the mGCC thickness (r=0.225, P=0.033, and the cpRNFL thickness (r=0.253, P=0.016 was found. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ONH area, rim area, and MD were selected as significant contributing factors to explain the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness. No factor was selected to explain MD. Conclusions. The ONH area, in other words, the disc size itself may affect the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness in POAG patients.

  18. Establishing an experimental rat model of photodynamically-induced retinal vein occlusion using erythrosin B

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    Chen, Wei; Wu, Ying; Zheng, Mi; Gu, Qing; Zheng, Zhi; Xia, Xin

    2014-01-01

    AIM To develop a reliable, reproducible rat model of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with a novel photosensitizer (erythrosin B) and study the cellular responses in the retina. METHODS Central and branch RVOs were created in adult male rats via photochemically-induced ischemia. Retinal changes were monitored via color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography at 1 and 3h, and 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21d after irradiation. Tissue slices were evaluated histopathologically. Retinal ganglion cell survival at different times after RVO induction was quantified by nuclear density count. Retinal thickness was also observed. RESULTS For all rats in both the central and branch RVO groups, blood flow ceased immediately after laser irradiation and retinal edema was evident at one hour. The retinal detachment rate was 100% at 3h and developed into bullous retinal detachment within 24h. Retinal hemorrhages were not observed until 24h. Clearance of the occluded veins at 7d was observed by fluorescein angiography. Disease manifestation in the central RVO eyes was more severe than in the branch RVO group. A remarkable reduction in the ganglion cell count and retinal thickness was observed in the central RVO group by 21d, whereas moderate changes occurred in the branch RVO group. CONCLUSION Rat RVO created by photochemically-induced ischemia using erythrosin B is a reproducible and reliable animal model for mimicking the key features of human RVO. However, considering the 100% rate of retinal detachment, this animal model is more suitable for studying RVO with chronic retinal detachment. PMID:24790863

  19. Establishing an experimental rat model of photodynamically-induced retinal vein occlusion using erythrosin B

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    Wei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To develop a reliable, reproducible rat model of retinal vein occlusion (RVO with a novel photosensitizer (erythrosin B and study the cellular responses in the retina.METHODS:Central and branch RVOs were created in adult male rats via photochemically-induced ischemia. Retinal changes were monitored via color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography at 1 and 3h, and 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21d after irradiation. Tissue slices were evaluated histopathologically. Retinal ganglion cell survival at different times after RVO induction was quantified by nuclear density count. Retinal thickness was also observed.RESULTS:For all rats in both the central and branch RVO groups, blood flow ceased immediately after laser irradiation and retinal edema was evident at one hour. The retinal detachment rate was 100% at 3h and developed into bullous retinal detachment within 24h. Retinal hemorrhages were not observed until 24h. Clearance of the occluded veins at 7d was observed by fluorescein angiography. Disease manifestation in the central RVO eyes was more severe than in the branch RVO group. A remarkable reduction in the ganglion cell count and retinal thickness was observed in the central RVO group by 21d, whereas moderate changes occurred in the branch RVO group.CONCLUSION: Rat RVO created by photochemically-induced ischemia using erythrosin B is a reproducible and reliable animal model for mimicking the key features of human RVO. However, considering the 100% rate of retinal detachment, this animal model is more suitable for studying RVO with chronic retinal detachment.

  20. Crustal thickness in central Europe from single-station seismic noise autocorrelation analysis

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    Becker, Gesa; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    The InSight mission to Mars will place a single three-component seismometer on the planet's surface, requiring the application of single-station methods. In addition, seismicity on Mars is likely less abundant than on Earth, making it important to also use the available seismic noise. For these reasons different approaches of seismic noise autocorrelation have been tested with broadband three-component datasets from 12 stations across central Europe. These stations cover varying Moho depths of ca. 25-50 km depth. With the help of the autocorrelations, reflected body waves are extracted in order to estimate the crustal thickness at each station. This is of special relevance for Mars, where average crustal thickness is uncertain by a factor of two. The different approaches used are waterlevel normalized autocorrelation, with and without application of a short-term and long-term average filter to the spectrum of the data prior to autocorrelation, and phase autocorrelation. These approaches are compared and analyzed. Estimates for the Moho depths are made from the lag times of the reflected P-waves and compared to available Moho depth values at the stations. Due to the availability of three-component data these estimates can be cross-validated and in some cases not only P-wave reflections, but also possible S-wave and multiple reflections can be identified. The estimates compare well with the general trend of Moho depth expected for these stations. The consistency of results is further investigated by comparing different stations of the GERES array (aperture 2 km), which also allows to examine results for closely located broad-band and short-period stations side by side.

  1. Assessment of choroidal thickness of central serous chorioretinopathy by optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging

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    Hui Hang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the meaning of using optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging(OCT-EDIto measure choroidal thickness of central serous retinopathy(CSC. METHODS: With the retrospective case control study, 65 patients(65 eyeswith CSC and 50 healthy controls(50 eyeswith age, gender and diopter-matched were recruited in this study. OCT-EDI were used to measure the subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCTin CSC eyes, the fellow eyes and also the control eyes. Of which 40 of the 65 CSC patients self-cured, 14 of them were treated with photodynamic therapy(PDT, the left 11 accepted the laser photocoagulation(LP. SFCT were measured 3mo after that. Compared with the previous data, the statistical analysis was carried out.RESULTS: The SFCT value of 65 CSC eyes, 65 fellow eyes and 50 control eyes were 436.23±89.50, 389.45±101.03 and 329.36±95.87μm, respectively. The SFCT of suffer and fellow eyes increased significantly compared to the control eyes(P=0.008 and 0.013, respectively. There was also significant difference in SFCT between the CSC eyes and the fellow eyes(P=0.021. The SFCT were significantly decreased after PDT(P=0.032, but with no significant changes after LP or self-cured(P=0.057 and 0.076, respectively.CONCLUSION: OCT-EDI is a useful method to assess the choroidal topographic changes of CSC. The SFCT are significantly increased in the CSC eyes compared with that in the fellow eyes and the control eyes.

  2. Mantle transition zone thickness in the Central South-American Subduction Zone

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    Braunmiller, Jochen; van der Lee, Suzan; Doermann, Lindsey

    We used receiver functions to determine lateral variations in mantle transition zone thickness and sharpness of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities in the presence of subducting lithosphere. The mantle beneath the central Andes of South America provides an ideal study site owing to its long-lived subduction history and the availability of broadband seismic data from the dense BANJO/SEDA temporary networks and the permanent station LPAZ. For LPAZ, we analyzed 26 earthquakes between 1993-2003 and stacked the depth-migrated receiver functions. For temporary stations operating for only about one year (1994-1995), station stacks were not robust. We thus stacked receiver functions for close-by stations forming five groups that span the subduction zone from west to east, each containing 12 to 25 events. We found signal significant at the 2σ level for several station groups from P to S conversions that originate near 520- and 850-900 km depth, but most prominently from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. For the latter, the P to S converted signal is clear in stacks for western groups and LPAZ, lack of coherent signal for two eastern groups is possibly due to incoherent stacking and does not necessitate the absence of converted energy. The thickness of the mantle transition zone increases progressively from a near-normal 255 km at the Pacific coast to about 295 km beneath station LPAZ in the Eastern Cordillera. Beneath LPAZ, the 410-km discontinuity appears elevated by nearly 40 km, thus thickening the transition zone. We compared signal amplitudes from receiver function stacks calculated at different low-pass frequencies to study frequency dependence and possibly associated discontinuity sharpness of the P to S converted signals. We found that both the 410- and 660-km discontinuities exhibit amplitude increase with decreasing frequency. Synthetic receiver function calculations for discontinuity topography mimicking observed topography show that the observed steep

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness After Conventional Brilliant Blue Assisted Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling Versus Brilliant Blue Selective Staining Using Whole Blood in Macular Hole Surgery.

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    Arora, Supriya; Goel, Neha; Arora, Tarun; Sharma, Prateeksha; Raina, Usha Kaul; Thakar, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness after conventional brilliant blue (BB) assisted macular hole (MH) surgery versus BB selective staining using whole blood (WB) in MH surgery. Sixty eyes with stage 4 idiopathic MH with a clear media were randomly divided into two equal groups. Group A eyes underwent sequential intraoperative use of autologous heparinized WB followed by BB dye for staining internal limiting membrane, whereas eyes in group B were subjected to conventional BB staining. Clinical examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was done preoperatively and postoperatively up to 6 months. Mean global RNFL thickness and mean temporal RNFL thickness decreased in both groups postoperatively, but the reduction in RNFL thickness in group B was greater than group A at all postoperative visits (P < .05). BB toxicity may be responsible for reduction of RNFL thickness and WB appears to protect RNFL against dye toxicity. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:436-442.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Choroidal thickness and central serous chorioretinopathy: a case-control study and Meta-analysis

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    Han-Yuan Ye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the changes of subfoveal choroidal thickness(SFCTin central serous chorioretinopathy(CSCReyes and to compare them with normal control eyes. METHODS: This was a case-control study and a Meta-analysis. Forty-six CSCR patients diagnosed by the fundus pre-set lens, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand indocyanine green angiography(ICGAwere enrolled in this study. Sixty two age-, sex-, diopter- and axial length-matched 62 normal subjects(62 eyeswere enrolled in this study as the control group. Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography(EDI-OCT, SFCT of CSCR eyes and normal control eyes were measured and compared. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis were performed to assess the association between SFCT and clinical factors. The Meta-analysis were conducted using the Stata software package to calculate the summary weighted mean differences(WMDs. RESULTS:The mean SFCT of the CSCR group and the normal control group was 397.34±83.91μm and 274.48±62.57μm, respectively. The CSCR eyes had a thicker choroid than the control eyes at the SFCT(PCI: 137.43, 174.83for SFCT. CONCLUSION:Along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, SFCT in CSCR eyes was thicker than that of normal control eyes. Increased SFCT might be associated with CSCR.

  5. Comparison of three different instruments measuring central corneal thickness of keratoconus

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    Xu Pang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the difference in measurements of central corneal thickness(CCTusing A-scan,corneal specular microscopy and Pentacam in keratoconus. METHODS: Between July 2012 and October 2012, the CCT of 31 patients(55 eyeswere measured by A-scan, corneal specular microscopy and Pentacam. The results were analyzed by F-test and Pearson correlation. RESULTS: The values of CCT measured by A-scan(55 eyes, corneal specular microscopy(45 eyesand Pentacam(52 eyeswere 469.87±57.56, 479.00±42.39, and 487.02±44.64μm, respectively; F-test results showed there were no statistical significant differences between CCT measured by three different instruments(P>0.05. The correlation between the measurements was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The CCT values by these three instruments were positively related by linear correlation analysis, A-scan and Pentacam measurements(r1=0.758, Pr2=0.949, Pr3=0.685, PCONCLUSION: There is a high correlation between these three instruments. A-scan and Pentacam are more precise than corneal specular microscopy. Pentacam system can measure the CCT easily, accurately and without any invasion. It is more suitable for people with keratoconus to monitor the every point of cornea and for people to do more deep research.

  6. Measurement of central corneal thickness using ultrasound pachymetry and Orbscan II in normal eyes

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    Mohammad Mehdi Sadoughi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Orbscan II has good correlation with ultrasound pachymetry for measurement of CCT in normal eyes; however Orbscan II should not be used to evaluate corneal thickness before keratorefractive surgeries, as it tends to overestimate corneal thickness and may result in undesirable, low residual stromal thickness.

  7. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography in Chinese teenagers aged from 13 years old to 18 years old

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    Yu-Ming Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To establish a reference range of retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFLthickness by optical coherence tomography(OCTin Chinese teenagers aged from 13 to 18 years old, and investigate its relationship with age, eye side, gender, and ethnic group.METHODS: A total of 402 eyes from 201 normal Chinese aged from 13 to 18 years old were recruited for this study. Optic disk with 3.4mm diameter circle in different global average, quadrant and part-time bit retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLTwas measured by RNFL thickness average analysis program. Their RNFLT at different part-time bit, quadrant and global average RNFLT around the disc were measured by OCT with 3.4mm diameter circle, using the RNFL thickness average analysis program. The data was analyzed with SPSS statistical 19.0. The influences of several factors(such as age, eye side, gender, and ethnic groupon RNFLT were also analyzed.RESULTS: The global average RNFLT at 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 years old was 108.32±9.42μm, 109.23±9.67μm, 110.36±11.14μm, 111.27±10.21μm, 109.23±9.67μm, 112.11±8.83μm respectively. RNFLT of right eyes was 109.82±8.93μm and of left eyes was 110.33±9.89μm. All of the male's average RNFLT was 110.14±10.02μm, and all of the female's average RNFLT was 109.96±11.22μm. The average RNFLT of Han nationality was 110.22±9.31μm and of non-Han nationality was 109.87±8.65μm. The average RNFLT of all was 110.02±9.87μm, the RNFLT at the superior, nasal, inferior and temporal quadrant was 146.56 ±18.88μm, 76.49±13.28μm, 136.64±16.29μm, 82.01±12.55μm respectively. There was no significant difference in gender, eye side, and ethnic group(all PCONCLUSION: This study has established a normal standard reference of RNFLT and its related indexes by OCT in Chinese teenagers aged 13-18 years old. Gender, age, eye side, and ethnic group have no effect on their RNFLT, which has significant difference with adult's data. And for the diagnosis and follow-up of

  8. Comparison of central corneal thickness measured by hand-held and desk-mounted ultrasound pachymeters in glaucoma patients.

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    Salim, Sarwat; Du, Haiming; Wan, Jim

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measured by hand-held and desk-mounted ultrasound pachymeter in glaucoma patients under treatment. Prospective study of 65 glaucoma patients. Central corneal thickness was measured by two ultrasound pachymeters: the hand-held, portable PachPen (Accutome, Lynwood, WA), and the desk-mounted PacScan 300 (Sonomed, Lake Success, NY). The mean ± SD central corneal thickness was 526.5 ± 44.8 µm and 530.0 ± 44.7 µm for the hand-held and desk-mounted pachymeters, respectively (p = 0.15). Linear regression analysis revealed a slope of 0.97 with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.96. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of measurements by both pachymeters of 3.22 µm with two standard deviations = 9.51. Both instruments showed high intraobserver correlation: 0.972 for the hand-held pachymeter and 0.993 for the desk-mounted pachymeter. Central corneal thickness measurements were comparable with the use of hand-held and desk-mounted ultrasound units in glaucoma patients with good intraobserver reproducibility.

  9. THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF MEASUREMENT OF POSTERIOR POLE RETINAL THICKNESS WITH HEIDELBERG OCT IN GLAUCOMA%海德堡OCT测量后极部视网膜厚度对青光眼诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢业娇; 王大博; 纪珍; 刘鹏辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the posterior pole retinal thickness of normal and glaucoma measured by optical coherence tomognaphy (OCT), and evaluate its value in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Methods The thickness of posterior pole retina of 40 normal cases (40 eyes) and 41 glaucoma (64 eyes, including 53 POAG and 11 PACG) were respectively measured by Heidelberg Spectralis OCT. The image features of posterior pole retinal mapping in normal individuals and patients with glaucoma were observed and compared, the correlation between MD and retinal thickness was calculated as well. Results The posterior pole retinal mapping in normal persons appeared as U-shaped, and that shape was not typical or disappeared in glaucoma. There was no statistical difference among the thickness of posterior pole retinal in average, superior and inferior in health adult group (F = 0. 800,P>0. 05) , in patients with glaucoma, the thickness of posterior pole retinal was thinner than that in normal group (F = 59. 569 — 72. 364,P<0. 01) ; the same finding was also appeared in early glaucoma (t = 2. 828,P<0. 01). The posterior pole retinal thickness in glaucoma was negatively correlated with MD (r= —0. 619,P<0. 01). Conclusion In glaucoma, the changes of thickness of posterior pole retina have a close correlation with changes of function of visual field, and appear earlier than defect of visual field, which is likely to be a marker to replace detection of retinal ganglion cell loss.%目的 利用光学相干断层扫描技术(OCT)观察正常眼和青光眼后极部视网膜厚度,评价其对青光眼的诊断价值.方法 采用海德堡Spectralis OCT对40例(40眼)正常人和41例(64眼)青光眼(包括53眼POAG和11眼PACG)病人后极部视网膜厚度进行测量,观察正常人和青光眼病人后极部视网膜厚度地形图的图像特征并进行比较;并分析其与视野平均缺损值(MD)的相关性.结果 正常人后极部视网膜厚度地形图呈“马蹄形”,青光眼

  10. One day wonder: Fast resolution of macular edema following intravitreal ranibizumab in retinal venous occlusions

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    Lalit Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema is a significant cause of vision loss in patients with central retinal vein occlusions and branch retinal vein occlusions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF appears to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. Anti-VEGF therapy, such as intravitreal ranibizumab provides an effective treatment against vision-threatening macular edema. We report three patients of retinal vein occlusion with macular edema who demonstrated overnight resolution of macular edema following treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg. 3D optical coherence tomography (Optovue was used as a tool for comparison of the macular thickness before and after treatment. The significant reductions in the central foveal thickness demonstrated in these patients one night after intravitreal injections could have significant influence on modifying current treatment protocols. Early treatment of macular edema related to retinal venous occlusive disease with anti-VEGF injections could result in faster visual rehabilitation in these patients.

  11. TECHNIQUE OF LASER CHORIORETINAL ANASTOMOSIS CREATION IN CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION AND SUCCESS RATE WITH A NEW PHOTOCOAGULATOR SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ian L; Smithies, Lynne A; Previn, Victor

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the success rate of laser chorioretinal anastomosis (L-CRA) creation with a new laser photocoagulator system capable of 5 watts (W) power in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Patients with a treatment-naive CRVO were enrolled as part of an ongoing trial combining L-CRAs with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment. Thirty-three patients were treated with an L-CRA developing in 29 (88%). Mean power was 2.7 W and mean time for development was 1.8 months. Each patient had two potential sites created. Eighteen patients developed 2 L-CRAs and the remaining 11 patients, one each. Of the 66 potential sites, successful L-CRAs developed at 47 sites (71%). Additional Nd:YAG laser applications were used in 39% of sites. Mean follow-up was 23 months and no significant complications were seen. An L-CRA as a means of permanently bypassing the obstruction to venous outflow in CRVO may become more relevant as not all patients respond well to intravitreal therapy. The limitation to this technique in the past has been lack of availability of a laser system with the power necessary to create the L-CRA. The success rate with the new system has improved to 88% representing a significant improvement over our original success rate of 33%.

  12. Age-related changes in central corneal thickness in normal eyes among the adult Lithuanian population

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    Galgauskas S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saulius Galgauskas,1 Grazina Juodkaite,1 Janina Tutkuviene2 1Center of Eye Diseases, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate mean central corneal thickness (CCT and determine whether there are any correlations between CCT, age, and sex in the adult ­Lithuanian population.Methods: A total of 1,650 Caucasians of Lithuanian origin (aged 18–89 years comprising 688 (41.7% men and 962 (58.3% women were examined. Subjects were stratified by age into seven groups. CCT was measured using ultrasonic pachymetry. Correlations between CCT, age, and sex were sought.Results: Mean (± standard deviation CCT for both eyes was 544.6±30.5 µm. Mean CCT was 545.2±30.5 µm in the left eye and 544.6±30.5 µm in the right eye, and was 545.0±25.6 µm in men and 544.4±33.5 µm in women. Mean CCT was 550.8±35.7 µm in subjects aged 18–29 years, 557.5±27.6 µm in those aged 30–39 years, 551.3±31.4 µm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.0±31.4 µm in those aged 50–59 years, 544.2±31.6 µm in those aged 60–79 years, 535.1±27.8 µm in those aged 70–79 years, and 530.1±16.8 µm in those aged 80–89 years. No statistically significant difference in CCT was found between the sexes (P>0.05. However, there was a significant difference in subjects aged 18–29 years; men had higher CCT than women (P<0.05. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CCT and age (r=−0.263, P<0.05 that was stronger in men (r=−0.406, P<0.05 than in women (r=−0.118, P<0.05. Conclusion: The mean CCT in adult Lithuanians was 544.6±30.5 µm, of the left eye 545.2±30.5 µm and of the right – 544.6±30.5 µm. CCT of the right eye was equal to the CCT of both eyes. Mean CCT was 545.0±25.6 µm in men and 544.4±33.5 µm in women. Young men tended to have higher CCT than women. CCT decreases over the

  13. Long-term change in central corneal thickness from a glaucoma perspective

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    Nikhil S Choudhari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the longitudinal change in central corneal thickness (CCT over 3 years in patients with glaucoma. Materials and Methods: The Chennai Glaucoma Follow-up Study, an offshoot of the Chennai Glaucoma Study, was designed to evaluate the progression of glaucoma. A cohort of participants in the Chennai Glaucoma Study that were suffering from glaucoma or were at a higher risk for glaucoma underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation at the base hospital at 6-month intervals during the years 2004 to 2007. The CCT (average of 10 readings was measured between 11 am and 1 pm on any given day using an ultrasonic pachymeter. Patients with a history of ocular surgery, corneal disease and usage of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor were excluded. No patient was a contact lens wearer. Results: One hundred and ninety-six patients (84 male, 112 female met the inclusion criteria. We analyzed data from the right eye. The mean age of the patients was 59.97 ± 9.06 years. Fifty-nine (30.1% of the patients were diabetic. The mean change in CCT (CCT at first patient visit - CCT at last patient visit was 3.46 ± 7.63 μm. The mean change in CCT was 0.75 μm per year (R 2 = 0.00. Age, gender, intraocular pressure at the first patient visit and diabetic status had no significant influence on the magnitude of change in CCT. Conclusion: A carefully obtained CCT reading by a trained examiner need not be repeated for at least 3 years as long as the ocular and systemic factors known to affect the measurement of CCT are constant.

  14. Precision of high definition spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for measuring central corneal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Pérez, María E; López-Miguel, Alberto; Miranda-Anta, Silvia; Iglesias-Cortiñas, Darío; Alió, Jorge L; Maldonado, Miguel J

    2012-04-06

    This study was intended to assess the reliability of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in healthy subjects and its accuracy compared with ultrasonic pachymetry. Seventy-seven consecutive subjects were recruited for evaluating repeatability, and agreement between two examiners. To analyze repeatability, one examiner measured 77 eyes four times in succession. To study agreement between two observers, a second independently trained examiner obtained another CCT measurement. We also measured eyes in a subgroup of 20 patients using standard ultrasonic pachymetry. Within-subject standard deviation (S(w)), coefficient of variation (CV), limits of agreement (LoA), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) data were obtained. For repeatability, the S(w) and precision (1.96 × S(w)) were 4.86 and 9.52 μm, respectively. Intraobserver CV was 0.89% and the ICC was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-0.99). For agreement between two examiners, the S(w) and precision were 7.58 and 14.85 μm, respectively; the CV was 1.40%. The mean difference between observers was -0.13 μm (95% CI, -1.85 to 1.58; P = 0.87). The width of the LoA was 29.64 μm. Median difference between Cirrus HD-OCT and ultrasound CCT measurements was -4.5 μm (interquartile range, -7.0-0.0; P = 0.04). Cirrus HD-OCT provides repeatable CCT measurements, good agreement between two independently trained examiners, and its systematic bias compared to ultrasonic pachymetry is clinically negligible. Therefore, research laboratories and eye clinics using Cirrus HD-OCT as a diagnostic imaging method, can also benefit from a reliable noncontact pachymeter when counseling patients with glaucoma and those undergoing corneal and refractive surgeries.

  15. Diurnal variation in central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome without glaucoma

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    Stuart Keel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to ascertain if any differences exist in diurnal central corneal thickness (CCT and intra-ocular pressure (IOP between eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PXF syndrome without glaucoma and eyes with no ocular pathology. A secondary aim was to determine whether there was a significant relationship between CCT and IOP. Settings and Design: This study was a prospective design conducted within a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: The experimental group consisted of seven participants with bilateral PXF (14 eyes and the control group comprised of 15 participants (30 eyes. Testing included CCT and IOP measured at four different times on one given day (8.00 a.m.; 11 a.m.; 2 p.m. and 5 p.m.. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed with the generalized linear latent mixed model. Results: PXF eyes displayed a significantly thinner overall mean CCT (520 μm compared to controls (530 μm. Furthermore, a significant reduction in CCT and IOP occurred in the PXF group from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. The mean overall IOP in PXF eyes was significantly lower than the control group. A significant association between IOP and CCT was also found in PXF eyes. Conclusions: Displaying a significantly thinner mean CCT highlights the importance of measuring CCT in an ophthalmic clinical setting as to avoid falsely underestimated IOP measurements in such a high-risk glaucoma population. Furthermore, a statistically significant correlation between IOP and CCT in PXF eyes suggests that the reduction in CCT that occurred in PXF eyes between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. may be partly responsible for the reduction in IOP measurements.

  16. Comparison of central corneal thickness measured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscanⅡ and ultrasonic pachmetry

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    Hong-Tao Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the difference of central corneal thickness(CCTmeasured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscahⅡ system and ultrasonic pachmetry, and to evaluate the correlation and consistency of the results for providing a theoretical basis for clinical application.METHODS: The mean value of CCT in 70 eyes of 35 patients measured three times by Lenstar LS900, OrbscahⅡ system and ultrasonic pachmetry underwent statistical analysis. The difference of CCT was compared, and the correlation and consistency of three measurements were analyzed to provide theoretical basis for clinical application. CCT values measured by different methods were analyzed with randomized block variance analysis. LSD-t test was used for pairwise comparison between groups. The correlation of three measurement methods were analyzed by linear correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman was used to analyze the consistency.RESULTS: The mean CCT values measured by Lenstar LS900, OrbscanⅡ and ultrasonic pachmetry were 542.75±40.06, 528.74±39.59, 538.54±40.93μm, respectively. The mean difference of CCT measurement was 4.21±8.78μm between Lenstar LS900 and ultrasonic pachmetry, 14.01±13.39μm between Lenstar LS900 and Orbscan Ⅱ, 9.8±10.57μm between ultrasonic pachmetry and Orbscan Ⅱ. The difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05: There was positive correlation between CCT with Lenstar LS900 and ultrasonic pachmetry(r=0.977, 0.944; PCONCLUSION: There are excellent correlation among Lenstar LS900, Orbscan Ⅱ and ultrasonic pachmetry. Lenstar LS900 can be used as CCT non-contact measurement tool.

  17. [Application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Jianmin; Wang, Ningli

    2015-11-01

    Retinal oximeter is a new machine which has been used in the diagnose, treatment and research of several ophthalmic diseases for recent years. It allows ophthalmologists to gain retinal oxygen saturation directly. Therefore, retinal oximeter might be useful for ophthalmologists to understand ophthalmic diseases more deeper and clarify the impact of ischemia on retinal function. It has been reported in the literatures that retinal oximeter has potentially useful diagnostic and therapeutic indications in various eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein and artery occlusion, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, et al. In this thesis, the application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology is reviewed.

  18. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness in Guangxi Maonan and Han adolescent students of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Liang; Hui-Yi; Zuo; Jin-Mao; Chen; Jie; Cai; Yu-Zhua; Qin; Yu-Ping; Huang; Ying-Ying; Chen; Dong-Yong; Tang; Shao-Jian; Tan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness in the Guangxi Maonan and Han adolescent students of China.METHODS: Noncontact specular microscope(Topcon SP3000 P, Tokyo, Japan) was performed in 133 adolescent students of Maonan nationality(M:F 54:79)and 105 adolescent students of Han nationality(M:F 50:55),5 to 20 y of age, who were randomly selected from 3schools in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China.Parameters studied included endothelial cell density,mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size,percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness. RESULTS: Endothelial cell density, mean cell area,coefficient of variation in cell size, percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness in the study population were(2969.50 ±253.93) cells/mm2,(339.23 ±29.44) μm2,(29.96 ±4.07) %,(64.58 ±9.41) % and(523.71 ±32.82) μm in Maonan and(2998.26 ±262.65) cells/mm2,(336.11±30.07) μm2,(29.89±5.03) %,(64.91±11.64) % and(524.39 ±33.15) μm in Han, respectively. No significant differences were observed in endothelial cell density,mean cell area, coefficient of variation in cell size,percentage hexagonality and central corneal thickness between Maonan and Han(P =0.615, 0.659, 0.528, 0.551,0.999). In Maonan and Han, we found age was negatively correlated with endothelial cell density and percentagehexagonality and positively correlated with mean cell area and coefficient of variation in cell size. Negative correlation was also found between central corneal thickness and age in Han, whereas no correlation was found in Maonan. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between Maonan and Han in corneal endothelial cell density and morphology and central corneal thickness. In these two nationalities, there were statistically significant decrease in endothelial cell density and percentage hexagonality with increasing age and statistically significant increase in

  19. Immunoperoxidase detection of neuronal antigens in full-thickness whole mount preparations of hollow organs and thick sections of central nervous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Smith, Ida J; Gnanamanickam, Greta J E

    2011-03-15

    Immunofluorescently stained whole mounts have proved useful for defining the innervation of the gut and large blood vessels. Nerves supplying other hollow organs are usually studied in sections, which provide much less information. Aiming to describe the entire innervation of rat uterus, we developed a method for immunoperoxidase staining of full-thickness whole mounts that allowed us to visualize all immunoreactive axons. Uterine horns were dissected out, slit open, stretched, pinned flat and fixed. Entire horns were treated with methanol/peroxide, buffered Triton X-100 and normal serum and then incubated in primary antibodies, biotinylated secondary antibodies and avidin-horseradish peroxidase (HRP), each for at least 3 days. Peroxidase reactions revealed immunoreactivity. Immunostained horns were dehydrated, infiltrated with epoxy resin, mounted on slides under Aclar coverslips and polymerized. We treated bladders, gut, major pelvic ganglia and thick sections of perfused medulla oblongata similarly to assess the applicability of the method. Using this method, we could map the entire uterine innervation provided by axons immunoreactive for a variety of antigens. We could also assess the entire tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive innervation in all layers of bladder, gut and ganglia whole mounts and throughout 300 μm sections of medulla. These observations show that this method for immunoperoxidase staining reliably reveals the complete innervation of full-thickness whole mounts of hollow organs and thick sections of central nervous tissue. The method has several advantages. The resin-embedded tissue does not degrade; the immunostaining is non-fading and permanent and neurochemically defined features can be mapped at large scale without confocal microscopy.

  20. Analysis of Macular and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children with Refractory Amblyopia after Femtosecond Laser-assisted Laser In situ Keratomileusis: A Retrospective Study

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    Peng-Fei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The foveal center retinal edema after FS-LASIK is mild and reversible in children, that mostly occurred in the high myopic group with no effect on the visual acuity, and is always relieved within 1 week.

  1. Central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurement by Sirius® Scheimpflug tomography and ultrasound

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    Jorge J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available J Jorge,1 JL Rosado,2 JA Díaz-Rey,1 JM González-Méijome11Clinical and Experimental Optometry Research Laboratory, Center of Physics (Optometry, School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, 2Opticlinic, Lisboa, PortugalBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new Sirius® Scheimpflug anterior segment examination device for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber depth (ACD with that of CCT measurements obtained by ultrasound pachymetry and ACD measurements obtained by ultrasound biometry, respectively.Methods: CCT and ACD was measured in 50 right eyes from 50 healthy subjects using a Sirius Scheimpflug camera, SP100 ultrasound pachymetry, and US800 ultrasound biometry.Results: CCT measured with the Sirius was 546 ± 39 µm and 541 ± 35 µm with SP100 ultrasound pachymetry (P = 0.003. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference 4.68 ± 10.5 µm; limits of agreement −15.8 to 25.20 µm. ACD measured with the Sirius was 2.96 ± 0.3 mm compared with 3.36 ± 0.29 mm using US800 ultrasound biometry (P < 0.001. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference −0.40 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.72 to 0.07 mm. When the ACD values obtained using ultrasound biometry were corrected according to the values for CCT measured by ultrasound, the agreement increased significantly between both technologies for ACD measurements (mean difference 0.15 ± 0.16 mm; limits of agreement −0.16 to 0.45 mm.Conclusion: CCT and ACD measured by Sirius and ultrasound methods showing good agreement between repeated measurements obtained in the same subjects (repeatability with either instrument. However, CCT and ACD values, even after correcting ultrasound ACD by subtracting the CCT value obtained with either technology should not be used interchangeably.Keywords: Scheimpflug corneal tomography, ultrasound biometry, ultrasound pachymetry, limits of agreement

  2. Central and Peripheral Corneal Thickness Measurement in Normal and Keratoconic Eyes Using Three Corneal Pachymeters

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    Feizi, Sepehr; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza; Karimian, Farid; Hasanpour, Hosein; Masudi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the agreement among ultrasonic pachymetry, the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer, and Orbscan II for central and peripheral (Galilei vs. Orbscan) corneal thickness (CCT and PCT) measurement in normal and keratoconic eyes. Methods: In this prospective study, CCT and PCT were measured in 88 eyes of 88 refractive surgery candidates and 128 eyes of 69 keratoconic patients with ultrasonic pachymetry, the Galilei, and Orbscan II. The readings by the three instruments were compared using one-way analysis of normal variance. Agreement among the three devices was assessed using Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland–Altman plots. The same analyses were employed to evaluate agreement between Galilei and Orbscan II for PCT measurement. Results: In the normal group, mean CCT was 551.0±39.4, 566.9±33.5, and 565.5±40.9 μm measured by ultrasonic pachymetry, the Galilei, and Orbscan II, respectively (P<0.001). The corresponding figures in the keratoconus group were 492.0±61.7, 502.0±42.1, and 470.6±56.9 μm, respectively (P<0.001). Mean PCT was 612.5±35.3 and 640.9±38.0 μm in the normal group (P<0.001) and 567.6±35.2 and 595.1±41.4 μm in the keratoconus group (P<0.001) by the Galilei and Orbscan II, respectively. CCT and PCT measurements obtained by different devices were significantly correlated in both groups. Conclusion: To measure CCT, the Galilei and Orbscan II can be used interchangeably in normal eyes, but not in keratoconic eyes. For PCT, there is a systematic error between measurements obtained by the Galilei and Orbscan II. However, it is possible to change optical pachymeter readings into those obtained by ultrasonic pachymetry using a constant. PMID:25667728

  3. Influence of uncomplicated phacoemulsification on central macular thickness in diabetic patients: a meta-analysis.

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    Jianping Liu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of uncomplicated phacoemulsification on central macular thickness (CMT and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA in both diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR and diabetic patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR.Potential prospective observational studies were searched through PubMed and EMBASE. Standardized mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence interval (CI for changes in CMT and BCVA were evaluated at postoperative 1, 3 and 6 months. The pooled effect estimates were calculated in the use of a random-effects model.A total of 10 studies involving 190 eyes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 143 eyes of diabetic patients with NPDR were identified. CMT values demonstrated a statistically significant increase after uncomplicated phacoemulsification at 1 month (SMD, -0.814; 95%CI, -1.230 to -0.399, 3 months (SMD, -0.565; 95%CI, -0.927 to -0.202 and 6 months (SMD, -0.458; 95%CI, -0.739 to -0.177 in diabetic patients with NPDR. There was no statistical difference in CMT values at postoperative 1 month (SMD, -1.206; 95%CI, -2.433 to 0.021and no statistically significant increase in CMT values at postoperative3 months (SMD, -0.535; 95%CI, -1.252 to 0.182 and 6 months (SMD, -1.181; 95%CI, -2.625 to 0.263 in diabetic patients without DR.BCVA was significantly increased at postoperative 1 month (SMD, 1.149; 95%CI, 0.251 to 2.047; and SMD,1.349; 95%CI, 0.264 to 2.434, respectively and 6 months (SMD, 1.295; 95%CI, 0.494 to 2.096; and SMD, 2.146; 95%CI, 0.172 to 4.120, respectively in both diabetic patients without DR and diabetic patients with NPDR. Sensitivity analysis showed that the results were relatively stable and reliable.Uncomplicated phacoemulsification in diabetic patients with mild to moderate NPDR seemed to influence significantly the subclinical thickening of the macular zones at postoperative 1, 3 and 6 months compared with diabetic patients without DR

  4. Long-term increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness after surgery for senile cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yasuo; Ogawa, Asako; Toyama, Taku; Ueta, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of cataract surgery on subfoveal choroidal thickness and central retinal thickness in the elderly. Prospective observational case series. This cohort study included 29 eyes of 29 patients with senile cataract, but no previous ocular surgery or other ocular abnormality. All 29 eyes received standard surgery by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Subfoveal choroidal thickness and central retinal thickness were measured at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of larger changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness, including sex, age, baseline choroidal thickness, axial length, refractive status before surgery, and duration of surgery. The 29 patients with senile cataract received cataract surgery without complication. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 193.8, 208.9, 210.2, and 209.3 μm at baseline and at postoperative 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, with a statistically significant increase after surgery (repeated-measures ANOVA; P choroidal thickness remained high even 6 months after surgery. Multiple regression analysis revealed that male sex (P = .014) and thicker baseline choroid (P = .0048) predicted larger increases in subfoveal choroidal thickness. In contrast, the tendency of transient increase in central retinal thickness was not statistically significant. Most elderly patients with senile cataracts are expected to maintain increased subfoveal choroidal thickness for at least 6 months after cataract surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimated Thickness of Quaternary Sediment in the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho

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    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated thickness of Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This isopach map was constructed by subtracting the estimated...

  6. Central Corneal Thickness, Corneal Endothelial Characteristics and Intraocular Pressure after Pediatric Cataract Surgery

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    Naveed Nilforushan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To investigate central corneal thickness (CCT, endothelial cell characteristics and intraocular pressure (IOP in eyes with prior pediatric cataract surgery and to compare them with eyes of normal age and sex matched controls. METHODS: Specular microscopy CCT and IOP measurements were performed in 31 eyes of 17 patients with prior congenital cataract extraction and 40 eyes of 20 age and sex matched subjects. The mean of three pachymetric and specular microscopic measurements were recorded. IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry. RESULTS: Mean CCT was 632±45 µm in eyes with prior pediatric cataract surgery vs 546±33 µm in control eyes (P < 0.001, independent t test and Mann Whitney U-test. Mean IOP was 22.1±3.9 mmHg in eyes with prior pediatric cataract surgery and 14.0±1.6 mmHg in the control group (P < 0.001, independent t-test. There was no significant difference between the two groups in cell count, polymegethism and mean cell area of corneal endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Although the corneas were clinically clear and there was no significant difference in endothelial characteristics in eyes with prior pediatric cataract surgery as compared to normal controls, central corneal thickness in the operated eyes was significantly greater. To differentiate actual glaucoma from artifactual IOP

  7. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  8. Retinal and visual system: occupational and environmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Occupational chemical exposure often results in sensory systems alterations that occur without other clinical signs or symptoms. Approximately 3000 chemicals are toxic to the retina and central visual system. Their dysfunction can have immediate, long-term, and delayed effects on mental health, physical health, and performance and lead to increased occupational injuries. The aims of this chapter are fourfold. First, provide references on retinal/visual system structure, function, and assessment techniques. Second, discuss the retinal features that make it especially vulnerable to toxic chemicals. Third, review the clinical and corresponding experimental data regarding retinal/visual system deficits produced by occupational toxicants: organic solvents (carbon disulfide, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, styrene, toluene, and mixtures) and metals (inorganic lead, methyl mercury, and mercury vapor). Fourth, discuss occupational and environmental toxicants as risk factors for late-onset retinal diseases and degeneration. Overall, the toxicants altered color vision, rod- and/or cone-mediated electroretinograms, visual fields, spatial contrast sensitivity, and/or retinal thickness. The findings elucidate the importance of conducting multimodal noninvasive clinical, electrophysiologic, imaging and vision testing to monitor toxicant-exposed workers for possible retinal/visual system alterations. Finally, since the retina is a window into the brain, an increased awareness and understanding of retinal/visual system dysfunction should provide additional insight into acquired neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Long-term evaluation of eyes with central corneal thickness <400 µm following laser in situ keratomileusis

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    Djodeyre MR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Reza Djodeyre,1 Jaime Beltran,2 Julio Ortega-Usobiaga,3 Felix Gonzalez-Lopez,4 Ana Isabel Ruiz-Rizaldos,1 Julio Baviera2 1Department of Refractive Surgery, Clinica Baviera, Zaragoza, 2Department of Refractive Surgery, Clinica Baviera, Valencia, 3Department of Research and Development, Clinica Baviera, Bilbao, 4Department of Refractive Surgery, Clinica Baviera, Madrid, Spain Purpose: To study long-term refractive and visual outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in eyes with a postoperative thin central cornea.  Methods: In this retrospective observational case series, we studied 282 myopic eyes with a normal preoperative topographic pattern and postoperative thin corneas (<400 µm that had at least 3 years of follow-up after LASIK in three private clinics. The main outcome measures were safety, efficacy, predictability, percent tissue altered, and complications.  Results: The mean postoperative central corneal thickness was 392.05 µm (range: 363.00–399.00 µm. After a mean follow-up of 6.89±2.35 years (standard deviation, the safety index was 1.17, the efficacy index was 0.94, and predictability (±1.00 diopter [D] was 73.49. The mean residual stromal bed thickness was 317.34±13.75 µm (range: 275–356 µm, the mean flap thickness was 74.76±13.57 µm (range: 55–124 µm, and the mean percent tissue altered was 37.12%±3.62% (range: 27.25%–49.26%. No major complications were recorded.  Conclusion: LASIK with a resultant central cornea thickness <400 µm seems to be effective, safe, and predictable provided that preoperative topography is normal and the residual stromal bed thickness is >275 µm. Keywords: LASIK, thin, cornea, ectasia, myopia, pachymetry, topography

  10. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    OpenAIRE

    Semra Tiryaki Demir; Mahmut Odabaşı; Mehmet Ersin Oba; Ayşe Burcu Dirim; Efe Can; Orhan Kara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT), and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb) ...

  11. The heritability of glaucoma-related traits corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and choroidal blood flow pulsatility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E Freeman

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. METHODS: Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyser. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Three measures of intraocular pressure were obtained: Goldmann-correlated and corneal compensated intraocular pressure using the Ocular Response Analyser, and Pascal intraocular pressure using the Pascal Dynamic Contour Tonometer. The pulsatility of choroidal blood velocity and flow were measured in the sub-foveolar choroid using single-point laser Doppler flowmetry (Oculix. We estimated heritability using maximum-likelihood variance components methods implemented in the SOLAR software. RESULTS: No significant heritability was detected for the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow or velocity. The Goldman-correlated, corneal compensated, and Pascal measures of intraocular pressure measures were all significantly heritable at 0.94, 0.79, and 0.53 after age and sex adjustment (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0023, p = 0.0239. Central corneal thickness was significantly heritable at 0.68 (p = 0.0078. Corneal hysteresis was highly heritable but the estimate was at the upper boundary of 1.00 preventing us from giving a precise estimate. CONCLUSION: Corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure are all heritable and may be suitable as glaucoma endophenotypes. The pulsatility of choroidal blood flow and blood velocity were not significantly heritable in this sample.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CENTRAL FOVEAL THICKNESS PRE AND POST CATARACT SURGERY USING SD-OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY

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    Navneet Saxena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The purpose of this study is to compare central foveal thickness (CFT of patients preoperatively and postoperatively cataract surgery using SD- optical coherence tomography and to correlate CFT with vision. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 eyes of 100 patients were examined and two groups were formed. Group-A was considered as the control group in the study and eyes in group-B were operated for cataract using SICS technique. The central foveal thickness (CFT in each group was measured using SD-OCT machine (Cirrus Zeiss preoperatively, postoperatively on day 1, week 1 and after 1 month and the data was compiled and compared. RESULTS OCT detected increased central foveal thickness postoperatively on day 1 and weeks 2 but this returned to preoperative levels in one month. It was also seen that preoperative BCVA was poor (0.53± 0.12 Snellen approx. 6/24. Improvement in BCVA was seen in postoperative day-1, week 2 and 1 month. CONCLUSION This study shows that preoperative CFT values were minimal which increased on postoperatively but returned to preoperative values at one month after surgery BCVA was poorer preoperatively due to cataract but improved as CFT decreased with time.

  13. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  14. Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness after Panretinal Photocoagulation with Red and Green Laser in Bilateral Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients: Short Term Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohipoor, Ramak; Dantism, Sina; Karkhaneh, Reza; Zarei, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare subfoveal choroidal, central retinal, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) with red and green laser in diabetic patients. Study Design. Randomized clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 patients with bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy and no diabetic macular edema underwent PRP. One eye was randomly assigned to red or green laser. Subfoveal choroidal, central retinal, and RNFL thicknesses were evaluated at baseline and 6 weeks after treatment. Results. The mean subfoveal choroidal, central retinal, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness increased significantly in each eye 6 weeks after PRP (P values in red laser group: <0.01, 0.03, and <0.01, resp., and in green laser group <0.01, <0.01, and <0.01). There was no difference between red and green laser considering subfoveal choroidal, central retinal, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness increase after PRP (P values: 0.184, 0.404, and 0.726, resp.). Conclusion. Both red and green lasers increased mean subfoveal choroidal, central retinal, and peripapillary nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness significantly 6 weeks after PRP, but there is no difference between these two modalities in this regard. PMID:27595017

  15. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-BASED MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RETINAL ARCHITECTURE POST INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING FOR SURGERY OF IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLE REPAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Aditya; Giridhar, Anantharaman; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography-based analysis of retinal architecture after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery. Prospective, interventional study. Fifty eyes underwent the surgical procedure with minimum internal limiting membrane peel of 3 mm diameter. Automatic segmentation software was used to assess individual layers preoperatively and postoperatively, 1.5 millimeters medial and lateral to fovea at 3 months postoperative visit. Main outcome measures were final central macular thickness and variation in individual retinal layer thickness. Mean central macular thickness postoperatively was 201 microns. Retinal thickening was observed, 1.5 mm medial to fovea (P Internal limiting membrane peel is associated with significant alteration in inner retinal architecture, especially in ganglion cell layer, which can adversely influence functional outcome of the surgery and makes it imperative to avoid peeling internal limiting membrane over a larger surface area.

  16. 青年近视患者神经纤维层厚度的临床研究%The clinical research of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in young myopic patients before the refractive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林; 鲍慧婧; 杨丽萍; 黄辉; 陈少肜; 邹俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨青年近视患者的神经纤维层(RNFL)厚度分布特性及其影响因素.方法 横断面研究.选取准分子激光角膜屈光手术前的青年近视患者162例(162眼),平均年龄(27.0±4.6)岁,等效球镜度-0.75~-11.00 D,平均(-4.98±2.64)D.其中,低度近视组54例,平均等效球镜度为(-2.27±0.64)D;中度近视组55例,平均等效球镜度为(-4.54±0.79)D;高度组53例,平均等效球镜度为(-8.19±1.51)D.采用光学相干断层扫描(OCT)仪检查视盘周围神经纤维层厚度,用偏相关分析RNFL厚度与患者年龄、性别、等效球镜度、眼轴、角膜中央厚度及角膜曲率的相关性.结果 本组入选患者视盘周围平均RNFL厚度:全周为(103.6±9.5)μm,上方为(128.7±16.8)μm,鼻侧为(67.8± 16.5)μm,下方为(125.9± 17.2)μm,颞侧为(91.9±16.9)μm.各RNFL厚度参数与年龄、性别、角膜曲率、中央角膜厚度无相关性,全周、上方、鼻侧、下方的平均RNFL厚度与眼轴呈负相关(r=-0.379、-0.297、-0.180 、-0.291,P<0.05),颞侧的平均RNFL厚度则与眼轴无相关性,鼻侧、下方的平均RNFL厚度与等效球镜度呈负相关(r=-0.233、-0.163,P<0.05),颞侧平均RNFL厚度与等效球镜度则呈正相关(r=0.159,P<0.05).结论 青年近视患者视盘周围平均RNFL厚度上方>下方>颞侧>鼻侧,全周、鼻侧、上方、下方平均RNFL厚度随眼轴的增长而变薄,下方和鼻侧RNFL厚度随等效球镜度增加而变薄,颞侧平均RNFL厚度随着等效球镜度增加而增厚.%Objective To evaluate the topographic profile and influential factors of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in young myopia.Methods It was a cross-sectional study.One hundred and sixty-two eyes of 162 consecutive refractive surgery candidates were included in this study.The mean age of the subjects was 27.0±4.6 years old,the average spherical equivalent (SE) was-4.98±2.64 D with a range of-0.75 D to-11.00 D,of 54 eyes

  17. Effect of Bevacizumab vs Aflibercept on Visual Acuity Among Patients With Macular Edema Due to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: The SCORE2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ingrid U; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Ip, Michael S; Blodi, Barbara A; Oden, Neal L; Awh, Carl C; Kunimoto, Derek Y; Marcus, Dennis M; Wroblewski, John J; King, Jacqueline

    2017-05-23

    Studies have established the efficacy and safety of aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. Bevacizumab is used off-label to treat this condition despite the absence of supporting data. To investigate whether bevacizumab is noninferior to aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal or hemiretinal vein occlusion. The SCORE2 randomized noninferiority clinical trial was conducted at 66 private practice or academic centers in the United States, and included 362 patients with macular edema due to central retinal or hemiretinal vein occlusion who were randomized 1:1 to receive aflibercept or bevacizumab. The first participant was randomized on September 17, 2014, and the last month 6 visit occurred on May 6, 2016. Analyses included data available as of December 30, 2016. Eyes were randomized to receive intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg; n = 182) or aflibercept (2.0 mg; n = 180) every 4 weeks through month 6. The primary outcome was mean change in visual acuity (VA) letter score (VALS) from the randomization visit to the 6-month follow-up visit, based on the best-corrected electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study VALS (scores range from 0-100; higher scores indicate better VA). The noninferiority margin was 5 letters, and statistical testing for noninferiority was based on a 1-sided 97.5% confidence interval. Among 362 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 69 [12] years; 157 [43.4%] women; mean [SD] VALS at baseline, 50.3 [15.2] [approximate Snellen VA 20/100]), 348 (96.1%) completed the month 6 follow-up visit. At month 6, the mean VALS was 69.3 (a mean increase from baseline of 18.6) in the bevacizumab group and 69.3 (a mean increase from baseline of 18.9) in the aflibercept group (model-based estimate of between-group difference, -0.14; 97.5% CI, -3.07 to ∞; P = .001 for noninferiority), meeting criteria for noninferiority. Ocular adverse events in

  18. Efficacy and safety of intravitreal therapy in macular edema due to branch and central retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Pielen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravitreal agents have replaced observation in macular edema in central (CRVO and grid laser photocoagulation in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes of intravitreal therapies for macular edema in CRVO and BRVO. METHODS AND FINDINGS: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for RCTs with no limitations of language and year of publication. 11 RCTs investigating anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept and steroids (triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were evaluated. EFFICACY CRVO: Greatest gain in visual acuity after 12 months was observed both under aflibercept 2 mg: +16.2 letters (8.5 injections, and under bevacizumab 1.25 mg: +16.1 letters (8 injections. Ranibizumab 0.5 mg improved vision by +13.9 letters (8.8 injections. Triamcinolone 1 mg and 4 mg stabilized visual acuity at a lower injection frequency (-1.2 letters, 2 injections. BRVO: Ranibizumab 0.5 mg resulted in a visual acuity gain of +18.3 letters (8.4 injections. The effect of dexamethasone implant was transient after 1.9 implants in both indications. SAFETY: Serious ocular adverse events were rare, e.g., endophthalmitis occurred in 0.0-0.9%. Major differences were found in an indirect comparison between steroids and anti-VEGF agents for cataract progression (19.8-35.0% vs. 0.9-7.0% and in required treatment of increased intraocular pressure (7.0-41.0% vs. none. No major differences were identified in systemic adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF agents result in a promising gain of visual acuity, but require a high injection frequency. Dexamethasone implant might be an alternative, but comparison is impaired as the effect is temporary and it has not yet been tested in PRN regimen. The ocular risk profile seems to be favorable for anti-VEGF agents in comparison to steroids. Because comparative data from head

  19. Peripheral retinal non-perfusion and treatment response in branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Abri Aghdam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association between the size of peripheral retinal non-perfusion and the number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections in patients with treatment-naive branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and macular edema. METHODS: A total of 53 patients with treatment-naive BRVO and macular edema were included. Each patient underwent a full ophthalmologic examination including optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging and ultra wide-field fluorescein angiography (UWFA. Monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections were applied according to the recommendations of the German Ophthalmological Society. Two independent, masked graders quantified the areas of peripheral retinal non-perfusion. RESULTS: Intravitreal injections improved best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA significantly from 22.23±16.33 Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS letters to 36.23±15.19 letters (P<0.001, and mean central subfield thickness significantly reduced from 387±115 µm to 321±115 µm (P=0.01. Mean number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections was 3.61±1.56. The size of retinal non-perfusion correlated significantly with the number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections (R=0.724, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Peripheral retinal non-perfusion in patients with BRVO associates significantly with intravitreal ranibizumab injections in patients with BRVO and macular edema.

  20. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness and Corneal Curvature and Axial Length on the Measurement of Intraocular Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Li; Minru Li; Zhigang Fan; Ningli Wang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature (CC), and axial length (AL) on intraocular pressure (IOP).Methods: Eighty-one clinically normal eyes were included in our study. The IOP, CCT, CC, AL were measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer, optical pachymeter, keratometer and A-scan ultrasound biometer respectively in all subjects.Results: A highly significant positive correlation was identified between IOP and CCT. Linear regression analysis suggests that an increase in CCT of 0. 010 mm is associated with a 4. 946 mmHg increment in IOP. No significant positive correlation was identified between IOP and CC. P values are 0. 724 and 0.414 respectively for vertical and horizontal readings. A paradoxically reversed correlation was present between IOP and axial length.Conclusion: Corneal thickness is a very important confounding factor in the measurement of intraocular pressure, which warrants further attention in our clinical practice.

  1. Structure and Function Relationship of Activated Retinal Glia in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients

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    Christoph Nützi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate clinically activated retinal astrocytes and Müller cells (ARAM regarding retinal sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. Central visual field (VF; i.e., retinal sensitivity was measured with a custom-made macular pattern by microperimetry and correlated with the presence (ARAM+ or absence (ARAM− of ARAM on red-free fundus photography and with the corresponding RNFL by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Results. In the eyes of POAG patients, ARAM+ had overall a significantly lower retinal sensitivity (ARAM+: 7.34 dB, ARAM−: 11.9 dB; p<0.001 and lower RNFL thickness in the inferior peripapillary quadrants compared to ARAM− (RNFL superior: ARAM+ 74.2 μm, ARAM− 77.5 μm; RNFL temporal: ARAM+ 46.8 μm, ARAM− 53.0 μm, p<0.001; and RNFL inferior: ARAM+ 63.2 μm, ARAM− 73.1 μm, p<0.001. Within the same eye, ARAM+ showed a lower retinal sensitivity compared to ARAM− ([ARAM− (11.13 dB] − [ARAM+ (9.56 dB = 1.57 dB; p=0.25. The proportion of ARAM+ per eye correlated strongly with reduced retinal light sensitivity (p=0.02, corresponding lower peripapillary RNFL thickness (p=0.02, and lower RNFL temporal quadrant thickness (p<0.01, but not with greater age (p=0.45. Conclusion. ARAM was more frequently identified in the eyes with a lower retinal sensitivity and peripapillary RNFL thickness and may be a clinical sign in the macula for an advanced stage of POAG.

  2. Retinal proteins associated with redox regulation and protein folding play central roles in response to high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ssu-Han; Lee, Wen-Chi; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy typically causes poor vision and blindness. A previous study revealed that a high blood glucose concentration induces glycoxidation and weakens the retinal capillaries. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of high blood glucose induced diabetic retinopathy remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we cultured the retinal pigmented epithelial cell line ARPE-19 in mannitol-balanced 5.5, 25, and 100 mM glucose media and investigated protein level alterations. Proteomic analysis revealed significant changes in 137 protein features, of which 124 demonstrated changes in a glucose concentration dependent manner. Several proteins functionally associated with redox regulation, protein folding, or the cytoskeleton are affected by increased glucose concentrations. Additional analyses also revealed that cellular oxidative stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, was significantly increased after treatment with high glucose concentrations. However, the mitochondrial membrane potential and cell survival remained unchanged during treatment with high glucose concentrations. To summarize, in this study, we used a comprehensive retinal pigmented epithelial cell based proteomic approach for identifying changes in protein expression associated retinal markers induced by high glucose concentrations. Our results revealed that a high glucose condition can induce cellular oxidative stress and modulate the levels of proteins with functions in redox regulation, protein folding, and cytoskeleton regulation; however, cell viability and mitochondrial integrity are not significantly disturbed under these high glucose conditions.

  3. The relationship between central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure: a comparative study of normals and glaucoma subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyamu, E; Ituah, I

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether central corneal thickness (CCT) is a better predictor than intraocular pressure (IOP) in early identification of those at higher risk of developing glaucoma. Sixty-five subjects were categorized into normals, ocular hypertensives and glaucoma subjects based on clinical characteristics of ocular risk factors. The lOP was assessed with slit-lamp mounted Goldmann applanation tonometer. Prior to applanation tonometry, the central corneal thickness (CCT) of both eyes was assessed with Sonomed PacScan 300AP Biometric/pachymeter. The difference in mean IOP between normals and glaucoma subjects was statistically significant (unpaired t-test; p<0.05). Similarly, there was a significant difference in mean CCT between normals and glaucoma subjects (p<0.05). The association between CCT and Age was not significant in normals but slightly significant in glaucoma subjects and the linear regression predicts a decrease of 7.0 ìm in CCT for every 10 years. A strong association was found between CCT and IOP for ocular hypertensives with a prediction of increase of 0.70 mmHg for every 10 ìm corneal thickening. The association between CCT and IOP for glaucoma subjects was weak, with an indication of an increase of 0.35 mmHg in intraocular pressure for every 10 ìm corneal thinning. The central corneal thickness is a better predictor than intraocular pressure in identifying those at higher risk of developing primary open-angle glaucoma when combined with some ocular risk factors.

  4. Longitudinal relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters assessed by scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC) and visual field in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Kenichi; Takei, Kazuo; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters assessed by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC) and visual field parameters obtained with the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) in patients with glaucoma, and to assess the usefulness of GDxVCC in longitudinal follow-up. A total of 242 eyes in 122 patients with glaucoma were periodically assessed using GDxVCC and HFA program SITA fast 30–2 for 3–5 years. Eyes with more than four times of reliable HFA and GDxVCC data were obtained from during the follow-up periods were included in the analysis. Changes in HFA parameters (mean deviation [MD], pattern standard deviation [PSD]) and those in GDxVCC parameters (superior average, inferior average, temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal [TSNIT] average, TSNIT standard deviation [SD], nerve fiber indicator [NFI]) were determined by regression analysis. The relationship between HFA and GDxVCC parameters at the initial point and their annual changes were analyzed with canonical correlation analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Twenty-four eyes (9.9%) of 19 patients that met inclusion criteria were statistically analyzed. Longitudinal progression was 0.039 ± 0.971 dB/year in MD, 0.156 ± 0.644 dB/year in PSD, −0.197 ± 0.970 μm/year in TSNIT average, −0.503 ± 1.341 μm/year in superior average, −0.282 ± 0.974 μm/year in inferior average, −0.284 ± 1.013/year in TSNIT SD and 1.269 ± 2.560/year in NFI. In canonical correlation analysis at the initial point, first canonical variates were not statistically significant between HFA and GDxVCC parameters. First canonical variates of annual changes significantly correlated between HFA and GDxVCC parameters (p < 0.01), with correlation coefficient of 0.85. In Pearson’s correlation analysis of each parameter, there was a significant relationship between MD and NFI at the initial point

  5. Phosphatase control of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation state is central for glycolytic regulation of retinal protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Thomas W; Abcouwer, Steven F; Losiewicz, Mandy K; Fort, Patrice E

    2015-09-15

    Control of protein synthesis in insulin-responsive tissues has been well characterized, but relatively little is known about how this process is regulated in nervous tissues. The retina exhibits a relatively high protein synthesis rate, coinciding with high basal Akt and metabolic activities, with the majority of retinal ATP being derived from aerobic glycolysis. We examined the dependency of retinal protein synthesis on the Akt-mTOR signaling and glycolysis using ex vivo rat retinas. Akt inhibitors significantly reduced retinal protein synthesis but did not affect glycolytic lactate production. Surprisingly, the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) markedly inhibited Akt1 and Akt3 activities, as well as protein synthesis. The effects of 2-DG, and 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (2-FDG) on retinal protein synthesis correlated with inhibition of lactate production and diminished ATP content, with all these effects reversed by provision of d-mannose. 2-DG treatment was not associated with increased AMPK, eEF2, or eIF2α phosphorylation; instead, it caused rapid dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1. 2-DG reduced total mTOR activity by 25%, but surprisingly, it did not reduce mTORC1 activity, as indicated by unaltered raptor-associated mTOR autophosphorylation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 was largely prevented by inhibition of PP1/PP2A phosphatases with okadaic acid and calyculin A, and inhibition of PPM1 phosphatases with cadmium. Thus, inhibition of retinal glycolysis diminished Akt and protein synthesis coinciding with accelerated dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 independently of mTORC1. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism regulating protein synthesis in the retina involving an mTORC1-independent and phosphatase-dependent regulation of 4E-BP1.

  6. Changes in the thickness of the macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer over time after surgery in a case of juvenile glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Takagi

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions and importance: In juvenile onset glaucoma, changes in c-RNFL thickness and m-GCC thickness after operation were not consistent with changes in optic disc cupping. Changes in the thicknesses of the c-RNFL or m-GCC, rather than changes in the optic disc changes, may be good surrogate measures to confirm the effectiveness of glaucoma surgery.

  7. Duration of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment predicts recovery of retinal sensitivity

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    Rose Rose

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision to treat a disease is often based on the presence or absence of symptoms, one prototype case being rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Detachment of the neural retina from the pigment epithelium is a major cause of anatomical and functional dysfunction of the retina, where retinal recovery is inversely related to duration of detachment. The purpose of retinal reattachment is to effect recovery of the photoreceptors and pigment epithelium from degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the critical duration of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment resulting in optimal retinal recovery after reattachment. A prospective study was conducted at a private hospital in Yogyakarta. Thirty five eyes were involved in this study. Three months after reattachment, central retinal recovery was measured by means of a Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter. The results showed that retinal recovery developed three months after surgery if the onset of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was less than 28 days before surgery. The results were not significant if the onset of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was more than 35 days. Although the Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter can efficiently detect central retinal sensitivity, it should be supported by more sensitive tools to evaluate the anatomy and function of the retina.

  8. Morphological changes in the retinal pigment epithelium on spectral-domain OCT in the unaffected eyes with idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pawan; Gupta, Vishali; Dogra, M R; Singh, Ramandeep; Gupta, Amod

    2010-04-01

    To report the changes seen in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) morphology in the asymptomatic eyes of patients with idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) using spectral-domain Cirrus (TM) high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). In a prospective case series, 17 consecutive patients with unilateral ICSC underwent spectral-domain Cirrus (TM) HD-OCT scans for both affected and opposite asymptomatic eye. Three-dimensional single-layer RPE map was studied in both eyes for morphological alterations, and findings were correlated with clinical presentation, fluorescein angiogram, and 5 Line raster scan. Additionally, three-dimensional (3D) single-layer RPE maps done in 111 healthy volunteers served as control. In patients with ICSC, 3D single-layer RPE analysis of asymptomatic eyes showed presence of RPE bumps in 16 (94%) eyes and pigment epithelium detachment (PED) in 2 (11.8%) eyes. The 5 Line raster scan was normal in all eyes. Of 222 normal (control) scans, 18 showed RPE bumps and none showed PED. Conclusions 3D single-layer RPE map showed abnormal pattern in the asymptomatic eyes of patients with unilateral ICSC. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed morphologic alterations in retinal pigment epithelium in both eyes of patients with idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy.

  9. Association between isotretinoin use and central retinal vein occlusion in an adolescent with minor predisposition for thrombotic incidents: a case report

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    Labiris Georgios

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an adolescent boy with minimal pre-existing risk for thromboses who suffered central retinal vein occlusion associated with isotretinoin use for acne. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well documented case of this association. Case presentation An otherwise healthy 17-year-old white man who was treated with systemic isotretinoin for recalcitrant acne was referred with central retinal vein occlusion in one eye. Although a detailed investigation was negative, DNA testing revealed that the patient was a heterozygous carrier of the G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gene. Despite the fact that this particular mutation is thought to represent only a minor risk factor for thromboses, it is probable that isotretinoin treatment greatly increased the risk of a vaso-occlusive incident in this patient. Conclusion Isotretinoin use may be associated with sight- and life-threatening thrombotic adverse effects even in young patients with otherwise minimal thrombophilic risk. Physicians should be aware of such potential dangers.

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness and apolipoproteins in patients of ischemic stroke in a rural hospital setting in central India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Jain; Tejal Lathia; Om Prakash Gupta; Vishakha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Context: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and apolipoproteins have been found as a risk factor for ischemic stroke . Objective: The objective was to study the carotid intima-media thickness, apolipoproteins, and their relation in patients of ischemic stroke in central rural India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was performed in a rural hospital in central India. Materials and Methods: In all patients of ischemic stroke proven by computerized tomography (CT), CIMT, apolipopr...

  11. Ocular biometry and central corneal thickness in children: a hospital-based study

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    Adem Gul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar a distribuição do comprimento axial, profundidade da câmara anterior, espessura do cristalino, profundidade da câmara vítrea e espessura corneal central em crianças em diferentes faixas etárias. Métodos: Foram estudados 364 olhos de 182 crianças entre 1 e 12 anos de idade. O comprimento axial, a profundidade da câmara anterior , a espessura do cristalino e a profundidade da câmara vítrea foram medidos por biometria ultrassônica. A espessura corneal central foi medida por paquimetria ultrassônica em todas as crianças. Resultados: A idade média foi de 6,54 ± 3,42 anos. O comprimento axial foi 20,95 mm no grupo de 1-2 anos de idade e 22,95 mm no grupo de 11-12 anos de idade. A espessura corneal central foi 556 µm no grupo de 1-2 anos de idade e 555 µm no grupo de 11-12 anos de idade. A profundidade da câmara anterior média e profundidade da câmara vítrea aumentou com a idade (3,06 mm a 3,44 mm de profundidade da câmara anterior, 13,75 mm a 15,99 mm de profundidade da câmara vítrea e da espessura do cristalino diminuiu com o aumento da idade (3,67 mm a 3,51 mm. Conclusões: Em nosso estudo, os valores do comprimento axial aumentou com a idade e atingiu os níveis adultos aos 9-10 anos de idade. A espessura do cristalino diminuiu gradualmente até os 12 anos de idade. As medições de espessura corneal central não seguiu um algoritmo linear.

  12. Central corneal thickness in individuals with congenital cataract and surgical aphakia : a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Pedroso de Carvalho Lupinacci

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo medir a espessura corneana central (ECC) de indivíduos com catarata congênita e afacia cirúrgica após extração de catarata congênita. Indivíduos com catarata congênita ou afacia cirúrgica após cirurgia de catarata congênita foram recrutados prospectivamente e divididos em quatro grupos: catarata unilateral (n=14), catarata bilateral (n=18), afacia unilateral (n=32) e afacia bilateral (n=44). Um grupo controle foi selecionado a partir de indivíduos ...

  13. Influence of ischemia on visual function in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion and macular edema

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    Noma H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma¹, Hideharu Funatsu¹, Tatsuya Mimura², Katsunori Shimada³¹Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Owada-shinden, Chiba, Japan; ²Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; ³Department of Hygiene and Public Health II, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Visual function and retinal morphology were investigated to elucidate the influence of ischemia in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and macular edema. In 41 consecutive patients with BRVO aged 68.9 ± 10.0 years (22 women and 19 men, the area of capillary nonperfusion was measured by fluorescein angiography. Retinal thickness and retinal volume were measured by optical coherence tomography, and mean retinal sensitivity was calculated for each of 9 macular subfields. Mean visual acuity and macular sensitivity within the central subfield were not significantly correlated with the nonperfused area. However, the macular sensitivity within the central 5 subfields and all 9 subfields showed significant negative correlations with the nonperfused area. Also, macular thickness and volume within all 9 subfields were significantly correlated with the nonperfused area. In conclusion, evaluation of both the fovea and the entire macular region may be important in patients with ischemic BRVO.Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, macular sensitivity, ischemia

  14. Analysis of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macular thickness in unaffected female carrier of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy%Leber遗传性视神经病变女性携带者神经纤维层厚度和黄斑区视网膜厚度的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张译心; 戴艳丽; 巩琰; 黄厚斌; 魏世辉

    2013-01-01

    显著变薄,中心子区和4个外子区黄斑区视网膜厚度正常.本研究首次发现LHON女性基因携带者黄斑区视网膜厚度异常,提示LHON黄斑部病变早于RNFLT的变化.%Background Researches documented that retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in unaffected carriers of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) becomes thickened in different quadrants to different degrees.But the change of their macular thickness is still unclear.Objective This study was to clarify RNFLT and macular thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in unaffected female carriers of LHON families.Methods Five female LHON patients (5 eyes) from 5 LHON families,eighteen unaffected female carriers (18eyes) from 18 LHON families and twenty-five age-matched healthy female controls (25 eyes) were included in this study.The patients and genetic carriers were diagnosed in PLA General Hospital from 2011 September to 2012 October.Regular ocular examination were performed followed by OCT measurement of retinas.The Optic Disc Cube 200×200 and Macular Cube 200×200 protocols were used during the OCT measurement.Average (360°) RNFLT,RNFLT at four quadrantic sections,cube average macular thickness and macular thickness of nine Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) sub-areas were compared among the LHON genetic carriers,LHON patients and normal controls.Results Compared to the normal control group,significant redu