WorldWideScience

Sample records for central respiratory control

  1. The role of P2Y1 receptor signaling in central respiratory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, V; Zhang, Y; Revill, A L; Funk, G D

    2016-06-01

    The profile of P2 receptor signaling in respiratory control has increased substantially since the first suggestions more than 15 years ago of roles in central chemoreception and modulating inspiratory motor outflow. Part of this reflects the paradigm shift that glia participate in information processing and that ATP is a major gliotransmitter. P2 receptors are a diverse family. Here, we review ATP signaling in respiratory control, highlighting G-protein coupled P2Y1 receptors that have been a focus of recent work. Despite strong evidence of a role for glia and P2 receptor signaling in the central chemosensitivity mediated by the retotrapezoid nucleus, P2Y1 receptors do not appear to be directly involved. Evidence that central P2 receptors and glia contribute to the hypoxic ventilatory response is compelling and P2Y1 receptors are the strongest candidate. However, functional significance in vivo, details of the signaling pathways and involvement of other receptor subtypes remain important questions. PMID:26476057

  2. Airway inflammation and central respiratory control: results from in vivo and in vitro neonatal rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gresham, Kenneth; Boyer, Brooke; Mayer, Catherine; Foglyano, Ryan; Martin, Richard; Wilson, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    In infants, respiratory infection elicits tachypnea. To begin to evaluate the role of brainstem cytokine expression in modulation of breathing pattern changes, we compared the pattern generated after endotracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in in vivo rat pups to local pro-inflammatory cytokine injection in the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) in an in vitro en bloc brainstem spinal cord preparation. We hypothesized that both challenges would elicit similar changes in patterning ...

  3. Central Neurogenic Respiratory Failure: A Challenging Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Flávio A.; Bernardino, Tenille; Maciel, Ricardo O.H.; Felizola, Sérgio F.A.; Costa, Eduardo L.V.; Silva, Gisele S

    2011-01-01

    Background Central nervous system lesions are rare causes of respiratory failure. Simple observation of the breathing pattern can help localize the lesion, but the examiner needs to be aware of potential pitfalls such as metabolic or pulmonary alterations. Methods We describe 3 cases in which central neurogenic respiratory failure occurred simultaneously with other alterations or in an unusual presentation. Results All patients were diagnosed with central neurogenic respiratory failure and tr...

  4. The anti-malarial drug Mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Varinder K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is an anti-malarial drug that can have neurological side effects. This study examines how mefloquine (MF influences central nervous control of autonomic and respiratory systems using the arterially perfused working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP of the rat. Recordings of nerve activity were made from the thoracic sympathetic chain and phrenic nerve, while heart rate (HR and perfusion pressure were also monitored in the arterially perfused, decerebrate, rat WHBP. MF was added to the perfusate at 1 μM to examine its effects on baseline parameters as well as baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. Results MF caused a significant, atropine resistant, bradycardia and increased phrenic nerve discharge frequency. Chemoreceptor mediated sympathoexcitation (elicited by addition of 0.1 ml of 0.03% sodium cyanide to the aortic cannula was significantly attenuated by the application of MF to the perfusate. Furthermore MF significantly decreased rate of return to resting HR following chemoreceptor induced bradycardia. An increase in respiratory frequency and attenuated respiratory-related sympathetic nerve discharge during chemoreceptor stimulation was also elicited with MF compared to control. However, MF did not significantly alter baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. Conclusions These studies indicate that in the WHBP, MF causes profound alterations in autonomic and respiratory control. The possibility that these effects may be mediated through actions on connexin 36 containing gap junctions in central neurones controlling sympathetic nervous outflow is discussed.

  5. Respiratory neuroplasticity following carotid body denervation Central and peripheral adaptations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R. Hodges; Hubert V. Forster

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the role of the carotid bodies in ventilatory control has been understated, but the current view suggests that the carotid bodies (1) provide a tonic, facilitory input to the respiratory network, (2) serve as the major site of peripheral O2 chemoreception and minor contributor to CO2/H+ chemoreception, and (3) are required for ventilatory adaptation to high altitude. Each of these roles has been demonstrated in studies of ventilation in mammals after carotid body denervation. Following carotid body denervation, many of the compromised ventilatory "functions" show a time-dependent recovery plasticity that varies in the degree of recovery and time required for recovery. Respiratory plasticity following carotid body denervation is also dependent on species, with contributions from peripheral and central sites/mechanisms driving the respiratory plasticity. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the data pointing to peripheral and central mechanisms of plasticity following carotid body denervation. We speculate that after carotid body denervation there are altered excitatory and/or inhibitory neuromodulator mechanisms that contribute to the initial respiratory depression and the subsequent respiratory plasticity, and further suggest that the continued exploration of central effects of carotid body denervation might provide useful information regarding the capacity of the respiratory network for plasticity following neurologic injury in humans.

  6. Genioglossal inspiratory activation: central respiratory vs mechanoreceptive influences

    OpenAIRE

    Pillar, Giora; Fogel, Robert B.; Malhotra, Atul; Beauregard, Josée; Edwards, Jill K.; Shea, Steven A.; White, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Upper airway dilator muscles are phasically activated during respiration. We assessed the interaction between central respiratory drive and local (mechanoreceptive) influences upon genioglossal (GG) activity throughout inspiration. GGEMG and airway mechanics were measured in 16 awake subjects during baseline spontaneous breathing, increased central respiratory drive (inspiratory resistive loading; IRL), and decreased respiratory drive (hypocapnic negative pressure ventilation), both prior to ...

  7. Respiratory and autonomic dysfunction in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Thiago S; Takakura, Ana C; Czeisler, Catherine; Otero, Jose J

    2016-08-01

    The developmental lineage of the PHOX2B-expressing neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) has been extensively studied. These cells are thought to function as central respiratory chemoreceptors, i.e., the mechanism by which brain Pco2 regulates breathing. The molecular and cellular basis of central respiratory chemoreception is based on the detection of CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4) as well as synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and other brain regions. Murine models of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome designed with PHOX2B mutations have suggested RTN neuron agenesis. In this review, we examine, through human and experimental animal models, how a restricted number of neurons that express the transcription factor PHOX2B play a crucial role in the control of breathing and autonomic regulation. PMID:27226447

  8. Respiratory exposure control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed a new, three-way valve that separates inhaled and exhaled air in systems for inhalation exposure. A single-channel model of the valve was constructed and tested: with a control fluid pressure of 10 psi, the valve was cycled 36,000 times without diaphragm failure. No valve leakage was detected before or after the completion of the test. A 3-channel valve model was constructed this year and will undergo testing in FY 1979, followed by development and testing of the control system

  9. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  10. Remote Control of Respiratory Neural Network by Spinal Locomotor Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gal, Jean-Patrick; Juvin, Laurent; Cardoit, Laura; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Morin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    During exercise and locomotion, breathing rate rapidly increases to meet the suddenly enhanced oxygen demand. The extent to which direct central interactions between the spinal networks controlling locomotion and the brainstem networks controlling breathing are involved in this rhythm modulation remains unknown. Here, we show that in isolated neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations, the increase in respiratory rate observed during fictive locomotion is associated with an increase in t...

  11. Spontaneous autoresuscitation in a model of respiratory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Casey O; Wilson, Christopher G; Thomas, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a closed-loop model of respiratory control incorporating a conductance-based central pattern generator (CPG), low-pass filtering of CPG output by the respiratory musculature, gas exchange in the lung, metabolic oxygen demand, and chemosensation. The CPG incorporates Butera, Rinzel and Smith (BRS)'s (1999) conditional pacemaker model. BRS model cells can support quiescent, bursting, or beating activity depending on the level of excitatory drive; we identify these activity modes with apnea (cessation of breathing), eupnea (normal breathing), and tachypnea (excessively rapid breathing). We demonstrate the coexistence of two dynamically stable behaviors in the closed-loop model, corresponding respectively to eupnea and tachypnea. The latter state represents a novel failure mode within a respiratory control model. In addition, the closed-loop system exhibits a form of autoresuscitation: conductances intrinsic to the BRS model buffer the CPG against brief episodes of hypoxia, steering the system away from catastrophic collapse as can occur with tachypnea. PMID:23367459

  12. Control Measures for Human Respiratory Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lesley; Waterer, Grant

    2016-08-01

    New viral respiratory pathogens are emerging with increasing frequency and have potentially devastating impacts on the population worldwide. Recent examples of newly emerged threats include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Experiences with these pathogens have shown up major deficiencies in how we deal globally with emerging pathogens and taught us salient lessons in what needs to be addressed for future pandemics. This article reviews the lessons learnt from past experience and current knowledge on the range of measures required to limit the impact of emerging respiratory infections from public health responses down to individual patient management. Key areas of interest are surveillance programs, political limitations on our ability to respond quickly enough to emerging threats, media management, public information dissemination, infection control, prophylaxis, and individual patient management. Respiratory physicians have a crucial role to play in many of these areas and need to be aware of how to respond as new viral pathogens emerge. PMID:27486741

  13. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  14. Respiratory control in the glucose perfused heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate metabolites, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are potentially important regulators of mitochondrial respiration in vivo. However, previous studies on the heart in vivo and in vitro have not consistently demonstrated an appropriate correlation between the concentration of these phosphate metabolites and moderate changes in work and respiration. Recently, mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels have been proposed as a potential regulator of cardiac respiration during alterations in work output. In order to understand better the mechanism of respiratory control under these conditions, we investigated the relationship between the phosphate metabolites, the NAD(P)H levels, and oxygen consumption (QO2) in the isovolumic perfused rat heart during alterations in work output with pacing. ATP, creatine phosphate (CrP), Pi and intracellular pH were measured using 31P NMR. Mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels were monitored using spectrofluorometric techniques. 33 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Central control of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  16. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors

  17. Respiratory Control in Stuttering Speakers: Evidence from Respiratory High-Frequency Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Margaret; Smith, Anne

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether stuttering speakers (N=10) differed from fluent speakers in relations between the neural control systems for speech and life support. It concluded that in some stuttering speakers the relations between respiratory controllers are atypical, but that high participation by the high frequency oscillation-producing circuitry…

  18. Two long-lasting central respiratory responses following acute hypoxia in glomectomized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallman, E A; Millhorn, D E

    1988-01-01

    hypoxia. Inhibition is more likely following severe hypoxia. However, both mechanisms appear to be triggered simultaneously and the output of the central respiratory controller reflects the influence of each. PMID:3411481

  19. Depression in chronic respiratory disorders in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer singhal; Pankaj Banode; Nitish Baisakhiya

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence of depression in chronic respiratory disorders in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India. Various studies done in past have shown that prevalence of depression in diabetes and hypertension is around 40%-57%. Few studies have been done to screen depression in chronic respiratory disorders. This study was conducted in a tertiary rural hospital of Central India to find out prevalence of depression in indoor patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders. Methods: Total 68 patients were evaluated for depression. Patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders (total duration of illness >3 months) were evaluated using Prime MD Questionnaire. Patients suffering from diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, having past history of psychiatric illness, drug abusers, having lack of social support and suffering from chronic upper respiratory tract infections were excluded from this study. Questionnaire was asked when treatment for acute phase of illness is over. Results: Out of 68 patients evaluated, 36 (53%) were found out to be suffering from depression. Female gender (80%) was more prone to depression, inspite of the fact that all alcoholics were male. 39% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were suffering from depression in comparison to 65% for pulmonary tuberculosis and 44% for other chronic respiratory illness. 54% of patients suffering from depression are 60 yrs of age, suggesting that age has no relation with depression. No association was seen between alcoholism and depression. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression in patients of chronic respiratory illness is very high, like in cases of diabetes and hypertension. Further community and hospital based studies are needed to find out exact prevalence of depression in chronic respiratory illnesses.

  20. PI3K and MEK1/2 molecular pathways are involved in the erythropoietin-mediated regulation of the central respiratory command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravagna, Céline; Soliz, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    Erythropoietin stimulation modulates the central respiratory command in newborn mice. Specifically, the central respiratory depression induced by hypoxia is attenuated by acute (1h) or abolished by chronic erythropoietin stimulation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. As MEK and PI3K pathways are commonly involved in Epo-mediated effects of neuroprotection and erythropoiesis, we investigated here the implication of PI3K and MEK1/2 in the Epo-mediated regulation of the central respiratory command. To this end, in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations from 3 days old transgenic (Tg21; constitutively overexpressing erythropoietin in the brain specifically) and control mice were used. Our results show that blockade of PI3K or MEK1/2 stimulates normoxic bursts frequency in Tg21 preparations and abolish hypoxia-induced frequency depression in control preparations. These results show that MEK1/2 and PI3K pathways are involved in the Epo-mediated regulation of the central respiratory command. Moreover, this is the first demonstration that MEK1/2 and PI3K are involved in the brainstem central respiratory command. PMID:25462838

  1. Control dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiying; RONG Feng; KE Fujiu; BAI Yilong

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious disease with many puzzling features. We present a simple, dynamic model to assess the epidemic potential of SARS and the effectiveness of control measures. With this model, we analysed the SARS epidemic data in Beijing. The data fitting gives the basic case reproduction number of 2.16 leading to the outbreak, and the variation of the effective reproduction number reflecting the control effect. Noticeably, our study shows that the response time and the strength of control measures have significant effects on the scale of the outbreak and the lasting time of the epidemic.

  2. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway. PMID:26767978

  3. Respiratory virus laboratory pandemic planning an surveillance in central Viet Nam, 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Xuan Mai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laboratory capacity is needed in central Viet Nam to provide early warning to public health authorities of respiratory outbreaks of importance to human health, for example the outbreak of influenza A(H1N1 pandemic in 2009. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR procedures established as part of a capacity-building process were used to conduct prospective respiratory surveillance in a region where few previous studies have been undertaken.Methods: Between October 2008 and September 2010, nose and throat swabs from adults and children (approximately 20 per week presenting with an acute respiratory illness to the Ninh Hoa General Hospital were collected. Same-day PCR testing and result reporting for 13 respiratory viruses were carried out by locally trained scientists.Results: Of 2144 surveillance samples tested, 1235 (57.6% were positive for at least one virus. The most common were influenza A strains (17.9%, with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 and seasonal H3N2 strain accounting for 52% and 43% of these, respectively. Other virus detections included: rhinovirus (12.4%, enterovirus (8.9%, influenza B (8.3%, adenovirus (5.3%, parainfluenza (4.7%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (3.9%, human coronavirus (3.0% and human metapneumovirus (0.3%. The detection rate was greatest in the 0–5 year age group. Viral co-infections were identified in 148 (6.9% cases.Discussion: The outbreak in 2009 of the influenza A(H1N1 pandemic strain provided a practical test of the laboratory’s pandemic plan. This study shows that the availability of appropriate equipment and molecular-based testing can contribute to important individual and public health outcomes in geographical locations susceptible to emerging infections.

  4. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  5. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  6. Central chemoreceptor modulation of breathing via multipath tuning in medullary ventrolateral respiratory column circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mackenzie M; Nuding, Sarah C; Segers, Lauren S; O'Connor, Russell; Morris, Kendall F; Lindsey, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Ventrolateral respiratory column (VRC) circuits that modulate breathing in response to changes in central chemoreceptor drive are incompletely understood. We employed multielectrode arrays and spike train correlation methods to test predictions of the hypothesis that pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) and retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial (RTN-pF) circuits cooperate in chemoreceptor-evoked tuning of ventral respiratory group (VRG) inspiratory neurons. Central chemoreceptors were selectively stimulated by injections of CO(2)-saturated saline into the vertebral artery in seven decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly blocked, and artificially ventilated cats. Among sampled neurons in the Bötzinger complex (BötC)-to-VRG region, 70% (161 of 231) had a significant change in firing rate after chemoreceptor stimulation, as did 70% (101 of 144) of the RTN-pF neurons. Other responsive neurons (24 BötC-VRG; 11 RTN-pF) had a change in the depth of respiratory modulation without a significant change in average firing rate. Seventy BötC-VRG chemoresponsive neurons triggered 189 offset-feature correlograms (96 peaks; 93 troughs) with at least one responsive BötC-VRG cell. Functional input from at least one RTN-pF cell could be inferred for 45 BötC-VRG neurons (19%). Eleven RTN-pF cells were correlated with more than one BötC-VRG target neuron, providing evidence for divergent connectivity. Thirty-seven RTN-pF neurons, 24 of which were chemoresponsive, were correlated with at least one chemoresponsive BötC-VRG neuron. Correlation linkage maps and spike-triggered averages of phrenic nerve signals suggest transmission of chemoreceptor drive via a multipath network architecture: RTN-pF modulation of pre-BötC-VRG rostral-to-caudal excitatory inspiratory neuron chains is tuned by feedforward and recurrent inhibition from other inspiratory neurons and from "tonic" expiratory neurons.

  7. Centralized surveillance and control of satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, S. E.; McBeath, J. W.; Brostrup-Jensen, P.

    Satellite based services and networks are increasing in number. This paper describes how such networks can be operated efficiently using software based systems to do satellite transmission surveillance and remote earth station status, alarm and control monitoring at a centralized operations control center. Arrangements are available to accomplish real time, customer controlled configuration of space segments and earth station equipment. Application of the system elements satellite transmission surveillance, alarm and control central, earth station remote, and customer control terminals - to a number of typical networks is described.

  8. The respiratory-vocal system of songbirds: Anatomy, physiology, and neural control

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Marc F.; Wild, J. Martin

    2014-01-01

    This wide-ranging review presents an overview of the respiratory-vocal system in songbirds, which are the only other vertebrate group known to display a degree of respiratory control during song rivalling that of humans during speech; this despite the fact that the peripheral components of both the respiratory and vocal systems differ substantially in the two groups. We first provide a brief description of these peripheral components in songbirds (lungs, air sacs and respiratory muscles, voca...

  9. Risk factors of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar M. Taksande

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries in children especially in under-fives. Every year in the world, about 13 million under-5 children dies, 95% from developing countries; one third of total deaths are due to ARI. The aim of this study was to identify the significant risk factors for ARI in children less than five years of age living in rural areas of Central India.Methods: A hospital based case control study was undertaken to determine risk factors associated with respiratory tract infections in children. Children less than 5 years admitted in a pediatric ward with diagnosis of ARI were enrolled in the study as cases (n = 300 while the same number of controls (n = 300 were selected from neighborhood and were matched for age, sex and religion. Details of risk factors in cases and controls were recorded in pre-designed proforma. Results: A significant association was found between ARI and lack of breastfeeding, nutritional status, immunization status, delayed weaning, prelactal feeding, living in overcrowded conditions, mothers’ literacy status, low birth weight and prematurity. Among the environmental variables, inadequate ventilation, improper housing condition, exposure to indoor air pollution in form of combustion from fuel used for cooking were found as significant risk factors for ARI in under-fives.Conclusions: ARIs are affected by socio-demographic and socio-cultural risk factors, which can be modified with simple interventions. The various risk factors identified in this study were lack of breastfeeding, undernutrition, delayed weaning, overcrowding and prelactal feeding.

  10. Comparative Study of pressure-control ventilation and volume-control ventilation in treating traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 黄卫东; 沈美亚; 徐哲荣

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect and side effect of pressure-control ventilation (PCV) on traumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) compared with volume-control ventilation (VCV).Methods: Forty patients with traumatic ARDS were hospitalized in our department from June 1996 to December 2002. Twenty were treated with PCV (PCV group) and 20 with VCV (VCV group). The changes of the peak inflating pressure and the mean pressure of the airway were observed at the very beginning of the mechanical ventilation and the following 12 and 24 hours, respectively. The transcutaneous saturation of oxygen pressure, the pressure of oxygen in artery, the mean blood pressure, the central venous pressure, the heart rate and the incidence of the pressure injury were also monitored before ventilation and 12 hours after ventilation.Results: The pressure of oxygen in artery, the transcutaneous saturation of oxygen pressure, the heart rate and the respiratory rate in the PCV group were obviously improved after ventilation treatment. The peak inflating pressure, the mean pressure of the airway and the central venous pressure in the PCV group were lower than in the VCV group. The incidence of pressure injury was 0 in the PCV group while 10% in the VCV group. Conclusions: The clinical effect of PCV on traumatic ARDS is better and the incidence rate of pressure injury is lower than that of VCV. PCV has minimal effects on the hemodynamics.

  11. Approaches to the control of respiratory virus diseases*

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Viruses of various biological types are known to cause a wide range of acute respiratory infections, ranging from mild colds and catarrh to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Bacteria also cause respiratory diseases including serious conditions such as otitis media and pneumonia. The whole situation is complex and to understand the epidemiology we also need to consider nutrition, environment, climate, and chronic diseases. Acute respiratory viral diseases are very common in all areas of the ...

  12. Central neural control of the cardiovascular system: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, Roger A L

    2016-09-01

    This brief review, which is based on a lecture presented at the American Physiological Society Teaching Refresher Course on the Brain and Systems Control as part of the Experimental Biology meeting in 2015, aims to summarize current concepts of the principal mechanisms in the brain that regulate the autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular system. Such cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms do not operate in isolation but are closely coordinated with respiratory and other regulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. The brain regulates the cardiovascular system by two general means: 1) feedforward regulation, often referred to as "central command," and 2) feedback or reflex regulation. In most situations (e.g., during exercise, defensive behavior, sleep, etc.), both of these general mechanisms contribute to overall cardiovascular homeostasis. The review first describes the mechanisms and central circuitry subserving the baroreceptor, chemoreceptor, and other reflexes that work together to regulate an appropriate level of blood pressure and blood oxygenation and then considers the brain mechanisms that defend the body against more complex environmental challenges, using dehydration and cold and heat stress as examples. The last section of the review considers the central mechanisms regulating cardiovascular function associated with different behaviors, with a specific focus on defensive behavior and exercise. PMID:27445275

  13. Central chemoreceptors and neural mechanisms of cardiorespiratory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Moreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The arterial partial pressure (P CO2 of carbon dioxide is virtually constant because of the close match between the metabolic production of this gas and its excretion via breathing. Blood gas homeostasis does not rely solely on changes in lung ventilation, but also to a considerable extent on circulatory adjustments that regulate the transport of CO2 from its sites of production to the lungs. The neural mechanisms that coordinate circulatory and ventilatory changes to achieve blood gas homeostasis are the subject of this review. Emphasis will be placed on the control of sympathetic outflow by central chemoreceptors. High levels of CO2 exert an excitatory effect on sympathetic outflow that is mediated by specialized chemoreceptors such as the neurons located in the retrotrapezoid region. In addition, high CO2 causes an aversive awareness in conscious animals, activating wake-promoting pathways such as the noradrenergic neurons. These neuronal groups, which may also be directly activated by brain acidification, have projections that contribute to the CO2-induced rise in breathing and sympathetic outflow. However, since the level of activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus is regulated by converging inputs from wake-promoting systems, behavior-specific inputs from higher centers and by chemical drive, the main focus of the present manuscript is to review the contribution of central chemoreceptors to the control of autonomic and respiratory mechanisms.

  14. Structural controllability and controlling centrality of temporal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yujian; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Temporal networks are such networks where nodes and interactions may appear and disappear at various time scales. With the evidence of ubiquity of temporal networks in our economy, nature and society, it's urgent and significant to focus on its structural controllability as well as the corresponding characteristics, which nowadays is still an untouched topic. We develop graphic tools to study the structural controllability as well as its characteristics, identifying the intrinsic mechanism of the ability of individuals in controlling a dynamic and large-scale temporal network. Classifying temporal trees of a temporal network into different types, we give (both upper and lower) analytical bounds of the controlling centrality, which are verified by numerical simulations of both artificial and empirical temporal networks. We find that the positive relationship between aggregated degree and controlling centrality as well as the scale-free distribution of node's controlling centrality are virtually independent of the time scale and types of datasets, meaning the inherent robustness and heterogeneity of the controlling centrality of nodes within temporal networks. PMID:24747676

  15. Central origin of respiratory arrest in beta-blocker intoxication in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langemeijer, J.J.M.; Wildt, D.J. de; Groot, G. de; Sangster, B.

    1987-01-01

    Propranolol HCl (7.5 mg·kg−1), timolol maleate (7.0 mg·kg−1), and sotalol HCl (10 mg·kg−1) were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) to spontaneously breathing (SB) rats. The respiratory rate declined until the rats all died from respiratory arrest. Artificial ventilation resulted in surviva

  16. Central origin of respiratory arrest in beta-blocker intoxication in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Langemeijer, J.J.M.; de Wildt, D J; de Groot, G.; Sangster, B.

    1987-01-01

    Propranolol HCl (7.5 mg·kg−1), timolol maleate (7.0 mg·kg−1), and sotalol HCl (10 mg·kg−1) were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) to spontaneously breathing (SB) rats. The respiratory rate declined until the rats all died from respiratory arrest. Artificial ventilation resulted in survival of the rats for a 3-hr observation period. Intravenous (iv) administration of the same doses of the three beta blockers to SB rats did not result in either respiratory depression or death. Except...

  17. Cost of surfactant replacement treatment for severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Tubman, T. R.; Halliday, H. L.; Normand, C

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate the cost of treating babies with severe respiratory distress syndrome with natural porcine surfactant. DESIGN--Retrospective controlled survey. SETTING--Regional neonatal intensive care unit, Belfast. PATIENTS--33 Preterm babies with severe respiratory distress syndrome who were enrolled in a European multicentre trial during 1985-7. 19 Babies were treated with surfactant and 14 served as controls. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with natural porcine surfactant. MAIN OUTCOME M...

  18. Complexity measures of the central respiratory networks during wakefulness and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Andrei; Akay, Yasemin; Curran, Aidan K.; Akay, Metin

    2008-06-01

    Since sleep is known to influence respiratory activity we studied whether the sleep state would affect the complexity value of the respiratory network output. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the complexity values of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) activity would be lower during REM compared to NREM. Furthermore, since REM is primarily generated by a homogeneous population of neurons in the medulla, the possibility that REM-related respiratory output would be less complex than that of the awake state was also considered. Additionally, in order to examine the influence of neuron vulnerabilities within the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) on the complexity of the respiratory network output, we inhibited respiratory neurons in the RVM by microdialysis of GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. Diaphragm EMG, nuchal EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) were recorded from five unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets (3-10 days old). Complexity of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) signal during wakefulness, NREM and REM was evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn). ApEn values of the EMGdia during NREM and REM sleep were found significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) lower than those of awake EMGdia after muscimol inhibition. In the absence of muscimol, only the differences between REM and wakefulness ApEn values were found to be significantly different.

  19. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Infection Control and Prevention Guideline for Healthcare Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Yong; Song, Joon Young; Yoon, Young Kyung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Song, Young Goo; Kim, Sung-Ran; Son, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Sun-Young; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Tae Hyong; Choi, Young Hwa; Kim, Hong Bin

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute viral respiratory illness with high mortality caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since the report of the first patient in Saudi Arabia in 2012, large-scale outbreaks through hospital-acquired infection and inter-hospital transmission have been reported. Most of the patients reported in South Korea were also infected in hospital settings. Therefore, to eliminate the spread of MERS-CoV, infection prevention and control measu...

  1. Early respiratory management of respiratory distress syndrome in very preterm infants and bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan B Te Pas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the period immediately after birth, preterm infants are highly susceptible to lung injury. Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (ENCPAP is an attempt to avoid intubation and may minimize lung injury. In contrast, ENCPAP can fail, and at that time surfactant rescue can be less effective. OBJECTIVE: To compare the pulmonary clinical course and outcome of very preterm infants (gestational age 25-32 weeks with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS who started with ENCPAP and failed (ECF group, with a control group of infants matched for gestational age, who were directly intubated in the delivery room (DRI group. Primary outcome consisted of death during admission or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. RESULTS: 25 infants were included in the ECF group and 50 control infants matched for gestational age were included in the DRI group. Mean gestational age and birth weight in the ECF group were 29.7 weeks and 1,393 g and in the DRI group 29.1 weeks and 1,261 g (p = NS. The incidence of BPD was significantly lower in the ECF group than in the DRI group (4% vs. 35%; P<0.004; OR 12.6 (95% CI 1.6-101. Neonatal mortality was similar in both groups (4%. The incidence of neonatal morbidities such as severe cerebral injury, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity, was not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A trial of ENCPAP at birth may reduce the incidence of BPD and does not seem to be detrimental in very preterm infants. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether early respiratory management of preterm infants with RDS plays an important role in the development of BPD.

  2. Fast oscillations during gasping and other non-eupneic respiratory behaviors: Clues to central pattern generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghali, Michael George Zaki; Marchenko, Vitaliy

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian nervous system exhibits fast synchronous oscillations, which are especially prominent in respiratory-related nerve discharges. In the phrenic nerve, they include high- (HFO), medium- (MFO), and low-frequency (LFO) oscillations. Because motoneurons firing at HFO-related frequencies had never been recorded, an epiphenomenological mechanism for their existence had been posited. We have recently recorded phrenic motoneurons firing at HFO-related frequencies in unanesthetized decereb...

  3. Central neural mechanisms of progesterone action: application to the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E

    1992-08-01

    Around the turn of the century, it was recognized that women hyperventilate during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Although a causative role for the steroid hormone progesterone in this hyperventilation was suggested as early as the 1940s, there has been no clear indication as to the mechanism by which it produces its respiratory effects. In contrast, much mechanistic information has been obtained over the same period about a different effect of progesterone, i.e., the facilitation of reproductive behaviors. In this case, the bulk of the evidence supports the hypothesis that progesterone acts via a genomic mechanism with characteristics not unlike those predicted by classic models for steroid hormone action. We recently, therefore, undertook a series of experiments to test predictions of those same models with reference to the respiratory effects of progesterone. Here we highlight the results of those studies; as background to and precedent for our experiments, we briefly review previous work in which effects of progesterone on respiration and reproductive behaviors have been studied. Our results indicate that the respiratory response to progesterone is mediated at hypothalamic sites through an estrogen- (E2) dependent progesterone receptor- (PR) mediated mechanism requiring RNA and protein synthesis, i.e., gene expression. The E2 dependence of the respiratory response to progesterone is likely a consequence of the demonstrated induction of PR mRNA and PR in hypothalamic neurons by E2. In short, we found that neural mechanisms underlying the stimulation of respiration by progesterone were similar to those mediating its reproductive effects. PMID:1399957

  4. A computer-controlled pump and realistic anthropomorphic respiratory phantom for validating image-guided systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ralph; Wilson, Emmanuel; Tang, Jonathan; Stoianovici, Dan; Cleary, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    The development of image-guided interventions requires validation studies to evaluate new protocols. So far, these validation studies have been limited to animal models and to software and physical phantoms that simulate respiratory motion but cannot accommodate needle punctures in a realistic manner. We have built a computer-controlled pump that drives an anthropomorphic respiratory phantom for simulating natural breathing patterns. This pump consists of a power supply, a motion controller with servo amplifier, linear actuator, and custom fabricated pump assembly. By generating several sample waveforms, we were able to simulate typical breathing patterns. Using this pump, we were able to produce chest wall movements similar to typical chest wall movements observed in humans. This system has potential applications for evaluating new respiratory compensation algorithms and may facilitate improved testing of image-guided protocols under realistic interventional conditions.

  5. Chronic intermittent hypoxia creates the perfect storm with calamitous consequences for respiratory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Ken D

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common respiratory disorder with devastating consequences for integrative body systems. A picture is emerging to illustrate wide-ranging deleterious consequences of disordered breathing during sleep for major homeostatic control systems, with considerable interest in cardiorespiratory and autonomic morbidity underpinning the development of hypertension. The vista is bleak when one also considers the link between OSAS and a host of other maladies. Exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), resulting from repeated obstructions of the pharyngeal airway, is a hallmark feature of OSAS that appears, in animal models, to drive the development and maintenance of several key morbidities. A growing body of evidence now points to aberrant respiratory plasticity at multiple levels following exposure to CIH. Herein, we review the experimental data revealing that CIH causes: respiratory muscle weakness and fatigue; impaired motor control of the upper airway; and, discordant respiratory rhythm and pattern generation. This multifaceted conspiracy creates the perfect storm with the potential to exacerbate OSAS-serving to establish an inescapable cycle of respiratory morbidity. Several pharmacological interventions in animal models appear wholly effective in preventing the calamitous consequences of CIH and may have application as adjunctive therapies in the treatment of OSAS. PMID:26528897

  6. Polymorphisms in genes of respiratory control and sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läer, Katharina; Dörk, Thilo; Vennemann, Marielle; Rothämel, Thomas; Klintschar, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a multifactorial syndrome and assumingly, among other mechanisms, a deficit in respiratory control leads to a failure of arousal and autoresuscitation when the child is challenged by a stressful homeostatic event, e.g., hypoxia. We hypothesize that genetic polymorphisms involved in respiratory control mediated in the medulla oblongata contribute to SIDS. Therefore, a total of 366 SIDS cases and 421 controls were genotyped for 48 SNPs in 41 candidate genes. Genotyping was performed using Fluidigm nanofluidic technology. Results were obtained for 356 SIDS and 406 controls and 38 SNPs. After correction for multiple testing, one SNP retained a nominally significant association with seasonal SIDS: rs1801030 in the phenol sulfotransferase 1A1 gene (subgroup: death occurring during summer). A borderline association could be also observed for rs563649 in the opioid receptor μ1 gene in a recessive model (subgroup: death occurring during autumn). As a conclusion, although these data suggest two SNPs to be associated with different subgroups of SIDS cases, none of them can fully explain the SIDS condition, consistent with its multifactorial etiology. Given the great complexity of respiratory control and our initial findings reported here, we believe it is worthwhile to further investigate genes involved in the respiratory system. PMID:26198620

  7. Respiratory dysfunction associated with traumatic injury to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R S; Shucart, W

    1994-12-01

    Pulmonary dysfunction is a common complication of head trauma and spinal cord injury. Abnormal breathing patterns reflect the influence of altered neural integration. Early arterial hypoxemia can result from ventilation-perfusion mismatching, microatelectasis, aspiration, fat embolism, or the development of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Significant changes in lung volumes, ventilation, and gas exchange can occur in spinal cord injury as a result of the loss of diaphramatic or intercostal muscle function. Recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles plays an important role in stabilizing the rib cage and improving expiratory function. Strength training improves expiratory muscle function in quadriplegics and should be continued indefinitely. Most importantly, survival of patients with CNS injuries improves with meticulous and vigorous pulmonary hygiene. The pulmonary hygiene program should include regular changes in the patient's position, assisted coughing and deep breathing exercises, incentive spirometer, bronchodilators, fiberoptic bronchoscopy when indicated, and frequent monitoring of pulmonary mechanics. Long-term survival of the patient with head trauma or spinal cord injury is correlated to successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. Various forms of mechanical ventilator support can be adopted for the patient's ventilatory needs, and many patients will achieve some degree of freedom from mechanical ventilation. Newer ventilatory assist devices that do not require tracheostomy should be considered. PMID:7867288

  8. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  9. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses Era Tuladhar Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks occur often in hospitals

  10. Randomised controlled trial of respiratory system compliance measurements in mechanically ventilated neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Stenson, B.; Glover, R.; Wilkie, R; Laing, I; TARNOW-MORDI, W

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To determine whether outcomes of neonatal mechanical ventilation could be improved by regular pulmonary function testing.
METHODS—Two hundred and forty five neonates, without immediately life threatening congenital malformations, were mechanically ventilated in the newborn period. Infants were randomly allocated to conventional clinical management (control group) or conventional management supplemented by regular measurements of static respiratory system compliance, usin...

  11. Inhibitory control of ascending glutamatergic projections to the lamprey respiratory rhythm generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Mutolo, Donatella; Contini, Massimo; Pantaleo, Tito; Bongianni, Fulvia

    2016-06-21

    Neurons within the vagal motoneuron region of the lamprey have been shown to modulate respiratory activity via ascending excitatory projections to the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory rhythm generator. The present study was performed on in vitro brainstem preparations of the lamprey to provide a characterization of ascending projections within the whole respiratory motoneuron column with regard to the distribution of neurons projecting to the pTRG and related neurochemical markers. Injections of Neurobiotin were performed into the pTRG and the presence of glutamate, GABA and glycine immunoreactivity was investigated by double-labeling experiments. Interestingly, retrogradely labeled neurons were found not only in the vagal region, but also in the facial and glossopharyngeal motoneuron regions. They were also present within the sensory octavolateral area (OLA). The results show for the first time that neurons projecting to the pTRG are immunoreactive for glutamate, surrounded by GABA-immunoreactive structures and associated with the presence of glycinergic cells. Consistently, GABAA or glycine receptor blockade within the investigated regions increased the respiratory frequency. Furthermore, microinjections of agonists and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors and of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol showed that OLA neurons do not contribute to respiratory rhythm generation. The results provide evidence that glutamatergic ascending pathways to the pTRG are subject to a potent inhibitory control and suggest that disinhibition is one important mechanism subserving their function. The general characteristics of inhibitory control involved in rhythmic activities, such as respiration, appear to be highly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:27058146

  12. Control of Respiratory Motion by Hypnosis Intervention during Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongmao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertain position of lung tumor during radiotherapy compromises the treatment effect. To effectively control respiratory motion during radiotherapy of lung cancer without any side effects, a novel control scheme, hypnosis, has been introduced in lung cancer treatment. In order to verify the suggested method, six volunteers were selected with a wide range of distribution of age, weight, and chest circumference. A set of experiments have been conducted for each volunteer, under the guidance of the professional hypnotist. All the experiments were repeated in the same environmental condition. The amplitude of respiration has been recorded under the normal state and hypnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the respiration motion of volunteers in hypnosis has smaller and more stable amplitudes than in normal state. That implies that the hypnosis intervention can be an alternative way for respiratory control, which can effectively reduce the respiratory amplitude and increase the stability of respiratory cycle. The proposed method will find useful application in image-guided radiotherapy.

  13. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  14. Health Instruction Packages: Respiratory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, Margot; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach respiratory therapy students a variety of job-related skills. The first module, "Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Controls of Respiration" by Margot Lavich, describes the functions of the five centers of the brain that control respiration and identifies…

  15. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  16. Centralized Stochastic Optimal Control of Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV operation as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  17. Central control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the central nervous system which responds to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate BAT sympathetic nerve activity. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates BAT thermogenesis and includes the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature during fever. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors, through second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ascends to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of BAT thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus activates BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the rostral raphe pallidus, which provide excitatory, and possibly disinhibitory, inputs to spinal sympathetic circuits to drive BAT thermogenesis. Other recently recognized central sites influencing BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure are also described.

  18. Effect of mechanical pressure-controlled ventilation in patients with disturbed respiratory function during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurbatović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard for laparoscopic surgical procedures. In ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases, however, creation of pneumoperitoneum and the position of patients during surgery exert additional negative effect on intraoperative respiratory function, thus making a higher challenge for the anesthesiologist than for the surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV and pressure controlled ventilation (PCV during general anesthesia on respiratory function in ASA III patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. The study included 60 patients randomized into two groups depending on the mode of ventilation: IPPV or PCV. Respiratory volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, compliance (C, end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2, oxygen saturation (SpO2, partial pressures of O2, CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2 and pH of arterial blood were recorded within four time intervals. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in VT, SpO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values neither within nor between the two groups. In time interval t1 there were no statistically significant differences in PIP, C, PETCO2 values between the IPPV and the PCV group. But, in the next three time intervals there was a difference in PIP, C, and PETCO2 values between the two groups which ranged from statistically significant to highly significant; PIP was lower, C and PETCO2 were higher in the PCV group. Conclusion. Pressure controlled ventilation better maintains stability regarding intraoperative ventilatory parameters in ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  19. Ripening and in vitro retention of respiratory control by avocado and pear mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelkök, S I; Romani, R J

    1975-08-01

    The retention of respiratory control ("survival") by mitochondria held at 25 C was studied in relation to the ripening of two varieties of avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. ;Fuerte' and ;Hass') and one variety of pear (Pyrus communis. L. var. ;Bartlett') fruit. The survival of avocado mitochondria increased from 8 to 10 hours when isolated from unripe, preclimacteric fruit, to 48 hours when isolated from fully ripe, postclimacteric fruits. Although rates of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation, respiratory control, and ADP/O decreased somewhat in the postclimacteric phase, survival per se was not affected. Pear mitochondria survived for more than 30 hours regardless of the physiological age of the source.Exposure of postclimacteric avocado mitochondria to a preclimacteric supernatant fraction curtailed their survival. The harmful effect of some unknown substance(s) in the preclimacteric avocado supernatant fraction was confirmed by utilizing pear mitochondria as an independent test system.

  20. Central control of body temperature [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis.

  1. Impairment of the baroreflex control of human respiratory resistance with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafil-Klawe M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism responsible for the central baroreflex resetting with age are an area of limited knowledge. We previously demonstrated that in subjects aged above 50 the airway resistance did not change in response to baroreceptor activation, whereas in younger volunteers the airway resistance significantly decreased. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of carotid baroreceptor inactivation on the reflex change of respiratory resistance, in the course of aging. Materials and methods 80 healthy men, divided in four groups: aged 20-30 (Group I, 31-40 (Group II, 41-50 (Group III, and 51-60 (Group IV were included in the study. The selective inactivation of carotid baroreceptors was induced by generating a positive pressure of 40 mmHg for 5 s in two capsules placed bilaterally on the neck over the bifurcation of the carotid arteries. The oscillatory method (Siregnost FD5, Siemens was used to measure continuously respiratory resistance. Results Inactivation of carotid baroreceptors produced a short increase in respiratory resistance by 0.38 ± 0.01SE mbar/l/s, i.e., 21.7% above the resting level in Group I and by 0.25 ± 0.01 mbar/l/s in Group II. In the two older groups (III and IV respiratory resistance did not change in response to baroreceptors inactivation. Conclusions In humans aged above 40, carotid baroreceptors do not contribute to bronchodilator tone, which causes imbalance between the activities of upper airway and chest wall inspiratory muscles leading to a collapsing effect on the upper airway.

  2. Central Circadian Control of Female Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke H Miller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, it has become clear just how much of our physiology is under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and the cell-intrinsic molecular clock that ticks with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours. The SCN prepares our digestive system for meals, our adrenal axis for the stress of waking up in the morning, and the genes expressed in our muscles when we prepare to exercise, Long before molecular studies of genes such as Clock, Bmal1, and the Per homologs were possible, it was obvious that female reproductive function was under strict circadian control at every level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, and in the establishment and successful maintenance of pregnancy. This review highlights our current understanding of the role that the SCN plays in regulating female reproductive physiology, with a special emphasis on the advances made possible through the use of circadian mutant mice.

  3. Respiratory and Cardiovascular Response during Electronic Control Device Exposure in Law Enforcement Trainees

    OpenAIRE

    KirstenM.VanMeenen; MichaelT.Bergen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs). Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23) were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26®) as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous wav...

  4. Control of electron transport routes through redox-regulated redistribution of respiratory complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu-Ning; Samantha J Bryan; Huang, Fang; Yu, Jianfeng; Nixon, Peter J.; Rich, Peter R.; Mullineaux, Conrad W.

    2012-01-01

    In cyanobacteria, respiratory electron transport takes place in close proximity to photosynthetic electron transport, because the complexes required for both processes are located within the thylakoid membranes. The balance of electron transport routes is crucial for cell physiology, yet the factors that control the predominance of particular pathways are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of tagging with green fluorescent protein and confocal fluorescence microscopy in live cells o...

  5. The Wurst protein: A novel endocytosis regulator involved in airway clearance and respiratory tube size control

    OpenAIRE

    Wingen, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Anna C; Stümpges, Birgit; Hoch, Michael; Behr, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian lung and the Drosophila airways are composed of an intricate network of epithelial tubes that transports fluids or gases and converts during late embryogenesis from liquid- to air-filling. Conserved growth factor pathways have been characterized in model organisms such as Drosophila or the mouse that control patterning and branching of tubular networks. In contrast, knowledge of the coordination of respiratory tube size and physiology is still limited. Latest studies have shown ...

  6. Noninvasive Ventilation for Preterm Twin Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Long Chen; Li Wang; Jie Li; Nan Wang; Yuan Shi

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation has been proven to be effective strategies for reducing the need for endotracheal ventilation in preterm infant with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), however the best option needs to be further determined. A single center, paired design, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between Jan 2011 and July 2014. Preterm twins with RDS were included. One of a pair was randomized to NIPPV, while another to NCPAP. Surfactant was administrated as rescue treatment. The p...

  7. Assessment and Management of Patients with Chronic Cough by Certified Respiratory Educators: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K Field

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The value of other health care professionals is increasingly being recognized to compensate for the shortage of physicians in Canada. Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for consultation with a respirologist. In the present study, a prospective, randomized, controlled study was undertaken to determine whether Certified Respiratory Educators (CREs could manage screened patients with chronic cough as effectively as respirologists.

  8. Centralized and decentralized network control structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hock, G.; Motl, G.

    1983-03-01

    Network control systems are aids for network operation resulting from take-over, transport and distribution of the electric power generated in power plants. In order to achieve this, the energy used by the consumers must be generated and supplied at the very moment of demand. From this objective the network structure in the Federal Republic of Germany, which in principle is also valid for other contries comparable in infrastructure, has developed.

  9. Assessment of a strategy for the control of respiratory diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Julio Cesar Rodrigues

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A programme for the control of respiratory diseases in children was conceived for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, in 1986. Its progress thereafter and the epidemiology of the diseases concerned are examined. Apart from an inquiry into the 64 existing State local health authorities, a sample of 18,255 cases of children assisted by the programme at different levels, including both in-patient and outpatient care, is analysed. Each case record included information about identification (child, doctor and health facility, reasons for calling, diagnoses made and outcome of treatment. Further data were also sought from hospitals and from State mortality records. The programme was found to be poorly implemented in the State but, where implemented, it showed itself capable of resolving problems (only 0.5% of the cases could not be handled as also of changing ongoing trends (more than 50% reduction in hospital admission rates. Individual assessment of each item of the programme indicated its bottlenecks. Regarding the epidemiology of respiratory diseases, it is observed that the major burden to health services comes from children aged less than five, and that the most important diseases are wheezing illnesses and pneumonia. Morevoer, they were found to be significantly associated (p = 0.000 so that a child in the community presenting wheezing diseases is 5 times more likely to develop pneumonia than a child with any other respiratory diagnosis. Similarly, among the under five deaths it was found that the risk for pneumonia is 3 times greater for children who died presenting wheezing diseases than it is for children with any other sort of diagnosis. In conclusion, the programme is deemed to be efficient and effective but its efficacy is marred by administrative flaws. The successful control of respiratory problems in childhood is related to a proper appreciation of the importance of wheezing diseases.

  10. Respiratory syncytial virus outbreak in neonatal intensive care unit: Impact of infection control measures plus palivizumab use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Camila de A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV outbreak in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU is related to unfavorable outcomes, as this infection can lead to respiratory distress and death in premature in infants. Report the successful control of an outbreak that occurred in April 2010 in a NICU. Methods After the index case, of 18 premature infants placed in the same room 10 infants were infected. Of those 10, 6 developed mild to moderate respiratory symptoms, 4 persisted asymptomatic and no death occurred. Contact and respiratory precautions were rapidly initiated, the infants were cohorted in 3 different rooms and palivizumab was administered to all contacts. Results The outbreak was controlled and no new cases were subsequently indentified. Conclusion Standard infection control measures plus palivizumab prophylaxis were efficient in rapid control of the outbreak.

  11. ACTH and. cap alpha. -melanotropin in central temperature control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, J.M.; Glyn, J.R.; Zimmer, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and ..cap alpha..-melanotropin (..cap alpha..-MSH) occur in brain tissue known to be important to temperature control. These peptides cause hypothermia if they are injected centrally in sufficient doses, but they do not act on the central set point of temperature control. Instead they appear to inhibit central pathways for heat conservation and production. In addition to their hypothermic capability, these peptides are antipyretic when given centrally in doses that have no effect on normal body temperature. ACTH has previously been associated with fever reduction in both clinical and experimental studies, and it may be that endogenous central ACTH is important for limitation of maximal fever. The hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH do not depend on stimulation of the adrenal cortex because they are also observed in adrenalectomized rabbits. Nor is the antipyretic effect limited to the rabbit inasmuch as a comparable effect has been demonstrated in the squirrel monkey. The two peptides may be involved in central mediation of normal thermoregulation and fever, perhaps limiting the febrile response and other rises in body temperature by acting as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in central thermoregulatory pathways.

  12. Peripheral chemoreceptors determine the respiratory sensitivity of central chemoreceptors to CO2 : role of carotid body CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Curtis A; Blain, Grégory M; Henderson, Kathleen S; Dempsey, Jerome A

    2015-09-15

    We asked if the type of carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor stimulus influenced the ventilatory gain of the central chemoreceptors to CO2 . The effect of CB normoxic hypocapnia, normocapnia and hypercapnia (carotid body PCO2 ≈ 22, 41 and 68 mmHg, respectively) on the ventilatory CO2 sensitivity of central chemoreceptors was studied in seven awake dogs with vascularly-isolated and extracorporeally-perfused CBs. Chemosensitivity with one CB was similar to that in intact dogs. In four CB-denervated dogs, absence of hyper-/hypoventilatory responses to CB perfusion with PCO2 of 19-75 mmHg confirmed separation of the perfused CB circulation from the brain. The group mean central CO2 response slopes were increased 303% for minute ventilation (V̇I)(P ≤ 0.01) and 251% for mean inspiratory flow rate (VT /TI ) (P ≤ 0.05) when the CB was hypercapnic vs. hypocapnic; central CO2 response slopes for tidal volume (VT ), breathing frequency (fb ) and rate of rise of the diaphragm EMG increased in 6 of 7 animals but the group mean changes did not reach statistical significance. Group mean central CO2 response slopes were also increased 237% for V̇I(P ≤ 0.01) and 249% for VT /TI (P ≤ 0.05) when the CB was normocapnic vs. hypocapnic, but no significant differences in any of the central ventilatory response indices were found between CB normocapnia and hypercapnia. These hyperadditive effects of CB hyper-/hypocapnia agree with previous findings using CB hyper-/hypoxia.We propose that hyperaddition is the dominant form of chemoreceptor interaction in quiet wakefulness when the chemosensory control system is intact, response gains physiological, and carotid body chemoreceptors are driven by a wide range of O2 and/or CO2 .

  13. The impulse influence function for de-centralized control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wanxie

    2004-01-01

    Impulse influence matrix function is introduced based on that the de-centralized control analysis is analogous to the sub-structural analysis in structural mechanics. The static sub-structural analysis is analogous to the usual de-centralized control, whereas the dynamic sub-structural analysis corresponds to the de-centralized control theory. The reciprocal symmetry for the impulse influence matrix function is proved, and is solved by the precise integration method for time invariant system, giving the results up to computer precision. Based on the impulse influence functions of subsystems, the combination of subsystems can lead to a set of integral equations and be solved numerically. Numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.

  14. Short-lived isotopes in central chemical control of ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central chemical ventilatory drive is dependent on elecrolyte and acid-base status of brain ECF, as well as the interaction between H+ metabolism and CO2 fixation and metabolism of amino acid neutrotransmitters - GABA and glutamate. In the anesthetized dogs, using the short-lived positron emitting isotope of carbon (11C) either in the form of molecular CO2 or as HCO3- injected intraarterially it was demonstrated that there is first pass uptake of 16% of HCO3- from blood into brain and 86% uptake of molecular CO2, thus indicating that the brain-blood barrier is permeable to HCO3-, but that HCO3- content in the CNS is regulated as a function of dissociation of strong ions such as Cl- and Na+. Relationship between CO2 fixations and brain glutamine was studied with intraarterial injection of 13N-ammonia and its turnover into glutamine when PCO2 was increased. Ammonia turnover into glutamine was increased by a factor of 2 when PaCO2 was increased by 35 torr, and this rise in glutamine was linearly related to the rise in CSF [HCO3-]. Glutamine is then converted into the active neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate. Thus, the short-lived isotopes allow for assessment of the interaction of biochemical events in the CNS in the central respiratory drive. (orig.)

  15. Correspondence: risk factors of acute respiratory infection in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India – Authors’ reply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Taksande

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor,We thank the authors for their interest and comments on our paper. They have raised some very valid points. This corrispondence refers to the following article:Taksande AM, Yeole M. Risk factors of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2016;5(1:e050105. doi: 10.7363/050105 br />Comments can be found in the following article:Mandal A, Sahi PK. Correspondence: risk factors of acute respiratory infection in under-fives in a rural hospital of Central India. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2016;5(2:e050207. doi: 10.7363/050207

  16. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  17. VITAMIN E AND RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AMONG ELDERLY NURSING HOME RESIDENTS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Leka, Lynette S.; Fine, Basil C.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Keusch, Gerald T.; Singh, Maria Fiatarone; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2008-01-01

    Context Respiratory infections are prevalent in the elderly, resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and utilization of health care services. Vitamin E supplementation has been shown to improve immune response in the elderly. However, the clinical importance of these findings has not been determined. Objective To investigate the effect of 1-year vitamin E supplementation on respiratory infections in elderly nursing home residents Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 1998 to August 2001 Setting 33 long-term care facilities in the Boston, Massachusetts area Participants 617 subjects ≥65 years old, who met the study’s eligibility criteria were enrolled, 73% of whom completed the study. The follow-up time (mean ± SD) was 317±104 and 321±97 days, E and placebo respectively, for all subjects enrolled in the study. Intervention A daily vitamin E (200 IU) or placebo capsule; all subjects received a capsule containing 1/2 the Recommended Daily Allowance of essential vitamins and minerals. Main Outcome Measures Incidence, number of subjects and number of days with respiratory infections (upper and lower), and number of new antibiotic prescriptions. Results There was no statistically significant effect of vitamin E on incidence or number of days with infection for all, upper, or lower respiratory infections. However, fewer vitamin E-supplemented subjects acquired one or more respiratory infections (65% vs 74%, risk ratio=0.88, 95% CI=0.75–0.99, p=0.036 for completed subjects; 60% vs 68%, risk ratio=0.88, 95% CI=0.76–1.00, p=0.048 for all subjects), or upper respiratory infections (50% vs 62%, risk ratio = 0.81, 95% CI=0.66–0.96, p=0.013 for completed subjects; 44% vs 52%, risk ratio=0.84, 95% CI=0.69–1.00, p=0.051 for all subjects). Post hoc sub-group analysis on common colds indicated that the vitamin E group had a lower incidence of common cold (0.66 vs 0.83 per subject-year, rate ratio=0.80, 95% CI=0.64–0

  18. A respiratory chain controlled signal transduction cascade in the mitochondrial intermembrane space mediates hydrogen peroxide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Heide Christine; Gerbeth, Carolin; Thiru, Prathapan; Vögtle, Nora F; Knoll, Marko; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Huang, Cher X; Harden, Mark Michael; Song, Rui; Chen, Cynthia; Kao, Jennifer; Shi, Jiahai; Salmon, Wendy; Shaul, Yoav D; Stokes, Matthew P; Silva, Jeffrey C; Bell, George W; MacArthur, Daniel G; Ruland, Jürgen; Meisinger, Chris; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-10-20

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) govern cellular homeostasis by inducing signaling. H2O2 modulates the activity of phosphatases and many other signaling molecules through oxidation of critical cysteine residues, which led to the notion that initiation of ROS signaling is broad and nonspecific, and thus fundamentally distinct from other signaling pathways. Here, we report that H2O2 signaling bears hallmarks of a regular signal transduction cascade. It is controlled by hierarchical signaling events resulting in a focused response as the results place the mitochondrial respiratory chain upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn, Lyn upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase SYK (Syk), and Syk upstream of numerous targets involved in signaling, transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation. The active mediators of H2O2 signaling colocalize as H2O2 induces mitochondria-associated Lyn and Syk phosphorylation, and a pool of Lyn and Syk reside in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Finally, the same intermediaries control the signaling response in tissues and species responsive to H2O2 as the respiratory chain, Lyn, and Syk were similarly required for H2O2 signaling in mouse B cells, fibroblasts, and chicken DT40 B cells. Consistent with a broad role, the Syk pathway is coexpressed across tissues, is of early metazoan origin, and displays evidence of evolutionary constraint in the human. These results suggest that H2O2 signaling is under control of a signal transduction pathway that links the respiratory chain to the mitochondrial intermembrane space-localized, ubiquitous, and ancient Syk pathway in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells.

  19. Central neural control of thermoregulation and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-04-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the experimental underpinnings of our current model of the CNS pathways controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction controlling heat loss, and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific, core efferent pathways within the CNS that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. Via the lateral parabrachial nucleus, skin thermal afferent input reaches the hypothalamic preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control heat production by inhibiting thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to thermogenesis-controlling premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation of spinal circuits necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus sympathetic premotor neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. The model proposed for central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation and elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation. PMID:26924538

  20. Respiratory rehabilitation: a physiotherapy approach to the control of asthma symptoms and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata André Laurino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held once a week for three months or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements. RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients.

  1. CFO finance network centrality, errors and internal control material weaknessess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schabus

    2015-01-01

    CFOs finance networks matter in determining certain accounting and reporting outcomes. Drawing on social network theory, this study shows that CFO centrality in a network of financial experts is inversely related to the occurrence of restatements due to errors and disclosure of internal control mate

  2. Centralized and decentralized control of structural vibration and sound radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.P.; Baumann, O.N.; Elliott, S.J.; Fraanje, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of centralized and decentralized feedback controllers on a plate with multiple colocated velocity sensors and force actuators. The performance is measured by the reduction in either kinetic energy or sound radiation, when the plate is excited with a randomly distr

  3. Respiratory training as strategy to prevent cognitive decline in aging: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leandro Ferreira,1 Kátia Tanaka,1 Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz,2,3 José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz1 1Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Center of Mathematics, Computation and Cognition, Universidade Federal do ABC, São André, SP, Brazil; 3Institute of Biosciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil Background: Inadequate oxygenation may cause lesions and brain atrophy during aging. Studies show a positive association between pulmonary function and the cognitive performance of individuals from middle age on. Objective: To investigate the effect of aerobic physical exercises and respiratory training on the blood oxygenation, pulmonary functions, and cognition of the elderly. Design: This was a randomized and controlled trial with three parallel groups. A total of 195 community-dwelling elderly were assessed for eligibility; only n=102 were included and allocated into the three groups, but after 6 months, n=68 were analyzed in the final sample. Participants were randomized into a social interaction group (the control group, an aerobic exercise group (the “walking” group, or a respiratory training group (the “breathing” group. The main outcome measures were the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Memory Scale, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, respiratory muscular strength, cirtometry (thoracic–abdominal circumference; oxygen saturation in arterial blood (SpO2, and hemogram. Results: No differences were observed for any of the blood parameters. Aerobic exercise and respiratory training were effective in improving the pulmonary parameters. Better cognitive performance was observed for the breathing group as regards abstraction and mental flexibility. The walking group remained stable in the cognitive performance of most of the tests, except attention. The control group presented worst performance in mental manipulation of information

  4. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia as an Index of Vagal Activity during Stress in Infants: Respiratory Influences and Their Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Schulz, Stefan M.; Kitts, Robert; Staudenmayer, John; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is related to cardiac vagal outflow and the respiratory pattern. Prior infant studies have not systematically examined respiration rate and tidal volume influences on infant RSA or the extent to which infants' breathing is too fast to extract a valid RSA. We therefore monitored cardiac activity, respiration, and physical activity in 23 six-month old infants during a standardized laboratory stressor protocol. On average, 12.6% (range 0–58.2%) of analyzed breaths were too short for RSA extraction. Higher respiration rate was associated with lower RSA amplitude in most infants, and lower tidal volume was associated with lower RSA amplitude in some infants. RSA amplitude corrected for respiration rate and tidal volume influences showed theoretically expected strong reductions during stress, whereas performance of uncorrected RSA was less consistent. We conclude that stress-induced changes of peak-valley RSA and effects of variations in breathing patterns on RSA can be determined for a representative percentage of infant breaths. As expected, breathing substantially affects infant RSA and needs to be considered in studies of infant psychophysiology. PMID:23300753

  5. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as an index of vagal activity during stress in infants: respiratory influences and their control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ritz

    Full Text Available Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA is related to cardiac vagal outflow and the respiratory pattern. Prior infant studies have not systematically examined respiration rate and tidal volume influences on infant RSA or the extent to which infants' breathing is too fast to extract a valid RSA. We therefore monitored cardiac activity, respiration, and physical activity in 23 six-month old infants during a standardized laboratory stressor protocol. On average, 12.6% (range 0-58.2% of analyzed breaths were too short for RSA extraction. Higher respiration rate was associated with lower RSA amplitude in most infants, and lower tidal volume was associated with lower RSA amplitude in some infants. RSA amplitude corrected for respiration rate and tidal volume influences showed theoretically expected strong reductions during stress, whereas performance of uncorrected RSA was less consistent. We conclude that stress-induced changes of peak-valley RSA and effects of variations in breathing patterns on RSA can be determined for a representative percentage of infant breaths. As expected, breathing substantially affects infant RSA and needs to be considered in studies of infant psychophysiology.

  6. Coordinated control of a combined cycle thermoelectric central; Control coordinado de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Parra, Marino; Castelo Cuevas, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the coordinated control (CC) of the Distributed Control System (Sistema de Control Distribuido) (SICODI) of the Combined Cycle Central of Gomez Palacio, Durango, is presented. The description of the control scheme and its realization in software is made. From the scheme the operation strategies and automation, supervision and control are described in detail. The software components of the programming are described, the program structure and control data and its implementation in working stations VAX 3100 under the operating system VMS (Virtual Memory System), are described. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el control coordinado (CC) del Sistema de Control Distribuido (Sicodi) de la central de ciclo combinado Gomez Palacio, Durango. Se describe el esquema de control y su realizacion en software. Del esquema se detallan las estrategias de operacion y automatizacion, supervision y control. Del software se describen los componentes de la programacion, la estructura de programas y datos del control y su implementacion en estaciones de trabajo VAX 3100 bajo el sistema operativo VMS (Virtual Memory System).

  7. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  8. Spontaneous centralization of control in a network of company ownerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Krause

    Full Text Available We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected "core" made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive "rich get richer" dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

  9. Centrality in the Global Network of Corporate Control

    CERN Document Server

    Takes, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Corporations across the world are highly interconnected in a large global network of corporate control. This paper investigates the global board interlock network, covering 400,000 firms linked through 1,700,000 edges representing shared directors between these firms. The main focus is on the concept of centrality, which is used to investigate the embeddedness of firms from a particular country within the global network. The study results in three contributions. First, to the best of our knowledge for the first time we can investigate the topology as well as the concept of centrality in corporate networks at a global scale, allowing for the largest cross-country comparison ever done in interlocking directorates literature. We demonstrate, amongst other things, extremely similar network topologies, yet large differences between countries when it comes to the relation between economic prominence indicators and firm centrality. Second, we introduce two new metrics that are specifically suitable for comparing the...

  10. Singing teaching as a therapy for chronic respiratory disease - a randomised controlled trial and qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Julia L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite optimal pharmacological therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation, patients with COPD continue to be breathless. There is a need to develop additional strategies to alleviate symptoms. Learning to sing requires control of breathing and posture and might have benefits that translate into daily life. Methods To test this hypothesis we performed a randomised controlled trial, comparing a six week course of twice weekly singing classes to usual care, in 28 COPD patients. The experience of singing was assessed in a qualitative fashion, through interviews with a psychologist. In addition, we surveyed patients with chronic respiratory conditions who participated in a series of open singing workshops. Results In the RCT, the physical component score of the SF36 improved in the singers (n = 15 compared to the controls (n = 13; +7.5(14.6 vs. -3.8(8.4 p = 0.02. Singers also had a significant fall in HAD anxiety score; -1.1(2.7 vs. +0.8(1.7 p = 0.03. Singing did not improve single breath counting, breath hold time or shuttle walk distance. In the qualitative element, 8 patients from the singing group were interviewed. Positive effects on physical sensation, general well-being, community/social support and achievement/efficacy emerged as common themes. 150 participants in open workshops completed a questionnaire. 96% rated the workshops as "very enjoyable" and 98% thought the workshop had taught them something about breathing in a different way. 81% of attendees felt a "marked physical difference" after the workshop. Conclusion Singing classes can improve quality of life measures and anxiety and are viewed as a very positive experience by patients with respiratory disease; no adverse consequences of participation were observed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials - ISRCTN17544114.

  11. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  12. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, effortful control, and parenting as predictors of children's sympathy across early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children's effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children's sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children's subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children's effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children's sympathy. PMID:25329555

  13. Model adaptation in a central controller for a sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla; Mol, Bart

    2013-04-01

    For small sewer systems that combine foul water and storm water sewer functions in flat terrain, central control of the sewer system may have problems during dry weather. These systems are a combination of local gravity flow networks connected by pumps. Under those conditions the level in the wet well (local storage at the pumping station) should be kept below the entrance pipe but above the top of the intake of the pump. The pumps are dimensioned to cope with the combined flow of foul water and precipitation run off so their capacity is relatively large when compared wityh the volume available in the wet well. Under local control this is not a major problem because the effective controller time step is very short. For central control the control time step can become a problem. Especially when there is uncertainty about the relation between level and volume in the wet well. In this paper we describe a way to dynamically adapt the level to volume relation based on dry weather behaviour. This is important because a better estimate of this volume will reduce the number of on/off cycles for the pumps. It will also allow detection and correction for changes in pump performance due to aging.

  14. Role of central and peripheral chemoreceptors in vasopressin secretion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Michele; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Fiore, Giorgio; Licchelli, Brunella; Iovino, Emanuela; Triggiani, Vincenzo

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we analyzed the role played by central and peripheral chemoreceptors (CHRs) in vasopressin (AVP) secretion control. Central neural pathways subserving osmotic and non-osmotic control of AVP secretion are strictly correlated to brain areas participating in chemoreception mechanisms. Among the different brain areas involved in central chemoreception, the most important site has been localized in the retrotrapezoid nucleus of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. These central CHRs are able to detect very small pH/CO2 fluctuations, participating in brain blood flow regulation, acid-base balance and blood pressure control. Decreases in arterial pH and increases in arterial pCO2 stimulate AVP release by the Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei. Carotid CHRs transduce low arterial O2 tension into increased action potential activity, leading to bradycardia and coronary vasodilatation via vagal stimulation, and systemic vasoconstriction via catecholaminergic stimulation. Stimulation of carotid CHRs by hypoxia increases neurohypophyseal blood flow and AVP release, an effect inhibited by CHRs denervation. Two renal CHRs have been identified: Type R1 CHRs do not have a resting discharge but are activated by renal ischemia and hypotension; Type R2 CHRs have a resting discharge and respond to backflow of urine into the renal pelvis. Signals arising from renal CHRs modulate the activity of hypothalamic AVPergic neurons: activation of R1 and R2 CHRs, following increased intrapelvic pressure with solutions of mannitol, NaCl and KCl, produces a significant increase of AVP secretion and the same effect has been obtained by the intrarenal infusion of bradykinin, which excites afferent renal nerves, as well as by the electrical stimulation of these nerves.

  15. Endothelin involvement in respiratory centre activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, M; Lafortuna, C L; Ciminaghi, B; Mazzola, S; Clement, M G

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the role of endothelin (ET) in respiratory homeostasis we studied the effects of the ET(A) and ET(B) receptor blocking agent bosentan on respiratory mechanics and control in seven anaesthetised spontaneously breathing pigs, for 180 min after single bolus administration (20 mg/kg i.v.). The results show that the block of ET receptors induced a significant increase in compliance and decrease in resistance of the respiratory system, entailing a significant reduction of diaphragmatic electromyographic activity, without affecting the centroid frequency of the power spectrum. Bosentan administration induced a significant increase in tidal volume (V(T)), accompanied by a significant decrease in respiratory frequency, without any significant change in pulmonary ventilation, CO(2) arterial blood gas pressure or pH. Since the relationship between V(T) and inspiratory time remained substantially constant after bosentan administration, the changes in respiratory pattern appear to be the result of an upward shift in inspiratory off-switch threshold. Both inspiratory and expiratory times during occluded breathing were increased by block of ET receptors, suggesting also a central respiratory neuromodulator effect of ET. In conclusion the present results suggest that the block of ET receptors in spontaneously breathing pigs exerts a role on mechanical properties of the respiratory system as well as on peripheral and central mechanisms of breathing control. PMID:11728166

  16. Dynamics and control of multibody systems in central gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Amit K.

    This dissertation studies the dynamics and control of multibody systems, and their numerical simulation, in a central gravitational field. Initially, the dynamics of multibody systems moving in a plane in a central gravity is studied. There is a cyclic orbital coordinate, and the corresponding conjugate momentum is conserved. The dynamics is reduced to eliminate this cyclic variable. A general development for analyzing stability of relative equilibria of the full dynamics, corresponding to equilibria of the reduced dynamics, is obtained. This is applied to some examples of multibody spacecraft in planar motion. A control scheme, based on averaging theory, is developed for orbit transfer from one relative equilibrium to another. This scheme is applied to a planar dumbbell-shaped rigid body in central gravity. The dynamics of such systems in three-dimensional motion also has a cyclic coordinate, and the associated conjugate momentum is conserved. The dynamics is reduced to eliminate this degree of freedom. Stability analysis of the relative equilibria of a rigid dumbbell-shaped body is carried out. Potential shaping with attitude feedback is used to stabilize the unstable relative equilibria of the dumbbell body. For numerical simulations of the dynamics of free and controlled multibody systems in central gravity, numerical integration algorithms obtained from discrete variational mechanics are used. These algorithms exactly preserve the symplectic form and conserved momenta of such systems. They also nearly preserve the total energy of conservative systems over long simulation times. These properties are usually not present in other numerical integration algorithms. Variational integration algorithms for the full and reduced dynamics of multibody systems in a potential field are obtained, and applied to the specific examples treated in this dissertation. Comparison with a standard Runge-Kutta fourth order integrator, for an example problem, shows the better

  17. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases. PMID:26574895

  18. Decentralized Markets versus Central Control: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Akkermans, H; 10.1613/jair.627

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) promise to offer solutions to problems where established, older paradigms fall short. In order to validate such claims that are repeatedly made in software agent publications, empirical in-depth studies of advantages and weaknesses of multi-agent solutions versus conventional ones in practical applications are needed. Climate control in large buildings is one application area where multi-agent systems, and market-oriented programming in particular, have been reported to be very successful, although central control solutions are still the standard practice. We have therefore constructed and implemented a variety of market designs for this problem, as well as different standard control engineering solutions. This article gives a detailed analysis and comparison, so as to learn about differences between standard versus agent approaches, and yielding new insights about benefits and limitations of computational markets. An important outcome is that "local information plus market communica...

  19. Model-based setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate in pressure-controlled ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties. Mathematical models of respiratory mechanics are able to capture the individual physiological condition and can be used to derive personalized ventilator settings. This paper presents model-based calculations of inspiration pressure (pI), inspiration and expiration time (tI, tE) in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and a retrospective evaluation of its results in a group of mechanically ventilated patients. Incorporating the identified first order model of respiratory mechanics in the basic equation of alveolar ventilation yielded a nonlinear relation between ventilation parameters during PCV. Given this patient-specific relation, optimized settings in terms of minimal pI and adequate tE can be obtained. We then retrospectively analyzed data from 16 ICU patients with mixed pathologies, whose ventilation had been previously optimized by ICU physicians with the goal of minimization of inspiration pressure, and compared the algorithm's ‘optimized’ settings to the settings that had been chosen by the physicians. The presented algorithm visualizes the patient-specific relations between inspiration pressure and inspiration time. The algorithm's calculated results highly correlate to the physician's ventilation settings with r = 0.975 for the inspiration pressure, and r = 0.902 for the inspiration time. The nonlinear patient-specific relations of ventilation parameters become transparent and support the determination of individualized ventilator settings according to therapeutic goals. Thus, the algorithm is feasible for a variety of ventilated ICU patients and has the potential of improving lung-protective ventilation by minimizing inspiratory pressures and by helping to avoid the build-up of clinically significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure

  20. Long-term tolerability of capnography and respiratory inductance plethysmography for respiratory monitoring in pediatric patients treated with patient-controlled analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen M.; Kim, Andrew Y.; Yaster, Myron; Kudchadkar, Sapna R.; White, Elizabeth; Fackler, James; Monitto, Constance L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation has advocated the use of continuous electronic monitoring of oxygenation and ventilation to preemptively identify opioid-induced respiratory depression. In adults, capnography is the gold standard in respiratory monitoring. An alternative technique used in sleep laboratories is respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP). However, it is not known if either monitor is well tolerated by pediatric patients for prolonged periods of time. Aim The goal of this study was to determine whether capnography or RIP is better tolerated in non-intubated, spontaneously breathing pediatric patients being treated with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA). Methods Nasal cannula capnography with oral sampling and thoracic and abdominal inductance plethysmography bands were placed along with routine monitors on pediatric patients being treated for acute pain with IVPCA. Study monitors were left in place for as long as they were tolerated by the patient, for a maximum of 24 consecutive hours. If the patient did not wear a particular study monitor for any reason, but tolerated the remaining monitor, participation in the study continued. If the patient would not wear either monitor, participation was terminated. Results Twenty-six patients (18 female, 8 male, average age 10.1 ± 5.5 years) consented to participate, but only 14 patients attempted to wear one or both devices. Among those who wore either device, median time to device removal was 8.33 hours (range 0.3–23.6 hours) for capnography and 23.5 hours (range 0.7–24 hours) for RIP bands. Conclusion Children did not tolerate wearing capnography cannulae for prolonged periods of time, limiting the usefulness of this device as a continuous monitor of ventilation in children. RIP bands were better tolerated; however, they require further assessment of their utility. Until more effective, child-friendly monitors are developed and their utility validated, guidelines

  1. Intervention with educational outreach at large scale to reduce antibiotics for respiratory tract infections : a controlled before and after study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, H. M.; Kuyvenhoven, M. M.; Akkerman, A. E.; Welschen, I.; van Essen, G. A.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Schouten, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background. A multiple intervention targeted to reduce antibiotic prescribing with an educational outreach programme had proven to be effective in a randomized controlled trial in 12 peer review groups, demonstrating 12% less prescriptions for respiratory tract infections. Objective. To assess the e

  2. Genetic associations with viral respiratory illnesses and asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loisel, D A; Du, G; Ahluwalia, T S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory infections can cause acute wheezing illnesses in children and exacerbations of asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify variation in genes with known antiviral and pro-inflammatory functions to identify specific associations with more severe viral respiratory illness...

  3. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henzen Christoph

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections Discussion: Use of and prolonged exposure to antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections is high. The proposed trial investigates whether procalcitonin-guidance may safely reduce antibiotic consumption along with reductions in hospitalization costs and antibiotic resistance. It will additionally generate insights for improved prognostic assessment of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Trial registration: ISRCTN95122877

  4. Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  5. High level extensions to the TRIUMF central control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, D.A.; Mouat, M.M.

    1986-10-01

    The TRIUMF central control system ''CCS'' consists of a system of 16-bit minicomputers connected to cyclotron equipment by means of a multi-branch parallel highway CAMAC system. Because these computer ''sources'' are programmed primarily in assembler language, there are difficulties in carrying out complex or precise numerical algorithms. Recently, a limit to the maximum number of sources with access to the CAMAC hardware has been removed and several VAX computers have been added. The configuration has very conveniently allowed independent development of data acquisition and analysis software, and has permitted the implementation of mature accelerator physics software developed elsewhere. The new VAX sources incorporate the use of sophisticated system software, multiple high-level languages, graphics, networking and an independent CAMAC highway. A separate serial CAMAC highway supports cyclotron development without compromising the on-line duties of the existing central control system. This paper describes the new configuration and the implementation of the data acquisition and analysis software.

  6. Peripheral and central control of swallowing initiation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Seiya; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Magara, Jin; Watanabe, Masahiro; Ito, Kayoko; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-11-01

    We investigated (1) how peripheral inputs might assist central inputs in the control of voluntary evoked swallowing, (2) inter-individual variation in involuntary and voluntary swallowing initiation, and (3) whether natural chewing behavior affects the initiation of involuntary swallowing in healthy humans. Eleven participants completed a repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST), chewing test (CHEW), and rest period (REST). In RSST, participants repetitively swallowed as quickly as possible. In CHEW, subjects chewed gum freely. We delivered pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PEStim) to the laryngopharynx and compared the number of swallows that occurred with and without PEStim. PEStim significantly increased the number of voluntary evoked swallows in RSST, as well as the number of swallows in CHEW and REST trials, although this facilitatory effect was larger in REST trials. We found a positive correlation between the number of swallows at RSST without PEStim and that at REST with PEStim within individuals. Additionally, we found a significant positive correlation between the number of swallows at RSST with PEStim and the sum of that at RSST without PEStim and at REST with PES. Based on the current results, we suggest that (1) peripheral inputs within a certain range appear to facilitate the central inputs that control voluntary swallowing, (2) inter-individual variations in swallowing initiation may arise from differences in the excitability of the common neural network in the lower brainstem, and (3) during chewing, food reduction in the oral cavity is prioritized, such that the neural network associated with chewing may regulate swallowing initiation.

  7. Effect of acid sensing ion channels on respiratory regulation by central chemoreceptors%酸敏感离子通道在中枢化学感受器呼吸调节中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 刘文彦; 高波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨脑室内注射酸化人工脑脊液(artificialcerebrospinalfluid,aCSF)引起的呼吸效应及酸敏感离子通道( acid sensing ion channels , ASICs )在此过程中的作用。方法:健康成年SD大鼠30只,随机分为aCSF(pH 7.4)对照组、aCSF(pH 6.5)组、ASICs阻断剂阿米洛利(amiloride)对照组、amiloride+aCSF(pH 6.5)组、ASIC1a阻断剂psalmotoxin 1(PcTx1)对照组及PcTx1+aCSF(pH 6.5)组。通过膈肌肌电记录脑室内注射酸化aCSF后呼吸的变化;通过脑室内先注射阿米洛利和PcTx1再注射酸化aCSF的方法,观察酸敏感离子通道在中枢化学感受器呼吸调节中的作用。结果:脑室内注射酸化aCSF后,呼吸较注射前明显兴奋(P<0.05);脑室内注射阿米洛利能完全阻断脑室内注射酸化aCSF引起的呼吸兴奋;脑室内注射PcTx1能部分阻断脑室内注射酸化aCSF引起的呼吸兴奋。结论:ASICs是参与中枢化学感受器呼吸调节的关键离子通道,ASIC1a则发挥了部分作用。%[ABSTRACT]AIM:Toinvestigatetheeffectofintracerebroventricular(icv)injectionofacidulatedartificialce-rebrospinal fluid ( aCSF ) on the respiratory reactions and the functions of acid sensing ion channels ( ASICs ) in this process.METHODS:Healthy adult SD rats (n=30) were divided into aCSF with pH 7.4 control group, aCSF with pH 6.5 group, amiloride control group, amiloride plus aCSF with pH 6.5 group, psalmotoxin 1 (PcTx1) control group and PcTx1 plus aCSF with pH 6.5 group.The electromyogram (EMG) of the diaphragm was monitored to observe the respirato-ry responses induced by icv injection of acidulated aCSF .The ASICs blockers were also injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle firstly and acidulated aCSF was injected following the ASICs blockers to observe the effect of ASICs on the respira -tory regulation by the central chemoreceptor .RESULTS:After icv injection of acidulated aCSF , the

  8. KIF7 Controls the Proliferation of Cells of the Respiratory Airway through Distinct Microtubule Dependent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry L Coles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell cycle must be tightly coordinated for proper control of embryonic development and for the long-term maintenance of organs such as the lung. There is emerging evidence that Kinesin family member 7 (Kif7 promotes Hedgehog (Hh signaling during embryonic development, and its misregulation contributes to diseases such as ciliopathies and cancer. Kif7 encodes a microtubule interacting protein that controls Hh signaling through regulation of microtubule dynamics within the primary cilium. However, whether Kif7 has a function in nonciliated cells remains largely unknown. The role Kif7 plays in basic cell biological processes like cell proliferation or cell cycle progression also remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that Kif7 is required for coordination of the cell cycle, and inactivation of this gene leads to increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Immunostaining and transmission electron microscopy experiments show that Kif7dda/dda mutant lungs are hyperproliferative and exhibit reduced alveolar epithelial cell differentiation. KIF7 depleted C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts and Kif7dda/dda mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts have increased growth rates at high cellular densities, suggesting that Kif7 may function as a general regulator of cellular proliferation. We ascertained that in G1, Kif7 and microtubule dynamics regulate the expression and activity of several components of the cell cycle machinery known to control entry into S phase. Our data suggest that Kif7 may function to regulate the maintenance of the respiratory airway architecture by controlling cellular density, cell proliferation, and cycle exit through its role as a microtubule associated protein.

  9. Simulation and planning of treatment of breast with respiratory control; Simulacion y planifiacion de un tratamiento de mama con control respiratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Monedero, M.; Martinez Ortega, J.; Castro Tejero, P.; Fuente Alonso, C. de la; Regueiro Otero, C.

    2013-07-01

    The radiotherapy with beams of photons of the breast cancer in stages I and II is an established technique. The principal risks of the treatment derived from accidental irradiation of pulmonary and cardiac tissue. Several previous studies have indicated that respiratory control techniques involve a benefit in the protection of pulmonary and cardiac volume, and therefore, it would mean a reduction in the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiac damage. The objective of this work is to check if there is a dosimetric benefit of breast with respiratory control treatments, such as reflects the literature. (Author)

  10. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  11. Noninvasive Ventilation for Preterm Twin Neonates with Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Li; Li, Jie; Wang, Nan; Shi, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation has been proven to be effective strategies for reducing the need for endotracheal ventilation in preterm infant with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), however the best option needs to be further determined. A single center, paired design, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between Jan 2011 and July 2014. Preterm twins with RDS were included. One of a pair was randomized to NIPPV, while another to NCPAP. Surfactant was administrated as rescue treatment. The primary outcome was the need for endotracheal ventilation. The secondary outcomes were the complications. 143 pairs were randomized and 129 pairs finished the trial. The rates of endotracheal ventilation did not differ significantly between NIPPV and NCPAP groups (11.9% vs 19.6%, P = 0.080). This difference was not observed in the subgroup of infants who received surfactant therapy (11.1% vs 19.7%, P = 0.087). No secondary outcomes also differed significantly between the two groups. NIPPV did not result in a significantly lower incidence of intubation as compared with NCPAP in preterm twins with RDS. PMID:26399752

  12. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  13. Control of the Cutaneous Circulation by the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, William; McAllen, Robin; McKinley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS), via its control of sympathetic outflow, regulates blood flow to the acral cutaneous beds (containing arteriovenous anastomoses) as part of the homeostatic thermoregulatory process, as part of the febrile response, and as part of cognitive-emotional processes associated with purposeful interactions with the external environment, including those initiated by salient or threatening events (we go pale with fright). Inputs to the CNS for the thermoregulatory process include cutaneous sensory neurons, and neurons in the preoptic area sensitive to the temperature of the blood in the internal carotid artery. Inputs for cognitive-emotional control from the exteroceptive sense organs (touch, vision, sound, smell, etc.) are integrated in forebrain centers including the amygdala. Psychoactive drugs have major effects on the acral cutaneous circulation. Interoceptors, chemoreceptors more than baroreceptors, also influence cutaneous sympathetic outflow. A major advance has been the discovery of a lower brainstem control center in the rostral medullary raphé, regulating outflow to both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to the acral cutaneous beds. Neurons in the medullary raphé, via their descending axonal projections, increase the discharge of spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons controlling the cutaneous vasculature, utilizing glutamate, and serotonin as neurotransmitters. Present evidence suggests that both thermoregulatory and cognitive-emotional control of the cutaneous beds from preoptic, hypothalamic, and forebrain centers is channeled via the medullary raphé. Future studies will no doubt further unravel the details of neurotransmitter pathways connecting these rostral control centers with the medullary raphé, and those operative within the raphé itself. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1161-1197, 2016. PMID:27347889

  14. Respiratory rehabilitation: a physiotherapy approach to the control of asthma symptoms and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Renata André Laurino; Viviane Barnabé; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M.; Rafael Stelmach; Alberto Cukier; Nunes, Maria do Patrocínio T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining) improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiot...

  15. Chronic heart failure modifies respiratory mechanics in rats: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Deise M. Pacheco; Viviane D. Silveira; Alex Thomaz; Ramiro B Nunes; Viviane R. Elsner; Pedro Dal Lago

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic alterations in an experimental model of chronic heart failure (CHF) following myocardial infarction. Method Twenty-seven male adult Wistar rats were randomized to CHF group (n=12) or Sham group (n=15). Ten weeks after coronary ligation or sham surgery, the animals were anesthetized and submitted to respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic measurements. Pulmonary edema as well as cardiac remodeling were measured. Results The C...

  16. Randomised controlled study of early use of inhaled corticosteroid in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fok, T; Lam, K.; Dolovich, M.; Ng, P; Wong, Van W.; Cheung, K; So, K

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate, started on day 1 of age, on ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome.
METHODS—Starting within 24 hours of age, ventilated preterm infants (gestation < 32 weeks, birthweight < 1.5 kg) with respiratory distress syndrome were given a 14 day course (two puffs, 12 hourly) of either fluticasone propionate (250 µg/puff) (group 1, n=27) or placebo (group 2, n=26) with a metered dose i...

  17. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    7.1 Upper Respiratory Tract Diesase And Bronchial Asthma 2007072 Dysfunction of releasing adrenaline in asthmatic adrenaline medullary chromaffin cells due to functional redundancy primed by nerve growth factor. WANG Jun(汪俊), et al. Dept Resp Dis Xiangya Hosp Central South Univ, Changsha 410008. Chin J Tuberc Dis 2006;29(12):812-815. Objective To investigate the possible causes of the dysfunction of adrenaline release in asthma rats and to identify the role of nerve growth factor(NGF) in this process.

  18. Central motor control failure in fibromyalgia: a surface electromyography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buskila Dan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness at multiple sites, tender points in characteristic locations, and the frequent presence of symptoms such as fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess whether the myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in patients affected by FM are central or peripheral in origin. Methods Eight female patients aged 55.6 ± 13.6 years (FM group and eight healthy female volunteers aged 50.3 ± 9.3 years (MCG were studied by means of non-invasive surface electromyography (s-EMG involving a linear array of 16 electrodes placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii muscle, with muscle fatigue being evoked by means of voluntary and involuntary (electrically elicited contractions. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs, motor unit action potential conduction velocity distributions (mean ± SD and skewness, and the mean power frequency of the spectrum (MNF were estimated in order to assess whether there were any significant differences between the two groups and contraction types. Results The motor pattern of recruitment during voluntary contractions was altered in the FM patients, who also showed fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue (normalised conduction velocity rate of changes: -0.074 ± 0.052%/s in FM vs -0.196 ± 0.133%/s in MCG; normalised MNF rate of changes: -0.29 ± 0.16%/s in FM vs -0.66 ± 0.34%/s in MCG. Mean conduction velocity distribution and skewnesses values were higher (p Conclusion The apparent paradox of fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in FM is the electrophysiological expression of muscle remodelling in terms of the prevalence of slow conducting fatigue-resistant type I fibres. As the only between-group differences concerned voluntary contractions, they are probably more related to central motor control failure than muscle membrane alterations, which suggests pathological muscle fibre remodelling related to altered

  19. Advanced lung ventilation system (ALVS) with linear respiratory mechanics assumption for waveform optimization of dual-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecchia, F; Guerrisi, M; Canichella, A

    2007-03-01

    The present paper describes the functional features of an advanced lung ventilation system (ALVS) properly designed for the optimization of conventional dual-controlled ventilation (DCV), i.e. with pressure-controlled ventilation with ensured tidal or minute volume. Considering the particular clinical conditions of patients treated with controlled ventilation the analysis and synthesis of ALVS control have been performed assuming a linear respiratory mechanics. Moreover, new airways pressure waveforms with more physiological shape can be tested on simulators of respiratory system in order to evaluate their clinical application. This is obtained through the implementation of a compensation procedure making the desired airways pressure waveform independent on patient airways resistance and lung compliance variations along with a complete real-time monitoring of respiratory system parameters leading the ventilator setting. The experimental results obtained with a lung simulator agree with the theoretical ones and show that ALVS performance is useful for the research activity aiming at the improvement of both diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic outcome relative to mechanical ventilation treatments.

  20. Prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children under the age of 5 years. Almost 2 million children die from ARTIs each year, and most of them are from developing countries. The prevalence and correlation of pathogens in ARTIs are poorly understood, but are critical for improving case prevention, treatment, and management. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and correlation of infectious agents in children with ARTIs. A total of 39,756 children with one or more symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, herpangina, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, were enrolled in the study. All patients were hospitalized in Wuhan Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2012, and were evaluated for infectious agents. Pathogens, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Coxiella burnetii, were screened simultaneously in patient blood samples using anti-pathogen IgM tests. Regression analysis was used to reveal correlations among the pathogens. Our results showed that one or more pathogens were identified in 10,206 patients, and that Mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenoviruses, and influenza B virus were the leading infectious agents. Mixed-infections of pathogens were detected in 2,391 cases, with Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the most frequent pathogen. The most common agents in the co-infections were Mycoplasma pneumoniae and influenza B virus. Regression analysis revealed a linear correlation between the proportion of mixed infections and the incidence of multi-pathogen infections. The prevalence of infectious agents in children with ARTIs was determined. Equations were established to estimate multiple infections by single-pathogen detection. This revealed a linear correlation for

  1. Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. T. Areas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance bands (ERB combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle strength warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10 or the control group (CG, n=10. Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and inspiratory pressure (MIP were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. RESULTS: PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p<0.05. In addition, there were significant differences between the TG and CG regarding ∆MIP (p=0.01 and ∆MEP (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: PNF combined with ERB can have a positive impact on respiratory muscle strength. These results may be useful with respect to cardiopulmonary chronic diseases that are associated with reduced respiratory muscle strength.

  2. Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Garaiova, I.; Muchová, J; Nagyová, Z; Wang, D; Li, J. V.; Országhová, Z; Michael, D R; Plummer, S F; Ďuračková, Z

    2014-01-01

    Background: This pilot study investigates the efficacy of a probiotic consortium (Lab4) in combination with vitamin C on the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool facilities. Subjects/methods: In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study with children aged 3–6 years, 57 received 1.25 × 1010 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 (NC...

  3. Risk of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infection and effectiveness of control measures to prevent transmission events: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    French, Clare E; McKenzie, Bruce C.; Coope, Caroline; Rajanaidu, Subhadra; Paranthaman, Karthik; Pebody, Richard; Nguyen‐Van‐Tam, Jonathan S.; ,; Higgins, Julian P. T; Beck, Charles R

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a significant public health burden, and outbreaks among vulnerable patients in hospital settings are of particular concern. We reviewed published and unpublished literature from hospital settings to assess: (i) nosocomial RSV transmission risk (attack rate) during outbreaks, (ii) effectiveness of infection control measures. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, together with key websites, journals and grey lite...

  4. Respiratory Motion of The Heart and Positional Reproducibility Under Active Breathing Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To reduce cardiotoxicity from breast radiotherapy (RT), innovative techniques are under investigation. Information about cardiac motion with respiration and positional reproducibility under active breathing control (ABC) is necessary to evaluate these techniques. Methods and Materials: Patients requiring loco-regional RT for breast cancer were scanned by computed tomography using an ABC device at various breath-hold states, before and during treatment. Ten patients were studied. For each patient, 12 datasets were analyzed. Mutual information-based regional rigid alignment was used to determine the magnitude and reproducibility of cardiac motion as a function of breathing state. For each scan session, motion was quantified by evaluating the displacement of a point along the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with respect to its position at end expiration. Long-term positional reproducibility was also assessed. Results: Displacement of the LAD was greatest in the inferior direction, moderate in the anterior direction, and lowest in the left-right direction. At shallow breathing states, the average displacement of LAD position was up to 6 mm in the inferior direction. The maximum displacement in any patient was 2.8 cm in the inferior direction, between expiration and deep-inspiration breath hold. At end expiration, the long-term reproducibility (SD) of the LAD position was 3 mm in the A-P, 6 mm in the S-I, and 4 mm in the L-R directions. At deep-inspiration breath hold, long-term reproducibility was 3 mm in the A-P, 7 mm in the S-I, and 3 mm in the L-R directions. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the extent of LAD displacement that occurs with shallow breathing and with deep-inspiration breath hold. This information may guide optimization studies considering the effects of respiratory motion and reproducibility of cardiac position on cardiac dose, both with and without ABC

  5. Study of global control of VIRGO Central Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VIRGO project for the detection of gravitational waves will first operate in a test configuration, known as the Central Area Interferometer (CITF). The subject of this thesis consists of a study for the global control of this interferometer. In particular, the problems of auto-alignment and acquisition of lock are addressed. First, an investigation of the CITF optical response to longitudinal and angular mirror movements is given. On the basis of this study, we show how the ratio of photodiode signals can be used to detect and control the dark fringe when the CITF is far from its operating point (locked state). Furthermore, we present the simulation results of a quadrant photodiode configuration capable of reconstructing the mirrors' tilts once the CITF is in a locked state. The performance of a control system for the auto-alignment is then given. A study on the mode-cleaner prototype MC30 is then introduced in order to comprehend the process of lock acquisition by a linear feedback system for two different finesse values: F ≅100 and F ≅ 1600. We define a threshold velocity for the mirrors' relative motion below which acquisition of lock is possible. A phenomenon, referred to as ringing effect, was observed and examined on the MC30 prototype in high finesse. The results of numerical calculations allowed us to fit measurement and estimate from them the cavity finesse as well as the mirrors' relative velocity during the resonance crossing. An empirical formula is then presented capable of determine the relative velocity from the positions of the oscillations' minima and maxima. An algorithm to guide into lock the CITF is then presented, consisting of an iterative procedure of velocity reconstruction and pulse application. A numerical calculation simulated the algorithm, the mirrors' motion, the optical response and the ADCs' process. As a result, acquisition times of the order of one second were observed: an improvement of more than one order of magnitude was

  6. Breath-taking jobs: a case–control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, AKM; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, PK; Svendsen, MV; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. Methods In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: ‘Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?’ Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. Results 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The ‘breath-taking jobs’ were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Conclusions Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:27365181

  7. A centralized control architecture for harmonic voltage suppression in islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a centralized control architecture for harmonic voltage suppression in islanded microgrids. The centralized selective harmonic compensator is developed in addition to the autonomous nonlinear load sharing loop in local controllers of inverter-interfaced Distributed Energy...... transformation aided signal modulation method is integrated to the centralized control architecture. The operation principle and case studies based on computer simulations are presented in this paper and validate the proposed control architecture....

  8. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  9. Pulmonary infection control window in treatment of severe respiratory failure of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: a prospective, randomized controlled, multi-centred study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Collaborating Research Group for Noninvasive Mecha

    2005-01-01

    Background Early withdraw from invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) followed by noninvasive MV is a new strategy for changing modes of treatment. This study was conducted to estimate the feasibility and the efficacy of early extubation and sequential noninvasive MV commenced at beginning of pulmonary infection control window in patients with exacerbated hypercapnic respiratory failure caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted in eleven teaching hospitals' respiratory or medical intensive care units in China. Ninety intubated COPD patients with severe hypercapnic respiratory failure triggered by pulmonary infection (pneumonia or purulent bronchitis) were involved in the study. When the pulmonary infection had been controlled by antibiotics and comprehensive therapy, the "pulmonary infection control window (PIC window)" has been reached. Each case was randomly assigned to study group (extubation and noninvasive MV via facial mask immediately) or control group (invasive MV was received continuously after PIC window by using conventional weaning technique).Results Study group (n=47) and control group (n=43) had similar clinical characteristics initially and at the time of PIC window. Compared with control group, study group had shorter duration of invasive MV [(6.4±4.4) days vs (11.3±6.2) days, P=0.000], lower rate of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) (3/47 vs 12/43, P=0.014), fewer days in ICU [(12±8) days vs (16±11) days, P=0.047] and lower hospital mortality (1/47 vs 7/43, P=0.025).Conclusions In COPD patients requiring intubation and invasive MV for hypercapnic respiratory failure, which is exacerbated by pulmonary infection, early extubation followed by noninvasive MV initiated at the start of PIC window may decrease significantly the duration of invasive MV, the risk of VAP and hospital mortality.

  10. A randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen for respiratory syncytial infection in a bovine model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to ...

  11. Tectonic Control of Piercement Structures in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Hadi, S.; Etiope, G.; Inguaggiato, S.

    2014-12-01

    A recent field expedition in Central Java targeted the mapping and sampling of several piercements structures in central Java (Indonesia), most of which have never been documented before. Here, at least seven structures erupting mud water and gas are distributed along a NE-SW alignment that extends for about 10 kilometers. Some of the mapped structures (Bledug Kuwu, Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, Mendikil, Banjarsari, Krewek) have been named after the neighboring local village. None of these have obvious elevation despite the vigorous emission of gas and mud, suggesting that significant caldera collapse is ongoing. Among the most relevant: Bledug Kuwu is certainly the most impressive structure with three main eruption sites in the crater area bursting more than 5 m large hot mud bubbles. Similar characteristics are present at the smaller (200 m in diameter) Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, that is also surrounded by numerous pools and gryphons seeping around the main crater. The smaller sized Mendikil is the only visited structure that, at the moment of the sampling, did not show seepage of hot fluids. Banjarsari and Krewek (up to 200 m wide) are characterized by scattered hot water-dominated pools where gas is vented vigorously. In particular the hot pools are systematically covered by travertine concretions. Water and gas geochemisty confirms the seepage of CO2 dominated gas and water with hydrothermal signature. The investigated structures appear to follow an obvious NE-SW oriented lineament that most likely coincides with a tectonic structure (fault?) that controls their location. Indeed the field observations and the analyses suggest that likely scenario is that this fault (?) acts as a preferential pathway for the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids to the surface. Very little is known about this region, neither is known why several of these structures erupt hot mud despite their significant distance from the two closest volcanic structures (i.e. Mt. Muria 60 km to the NW

  12. Absence of association between angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphism and development of adult respiratory distress syndrome in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Rossa WK

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that genetic predisposition may influence the susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and disease outcomes. A recent study has suggested that the deletion allele (D allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE gene is associated with hypoxemia in SARS patients. Moreover, the ACE D allele has been shown to be more prevalent in patients suffering from adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in a previous study. Thus, we have investigated the association between ACE insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism and the progression to ARDS or requirement of intensive care in SARS patients. Method One hundred and forty genetically unrelated Chinese SARS patients and 326 healthy volunteers were recruited. The ACE I/D genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results There is no significant difference in the genotypic distributions and the allelic frequencies of the ACE I/D polymorphism between the SARS patients and the healthy control subjects. Moreover, there is also no evidence that ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with the progression to ARDS or the requirement of intensive care in the SARS patients. In multivariate logistic analysis, age is the only factor associated with the development of ARDS while age and male sex are independent factors associated with the requirement of intensive care. Conclusion The ACE I/D polymorphism is not directly related to increased susceptibility to SARS-coronavirus infection and is not associated with poor outcomes after SARS-coronavirus infection.

  13. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: focus on the central melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yong; Elmquist, Joel K.; Fukuda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose and energy balance. In addition, we will discuss distinct neuronal populations that respond to central melanocortins to regulate food intak...

  14. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  15. Effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Aydın, Nurdan; Toptas, Mehmet; Tutuncu, Ayse Cigdem; Bakan, Mefkur

    2016-01-01

    Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) is less frequently employed in general anesthesia. With its high and decelerating inspiratory flow, PCV has faster tidal volume delivery and different gas distribution. The same tidal volume setting, delivered by PCV versus volume-controlled ventilation (VCV), will result in a lower peak airway pressure and reduced risk of barotrauma. We hypothesized that PCV instead of VCV during laparoscopic surgery could achieve lower airway pressures and reduce the systemic stress response. Forty ASA I-II patients were randomly selected to receive either the PCV (Group PC, n = 20) or VCV (Group VC, n = 20) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Blood sampling was made for baseline arterial blood gases (ABG), cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels. General anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl was employed to all patients. After anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, patients in Group PC were given pressure support to form 8 mL/kg tidal volume and patients in Group VC was maintained at 8 mL/kg tidal volume calculated using predicted body weight. All patients were maintained with 5 cmH2O positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). Respiratory parameters were recorded before and 30 min after pneumoperitonium. Assessment of ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin and glucose levels were repeated 30 min after pneumoperitonium and 60 min after extubation. The P-peak levels observed before (18.9 ± 3.8 versus 15 ± 2.2 cmH2O) and during (23.3 ± 3.8 versus 20.1 ± 2.9 cmH2O) pneumoperitoneum in Group VC were significantly higher. Postoperative partial arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) values are higher (98 ± 12 versus 86 ± 11 mmHg) in Group PC. Arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) values (41.8 ± 5.4 versus 36.7 ± 3.5 mmHg) during pneumoperitonium and post-operative mean cortisol and insulin levels were higher in Group VC. When compared to VCV mode, PCV mode may improve compliance during pneumoperitoneum

  16. ROLE OF IMUNOMET IN UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISORDERS: A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Anjan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract disorders comprise 87.5% of total acute respiratory morbidity in India in children. This has become a major community health problem. The symptoms are often self limiting and many a time caused by viruses, however, recurrent attacks may lead to distinct morbidity. This study was conducted in hospital outpatient department on children who have been attending at frequent interval with complaints of sore throat, pharyngitis and tonsillitis. They were administered Imunomet syrup or tablet for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment, about 84% patients responded well to treatment and 16% patients had fair response to treatment. None of the patients showed any adverse reaction to treatment. The syrup was found to be palatable.

  17. Control of gaseous emissions in central Costanera S.A. of Argentina; Control de emisiones gaseosas en central Costanera S. A. de Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabenec, Edgardo [Unidad de Negocios Central Costanera, S. A., (Argentina)

    1996-12-31

    A description is presented of the equipment utilized at the Central Costanera, S.A. of Argentina, the requirements and the Environmental Management established for this Power Station, and the Standards and the resolutions and law instruments on Environmental issues. Also it is presented the Environmental Management plan of the Ente Nacional Regulador de Electricidad of Argentina as well as the controls and environmental corrective actions implemented at the Central Costanera, S.A. [Espanol] Se presenta una descripcion del equipo utilizado en la Central Costanera S.A. de Argentina, los requerimientos de gestion ambiental establecidos para esta central y las normas, resoluciones e instrumentos juridicos en materia ambiental. Se presenta ademas el plan de gestion ambiental del Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad de Argentina asi como los controles y acciones correctivas ambientales implantadas en la Central Costanera S. A.

  18. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  19. Study of global control of VIRGO Central Interferometer; Etude du controle global de l'Interferometre Central de VIRGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Luca [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)

    1999-10-29

    The VIRGO project for the detection of gravitational waves will first operate in a test configuration, known as the Central Area Interferometer (CITF). The subject of this thesis consists of a study for the global control of this interferometer. In particular, the problems of auto-alignment and acquisition of lock are addressed. First, an investigation of the CITF optical response to longitudinal and angular mirror movements is given. On the basis of this study, we show how the ratio of photodiode signals can be used to detect and control the dark fringe when the CITF is far from its operating point (locked state). Furthermore, we present the simulation results of a quadrant photodiode configuration capable of reconstructing the mirrors' tilts once the CITF is in a locked state. The performance of a control system for the auto-alignment is then given. A study on the mode-cleaner prototype MC30 is then introduced in order to comprehend the process of lock acquisition by a linear feedback system for two different finesse values: F {approx_equal}100 and F {approx_equal} 1600. We define a threshold velocity for the mirrors' relative motion below which acquisition of lock is possible. A phenomenon, referred to as ringing effect, was observed and examined on the MC30 prototype in high finesse. The results of numerical calculations allowed us to fit measurement and estimate from them the cavity finesse as well as the mirrors' relative velocity during the resonance crossing. An empirical formula is then presented capable of determine the relative velocity from the positions of the oscillations' minima and maxima. An algorithm to guide into lock the CITF is then presented, consisting of an iterative procedure of velocity reconstruction and pulse application. A numerical calculation simulated the algorithm, the mirrors' motion, the optical response and the ADCs' process. As a result, acquisition times of the order of one second were observed: an

  20. A Metagenomics and Case-Control Study To Identify Viruses Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O.; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovi...

  1. An open randomized controlled trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients of acute on chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure in a general respiratory ward setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To compare the standard medical therapy (SMT and noninvasive posi-tive pressure ventilation (NPPV in acute on chronic hypercapnic respiratory fail-ure due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Method : Between June 2002 and May 2003, 19 patients with acute on chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure were prospectively and randomly recruited to re-ceive either SMT (n=10 or NPPV plus SMT (n=9 in a general respiratory ward and followed up after 4 to 6 weeks after discharge. NPPV was given with a silicone cushioned nasal mask via a bilevel ventilator with initial pressure support of 5 cm of H 2 O. Results : At the time of randomization there was no significant difference in respiratory rate, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH and HCO3 - , between the two groups. At 2 hours with SMT, there was significant improvement only in respiratory rate (p = 0.0000 and PaO 2 (p=0.0014. However with NPPV, respiratory rate (p=0.0000, PaO2 (p=0.0011, pH (0.0002, pulse rate (p=0.0329 and mean arterial pressure (p=0.0096 improved significantly at 2 hours while PaCO2 (p=0.0008 significantly improved at24 hours. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for NPPV group as compared to SMT group (9.63 + 1.4 days vs. 13.33 + 4.69 days, p < 0.05. There was 1 failure (12.5% in NPPV group as compared to 2 failures (20% in SMT group of which one was salvaged by NPPV. Conclusion : The study suggests that early application of NPPV in acute on chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to COPD facilitates improvement, favors early mobiliation and discharge from hospital.

  2. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: Focus on the central melanocortin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiologi...

  3. Buoyancy under control: underwater locomotor performance in a deep diving seabird suggests respiratory strategies for reducing foraging effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

  4. A collaborative, systems-level approach to eliminating healthcare-associated MRSA, central-line-associated bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Donna M; Staiger, Thomas O; Peterson, Gene N; Sinanan, Mika N; Angiulo, Cindy L; Makarewicz, Vanessa A; Wild, Lorie M; Whimbey, Estella E

    2012-01-01

    To achieve sustainable reductions in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), the University of Washington Medical Center (UWMC) deployed a collaborative, systems-level initiative. With the sponsorship of senior leadership, multidisciplinary teams were established to address healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and respiratory virus infections. The goal of the initiative was to eliminate these four HAIs among medical center inpatients by 2012. In the first 24 months of the project, the number of healthcare-associated MRSA cases decreased 58%; CLABSI cases decreased 54%. Staff and provider compliance with infection prevention measures improved and remained strong, for example, 96% compliance with hand hygiene, 98% compliance with the recommended influenza vaccination program, and 100% compliance with the VAP bundle. Achieving these results required an array of coordinated, systems-level interventions. Critical project success factors were believed to include creating organizational alignment by declaring eliminating HAIs as an organizational breakthrough goal, having the organization's executive leadership highly engaged in the project, coordination by an experienced and effective project leader and manager, collaboration by multidisciplinary project teams, and promoting transparency of results across the organization.

  5. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  6. Effect of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability with chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Son, Young-Lan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of intensive aerobic exercise on respiratory capacity and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=6) or a control group (n=6). Patients in the experimental group received intensive aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. The control group received aerobic exercise for 30 minutes and traditional physical therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days a week, for four weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, 10-meter walking test, and six-minute walking test over the baseline results. The comparison of the two groups after the intervention revealed that the experimental group showed more significant improvements in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and six-minute walking test. There was no significant difference in saturation pulse oximetry oxygen and 10-meter walking test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that intensive aerobic exercise has a positive effect on respiratory capacity and walking endurance in patients with chronic stroke.

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Meditation and Exercise for the Prevention of Acute Respiratory Infection: Possible Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zgierska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A randomized trial suggests that meditation and exercise may prevent acute respiratory infection (ARI. This paper explores potential mediating mechanisms. Methods. Community-recruited adults were randomly assigned to three nonblinded arms: 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (N=51, moderate-intensity exercise (N=51, or wait-list control (N=52. Primary outcomes were ARI illness burden (validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Potential mediators included self-reported psychophysical health and exercise intensity (baseline, 9 weeks, and 3 months. A Baron and Kenny approach-based mediational analysis model, adjusted for group status, age, and gender, evaluated the relationship between the primary outcome and a potential mediator using zero-inflated modeling and Sobel testing. Results. Of 154 randomized, 149 completed the trial (51, 47, and 51 in meditation, exercise, and control groups and were analyzed (82% female, 94% Caucasian, 59.3 ± SD 6.6 years old. Mediational analyses suggested that improved mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale at 3 months may mediate intervention effects on ARI severity and duration (P<0.05; 1 point increase in the mindfulness score corresponded to a shortened ARI duration by 7.2–9.6 hours. Conclusions. Meditation and exercise may decrease the ARI illness burden through increased mindfulness. These preliminary findings need confirmation, if confirmed, they would have important policy and clinical implications. This trial registration was Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01057771.

  8. Comparison of visual biofeedback system with a guiding waveform and abdomen-chest motion self-control system for respiratory motion management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yujiro; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Kanai, Takayuki; Ito, Kengo; Sato, Kiyokazu; Dobashi, Suguru; Yamamoto, Takaya; Ishikawa, Yojiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Irregular breathing can influence the outcome of 4D computed tomography imaging and cause artifacts. Visual biofeedback systems associated with a patient-specific guiding waveform are known to reduce respiratory irregularities. In Japan, abdomen and chest motion self-control devices (Abches) (representing simpler visual coaching techniques without a guiding waveform) are used instead; however, no studies have compared these two systems to date. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory coaching in reducing respiratory irregularities by comparing two respiratory management systems. We collected data from 11 healthy volunteers. Bar and wave models were used as visual biofeedback systems. Abches consisted of a respiratory indicator indicating the end of each expiration and inspiration motion. Respiratory variations were quantified as root mean squared error (RMSE) of displacement and period of breathing cycles. All coaching techniques improved respiratory variation, compared with free-breathing. Displacement RMSEs were 1.43 ± 0.84, 1.22 ± 1.13, 1.21 ± 0.86 and 0.98 ± 0.47 mm for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. Period RMSEs were 0.48 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.31, 0.23 ± 0.18 and 0.17 ± 0.05 s for free-breathing, Abches, bar model and wave model, respectively. The average reduction in displacement and period RMSE compared with the wave model were 27% and 47%, respectively. For variation in both displacement and period, wave model was superior to the other techniques. Our results showed that visual biofeedback combined with a wave model could potentially provide clinical benefits in respiratory management, although all techniques were able to reduce respiratory irregularities. PMID:26922090

  9. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  10. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values 40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean <30 breaths/min at home. Clinicians can use these data to help determine how best to control CHF in dogs and cats.

  11. Nosocomial viral respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graman, P S; Hall, C B

    1989-12-01

    Nosocomial infections with respiratory tract viruses, particularly influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, account for the majority of serious nosocomial viral disease. Chronically ill, immunocompromised, elderly, and very young hosts are especially vulnerable to potentially life-threatening involvement of the lower respiratory tract. Effective preventive strategies are based upon early accurate viral diagnosis and an appreciation of the epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission for each viral agent. Influenza viruses spread via airborne dispersion of small particle aerosols, resulting in explosive outbreaks; control measures emphasize immunization and chemoprophylaxis of susceptible patients and personnel, and isolation of those already infected. Transmission of respiratory syncytial virus, in contrast, seems to require closer contact, with virus passed on hands, fomites, or in large droplets inoculated into the eyes and nose at close range. Strategies for control of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus are designed to interrupt hand carriage and inoculation of virus onto mucous membranes.

  12. Closed-loop control of respiratory drive using pressure-support ventilation: target drive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahija, Jadranka; Beck, Jennifer; de Marchie, Michel; Comtois, Alain; Sinderby, Christer

    2005-05-01

    By using diaphragm electrical activity (multiple-array esophageal electrode) as an index of respiratory drive, and allowing such activity above or below a preset target range to indicate an increased or reduced demand for ventilatory assistance (target drive ventilation), we evaluated whether the level of pressure-support ventilation can be automatically adjusted in response to exercise-induced changes in ventilatory demand. Eleven healthy individuals breathed through a circuit (18 cm H2O/L/second inspiratory resistance at 1 L/second flow; 0.5-1.0 L/second expiratory flow limitation) connected to a modified ventilator. Subjects breathed for 6-minute periods at rest and during 20 and 40 W of bicycle exercise, with and without target drive ventilation (the target was set to 60% of the increase in diaphragm electrical activity observed between rest and 20 W of unassisted exercise). With target drive ventilation during exercise, the level of pressure-support ventilation was automatically increased, reaching 13.3 +/- 4.0 and 20.3 +/- 2.8 cm H2O during 20- and 40-W exercise, respectively, whereas diaphragm electrical activity was reduced to a level within the target range. Both diaphragmatic pressure-time product and end-tidal CO2 were significantly reduced with target drive ventilation at the end of the 20- (p < 0.01) and 40-W (p < 0.001) exercise periods. Minute ventilation was not altered. These results demonstrate that target drive ventilation can automatically adjust pressure-support ventilation, maintaining a constant neural drive and compensating for changes in respiratory demand. PMID:15665323

  13. No direct association among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in a sample of Mexican children with intermittent asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Raimundo Rodriguez-Orozco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire,  Pediatric  Asthma  Quality  of  Life  Questionnaire   (PAQLQ   test,  and flowmetry were applied  to  children  and  Pediatric  Asthma  Caregiver´s Quatily of  Life Questionnaire  (PAQCLQ  and  the  Family Functioning  Perception  Test  (FF-SIL were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium  to  high strength  of  association was founded  between  the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents’ limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837, parents’ limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722, parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837, parents’ emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743 and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870.No  direct associations were founded  among respiratory function, disease control  and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.

  14. The frontoparietal control system: A central role in mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the existence of a frontoparietal control system consisting of ‘flexible hubs’ that regulate distributed systems (e.g., visual, limbic, motor) according to current task goals. A growing number of studies are reporting alterations of this control system across a striking range of mental diseases. We suggest this may reflect a critical role for the control system in promoting and maintaining mental health. Specifically, we propose that this system implements feedback control to regulate symptoms as they arise (e.g., excessive anxiety reduced via regulation of amygdala), such that an intact control system is protective against a variety of mental illnesses. Consistent with this possibility, recent results indicate that several major mental illnesses involve altered brain-wide connectivity of the control system, likely altering its ability to regulate symptoms. These results suggest that this ‘immune system of the mind’ may be an especially important target for future basic and clinical research. PMID:24622818

  15. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  16. Cerebellar control of postural scaling and central set in stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, F B; Diener, H C

    1994-08-01

    1. The effects of cerebellar deficits in humans on scaling the magnitude of automatic postural responses based on sensory feedback and on predictive central set was investigated. Electromyographic (EMG) and surface reactive torques were compared in patients with anterior lobe cerebellar disorders and in normal healthy adults exposed to blocks of four velocities and five amplitudes of surface translations during stance. Correlations between the earliest postural responses (integrated EMG and initial rate of change of torque) and translation velocity provided a measure of postural magnitude scaling using sensory information from the current displacement. Correlations of responses with translation amplitude provided a measure of scaling dependent on predictive central set based on sequential experience with previous like displacements because the earliest postural responses occurred before completion of the displacements and because scaling to displacement amplitude disappeared when amplitudes were randomized in normal subjects. 2. Responses of cerebellar patients to forward body sway induced by backward surface displacements were hypermetric, that is, surface-reactive torque responses were two to three times larger than normal with longer muscle bursts resulting in overshooting of initial posture. Despite this postural hypermetria, the absolute and relative latencies of agonist muscle bursts at the ankle, knee, and hip were normal in cerebellar patients. 3. Although they were hypermetric, the earliest postural responses of cerebellar patients were scaled normally to platform displacement velocities using somatosensory feedback. Cerebellar patients, however, were unable to scale initial postural response magnitude to expected displacement amplitudes based on prior experience using central set. Randomization of displacement amplitudes eliminated the set effect of amplitude on initial responses in normal subjects, but responses to randomized and blocked trials were not

  17. A multi-strain Synbiotic may reduce viral respiratory infections in asthmatic children: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Ansari, Elham; Ganji, Toktam; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Khalesi, Maryam; Momen, Tooba; Kianifar, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Asthma is a growing problem worldwide. Acute exacerbations impose considerable morbidity, mortality, and increased cost. Viral respiratory infections are the most common cause (80–85%) of pediatric asthma exacerbations and admissions to the hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a new synbiotic Lactocare® on viral respiratory infections and asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children. Methods In this double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 72 children with mild persistent asthma, aged between 6 and 12 years, were randomized to receive either Lactocare®, a Synbiotic containing 1 billion CFU/Capsule of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Fructooligosacharide (Zist Takhmir, Tehran, Iran) or placebo daily for 60 days. The primary outcome was the number of viral respiratory infections, and secondary outcomes were school absence, salbutamol and prednisolone usage, outpatient visits, and hospital admission for asthma. The outcomes were compared among study groups using the SPSS 11.5 program and the Mann Whitney and Fisher exact tests. Results Of the 72 children who were enrolled with mild persistent asthma, 36 were assigned randomly to be treated with synbiotic and 36 with placebo. The number of viral respiratory infections was significantly higher in placebo group than the synbiotic group during the first month of intervention (0.74 ± 0.12 vs. 0.44 ± 0.1, p < 0.007) but not during the second month (0.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.5 ± 0.8, p < 0.641). Considering the total duration of the study (two months), infection episodes also were significantly lower in the synbiotic group (0.92 ± 0.15 vs. 0.69 ± 0.11, p < 0.046). Salbutamol consumption was significantly lower in the synbiotic group, but there were no significant differences in school absenteeism, oral

  18. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930118 Facial or nasal mask pressure supportventilation in managing acute exacerbation ofchronic respiratory failure in COPD patients.CHEN Rongchang(陈荣昌),et al.GuangzhouInstit Respir Dis,Guangzhou 510120.Chin Tu-berc & Respir Dis 1992;15(5)285-287.Eleven COPD patients(age:65±9 yrs)withacute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure(PaCO2 11.3±1.1kPa)were treated with maskpressure support ventilation,another 10 similarpatients(age:68±12yrs)served as controls.Bi-PAP ventilator was used with the followingmodifications:(1)Non-rehreathing valve set-in proximal to mask;(2)5 LPM oxygen flow de-livered into mask to reduce the dead space ef-fect.Mask ventilation was given 2-3 hours ev-ery time and 1-2 times daily for 7 days.Syn-

  19. Optical monitoring of cardiac and respiratory rhythms in the skin perfusion near the brain under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mandavilli M.; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.

    1998-06-01

    In this investigation an attempt is made to find the effects of controlled breathing on brain with the help of optical sensors mounted on the left and right temples of a subject. It has already been established that the brain activity can be monitored in terms of arterial blood volumetric changes to the left and right hemispheres of the brain recorded with the help of optical sensors. To investigate the influence of controlled breathing, an expert in controlled breathing (pranayama) is chosen as the subject. Pranayama is believed to be the controlled intake and outflow of breath in a firmly established posture. Some types of pranayama are believed to relive mental stress. While the subject is practicing one such type of breath control, arterial blood volume changes in the brain are recorded using optical sensors mounted on the left and right temples of the subject. From these measurements at the beginning and end of the pranayama exercise, it could be noticed that the subject could induce changes in the cardiac and respiratory rhythms by controlled breathing. Rhythmic phenomena in the skin perfusion in the vicinity of the brian are also studied when the subject is holding his breath. The arterial blood volume changes to the left and right hemispheres of the brain, as monitored by the optical sensors during this period, exhibit asymmetric reaction when the subject is holding his breath. An attempt is made to understand whether these changes induced by stoppage of breathing are 'chaotic' or 'adaptive' in nature.

  20. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  1. Epizootiological and diagnostic significance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a new viral disease in swine, designated exclusively under the acronym PRRS by the European Commission in 1991. The cause of this disease was isolated and determined in 1991 at the Lelystad Institute in The Netherlands as Lelystad aretrivirus. The PRRSV is an RNA virus of the order Nidovirales, the family Arteriviridae, the genus Arterivirus (Cavanaugh, 1997. Different genomic and pheriotypic varieties of the virus are significant. It is replicated in macrophages, it induces permanent viraemia, causes the creation of antibodies, and leads to persistent and latent infections. It is isolated from tonsil tissue, alveolar macrophages, the uterus, and fetal homogenate composed of different tissues (Wills et al., 1997. All production categories of swine can contract PRRS, but pregnant sows, suckling piglets and fattening swine are considered endangered categories. Morbidity and mortapty is between 8-80%, which also depends on the animal category. Economic damages are substantial when one considers the high percentage of still-born piglets, mummified fetuses and suckling piglets. Irregular successive cycles in sows are also expressed. In fattening swine, in addition to a respiratory form of the clinical picture, the time period until animals reach abattoir weight is extended even up to 30 days, which is also a considerable economic loss. Costs of treating possible secondary bacterial infections, diagnostics and immunoprophylaxis are not negligible. The OIE placed PRRS on the B list in 1992 as a contagious disease of swine which incurs economic losses in almost all countries of the world. Diagnosis is made by isolating and determining the virus and/or by serodiagnostics (ELISA and PCR. Certain countries have already made up protocols for the implementation of constant diagnostics and suggested eradication measures (Dee S.A. et al., 2000. In our country, the first clinical cases of PRRS were

  2. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  3. Central Control of Heat Pump for Smart Grid Purposes Tested on Single Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work a central control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The central...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.522 - RUS general specification for digital, stored program controlled central office equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lines can be remotely located from the central office. The remotely situated units are known as “Remote... such that the failure of a call processing unit does not degrade the call processing capabilities of... controlled central office equipment. 1755.522 Section 1755.522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  5. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  6. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  7. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  8. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate CERN equipment services or contractors. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity covers the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, and buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaur...

  9. CERN's Technical Control Room (TCR) A Central Service for Everyone

    CERN Document Server

    Mario Batz

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  10. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  11. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  12. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibe Doosje

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understanding of the role of traditional variables like job demands and job control with humorous coping styles and affective variables with regard to the explanation of the frequency of URTI.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 2094 employees filled out questionnaires assessing job demands, job control, generic (MSHS-C, antecedent-focused and responsefocused humorous coping (QOHC and job-related affect (JAWS.Main findings: Job demands were indirectly related to the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections, mediated by their relationships with job control and negative job-related affect. Generic and response-focused humorous coping were less relevant for the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections than the presumably ‘healthy’ antecedentfocused humorous coping style. The latter showed a negative association with negative jobrelated affect. The frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was better predicted by job control and negative job-related affect than by humorous coping, in the expected directions.Practical/managerial implication: These findings may have practical relevance for the improvement of stress management interventions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: Although it was shown that healthy humorous coping does contribute to decreases in upper respiratory tract infection, job demands, job resources and negative affective state seem the most important predictors.

  13. Time-Varying Scheme for Non-Centralized Model Predictive Control of Large-scale Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez Vicencio, A.A.; Ocampo-Martinez, C.; Maestre, J.M.; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Non-Centralized Model Predictive Control (NC-MPC) framework refers in this paper to any distributed, hierarchical, or decentralized model predictive controller (or a combination of them) the structure of which can change over time and the control actions of which are not obtained based on a cent

  14. Centralized computer-based controls of the Nova Laser Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article introduces the overall architecture of the computer-based Nova Laser Control System and describes its basic components. Use of standard hardware and software components ensures that the system, while specialized and distributed throughout the facility, is adaptable. 9 references, 6 figures

  15. Breathing and Vocal Control: The Respiratory System as both a Driver and Target of Telencephalic Vocal Motor Circuits in Songbirds

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Marc F.; McLean, Judith; Goller, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The production of vocalizations is intimately linked to the respiratory system. Despite our understanding of neural circuits that generate normal respiratory patterns, very little is understood regarding how these ponto-medullary circuits become engaged during vocal production. Songbirds offer a potentially powerful model system for addressing this relationship. Songs dramatically alter the respiratory pattern in ways that are often highly predictable and songbirds have a specialized telencep...

  16. Design and realization of central control system for J-TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To keep the J-TEXT tokamak running in order, it needs a central control system to coordinate the operations of all the sub-systems. The J-TEXT tokamak central control system adopts industrial PC with some PCI control cards based on Windows and QNX operation systems. This control system has been finished the test and put into use in the first-round experiment of the J-TEXT tokamak successfully. The testing and operation show that this system is stable and reliable. (authors)

  17. Respiratory Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Özyılmaz, Ezgi

    2014-01-01

    The main function of the lungs is to maintain the exchange between the pulmonary capillary and the air in the alveoli. By this way, the arteriel oxygen and carbondioxide tension remains constant. Respiratory failure is a syndrome which is defined as the loss of the ability of respiratory system to exchange oxygen and carbondioxide elimination function. The main pathophysiological causes of respiratory failure include ventilation-perfusion mismatch, alveolar hypoventilation, impaired diffusion...

  18. Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC® supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins William G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics purportedly reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory-tract illness by modulating commensal microflora. Preventing and reducing symptoms of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness are the primary reason that dietary supplementation with probiotics are becoming increasingly popular with healthy active individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding the effectiveness of probiotics in this cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic on faecal microbiology, self-reported illness symptoms and immunity in healthy well trained individuals. Methods Competitive cyclists (64 males and 35 females; age 35 ± 9 and 36 ± 9 y, VO2max 56 ± 6 and 52 ± 6 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean ± SD were randomised to either probiotic (minimum 1 × 109 Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC® per day or placebo treatment for 11 weeks in a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. The outcome measures were faecal L. fermentum counts, self-reported symptoms of illness and serum cytokines. Results Lactobacillus numbers increased 7.7-fold (90% confidence limits 2.1- to 28-fold more in males on the probiotic, while there was an unclear 2.2-fold (0.2- to 18-fold increase in females taking the probiotic. The number and duration of mild gastrointestinal symptoms were ~2-fold greater in the probiotic group. However, there was a substantial 0.7 (0.2 to 1.2 of a scale step reduction in the severity of gastrointestinal illness at the mean training load in males, which became more pronounced as training load increased. The load (duration×severity of lower respiratory illness symptoms was less by a factor of 0.31 (99%CI; 0.07 to 0.96 in males taking the probiotic compared with placebo but increased by a factor of 2.2 (0.41 to 27 in females. Differences in use of cold and flu medication mirrored these symptoms. The observed effects on URTI had too much uncertainty for a decisive outcome. There were clear reductions in

  19. [The role of opioidergic and GABAergic systems in the mechanosensitivity regulation of the respiratory system in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, L N; Safina, N F; Tarakanov, I A

    2015-01-01

    In anaesthetized white outbred male rats we investigated the change of respiratory mechanoreceptors sensitivity to morphine and phenibut. Bilateral transection of the vagus nerves causes a severely slowdown of respiratory rate in 30 minutes after the systemic administration of morphine, however after administration of phenibut the respiratory rate and other respiration parameters have not changed significantly. It means that the activation of opioid receptors by morphine does not significantly affect the function of the respiratory mechanoreceptor control loop, and transection of the vagus nerves on this background increases the probability of respiratory rhythm disorders. Activation of GABAergic system by phenibut significantly weakened the impact of the regulating contour of the respiratory mechanoreceptor on breathing parameters, up to effect of "central vagotomy": that is, to no changes in respiratory parameters after cutting the vagus nerves. PMID:27116874

  20. Excess capacity of H+ ATPase and inverse respiratory control in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Michelsen, Ole

    1993-01-01

    the growth rate much less than proportionally; the H+-ATPase controlled growth rate by lt 10%. This lack of control reflected excess capacity: the rate of ATP synthesis per H+-ATPase (the turnover number) increased by 60% when the number of enzymes was decreased by 40%. At 15% H+-ATPase, the enzyme...

  1. Pathophysiology of central sleep apneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Adam B; Patil, Susheel P

    2016-05-01

    The transition from wake to sleep is accompanied by a host of physiologic changes, which result in major alterations in respiratory control and may result in sleep-related breathing disorders. The central sleep apneas are a group of sleep-related breathing disorders that are characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow reduction or cessation due to a temporary reduction or absence of central respiratory drive. The fundamental hallmark of central sleep apnea (CSA) disorders is the presence of ventilatory control instability; however, additional mechanisms play a role in one or more specific manifestations of CSA. CSA may manifest during conditions of eucapnia/hypocapnia or chronic hypercapnia, which is a useful clinical classification that lends understanding to the underlying pathophysiology and potential therapies. In this review, an overview of normal breathing physiology is provided, followed by a discussion of pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote CSA and the mechanisms that are specific to different manifestations of CSA. PMID:26782104

  2. Mechanism of mitochondrial respiratory control in caspase-3 induced positive feed back loop in apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Caspase-3 plays a central role in the execution of apoptosis. Besides many substrates of caspase-3, mitochondria seem to be one of the candidate targets in the apoptotic process. We evaluated the effects of caspase-3 on the isolated mitochondria in detail, and especially focused on the mechanism involved in mitochondrial functions, which were not fully assessed till now. Our results showed that recombinant caspase-3 induced the increase of superoxide production, the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and rate increasing of mitochondrial state 4 respiration. Caspases inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk can inhibit these effects of caspase-3 on mitochondria. Bcl-xL and cyclosporin A were also shown to be able to inhibit these changes. These results suggested a possible mechanism in caspase-3 induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane barrier which formed a positive feedback loop in apoptosis.

  3. Microgrid Central Controller Development and Hierarchical Control Implementation in the Intelligent MicroGrid Lab of Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Andrade, Fabio;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a microgrid central controller in an inverter-based intelligent microgrid (iMG) lab in Aalborg University, Denmark. The iMG lab aims to provide a flexible experimental platform for comprehensive studies of microgrids. The complete control system applied in t...

  4. Shedding light on restoring respiratory function after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren J Alilain

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of respiratory function is one of the leading causes of death following spinal cord injury. Because of this, much work has been done in studying ways to restore respiratory function following SCI - including pharmacological and regeneration strategies. With the emergence of new and powerful tools from molecular neuroscience, new therapeutically relevant alternatives to these approaches have become available, including expression of light sensitive proteins called channelrhodopsins. In this article we briefly review the history of various attempts to restore breathing after C2 hemisection, and focus on our recent work using the activation of light sensitive channels to restore respiratory function after experimental spinal cord injury. We also discuss how such light induced activity can help shed light on the inner workings of the central nervous system respiratory circuitry that controls diaphragmatic function.

  5. A case-control questionnaire survey of risk factors for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) seropositi¬vity in Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, J.; Permin, A.; Mortensen, S.;

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-eight case herds seropositive to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) were compared to 128 seronegative controls in a double-blinded questionnaire survey. The study indicated no increased risk of PRRS seropositivity for herds using artificial insemination with semen from PRRS...

  6. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada JT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Juliano T Wada,1 Erickson Borges-Santos,1 Desiderio Cano Porras,1 Denise M Paisani,1 Alberto Cukier,2 Adriana C Lunardi,1 Celso RF Carvalho1 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Cardiopneumology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD.Design: This study was a randomized and controlled trial.Participants: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG or a control group (CG; n=15, each group.Intervention: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks of aerobic training.Evaluations: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography, and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%.Results: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01. The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional

  7. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sibe Doosje; Martijn P.M. de Goede; Lorenz J.P. van Doornen; Rens van de Schoot

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI).Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related affect, in order to explore their role in the explanation of the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection.Motivation of the study: This study has been conducted in order to extend our understandi...

  8. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective: We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods: Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results: Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both; after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05. Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05. The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48

  9. Lyapunov-Based Control Scheme for Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Central Inverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meza, C.; Biel, D.; Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    A Lyapunov-based control scheme for single-phase single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic central inverters is presented. Besides rendering the closed-loop system globally stable, the designed controller is able to deal with the system uncertainty that depends on the solar irradiance. A laboratory p

  10. Studying the central control of food intake and obesity in rats Estudando em ratos o controle central da ingestão alimentar e a obesidade

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system regulates energy intake and expenditure through a complex network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. It is of great interest to understand the relevance of these systems to the physiological control of energy balance and to the disturbances of obesity. The present paper discusses some of the methods to address this field used at the laboratory of Endocrine Physiology of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Initially, different experimental models of rat obesity...

  11. Targeting the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain of Cryptococcus through Antifungal Chemosensitization: A Model for Control of Non-Fermentative Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced control of species of Cryptococcus, non-fermentative yeast pathogens, was achieved by chemosensitization through co-application of certain compounds with a conventional antimicrobial drug. The species of Cryptococcus tested showed higher sensitivity to mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC inhibition compared to species of Candida. This higher sensitivity results from the inability of Cryptococcus to generate cellular energy through fermentation. To heighten disruption of cellular MRC, octyl gallate (OG or 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-DHBA, phenolic compounds inhibiting mitochondrial functions, were selected as chemosensitizers to pyraclostrobin (PCS; an inhibitor of complex III of MRC. The cryptococci were more susceptible to the chemosensitization (i.e., PCS + OG or 2,3-DHBA than the Candida with all Cryptococcus strains tested being sensitive to this chemosensitization. Alternatively, only few of the Candida strains showed sensitivity. OG possessed higher chemosensitizing potency than 2,3-DHBA, where the concentration of OG required with the drug to achieve chemosensitizing synergism was much lower than that required of 2,3-DHBA. Bioassays with gene deletion mutants of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that OG or 2,3-DHBA affect different cellular targets. These assays revealed mitochondrial superoxide dismutase or glutathione homeostasis plays a relatively greater role in fungal tolerance to 2,3-DHBA or OG, respectively. These findings show that application of chemosensitizing compounds that augment MRC debilitation is a promising strategy to antifungal control against yeast pathogens.

  12. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  13. Lung function studied by servo-controlled ventilator and respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas exchange function of lungs is studied. The gas concentration, measured by mass spectrometry and the lung volume and rate of change of lung volume are discussed. A servo-controlled ventilator is presented. Several experimental projects performed on anesthetized paralyzed dogs are reported. (M.A.C.)

  14. Excess capacity of H+ ATPase and inverse respiratory control in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Michelsen, Ole

    1993-01-01

    With succinate as free-energy source, Escherichia coli generating virtually all ATP by oxidative phosphorylation might be expected heavily to tax its ATP generating capacity. To examine this the H+-ATPase (ATP synthase) was modulated over a 30-fold range. Decreasing the amount of H+-ATPase reduced...... the growth rate much less than proportionally; the H+-ATPase controlled growth rate by lt 10%. This lack of control reflected excess capacity: the rate of ATP synthesis per H+-ATPase (the turnover number) increased by 60% when the number of enzymes was decreased by 40%. At 15% H+-ATPase, the enzyme became...... limiting and its turnover was increased even further, due to an increased driving force caused by a reduction in the total flux through the enzymes. At smaller reductions of (H+-ATPase) the total flux was not reduced, revealing a second cause for increased turnover number through increased membrane...

  15. Ventilatory dynamics during transient arousal from NREM sleep: implications for respiratory control stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, M C; Koh, S S; Shin, J J; Westbrook, P R; Berry, R B

    1996-05-01

    The polysomnographic and ventilatory patterns of nine normal adults were measured during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) stage 2 sleep before and after repeated administrations of a tone (40-72 dB) lasting 5 s. The ventilatory response to arousal (VRA) was determined in data sections showing electrocortical arousal following the start of the tone. Mean inspiratory flow and tidal volume increased significantly above control levels in the first seven breaths after the start of arousal, with peak increases (64.2% > control) occurring on the second breath. Breath-to-breath occlusion pressure 100 ms after the start of inspiration showed significant increases only on the second and third postarousal breaths, whereas upper airway resistance declined immediately and remained below control for > or = 7 consecutive breaths. These results suggest that the first breath and latter portion of the VRA are determined more by upper airway dynamics than by changes in the neural drive to breathe. Computer model simulations comparing different VRA time courses show that sustained periodic apnea is more likely to occur when the fall in the postarousal increase in ventilation is more abrupt. PMID:8727529

  16. Respiratory Muscle Training in Patients Recovering Recent Open Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Crisafulli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and feasibility of an expiratory muscle training (EMT device (Respilift applied to patients recovering from recent open cardiothoracic surgery (CTS. Design. Prospective, double-blind, 14-day randomised-controlled trial. Participants and Setting. A total of 60 inpatients recovering from recent CTS and early admitted to a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Interventions. Chest physiotherapy plus EMT with a resistive load of 30 cm H2O for active group and chest physiotherapy plus EMT with a sham load for control group. Measures. Changes in maximal expiratory pressure (MEP were considered as primary outcome, while maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP, dynamic and static lung volumes, oxygenation, perceived symptoms of dyspnoea, thoracic pain, and well being (evaluated by visual analogic scale—VAS and general health status were considered secondary outcomes. Results. All outcomes recorded showed significant improvements in both groups; however, the change of MEP (+34.2 mmHg, and +26.1%, for absolute and % of predicted, resp. was significantly higher in active group. Also VAS dyspnoea improved faster and more significantly ( at day 12, and 14 in active group when compared with control. The drop-out rate was 6%, without differences between groups. Conclusions. In patients recovering from recent CTS, specific EMT by Respilift is feasible and effective. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01510275.

  17. Lateralization of the respiratory control following unilateral cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Jamshidi, Masoud; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Ansarin, Khalil

    2008-02-01

    Cerebral control of respiration has been extensively studied but at present, no evidence of cerebral laterality or dominance for respiration exists. We examined the ventilatory changes following temporary (20 min) occlusion of the right or left common carotid artery in rabbits. The corresponding groups of sham-operated rabbits were used as controls. The partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PET(co2) ) was measured with a microstream capnograph before the operation as well as at 6h, and days 1, 4, 9 and 15 postoperation and was used to indicate the ventilatory status. The results showed that following temporary occlusion of the left common carotid artery, subjects began hypoventilation and had a progressive rise in PET(co2) on day 9 postoperation compared to the sham-operated group. However, animals that underwent occlusion of the right common carotid artery hyperventilated from as early as 6h postoperation to days 1 and 4, an effect that ceased up to day 9 postoperation. It was concluded that respiration might be under differential regulation by the two cerebral hemispheres. While the left hemispheric ischemia-reperfusion injury induced hypoventilation that of the right hemisphere resulted in hyperventilation. PMID:17981519

  18. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L

    2008-02-01

    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  19. The Hemagglutinin Stem-Binding Monoclonal Antibody VIS410 Controls Influenza Virus-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Jones, Jeremy C; Russier, Marion; Vogel, Peter; Szretter, Kristy J; Sloan, Susan E; Seiler, Patrick; Trevejo, Jose M; Webby, Richard J; Govorkova, Elena A

    2016-04-01

    Most cases of severe influenza are associated with pulmonary complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and no antiviral drugs of proven value for treating such complications are currently available. The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the stem of the influenza virus surface hemagglutinin (HA) is a rapidly developing strategy for the control of viruses of multiple HA subtypes. However, the mechanisms of action of these antibodies are not fully understood, and their ability to mitigate severe complications of influenza has been poorly studied. We evaluated the effect of treatment with VIS410, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the HA stem region, on the development of ARDS in BALB/c mice after infection with influenza A(H7N9) viruses. Prophylactic administration of VIS410 resulted in the complete protection of mice against lethal A(H7N9) virus challenge. A single therapeutic dose of VIS410 given 24 h after virus inoculation resulted in dose-dependent protection of up to 100% of mice inoculated with neuraminidase inhibitor-susceptible or -resistant A(H7N9) viruses. Compared to the outcomes in mock-treated controls, a single administration of VIS410 improved viral clearance from the lungs, reduced virus spread in lungs in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a lower lung injury score, reduced the extent of the alteration in lung vascular permeability and protein accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and improved lung physiologic function. Thus, antibodies targeting the HA stem can reduce the severity of ARDS and show promise as agents for controlling pulmonary complications in influenza. PMID:26787699

  20. A Numerically Subdominant CD8 T Cell Response to Matrix Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Controls Infection with Limited Immunopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CD8 T cells are involved in pathogen clearance and infection-induced pathology in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection. Studying bulk responses masks the contribution of individual CD8 T cell subsets to protective immunity and immunopathology. In particular, the roles of subdominant responses that are potentially beneficial to the host are rarely appreciated when the focus is on magnitude instead of quality of response. Here, by evaluating CD8 T cell responses in CB6F1 hybrid mice, in which multiple epitopes are recognized, we found that a numerically subdominant CD8 T cell response against DbM187 epitope of the virus matrix protein expressed high avidity TCR and enhanced signaling pathways associated with CD8 T cell effector functions. Each DbM187 T effector cell lysed more infected targets on a per cell basis than the numerically dominant KdM282 T cells, and controlled virus replication more efficiently with less pulmonary inflammation and illness than the previously well-characterized KdM282 T cell response. Our data suggest that the clinical outcome of viral infections is determined by the integrated functional properties of a variety of responding CD8 T cells, and that the highest magnitude response may not necessarily be the best in terms of benefit to the host. Understanding how to induce highly efficient and functional T cells would inform strategies for designing vaccines intended to provide T cell-mediated immunity.

  1. Effects of high-frequency chest wall oscillation on respiratory control in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, M C; Gelmont, D; Howell, S; Johnson, R; Yang, F; Chang, H K

    1989-05-01

    We studied the spontaneous breathing patterns of 10 normal adult volunteers during high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO), accomplished by inflating and deflating a vest worn around each subject's thorax at 2.5 Hz. Tidal volumes generated by HFCWO averaged 100 ml. Mean vest pressure was maintained at approximately 35 cm H2O throughout each experiment, even when HFCWO was not applied. During HFCWO, subjects were instructed occasionally to exhale deeply to obtain end-tidal samples representative of PACO2. HFCWO increased the breath-to-breath variability of spontaneous respiration in all subjects, prolonging expiratory pauses and producing short apneas in some cases. PACO2 decreased significantly (p less than 0.05). The effects on minute ventilation, tidal volume, and inspiratory and expiratory durations remained variable across subjects, even when differences in PACO2 between control and HFCWO states were reduced through inhalation of a low CO2 mixture. None of the changes were statistically significant, although average expiratory duration increased by 29%. Ventilatory responses to CO2 with and without HFCWO were also measured. Normocapnic (PACO2 = 40 mm Hg) ventilatory drive increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in six subjects (Type 1 response) and decreased substantially in the others (Type 2 response); with hypercapnia, the changes in drive were attenuated in both groups. Consequently, CO2 sensitivity decreased in Type 1 subjects and increased in Type 2 subjects. A simple analysis based on this result shows that with HFCWO, Type 2 subjects breathing air will tend to have a lower spontaneous minute ventilation and become hypercapnic. Type 1 subjects will become hypocapnic, but minute ventilation may be higher or lower than control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Mitochondrial respiratory control and early defects of oxidative phosphorylation in the failing human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Hélène; Semsroth, Severin; Antretter, Herwig; Höfer, Daniel; Gnaiger, Erich

    2011-12-01

    Heart failure is a consequence of progressive deterioration of cardiac performance. Little is known about the role of impaired oxidative phosphorylation in the progression of the disease, since previous studies of mitochondrial injuries are restricted to end-stage chronic heart failure. The present study aimed at evaluating the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of human heart failure. We measured the control of oxidative phosphorylation with high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized myocardial fibres from donor hearts (controls), and patients with no or mild heart failure but presenting with heart disease, or chronic heart failure due to dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy. The capacity of the phosphorylation system exerted a strong limitation on oxidative phosphorylation in the human heart, estimated at 121 pmol O(2)s(-1)mg(-1) in the healthy left ventricle. In heart disease, a specific defect of the phosphorylation system, Complex I-linked respiration, and mass-specific fatty acid oxidation were identified. These early defects were also significant in chronic heart failure, where the capacities of the oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer systems per cardiac tissue mass were decreased with all tested substrate combinations, suggesting a decline of mitochondrial density. Oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer system capacities were higher in ventricles compared to atria, but the impaired mitochondrial quality was identical in the four cardiac chambers of chronic heart failure patients. Coupling was preserved in heart disease and chronic heart failure, in contrast to the mitochondrial dysfunction observed after prolonged cold storage of cardiac tissue. Mitochondrial defects in the phosphorylation system, Complex I respiration and mass-specific fatty acid oxidation occurred early in the development of heart failure. Targeting these mitochondrial injuries with metabolic therapy may offer a promising approach to delay

  3. Acute inhibition of glial cells in the NTS does not affect respiratory and sympathetic activities in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Kauê M; Moraes, Davi J A; Machado, Benedito H

    2013-02-16

    Recent studies suggest that neuron-glia interactions are involved in multiple aspects of neuronal activity regulation. In the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neuron-glia interactions are thought to participate in the integration of autonomic responses to physiological challenges. However, it remains to be shown whether NTS glial cells might influence breathing and cardiovascular control, and also if they could be integral to the autonomic and respiratory responses to hypoxic challenges. Here, we investigated whether NTS glia play a tonic role in the modulation of central respiratory and sympathetic activities as well as in the changes in respiratory-sympathetic coupling induced by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a model of central autonomic and respiratory plasticity. We show that bilateral microinjections of fluorocitrate (FCt), a glial cell inhibitor, into the caudal and intermediate subnuclei of the NTS did not alter baseline respiratory and sympathetic parameters in in situ preparations of juvenile rats. Similar results were observed in rats previously exposed to CIH. Likewise, CIH-induced changes in respiratory-sympathetic coupling were unaffected by FCt-mediated inhibition. However, microinjection of FCt into the ventral medulla produced changes in respiratory frequency. Our results show that acute glial inhibition in the NTS does not affect baseline respiratory and sympathetic control. Additionally, we conclude that NTS glial cells may not be necessary for the continuous manifestation of sympathetic and respiratory adaptations to CIH. Our work provides evidence that neuron-glia interactions in the NTS do not participate in baseline respiratory and sympathetic control.

  4. Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC®) supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins William G; Cripps Allan W; Pyne David B; West Nicholas P; Eskesen Dorte C; Jairath Ashok; Christophersen Claus T; Conlon Michael A; Fricker Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics purportedly reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory-tract illness by modulating commensal microflora. Preventing and reducing symptoms of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness are the primary reason that dietary supplementation with probiotics are becoming increasingly popular with healthy active individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding the effectiveness of probiotics in this cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effecti...

  5. Smart Care™ versus respiratory physiotherapy–driven manual weaning for critically ill adult patients: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Corinne; Elivane S Victor; Pieri, Talita; Henn, Renata; Santana, Carolina; Giovanetti, Erica; Saghabi, Cilene; Timenetsky, Karina; Caserta Eid, Raquel; Silva, Eliezer; Matos, Gustavo F. J.; Guilherme P. P. Schettino; Barbas, Carmen S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A recent meta-analysis showed that weaning with SmartCare™ (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany) significantly decreased weaning time in critically ill patients. However, its utility compared with respiratory physiotherapist–protocolized weaning is still a matter of debate. We hypothesized that weaning with SmartCare™ would be as effective as respiratory physiotherapy–driven weaning in critically ill patients. Methods Adult critically ill patients mechanically ventilated for more than 24 hou...

  6. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Toosizadeh

    Full Text Available Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN. Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing. DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2 and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2 with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01, which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02, which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05 and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05. Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation

  7. Respiratory quotient: innovative method for monitoring ‘Royal Gala’ apple storage in a dynamic controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Weber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica, Borkh. which are not stored at low temperature or in a properly controlled atmosphere (CA may have a high metabolic rate during the postharvest stage resulting in losses in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of ‘Royal Gala’ apple fruit stored in accordance with a new method of dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA.The respiratory quotient (RQ was monitored at two temperatures which were then compared using a commercially available technology based on chlorophyll fluorescence DCA (DCA-CF and static CA. Ethylene production and respiration rates were lower in apples stored in DCA than in CA, as a result of lower 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase activity, especially in apples stored in DCA-RQ2. Flesh firmness of apples stored in DCA did not differ from those stored in CA. Apples stored at 1 °C had less flesh breakdown occurrence and a high percentage of healthy fruit. ‘Royal Gala’ stored at DCA-RQ2 had less flesh breakdown than apples stored in CA; however, the apples stored in DCA-CF did not differ from those stored in DCA-RQ2 and CA. Apples stored at the highest RQ value (6 and 4, especially at 0.5 °C, had low O2 injury occurrence after storage. However the increase in temperature to 1.0 °C, reduced the occurrence of this disorder. Therefore, storage in DCA-RQ2 at 1 °C or DCA-CF at 0.5 °C are the recommendations of preference for ensuring maintenance of quality in ‘Royal Gala’ apples after eight months of storage.

  8. Prevalence of tuberculosis, HIV and respiratory symptoms in two Zambian communities: implications for tuberculosis control in the era of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Ayles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Stop TB Partnership target for tuberculosis is to have reduced the prevalence of tuberculosis by 50% comparing 2015 to 1990. This target is challenging as few prevalence surveys have been conducted, especially in high burden tuberculosis and HIV countries. Current tuberculosis control strategies in high HIV prevalent settings are therefore based on limited epidemiological evidence and more evidence is needed from community-based surveys to inform improved policy formulation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 8044 adults were sampled from 2 sub-districts (wards in Lusaka province, Zambia. Questionnaires were used to screen for symptoms, respiratory samples were obtained for culture and oral secretions collected for HIV testing. 79 individuals were found to have Mycobacterium tuberculosis in their sputum, giving an adjusted overall prevalence of tuberculosis of 870/100,000 (95% CI 570-1160/100,000. The adjusted overall prevalence of HIV was 28.61% (95% CI 26.04-31.19. HIV- infection was significantly associated with prevalent tuberculosis (Adj OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.42-3.74 and the population attributable fraction of HIV for prevalent tuberculosis was 36%. Symptoms such as prolonged cough (adj OR 12.72, 95% CI 7.05-22.94 and fever (Adj OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.23-3.39, were associated with prevalent tuberculosis, but 8 (10% individuals with prevalent tuberculosis denied having any symptoms at all and only 34 (43% would have been classified as a TB suspect by current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Undiagnosed tuberculosis is a challenge for tuberculosis control and new approaches are needed if we are to reach international targets. Epidemiological studies can inform screening algorithms for both detection and prevention of active tuberculosis.

  9. Risk of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infection and effectiveness of control measures to prevent transmission events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Clare E; McKenzie, Bruce C; Coope, Caroline; Rajanaidu, Subhadra; Paranthaman, Karthik; Pebody, Richard; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Higgins, Julian P T; Beck, Charles R

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes a significant public health burden, and outbreaks among vulnerable patients in hospital settings are of particular concern. We reviewed published and unpublished literature from hospital settings to assess: (i) nosocomial RSV transmission risk (attack rate) during outbreaks, (ii) effectiveness of infection control measures. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, together with key websites, journals and grey literature, to end of 2012. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool or Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Forty studies were included (19 addressing research question one, 21 addressing question two). RSV transmission risk varied by hospital setting; 6-56% (median: 28·5%) in neonatal/paediatric settings (n = 14), 6-12% (median: 7%) in adult haematology and transplant units (n = 3), and 30-32% in other adult settings (n = 2). For question two, most studies (n = 13) employed multi-component interventions (e.g. cohort nursing, personal protective equipment (PPE), isolation), and these were largely reported to be effective in reducing nosocomial transmission. Four studies examined staff PPE; eye protection appeared more effective than gowns and masks. One study reported on RSV prophylaxis for patients (RSV-Ig/palivizumab); there was no statistical evidence of effectiveness although the sample size was small. Overall, risk of bias for included studies tended to be high. We conclude that RSV transmission risk varies widely during hospital outbreaks. Although multi-component control strategies appear broadly successful, further research is required to disaggregate the effectiveness of individual components including the potential role of palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:26901358

  10. The efficacy of centralized flow rate control in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, K.

    2013-06-13

    Commodity WiFi-based wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can be used to provide last mile Internet access. These networks exhibit extreme unfairness with backlogged traffic sources. Current solutions propose distributed source-rate control algorithms requiring link-layer or transport-layer changes on all mesh nodes. This is often infeasible in large practical deployments. In wireline networks, router-assisted rate control techniques have been proposed for use alongside end-to-end mechanisms. We wish to evaluate the feasibility of establishing similar centralized control via gateways in WMNs. In this paper, we focus on the efficacy of this control rather than the specifics of the controller design mechanism. We answer the question: Given sources that react predictably to congestion notification, can we enforce a desired rate allocation through a single centralized controller? The answer is not obvious because flows experience varying contention levels, and transmissions are scheduled by a node using imperfect local knowledge. We find that common router-assisted flow control schemes used in wired networks fail in WMNs because they assume that (1) links are independent, and (2) router queue buildups are sufficient for detecting congestion. We show that non-work-conserving, rate-based centralized scheduling can effectively enforce rate allocation. It can achieve results comparable to source rate limiting, without requiring any modifications to mesh routers or client devices. 2013 Jamshaid et al.; licensee Springer.

  11. Elimination of Oscillations in a Central Heating System using Pump Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2000-01-01

    In central heating systems with thermostatic valve temperature control it is a well known fact that room temperature oscillations may occur when the heat demand becomes low due to the non-linear behavior of the control loop. This is not only discomforting but it also increases the energy cost...... of heating the room. Using the pump speed as an active part in control is it shown that the room temperature may be stabilized in a wider interval of heat demand. The idea is to control the pump speed in a way that keeps the thermostatic valve within a suitable operating area using an estimate of the valve...... position. The position is estimated from the pump terminals, using the pump flow and the pump differential pressure. The concept is tested on a small central heating test bench. The results show that it is possible to stabilize the room temperature even at part load conditions...

  12. Control engineering and central supervision for ammonia refrigeration plants; Regelungstechnik und zentrale Leittechnik fuer Ammoniakkaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelborn, H. [Danfoss Waerme- und Kaeltetechnik GmbH, Heusenstamm (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    A brief overall view for mechanical and electronic liquid level controllers for flooded evaporators and NH{sub 3} surge drums, evaporator controllers, compound plant controllers and central supervision technology for industrial refrigeration plants will be presented. Using a fresh produce distribution centre with an ammonia refrigeration plant and surge drums as an example the controls operation and the central supervision technology will be described. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Uebersicht ueber die mechanische und elektronische Niveauregelung von ueberfluteten Verdampfern und NH{sub 3}-Abscheidern, ueber Kuehlstellenregler, Verbundanlagenregler und ueber zentrale Leittechnik fuer Industriekaelteanlagen gegeben. Anhand eines Frischware-Verteilzentrums, dessen Kaelteanlage mit drei NH{sub 3}-Abscheidern ausgeruestet ist, wird beispielhaft der Regelbetrieb des elektronischen Niveaureglers und der Leittechnik beschrieben. (orig.)

  13. The effect of using an interactive booklet on childhood respiratory tract infections in consultations: Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttall Jacqueline

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections in children result in more primary care consultations than any other acute condition, and are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics (which are largely unnecessary. About a fifth of children consult again for the same illness episode. Providing parents with written information on respiratory tract infections may result in a reduction in re-consultation rates and antibiotic prescribing for these illnesses. Asking clinicians to provide and discuss the information during the consultation may enhance effectiveness. This paper outlines the protocol for a study designed to evaluate the use of a booklet on respiratory tract infections in children within primary care consultations. Methods/Design This will be a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomised to provide parents consulting because their child has an acute respiratory tract infection with either an interactive booklet, or usual care. The booklet provides information on the expected duration of their child's illness, the likely benefits of various treatment options, signs and symptoms that should prompt re-consultation, and symptomatic treatment advice. It has been designed for use within the consultation and aims to enhance communication through the use of specific prompts. Clinicians randomised to using the interactive booklet will receive online training in its use. Outcomes will be assessed via a telephone interview with the parent two weeks after first consulting. The primary outcome will be the proportion of children who re-consult for the same illness episode. Secondary outcomes include: antibiotic use, parental satisfaction and enablement, and illness costs. Consultation rates for respiratory tract infections for the subsequent year will be assessed by a review of practice notes. Discussion Previous studies in adults and children have shown that educational interventions can result in reductions

  14. Optimisation of Control Strategy at the Central Solar Heating Plant in Marstal, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    The central solar heating plant at Marstal is monitored since 1996. The data is analysed with focus on the applied constrol strategy for the solar collector field. Variable flow is applied which is not the case at the other plants compared. The project analysed the performance, compared...... the performance with other control strategies and made proposals for furher enhancements....

  15. Control de calidad en centrales frutícolas. Equipamiento de laboratorios

    OpenAIRE

    Valero Ubierna, Constantino; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    La fruta y hortaliza fresca son productos sumamente perecederos. El que conserven su calidad y su aspecto saludable durante el mayor tiempo posible es de importancia central para que conserven su valor. Un cuidadoso control de su estado durante la manipulación es ineludible.

  16. Central aspects of jaw motor control in the rat. An electrophysiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkels, Robert Frederik

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is based upon four neurophysiological investigations on central aspects of jaw-motor control and a technique for the construction of a new cuff electrode for small nerves. The experiments were performed at the Department of Neurobiology and Oral Physiology of the State University of Gron

  17. An LQ-solution to a control problem associated with a solar thermal central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworder, D. D.; Rogers, R. O.

    1983-10-01

    The linearized process dynamics of the steam boiler in a solar-powered central receiver change abruptly when clouds interfere with the sun's rays. The steam temperature regulator used to maintain proper exit steam conditions must control a system with variable structure and discontinuous state trajectories. This paper investigates the quadratic-optimal control of such a system, and gives the design equations for the optimal regulator.

  18. Treatment of primary liver cancer using highly-conformal radiotherapy with kv-image guidance and respiratory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To implement a reliable, practical and reproducible treatment procedure, based on in-room kV-image guidance and respiratory control, for liver cancer patients treated with high dose conformal radiotherapy using a commercially available treatment system. Materials and methods: CT stimulation was conducted under voluntary breath hold or gating using the Varian Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) System. Treatments were delivered daily under kV image guidance to verify the diaphragmatic or lipiodol-defined tumor position. Results: Thirty-three patients with liver confined hepatocellular carcinoma were treated between May 2006 and Dec 2009. After a median follow-up period of 16.5 months (range: 3.5–40.7), all but 2 patients demonstrated radiological tumor regression. Eight patients (24%) achieved complete remission. The median tumor shrinkage was 42% (27–100%). Subsequent in-field tumor progression was observed in only three patients (10%). For the 23 patients with abnormal alpha fetoprotein level, 22 of them showed biochemical response with a median AFP level drop of 78%. The treatment was well tolerated: Grade 3 toxicities occurred in 5 patients (1 leucopenia, 1 elevated liver enzyme and 3 elevated bilirubin level) but there was no grade 4 toxicity or treatment related death. The 1 year overall survival rate is 71.7% and median survival time is 17.2 months (3.5–40.7 months). Conclusions: Excellent treatment results with minimal toxicities could be achieved in a clinical environment with a commercially available highly sophisticated radiotherapy system.

  19. Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Ozyilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main function of the lungs is to maintain the exchange between the pulmonary capillary and the air in the alveoli. By this way, the arteriel oxygen and carbondioxide tension remains constant. Respiratory failure is a syndrome which is defined as the loss of the ability of respiratory system to exchange oxygen and carbondioxide elimination function. The main pathophysiological causes of respiratory failure include ventilation-perfusion mismatch, alveolar hypoventilation, impaired diffusion capacity and increased shunt. A number of diseases may result in respiratory failure by different pathophysiological reasons. The most common causes are Type 1 (hypoxemic and Type 2 (hypercapnic respiratory failure. When suspected with clinical signs and symptoms, the diagnosis should be confirmed with arterial blood gases. At this step, other diagnostic interventions, which could be performed, may be used to enlighten the underlying pathophysiological cause. Although the main therapeutic approach is similar, specific treatment are also required based on the underlying cause. The basic pathophysiological points, diagnosis and basic treatment approach have been evaluated in this review article. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 428-442

  20. Graph theoretical stable allocation as a tool for central control of sewer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla

    2016-04-01

    Dutch sewer networks consist of multiple sub-networks that serve both to collect waste water and as a link in the transport chain of waste water to the Waste Water Treatment Plant. Within sub-networks transport is by gravity driven flow. The sub-networks are linked by pumping stations. If the network of pipes also serves to collect precipitation then the system is called a combined system. For some of these networks it may be beneficial to implement central control. We study whether the graph theoretical concept of stable allocations can be used as a basis for the algorithm underlying such a central conrol system.

  1. Validating a centralized approach to primary frequency control with series-produced electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Martinenas, Sergejus; Knezovic, Katarina;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is twofold: on one hand it proposes a centralized approach to primary frequency control by using electric vehicles as controllable units; on the other hand, it experimentally validates whether series-produced EVs, adhering to contemporary standards, can be an effective resource...... for providing primary frequency control. The validation process is realized in an islanded system with renewable sources and it relies on verifying that the frequency values are within the desired limits following severe load steps or wind power fluctuations. In order to reflect today’s situation, the used EVs......, three Nissan Leaf, are not taking advantage of any V2G capability, but rely solely on the possibility of limiting the charge between 6 A and 16 A. The centralized approach implies that the frequency is not measured locally as it is a common practice today, but is routed via the Internet in order...

  2. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  3. Animal models for investigating the central control of the mammalian diving response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMcculloch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pioneering studies by Per Scholander indicated that the diving response consists of reflexly induced apnea, bradycardia and an alteration of blood flow that maintains perfusion of the heart and brain. More recently field physiological studies have shown that many marine animals can adjust cardiorespiratory aspects of their diving response depending upon the behavioral situation. This could suggest that the very labile heart rate during diving is under direct cortical control. However, the final control of ANS functioning resides within the brainstem and not the cortex. Many physiologists regard the brain as a black box where important neuronal functioning occurs, but the complexity of such functioning leaves systematic investigation a daunting task. As a consequence the central control of the diving response has been under-investigated. Thus, to further advance the field of diving physiology by understanding its central neuronal control, it would be first necessary to understand the reflex circuitry that exists within the brainstem of diving animals. To do this will require an appropriate animal model. In this review, two animals, the muskrat and rat, will be offered as animal models to investigate the central aspects of the diving response. Firstly, although these rodents are not marine animals, natural histories indicate that both animals can and do exploit aquatic environments. Secondly, physiological recordings during natural and simulated diving indicate that both animals possess the same basic physiological responses to underwater submersion that occur in marine animals. Thirdly, the size and ease of housing of both animals makes them attractive laboratory research animals. Finally, the enormous amount of scientific literature regarding rodent brainstem autonomic control mechanisms, and the availability of brain atlases, makes these animals ideal choices to study the central control of the mammalian diving response.

  4. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV viral shedding in the respiratory tract: an observational analysis with infection control implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Contacts cleared MERS-CoV earlier than ill patients. This finding could be related to the types of sample as well as the types of patient studied. More ill patients with significant comorbidities shed the virus for a significantly longer time. The results of this study could have critical implications for infection control guidance and its application in healthcare facilities handling positive cases.

  5. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System architecture - Centralized versus distributed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, A. M.; Behrend, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Both Centralized and Distributed approaches are being evaluated for the installation of Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) equipment in the Space Station. In the Centralized facility concept, integrated processing equipment is located in two modules with plumbing used to circulate ECLS services throughout the Station. The Distributed approach locates the ECLS subsystems in every module of the Space Station with each subsystem designed to meet its own module needs. This paper defines the two approaches and how the advantages and disadvantages of each are tied to the choice of Space Station architecture. Other considerations and evaluations include: crew movement, Station evolution and the ducting impact needed to circulate ECLS services from centrally located processing equipment.

  6. Studying the central control of food intake and obesity in rats Estudando em ratos o controle central da ingestão alimentar e a obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system regulates energy intake and expenditure through a complex network of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. It is of great interest to understand the relevance of these systems to the physiological control of energy balance and to the disturbances of obesity. The present paper discusses some of the methods to address this field used at the laboratory of Endocrine Physiology of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Initially, different experimental models of rat obesity are presented, namely the hypothalamic induced monosodium glutamate model, the Zucker genetic model, and the dietary model. The principles of brain microdialysis are also presented, the technique applied to obtain representative samples of the extracellular fluid of brain sites involved in feeding control. The microdialysate levels of serotonin, an important anorexigenic neurotransmitter, are determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The immunoblot technique (Western blot is used to determine hypothalamic levels of proteins relevant to the anorexigenic effect of serotonin and to analyze the acute activation of the insulin signaling cascade in the hypothalamus. The final section addresses the potential applications of proteomics in the study of the central control of feeding.O sistema nervoso central controla a ingestão e o gasto de energia por meio de um complexo circuito de neurotransmissores e neuromoduladores. É de grande interesse entender a relevância fisiológica destes sistemas e o papel que desempenham nos distúrbios da obesidade. No presente artigo, discutem-se alguns dos métodos que têm sido utilizados no laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, em estudos neste campo. Inicialmente, são apresentados alguns modelos de obesidade experimental em ratos, como a obesidade hipotalâmica induzida por glutamato monossódico, o modelo genético Zucker e também obesidades induzidas por dieta. Comenta

  7. Randomised controlled trial of CRP rapid test as a guide to treatment of respiratory infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, H Z; Skamling, M; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt;

    2000-01-01

    To assess whether the frequency of antibiotic prescriptions to patients with respiratory infections is reduced when general practitioners (GPs) use a C-reactive protein (CRP) rapid test in support of their clinical assessment, and to study whether using the test will have any effect on the course...

  8. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of prednisolone in children admitted to hospital with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, JBM; Wolfs, TFW; vanAalderen, WMC; Brand, PLP; Kimpen, JLL

    1997-01-01

    Background - Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is an immune mediated disease. Corticosteroids might therefore be effective in the treatment of RSV bronchiolitis. Methods - A randomised double blind trial was conducted in children up to t

  9. An integrated palliative and respiratory care for patients with advanced disease and refractory breathlessness: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Higginson; C. Bausewein; C.C. Reilly; W. Gao; M. Gysels; M. Dzingina; P. McCrone; S. Booth; C.J. Jolley; J. Moxham

    2014-01-01

    Background Breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom, which increases in many diseases as they progress and is difficult to manage. We assessed the effectiveness of early palliative care integrated with respiratory services for patients with advanced disease and refractory breathlessness. M

  10. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    9. 1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2004223 Inhibitive effect on airway mucus overproduction of DNA vaccine based on xenogeneic homologous calcium-activated chloride channel in asthmatic mice. SONG Liqiang (宋立强), et al. Dept Respir Med, Xijing Hosp , 4th Milit Med Univ, Xi’an 710032. Natl Med J China 2004;84(4):329-333.

  11. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    6.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2004073 A study on the heterogenous apoptosis of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils from peripheral blood of asthmatic patients. LIU Chuntao (刘春涛), et al. West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003; 26(10):610 - 614.

  12. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on respiratory distress syndrome development and prognosis in premature infants: A single blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    OZTURK, MEHMET ADNAN; KARDAS, ZEHRA; KARDAS, FATİH; GUNES, TAMER; KURTOGLU, SELİM

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of L-carnitine therapy on the occurrence and prognosis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). A single blind, randomized controlled trial study was conducted on 130 infants with gestational ages of 28–36 weeks. Infants were assigned to experimental groups (groups 1 and 2) and control groups (groups 3 and 4). Groups 1 and 3 consisted of infants with RDS, and groups 2 and 4 groups were composed of infants without RDS. The experimenta...

  13. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  14. Recent advances in central cardiovascular control: sex, ROS, gas and inflammation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS in concert with the heart and vasculature is essential to maintaining cardiovascular (CV homeostasis. In recent years, our understanding of CNS control of blood pressure regulation (and dysregulation leading to hypertension has evolved substantially to include (i the actions of signaling molecules that are not classically viewed as CV signaling molecules, some of which exert effects at CNS targets in a non-traditional manner, and (ii CNS locations not traditionally viewed as central autonomic cardiovascular centers. This review summarizes recent work implicating immune signals and reproductive hormones, as well as gasotransmitters and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension at traditional CV control centers. Additionally, recent work implicating non-conventional CNS structures in CV regulation is discussed.

  15. Recent advances in central cardiovascular control: sex, ROS, gas and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline M.; Ferguson, Alastair V.

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) in concert with the heart and vasculature is essential to maintaining cardiovascular (CV) homeostasis. In recent years, our understanding of CNS control of blood pressure regulation (and dysregulation leading to hypertension) has evolved substantially to include (i) the actions of signaling molecules that are not classically viewed as CV signaling molecules, some of which exert effects at CNS targets in a non-traditional manner, and (ii) CNS locations not traditionally viewed as central autonomic cardiovascular centers. This review summarizes recent work implicating immune signals and reproductive hormones, as well as gasotransmitters and reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension at traditional CV control centers. Additionally, recent work implicating non-conventional CNS structures in CV regulation is discussed. PMID:27092251

  16. An application-layer based centralized information access control for VPN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Kai; ZHOU Jing-li; XIA Tao; YU Sheng-sheng

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid development of Virtual Private Network (VPN), many companies and organizations use VPN to implement their private communication. Traditionally, VPN uses security protocols to protect the confidentiality of data, the message integrity and the endpoint authentication. One core technique of VPN is tunneling, by which clients can access the internal servers traversing VPN. However, the tunneling technique also introduces a concealed security hole. It is possible that ifone vicious user can establish tunneling by the VPN server, he can compromise the internal servers behind the VPN server. So this paper presents a novel Application-layer based Centralized Information Access Control (ACIAC) for VPN to solve this problem.To implement an efficient, flexible and multi-decision access control model, we present two key techniques to ACIAC-the centralized management mechanism and the stream-based access control. Firstly, we implement the information center and the constraints/events center for ACIAC. By the two centers, we can provide an abstract access control mechanism, and the material access control can be decided dynamically by the ACIAC's constraint/event mechanism. Then we logically classify the VPN communication traffic into the access stream and the data stream so that we can tightly couple the features of VPN communication with the access control model. We also provide the design of our ACIAC prototype in this paper.

  17. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions

    OpenAIRE

    Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K.; Midei, Aimee J.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsi...

  18. Distributed control of PV strings with module integrated converters in presence of a central MPPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    in that the MIC should ensure the string voltage stability and MPP operation in presence of other MICs and ‘plain’ panels. It must also be transparent to the main inverters' MPPT, so that it can track during normal operation. In this paper, a system layout with local MPPT without voltage control is proposed......, which is able to ensure string voltage stability and MPP tracking in presence of a central MPPT....

  19. Central cholinergic regulation of respiration: nicotinic receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuesi M SHAO; Jack L FELDMAN

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in brainstem and spinal cord regions involved in the control of breathing. These receptors mediate central cholinergic regulation of respiration and effects of the exogenous ligand nicotine on respiratory pattern. Activation of a4* nAChRs in the preBotzinger Complex (preBotC), an essential site for normal respiratory rhythm generation in mammals, modulates excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and depolarizes preBotC inspiratory neurons, leading to increases in respiratory frequency. nAChRs are also present in motor nuclei innervating respiratory muscles. Activation of post- and/or extra-synaptic a4* nAChRs on hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons depolarizes these neurons, potentiating tonic and respiratory-related rhythmic activity. As perinatal nicotine exposure may contribute to the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), we discuss the effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on development of the cholinergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in control of breathing. Advances in understanding of the mechanisms underlying central cholinergic/nicotinic modulation of respiration provide a pharmacological basis for exploiting nAChRs as therapeutic targets for neurological disorders related to neural control of breathing such as sleep apnea and SIDS.

  20. Distinct roles of Hoxa2 and Krox20 in the development of rhythmic neural networks controlling inspiratory depth, respiratory frequency, and jaw opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taillebourg Emmanuel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the involvement of molecular determinants of segmental patterning of rhombomeres (r in the development of rhythmic neural networks in the mouse hindbrain. Here, we compare the phenotypes of mice carrying targeted inactivations of Hoxa2, the only Hox gene expressed up to r2, and of Krox20, expressed in r3 and r5. We investigated the impact of such mutations on the neural circuits controlling jaw opening and breathing in newborn mice, compatible with Hoxa2-dependent trigeminal defects and direct regulation of Hoxa2 by Krox20 in r3. Results We found that Hoxa2 mutants displayed an impaired oro-buccal reflex, similarly to Krox20 mutants. In contrast, while Krox20 is required for the development of the rhythm-promoting parafacial respiratory group (pFRG modulating respiratory frequency, Hoxa2 inactivation did not affect neonatal breathing frequency. Instead, we found that Hoxa2-/- but not Krox20-/- mutation leads to the elimination of a transient control of the inspiratory amplitude normally occurring during the first hours following birth. Tracing of r2-specific progenies of Hoxa2 expressing cells indicated that the control of inspiratory activity resides in rostral pontine areas and required an intact r2-derived territory. Conclusion Thus, inspiratory shaping and respiratory frequency are under the control of distinct Hox-dependent segmental cues in the mammalian brain. Moreover, these data point to the importance of rhombomere-specific genetic control in the development of modular neural networks in the mammalian hindbrain.

  1. Impaired postural control in children with developmental coordination disorder is related to less efficient central as well as peripheral control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speedtsberg, Merete Brink; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger; Andersen, Ken Kjøller;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental impairment that affects approximately 6% of children in primary school age. Children with DCD are characterized by impaired postural control. It has yet to be determined what effect peripheral and central neuromuscular...... control has on their balance control. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms to impaired postural control in children with DCD using the rambling-trembling decomposition of the center of pressure (CoP). METHOD: Nine children with DCD (9.0±0.5years, 7 boys, 2 girls......-trembling decomposition of CoP was calculated in medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction. RESULTS: Both rambling and trembling were larger for the children with DCD in AP (p=0.031; p=0.050) and ML direction (p=0.025; p=0.007), respectively. ML rambling trajectories did not differ in any conditions...

  2. Measuring Progress on the Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS at a Regional Level: The Minnesota N212 Regional Control Project (Rcp as a Working Example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valdes-Donoso

    Full Text Available Due to the highly transmissible nature of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS, implementation of regional programs to control the disease may be critical. Because PRRS is not reported in the US, numerous voluntary regional control projects (RCPs have been established. However, the effect of RCPs on PRRS control has not been assessed yet. This study aims to quantify the extent to which RCPs contribute to PRRS control by proposing a methodological framework to evaluate the progress of RCPs. Information collected between July 2012 and June 2015 from the Minnesota Voluntary Regional PRRS Elimination Project (RCP-N212 was used. Demography of premises (e.g. composition of farms with sows = SS and without sows = NSS was assessed by a repeated analysis of variance. By using general linear mixed-effects models, active participation of farms enrolled in the RCP-N212, defined as the decision to share (or not to share PRRS status, was evaluated and used as a predictor, along with other variables, to assess the PRRS trend over time. Additionally, spatial and temporal patterns of farmers' participation and the disease dynamics were investigated. The number of farms enrolled in RCP-N212 and its geographical coverage increased, but the proportion of SS and NSS did not vary significantly over time. A significant increasing (p<0.001 trend in farmers' decision to share PRRS status was observed, but with NSS producers less willing to report and a large variability between counties. The incidence of PRRS significantly (p<0.001 decreased, showing a negative correlation between degree of participation and occurrence of PRRS (p<0.001 and a positive correlation with farm density at the county level (p = 0.02. Despite a noted decrease in PRRS, significant spatio-temporal patterns of incidence of the disease over 3-weeks and 3-kms during the entire study period were identified. This study established a systematic approach to quantify the effect of RCPs on

  3. Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    Based on a database accumulated from several recent surveys of office buildings located in a temperate climate (Denmark), the effect on occupant perceptions and symptom prevalence was compared in buildings with natural and with mechanical ventilation in which earlier studies have shown...... a discrepancy in the degree of perceived control. The database was composed of 1272 responses obtained in 24 buildings of which 15 had mechanical ventilation (997 responses) and 9 had natural ventilation (275 responses). The number of occupant-reported control opportunities was higher in buildings with natural...... of control, as perceived by occupants, seemed more important for the prevalence of adverse symptoms and building-related symptoms than the ventilation mode per se. This result indicates that even though the development and application of new indoor environment sensors and HVAC control systems may allow...

  4. Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    of adverse symptoms and building related symptoms than the ventilation mode per se. This result indicates that even though the development and application of new indoor environment sensors and HVAC control systems may allow for fully automated IEQ control, such systems should not compromise occupants......Based on a database accumulated from several recent surveys of office buildings located in a temperate climate (Denmark), the effect on occupant perceptions and symptom prevalence was compared in buildings with natural and mechanical ventilation in which earlier studies have shown a discrepancy...... in the degree of perceived control. The database was composed of 1353 responses obtained in 25 buildings of which 15 had mechanical ventilation (997 responses) and 9 had natural ventilation (275 responses). Analysis of occupant responses, after grouping according to categories determined by the degree...

  5. Dynamic disturbance rejection controllers for neutral time delay systems with application to a central heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUMBOULIS Fotis N.; KOUVAKAS Nikolaos D.; PARASKEVOPOULOS Paraskevas N.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper the problem of disturbance rejection of single input-single output neutral time delay systems with multiple measurable disturbances is solved via dynamic controllers. In particular, the general form of the controller matrices is presented, while the necessary and sufficient conditions for the controller to be realizable are offered. The proposed technique is applied to a test case neutral time delay central heating system. In particular, the nonlinear model of the plant and its linearized approximation are presented. Based on the linearized model, a two-stage controller is designed in order to regulate the room temperature and the boiler effluent temperature. The performance of the closed loop system is investigated through computational experiments.

  6. Respiratory Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  7. Cardiopulmonary function of Young bronchitics (mostly mineworkers) before and after respiratory physiotherapy and physical training. Comparison with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcq, M.; Minette, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article covers the effects of 4 weeks' treatment consisting of respiratory physiotherapy associated with physical training on cardiopulmonary function. It involved 12 patients (updated group) suffering from chronic bronchitis, still at an early stage in clinical terms. All patients showed signs of early broncho-destructive problems. This research was carried out with financial aid from the EEC (Agreement No. 7246-30-2-001). (32 refs.)

  8. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East ... 2, 2015. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html . Accessed April ...

  9. Quality assurance program of a respiratory gating irradiation system based on external and internal fiducial markers; Programa de garantia de calidad de un sistema de irradiacion con control respiratorio basado en marcadores fiduciales externos e internos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2011-07-01

    Respiratory Gating involves the administration of radiation during treatment delivery within a particular portion of the patients breathing cycle, so the absorbed dose administration with respiratory control techniques requires specific quality control to ensure the correctness of the delivered dose. The establishment of a Quality Control Program (QC) is proposed for the Respiratory Gating based techniques in order to have a better understanding of how this system works and to know its associated dosimetric impact. The influence of the CT acquisition under respiratory motion conditions has been analyzed for the treatment isocenter localization, using internal and external fiducial markers with IGRT techniques that allow the correlation of the isocenter positioning with the phase of the respiratory cycle. Radiation delivery in the presence of intra fraction organ motion causes an averaging or blurring of the static dose distribution over the path of motion increasing the beam penumbra of the radiation field and reducing the therapeutic region when the irradiation is not breath controlled. The feasibility of intensity modulated treatments (IMRT) for both static and dynamic techniques, managed by respiratory control has been tested, demonstrating the possibility of synchronizing the movement of the leaves in the microfluorimeter collimator (mMLC) with the gated beam irradiation. (Author) 45 refs.

  10. The Dynamics and Characteristics of Aeolian Dust in Dryland Central Asia: Possible Impacts on Respiratory Health in the Aral Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, G. F.; O'Hara, S.; Wegerdt, J.; van der Meer, J.; Small, I.; Hubbard, R.

    2003-12-01

    Over the last 40 years over 36,000 km2 of the former Aral Sea bed have been exposed creating a potentially significant aeolian dust source. It is widely believed, but little researched, that increased dust storm activity in the region has had a major impact on human health. In this paper we report the findings of a study into the link between dust exposure and respiratory health amongst children in the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan, located on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. Data were collected over a 12 month period at 16 sites located within a broad transect running north to south through Karakalpakstan. At each site monthly measurements of dust deposition were undertaken linked with daily meteorological data at 6 stations. At 3 sites weekly measurements of PM10 were also carried out. Approximately 100 children (aged 7-10 years) were randomly selected within 5 km of each dust trap site and data were collected on their respiratory health and environmental exposures. Lung function data were also collected using a handheld spirometer. A linear regression model was used to predict lung function for the children incorporating variables for Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), age, gender, height and weight and we estimated the impact of dust deposition rates on the odds of having abnormal lung function using logistic regression. The findings indicate that dust deposition rates across the region are high with sites located near the former shore of the sea being the worst affected. For these northerly regions the former Aral Sea bed is the most likely source of dust. The situation for the rest of the country seems to be far more complex. In these regions it appears that local sources (agricultural fields, abandoned irrigation grounds, overgrazed dunes, and unpaved roads) and more distant sources to the south and south-west represent significant sediment providers, particularly in the early summer when agricultural fields are ploughed. We found some

  11. Exploring Dynamic Maintenance of Detailed Control Planning in Central City of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Because the understanding of urban development principles is a continuously deepening process,the Detailed Control Planning(DCP) also needs to be improved in the implementation process.For many years,the city of Beijing has made great efforts in this regard and established a dynamic maintenance mechanism for the DCP of the Central City in 2007.This enabled constant improvement and revision of the regulatory plans based on urban economic and social development as well as actual demands.This paper analyzes the formulation and execution of the DCP for the Central City of Beijing since 1999,discussing its evolution and development,as well as its practical application and a general explration of the planning work.It focuses upon the philosophy and mechanisms of dynamic maintenance.By drawing on previous experiences and lessons,it provides ideas and examples for the future management,formulation and implementation of the DCP.

  12. Central sleep apnoea—a clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Muza, Rexford T.

    2015-01-01

    Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is characterised by recurrent apnoeas during sleep with no associated respiratory effort. It mostly results from withdrawal of the wakefulness drive in sleep leaving ventilation under metabolic control. A detailed physiological understanding of the control of breathing in wakefulness and sleep is essential to the understanding of CSA. It encompasses a diverse group of conditions with differing aetiologies and pathophysiology. Likewise treatment varies according to u...

  13. Review of recent studies from central and Eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to "traditional" air pollutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Jedrychowski, W

    1995-01-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review foc...

  14. Posturo-respiratory synchronization: effects of aging and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Brad D; Hu, Kun; Peng, Chung-Kang; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Novak, Vera

    2012-06-01

    Spontaneous respiration influences the body's center-of-mass when standing. We contend that the healthy postural control system actively adapts to respiration, thereby minimizing its effect on postural sway. We therefore examined the interaction between respiration and postural sway, as measured by center-of-pressure (COP) oscillations, and quantified the extent to which this interaction resulted in "posturo-respiratory synchronization." We hypothesized that synchronization would be stronger in elderly subjects and those with stroke, and when standing with eyes closed as compared to open, due to alterations in the physiologic mechanisms that normally regulate postural sway. Twenty-five subjects with chronic hemispheric infarction and 38 controls (50-80 years) stood on a force platform for 3 min with eyes-open and 3 min with eyes-closed. Respiratory flow and COP dynamics were simultaneously recorded. The dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and the corresponding oscillatory modes of anterioposterior and mediolateral COP dynamics were extracted using ensemble empirical mode decomposition. The strength of posturo-respiratory synchronization was quantified from the regularity of instantaneous phase shifts between extracted respiratory and COP oscillations. Significant posturo-respiratory synchronization was only present in the anterioposterior direction. The strength of synchronization increased with age (pstroke patients (p=0.01). These observations suggest that a control system actively regulates the effects of respiration on sagittal-plane postural sway, particularly during eyes-open standing. As evidenced by increased posturo-respiratory synchronization with advanced age and central lesion, this novel metric may be used as a clinical marker of altered postural control.

  15. Main Controls on Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Paleozoic in Central Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is renown for its rich oil and gas resources with the bulk of the reserves reservoired in the Mesozoic.However,the discovery of Paleozoic fields in the late 1980s has encouraged further exploration in the Paleozoic.This paper reviews the salient features of the Paleozoic petroleum geology in central Saudi Arabia and discusses the main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Paleozoic.The Lower Silurian Qusaiba hot shale is the principal source rock for the hydrocarbons discovered in the Ordovician to Permian reservoirs.Of them,the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah and Upper Ordovician Sarah Formations have the best exploration potential.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Unayzah Formation are migration pathways and reservoir petrophysics.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sarah Formation are reservoir petrophysics and the development of structural traps.

  16. Effect of visual stimulus using central and peripheral visual field on postural control of normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Du-Jin

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of visual stimulus using central and peripheral vision fields on postural control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 40 young adult volunteers (15 males, 25 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups of differing visual stimulus. Each group was given visual intervention in a standing position for 3 minutes. Postural control was evaluated before and after visual intervention. [Results] The results of the functional reach test and body sway test showed significant differences among the four groups. [Conclusion] The two-way peripheral vision-field group showed significantly more body sway after visual intervention than the other three groups. This finding may suggest two-way peripheral vision field is a more effective visual stimulus for training postural control and balance.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase in central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Sadananda

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the central vocal control nuclei of the zebra finch was studied using enzyme histochemistry. AChE fibres and cells are intensely labelled in the forebrain nucleus area X, strongly labelled in high vocal centre (HVC) perikarya, and moderately to lightly labelled in the somata and neuropil of vocal control nuclei robust nucleus of arcopallium (RA), medial magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (MMAN) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). The identified sites of cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons are similar to the cholinergic presence in vocal control regions of other songbirds such as the song sparrow, starling and another genus of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), and to a certain extent in parallel vocal control regions in vocalizing birds such as the budgerigar. AChE presence in the vocal control system suggests innervation by either afferent projecting cholinergic systems and/or local circuit cholinergic neurons. Co-occurrence with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) indicates efferent cholinergic projections. The cholinergic presence in parts of the zebra finch vocal control system, such as the area X, that is also intricately wired with parts of the basal ganglia, the descending fibre tracts and brain stem nuclei could underlie this circuitry’s involvement in sensory processing and motor control of song.

  18. Initial treatment of respiratory distress syndrome with nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Armanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in premature infants who survived and its complications are a common problem. Due to high morbidity and mechanical ventilation (MV nowadays researchers in interested minimizing MV. To determine, in very low birth weight (BW preterm neonates with RDS, if initial treatment with nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (early NIMV compared with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (early NCPAP obtains more favorable outcomes in terms of the duration of treatment, and the need for endotracheal tube ventilation. Methods: In this single-center randomized control trial study, infants (BW ≤ 1500 g and/or gestational age ≤ 34 weeks with respiratory distress were considered eligible. Forty-four infants were randomly assigned to receive early-NIMV and 54 comparable infants to early-NCPAP. Surfactants were given, when FIO 2 requirement was of >30%. Primary outcomes were failure of noninvasive respiratory support, that is, the need for MV in the first 48 h of life and for the duration of noninvasive respiratory support in each group. Results: 98 infants were enrolled (44 in the NIMV and 54 in the NCPAP group. The Preventive power of MV of NIMV usage (95.5% was not lower than the NCPAP (98.1% strength (hazard ratio: 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-2.66; P: 0.23. The duration of noninvasive respiratory support in the NIMV group was significantly shorter than NCPAP (the median (range was 24 (18.00-48.00 h versus 48.00 (22.00-120.00 h in NIMV versus NCPAP groups; P < 0.001. Similarly, the duration of dependency on oxygen was less, for NIMV (the median (range was 96.00 (41.00-504.00 h versus144.00 (70.00-1130.00 h in NIMV versus NCPAP groups; P: 0.009. Interestingly, time to full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were more favorable in the NIMV versus the NCPAP group. Conclusions: Initial treatment of RDS with NIMV was safe, and well tolerated. Furthermore, NIMV had excellent

  19. Ancestry reported by white adults with cutaneous melanoma and control subjects in central Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollowell William W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that the high incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white persons in central Alabama is associated with a predominance of Irish and Scots descent. Methods Frequencies of country of ancestry reports were tabulated. The reports were also converted to scores that reflect proportional countries of ancestry in individuals. Using the scores, we computed aggregate country of ancestry indices as estimates of group ancestry composition. HLA-DRB1*04 allele frequencies and relationships to countries of ancestry were compared in probands and controls. Results were compared to those of European populations with HLA-DRB1*04 frequencies. Results Ninety evaluable adult white cutaneous melanoma probands and 324 adult white controls reported countries of ancestry of their grandparents. The respective frequencies of Ireland, and Scotland and "British Isles" reported countries of ancestry were significantly greater in probands than in controls. The respective frequencies of Wales, France, Italy and Poland were significantly greater in controls. 16.7% of melanoma probands and 23.8% of controls reported "Native American" ancestry; the corresponding "Native American" country of ancestry index was not significantly different in probands and controls. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly greater in probands, but was not significantly associated with individual or aggregate countries of ancestry. The frequency of DRB1*04 observed in Alabama was compared to DRB1*04 frequencies reported from England, Wales, Ireland, Orkney Island, France, Germany, and Australia. Conclusion White adults with cutaneous melanoma in central Alabama have a predominance of Irish, Scots, and "British Isles" ancestry and HLA-DRB1*04 that likely contributes to their high incidence of cutaneous melanoma.

  20. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  1. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chi; WANG Jian; YU Xiaoqi; YANG Dong

    2008-01-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  2. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Jian; Yu, Xiaoqi; Yang, Dong

    2008-02-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  3. Ampakine therapy to counter fentanyl-induced respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, John J; Ren, Jun

    2009-08-31

    Opioid analgesics are the most widely used and effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of acute, postoperative and chronic pain. However, activation of opiate receptors leads to significant depression of respiratory frequency in a subpopulation of patients. Here we test the hypothesis that the AMPAKINE CX717 is effective for alleviating fentanyl-induced respiratory depression without interfering with analgesia. Ampakines are a relatively new class of compounds that are in Phase II clinical trials as potential treatments for cognitive disorders and the enhancement of memory and attentiveness. They function by allosterically binding to amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors and modulating the kinetics of channel closing, transmitter dissociation and desensitization. AMPA receptor mediated conductances play a central role in controlling respiratory rhythmogenesis and drive to motoneurons. Here, we demonstrate that CX717 counters fentanyl-induced respiratory depression without significantly altering analgesia and sedation, or noticeably affecting the animals' behavior. Collectively, the preclinical data demonstrate the significant potential for the use of ampakines in respiratory medicine. PMID:19712906

  4. Understanding post 9/11 drug control policy and politics in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Alisher

    2009-09-01

    This paper exposes contemporary drug policy challenges in Central Asia by focusing on a single point in the history of drug control, in a single region of the global war against drugs and terrorism, and on one agency whose mission is to help make the world safer from crime, drugs and terrorism. By looking closely at the post 9/11 security-oriented donor priorities, I conclude that, in Central Asia, the rhetoric of the taking a more 'balanced approach' to drug policy is bankrupt. When enacted by the national law enforcement agencies in the Central Asian republics, the 'Drug Free' aspirational goal is driving the HIV epidemic among IDUs. The face-saving 'containment' thesis does not reflect the drug situation in this region but rather the failure to adopt an evidence-based approach. The harm reduction agenda continues to face many challenges including resistance to substitution treatment, the harm from drug treatment, from poorly designed drug prevention programmes and from repressive counter-narcotics policies and practices.

  5. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  6. Rewiring AMPK and mitochondrial retrograde signaling for metabolic control of aging and histone acetylation in respiratory-defective cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, R Magnus N; Glaves, John Paul; Huan, Tao; Li, Liang; Sykes, Brian D; Schultz, Michael C

    2014-04-24

    Abnormal respiratory metabolism plays a role in numerous human disorders. We find that regulation of overall histone acetylation is perturbed in respiratory-incompetent (ρ(0)) yeast. Because histone acetylation is highly sensitive to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) availability, we sought interventions that suppress this ρ(0) phenotype through reprogramming metabolism. Nutritional intervention studies led to the discovery that genetic coactivation of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus retrograde (RTG) response and the AMPK (Snf1) pathway prevents abnormal histone deacetylation in ρ(0) cells. Metabolic profiling of signaling mutants uncovered links between chromatin-dependent phenotypes of ρ(0) cells and metabolism of ATP, acetyl-CoA, glutathione, branched-chain amino acids, and the storage carbohydrate trehalose. Importantly, RTG/AMPK activation reprograms energy metabolism to increase the supply of acetyl-CoA to lysine acetyltransferases and extend the chronological lifespan of ρ(0) cells. Our results strengthen the framework for rational design of nutrient supplementation schemes and drug-discovery initiatives aimed at mimicking the therapeutic benefits of dietary interventions.

  7. Rewiring AMPK and Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling for Metabolic Control of Aging and Histone Acetylation in Respiratory-Defective Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magnus N. Friis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal respiratory metabolism plays a role in numerous human disorders. We find that regulation of overall histone acetylation is perturbed in respiratory-incompetent (ρ0 yeast. Because histone acetylation is highly sensitive to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA availability, we sought interventions that suppress this ρ0 phenotype through reprogramming metabolism. Nutritional intervention studies led to the discovery that genetic coactivation of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus retrograde (RTG response and the AMPK (Snf1 pathway prevents abnormal histone deacetylation in ρ0 cells. Metabolic profiling of signaling mutants uncovered links between chromatin-dependent phenotypes of ρ0 cells and metabolism of ATP, acetyl-CoA, glutathione, branched-chain amino acids, and the storage carbohydrate trehalose. Importantly, RTG/AMPK activation reprograms energy metabolism to increase the supply of acetyl-CoA to lysine acetyltransferases and extend the chronological lifespan of ρ0 cells. Our results strengthen the framework for rational design of nutrient supplementation schemes and drug-discovery initiatives aimed at mimicking the therapeutic benefits of dietary interventions.

  8. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  9. Understanding key drivers controlling daily stable isotope variations in precipitation of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Welsh, Kristin; Birkel, Christian; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Corrales-Salazar, Jose; Boll, Jan; Brooks, Erin; Roupsard, Olivier; Katchan, Irina; Arce-Mesén, Rafael; Soulsby, Chris; Araguás-Araguás, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives direct moisture inputs from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The relatively narrow, but high relief Central American land bridge is characterized by unique mountainous and lowland microclimates. However, only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition in this tropical region. Therefore, the main scope of this study is to identify the key drivers controlling variations in meteoric waters of Costa Rica using stable isotopes based on daily sample collection for the year 2013. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ d18O up to -0.9‰ d18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ d18O). HYSPLIT back air mass trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of two main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the Colombian Low Level Jet as well as localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that Lifted Condensation Level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to enhance catchment and groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management.

  10. Design of Central Management & Control Unit for Onboard High-Speed Data Handling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-qin; JIN Sheng-zhen; NING Shu-nian

    2007-01-01

    The Main Optical Telescope (MOT) is an important payload of the Space Solar Telescope (SST) with various instruments and observation modes. Its real-time data handling and management and control tasks are arduous. Based on the advanced techniques of foreign countries, an improved structure of onboard data handling systems feasible for SST, is proposed. This article concentrated on the development of a Central Management & Control Unit (MCU) based on FPGA and DSP. Through reconfigurating the FPGA and DSP programs, the prototype could perform different tasks.Thus the inheritability of the whole system is improved. The completed dual-channel prototype proves that the system meets all requirements of the MOT. Its high reliability and safety features also meet the requirements under harsh conditions such as mine detection.

  11. Evaluation of mupirocin ointment in control of central venous catheter related infections: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Central venous catheter (CVC related infections are important complications of cathter application. This study assessed the usefulness of mupirocin in prevention and control of these infections."n"nMethods: In this randomized clinical trial, consecutive surgical patients requiring central venous catheter (for more than 2 days in Amir-Alam Hospital from 2006-2008 were enrolled. Patients were divided in two groups; in "case group" patients received topical mupirocin 2% every 48 hours at the time of insertion of catheter and dressing change and for "control group" mupirocin was not used. All of the patients received chlorhexidine and enoxoparin as complementary treatments. Two groups were comparable in regard of age, sex and risk factors."n"nResults: One hundred eighteen patients enrolled in the study (57 in case and 61 in control group completed the study. 84 catheters in case group and 88 catheters in control group were inserted. The catheters in 90% of patients were inserted in jugular vein. At the end of study 29(16.8% patients (16 in control versus 13 in case group had catheter colonization (p=NS. Catheter related bloodstream infection was observed in 16(9.3% patients (6 in

  12. Neurochemical architecture of the central complex related to its function in the control of grasshopper acoustic communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kunst

    Full Text Available The central complex selects and coordinates the species- and situation-specific song production in acoustically communicating grasshoppers. Control of sound production is mediated by several neurotransmitters and modulators, their receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. It has previously been shown that muscarinic cholinergic excitation in the central complex promotes sound production whereas both GABA and nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling suppress its performance. The present immunocytochemical and pharmacological study investigates the question whether GABA and nitric oxide mediate inhibition of sound production independently. Muscarinic ACh receptors are expressed by columnar output neurons of the central complex that innervate the lower division of the central body and terminate in the lateral accessory lobes. GABAergic tangential neurons that innervate the lower division of the central body arborize in close proximity of columnar neurons and thus may directly inhibit these central complex output neurons. A subset of these GABAergic tangential neurons accumulates cyclic GMP following the release of nitric oxide from neurites in the upper division of the central body. While sound production stimulated by muscarine injection into the central complex is suppressed by co-application of sodium nitroprusside, picrotoxin-stimulated singing was not affected by co-application of this nitric oxide donor, indicating that nitric oxide mediated inhibition requires functional GABA signaling. Hence, grasshopper sound production is controlled by processing of information in the lower division of the central body which is subject to modulation by nitric oxide released from neurons in the upper division.

  13. Carbon-ion scanning lung treatment planning with respiratory-gated phase-controlled rescanning: simulation study using 4-dimensional CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To moving lung tumors, we applied a respiratory-gated strategy to carbon-ion pencil beam scanning with multiple phase-controlled rescanning (PCR). In this simulation study, we quantitatively evaluated dose distributions based on 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) treatment planning. Volumetric 4DCTs were acquired for 14 patients with lung tumors. Gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated. Field-specific target volumes (FTVs) were calculated, and 48Gy(RBE) in a single fraction was prescribed to the FTVs delivered from four beam angles. The dose assessment metrics were quantified by changing the number of PCR and the results for the ungated and gated scenarios were then compared. For the ungated strategy, the mean dose delivered to 95% of the volume of the CTV (CTV-D95) was in average 45.3 ± 0.9 Gy(RBE) even with a single rescanning (1 × PCR). Using 4 × PCR or more achieved adequate target coverage (CTV-D95 = 46.6 ± 0.3 Gy(RBE) for ungated 4 × PCR) and excellent dose homogeneity (homogeneity index =1.0 ± 0.2% for ungated 4 × PCR). Applying respiratory gating, percentage of lung receiving at least 20 Gy(RBE) (lung-V20) and heart maximal dose, averaged over all patients, significantly decreased by 12% (p < 0.05) and 13% (p < 0.05), respectively. Four or more PCR during PBS-CIRT improved dose conformation to moving lung tumors without gating. The use of a respiratory-gated strategy in combination with PCR reduced excessive doses to OARs

  14. Temperature control of a microspectrophotometer system for monitoring the redox reactions of respiratory pigments in small volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Karen Y.; Walsh, James E.; Murphy, J.; Harmey, M.; Farrell, M. A.; Hardimann, O.; Perryman, R.

    1998-05-01

    We report the development of a microspectrophotometer system for use on micro samples of mitochondrial respiratory pigments. A novel optical fiber set-up uses visible spectrophotometry to monitor the reduction of mitochondrial electron carriers. Data is presented for the reduction of cytochrome-c and for the effect of temperature on the levels of complex II/III activity from the mitochondria of rat liver. This in-vivo simulation of the reduction of cytochrome-c can be observed using a fiber optic probe which requires less than twenty (mu) l of sample for analysis. The key features of the system are: front end adaptability, high sensitivity and fast multispectral acquisition which are essential for the biological reactions which are observed.

  15. What controls millennial-scale denudation rates across the Central Andes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Korup, Oliver; Schlunegger, Fritz; Kober, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable planning of erosion control measures in the Central Andes requires robust knowledge about natural denudation rates. We explore a large dataset combining new and published 10Be (and 26Al) catchment-wide denudation rates from a swath at 17 to 19° S spanning the Western Cordillera that rises from sea level to 5500 m elevation; the Altiplano at ~4000 m; the Eastern Cordillera with elevations up to 6500 m; the Interandean Zone; the Subandean Zone; and the Chaco Plain at 300 m. The selected catchments span a large spread regarding morphometric and climate properties where mean slope angles range from 1 to 31°, and mean precipitation from 100 to 3900 mm/a. The denudation rates (0.0036 to 1.93 mm/a) are averaged over millennia, and reveal two to three magnitudes difference across the Central Andes. The regional distribution of denudation rates clearly demonstrates a more complex interaction of geomorphological, geological and meteorological parameters with the dominant geomorphological processes. In order to elucidate the key controls on denudation, we use multivariate statistics such as principal component analysis in order to remove potentially redundant predictors of denudation in the studied catchments. These predictors include catchment elevation, topographic relief, hillslope inclination, mean precipitation, tree cover, specific stream power, channel steepness indices, sinuosity, drainage density and hypsometric index that we derived from the SRTM 90 m Digital Elevation Database, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, and the Terra MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields dataset. Additionally, the rock strength index (PLI) was estimated based on geological units. Preliminary results allow distinguishing five different longitudinal domains of denudation on the basis of climatic regime, hillslope steepness, and the degree of accumulated crustal deformation. We find that the pattern of 10Be catchment-wide denudation rates in the Central Andes

  16. Role of ventrolateral medulla in regulation of respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E; Eldridge, F L

    1986-10-01

    It is now widely accepted that the ventrolateral aspect of the medulla oblongata (VLM) plays an important role in regulation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The VLM has been implicated as being involved in a number of different physiological functions, including central chemoreception, integration of afferent inputs from certain sense organs to the respiratory and cardiovascular controllers, the source of excitatory input to preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord, and location of synaptic relay between the higher brain defense areas and spinal cord sympathetic elements. In recent years there have been a number of important findings concerning both the anatomical substrate and neurophysiological characteristics of VLM neurons involved in regulation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. New anatomical findings show that neuronal networks located in the VLM send projections to and receive projections from brain stem nuclei that have traditionally been associated with respiratory and cardiovascular regulation. Nevertheless, there are still many important questions concerning the role of the VLM in control of these vital systems that have yet to be answered. For instance, are the same VLM neurons involved in control of both systems? Is the VLM the only site for central respiratory chemoreception? This review will endeavor to examine new findings and to reexamine some older findings concerning the VLM. PMID:3536832

  17. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  18. Vaccine Induced Herd Immunity for Control of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease in a Low-Income Country Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Kinyanjui

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is globally ubiquitous, and infection during the first six months of life is a major risk for severe disease and hospital admission; consequently RSV is the most important viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality in young children. Development of vaccines for young infants is complicated by the presence of maternal antibodies and immunological immaturity, but vaccines targeted at older children avoid these problems. Vaccine development for young infants has been unsuccessful, but this is not the case for older children (> 6 m. Would vaccinating older children have a significant public health impact? We developed a mathematical model to explore the benefits of a vaccine against RSV.We have used a deterministic age structured model capturing the key epidemiological characteristics of RSV and performed a statistical maximum-likelihood fit to age-specific hospitalization data from a developing country setting. To explore the effects of vaccination under different mixing assumptions, we included two versions of contact matrices: one from a social contact diary study, and the second a synthesised construction based on demographic data. Vaccination is assumed to elicit an immune response equivalent to primary infection. Our results show that immunisation of young children (5-10 m is likely to be a highly effective method of protection of infants (<6 m against hospitalisation. The majority benefit is derived from indirect protection (herd immunity. A full sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using Latin Hypercube Sampling of the parameter space shows that our results are robust to model structure and model parameters.This result suggests that vaccinating older infants and children against RSV can have a major public health benefit.

  19. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  20. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivery, and other respiratory disorders may lead to respiratory failure and death particularly in people with OI Type ... have OI. It is a sobering fact that respiratory failure is the leading cause of death for people ...

  1. Design, implementation and evalution of a central unit for controlling climatic conditions in the greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Zarei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In greenhouse culture, in addition to increasing the quantity and quality of crop production in comparison with traditional methods, the agricultural inputs are saved, too. Recently, using new methods, designs and materials, and higher automation in greenhouses, better management has become possible for enhancing yield and improving the quality of greenhouse crops. The constructed and evaluated central controller unit (CCU is a central controller system and computerized monitoring unit for greenhouse application. Several sensors, one CCU, several operators, and a data-collection and recorder unit were the major components of this system. The operators included heating, cooling, spraying, ventilation and lighting systems, and the sensors are for temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, oxygen and light in inside and outside the greenhouse. Environmental conditions were measured by the accurate sensors and transmitted to the CCU. Based on this information, the CCU changed variables to optimize the greenhouse environmental conditions to predetermined ranges. This system was totally made of local instruments and parts and had the ability to integrate with the needs of the client. The designed and implemented CCU was tested in a greenhouse located in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan Province during summer season of 2011. The CCU was operated successfully for controlling greenhouse temperature in the range of 22-29 ˚C, relative humidity of 35-55%, artificial lighting in the case of receiving radiation of less than 800 Lux and turning on the ventilation units if the concentration of carbon dioxide was more than 800 mg/L.

  2. The Effectiveness and Safety of a Homeopathic Medicinal Product in Pediatric Upper Respiratory Tract Infections With Fever: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haselen, Robert; Thinesse-Mallwitz, Manuela; Maidannyk, Vitaliy; Buskin, Stephen L; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Burkart, Julia; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the clinical effectiveness of a homeopathic add-on therapy in a pediatric subpopulation with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in a randomized, controlled, multinational clinical trial. Patients received either on-demand symptomatic standard treatment (ST-group) or the same ST plus a homeopathic medication (Influcid; IFC-group) for 7 days. Outcome assessment was based on symptom and fever resolution and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 (WURSS-21). A total of 261 pediatric (<12 years) patients (130 IFC-group; 131 ST-group) were recruited in Germany and the Ukraine. The IFC-group used less symptomatic medication, symptoms resolved significantly earlier (P = .0001), had higher proportions of fever-free children from day 3 onwards, and the WURSS-assessed global disease severity was significantly less (P < .0001) during the entire URTI episode. One adverse event (vomiting) was possibly related to IFC. IFC as add-on treatment in pediatric URTI reduced global disease severity, shortened symptom resolution, and was safe in use.

  3. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display

  4. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  5. Central Corneal Thickness Measurements in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Patients: A Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Jabaly-Habib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure central corneal thickness (CCT in patients with history of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION. Patients and Methods. Patients older than 40 years with a history of NAION (group 1 were prospectively evaluated including full eye examination and central corneal thickness (CCT pachymetry. Patients with a history of intraocular surgery, corneal disease, glaucoma, and contact lens wear were excluded. Measurements were also performed in a gender and age matched control group (group 2. Results. Thirty-one eyes of 31 NAION patients in group 1 were included and 30 eyes of 30 participants in group 2. There were 15 men in group 1 and 9 in group 2 P=0.141, and mean age of the patients was 59±10 years in group 1 versus 61±11 years in group 2 P=0.708. Mean CCT was 539±30 microns in group 1 and 550±33 microns in group 2 P=0.155. Conclusion. Patients with NAION have no special characteristic of CCT in contrast to the crowded optic disc known to be a significant anatomic risk factor for NAION. More studies should be carried out to investigate CCT and other structure related elements in NAION patients.

  6. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Giantsis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable domain 1 (VD1 domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  7. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly

  8. Surface control on contrasts in deformation between eastern and western margins of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, F.; Norton, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    enhanced orographic rainfall, which promotes thrusting and internal shortening. A fault-scale coupled erosion-deformation model also shows that low erosion rates and steep topographic angles would have forced a migration of deformation from the Western Escarpment to the eastern side. These findings illustrate the strong control of orographic precipitation on the deformation of the Central Andes. Kober, F. et al. Denudation rates and topography-driven rainfall threshold in northern Chile: multiple cosmogenic nuclide data and sediment budgets. Geomorphology 83, 97-120 (2007). Norton, K. & Schlunegger, F. Migrating deformation in the Central Andes from enhanced orographic rainfall. Nat. Commun. 2, 584 (2011). Safran, E. B et al. Erosion rates driven by channel network incision in the Bolivian Andes. Earth Surf. Process Landforms 30, 1007-1024 (2005).

  9. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindh Magnus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit and after 10 days (follow-up visit. Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days. The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202 of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204 (P = 0.005 of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202 in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204 in the delayed result group (P

  10. Endogenous vasopressin and the central control of heart rate during dynamic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Michelini

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains a brief review on the role of vasopressinergic projections to the nucleus tractus solitarii in the genesis of reflex bradycardia and in the modulation of heart rate control during exercise. The effects of vasopressin on exercise tachycardia are discussed on the basis of both the endogenous peptide content changes and the heart rate response changes observed during running in sedentary and trained rats. Dynamic exercise caused a specific vasopressin content increase in dorsal and ventral brainstem areas. In accordance, rats pretreated with the peptide or the V1 blocker into the nucleus tractus solitarii showed a significant potentiation or a marked blunting of the exercise tachycardia, respectively, without any change in the pressure response to exercise. It is proposed that the long-descending vasopressinergic pathway to the nucleus tractus solitarii serves as one link between the two main neural controllers of circulation, i.e., the central command and feedback control mechanisms driven by the peripheral receptors. Therefore, vasopressinergic input could contribute to the adjustment of heart rate response (and cardiac output to the circulatory demand during exercise.

  11. Central FPGA-based Destination and Load Control in the LHCb MHz Event Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment [1] is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz [2]. Over 300 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at 1 MHz over a commercial 70 Gigabyte/s switching network to a distributed event building and trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes [3]. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a powerful non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. A high-speed FPGA-based central master module controls the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load balancing and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also ...

  12. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disorder symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time.

  13. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a predictor of eating disordspan>er symptoms in college students: Moderation by responses to stress and parent psychological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaied, Jamie L; Wagner, Caitlin; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Flynn, Megan

    2016-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the prospective contribution of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a key physiological indicator of self-regulation, to eating disorder symptoms in college students, and whether this link was moderated by maladaptive responses to stress and parent psychological control. At Wave 1, college students' RSA was measured at rest. At Waves 1 and 2 (six-month follow-up), students reported on their eating disorder symptoms, coping and involuntary responses to stress, and perceptions of their parents' use of psychological control. Significant three-way interactions indicated that the link between RSA and subsequent eating disorder symptoms was contingent on responses to stress and parent psychological control. In the context of maladaptive responses to stress and high psychological control, RSA predicted increased eating disorder symptoms over time. In the absence of parent psychological control, high RSA was beneficial in most cases, even when individuals reported maladaptive responses to stress. This study presents novel evidence that high RSA contributes to risk for or resilience to eating disorder symptoms over time. RSA can be protective against eating disorder symptoms, but in some contexts, the self-regulation resources that high RSA provides may be inappropriately applied to eating cognitions and behaviors. This research highlights the importance of examining physiological functioning conjointly with other risk factors as precursors to eating disorder symptoms over time. PMID:26826976

  14. A randomized controlled trial on the benefits and respiratory adverse effects of morphine for refractory dyspnea in patients with COPD: Protocol of the MORDYC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberkt, C A; van den Beuken-van Everdingen, M H J; Franssen, F M E; Dirksen, C D; Schols, J M G A; Wouters, E F M; Janssen, D J A

    2016-03-01

    Dyspnea is one of the most reported symptoms of patients with advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is often undertreated. Morphine has proven to be an effective treatment for dyspnea and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines, but questions concerning benefits and respiratory adverse effects remain. This study primarily evaluates the impact of oral sustained release morphine (morphine SR) on health-related quality of life and respiratory adverse effects in patients with COPD. Secondary objectives include the impact on exercise capacity, the relationship between description and severity of dyspnea and the presence of a clinically relevant response to morphine, and cost-effectiveness. A single-center, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled intervention study will be performed in 124 patients with COPD who recently completed a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program. Participants will receive 20-30 mg/24h morphine SR or placebo for four weeks. After the intervention, participants will be followed for twelve weeks. Outcomes include: the COPD Assessment Test, six minute walking test, Multidimensional Dyspnea Scale and a cost diary. Furthermore, lung function and arterial blood gasses will be measured. These measures will be assessed during a baseline and outcome assessment, two home visits, two phone calls, and three follow-up assessments. The intervention and control group will be compared using uni- and multivariate regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Finally, an economic evaluation will be performed from a societal and healthcare perspective. The current manuscript describes the rationale and methods of this study and provides an outline of the possible strengths, weaknesses and clinical consequences. PMID:26825021

  15. Simplified system for the pressure control of a Nucleo electric central of the BWR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main preoccupations of the electric power generator stations is the appropriate operation of the same ones. The operators must be qualified to respond in an adequate way and to be able to take to these power stations to an optimal, sure and stable operation condition under any circumstance. The Laboratory of Analysis in Nuclear Reactors Engineering (LAIRN) of the Engineering Faculty of UNAM (Fl) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it develops an interactive classroom simulator in which simulations of the phenomena which take place in a nuclear power station are executed. The classroom simulator bases its operation on specialized nuclear codes feeding interactive graphic unfolding with those that it is possible to make a monitoring, supervision and control of the behavior of the power station under any operation regime, either in normal operation, transitory events or postulated accident sequence. The development of this classroom simulator includes a modular and re configurable structure. Due to it is indispensable to count with a higher inter activity with the system it is included the simulation of the control system of the plant and inside the same, one of those more important it is the reactor pressure control system. The present work describes the conceptual design and the used methodology for the development and implementation in the simulator of a simplified model of the pressure control system for a BWR generic central. The reach of the development will allow to accomplish the necessary tests to demonstrate that this has an adequate performance according to the carried out simplifications. (Author)

  16. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  17. 急性呼吸道传染病患者的防控及护理%Prevention, control and nursing of acute respiratory infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the characteristics of acute respiratory infectious disease,and the key points of prevention,control and nursing of this diseases.Methods 1067 patients with acute respiratory infectious diseases from January 2007 to February 2011were selected,the clinical prevention and protection,treatment and nursing underwent investigation and analysis.Results All 1067 patients were admitted as confirmed or suspected diagnosis of acute respiratory infectious disease,they received treatment and nursing and were discharged well-off without being source of infection.79 patients occurred nosocomial infection,which accounted for 7.4%.Conclusions Hospitals should take preventing principle,obey the prevention and control principles of early discovery,early isolation,ear diagnosis and early treatment,to control the disease in the seminal state.During the treatment process of acute respiratory infectious diseases,nurses should implement strict isolation system,give health education,clinical monitoring and nursing of stable stage in order to promote early recovery of patients.%目的 探讨急性呼吸道传染病的特点以及防治控制和护理工作的要点.方法 抽取本院2007年1月至2011年2月所收治的急性呼吸道传染病患者1067例,对其临床防护、治疗以及护理工作进行了临床监测以及回溯式综合调查分析.结果 所有1067例患者在以确诊或疑似呼吸道传染病病例入院治疗以后,均及时得以治疗护理并顺利出院,未成为传染源.住院期间有79例患者发生了院内感染,感染率为7.4%.结论 医院应秉承预防为主的原则,遵从早发现、早隔离、早诊断、早治疗等医疗防控原则,将急性呼吸道传染病控制于萌芽状态.在对急性呼吸道传染病患者的治疗过程中,应遵照严格的隔离制度,主动的给予健康宣教、临床病情监测、稳定期护理等,以促进患者早日康复.

  18. The importance of neurotransmitters in the central control of the blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In anaesthetized cats, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) were bilaterally superfused through push-pull cannulae with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Catecholamines were determined in the superfusate by a radioenzymatic assay, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was determined in the superfusate and homogenate with glutamate by an enzymatic and fluorimetric assay. In the NTS and LC the resting release of catecholamines varied rhythmically. To investigate the function of catecholaminergic neurons and GABAergic neurons of the NTS in cardiovascular control, the influence of experimentally induced blood pressure changes on the rates of release of the endogenous catecholamines dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in the NTS was observed. The decreased noradrenaline and adrenaline release elicited by increases in blood pressure and the reduced release of dopamine induced by decreases in blood pressure suggest a hypertensive function of noradrenaline and adrenaline and a hypotensive role of dopamine at the level of the rostral and intermediate NTS. Bilateral carotid occlusion led to a very pronounced increase in the release rate of GABA in the rostral NTS. This result demonstrate the hypertensive function of GABA in the NTS. Thus underlining the importance of catecholaminergic and GABAergic neurons of the NTS in central cardiovascular control. The GABA-transaminase inhibitor Vigabatrin was injected wistar Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. GABA-Transaminase inhibition was accompanied by an increase of GABA concentration in the rat brain. The administration of Vigabatrin had no influence on the blood pressure but on the body wight of the rats. (Author)

  19. Intersegmental coordination of cockroach locomotion: adaptive control of centrally coupled pattern generator circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eFuchs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally-generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left-right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss our results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast-slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegmental

  20. Seasonal controls on surface pCO2 in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V S S Sarma; M Dileep Kumar; M Gauns; M Madhupratap

    2000-12-01

    The variability in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and its control by biological and physical processes in the mixed layer (ML) of the central and eastern Arabian Sea during inter-monsoon, northeast monsoon, and southwest monsoon seasons were studied. The ML varied from 80-120 m during NE monsoon, 60-80 m and 20-30 m during SW- and inter-monsoon seasons, respectively, and the variability resulted from different physical processes. Significant seasonal variability was found in pCO2 levels. During SW monsoon, coastal waters contain two contrasting regimes; (a) pCO2 levels of 520-685 atm were observed in the SW coast of India, the highest found so far from this region, driven by intense upwelling and (b) low levels of pCO2 (266 atm) were found associated with monsoonal fresh water influx. It varied in ranges of 416-527 atm and 375-446 atm during inter- and NE monsoon, respectively, in coastal waters with higher values occurring in the north. The central Arabian Sea pCO2 levels were 351-433, 379-475 and 385-432 atm during NE- inter and SW monsoon seasons, respectively. The mixed layer pCO2 relations with temperature, oxygen, chlorophyll and primary production revealed that the former is largely regulated by physical processes during SW- and NE monsoon whereas both physical and biological processes are important in inter-monsoon. Application of Louanchi et al (1996) model revealed that the mixing effect is the dominant during monsoons, however, the biological effect is equally significant during SW monsoon whereas thermodynamics and fluxes influence during inter-monsoons.

  1. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Morales, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  2. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Chang SC; Shi JD; Fu CP; Wu X; Li SQ

    2016-01-01

    Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive car...

  3. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Su Chi

    2016-01-01

    Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Inten...

  4. Demand management through centralized control system using power line communication for existing buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A pilot system was developed for demand management of equipment in buildings. • The networking was based on LonWorks platform and power line communication. • Demand strategies led to load reductions up to 74% and energy savings up to 25%. • The peak load reduction is expected to reach 3.44 GW by the year 2030. - Abstract: Managing peak demand efficiently is vital for maintaining uninterrupted supply of electrical power by utility providers. In this work, a pilot system was developed for managing and controlling the demand of major power consuming equipment in buildings from a central server, while relying mostly on existing infrastructure and maintaining consumer comfort. The system was successfully demonstrated on a selected group of buildings using the LonWorks networking platform. At the building level, the system utilized power line and twisted pair communication to control the thermostats of air-conditioning (A/C) units. The higher level communication was executed through extensible markup language (XML) and simple object access protocol (SOAP). The system provided control capabilities based on A/C unit priority, thermostat temperature, building type and geographic location. The development and execution of demand management strategies for selected buildings led to peak load reductions up to 74%, in addition to energy savings up to 25%. Implementing such a system at a national level in Kuwait is estimated to reduce peak demand by 3.44 GW, amounting to capital savings of $4.13 billion. The use of existing infrastructure reduced the cost and installation time of the system. Based on the successful testing of this pilot system, a larger-scale system is being developed

  5. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms Involved in the Hormonal Control of Male and Female Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, L M; Bentley, G E; Calandra, R S; Paredes, A H; Tesone, M; Wu, T J; Micevych, P E

    2016-07-01

    research in these areas, focusing on recent findings concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the central and peripheral hormonal control of reproduction. PMID:27329133

  6. Use of palivizumab and infection control measures to control an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a neonatal intensive care unit confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, K

    2011-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a potentially life-threatening infection in premature infants. We report an outbreak involving four infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital that occurred in February 2010. RSV A infection was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Palivizumab was administered to all infants in the NICU. There were no additional symptomatic cases and repeat RSV surveillance confirmed that there was no further cross-transmission within the unit. The outbreak highlighted the infection control challenge of very high bed occupancy in the unit and the usefulness of molecular methods in facilitating detection and management.

  7. Degeneracy as a Substrate for Respiratory Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mellen, Nicholas M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in vivo and in vitro suggest that both respiratory rhythmogenesis and its central chemosensory modulation arise from multiple, mechanistically and/or anatomically distinct networks whose outputs are similar. These observations are consistent with degeneracy, defined as the ability of structurally distinct elements to generate similar function. This review argues that degeneracy is an essential feature of respiratory networks, ensuring the survival of the individual organism ove...

  8. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz; Gokhan Inangil; Murat Kuyumcu; Ahmet Erturk Yedekci; Huseyin Sen; Sezai Ozkan; Guner Dagli

    2012-01-01

    Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we ...

  9. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we wanted to engage attention to respiratory depression caused by heroin abuse and potential benefits of using naloxone. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 248-250

  10. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, both to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning and to quantify the long-distance effect of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, especially in Europe, very few studies paid attention on catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line, with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors, including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the Central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. Differently to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentration in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3-N and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate, but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high elevation catchments, with a contrasting effect on N and C pools.

  11. Catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics in running waters above the tree line (central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balestrini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of nitrogen cycling in mountain areas has a long tradition, as it was applied to better understand and describe ecosystem functioning, as well as to quantify long-distance effects of human activities on remote environments. Nonetheless, very few studies, especially in Europe, have considered catchment features controlling nitrogen dynamics above the tree line with focus on running waters. In this study, relationships between some water chemistry descriptors – including nitrogen species and dissolved organic carbon (DOC – and catchment characteristics were evaluated for a range of sites located above the tree line (1950–2650 m a.s.l. at Val Masino, in the central Italian Alps. Land cover categories as well as elevation and slope were assessed at each site. Water samples were collected during the 2007 and 2008 snow free periods, with a nearly monthly frequency. In contrast to dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate concentrations in running waters showed a spatial pattern strictly connected to the fractional extension of tundra and talus in each basin. Exponential models significantly described the relationships between maximum NO3 and the fraction of vegetated soil cover (negative relation and talus (positive relation, explaining almost 90% of nitrate variation in running waters. Similarly to nitrate but with an opposite behavior, DOC was positively correlated with vegetated soil cover and negatively correlated with talus. Therefore, land cover can be considered one of the most important factors affecting water quality in high-elevation catchments with contrasting effects on N and C pools.

  12. Therapeutic control of complement activation at the level of the central component C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

    2016-06-01

    The increasing recognition of the complement system's association with diseases of the inflammatory spectrum and with biomaterial and transplant-related complications has generated growing interest in the therapeutic modulation of this innate immune cascade. As a central functional hub that largely drives the activation, amplification, and effector generation of the complement response, the plasma protein C3 has long been recognized as an attractive target. While pharmacological modulation of C3 activation may offer a powerful opportunity to interfere with or even prevent complement-driven pathologies, the development of C3 inhibitors has often been accompanied by concerns regarding the safety and feasibility of this approach. Although no C3-targeted inhibitors have thus far been approved for clinical use, several promising concepts and candidates have emerged in recent years. At the same time, experiences from preclinical development and clinical trials are slowly providing a more detailed picture of therapeutic complement inhibition at the level of C3. This review highlights the current therapeutic strategies to control C3 activation and discusses the possibilities and challenges on the road to bringing C3-targeted therapeutics to the clinic. PMID:26101137

  13. How Much Control Dose Central Bank of Iran over Money Supply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar HAGHIGHAT

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In discussions about the efficacy of monetary policy instruments, attention is often focused on analyzing the money supply process. Monetarists, in general, argue that the monetary authorities can exercise effective control over the stock of money; others, especially those who share the new view of monetary theory argue that the determination of the stock of money is part of the economy. In this view, the stock of money is the outgrowth of the behavior of the public, the financial sector (banks, the finance ministry, andthe rest of the world as well as of the actions of the central bank. The paper investigated the co-integrating property and stability of the supply of money function in Iran. The paper employed the ARDL approach together with CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests. The results show that M1 and M2 is cointegrated with net claims on the government, net foreign assets, and rate of profit on bank deposit (interest rate and a major implication of using interest rate elasticity estimates from M2 function is that money is endogenous.

  14. MINERALIZATION CONTROLS AND PETROGENESIS OF THE RARE METAL PEGMATITES OF NASARAWA AREA, CENTRAL NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Akintola

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pegmatites of Nasarawa area occur in the central part of Nigeria. They are mainly hosted by phyllonites in a NNE-SSW trending shear zone lying east of some foliated Pan-African and West of Jurassic Afu Complex Younger Granites. A geological mapping of the area was followed by petrographic and mineralogical studies of selected rock and mineral samples. A total of 72 samples consisting of 25 rocks, 22 feldspars and 25 white micas were analyzed for various elements.

    The pegmatites are peraluminous and are genetically linked to the late Pan-African leucogranite with the shear zone. The Pan-African granites have very low REE abundances and non-chondritic ratios of Zr/Hf and Y/Ho and low Nb/Ta ratios indicating crystallization from a liquid-rich melt. Barren pegmatites are closely associated with the primitive hornblende biotite Pan-African synorogenic granites while Sn- Nb - Ta mineralized granites are correspondingly enriched in pegmatites spatially associated with Pan-African synorogenic granites with enhanced values of rare lithophile elements such as Rb, Cs, Mn, Sn and Nb-Ta. The primary control of rare metal mineralization in the pegmatites is the composition of the source rock since the Ta-Nb-Sn-Li-Be-W mineralized pegmatites crystallized from fluid (H2O-B-P-F rich melts. It is hereby proposed that the late Pan-African tectonic granite which is parental to the highly mineralized pegmatites in this area originated from anatexis of undepleted mica-rich metasediments at depth, followed by a magmatic fractionation of the fluid rich melt as it ascended through reactivated ancient fractures. The heat for the partial melting might have been supplied mainly by the reactivation of ancient fractures, which controlled the emplacement of the fertile granites and the related pegmatites

  15. Nonassociative learning promotes respiratory entrainment to mechanical ventilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna M MacDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patient-ventilator synchrony is a major concern in critical care and is influenced by phasic lung-volume feedback control of the respiratory rhythm. Routine clinical application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP introduces a tonic input which, if unopposed, might disrupt respiratory-ventilator entrainment through sustained activation of the vagally-mediated Hering-Breuer reflex. We suggest that this potential adverse effect may be averted by two differentiator forms of nonassociative learning (habituation and desensitization of the Hering-Breuer reflex via pontomedullary pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested these hypotheses in 17 urethane-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats under controlled mechanical ventilation. Without PEEP, phrenic discharge was entrained 1:1 to the ventilator rhythm. Application of PEEP momentarily dampened the entrainment to higher ratios but this effect was gradually adapted by nonassociative learning. Bilateral electrolytic lesions of the pneumotaxic center weakened the adaptation to PEEP, whereas sustained stimulation of the pneumotaxic center weakened the entrainment independent of PEEP. In all cases, entrainment was abolished after vagotomy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate an important functional role for pneumotaxic desensitization and extra-pontine habituation of the Hering-Breuer reflex elicited by lung inflation: acting as buffers or high-pass filters against tonic vagal volume input, these differentiator forms of nonassociative learning help to restore respiratory-ventilator entrainment in the face of PEEP. Such central sites-specific habituation and desensitization of the Hering-Breuer reflex provide a useful experimental model of nonassociative learning in mammals that is of particular significance in understanding respiratory rhythmogenesis and coupled-oscillator entrainment mechanisms, and in the clinical management of mechanical ventilation in

  16. Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE: a multicenter, population-based case-control study in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luce Danièle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational causes of respiratory cancers need to be further investigated: the role of occupational exposures in the aetiology of head and neck cancers remains largely unknown, and there are still substantial uncertainties for a number of suspected lung carcinogens. The main objective of the study is to examine occupational risk factors for lung and head and neck cancers. Methods/design ICARE is a multi-center, population-based case-control study, which included a group of 2926 lung cancer cases, a group of 2415 head and neck cancer cases, and a common control group of 3555 subjects. Incident cases were identified in collaboration with cancer registries, in 10 geographical areas. The control group was a random sample of the population of these areas, with a distribution by sex and age comparable to that of the cases, and a distribution by socioeconomic status comparable to that of the population. Subjects were interviewed face to face, using a standardized questionnaire collecting particularly information on tobacco and alcohol consumption, residential history and a detailed description of occupational history. Biological samples were also collected from study subjects. The main occupational exposures of interest are asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chromium and nickel compounds, arsenic, wood dust, textile dust, solvents, strong acids, cutting fluids, silica, diesel fumes, welding fumes. The complete list of exposures of interest includes more than 60 substances. Occupational exposure assessment will use several complementary methods: case-by-case evaluation of exposure by experts; development and use of algorithms to assess exposure from the questionnaires; application of job-exposure matrices. Discussion The large number of subjects should allow to uncover exposures associated with moderate increase in risks, and to evaluate risks associated with infrequent or widely

  17. Pulmonary Function Tests and Work-Related Respiratory and Allergic

    OpenAIRE

    Boskabady Mohammad Hosein; Taheri Ehsan; Ahmadi Sina; Ebrahimi Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh Malihe; Mohammadi Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptom...

  18. Pulmonary infection control window as a switching point for consequential ventilation: an encouraging finding in treatment of acute respiratory failure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-long

    2005-01-01

    @@ I read with great interest the article by Collaborating Research Group for Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation of Chinese Respiratory Society.1 Based on the concept mentioned in this paper, I have found that it is really an encouraging new finding in the field of clinical application of mechanical ventilation and treatment of acute respiratory failure (ARF) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  19. Controlling Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa re-growth in therapeutic spas: implementation of physical disinfection treatments, including UV/ultrafiltration, in a respiratory hydrotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, E; Sanna, T; Zanetti, F; Dallolio, L

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of an integrated water safety plan (WSP) in controlling Legionella re-growth in a respiratory hydrotherapy system located in a spa centre, supplied with sulphurous water, which was initially colonized by Legionella pneumophila. Heterotrophic plate counts, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella spp. were detected in water samples taken 6-monthly from the hydrotherapy equipment (main circuit, entry to benches, final outlets). On the basis of the results obtained by the continuous monitoring and the changes in conditions, the original WSP, including physical treatments of water and waterlines, environmental surveillance and microbiological monitoring, was integrated introducing a UV/ultrafiltration system. The integrated treatment applied to the sulphurous water (microfiltration/UV irradiation/ultrafiltration), waterlines (superheated stream) and distal outlets (descaling/disinfection of nebulizers and nasal irrigators), ensured the removal of Legionella spp. and P. aeruginosa and a satisfactory microbiological quality over time. The environmental surveillance was successful in evaluating the hazard and identifying the most suitable preventive strategies to avoid Legionella re-growth. Ultrafiltration is a technology to take into account in the control of microbial contamination of therapeutic spas, since it does not modify the chemical composition of the water, thus allowing it to retain its therapeutic properties.

  20. Energy expenditure at rest and during walking in patients with chronic respiratory failure: a prospective two-phase case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Crisafulli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measurements of Energy Expenditure (EE at rest (REE and during physical activities are increasing in interest in chronic patients. In this study we aimed at evaluating the validity/reliability of the SenseWear®Armband (SWA device in terms of REE and EE during assisted walking in Chronic Respiratory Failure (CRF patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a two-phase prospective protocol we studied 40 severe patients and 35 age-matched healthy controls. In phase-1 we determined the validity and repeatability of REE measured by SWA (REEa in comparison with standard calorimetry (REEc. In phase-2 we then assessed EE and Metabolic Equivalents-METs by SWA during the 6-minute walking test while breathing oxygen in both assisted (Aid or unassisted (No-Aid modalities. When compared with REEc, REEa was slightly lower in patients (1351±169 vs 1413±194 kcal/day respectively, p<0.05, and less repeatable than in healthy controls (0.14 and 0.43 coefficient respectively. COPD patients with CRF patients reported a significant gain with Aid as compared with No-Aid modality in terms of meters walked, perceived symptoms and EE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SWA provides a feasible and valid method to assess the energy expenditure in CRF patients on LTOT, and it shows that aided walking results in a substantial energy saving in this population.

  1. Controlling Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa re-growth in therapeutic spas: implementation of physical disinfection treatments, including UV/ultrafiltration, in a respiratory hydrotherapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, E; Sanna, T; Zanetti, F; Dallolio, L

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of an integrated water safety plan (WSP) in controlling Legionella re-growth in a respiratory hydrotherapy system located in a spa centre, supplied with sulphurous water, which was initially colonized by Legionella pneumophila. Heterotrophic plate counts, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella spp. were detected in water samples taken 6-monthly from the hydrotherapy equipment (main circuit, entry to benches, final outlets). On the basis of the results obtained by the continuous monitoring and the changes in conditions, the original WSP, including physical treatments of water and waterlines, environmental surveillance and microbiological monitoring, was integrated introducing a UV/ultrafiltration system. The integrated treatment applied to the sulphurous water (microfiltration/UV irradiation/ultrafiltration), waterlines (superheated stream) and distal outlets (descaling/disinfection of nebulizers and nasal irrigators), ensured the removal of Legionella spp. and P. aeruginosa and a satisfactory microbiological quality over time. The environmental surveillance was successful in evaluating the hazard and identifying the most suitable preventive strategies to avoid Legionella re-growth. Ultrafiltration is a technology to take into account in the control of microbial contamination of therapeutic spas, since it does not modify the chemical composition of the water, thus allowing it to retain its therapeutic properties. PMID:26608761

  2. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Effortful Control, and Parenting as Predictors of Children's Sympathy across Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54%…

  3. Outcomes of a Telehealth Intervention for Homebound Older Adults with Heart or Chronic Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Zvi D.; Kenaley, Bonnie; McGinty, Jean; Bardelli, Ellen; Davitt, Joan; Ten Have, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Telehealth care is emerging as a viable intervention model to treat complex chronic conditions, such as heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to engage older adults in self-care disease management. Design and Methods: We report on a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of a multifaceted…

  4. Immediate changes in topsoil chemical properties after controlled shrubland burning in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre-Galarza, Raquel; Fernández Campos, Marta; Badía-Villas, David; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Girona-García, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed fire has recently been adopted as an encroachment-fighting strategy in the Central Pyrenees. Despite relatively large information on wildfire impacts on soil, there is little information on prescribed fire effects, especially in mountain ecosystems (Shakesby et al, 2015). Fire effects are noticeable in the topsoil, particularly in relation to soil organic matter and nutrient contents and quality (Alexis et al, 2012). These components change with time after fire and at the scale of the upper few centimetres of mineral soil (Badía et al, 2014). The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effects of prescribed shrubland burning on soil's nutrients and organic matter content to detect changes at cm-scale, trying to differentiate the heat shock from the subsequent incorporation of ash and charcoal. The study area, densely covered with spiny broom (Echinospartum horridum), is located in Tella (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) at 1900 meters above sea level. Three sites were sampled before burning and immediately after burning just in its adjacent side. The soils belong to the WRB unit Leptic Eutric Cambisol, Soil samples were collected separating carefully the organic layers (litter in unburned soils and ashes and fire-altered organic residues in burned soils) and the mineral horizon at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved to 2 mm. Soil organic C (by the wet oxidation method), total N (Kjeldahl method), water-soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4=, NO3- and NH4+), exchangeable ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+ and Mn2+), total and available P, pH (1:5) and the electrical conductivity (in a 1:10 soil-to-water ratio) were measured. Immediately after the controlled fire, soil organic carbon content on burned topsoil decreases significantly within 0-3 cm of soil depth studied while total N decrease was not significant. Moreover, only a slight increase of the electrical conductivity, water-soluble ions and exchangeable ions was

  5. Domain-driven specification techniques simplify the analysis of requirements for the KAON factory central control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inwood, C. (Inwood Real-Time Systems Associates, Kinburn, ON (Canada)); Ludgate, G.A.; Dohan, D.A.; Osberg, E.A.; Koscielniak, S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility)

    1990-08-01

    Domain-driven modelling, outlined in this paper, has been successfully applied to the analysis, specification and design of the KAON Factory central control system (KF-CCS). This advanced object-oriented technique is especially suited to the development of complex systems. Early in the project, four very natural domains were identified which simplified the analysis of requirements. (orig.).

  6. Human Parechovirus in Respiratory Specimens from Children in Kansas City, Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Justin; Bell, Jeremiah; Harrison, Christopher J.; Nix, W. Allan; Oberste, M. Steven; Selvarangan, Rangaraj

    2012-01-01

    We detected a 3% prevalence rate for human parechovirus (HPeV) in 720 respiratory specimens collected from 637 children seen in our hospital in 2009. Fifteen of 20 were HPeV-3 and two were HPeV-1. Only nonspecific, modest respiratory symptoms were evident in patients with detectable HPeV in respiratory specimens. Seven patients had concurrent respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) HPeV-3 infection, suggesting a possible respiratory route of acquisition.

  7. Central arteriovenous anastomosis for the treatment of patients with uncontrolled hypertension (the ROX CONTROL HTN study): a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lobo, Melvin D

    2015-01-22

    Hypertension contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a central iliac arteriovenous anastomosis to alter the mechanical arterial properties and reduce blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

  8. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  9. Control of a deareador level of a thermoelectric power station using modern control techniques; Control de nivel de un deareador de una central termoelectrica utilizando tecnicas de control moderno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Estrada, Jose Israel

    1997-01-01

    The present work shows the implementation of the scheme of predictive control IMC (Internal Model Control) in order to control the level of the deareador of a combined cycle thermoelectric power station of (C.C.T.S.). The implementation has the purpose of looking for alternative strategies of control to the classic ones (PID`s) that more efficiently control the variables of interest, in addition to getting into the new control techniques of control. Following the philosophy of predictive control IMC the form to applying this technique is shown, as well as the implementation of this type of controllers. A comparison of predictive control IMC is made with the scheme of conventional control (three control elements PID`s ) used at present to control the level of the deareador in the Combined Cycle Thermoelectric Power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Mexico and of Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra la implementacion del esquema de control predictivo IMC (Control con Modelo Interno) con el objeto de controlar el nivel del deareador de una Central Termoelectrica de Ciclo Combinado (C.T.C.C.). La implementacion tiene la finalidad de buscar estrategias de control alternas a las clasicas (PID`s) que controlen mas eficientemente la variable de interes, ademas de incursionar en las nuevas tecnicas de control. Siguiendo la filosofia del control predictivo IMC se muestra la forma de aplicar esta tecnica, asi como la implementacion de este tipo de controladores. Se hace una comparacion del control predictivo IMC con el esquema de control convencional (control de tres elementos PID`s) utilizando actualmente para controlar el nivel del deareador en las centrales termoelectricas de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y de Gomez Palacio, Durango en Mexico.

  10. Tectonic and lithological controls on denudation rates in the central Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, F.; Zeilinger, G.; Hippe, K.; Marc, O.; Lendzioch, T.; Grischott, R.; Christl, M.; Kubik, P. W.; Zola, R.

    2015-08-01

    The topographic signature of a mountain belt depends on the interplay of tectonic, climatic and erosional processes, whose relative importance changes over times, while quantifying these processes and their rates at specific times remains a challenge. The eastern Andes of central Bolivia offer a natural laboratory in which such interplay has been debated. Here, we investigate the Rio Grande catchment which crosses orthogonally the eastern Andes orogen from the Eastern Cordillera into the Subandean Zone, exhibiting a catchment relief of up to 5000 m. Despite an enhanced tectonic activity in the Subandes, local relief, mean and modal slopes and channel steepness indices are largely similar compared to the Eastern Cordillera and the intervening Interandean Zone. Nevertheless, a dataset of 57 new cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al catchment wide denudation rates from the Rio Grande catchment reveals up to one order of magnitude higher denudation rates in the Subandean Zone (mean 0.8 mm/yr) compared to the upstream physiographic regions. We infer that tectonic activity in the thrusting dominated Subandean belt causes higher denudation rates based on cumulative rock uplift investigations and due to the absence of a pronounced climate gradient. Furthermore, the lower rock strength of the Subandean sedimentary units correlates with mean slopes similar to the ones of the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean Zone, highlighting the fact, that lithology and rock strength can control high denudation rates at low slopes. Low denudation rates measured at the outlet of the Rio Grande catchment (Abapo) are interpreted to be a result of a biased cosmogenic nuclide mixing that is dominated by headwater signals from the Eastern Cordillera and the Interandean zone and limited catchment sediment connectivity in the lower river reaches. Therefore, comparisons of short- (i.e., sediment yield) and millennial denudation rates require caution when postulating tectonic and/or climatic forcing without

  11. The control of population growth is the function of the central government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This speech of Mr. Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party and Chairman of the People's Republic of China, before the National Forum on Family Planning Work refers to the need to strictly and effectively implement the family planning program in 1994. Socioeconomic reforms will be occurring simultaneously. Success of the family planning program is attributed to Party Committees, governments, cadres, and the masses. Even though there have been advances made in slowing population growth, the vast size of the Chinese population still poses problems. China's state policy is to modernize and to maintain strict control of overrapid population growth. The strategy is to move toward a market economy, while continuing to slow population growth but without market regulation of population growth. Family planning serves the state and the people through voluntary action. The public must receive "meticulous" education and help with day to day problems in production, daily life, and human reproduction. Government departments and nongovernmental organizations need to work together. Family planning use is the obligation of every citizen, who should be made aware of relevant national policy and of the need for devotion to country. Benefits will be received by the state and families, when family planning is used. Family planning will be cultivated as an honorable act, and boys and girls will be valued equally. The educational program will train leaders and cadres to take a leadership role in practicing family planning. Party organizations and governments at all levels should take personal responsibility for program implementation. Erratic efforts are not good enough; the task is long and arduous. Serious difficulties still exist in rural areas, and program focus should be directed to rural areas and the floating population. Reports were also made at the Forum on the population status and preparatory meetings of the forthcoming women

  12. Central control of grasp: manipulation of objects with complex and simple dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Theodore E; Franklin, David W; Imamizu, Hiroshi; Kawato, Mistuo

    2007-06-01

    We performed whole-brain fMRI to explore the neural mechanisms that contribute to the ability to manipulate an object with complex dynamics. Subjects grasped a weighted flexible ruler and balanced it in an unstable equilibrium position as an archetype of grasping an object with complex dynamics. This was contrasted with squeezing a soft foam ball as an archetype of grasping an object with simple dynamics. We hypothesized that changes in activity in primary motor cortex (MI) would be similar under the two conditions, since muscle activation was matched, which was confirmed. We hypothesized further that the cerebellum would be selectively activated when manipulating the flexible ruler because the ability to make the adjustments necessary to balance the ruler would require an internal dynamics model, represented in the cerebellum. As predicted, the ipsilateral cerebellum was strongly activated when balancing the weighted ruler whereas only moderate activation was found when squeezing the foam ball. We also found evidence for selective activation of areas, previously implicated in tactile object recognition, when holding the flexible ruler. We speculate that these areas, which include secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), Brodmann area 40 and insula, integrate tactile and proprioceptive information in the context of controlling the orientation of the flexible ruler and provide appropriate feedback to MI. We speculate that the failure to find activation of these areas when squeezing the ball was due to the fact that tactile stimulation was entirely self-produced, resulting in the attenuation of cortical sensory activity (Blakemore, S.-J., Wolpert, D.M., Frith, C.D., 1998. Central cancellation of self-produced tickle sensation. Nat. Neurosci. 1, 635-640, Blakemore, S.-J., Frith, C.D., Wolpert, D.M., 2001. The cerebellum is involved in predicting the sensory consequences of action. NeuroReport 12, 1879-1884). PMID:17451973

  13. Uptake of mass drug administration programme for schistosomiasis control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Tuhebwe

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012 MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers.Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615, 95% confidence interval (CI 40.8-48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6% reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22-2.81 and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67-9.65. Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands.Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education and systematic drug supply for the

  14. Neuropeptides and central control of sexual behaviour from the past to the present: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Of the numerous neuropeptides identified in the central nervous system, only a few are involved in the control of sexual behaviour. Among these, the most studied are oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and opioid peptides. While opioid peptides inhibit sexual performance, the others facilitate sexual behaviour in most of the species studied so far (rats, mice, monkeys and humans). However, evidence for a sexual role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, galanin and galanin-like peptide, cholecystokinin, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, vasopressin, angiotensin II, hypocretins/orexins and VGF-derived peptides are also available. Corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, vasopressin and angiotensin II inhibit, while substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, hypocretins/orexins and some VGF-derived peptide facilitate sexual behaviour. Neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour by acting mainly in the hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., lateral hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus), in the medial preoptic area and in the spinal cord. However, it is often unclear whether neuropeptides influence the anticipatory phase (sexual arousal and/or motivation) or the consummatory phase (performance) of sexual behaviour, except in a few cases (e.g., opioid peptides and oxytocin). Unfortunately, scarce information has been added in the last 15 years on the neural mechanisms by which neuropeptides influence sexual behaviour, most studied neuropeptides apart. This may be due to a decreased interest of researchers on neuropeptides and sexual behaviour or on sexual behaviour in general. Such a decrease may be related to the discovery of orally effective, locally acting type V phosphodiesterase inhibitors for the therapy of erectile dysfunction.

  15. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  16. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Respiratory Failure? Diseases and conditions that impair breathing can cause ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the lungs, ...

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Respiratory Failure Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  19. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  20. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and ... you didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about ...

  1. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  2. The Prevalence and Control of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex%牛呼吸疾病综合征及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭爱珍

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex(BRD) is a most costly disease in beef industry.It is a multifactor disease caused by pathogens such as Mycoplasma,viruses and bacteria,transport stress,etc.The developed countries such as America began to study this disease in early 1980's,and the research and control for BRD have reached a high level of platform.However,BRD is still thought to be the most important disease for cattle in the next 10 to 20 years.China just began to realize the impact of BRD to the cattle industry in recent years and study the prevalence and control.To learn the experience and knowledge from the developed countries would help China to improve the control of BRD in cattle.%牛呼吸疾病综合征是严重危害国内外肉牛养殖业的一种重要传染病,该病的致病因素复杂,包括支原体、病毒和细菌等特异性病原以及运输应激等多种因素。美国等发达国家对该病的攻关研究开始于上世纪80年代初,其研究和临床防控均已达到较高水平,但仍认为该病将是未来10~20年养牛业所面临的主要疾病。我国对该病的认识和研究尚处于起步阶段,借鉴世界上发达国家的先进经验将有助于提升我国对该病的防控水平。

  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A A A Text Size What's in ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  4. Use of the PiCCO system in critically ill patients with septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhongheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodynamic monitoring is very important in critically ill patients with shock or acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS. The PiCCO (Pulse index Contour Continuous Cardiac Output, Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany system has been developed and used in critical care settings for several years. However, its impact on clinical outcomes remains unknown. Methods/design The study is a randomized controlled multi-center trial. A total of 708 patients with ARDS, septic shock or both will be included from January 2012 to January 2014. Subjects will be randomized to receive PiCCO monitoring or not. Our primary end point is 30-day mortality, and secondary outcome measures include ICU length of stay, days on mechanical ventilation, days of vasoactive agent support, ICU-free survival days during a 30-day period, mechanical-ventilation-free survival days during a 30-day period, and maximum SOFA score during the first 7 days. Discussion We investigate whether the use of PiCCO monitoring will improve patient outcomes in critically ill patients with ARDS or septic shock. This will provide additional data on hemodynamic monitoring and help clinicians to make decisions on the use of PiCCO. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01526382

  5. Homeopathic medicine for acute cough in upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Tursi, Francesco; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Paccapelo, Alexandro; Lecchi, Marzia

    2014-02-01

    Cough is a frequent symptom associated to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and, although being self-limiting, it might deeply affect the quality of life. Homeopathic products are often employed by patients to treat cough, but the evidence on their efficacy is scarce. Thus, we tested the efficacy of a homeopathic syrup in treating cough arising from URTIs with a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Patients were treated with either the homeopathic syrup or a placebo for a week, and recorded cough severity in a diary by means of a verbal category-descriptive score for two weeks. Sputum viscosity was assessed with a viscosimeter before and after 4 days of treatment; patients were also asked to provide a subjective evaluation of viscosity. Eighty patients were randomized to receive placebo (n = 40) or the homeopathic syrup (n = 40). All patients completed the study. In each group cough scores decreased over time, however, after 4 and 7 days of treatment, cough severity was significantly lower in the homeopathic group than in the placebo one (p syrup employed in the study was able to effectively reduce cough severity and sputum viscosity, thereby representing a valid remedy for the management of acute cough induced by URTIs. PMID:23714686

  6. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930502 Clinical significance of changes in plas- ma renin—angiotensin aldosterone system in pa-tients with high altitude pulmonary edema.LIYingyue(李英悦),et al.General Hosp,TibetCommand,Lhasa,850003.Chin J Intern Med1993;32(4):232—234.Plasma levels of renin activity,angiotensin IIand aldosterone were determined in 16 patientswith high altitude pulmonary edema(HAPE)byradioimmunoassay and compared with those inthe controls including 9 patients with high alti-tude acute response(HAAR)and 14 healthy sub-jects.All of them arrived recently in Lhasa,aplace with an altitude of 3658m.The resultsshowed that the concentration of plasma reninactivity,angiotensin II,and aldosterone was sig-

  7. LONGITUDINAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH AND COUGH CAPACITY IN PERSONS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY : AN EXPLORATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Karin; Vlemmix, Lonneke Y.; Haisma, Janneke A.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe A. R.; Stam, Henk J.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with recent spinal cord injury. Design: Longitudinal analyses. Subjects: Forty persons with recent spinal cord injury and impaired pulmonary function. Methods: Measurements were perfor

  8. 医院儿科呼吸道传染病管理及预防控制分析%Analysis and Management of Infectious Diseases:Prevention and Control of Hospital Pediatric Respiratory Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宇飞; 顾华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hospital pediatric respiratory infectious disease management and prevention and control measures. Methods On June 2010 -2013 June China disease prevention and control of respiratory tract infectious disease data in the information system, the implementation of management measures of respiratory infectious diseases, inter-vention effects. Results during the period 2010-2014, children with measles incidence rate showed a rising trend and main in 0-3 years old children, mainly in scattered children; intervention, medical personnel respiratory infectious disease infec-tion prevention and control knowledge score and pediatric outpatient respiratory infectious disease pre triage implementation rate were significantly improved .Conclusion pediatric respiratory infectious diseases, especially the measles incidence rate continues to rise, enhancing the pediatric infectious disease triage, staff training, carry out health education, the implemen-tation of the prevention and control measures etc., is key of hospital infection control and control of infectious diseases.%目的:探讨医院儿科呼吸道传染病管理和预防控制措施。方法对2010年6月—2013年6月我国疾病预防控制信息系统中的呼吸道传染病数据进行分析,实施呼吸道传染病管理措施,观察干预效果。结果2010—2014年期间,小儿麻疹的发病率呈不断上升趋势,且主要中在0~3岁患儿,以散居儿童为主;干预后,医务人员呼吸道传染病感染防控知识评分、儿科门诊呼吸道传染病预检分诊实施率均明显提高。结论小儿呼吸道传染疾病尤其是麻疹发病率不断攀升,加强儿科传染病预检分诊、全员培训、开展健康宣教、落实各项防控措施等,是医院感染控制和传染病控制的关键。

  9. Differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy in comparison with normal controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Hye Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function among children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) in comparison with children with normal development. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 11 children with hemiplegic CP, and 14 children with normal development were recruited. Respiratory pressure was measured and the pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed to evaluate the str...

  10. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on prevention of upper respiratory tract infections : a systematic review of randomized controlled trials / y Guo Jing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jing; 郭婧

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of chronic diseases has always been a major focus in the medical field as a measure to improve public health. As a potential prevention to one of the most common chronic diseases, vitamin D was previously reported to show some signs of positive effect on the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. Although trials were performed to demonstrate the association between the effectiveness of vitamin D and upper respiratory tract infections in the past few yea...

  11. Standardising Visual Control Devices for Tsetse Flies: Central and West African Species Glossina palpalis palpalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Dramane; Zacarie, Tusevo; M'Pondi, Alexis Makumyaviri; Njiokou, Flobert; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Kröber, Thomas; McMullin, Andrew; Mihok, Steve; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis) is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. Methodology/Principal Findings Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal) and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8–51%). There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. Conclusions/Significance Blue-black 0.25 m2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for population sampling when

  12. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  13. Increasing expression of microRNA 181 inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication and has implications for controlling virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue-kun; Zhang, Qiong; Gao, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Xin-xin; Feng, Wen-hai

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the swine industry. Emerging evidence indicates that the host microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-pathogen interactions. However, whether host miRNAs can target PRRSV and be used to inhibit PRRSV infection has not been reported. Recently, microRNA 181 (miR-181) has been identified as a positive regulator of immune response, and here we report that miR-181 can directly impair PRRSV infection. Our results showed that delivered miR-181 mimics can strongly inhibit PRRSV replication in vitro through specifically binding to a highly (over 96%) conserved region in the downstream of open reading frame 4 (ORF4) of the viral genomic RNA. The inhibition of PRRSV replication was specific and dose dependent. In PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells, the viral mRNAs could compete with miR-181-targeted sequence in luciferase vector to interact with miR-181 and result in less inhibition of luciferase activity, further demonstrating the specific interactions between miR-181 and PRRSV RNAs. As expected, miR-181 and other potential PRRSV-targeting miRNAs (such as miR-206) are expressed much more abundantly in minimally permissive cells or tissues than in highly permissive cells or tissues. Importantly, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain-infected pigs treated with miR-181 mimics showed substantially decreased viral loads in blood and relief from PRRSV-induced fever compared to negative-control (NC)-treated controls. These results indicate the important role of host miRNAs in modulating PRRSV infection and viral pathogenesis and also support the idea that host miRNAs could be useful for RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated antiviral therapeutic strategies. PMID:23152505

  14. Modificação do padrão respiratório melhora o controle cardiovascular na hipertensão essencial Spontaneous respiratory modulation improves cardiovascular control in essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hermano da Justa Pinheiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Estudos recentes apontam os benefícios do controle da respiração na melhoria do barorreflexo, variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca e redução da pressão arterial em pacientes hipertensos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento com técnica de respiração lenta na modulação dos sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório de pacientes (n=10, homens e mulheres, com 45 a 60 anos de idade com hipertensão arterial essencial, assistidos em ambulatório. MÉTODOS: No delineamento do estudo, cada paciente foi utilizado como controle de si mesmo, sendo a coleta de dados realizada antes e após o período de intervenção. Foram avaliados parâmetros como variabilidade da freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, pressão arterial média, ventilometria, cirtometria torácica e análise estatística dos dados. O treinamento respiratório utilizou exercícios de baixa freqüência e foi realizado duas vezes por semana durante um mês. Cada sessão teve duração de 30 minutos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram redução da pressão arterial sistólica, da pressão arterial diastólica e da pressão arterial média (p BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that controlled breathing improves baroreflex and heart rate variability and lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of slow breathing training on cardiorespiratory system modulation of patients (n=10, men and women, ages ranging from 45 to 60 with essential hypertension seen in an outpatient setting. METHODS: According to the study design, each patient was used as his/her own control, and data were collected before and after the intervention. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, respirometry, chest expansion measurement, and statistical data analysis. Respiratory training

  15. Representações gustativas no córtex humano, e o controle central do apetite Taste representation in the human cortex and the central control of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    de Araújo, Ivan E.

    2003-01-01

    Tem sido estabelecido que o controle da ingestão de nutrientes e o decorrente estado de equilíbrio homeostático dependem de uma série de sinais periféricos que atuam diretamente sobre o sistema nervoso central, levando a respostas adaptativas apropriadas. Entretanto, em humanos, a crescente incidência de patologias produzidas em grande medida por distúrbios da preferência alimentar, tais como obesidade e anorexia, implica no envolvimento do córtex no controle da ingestão de alimentos. Estudos...

  16. Clinical efficacy and safety of recruitment maneuver in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome using low tidal volume ventilation: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiu-ming; JIANG Li; ZHU Bo; the RM group

    2010-01-01

    Background The recruitment maneuver (RM) has been shown to improve oxygenation in some patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. But there is a lack of standardization and lack of clinical studies to prove the improvement on clinical outcome. We conducted this study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of the RM in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using Iow tidal volume ventilation.Methods We randomly assigned 110 patients with ARDS from 14 Chinese intensive care units (ICUs) at the tertiary teaching hospitals. Patients with PaO2 ≤200 mmHg at FiO2 1.0 and PEEP ≥10 cmH2O were included in the study.Patients were randomized into two groups: control group and RM group. The tidal volume was set to 6-8 mi per kilogram of predicted body weight (PBW) in both groups. RM was performed by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 40 cmH2O maintained for 40 seconds. RMs was conducted every eight hours for the first five days, or stopped within five days if the patient reached the weaning standard.Results One hundred and ten patients had completed the requirements for the primary study goals, 55 from the RM group and 55 control patients. Baseline characteristics remained similar in the two groups. In the RM group the PaO2/FiO2 was significantly increased compared to baseline at 120 minutes after RM on day one and day two (P=0.007and P=0.001). There were no significant differences between the RM and control group in hospital mortality (41.8% vs.56.4%, P=0.13), 28-day mortality (29.1% vs. 43.6%, P=0.11) and ventilator-free days at day 28 (10.8±10.1 vs. 7.4±10.0,P=0.08). ICU mortality (32.7% vs. 52.7%, P=0.03), the rate of survival with unassisted breathing for at least 48 consecutive hours at day 28 (58.2% vs. 36.2%, P=0.02), and nonpulmonary organ failure-free days at day 28 (17.4±11.1vs. 13.0±12.0, P=0.03) favored the RM group. There was no significant difference in mean blood pressure and heart rate before RM and at 30, 60

  17. Establish Central Kitchen under HACCP Control in Food and Beverage Industry to Ensure Food Safety and Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Qi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food safety and hygiene have been a social problem. So, it is worth studying in-depth that how to control the safety and hygiene of food and beverage. This paper proposes to establish central kitchens under HACCP control to ensure food safety and hygiene in the food and beverage industry. Considering the practical difficulties in the application of HACCP, this paper introduces the establishment of dishes HACCP system with some examples to give the reference of the food and beverage industry. Central kitchens have many advantages while HACCP is the golden standard to ensure food safety and hygiene, hence, it will ensure food safety and hygiene if both can be combined with in the use of food and beverage industry.

  18. Radiation necrosis causing failure of automatic ventilation during sleep with central sleep apnea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udwadia, Z.F.; Athale, S.; Misra, V.P.; Wadia, N.H.

    1987-09-01

    A patient operated upon for a midline cerebellar hemangioblastoma developed failure of automatic respiration during sleep, together with central sleep apnea syndrome, approximately two years after receiving radiation therapy to the brain. Clinical and CT scan findings were compatible with a diagnosis of radiation necrosis as the cause of his abnormal respiratory control.

  19. Radiation necrosis causing failure of automatic ventilation during sleep with central sleep apnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient operated upon for a midline cerebellar hemangioblastoma developed failure of automatic respiration during sleep, together with central sleep apnea syndrome, approximately two years after receiving radiation therapy to the brain. Clinical and CT scan findings were compatible with a diagnosis of radiation necrosis as the cause of his abnormal respiratory control

  20. Central autonomic control in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a study on phasic phenomena during rapid-eye-movement sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Berteotti, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular regulation undergoes wide changes in the different states of sleepwake cycle. In particular, the relationship between spontaneous fluctuations in heart period and arterial pressure clearly shows differences between the two sleep states. In non rapid-eye-movement sleep, heart rhythm is under prevalent baroreflex control, whereas in rapid-eye-movement sleep central autonomic commands prevail (Zoccoli et al., 2001). Moreover, during rapid-eye-movement sleep the cardiovascul...

  1. Energy efficient walking with central pattern generators: from passive dynamic walking to biologically inspired control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, B.W.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Like human walking, passive dynamic walking—i.e. walking down a slope with no actuation except gravity—is energy efficient by exploiting the natural dynamics. In the animal world, neural oscillators termed central pattern generators (CPGs) provide the basic rhythm for muscular activity in locomotion

  2. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  3. Establish Central Kitchen under HACCP Control in Food and Beverage Industry to Ensure Food Safety and Hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Cuihua Qi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, food safety and hygiene have been a social problem. So, it is worth studying in-depth that how to control the safety and hygiene of food and beverage. This paper proposes to establish central kitchens under HACCP control to ensure food safety and hygiene in the food and beverage industry. Considering the practical difficulties in the application of HACCP, this paper introduces the establishment of dishes HACCP system with some examples to give the reference of the food and be...

  4. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  5. Modulation of reflexly evoked vagal bradycardias by central 5-HT1A receptors in anaesthetized rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Matthew R; Ramage, Andrew G; Jordan, David

    2002-01-01

    The role of central 5-HT1A receptors in the control of the bradycardia and changes in central respiratory drive, renal nerve activity and blood pressure evoked by stimulating cardiopulmonary afferents with phenylbiguanide, baroreceptors by electrical stimulation of the aortic nerve and chemoreceptors by injections of sodium cyanide (NaCN) in atenolol-pretreated anaesthetized rabbits were studied.Buspirone (100 μg kg−1; i.c.) potentiated the bradycardia (increase in R-R interval) and the chang...

  6. Ventilation and respiratory pattern and timing in resting awake cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D B; Szlyk, P C

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the variability and patterns of spontaneous respiratory behaviour in awake cats. Respiration was measured in six cats over 80 or 90 min by the plethysmographic technique. In three cats, arterial blood gases were measured. Breath frequency (f) and tidal volume (VT) varied considerably breath-to-breath, although on average, these measurements as well as average ventilation remained relatively constant. The incidence of breath ventilation (VT X 60/TTOT) and VT were distributed unimodally but the incidence of breath f had a bimodal distribution. In the low f range, average f was 22.5 breaths/min, and in the high f range, average f was 41.6 breaths/min. The latter range appeared to be associated with purring. Inspiratory duration (TI) was less than expiratory duration (TE) at low f but exceeded TE at high f. For a given breath ventilation there was a predictable f and VT. At shorter TI (higher f) mean inspiratory flow, an index of central respiratory drive, increased but VT decreased. This study indicates that "normal" control respiratory behaviour in awake cats is better described by the range and pattern of breathing than by average values.

  7. Relation of central alpha-adrenoceptor and other receptors to the control of renin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1983-02-01

    The location and nature of the receptors in the brain on which clonidine acts to decrease renin secretion have been investigated in dogs. Clonidine was injected into the vertebral and carotid arteries, and its effects were compared with those of norepinephrine and epinephrine when injected into the third ventricle. It was also injected intravenously (IV) after transection of the brain stem and following treatment with intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine. The results suggest that the renin-regulating receptors are located in the brain stem in a region different from the receptors mediating the depressor response, that they are alpha 2-adrenoceptors, and that they are postsynaptic in location. Central alpha 1-adrenoceptors appear to mediate increased renin secretion. Central serotonergic receptors also mediate increased renin secretion, but it is not known how the alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors interact with the serotonergic systems.

  8. Challenges to Providing a Successful Central Configuration Service to Support CERN’s New Controls Diagnostics and Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Makonnen, Z; Zaharieva, Z

    2014-01-01

    The Controls Diagnostic and Monitoring service (DIAMON) provides monitoring and diagnostics tools to the operators in the CERN Control Centre. A recent reengineering presented the opportunity to restructure its data management and to integrate it with the central Controls Configuration Service (CCS). The CCS provides the Configuration Management for the Controls System for all accelerators at CERN. The new facility had to cater for the configuration management of all agents monitored by DIAMON, (>3000 computers of different types), provide deployment information, relations between metrics, and historical information. In addition, it had to be integrated into the operational CCS, while ensuring stability and data coherency. An important design decision was to largely reuse the existing infrastructure in the CCS and adapt the DIAMON data management to it e.g. by using the device/property model through a Virtual Devices framework to model the DIAMON agents. This article will show how these challenging requiremen...

  9. Xenopus Vocalizations Are Controlled by a Sexually Differentiated Hindbrain Central Pattern Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Heather J.; Yu, Heather J.; YAMAGUCHI, ayako

    2007-01-01

    Male and female African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) produce rhythmic, sexually distinct vocalizations as part of courtship and mating. We found that Xenopus vocal behavior is governed by a sexually dimorphic central pattern generator (CPG) and that fictive vocalizations can be elicited from an in vitro brain preparation by application of serotonin or by electrical stimulation of a premotor nucleus. Male brains produced fictive vocal patterns representing two calls commonly produced by males...

  10. MERCURY IN FISHERY PRODUCTS FROM CENTRAL ADRIATIC SEA (OFFICIAL CONTROLS FROM 1995 TO 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarelli, C.; A Aliventi; V Di Trani; A. M. Semeraro; P. Capocasa

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to its properties, methylmercury is the most bioavailable form of mercury compounds. In fact, it causes the most toxic effects on the immune, cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, in particular the fetal brain. Seafood consumption is recognized as being the largest environmental mercury source to most human populations. So, fishery products are the most important source of methylmercury exposure in human. As the mercury burden of fish increases for transference to upper tr...

  11. US presidents exercise centralized control over the bureaucracy primarily through reactive oversight.

    OpenAIRE

    West, William

    2015-01-01

    More than 2.5 million people work across the entire executive branch of the US government in hundreds of agencies and commissions. William West takes an in-depth look at how the President is able to oversee this vast bureaucracy. He writes that centralized influence over agency policy making is mostly reactive and based around the practice of regulatory review. He argues that Presidents lack the organizational capacity to monitor and influence what agencies do in more than a se...

  12. Control, ideology and identity in civil war: the Angolan Central Highlands 1965-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Justin; Alexander, Jocelyn; Soares de Oliveira, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between political movements and people during the civil war between Angola’s MPLA government and the UNITA rebels in the Central Highlands region. It shows how conflicting ideas about political legitimacy originating in anticolonial struggle informed leaders’ decisions and formed the basis of their efforts to politicise people.Much existing literature sees civil conflict in terms of rebellion against a state, motivated by grievance or by the desire for l...

  13. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  14. Cis and trans RET signaling control the survival and central projection growth of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michael S; Vysochan, Anna; Paixão, Sόnia; Niu, Jingwen; Klein, Rüdiger; Savitt, Joseph M; Luo, Wenqin

    2015-04-02

    RET can be activated in cis or trans by its co-receptors and ligands in vitro, but the physiological roles of trans signaling are unclear. Rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) express Ret and the co-receptor Gfrα2 and depend on Ret for survival and central projection growth. Here, we show that Ret and Gfrα2 null mice display comparable early central projection deficits, but Gfrα2 null RA mechanoreceptors recover later. Loss of Gfrα1, the co-receptor implicated in activating RET in trans, causes no significant central projection or cell survival deficit, but Gfrα1;Gfrα2 double nulls phenocopy Ret nulls. Finally, we demonstrate that GFRα1 produced by neighboring DRG neurons activates RET in RA mechanoreceptors. Taken together, our results suggest that trans and cis RET signaling could function in the same developmental process and that the availability of both forms of activation likely enhances but not diversifies outcomes of RET signaling.

  15. Difference in full-filled time and its controlling factors in the Central Canyon of the Qiongdongnan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Zhilei; XIE Xinong; LI Xushen; ZHANG Daojun; HE Yunlong; YANG Xing; CUI Mingzhe

    2015-01-01

    Based on the interpretation of high resolution 2D/3D seismic data, sedimentary filling characteristics and full-filled time of the Central Canyon in different segments in the Qiongdongnan Basin of northwestern South China Sea have been studied. The research results indicate that the initial formation age of the Central Canyon is traced back to 11.6 Ma (T40), at which the canyon began to develop due to the scouring of turbidity currents from west to east. During the period of 11.6–8.2 Ma (T40–T31), strong downcutting by gravity flow occurred, which led to the formation of the canyon. The canyon fillings began to form since 8.2 Ma (T31) and were dominated by turbidite deposits, which constituted of lateral migration and vertical superposition of turbidity channels during the time of 8.2–5.5 Ma. The interbeds of turbidity currents deposits and mass transport deposits (MTDs) were developed in the period of 5.5–3.8 Ma (T30–T28). After then, the canyon fillings were primarily made up of large scale MTDs, interrupted by small scale turbidity channels and thin pelagic mudstones. The Central Canyon can be divided into three types according to the main controlling factors, geomorphology-controlled, fault-controlled and intrusion-modified canyons. Among them, the geomorphology-controlled canyon is developed at the Ledong, Lingshui, Songnan and western Baodao Depressions, situated in a confined basin center between the northern slope and the South Uplift Belt along the Central Depression Belt. The fault-controlled canyon is developed mainly along the deep-seated faults in the Changchang Depression and eastern Baodao Depression. Intrusion-modified canyon is only occurred in the Songnan Low Uplift, which is still mainly controlled by geomorphology, the intrusion just modified seabed morphology. The full-filled time of the Central Canyon differs from west to east, displaying a tendency of being successively late eastward. The geomorphology-controlled canyon was

  16. RelA Ser276 Phosphorylation-Coupled Lys310 Acetylation Controls Transcriptional Elongation of Inflammatory Cytokines in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Allan R Brasier; Tian, B.; Jamaluddin, M; Kalita, Mridul K.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Lu, Muping

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus responsible for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in humans. In experimental models of RSV LRTI, the actions of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription factor mediate inflammation and pathology. We have shown that RSV replication induces a mitogen-and-stress-related kinase 1 (MSK-1) pathway that activates NF-κB RelA transcriptional activity by a process involving serine phosphorylation at serine (Ser)...

  17. Guide to industrial respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 has increased the emphasis on proper selection and use of respirators in situations where engineering controls are not feasible or are being implemented. Although a great deal of information on respiratory protection has been published, most of it is more technical than necessary for the average user faced with day-to-day problems of respiratory protection in industrial environments. This Guide is to provide the industrial user a single reference source containing enough information for establishing and maintaining a respirator program that meets the OSHA requirements outlined in 29 CFR Part 1910.134. It includes chapters on respirator selection, use, maintenance, and inspection, a complete description of all types of respirators and their advantages and limitations, and chapters on respirator fitting and wearer training, respiratory physiology, respiratory hazards, and physiological and psychological limitations. Also included are samples of the decision logic used in respirator selection, guidance on setting up an adequate respirator program through formulation of written standard operating procedures, and discussion of the meaning of the approved respirator

  18. A study of a solar central power plant with a gas turbine - Project Sirocco modelling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacim, M.

    A thermodynamics and receiver design analysis is presented for a solar tower power plant, together with a control model for operations in varying working conditions. The analysis covers the central receiver and the gas-air turbine, adapted for functioning at 820 C, such as was experienced with the 100 kW Project Sirocco test station. A heliostat field concentrates solar energy onto a central receiver traversed by compressed air, which is allowed to expand while driving a turbine generator. A combustion chamber is included in the loop to augment the thermal performance when insufficient solar energy is available. The plant can be either grid-connected or stand alone. Static and dynamic characteristics of the thermal loop are modelled, and are included in the development of control laws based on quadratic criteria. An optimized control scheme is devised which features weighting criteria matrices, and the results of simulations covering different insolation levels are reported. Finally, an adjoint state control system is produced to account for peculiarities of the power plant.

  19. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  20. Casein improves brachial and central aortic diastolic blood pressure in overweight adolescents: a randomised, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Karina; Larnkjær, Anni; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids may be improved by milk in adults and the effects may be mediated via proteins. However, limited is known about the effects of milk proteins on central aortic BP and no studies have examined the effects in children. Therefore, the present...... stiffness or blood lipid concentrations. A high intake of casein improves DBP in overweight adolescents. Thus, casein may be beneficial for younger overweight subjects in terms of reducing the longterm risk of CVD. In contrast, whey protein seems to increase BP compared with drinking water; however, water...

  1. Representações gustativas no córtex humano, e o controle central do apetite Taste representation in the human cortex and the central control of appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan E de Araújo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Tem sido estabelecido que o controle da ingestão de nutrientes e o decorrente estado de equilíbrio homeostático dependem de uma série de sinais periféricos que atuam diretamente sobre o sistema nervoso central, levando a respostas adaptativas apropriadas. Entretanto, em humanos, a crescente incidência de patologias produzidas em grande medida por distúrbios da preferência alimentar, tais como obesidade e anorexia, implica no envolvimento do córtex no controle da ingestão de alimentos. Estudos recentes fazendo uso da neuroimagem funcional em voluntários humanos revelam que o processamento central da informação gustativa é implementado em humanos em áreas análogas a de outros primatas. As áreas corticais gustativas primárias, localizadas no complexo ínsulo-opercular, respondem eficientemente durante a decodificação de estímulos externos através do isolamento dos sinais que codificam o estado fisiológico do organismo. As áreas específicas do córtex pré-frontal em sua parte ventro-média parecem, por sua vez, integrar informações acerca dos aspectos sensoriais dos estímulos com os sinais de origem periférica que refletem o estado homeoestático do organismo.The control of food intake and the mechanisms of energy homeostasis are now known to depend on a series of peripheral signals that act directly on the central nervous system leading to appropriate adaptive responses. However, in humans, the increasing occurrence of associated pathologies due to abnormal food-intake preferences such as obesity and anorexia implies that food intake control depend also on cortical processing. Recent functional neuroimaging studies on human volunteers reveal that the central processing of gustatory information in humans is performed in similar areas to those of other primates, with primary gustatory cortical areas in the frontal operculum/anterior insula complex responding efficiently to stimulus decoding by isolating peripheral

  2. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2016-06-03

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  3. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Ansanelli, Eric [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Henderson, Hugh [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Varshney, Kapil [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions

    2016-06-23

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  4. [Effect of phenibut on the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakanov, I A; Tarasova, N N; Belova, E A; Safonov, V A

    2006-01-01

    The role of the GABAergic system in mechanisms of the respiratory arrest caused by serotonin administration was studied in anaesthetized rats. Under normal conditions, the systemic administration of serotonin (20-60 mg/kg, i.v.) resulted in drastic changes of the respiratory pattern, whereby the initial phase of increased respiratory rate was followed by the respiratory arrest. The preliminary injection of phenibut (400 mg/kg, i.p.) abolished or sharply reduced the duration of the respiratory arrest phase induced by serotonin. Bilateral vagotomy following the phenibut injection potentiated the anti-apnoesic effect of phenibut, which was evidence of the additive action of vagotomy and phenibut administration. The mechanism of apnea caused by serotonin administration is suggested to include a central GABAergic element, which is activated by phenibut so as to counteract the respiratory arrest. PMID:16579056

  5. Centrally controlled self-healing wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network based on optical carrier suppression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jiao; Sun, Xiaohan

    2015-12-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a centrally controlled and self-healing wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network with colorless optical network units (ONUs) based on optical carrier suppression technique. By switching the affected data in the OCS signal sideband to an alternate protection path, only one optical switch is provisioned at the optical line terminal, which is controlled by a logic control circuit upon monitoring of power outage on the working path. The proposed scheme can reliably protect against both distribution and feeder fiber failures. Moreover, gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers are used as colorless transmitters in ONUs. The protection scheme feasibility and system performances are experimentally verified with 10 Gb/s downstream and 1.25 Gb/s upstream data in both working and protection modes. The protection switching time was measured to be around 1 ms.

  6. Paleotectonic controls on deposition of upper Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, east-central Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Surface mapping of the basal Mesozoic La Casita Formation (upper Upper Jurassic) in east-central Chihuahua, Mexico, indicates initial Mesozoic sedimentation occurred in a segmented, interconnected subbasin of the Chihuahua trough. La Casite Formation (1200 m thick) is a tectonostratigraphic unit resting with angular unconformity on the Lower Permian Plomosas Formation. It consists primarily of siliciclastic material with sporadic interbedded limestones. The dominant lithofacies, approximately 1000 m thick, consists of turbiditic sandstone units (10-20 m) alternating with thicker, monotonous shale sequences. In the mapped area (approximately 30 km/sup 2/), flute cast measurements indicate flows from both the northeast (N20/degree/E) and southwest (S58/degree/W). Turbiditic sandstone units appear to pinch out and/or interfinger as they extend from the north and south into the central portion of the area. The initial opening of the Chihuahua trough is often associated with Late Jurassic block faulting, related to development of the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Synrift depositional sequences of a similar age have been described in southern Coahuila, northern Zacatecas, and western Chiapas, Mexico. The subbasin (graben ) examined here may be ascribed a paleoposition near the western edge of the early Chihuahua trough. The western boundary of the early trough may have comprised a series of these subbasins, forming a cuspate or serrated coastline. Late Jurassic ammonites recovered from this and other localities along the length of the Chihuahua trough suggest that the subbasins were interconnected by means of an eastern continuous seaway.

  7. Physical control of primary productivity on a seasonal scale in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Prasanna kumar; M Madhupratap; M Dileep kumar; M Gauns; P M Muraleedharan; V V S S Sarma; S N De Souza

    2000-12-01

    Using in situ data collected during 1992-1997, under the Indian programme of Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), we show that the biological productivity of the Arabian Sea is tightly coupled to the physical forcing mediated through nutrient availability. The Arabian Sea becomes productive in summer not only along the coastal regions of Somalia, Arabia and southern parts of the west coast of India due to coastal upwelling but also in the open waters of the central region. The open waters in the north are fertilized by a combination of divergence driven by cyclonic wind stress curl to the north of the Findlater Jet and lateral advection of nutrient-rich upwelled waters from Arabia. Productivity in the southern part of the central Arabian Sea, on the other hand, is driven by advection from the Somalia upwelling. Surface cooling and convection resulting from reduced solar radiation and increased evaporation make the northern region productive in winter. During both spring and fall inter-monsoons, this sea remains warm and stratified with low production as surface waters are oligotrophic. Inter-annual variability in physical forcing during winter resulted in one-and-a-half times higher production in 1997 than in 1995.

  8. What controls star formation in the central 500 pc of the Galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Murray, Norman; Bally, John; Testi, Leonardo; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    The star formation rate (SFR) in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ, i.e. the central 500 pc) of the Milky Way is lower by a factor of >10 than expected for the substantial amount of dense gas it contains, which challenges current star formation theories. In this paper, we quantify which physical mechanisms could be causing this observation. On scales larger than the disc scale height, the low SFR is found to be consistent with episodic star formation due to secular instabilities or variations of the gas inflow along the Galactic bar. The CMZ is marginally Toomre-stable when including gas and stars, but highly Toomre-stable when only accounting for the gas, indicating that the condensation of self-gravitating clouds may be limited. On small scales, we find that the SFR in the CMZ is consistent with an elevated critical density for star formation due to the high turbulent pressure - potentially aided by weak magnetic effects and an underproduction of massive stars due to a bottom-heavy IMF. The existence of a uni...

  9. Impulses of physiology and psychology for the design of central control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsequent to a presentation of the man-machine-system in process control, the various operational steps are described. The problems of control are derived from the tasks to be accomplished by the operator. Measures are presented and discussed to overcome the stages of low demand and high demand on the operator's attention. (orig.)

  10. A Logically Centralized Approach for Control and Management of Large Computer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Hammad A.

    2012-01-01

    Management of large enterprise and Internet service provider networks is a complex, error-prone, and costly challenge. It is widely accepted that the key contributors to this complexity are the bundling of control and data forwarding in traditional routers and the use of fully distributed protocols for network control. To address these…

  11. Time presses for the installation of a central controller [in the energy supply industry]. Strategic re-orientation of the present system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of a so-called central controller for the electric power industry has a number of advantages for stakeholders in the energy market: improving the exchange of information between energy utilities, save costs by setting up central registers for connections, meters, measured data and central processes for e.g. reconciliation and management of measured data (in particular with regard to smart metering). As an example attention is paid to the NEMMCO-case (National Electricity Code Administrator) in Australia

  12. Telithromycin versus clarithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-min; WANG Feng-chun; YANG Feng; JIN Ying-hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The emergence of bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics,such as macrolides,is complicating the management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs).Telithromycin,a ketolide antimicrobial structurally related to macrolides,is approved for the treatment of community-acquired RTIs,and shows lower pathogen resistance rates.The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of telithromycin with clarithromycin,a macrolide routinely used as therapy for RTIs.Methods We performed a meta-analysis of relevant randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) identified in PubMed,the Cochrane Library,Embase,CNKI and VIP databases.The primary efficacy outcome was clinical treatment success assessed at the test-of-cure time in the per-protocol population,and the primary safety outcome was drug related adverse effects.Results Seven RCTs,involving 2845 patients with RTIs,were included in the meta-analysis.Oral telithromycin and clarithromycin showed a similar clinical treatment success in modified intention to treat and per-protocol population (cure and improvement) (odds ratios (ORs):0.84,95% confidence intervals (CI):0.64-1.11 and OR:1.14,95% CI:0.71-1.85,respectively).Similar findings were obtained for secondary efficacy outcomes:clinical treatment success at a late posttherapy visit (OR:0.92,95% CI:0.57-1.48) and microbiological treatment success at the test-of-cure time (OR:1.14; 95%CI:0.71-1.85).The safety outcome analysis indicated telithromycin had a similar risk of drug-related adverse effect and serious adverse effect with clarithromycin.Conclusions Our findings indicate that oral telithromycin and clarithromycin have similar treatment efficacy and adverse effect.The advantages of lower antimicrobial resistance rates,once-daily short-duration dosing and reported lower healthcare costs make oral telithromycin a useful option for the empiric management of mild-to-moderate RTIs.

  13. Peripheral chemoreceptors in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Iris A; Keens, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is a rare disorder caused by a mutation in the PHOX2B gene resulting in hypoventilation that is worse during sleep. Human physiologic studies show that patients with CCHS have absent or decreased rebreathing ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxemia during sleep as well as during wakefulness. Some ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hyperoxia can be demonstrated using a step change in inspired oxygen. However, these suggest that both central and peripheral chemoreceptor functions are generally defective in all states in children with CCHS. The defect in CCHS may lie in central nervous system pathways regulating ventilation, whose development and function are controlled by PHOX2B. Moreover, the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) may be the major defect in CCHS, where central and peripheral inputs converge. Human physiological studies predicted that the defect in CCHS lies in central integration of the central and peripheral chemoreceptor signals. New evidence suggests the RTN may be the respiratory controller where chemoreceptor inputs are integrated. In this review we present the clinical presentation of CCHS, revisit results of human physiologic studies, and discuss the findings in light of new knowledge about the role of PHOX2B and RTN in CCHS.

  14. Optimal Path for Controlling Sectoral CO2 Emissions Among China’s Regions: A Centralized DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoren Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a centralized data envelopment analysis (DEA model for industrial optimization based on several different production technologies among several regions. We developed this model based on improved Kuosmanen environmental DEA technology, which avoids positive shadow price on undesirable outputs. We also designed a dual model for our centralized DEA model, and used it to analyze shadow prices on CO2 emissions. We further employed the proposed model to determine the optimal path for controlling CO2 emissions at the sector level for each province in China. At sectoral level, manufacturing showed the highest potential emissions reduction, and transportation was the largest accepter of emission quotas. At regional level, western and northeastern areas faced the largest adjustments in allowable emissions, while central and eastern areas required the least amount of adjustment. Because our model represents increase or decrease in emissions bidirectionally in terms of shadow price analysis, this setting makes the shadow price on CO2 emissions lower than strong regulation (decreasing CO2 emissions along with increasing value added used by directional distance function (DDF.

  15. Responses to increasing exercise upon reaching the anaerobic threshold, and their control by the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Jesús J; Calderón, Francisco J; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) has been one of the most studied of all physiological variables. Many authors have proposed the use of several markers to determine the moment at with the AT is reached. The present work discusses the physiological responses made to exercise - the measurement of which indicates the point at which the AT is reached - and how these responses might be controlled by the central nervous system. The detection of the AT having been reached is a sign for the central nervous system (CNS) to respond via an increase in efferent activity via the peripheral nervous system (PNS). An increase in CNS and PNS activities are related to changes in ventilation, cardiovascular function, and gland and muscle function. The directing action of the central command (CC) allows for the coordination of the autonomous and motor systems, suggesting that the AT can be identified in the many ways: changes in lactate, ventilation, plasma catecholamines, heart rate (HR), salivary amylase and muscular electrical activity. This change in response could be indicative that the organism would face failure if the exercise load continued to increase. To avoid this, the CC manages the efferent signals that show the organism that it is running out of homeostatic potential. PMID:24818009

  16. Proposals to enhance thermal efficiency programs and air pollution control in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major cities in South-central Chile suffer high levels of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 due to combustion of solid fuels for heating. Exposure to these air pollutants is recognized as a major contribution to ill health in the region. Here we discuss new strategies to reduce air pollution. Regulations and subsidies focusing on improved combustion by providing drier wood fuel and better stoves have been in effect since 2007. However, air pollution due to combustion of wood fuel has been steadily rising, along with reports on health consequences. The paper analyzes a survey of 2025 households in the city of Valdivia, which found that wood fuel quality, stove renewal, and awareness of programs are strongly affected by income level, and that higher consumption of wood fuel is found in households already having better stoves and drier wood fuel. The analysis suggests that regulations intended to improve combustion are influenced by user's behavior and have limited potential for lowering pollution. We conclude that thermal refurbishment has a larger potential for improvement, not yet been implemented as an energy policy for the majority. Here we propose improvements and additions to current programs to enhance effectiveness and cover the whole social spectrum. - Highlights: • High levels of PM2.5 from wood combustion affect cities of south-central Chile. • Current programs on dry wood fuel and stoves renewal have not reduced air pollution. • Real operation of wood stoves strongly depends on user's behavior. • Buildings' energy efficiency has greater potential for reducing emissions. • Retrofit prevents degradation of native forest and improves indoor temperature

  17. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2016-01-23

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  18. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.

    2016-02-01

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  19. Structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Maria Luisa; Bianchi, Cristina; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2003-03-01

    Two models exist of the mitochondrial respiratory chain: the model of a random organization of the individual respiratory enzyme complexes and that of a super-complex assembly formed by stable association between the individual complexes. Recently Schägger, using digitonin solubilization and Blue Native PAGE produced new evidence of preferential associations, in particular a Complex I monomer with a Complex III dimer, and suggested a model of the respiratory chain (the respirasome) based on direct electron channelling between complexes. Discrimination between the two models is amenable to kinetic testing using flux control analysis. Experimental evidence obtained in beef heart SMP, according to the extension of the Metabolic Control Theory for pathways with metabolic channelling, showed that enzyme associations involving Complex I and Complex III take place in the respiratory chain while Complex IV seems to be randomly distributed, with cytochrome c behaving as a mobile component. Flux control analysis at anyone of the respiratory complexes involved in aerobic succinate oxidation indicated that Complex II and III are not functionally associated in a stable supercomplex. A critical appraisal of the solid-state model of the mitochondrial respiratory chain requires its reconciliation with previous biophysical and kinetic evidence that CoQ behaves as a homogeneous diffusible pool between all reducing enzyme and all oxidizing enzymes: the hypothesis can be advanced that both models (CoQ pool and supercomplexes) are true, by postulating that supercomplexes physiologically exist in equilibrium with isolated complexes depending on metabolic conditions of the cell.

  20. An optogenetic investigation of the control and development of the spinal central pattern generator in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Warp, Erica Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The nervous system directly controls the muscles of the body, and thus, the behavior of the animal. An understanding of the neural circuits and cell types that mediate and control behavior would give us insight into the mechanisms by which the nervous system operates and would also contribute to the development of therapies and treatments for neurological disorders and diseases that result in locomotor deficits. Some behaviors are organized by constant voluntary drive, while others, which req...

  1. Experiences with the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two foci in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gryseels

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with population-based chemotherapy and other methods for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two subsaharan foci are described. In the forest area of Maniema (Zaire, intense transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, high prevalences and intensities of infection, and important morbidity have been documental. Taking into account the limited financial means and the poor logistic conditions, the control strategy has been based mainly on targeted chemotherapy of heavily infected people (>600 epg. After ten years of intervention, prevalences and intensities have hardly been affected, but the initial severe hepatosplenic morbidity has almost disappeared. In Burundi, a national research and control programme has been initiated in 1982. Prevalences, intensities and morbidity were moderate, transmission was focal and erratic in time and space. A more structural control strategy was developed, based on screening and selective therapy, health education, sanitation and domestic water supply. Prevalences and intensities have been considerably reduced, though the results show focal and unpredicatable variations. Transmission and reinfection were not signifcantly affected by chemotherapy alone, and eventual outcome of repeated selective treatment appears to be limited by the sensitivity of the screening method. Intestinal morbidity was strongly reduced by community-based selective treatment, but hepatosplenic enlargement was hardly affected; this is possibly due to the confounding impact of increasing malaria morbidity. The experiences show the importance of local structures and conditions for the development of an adapted control strategy. It is further concluded that population-based chemotherapy is a highly valid tool for the rapid control of morbidity, but should in most operational conditions not be considered as a tool for transmission control. Integration of planning, execution and surveillance in regular health services...

  2. The Role of Economic and Social Factors Driving Predator Control in Small-Game Estates in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes-Mateos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important human-wildlife conflicts in the world is that where predators are involved. Predators may compete with us for the same resources, such as game species. As a consequence, predators have been frequently controlled by game managers, which has negatively affected many predator populations worldwide. The understanding of human-wildlife conflicts requires a multidisplicinary framework that is rarely considered. We aim to evaluate the attitudes and behavior of game managers with regard to predator management in central Spain, as well as to explore factors that lead to these attitudes and behavior. Data were gathered through face to face interviews with game managers from 59 small-game hunting estates within central Spain. Predator control was employed in 90% of the estates, but control intensity was very variable among estates. Economic interests and perceptions about predators apparently influenced variation in control intensity. The main methods employed were cage-traps and shooting, but some illegal practices (e.g., leg-hold traps or snares without stopping devices were also admittedly used for carnivores. Most managers considered that efficacy of legal methods for control of foxes (Vulpes vulpes was very limited. Overall, nonselective methods, such as some types of snares, were more frequently employed in commercial than in noncommercial estates. Most managers believed that predators had an important effect on prey, and therefore that not doing it would lead to smaller hunting bags. Only managers from commercial hunting estates used stronger discourses such as that hunting would be impossible without carrying out predator control, which suggests that their tolerance for predators was lower than that of managers whose main motivation was not economic. Most managers considered that predator control was effective to reduce the number of predators, but only in the short term. Therefore, they highlighted the need of maintaining

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus-induced Interleukin-8 Synthesis by Respiratory Epithelial Cells Is Controlled by the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 Pathways and Not by the Toll-like Receptor-MyD88 Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balloy, Viviane; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Wu, Yongzheng; Touqui, Lhousseine; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Chignard, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have established that phagocytes are key cells of the pulmonary innate immune defense against A. fumigatus, an opportunistic fungus responsible of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Macrophages detect A. fumigatus via Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and -4) and respond by the MyD88-NF-κB-dependent synthesis of inflammatory mediators. In the present study, we demonstrate that respiratory epithelial cells also sense A. fumigatus and participate in the host defense. Thus, the interaction of respiratory epithelial cells with germinating but not resting conidia of A. fumigatus results in interleukin (IL)-8 synthesis that is controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2. Using MyD88-dominant negative transfected cells, we also show that IL-8 production is not dependent on the TLR-MyD88 pathway, although the MyD88 pathway is activated by A. fumigatus and leads to NF-κB activation. Thus, our results provide evidence for the existence of two independent signaling pathways activated in respiratory epithelial cells by A. fumigatus, one that is MyD88-dependent and another that is My88-independent and involved in IL-8 synthesis. PMID:18703508

  4. Aspergillus fumigatus-induced interleukin-8 synthesis by respiratory epithelial cells is controlled by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 pathways and not by the toll-like receptor-MyD88 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balloy, Viviane; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Wu, Yongzheng; Touqui, Lhousseine; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Chignard, Michel

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have established that phagocytes are key cells of the pulmonary innate immune defense against A. fumigatus, an opportunistic fungus responsible of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Macrophages detect A. fumigatus via Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and -4) and respond by the MyD88-NF-kappaB-dependent synthesis of inflammatory mediators. In the present study, we demonstrate that respiratory epithelial cells also sense A. fumigatus and participate in the host defense. Thus, the interaction of respiratory epithelial cells with germinating but not resting conidia of A. fumigatus results in interleukin (IL)-8 synthesis that is controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2. Using MyD88-dominant negative transfected cells, we also show that IL-8 production is not dependent on the TLR-MyD88 pathway, although the MyD88 pathway is activated by A. fumigatus and leads to NF-kappaB activation. Thus, our results provide evidence for the existence of two independent signaling pathways activated in respiratory epithelial cells by A. fumigatus, one that is MyD88-dependent and another that is My88-independent and involved in IL-8 synthesis. PMID:18703508

  5. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  6. Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bevacizumab Therapy for Radiation Necrosis of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To conduct a controlled trial of bevacizumab for the treatment of symptomatic radiation necrosis of the brain. Methods and Materials: A total of 14 patients were entered into a placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study of bevacizumab for the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis. All patients were required to have radiographic or biopsy proof of central nervous system radiation necrosis and progressive neurologic symptoms or signs. Eligible patients had undergone irradiation for head-and-neck carcinoma, meningioma, or low- to mid-grade glioma. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous saline or bevacizumab at 3-week intervals. The magnetic resonance imaging findings 3 weeks after the second treatment and clinical signs and symptoms defined the response or progression. Results: The volumes of necrosis estimated on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that although no patient receiving placebo responded (0 of 7), all bevacizumab-treated patients did so (5 of 5 randomized and 7 of 7 crossover) with decreases in T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced volumes and a decrease in endothelial transfer constant. All bevacizumab-treated patients-and none of the placebo-treated patients-showed improvement in neurologic symptoms or signs. At a median of 10 months after the last dose of bevacizumab in patients receiving all four study doses, only 2 patients had experienced a recurrence of magnetic resonance imaging changes consistent with progressive radiation necrosis; one patient received a single additional dose of bevacizumab and the other patient received two doses. Conclusion: The Class I evidence of bevacizumab efficacy from the present study in the treatment of central nervous system radiation necrosis justifies consideration of this treatment option for people with radiation necrosis secondary to

  7. No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies : a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Thomas; Jakobsson, Ted; Björksten, Bengt; Oldaeus, Göran; Jenmalm, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background Supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri reduced the incidence of IgE-associated allergic disease in infancy. This treatment might therefore also reduce the risk of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in school age. Objective To evaluate whether perinatal and infant supplementation with L. reuteri reduced the prevalence of respiratory allergic disease in school age and to explore whether this supplementation was associated with any long-term side effects. Method...

  8. Feasibility study on full closed-loop control ventilation (IntelliVent-ASV™) in ICU patients with acute respiratory failure: a prospective observational comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Arnal, Jean-Michel; Garnero, Aude; Novonti, Dominik; Demory, Didier; Ducros, Laurent; Berric, Audrey; Donati, Stéphane Yannis; Corno, Gaëlle; Jaber, Samir; Durand-Gasselin, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction IntelliVent-ASV™ is a full closed-loop ventilation mode that automatically adjusts ventilation and oxygenation parameters in both passive and active patients. This feasibility study compared oxygenation and ventilation settings automatically selected by IntelliVent-ASV™ among three predefined lung conditions (normal lung, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) in active and passive patients. The feasibility of IntelliVent-ASV™...

  9. Peripheral and central CB1 cannabinoid receptors control stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Gomis-González, Maria; Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Cutando, Laura; Ortega-Alvaro, Antonio; Ruehle, Sabine; Remmers, Floortje; Bindila, Laura; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2016-08-30

    Stressful events can generate emotional memories linked to the traumatic incident, but they also can impair the formation of nonemotional memories. Although the impact of stress on emotional memories is well studied, much less is known about the influence of the emotional state on the formation of nonemotional memories. We used the novel object-recognition task as a model of nonemotional memory in mice to investigate the underlying mechanism of the deleterious effect of stress on memory consolidation. Systemic, hippocampal, and peripheral blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors abolished the stress-induced memory impairment. Genetic deletion and rescue of CB1 receptors in specific cell types revealed that the CB1 receptor population specifically in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH)-expressing cells is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation, but CB1 receptors present in other neuronal populations are not involved. Strikingly, pharmacological manipulations in mice expressing CB1 receptors exclusively in DBH(+) cells revealed that both hippocampal and peripheral receptors mediate the impact of stress on memory consolidation. Thus, CB1 receptors on adrenergic and noradrenergic cells provide previously unrecognized cross-talk between central and peripheral mechanisms in the stress-dependent regulation of nonemotional memory consolidation, suggesting new potential avenues for the treatment of cognitive aspects on stress-related disorders. PMID:27528659

  10. MERCURY IN FISHERY PRODUCTS FROM CENTRAL ADRIATIC SEA (OFFICIAL CONTROLS FROM 1995 TO 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ciccarelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its properties, methylmercury is the most bioavailable form of mercury compounds. In fact, it causes the most toxic effects on the immune, cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, in particular the fetal brain. Seafood consumption is recognized as being the largest environmental mercury source to most human populations. So, fishery products are the most important source of methylmercury exposure in human. As the mercury burden of fish increases for transference to upper trophic levels (biomagnification, piscivors have the potential to accumulate extremely high mercury loads, in the methylated form, 70 to 100% in the muscular tissues. Reg. CE 1881/2006 sets, lastly, allowed maximum levels of mercury in seafood. Several authors found out an increase of mercury levels with size of carnivorous fishes. But this relationship strictly depends on fish species, and is a result of the interaction between environmental and physiological effects. This paper describes the results of a monitoring of mercury levels in fishery products, from 1995 to 2009, before they were sold by auction in the Wholesale Fish Market in the town of San Benedetto del Tronto. The authors’aim was to set a correlation between increasing fish size (weight and loads of the metal up to maximum levels by law.

  11. Ash Layers: The Controlling Factor On Translational Sliding Offshore Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harders, R.; Brueckmann, W.; Feeser, V.; Hensen, C.; Kutterolf, S.

    2006-12-01

    The erosive convergent margin of Central America is dominated by the fast subduction of the rough Pacific plate. Off Costa Rica the morphology of the subducted oceanic plate is characterized by numerous seamounts and the Cocos Ridge. Off Nicaragua fewer seamounts and bend ing-related faults dominate the morphology. In both areas seamount subduction with resulting slope uplift or subduction erosion at the base of the upper plate causes oversteepening and frequent slope failure. Our investigation focuses on translational slides off Nicaragua (Skempton ratio pelagic sediments. Firstly they have higher contents of silt and sand causing higher intrinsic permeabilities. Secondly they consist of disc shaped glass shards which causes higher consolidation rates. This is proved by our first laboratory shear box tests, where ash matter compacted with much higher values than spherical grain shaped reference material of the same grain size. Both factors together could cause a peak pore pressure if ashes compacted rapidly, for instance in a seismic event like the earthquake 1992 off Nicaragua. This would effectively reduce the shear strength between the ash particles and facilitate translational failure. To test this hypothesis and to analyse the relation between pore water pressures and shear strengths under drained conditions, we have modified a shear box, to simultaneously measure pore water pressure and shear strength. We will present field observations from cruise M66 as well as first results from laboratory deformation experiments, supporting our model.

  12. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs

  13. Inventory control of service parts in the final phase : A central depot and repair kits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R.H.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We consider an appliance manufacturer's problem of controlling the inventory of a service part in its final phase. That phase begins when the production of the appliance containing that part is discontinued (time 0), and ends when the last service contract on that appliance expires. Thus, the planni

  14. The central role of trunk control in the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Butler, Penny; Saavedra, Sandy;

    2015-01-01

    Aim Improvement of gross motor function and mobility are primary goals of physical therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between segmental control of the trunk and the corresponding gross motor function in children with CP...

  15. Management Control Systems in Subsidiaries of Multinationals in the Emerging Market of Central Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Using transaction cost theory and the theory of multinational enterprise, this study examines the extent of the degree to which management of multinational companies can control over its subsidiaries' configuration and coordination abilities. Empirical results showed that the subsidiaries enjoyed a

  16. Comparing acromegalic patients to healthy controls with respect to intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and optic disc topography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT, and optic disc topography findings of biochemically controlled acromegalic patients and the control group and to evaluate the effect of the duration of acromegaly and serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels on these ocular parameters. Materials and Methods: IOP measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometry, CCT measurement with ultrasonic pachymetry, and topographic analysis with Heidelberg retinal tomograph III were performed on 35 biochemically controlled acromegalic patients and 36 age- and gender-matched controls. Results: Mean IOP and CCT were 14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg and 559.5 ± 44.9 μm in the acromegaly patients and 13.0 ± 1.6 mmHg and 547.1 ± 26.7 μm in controls (P = 0.006 and P = 0.15, respectively. A significant moderate correlation was found between the duration of acromegaly and CCT (r = 0.391 and IOP (r = 0.367. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness was significantly lower in the acromegalic patients (0.25 ± 0.05 mm as compared to controls (0.31 ± 0.09 mm (P = 0.01. A significant moderate correlation was detected between IGF-1 level and disc area (r = 0.362, cup area (r = 0.389 and cup volume (r = 0.491. Conclusion: Biochemically controlled acromegalic patients showed significantly higher CCT and IOP levels and lower RNFL thickness compared to healthy controls and the duration of disease was correlated with CCT and IOP levels.

  17. Etnografía de la infección respiratoria aguda en una zona rural del altiplano mexicano Ethnography of acute respiratory illnesses in a rural zone of the Mexican central highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOMERO MARTÍNEZ

    1997-05-01

    menor costo fueron razones frecuentemente aducidas para estas elecciones. Conclusiones. Esta información puede resultar útil para mejorar la comunicación con las madres.Objective. To identify the terms used by mothers to refer to diseases, signs and symptoms related to acute respiratory illnesses (ARI, alarming signs which should motivate them to seek medical attention, and to describe common home practices of disease care and treatment. Material and methods. An ethnographic study was performed in six rural communities of the Mexican central highlands. Interviews were collected from 12 key informers, six mothers of children who had died from ARI and 24 mothers of children younger than five years of age, with several ethnographic techniques to complement information ("triangulation". Results. The most commonly identified diseases were cold, sore throat, cough, bronchitis, pneumonia and "broncomonía". Key signs to establish diagnosis included nasal discharge, sore throat, cough, head and body ache, fever, "bubbling" chest, general malaise and shortness of breath. Tachypnea was referred to as "b breathing", "much breathing", "rapid breathing" or "sizzle"; intercostal depression as "the chest sinks", stridor as "chest moan or chest snore", sibilance as "chest snore" and cyanosis as "he turns purple". Home treatments include herbal teas, lemon, green or red tomato or potato applied to the throat externally, as well as creams applied to chest or back. Antibiotic prescription was not common, contrary to antipiretics. Most mothers recognized mild illnesses: severe illnesses were recognized less frequently. When faced with a severe ARI, mothers sought attention firstly at the project clinic, second in frequency with a private physician in the capital of the province and then at the Health Ministry of the district. The reasons to choose these possibilities were mainly proximity and lower costs. Conclusions. This information can be useful to improve communication with mothers.

  18. Ensaio clínico controlado sobre o curativo de cateter venoso central Ensayo clínico controlado sobre la cobertura de catéter venoso central Clinical controlled trial on central venous catheter dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivane Pedrolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia dos curativos de gaze e fita e filme transparente de poliuretano para cobertura de cateteres venosos centrais. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico controlado randomizado. RESUlTADOS: Não foi identificada uma diferença significativa com relação à infecção relacionada ao cateter (p=1 e à fixação do curativo (p=0,670. Foi identificada diferença estatisticamente significativa com relação à absorção de exsudato (pOBJETIVO: Evaluar la eficacia de las curaciones de gasa y cinta y película transparente de poliuretano para la cobertura de catéteres venosos centrales. MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico controlado randomizado. RESULTADOS: No se identificó una diferencia significativa con relación a la infección relacionada al catéter (p=1 y a la fijación de la curación (p=0,670. Fue identificada la diferencia estadísticamente significativa con relación a la absorción del exudado (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of gauze and tape as compared to transparent polyurethane film for dressing central venous catheters. METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. RESULTS: No significant difference was identified in catheter-related infection (p = 1 or the stability of the dressing (p = 0.670. There was no statistically significant difference with respect to the absorption of exudate (p <0.001. The likelihood of local reaction in the control group (gauze and tape was different from the study group (p = 0.024. CONCLUSION: The type of dressing does not decrease the incidence of catheter-related infection, the binding capacity is similar, and the gauze dressing has the capacity to absorb exudate. However, the gauze dressing resulted in a higher probability of developing a local reaction. Record WHO: ACTRN12609000951257.

  19. Preparation and characterisation of controlled release co-spray dried drug-polymer microparticles for inhalation 2: evaluation of in vitro release profiling methodologies for controlled release respiratory aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Rania O; Traini, Daniela; Chan, Hak-Kim; Young, Paul M

    2008-09-01

    Three in vitro methodologies were evaluated as models for the analysis of drug release from controlled release (CR) microparticulates for inhalation. USP Apparatus 2 (dissolution model), USP Apparatus 4 (flow through model) and a modified Franz cell (diffusion model), were investigated using identical sink volumes and temperatures (1000 ml and 37 degrees C). Microparticulates containing DSCG and different percentages of PVA (0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%) were used as model CR formulations. Evaluation of the release profiles of DSCG from the modified PVA formulations, suggested that all data fitted a Weibull distribution model with R2 > or =0.942. Statistical analysis of the t(d) (time for 63.2% drug release) indicated that all methodologies could distinguish between microparticles that did or did not contain PVA (Students t-test, p or =0.862 for the diffusion methodology data set). Due to the relatively low water content in the respiratory tract and the lack of differentiation between formulations for USP Apparatus 2 and 4, it is concluded that the diffusion model is more applicable for the evaluation of CR inhalation medicines. PMID:18534832

  20. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory guidance

  1. Respiratory activity in the facial nucleus in an in vitro brainstem of tadpole, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao G-S; Kubin, L; Galante, R J; Fishman, A P; Pack, A I

    1996-04-15

    1. In studies of the central neural control of breathing, little advantage has been taken of comparative approaches. We have developed an in vitro brainstem preparation using larval Rana catesbeiana which generates two rhythmic neural activities characteristic of lung and gill ventilation. Based on the pattern of the facial (VII) nerve activity both lung and gill rhythm-related respiratory cycles were divided into three distinct phases. The purpose of this study was to characterize and classify membrane potential trajectories of respiratory motoneurons in the VII nucleus at intermediate stages (XII-XVII) of development. 2. Seventy-five respiratory-modulated neurons were recorded intracellularly within the facial motor nucleus region. Their resting membrane potential was between -40 and -80 mV. Sixty of them were identified as VII motoneurons and fifteen were non-antidromically activated. Membrane potentials of fifty-six of the seventy-five neurons were modulated with both lung (5-27 mV) and gill rhythms (3-15 mV) and the remaining nineteen neurons had only a modulation with lung rhythmicity (6-23 mV). No cells with gill modulation alone were observed. 3. All of the cells modulated with lung rhythmicity had only phase-bound depolarizing or hyperpolarizing membrane potential swings which could be categorized into four distinct patterns. In contrast, of the fifty-six cells modulated with gill rhythmicity, thirty-two were phasically depolarized during distinct phases of the gill cycle (four patterns were distinguished), whereas the remaining twenty-four were phase spanning with two distinct patterns. The magnitudes of lung and gill modulations were proportionally related to each other in the cells modulated with both rhythms. 4. In all sixteen neurons studied, a reduction or a reversal of phasic inhibitory inputs during a portion of the lung or gill respiratory cycle was observed following a negative current or chloride ion (Cl-) injection. The phasic membrane

  2. Non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loretta YC Yam; Alfred YF Chan; Thomas MT Cheung; Eva LH Tsui; Jane CK Chan; Vivian CW Wong

    2005-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome is frequently complicated by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We aimed to compare the efficacy of non-invasive ventilation against invasive mechanical ventilation treating respiratory failure in this disease. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on all respiratory failure patients identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Intubation rate, mortality and secondary outcome of a hospital utilizing non-invasive ventilation under standard infection control conditions (NIV Hospital) were compared against 13 hospitals using solely invasive ventilation (IMV Hospitals). Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustments for confounding variables were performed to test for association between outcomes and hospital groups. Results Both hospital groups had comparable demographics and clinical profiles, but NIV Hospital (42 patients) had higher lactate dehydrogenase ratio and worse radiographic score on admission and ribavirin-corticosteroid commencement. Compared to IMV Hospitals (451 patients), NIV Hospital had lower adjusted odds ratios for intubation (0.36, 95% CI 0.164-0.791, P=0.011) and death (0.235, 95% CI 0.077-0.716, P=0.011), and improved earlier after pulsed steroid rescue. There were no instances of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health care workers due to the use of non-invasive ventilation.Conclusion Compared to invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation as initial ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure in the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome appeared to be associated with reduced intubation need and mortality.

  3. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi;

    2004-01-01

    To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....

  4. Transcriptome analysis of a respiratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain suggests the expression of its phenotype is glucose insensitive and predominantly controlled by Hap4, Cat8 and Mig1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonander Nicklas

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the first respiratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KOY.TM6*P, by integrating the gene encoding a chimeric hexose transporter, Tm6*, into the genome of an hxt null yeast. Subsequently we transferred this respiratory phenotype in the presence of up to 50 g/L glucose to a yeast strain, V5 hxt1-7Δ, in which only HXT1-7 had been deleted. In this study, we compared the transcriptome of the resultant strain, V5.TM6*P, with that of its wild-type parent, V5, at different glucose concentrations. Results cDNA array analyses revealed that alterations in gene expression that occur when transitioning from a respiro-fermentative (V5 to a respiratory (V5.TM6*P strain, are very similar to those in cells undergoing a diauxic shift. We also undertook an analysis of transcription factor binding sites in our dataset by examining previously-published biological data for Hap4 (in complex with Hap2, 3, 5, Cat8 and Mig1, and used this in combination with verified binding consensus sequences to identify genes likely to be regulated by one or more of these. Of the induced genes in our dataset, 77% had binding sites for the Hap complex, with 72% having at least two. In addition, 13% were found to have a binding site for Cat8 and 21% had a binding site for Mig1. Unexpectedly, both the up- and down-regulation of many of the genes in our dataset had a clear glucose dependence in the parent V5 strain that was not present in V5.TM6*P. This indicates that the relief of glucose repression is already operable at much higher glucose concentrations than is widely accepted and suggests that glucose sensing might occur inside the cell. Conclusion Our dataset gives a remarkably complete view of the involvement of genes in the TCA cycle, glyoxylate cycle and respiratory chain in the expression of the phenotype of V5.TM6*P. Furthermore, 88% of the transcriptional response of the induced genes in our dataset can be related to the potential

  5. Presenilin controls CBP levels in the adult Drosophila central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy S Boyles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dominant mutations in both human Presenilin (Psn genes have been correlated with the formation of amyloid plaques and development of familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, a definitive mechanism whereby plaque formation causes the pathology of familial and sporadic forms of AD has remained elusive. Recent discoveries of several substrates for Psn protease activity have sparked alternative hypotheses for the pathophysiology underlying AD. CBP (CREB-binding protein is a haplo-insufficient transcriptional co-activator with histone acetly-transferase (HAT activity that has been proposed to be a downstream target of Psn signaling. Individuals with altered CBP have cognitive deficits that have been linked to several neurological disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a transgenic RNA-interference strategy to selectively silence CBP, Psn, and Notch in adult Drosophila, we provide evidence for the first time that Psn is required for normal CBP levels and for maintaining specific global acetylations at lysine 8 of histone 4 (H4K8ac in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition, flies conditionally compromised for the adult-expression of CBP display an altered geotaxis behavior that may reflect a neurological defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data support a model in which Psn regulates CBP levels in the adult fly brain in a manner that is independent of Notch signaling. Although we do not understand the molecular mechanism underlying the association between Psn and CBP, our results underscore the need to learn more about the basic relationship between Psn-regulated substrates and essential functions of the nervous system.

  6. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  7. Feedback Optimal Control of Low-thrust Orbit Transfer in Central Gravity Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. Owis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-thrust trajectories with variable radial thrust is studied in this paper. The problem is tackled by solving the Hamilton- Jacobi-Bellman equation via State Dependent Riccati Equation( STDE technique devised for nonlinear systems. Instead of solving the two-point boundary value problem in which the classical optimal control is stated, this technique allows us to derive closed-loop solutions. The idea of the work consists in factorizing the original nonlinear dynamical system into a quasi-linear state dependent system of ordinary differential equations. The generating function technique is then applied to this new dynamical system, the feedback optimal control is solved. We circumvent in this way the problem of expanding the vector field and truncating higher-order terms because no remainders are lost in the undertaken approach. This technique can be applied to any planet-to-planet transfer; it has been applied here to the Earth-Mars low-thrust transfer

  8. Identification of sensor fault for the performance and stability of centralized control logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzulani, Gabriele; Cinquemani, Simone; Ronchi, Marco; Ripamonti, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the effect of sensor fault when large sensor arrays (for example Fiber Bragg Grating arrays) are considered. Indeed, sensor arrays provide a distributed measurement of the structure vibrations, allowing the design of optimized control logics. Anyway, due to the large number of sensors, the reliability is lower and the malfunctioning of one or more sensors can occur. For this reason, an online identification of faults is important, so that the information can be taken into account in the definition of control law. The effect of sensor fault on the measurement of structure vibrations will be investigated and a method for the identification of sensor faults is proposed. Numerical tests on a beam equipped with an array of FBG sensors will be reported.

  9. Local Control and Toxicity in a Large Cohort of Central Lung Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in central lung tumors has been associated with higher rates of severe toxicity. We sought to evaluate toxicity and local control in a large cohort and to identify predictive dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: We identified patients who received SBRT for central tumors according to either of 2 definitions. Local failure (LF) was estimated using a competing risks model, and multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to assess factors associated with LF. We reviewed patient toxicity and applied Cox proportional hazard analysis and log-rank tests to assess whether dose-volume metrics of normal structures correlated with pulmonary toxicity. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received SBRT for non-small cell lung cancer (n=103) or metastatic lesions (n=22), using intensity modulated radiation therapy. The most common dose was 45 Gy in 5 fractions. Median follow-up was 17.4 months. Incidence of toxicity ≥ grade 3 was 8.0%, including 5.6% pulmonary toxicity. Sixteen patients (12.8%) experienced esophageal toxicity ≥ grade 2, including 50% of patients in whom PTV overlapped the esophagus. There were 2 treatment-related deaths. Among patients receiving biologically effective dose (BED) ≥80 Gy (n=108), 2-year LF was 21%. On MVA, gross tumor volume (GTV) was significantly associated with LF. None of the studied dose-volume metrics of the lungs, heart, proximal bronchial tree (PBT), or 2 cm expansion of the PBT (“no-fly-zone” [NFZ]) correlated with pulmonary toxicity ≥grade 2. There were no differences in pulmonary toxicity between central tumors located inside the NFZ and those outside the NFZ but with planning target volume (PTV) intersecting the mediastinum. Conclusions: Using moderate doses, SBRT for central lung tumors achieves acceptable local control with low rates of severe toxicity. Dosimetric analysis showed no significant correlation between dose to the lungs, heart, or NFZ and

  10. Local Control and Toxicity in a Large Cohort of Central Lung Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modh, Ankit; Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Williams, Eric [Department of Medical Physics Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Foster, Amanda; Shah, Mihir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi, Weiji; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gelblum, Daphna Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Rosenzweig, Kenneth E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Yorke, Ellen D.; Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in central lung tumors has been associated with higher rates of severe toxicity. We sought to evaluate toxicity and local control in a large cohort and to identify predictive dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: We identified patients who received SBRT for central tumors according to either of 2 definitions. Local failure (LF) was estimated using a competing risks model, and multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to assess factors associated with LF. We reviewed patient toxicity and applied Cox proportional hazard analysis and log-rank tests to assess whether dose-volume metrics of normal structures correlated with pulmonary toxicity. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received SBRT for non-small cell lung cancer (n=103) or metastatic lesions (n=22), using intensity modulated radiation therapy. The most common dose was 45 Gy in 5 fractions. Median follow-up was 17.4 months. Incidence of toxicity ≥ grade 3 was 8.0%, including 5.6% pulmonary toxicity. Sixteen patients (12.8%) experienced esophageal toxicity ≥ grade 2, including 50% of patients in whom PTV overlapped the esophagus. There were 2 treatment-related deaths. Among patients receiving biologically effective dose (BED) ≥80 Gy (n=108), 2-year LF was 21%. On MVA, gross tumor volume (GTV) was significantly associated with LF. None of the studied dose-volume metrics of the lungs, heart, proximal bronchial tree (PBT), or 2 cm expansion of the PBT (“no-fly-zone” [NFZ]) correlated with pulmonary toxicity ≥grade 2. There were no differences in pulmonary toxicity between central tumors located inside the NFZ and those outside the NFZ but with planning target volume (PTV) intersecting the mediastinum. Conclusions: Using moderate doses, SBRT for central lung tumors achieves acceptable local control with low rates of severe toxicity. Dosimetric analysis showed no significant correlation between dose to the lungs, heart, or NFZ and

  11. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic

  12. Stratigraphic control on earthquake-induced liquefaction: A case study from the Central Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, A.; Bruno, L.; Facciorusso, J.; Piccin, A.; Sammartino, I.

    2016-11-01

    Studies on earthquake-induced liquefaction tied to high-resolution stratigraphic analysis have been rarely undertaken. We report the results of a multidisciplinary study from the Quistello-Moglia area, in the central Po Plain (northern Italy). In this region, combined stratigraphic, sedimentological, geotechnical, and geochemical data allowed assessment of liquefaction potential and identification of the primary source for liquefaction, following the second main shock (Mw ~ 6) of the 2012 Po Plain earthquake. Using Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based simplified procedures for liquefaction hazard evaluation, we assessed the highest liquefaction potential of Holocene, fluvial-channel and related (crevasse/levee) fine sand-silt facies encased in thick, mud-prone floodplain and swamp successions. The liquefaction potential, and the intensity of the manifestations induced on the ground surface, decreased for the vertically-amalgamated, sheet-like Pleistocene sandy fluvial units encountered at depths greater than 13 m. Floodplain and swamp deposits were virtually non-liquefiable. In the Quistello area, the compositional characterization of sands that were liquefied and extruded during the 2012 earthquake reveals the diagnostic geochemical fingerprint of sediment carried by the Po River, as opposed to the Apennine composition of surficial sediments. These data rule out proximity of liquefied layers to the surface, and attest the buried, meandering Po River system at depths of ~ 7-10 m most likely representing the source for the liquefied sand that vented to the surface. Similarly, at Moglia, liquefied sands were likely sourced from loose and saturated, ribbon-shaped, fluvial sand bodies encased in mud, though at shallower (4-7 m) depths. Pronounced liquefaction phenomena in alluvial plain systems are commonly believed to be associated primarily with elongate topographic ridges following paleo-river courses. Here, we document that under favorable stratigraphic conditions

  13. Respiratory scleroma: a clinicopathologic and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, H O; Carlos, R; Koutlas, I G

    1996-06-01

    Respiratory scleroma (rhinoscleroma) is a chronic granulomatous infection produced by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis, a gram-negative aerobic coccobacillus. This disease is endemic to Africa, Central and South America, South Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and China. Sporadic cases have been reported in the United States, especially in persons who migrated from the aforementioned areas. The majority of cases affect the nose, but extension to the soft and hard palate, upper lip, and maxillary sinuses also is frequent. This study comprises 11 patients (6 females and 5 males) with respiratory scleroma identified over a 6-year period in Guatemala. Their ages ranged from 16 to 60 years. Light microscopy showed a dense plasmacytic infiltrate, Mikulicz histiocytes, and Russell bodies within the plasma cells. Ultrastructural study revealed Mikulicz histiocytes, cytoplasmic vacuoles containing bacilli, and so-called A and B granules. We favor the term respiratory scleroma for this lesion because it affects not only the nose but also the upper and lower respiratory tracts as well as the mouth. PMID:8784898

  14. Living with Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tips below. Ongoing Care If you have respiratory failure, see your doctor for ongoing medical care. Your doctor may refer you to pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab). Rehab can involve exercise training, education, and counseling. Your rehab team might include doctors, ...

  15. Comparative genomic reconstruction of transcriptional networks controlling central metabolism in the Shewanella genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Novichkov, Pavel; Stavrovskaya, Elena D.; Rodionova, Irina A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Kazanov, Marat D.; Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Gerasimova, Anna V.; Kazakov, Alexey E.; Kovaleva, Galina Y.; Permina, Elizabeth A.; Laikova, Olga N.; Overbeek, Ross; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Arkin, Adam P.; Dubchak, Inna; Osterman, Andrei L.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2011-06-15

    Genome-scale prediction of gene regulation and reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria is one of the critical tasks of modern genomics. Despite the growing number of genome-scale gene expression studies, our abilities to convert the results of these studies into accurate regulatory annotations and to project them from model to other organisms are extremely limited. The comparative genomics approaches and computational identification of regulatory sites are useful for the in silico reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. The Shewanella genus is comprised of metabolically versatile gamma-proteobacteria, whose lifestyles and natural environments are substantially different from Escherichia coli and other model bacterial species. To explore conservation and variations in the Shewanella transcriptional networks we analyzed the repertoire of transcription factors and performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. Forty five regulons were newly inferred from the genome context analysis, whereas others were propagated from previously characterized regulons in the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp.. However, even orthologous regulators with conserved DNA-binding motifs may control substantially different gene sets, revealing striking differences in regulatory strategies between the Shewanella spp. and E. coli. Multiple examples of regulatory network rewiring include regulon contraction and expansion (as in the case of PdhR, HexR, FadR), and numerous cases of recruiting non-orthologous regulators to control equivalent pathways (e.g. NagR for N-acetylglucosamine catabolism and PsrA for fatty acid degradation) and, conversely, orthologous regulators to control distinct pathways (e.g. TyrR, ArgR, Crp).

  16. Seasonal controls on surface pCO2 in the central and eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; Gauns, M.; Madhupratap, M.

    ; 1998). As a result of these physical processes carbon dioxide and nutrient enriched subsurface waters enter the surface that lead to flux of CO2 to the atmosphere. Sarma et al (1996, 1998) observed that surface pCO2 is higher than atmospheric value... the relative increase in upward pumping of the com- paratively enhanced pCO2 waters due to increased remineralization at mid-depths of this region, as sug- gested by Kumar et al (1992). In order to examine the controlling factors to sustain low pCO2 levels (266...

  17. Conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control for combined cycle generating power stations.; Control supervisiorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Sanchez P, Marino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gonzalez Rubio S, Jose L [Cento Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Under the expectations of expansion of electric power generation in Mexico, this work exposes the development of a conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control (CSG) for a combined cycle generation power plant. This one allows to obtain the optimal operation of the power plant through the automatic starting of the generating units and to obtain the maximum possible amount of electrical power in automatic and safe form. For the development of the CSG a control loop by temperature was implemented for the gas turbine system and a control loop by strangled pressure for the gas turbine and a control loop by strangled pressure for the steam turbine. The design of these supervisory systems was made with base in the critical limits on the involved variables of the process: blading average temperature, for the gas turbine (GT) and strangled pressure for the steam turbine (ST) [Spanish] Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, este trabajo expone el desarrollo de un control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) para una central generacion de ciclo combinado. Este permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor. El diseno de estos sistemas supervisorio se realizo con base en los limites criticos de las variables del proceso involucradas: temperatura promedio de empaletado para la turbina de gas (TG) y presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV)

  18. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Zammit; Helen Liddicoat; Ian Moonsie; et al

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  19. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  20. Microspectrophotometry of respiratory pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Karen Yvonne, (Thesis)

    2003-01-01

    This research thesis describes the design, construction and optical testing of three fibre-optic microspectrophotometer systems to monitor the reduction of mitochondrial respiratory pigments. The optical and biochemical characteristics of mitochondrial respiration are discussed and the current optical techniques employed in the biochemical analysis of respiratory enzymes are presented. The primary focus of this study is the system parameters surrounding the spectrophotometric determination of...

  1. GSM Web-Based Centralized Remote Wireless Automatic Controlling and Monitoring of Aquafeeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. L.; Idris, A.; Hasan, Z.

    2016-03-01

    This project is about producing a prototype to feed fishes at fish ponds of remote location with the use of GSM mobile phone. An automatic fish feeder is an electric device that has been designed to give out the right amount of pellets at the designed time. In this project, the automatic feeder designed consists of photovoltaic solar cells that are used to generate electricity and storing it into batteries. Solar charge controllers can be used to determine the rate of which current is drawn and added from the batteries. GSM cellular communication is used to allow user to control from a distance. Commands or instructions are sent to the operating system which in return runs the servomotor and blower by blowing certain amount of fish pallets into the pond to feed the fishes. The duration of the feeding processes is fixed by the user, hence the amount of fish food pallets released are precisely the same for each time. This technology is especially useful for fish farmers where they can remotely feed their fishes.

  2. High-dose oral N-acetylcysteine fails to improve respiratory health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kara Johnson,1,2 Charlene E McEvoy,3 Sakina Naqvi,1,4 Chris Wendt,1 Ronald A Reilkoff,4,5 Ken M Kunisaki,1 Erin E Wetherbee,1 David Nelson,6 Rabindra Tirouvanziam,7 Dennis E Niewoehner1 1Pulmonary Section, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, 2Sanford Health, Fargo, ND, 3Pulmonary Section, HealthPartners Research Foundation, St Paul, 4HealthEast Maplewood Clinic, Maplewood, 5Pulmonary Section, University of Minnesota Medical Center, 6Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, 7Center for Cystic Fibrosis and Airways Disease Research, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Background: Clinical outcomes are worse in patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC is commonly prescribed for such patients but with uncertain clinical benefits. We postulated that oral NAC, at much larger doses than those ordinarily prescribed, would improve clinical outcomes in a subset of patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether very high-dose NAC would improve respiratory health status in patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis. Methods: Patients with COPD and chronic bronchitis were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Patients received oral NAC (1,800 mg or matching placebo twice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their usual respiratory medications. The primary outcome, respiratory health status, was assessed by changes in the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire. The effects of NAC on lung function and circulating markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were also evaluated. Results: We terminated the study prematurely because new external information suggested the possibility of a safety issue. Of the planned 130 patients, 51 were randomized and 45 (22 in the placebo arm and 23 in the NAC arm completed the study. There was no statistically significant difference between

  3. Restoring State Control Over Forest Resources Through Administrative Procedures: Evidence From a Community Forestry Programme in Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maryudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, community forestry has emerged as a means to reform power constellations with regard to forest governance. Through community forestry, the central state promised to devolve several forest rights to local communities and encouraged them to get involved in decision making processes and the implementation of forest activities. However, experience in some countries indicates that the implementation of community forestry programmes is rarely followed by genuine power devolution to local forest users. Instead, these programmes may even serve as a means to retain or restore the central state’s control over forests. Using a case study of a community forestry programme implemented in Java, Indonesia, by a state forest company, this paper argues that the implementation of community forestry is also driven by the state’s interests to regain control over the forests. Research in eight villages in Central Java province reveals that the community forestry programmes are carefully structured according to numerous administrative procedures and estab- lish a mode of control through a bureaucratic design. ----- In den letzten Jahren hat sich community forestry als Mittel zur Reform von Machtkonstellationen in Bezug auf die Verwaltung von Wäldern herausgebildet. Der Zentralstaat versprach durch community forestry bestimmte Waldrechte an lokale Communities abzugeben und ermutigte sie, sich an Entscheidungsprozessen und der Implementierung von Forstaktivitäten zu beteiligen. Erfahrungen in einigen Ländern zeigen jedoch, dass die Implementierung von community forestry-Programmen selten mit einem tatsächlichen Machttransfer an lokale ForstnutzerInnen einhergeht, sondern diese Programme sogar als Mittel zur Rückgewinnung von zentralstaatlicher Kontrolle über Wälder dienen können. Anhand eines Fallbeispiels eines community forestry-Programms, das in Java, Indonesien, von einem staatlichen Forstunternehmen implementiert wird, argumentiere ich

  4. Centralized Role-Based Access Control for Federated Multi-Domain Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangcan; LU Zhengding; LI Ruixuan; MUDAR Sarem

    2006-01-01

    The secure interaction among multiple security domains is a major concern. In this paper, we highlight the issues of secure interoperability among multiple security domains operating under the widely accepted Role Based Access Control (RBAC) model. We propose a model called CRBAC that easily establishes a global policy for roles mapping among multiple security domains. Our model is based on an extension of the RBAC model. Also, multiple security domains were composed to one abstract security domain. Also roles in the multiple domains are translated to permissions of roles in the abstract security domain. These permissions keep theirs hierarchies. The roles in the abstract security domain implement roles mapping among the multiple security domains. Then, authorized users of any security domain can transparently access resources in the multiple domains.

  5. Comparative genomic reconstruction of transcriptional networks controlling central metabolism in the Shewanella genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva Galina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-scale prediction of gene regulation and reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria is one of the critical tasks of modern genomics. The Shewanella genus is comprised of metabolically versatile gamma-proteobacteria, whose lifestyles and natural environments are substantially different from Escherichia coli and other model bacterial species. The comparative genomics approaches and computational identification of regulatory sites are useful for the in silico reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. Results To explore conservation and variations in the Shewanella transcriptional networks we analyzed the repertoire of transcription factors and performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The inferred regulatory network includes 82 transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, 8 riboswitches and 6 translational attenuators. Forty five regulons were newly inferred from the genome context analysis, whereas others were propagated from previously characterized regulons in the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp.. Multiple variations in regulatory strategies between the Shewanella spp. and E. coli include regulon contraction and expansion (as in the case of PdhR, HexR, FadR, numerous cases of recruiting non-orthologous regulators to control equivalent pathways (e.g. PsrA for fatty acid degradation and, conversely, orthologous regulators to control distinct pathways (e.g. TyrR, ArgR, Crp. Conclusions We tentatively defined the first reference collection of ~100 transcriptional regulons in 16 Shewanella genomes. The resulting regulatory network contains ~600 regulated genes per genome that are mostly involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, metals, and stress responses. Several reconstructed regulons including NagR for N-acetylglucosamine catabolism were experimentally validated in S

  6. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized control of air power at operational level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Uǧur

    2014-05-01

    People do not want to see and hear a war. In today's world, if war is inevitable, the use of air power is seen as the preferable means of conducting operations instead of financially burdensome land battles which are more likely to cause heavy loss of life. The use of Air Power has gained importance in NATO operations in the Post-Cold War era. For example, air power has undertaken a decisive role from the beginning to the end of the operation in Libya. From this point of view, the most important issue to consider is how to direct air power more effectively at operational level. NATO's Core JFAC (Joint Force Air Command) was established in 2012 to control joint air power at operational level from a single center. US had experienced JFAC aproach in the Operation Desert Storm in 1991. UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain are also directing their air power from their JFAC structures. Joint air power can be directed from a single center at operational level by means of JFAC. JFAC aproach provides complex planning progress of Air Power to be controled faster in a single center. An Air Power with a large number of aircrafts, long range missiles of cutting-edge technology may have difficulties in achieving results unless directed effectively. In this article, directing air power more effectively at operational level has been studied in the framework of directing air power from a single center carried out by SWOT analysis technique. "Directing Air Power at operational level from a single center similar to JFAC-like structure" is compared with "Directing Air Power at operational level from two centers similar to AC (Air Command) + CAOC (Combined Air Operations Center) structure" As a result of this study, it is assessed that directing air power at operational level from a single center would bring effectiveness to the air campaign. The study examines directing air power at operational level. Developments at political, strategic and tactical levels have been ignored.

  7. Variability of cardio-respiratory, electromyographic, and perceived exertion responses at the walk-run transition in a sample of young men controlled for anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Walace D; Farinatti, Paulo T V; de Oliveira, Carlos G; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2011-06-01

    The cardio-respiratory (heart rate, HR; oxygen uptake, VO(2;) expired carbon dioxide, VCO(2); ventilation, VE), electromyographic (EMG; medial gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoralis, and anterior tibialis), and perceived exertion (PE) responses during a protocol for the determination of the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) were investigated. From an initial sample of 453 volunteers, 12 subjects matched for age, anthropometric characteristics [height, weight, lower limb length (LLL)], cardio-respiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption, VO(2peak); ventilatory threshold, VT; maximal HR), and habitual physical activity levels were selected (age = 18.6 ± 0.5 years; height = 174.5 ± 1.4 cm; weight = 66.4 ± 1.1 kg; LLL = 83.3 ± 1.2 cm, VO(2peak) = 52.2 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1); VT = 39.8 ± 2.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The highly reproducible WRTS determination protocol (ICC = 0.92; p running velocities (from 80 to 120% of WRTS) was compared to WRTS variation. The coefficient of variation for WRTS was 7.8%, which was within the range of variability for age, anthropometric variables, VO(2peak), and maximal HR (from 5 to 12%). Cardio-respiratory responses at WRTS had a greater variation (VO(2) about 50%; VE/VCO(2) about 35%; VE/VO(2) about 45%; HR about 30%). The highest variation was found for PE (from 70 to 90%) whereas EMG variables showed the lowest variation (from 25 to 30%). Linear regression between EMG series and VO(2) data showed that VO(2) reflected the increase in muscle activity only before the WRTS. These results support the hypothesis that the walk-run transition phenomenon is determined by mechanical variables such as limb length and its relationship to biomechanical model rather than by metabolic factors.

  8. Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

  9. Investigation on Fuzzy Logic Based Centralized Control in Four-Port SEPIC/ZETA Bidirectional Converter for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENMATHI, M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new four-port DC-DC converter topology is proposed to interface renewable energy sources and the load along with the energy storage device. The proposed four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC converter comprises an isolated output port with two unidirectional and one bidirectional input ports. This converter topology is obtained by the fusion of SEPIC/ZETA BDC and full-bridge converter. This converter topology ensures the non-reversal of output voltage hence it is preferred mostly for battery charging applications. In this work, photovoltaic (PV source is considered and the power balance in the system is achieved by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT in the PV ports. The centralized controller is implemented using fuzzy logic controller (FLC and the performance is compared with conventional proportional integral (PI controller. The results offer useful information to obtain the desired output under line and load regulations. Experimental results are also provided to validate the simulation results.

  10. Controlling Aedes aegypti population as DHF vector with radiation based-sterile insect technique in Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control program of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Indonesia is still a problem due to the incomplete integrated handling. Sterile insect technique (SIT) for Aedes aegypti as DHF vector was considered as a potential strategy for controlling the DHF. A preliminary survey was carried out to determine the characteristic of A aegypti population in the study site before the implementation of SIT. The implementation of radiation based-SIT was carried out in Krandegan and Kutabanjar Villages of Banjarnegara Regency, Central Java which involved 99 houses. One hundred gamma rays irradiated male mosquitoes were released to each house up to five times. The eggs, larvae and adult mosquitoes were collected using ovitrap and weekly observed. The initial population density of A. aegypti in the studied area was obtained to be 6 mosquitoes per house with the mean index of house was 15.86% and the mean sterility of sterilized mosquitoes was 79.16%. The SIT effectively reduced A. aegypti population after the fifth release of irradiated mosquitoes into the houses. It can be assumed that the SIT was effective in controlling DHF vector in the studied area, nevertheless, it will be more effective if it is combined with other handling techniques. (author)

  11. Community Knowledge and Acceptance of Larviciding for Malaria Control in a Rural District of East-Central Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard E. G. Mboera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microbial larvicides, a form of larval source management, is a less commonly used malaria control intervention that nonetheless has significant potential as a component of an integrated vector management strategy. We evaluated community acceptability of larviciding in a rural district in east-central Tanzania using data from 962 household surveys, 12 focus group discussions, and 24 in-depth interviews. Most survey respondents trusted in the safety (73.1% and efficacy of larviciding, both with regards to mosquito control (92.3% and to reduce malaria infection risk (91.9%. Probing these perceptions using a Likert scale provides a more detailed picture. Focus group participants and key informants were also receptive to larviciding, but stressed the importance of sensitization before its implementation. Overall, 73.4% of survey respondents expressed a willingness to make a nominal household contribution to a larviciding program, a proportion which decreased as the proposed contribution increased. The lower-bound mean willingness to pay is estimated at 2,934 Tanzanian Shillings (approximately US$1.76 per three month period. We present a multivariate probit regression analysis examining factors associated with willingness to pay. Overall, our findings point to a receptive environment in a rural setting in Tanzania for the use of microbial larvicides in malaria control.

  12. Simplified system for the pressure control of a Nucleo electric central of the BWR type; Sistema simplificado para el control de presion de una central Nucleoelectrica del tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J. [FI-UNAM, DEPFI Campus Morelos, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    One of the main preoccupations of the electric power generator stations is the appropriate operation of the same ones. The operators must be qualified to respond in an adequate way and to be able to take to these power stations to an optimal, sure and stable operation condition under any circumstance. The Laboratory of Analysis in Nuclear Reactors Engineering (LAIRN) of the Engineering Faculty of UNAM (Fl) in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it develops an interactive classroom simulator in which simulations of the phenomena which take place in a nuclear power station are executed. The classroom simulator bases its operation on specialized nuclear codes feeding interactive graphic unfolding with those that it is possible to make a monitoring, supervision and control of the behavior of the power station under any operation regime, either in normal operation, transitory events or postulated accident sequence. The development of this classroom simulator includes a modular and re configurable structure. Due to it is indispensable to count with a higher inter activity with the system it is included the simulation of the control system of the plant and inside the same, one of those more important it is the reactor pressure control system. The present work describes the conceptual design and the used methodology for the development and implementation in the simulator of a simplified model of the pressure control system for a BWR generic central. The reach of the development will allow to accomplish the necessary tests to demonstrate that this has an adequate performance according to the carried out simplifications. (Author)

  13. Evaluating controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthflows are an important mass-wasting process in many mountainous landscapes. In addition to radically changing the fabric of the landscape and damaging man-made infrastructure, earthflows deliver, for their area, a disproportionately large sediment load to rivers. In California, earthflows are typically restricted to clay-rich and mechanically-weak lithologies, such as the Franciscan mélange. In addition, several studies have observed that earthflows in California favor south-facing slopes, even in settings with spatially-uniform lithology. This fundamental observation remains largely unexplained under the current understanding of earthflow behavior. Here, we evaluate the controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the Alameda Creek watershed near Fremont, California, where many large, but relatively inactive earthflows are observed in the Franciscan mélange. We first apply spectral analysis to LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to objectively map the topographic signature of landslides and determine the degree of aspect dependence. We then explore several hypotheses that can explain our observation that earthflows tend to form on south-facing slopes, including: (1) lack of dense vegetation and trees with slope-stabilizing root systems on south-facing slopes; (2) higher pore fluid pressures due to relatively lower rates of evapotranspiration on sparsely vegetated south-facing slopes; (3) increased dessication and/or deformation cracking on south-facing earthflow surfaces, creating fast-flow pathways into the interior of landslides.

  14. Elevation Control on Vegetation Organization in a Semiarid Ecosystem in Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudurupati, S. S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Adams, J. M.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Hutton, E. W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Many semiarid and desert ecosystems are characterized by patchy and dynamic vegetation. Topography plays a commanding role on vegetation patterns. It is observed that plant biomes and biodiversity vary systematically with slope and aspect, from shrublands in low desert elevations, to mixed grass/shrublands in mid elevations, and forests at high elevations. In this study, we investigate the role of elevation dependent climatology on vegetation organization in a semiarid New Mexico catchment where elevation and hillslope aspect play a defining role on plant types. An ecohydrologic cellular automaton model developed within Landlab (component based modeling framework) is used. The model couples local vegetation dynamics (that simulate biomass production based on local soil moisture and potential evapotranspiration) and plant establishment and mortality based on competition for resources and space. This model is driven by elevation dependent rainfall pulses and solar radiation. The domain is initialized with randomly assigned plant types and the model parameters that couple plant response with soil moisture are systematically changed. Climate perturbation experiments are conducted to examine spatial vegetation organization and associated timescales. Model results reproduce elevation and aspect controls on observed vegetation patterns indicating that this model captures necessary and sufficient conditions that explain these observed ecohydrological patterns.

  15. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  16. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ai-Fen; Chen, Ting; Chen, Shuang; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun; Cai, Yi-Ming; Liu, Fang; Tang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). By intraperitoneal (IP) injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY) injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR) mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), cholecystokinin (CCK), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model. PMID:27249000

  17. Comparative genome analysis of central nitrogen metabolism and its control by GlnR in the class Bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormelink Tom

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assimilation of nitrogen in bacteria is achieved through only a few metabolic conversions between alpha-ketoglutarate, glutamate and glutamine. The enzymes that catalyze these conversions are glutamine synthetase, glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase. In low-GC Gram-positive bacteria the transcriptional control over the levels of the related enzymes is mediated by four regulators: GlnR, TnrA, GltC and CodY. We have analyzed the genomes of all species belonging to the taxonomic families Bacillaceae, Listeriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae and Streptococcaceae to determine the diversity in central nitrogen metabolism and reconstructed the regulation by GlnR. Results Although we observed a substantial difference in the extent of central nitrogen metabolism in the various species, the basic GlnR regulon was remarkably constant and appeared not affected by the presence or absence of the other three main regulators. We found a conserved regulatory association of GlnR with glutamine synthetase (glnRA operon, and the transport of ammonium (amtB-glnK and glutamine/glutamate (i.e. via glnQHMP, glnPHQ, gltT, alsT. In addition less-conserved associations were found with, for instance, glutamate dehydrogenase in Streptococcaceae, purine catabolism and the reduction of nitrite in Bacillaceae, and aspartate/asparagine deamination in Lactobacillaceae. Conclusions Our analyses imply GlnR-mediated regulation in constraining the import of ammonia/amino-containing compounds and the production of intracellular ammonia under conditions of high nitrogen availability. Such a role fits with the intrinsic need for tight control of ammonia levels to limit futile cycling.

  18. Vertical Stability of Ephemeral Step-Pool Streams Largely Controlled By Tree Roots, Central Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmannis, K. R.; Hawley, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms controlling stability on small streams in steep settings are not well documented but have many implications related to stream integrity and water quality. For example, channel instability on first and second order streams is a potential source of sediment in regulated areas with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) on water bodies that are impaired for sedimentation, such as the Chesapeake Bay. Management strategies that preserve stream integrity and protect channel stability are critical to communities that may otherwise require large capital investments to meet TMDLs and other water quality criteria. To contribute to an improved understanding of ephemeral step-pool systems, we collected detailed hydrogeomorphic data on 4 steep (0.06 - 0.12 meter/meter) headwater streams draining to lower relief alluvial valleys in Spencer County, Kentucky, USA. The step-pool streams (mean step height of 0.47 meter, mean step spacing of 4 meters) drained small undeveloped catchments dominated by early successional forest. Data collection for each of the 4 streams included 2 to 3 cross section surveys, bed material particle counts at cross section locations, and profile surveys ranging from approximately 125 to 225 meters in length. All survey data was systematically processed to understand geometric parameters such as cross sectional area, depth, and top width; bed material gradations; and detailed profile measurements such as slope, pool and riffle lengths, pool spacing, pool depth, step height, and step length. We documented the location, frequency, and type of step-forming materials (i.e., large woody debris (LWD), rock, and tree roots), compiling a database of approximately 130 total steps. Lastly, we recorded a detailed tree assessment of all trees located within 2 meters of the top of bank, detailing the species of tree, trunk diameter, and approximate distance from the top of bank. Analysis of geometric parameters illustrated correlations between channel

  19. Factors controlling temporal variability of near-ground atmospheric 222Rn concentration over Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zimnoch

    2014-02-01

    222Rn content in Krakow was approximately 30 % higher when compared to Heidelberg (5.86 ± 0.09 Bq −3 and 4.50 ± 0.07 Bq m−3, respectively. Distinct seasonality of 222Rn signal was visible in both presented time series, with higher values recorded generally during late summer and autumn. The surface 222Rn fluxes in Krakow also revealed a distinct seasonality, with broad maximum observed during summer and early autumn and minimum during the winter. Averaged over 5 yr observation period, the night-time surface 222Rn flux was equal 46.8 ± 2.4 Bq m−2 h−1. Although the atmospheric 222Rn levels at Heidelberg and Krakow appeared to be controlled primarily by local factors, it was possible to evaluate the "continental effect" in atmospheric 222Rn content between both sites, related to the gradual build-up of 222Rn concentration in the air masses travelling between Heidelberg and Krakow. The mean value of this load was equal 0.78 ± 0.12 Bq m−3. The measured minimum 222Rn concentrations at both sites and the difference between them was interpreted in the framework of a simple box model coupled with HYSPLIT analysis of air mass trajectories. Best fit of experimental and model data was obtained for the average 222Rn flux over the European continent equal 52 Bq m−2 h−1, the mean transport velocity of the air masses within convective mixed layer of PBL on their route from the Atlantic coast to Heidelberg and Krakow equal 3.5 m s−1, the mean rate constant of 222Rn removal across the top of PBL equal to the 222Rn decay constant and the mean height of the convective mixed layer height equal 1600 m.

  20. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling water and dissolved gas chemistry at the Accesa sinkhole (southern Tuscany, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.

  1. Intercostal and forearm muscle deoxygenation during respiratory fatigue in patients with heart failure: potential role of a respiratory muscle metaboreflex

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, A. M.; R.R.T. de Castro; Silva, B. M.; Villacorta, H; M. Sant'Anna Junior; Nóbrega, A.C.L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle fatigue on intercostal and forearm muscle perfusion and oxygenation in patients with heart failure. Five clinically stable heart failure patients with respiratory muscle weakness (age, 66±12 years; left ventricle ejection fraction, 34±3%) and nine matched healthy controls underwent a respiratory muscle fatigue protocol, breathing against a fixed resistance at 60% of their maximal inspiratory pressure for as long as th...

  2. Controlled transient respiratory arrest along with rapid right ventricular pacing for improving balloon stability during balloon valvuloplasty in pediatric patients with congenital aortic stenosis - A retrospective case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sampa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid right ventricular pacing is safe, effective, and established method to provide balloon stability during balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV. Controlled transient respiratory arrest at this point of time may further reduce left ventricular stroke volume, providing an additional benefit to maintain balloon stability. Two groups were studied. Among the 10 patients, five had rapid pacing alone (Group A, while the other five were provided with cessation of positive pressure breathing as well (Group B. The outcomes of BAV in the two groups of patients were studied. One patient in Group A had failed balloon dilatation even after the fourth attempt, while in Group B there were no failures. The peak systolic gradient reduction was higher in Group B (70.05% in comparison to 52.16% of group A. In Group A, five subjects developed aortic regurgitation (grade 2 in four and grade 3 in one, while no grade 3 aortic regurgitation developed in any patient in Group B. Controlled transient respiratory arrest along with rapid ventricular pacing may be effective in maintaining balloon stability and improve the outcome of BAV.

  3. Controlled transient respiratory arrest along with rapid right ventricular pacing for improving balloon stability during balloon valvuloplasty in pediatric patients with congenital aortic stenosis--a retrospective case series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sampa Dutta; Das, Soumi; Ghose, Tapas; Sarkar, Achyut; Goswami, Anupam; Kundu, Sudeshna

    2010-01-01

    Rapid right ventricular pacing is safe, effective, and established method to provide balloon stability during balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV). Controlled transient respiratory arrest at this point of time may further reduce left ventricular stroke volume, providing an additional benefit to maintain balloon stability. Two groups were studied. Among the 10 patients, five had rapid pacing alone (Group A), while the other five were provided with cessation of positive pressure breathing as well (Group B). The outcomes of BAV in the two groups of patients were studied. One patient in Group A had failed balloon dilatation even after the fourth attempt, while in Group B there were no failures. The peak systolic gradient reduction was higher in Group B (70.05% in comparison to 52.16% of group A). In Group A, five subjects developed aortic regurgitation (grade 2 in four and grade 3 in one, while no grade 3 aortic regurgitation developed in any patient in Group B). Controlled transient respiratory arrest along with rapid ventricular pacing may be effective in maintaining balloon stability and improve the outcome of BAV. PMID:20826965

  4. Sources and controls of Arsenic contamination in groundwater of Rajnandgaon and Kanker District, Chattisgarh Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dericks Praise; Dubey, C. S.; Singh, Ningthoujam P.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Chaudhry, M.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryA high concentration of Arsenic (As) contamination in ground water has been reported in the village of Kaudikasa in Rajnandgaon district, wherein around 10% of the population is suffering from As-borne diseases. The region does not share any demographic or geological similarity with the sedimentary aquifers of the Bengal Delta Plain in Eastern India, but represents an igneous terrain with elevated As concentrations in groundwater. There is limited information about the source of As in groundwater and its mobility constraints. In this area, almost all the wells are located in the granitic terrain with pegmatitic intrusions. Most of these wells are characterized by As concentration above the World Health Organization ( WHO, 1999) and the BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) standards, with the highest being found in a well with more than 250 μg/L of As. Here we report petrographic studies of the granitic host rock and X-ray diffraction results that indicate that altered realgar (α-As 4S 4), para realgar (AsS), and/or tennantite (Cu 12As 4S 13), are the main mineral that contain As. This element is leached during the weathering and water-rock interactions. Microprobe analysis of the altered realgar grains of in pegmatitic intrusions of the host granite indicate 23-27 wt.% As. Remote sensing is useful to delineate the source of this contaminant, which appears to lie at the intersection of a mineralized NW-SE and N-S lineaments associated with the Kotri rift zone. These lineaments are structurally controlled as rifting followed by thrusting and other types of faulting caused left-lateral displacement of N-S Kotri lineament along a NW-SE fault plane showing sinistral shearing. This process caused water drainage in the areas to flow along these highly mineralized weak zones. Thus, the water becomes highly contaminated due to leaching of minerals at the intersection of these lineaments, clearly visible at two areas of high contamination that lie very near to this

  5. Respiratory sleep disorders in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Matthew T

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory sleep disorders (RSD) occur in about 40-50% of patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered a cause of CHF, whereas central sleep apnea (CSA) is considered a response to heart failure, perhaps even compensatory. In the setting of heart failure, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has a definite role in treating OSA with improvements in cardiac parameters expected. However in CSA, CPAP is an adjunctive therapy to other standard therapies directed towards the heart failure (pharmacological, device and surgical options). Whether adaptive servo controlled ventilatory support, a variant of CPAP, is beneficial is yet to be proven. Supplemental oxygen therapy should be used with caution in heart failure, in particular, by avoiding hyperoxia as indicated by SpO2 values >95%.

  6. New concepts of the central control of reproduction, integrating influence of stress, metabolic state, and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, I J; Arbabi, L

    2016-07-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone is the primary driver of reproductive function and pulsatile GnRH secretion from the brain causes the synthesis and secretion of LH and FSH from the pituitary gland. Recent work has revealed that the secretion of GnRH is controlled at the level of the GnRH secretory terminals in the median eminence. At this level, projections of kisspeptin cells from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are seen to be closely associated with fibers and terminals of GnRH cells. Direct application of kisspeptin into the median eminence causes release of GnRH. The kisspeptin cells are activated at the time of a natural "pulse" secretion of GnRH, as reflected in the secretion of LH. This appears to be due to input to the kisspeptin cells from glutamatergic cells in the basal hypothalamus, indicating that more than 1 neural element is involved in the secretion of GnRH. Because the GnRH secretory terminals are outside the blood-brain barrier, factors such as kisspeptin may be administered systemically to cause GnRH secretion; this offers opportunities for manipulation of the reproductive axis using factors that do not cross the blood-brain barrier. In particular, kisspeptin or analogs of the same may be used to activate reproduction in the nonbreeding season of domestic animals. Another brain peptide that influences reproductive function is gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Work in sheep shows that this peptide acts on GnRH neuronal perikarya, but projections to the median eminence also allow secretion into the hypophysial portal blood and action of GnIH on pituitary gonadotropes. GnIH cells are upregulated in anestrus, and infusion of GnIH can block the ovulatory surge in GnRH and/or LH secretion. Metabolic status may also affect the secretion of reproduction, and this could involve action of gut peptides and leptin. Neuropeptide Y and Y-receptor ligands have a negative impact on reproduction, and Neuropeptide Y production is markedly increased in

  7. A centralized real-time controller for the reservoir's management on the Seine River using ensemble weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficchi, Andrea; Raso, Luciano; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier; Pianosi, Francesca; Van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2013-04-01

    The reservoirs on the Seine River, upstream of Paris, are regulated with the objective of reducing floods and supporting low flows. The current management of these reservoirs is empirical, reactive, and decentralized, mainly based on filling curves, constructed from an analysis of historical floods and low flows. When inflows are significantly different from their seasonal average, this management strategy proves inefficient. Climate change is also a challenge, for the possible modification of future hydrologic conditions. To improve such management strategy, in this study we investigate the use of Tree-Based Model Predictive Control (TB-MPC), a proactive and centralized method that uses all the information available in real-time, including ensemble weather forecasting. In TB-MPC, a tree is generated from an ensemble of weather forecast. The tree structure summarizes the information contained in the ensemble, specifying the time, along the optimization horizon, when forecast trajectories diverge and thus uncertainty is expected to be resolved. This information is then used in the model predictive control framework. The TB-MPC controller is implemented in combination with the integrated model of the water system, including a semi-distributed hydrologic model of the watershed, a simplified hydraulic model of the river network, and the four reservoir models. Optimization takes into account the cost associated to floods and low-flows, and a penalty cost based on the final reservoir storages. The performances of the TB-MPC controller will be simulated and compared with those of deterministic MPC and with the actual management performances. This work is part of the Climaware European project (2010-2013) set up to develop and to assess measures for sustainable water resources management regarding adaptation to climate change.

  8. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  9. Patients With Respiratory Department of Internal Medicinein Breathing in Sleep Quality Control%呼吸内科患者在睡眠中的呼吸质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙英坤

    2015-01-01

    Objective For patients with respiratory problems in the clinical medical treatment of sleep control management, analyze the clinical manifestations of patients with sleep.Methods Adopting Pittsburgh PSQI index measurement analysis in patients with sleep breathing quality change, study of clinical respiratory medicine patients sleep quality. ResultsResults show that the degree of patients' sleep and sleep index problem such as chest pain, cough, dyspnea, has nothing to do with gender, occupation. Conclusion Patients with respiratory medicine in breathing during sleep quality, can realize the clinical intervention in patients with sleep, improve the sleep quality of patients.%目的:临床内科中有呼吸问题的患者进行睡眠治疗控制管理,分析患者睡眠的临床表现。方法采用匹兹堡PSQI睡眠指数测量方法分析患者的呼吸质量变化,研究临床呼吸内科患者的睡眠质量。结果睡眠指数的结果表明患者睡眠的程度与胸痛、咳嗽、呼吸困难等问题有关系,与性别、职业无关。结论呼吸系统内科患者在睡眠中的呼吸质量检测,实现了临床干预患者的睡眠,提高了患者的睡眠质量。

  10. Bimodal volcanism in a tectonic transfer zone: Evidence for tectonically controlled magmatism in the southern Central Andes, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinovic, I. A.; Riller, U.; Brod, J. A.; Alvarado, G.; Arnosio, M.

    2006-04-01

    This field-based and analytical laboratory study focuses on the genetic relationship between bimodal volcanic centres and fault types of an important tectonic transfer zone in the southern Central Andes, the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) volcanic belt. More specifically, tectono-magmatic relationships are examined for the 0.55 Ma Tocomar, the 0.78 Ma San Jerónimo and the 0.45 Ma Negro de Chorrillos volcanic centres in the Tocomar area (66°30 W-24°15 S). Structures of the COT volcanic belt, notably NW-SE striking strike-slip faults and NE-SW trending normal faults, accommodated differential shortening between major N-S striking thrust faults on the Puna Plateau. We present evidence that bimodal volcanism was contemporaneous with activity of these fault types in the COT volcanic belt, whereby eruption and composition of the volcanic rocks in the Tocomar and San Jerónimo-Negro de Chorrillos areas appear to have been controlled by the kinematics of individual faults. More specifically, rhyolitic centres such as the Tocomar are associated with normal faults, whereas shoshonitic-andesitic monogenetic volcanoes, e.g., the San Jerónimo and Negro de Chorrillos centres, formed at strike-slip dominated faults. Thus, the eruption of higher viscous rhyolite magmas appears to have been facilitated in tectonic settings characterized by horizontal dilation whereas ascent and effusive volcanic activity of less viscous and hot basaltic andesites to shoshonites were controlled by subvertical strike-slip faults. While the Tocomar rhyolites are interpreted to be derived from an anatectic crustal source, geochemical characteristics of the San Jerónimo and Negro de Chorrillos shoshonitic andesites are in agreement with a deeper source. This suggests that the composition of erupted volcanic rocks as well as their spatial distribution in the Tocomar area is controlled by the activity of specific fault types. Such volcano-tectonic relationships are also evident from older

  11. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Galeiras Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCIs often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB. Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients’ inspiratory function following a SCI.

  12. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  13. Pulmonary Function Tests and Work-Related Respiratory and Allergic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boskabady Mohammad Hosein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in bakers than control croup (PThese results showed that bakers have a higher frequency of work related respiratory symptoms and to a lesser extend allergic symptoms particularly during the work period. PFT values were also significantly reduced among bakers.

  14. One-hour after-school exercise ameliorates central adiposity and lipids in overweight Chinese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ming-xiao; SHI Xiao-cai; LI Jian; XIE Min-hao; HUANG Xiu-qing; YAN Yi; LI Bo-wen; ZHONG Wei-juan; CHEN Jun-fei; ZHANG Yi-min; WANG Zheng-zhen; WANG Lu

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents was increasing during the past few decades. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of after-school exercise with or without diet restriction on total and central obesity, fitness level, and metabolic profile in overweight Chinese adolescents.Methods A ten-week weight loss trial was performed using a 2×2 block design (exercisexdiet). Ninety-three overweight adolescents (average age:(13.6±0.7) years; body mass index (BMI): 22.4-34.1 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to four groups:1) diet (D); 2) exercise (EX); 3) diet plus exercise (DEX); and 4) overweight control (C). Caloric intake recipes were enacted based on individual age and corresponding ideal body weight. One-hour after-school exercise was performed once per day, four days per week for ten weeks. Changes of anthropometry, body composition, aerobic fitness,and metabolic biomarkers were determined.Results Groups D, EX and DEX had a significant decrease in BMI (P<0.01) after the intervention. The percentage of body and truncal fat, and waist circumference were independently reduced by exercise (P<0.05 and P <0.01), but not diet. The decrease in body fat percentage was positively related with the exercise compliance (r=0.34,P=0.01). Exercise decreased truncal fat percentage and waist circumference, suggesting a reduction of central adiposity, but did not significantly affect body weight and BMI. Exercise significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.037), which was positively correlated with decreases of truncal fat percentage (r=0.222, P=0.048). No significant effects of interventions on insulin sensitivity, early insulin release index, and aerobic fitness were observed.Conclusion At least twice a week of one-hour after-school exercise significantly attenuated central adiposity and had a significant impact on lipid profiles in overweight Chinese adolescents.

  15. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-12-03

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993-2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  16. Eustatic and climatic control on the Upper Muschelkalk Sea (late Anisian/Ladinian) in the Central European Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M.; Kaiser, S. I.; Fischer, J.; Heunisch, C.; Kustatscher, E.; Luppold, F. W.; Berner, U.; Röhling, H.-G.

    2015-12-01

    The Upper Muschelkalk in the Central European Basin (CEB) is a key example of eustatic and climatic controls on inland seas. The late Anisian rapid transgression from Tethyan waters culminated in a large semi-enclosed inland sea stretching across the CEB. Subsequently, the slow but successive retreat in the early Ladinian resulted in a small remnant sea. The pronounced stratal pattern architectures are translated into a framework of 3rd- and 4th-order T-R sequences. The latest Illyrian 3rd-order maximum flooding surface corresponds to maximum abundances of carbonates and marine phytoplankton. An euryhaline marine ecology is indicated by prasinophycean algae dominating over acritarchs and δ18OP values of 18.9-22.4‰ VSMOW corresponding to Tethyan references. During the 3rd-order regressive phase successive freshening up to hyposaline conditions is indicated by up to 3‰ depleted δ18OP values, shifts to more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios and maximum abundances of terrestrial palynomorphs. Likewise, 4th-order T-R sequences are constrained by commutated stratal pattern architectures, palynofacies and geochemistry. The favourable correlation of middle Triassic 3rd-order sequences of Tethyan and peri-Tethyan basins demonstrate the principle control of circum-Tethyan eustatic cycles. 4th-order sequences are evident and, although not yet correlatable in detail, indicate 106-year scale eustatic cycles which may be attributed to glacioeustatic sea-level changes. The subordinated control of arid to semiarid low latitude and semihumid to humid temperate mid latitude climates affected the Upper Muschelkalk Sea in particular during 4th-order sea-level lowstands. Substantial fresh water input from Scandinavian sources caused temporal stratification leading to stagnant bottom waters and/or sediments as indicated by palynofacies and U/Th and Ni/Co redox indices. The herein reconstructed middle Triassic zonal climates are in agreement to previously published Late Triassic zonal

  17. Exploration of early respiratory infections and children's current asthma in casc-control study%早期呼吸道感染疾病与儿童哮喘发病关系的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳庆; 陈萍; 庄家用

    2012-01-01

    [目的]初步探讨儿童后期哮喘患病与早期屣患呼吸道感染性疾病之间的关系. [方法]共317例哮喘儿童纳入研究,317例非喘息性疾病患儿作为对照.采用向家长书面问卷调查方法询问各组婴儿围产期因素、家族史及既往呼吸道感染性疾病等资料进行综合调查.采用后退法进行哮喘患病危险因素的多因素配比条件Lcgistic回归分析.[结果]在校正了其他与儿童哮喘发生发展密切相关的因素后,既往上/下呼吸道感染次数以及下呼吸道初发年龄与儿童期哮喘的发病存在密切相关;上呼吸道感染和下呼吸道感染的发作次数以及下呼吸道感染的初次发作年龄均与哮喘中度、重度发作关系密切.上呼吸道感染初次发作年龄与儿童哮喘发作以及病情程度均无显著关系. [结论]本地区儿童早期呼吸道感染与儿童四岁左右哮喘的发生发展以及发作程度密切相关.%[Ohjective]To explore the association of early respiratory infection and children's current asthma. [Methods] A total of 317 children with average aged about 4 years were recruited into the study group and 317 healthy children without asthma were categorized into the control group. The parents of these children were responded to a questionnaire covering demographic factors,lifestyle,home environment,and health history,including a detailed history of respiratory conditions. Back multi-factor matched conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of children 's asthma about four years old. [Results]After adjustment for the other covariate factors, the data indicated the significant association of current asthma and the degree with the numbers of upper/low respiratory infection and the age of onset of low respiratory infection in the past year. No significant correlation was found between the ages of onset of upper respiratory infection with current asthma and the degree. [Conclusion

  18. Generalized conventional and intelligent supervisory control system for combined cycle generation power plants; Sistema de control supervisorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel

    2004-12-15

    (conventional or intelligent) is possible to get more power generation than if we use the automatic methods based on feedback MW control. Consequently, the financial benefit due to the MW generated along a period of 2 months, is equivalent to return the investment required if the CCPP would had been repowered. Test also showed that with the fuzzy based SGC is possible to get a 'little more' power generation than if we use the PID based SGC. The development and implementation of the SGC was made in three phases: First Phase: Upgrading of the simulation dynamic mathematical model and implementation in a new software platform based on LabWindows/CVI. Second Phase: Design, implementation and testing of the PID based SGC. Third Phase: Design and implementation and testing of the Intelligent SGC, based in fuzzy logic. [Spanish] El programa de obras de generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) del ano 2004 al ano 2008 esta caracterizado por el dominio del proceso de ciclo combinado para la expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico [CFE, 2000]. De acuerdo con los datos presentados por esta fuente, el incremento estimado en la capacidad de generacion de potencia electrica es de 12876 MW, de los cuales las centrales de ciclo combinado aportaran 10655 MW, lo que representa el 82.75%. Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, en este trabajo de tesis se desarrollo un sistema de control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) convencional (PID) e inteligente (logica difusa) para una central de generacion de ciclo combinado, el cual permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas (TG) y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV). El diseno de estos sistemas

  19. Atmospheric emissions control at ENELVEN`s Ramon Laguna thermal power plant; Control de emisiones a la atmosfera en la central termoelectrica Ramon Laguna de ENELVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Rincon, Edis Rafael [Empresa de Servicio Electrico (ENELVEN), (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    ENELVEN is an electric utility that covers the areas of generation, transmission and distribution of the Western an South coast of the Maracaibo Lake of the Zulia State, Venezuela. General aspects of the Ramon Laguna of ENELVEN fossil power plant are presented, as well as the environmental measures implanted in this power station to avoid detrimental effects on the environment that could be caused by the emission of combustion products without the appropriate control, such as particulate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and carbon oxides [Espanol] ENELVEN es una empresa de servicio electrico que cubre las areas de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la Costa Occidental y Sur del Lago de Maracaibo, del Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se presentan aspectos generales de la planta termoelectrica Ramon Laguna de la empresa ENELVEN, asi como las medidas ambientales implantadas en esta central para evitar efectos adversos sobre el ambiente que pudieran producirse por la emision de productos de la combustion si no existiera el debido control, tales como: particulas, oxidos de azufre, oxidos de nitrogeno y oxidos de carbono

  20. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  1. Chinese children's respiratory diseases in 60 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qiang; SHEN Kun-ling

    2009-01-01

    @@ This year marks the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. On this occasion, it is worthy to recall the past and look towards the future in order to do a better job in research and control of children's respiratory diseases.

  2. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  3. American Association for Respiratory Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NBRC Credentials Congress News & Highlights Clinician Training on Tobacco Dependence for Respiratory Therapists Increase your skill with ... 12 Dad’s Struggle with ALS Inspires Respiratory Therapy Student Read More Oct 12 RSV Experience Leads Member ...

  4. 瓣膜手术后呼吸功能衰竭的相关因素病例对照研究%Case-control study on the risk factors for postoperative respiratory failure in patients undergoing valvular surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冬

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors for postoperative respiratory failure in patients undergoing valvular surgery. METHODS A case-control study was conducted, and 30 patients with postoperative respiratory failure underwent valvular surgerypatients (n = 30), and compared with controls who were patients underwent valvular surgery. The use of uni-variate and multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze risk factors of patients with postoperative respiratory failure who underwent valvular surgery. RESULTS The univariate analysis results showed age ≥ 60, heart function Ⅲ - Ⅳstage, maximal voluntary ventilation decrease, Daily smoking more than 20, at the same time for coronary artery bypass grafting ratio and time of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp time and valve operation for postoperative respiratory failure were related to pathogenesis. By multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis, regression equation for the eventual introduction variables were age > 60 years old, significantly decreased preoperative maximal ventilatory volume, daily smoking more than 20 root, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp time. CONCLUSION Age > 60 years, significantly decreased preoperative maximal ventilatory volume, daily smoking more than 20 root; duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamping time are risk factors for postoperative respiratory failure risk factors.%目的 调查研究瓣膜手术后呼吸功能衰竭发病的危险因素.方法 采用病例对照研究对30例瓣膜手术后呼吸功能衰竭的患者和90例瓣膜手术后未发生呼吸衰竭的患者相关资料进行研究.结果 单因素分析表明:年龄>60岁,心功能Ⅲ~Ⅳ级,术前最大通气量显著减退,每日吸烟超过20根,同时进行冠脉旁路移植术比例和体外循环时间及主动脉阻断时间过长与瓣膜手术后呼吸功能衰竭发病有关,通过多因素Logistic逐步回归分析,最终引入回归

  5. Respiratory manifestations in amyloidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling; CAI Bai-qiang; ZHONG Xu; ZHU Yuan-jue

    2005-01-01

    Background Amyloidosis is a collection of diseases in which different proteins are deposited. Amyloid deposits occur in systemic and organ-limited forms. In both systemic and localized forms of the disease, lung can be involved. The aim of this study was to explore the different respiratory manifestations of amyloidosis. Methods Chest radiology, clinical presentations, bronchoscopic/laryngoscopic findings and lung function data of 59 patients with amyloidosis involving respiratory tract collected during January 1986 to March 2005, were analysed.Results Of the 16 cases with localized respiratory tract amyloidosis, 8 had the lesions in the trachea and the bronchi, 2 in the larynx and the trachea, 5 in the larynx and/or the pharynx, and 1 in the lung parenchyma. Of 43 systemic amyloidosis with respiratory tract involvement, 3 had the lesions in bronchi, 13 in lung parenchyma, 33 in pleura, 8 in mediastina, 1 in nose and 1 in pharynx. Chest X-rays were normal in most cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis. CT, unlike chest X-rays, showed irregular luminal narrowing, airway wall thickening with calcifications and soft tissue shadows in airway lumen. Localized lung parenchymal amyloidosis presented as multiple nodules. Multiple nodular opacities, patch shadows and reticular opacities were the main radiological findings in systemic amyloidosis with lung parenchymal involvement. In pleural amyloidosis, pleural effusions and pleural thickening were detected. Mediastinal and/or hilar adenopathy were also a form of lung involvement in systemic amyloidosis. The major bronchoscopic findings of tracheobronchial amyloidosis were narrowing of airway lumen, while nodular, 'tumour like' or 'bubble like' masses, with missing or vague cartilaginous rings, were detected in about half of the patients.Conclusions Localized respiratory tract amyloidosis mostly affects the trachea and the bronchi. Chest X-rays are not sensitive to detect these lesions. Systemic amyloidosis often involves

  6. Temporal stability of network centrality in control and default mode networks: Specific associations with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Crossley, Nicolas; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Amaro, Edson; McGuire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal connectivity patterns have frequently been reported as involved in pathological mental states. However, most studies focus on "static," stationary patterns of connectivity, which may miss crucial biological information. Recent methodological advances have allowed the investigation of dynamic functional connectivity patterns that describe non-stationary properties of brain networks. Here, we introduce a novel graphical measure of dynamic connectivity, called time-varying eigenvector centrality (tv-EVC). In a sample 655 children and adolescents (7-15 years old) from the Brazilian "High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders" who were imaged using resting-state fMRI, we used this measure to investigate age effects in the temporal in control and default-mode networks (CN/DMN). Using support vector regression, we propose a network maturation index based on the temporal stability of tv-EVC. Moreover, we investigated whether the network maturation is associated with the overall presence of behavioral and emotional problems with the Child Behavior Checklist. As hypothesized, we found that the tv-EVC at each node of CN/DMN become more stable with increasing age (P < 0.001 for all nodes). In addition, the maturity index for this particular network is indeed associated with general psychopathology in children assessed by the total score of Child Behavior Checklist (P = 0.027). Moreover, immaturity of the network was mainly correlated with externalizing behavior dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that changes in functional network dynamics during neurodevelopment may provide unique insights regarding pathophysiology.

  7. Evolution of central pattern generators for the control of a five-link planar bipedal walking mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Baydin, Atilim Gunes

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of producing a stable human-like bipedal gait, a five-link planar walking mechanism was coupled with a central pattern generator (CPG) network, consisting of units based on Matsuoka's half-center oscillator model. As a minimalistic approach to bipedal walking, this type of walking mechanism contains only four actuators (two in the hip joints and two in the knee joints), and is lacking feet and ankles. Firstly, the mechanism was designed and built as a physical simulation programmed from scratch, providing a platform for hand-tuned tests and the creation of a CPG controller by genetic algorithms (GA). The oscillatory characteristics of the CPG network together with its internal connection structure and the feedback pathways from the environment were subject to GA optimization. The approach proved successful and the results were then transferred to a hardware realization of the five-link walking mechanism, to test how well these perform under real-world dynamics. Results suggest that the biological...

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Domestic Leuprorelin in Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty: A Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In central precocious puberty (CPP, the pulse secretion and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH are increased due to early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in developmental abnormalities with gonadal development and appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. The CPP without organic disease is known as idiopathic CPP (ICPP. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic leuprorelin (GnRH analog in girls with ICPP. Methods: A total of 236 girls with ICPP diagnosed from April 2012 to January 2014 were selected and were randomized into two groups. One hundred fifty-seven girls in the test group were treated with domestic leuprorelin acetate, 79 girls in the control group were treated with imported leuprorelin acetate. They all were treated and observed for 6 months. After 6-month treatment, the percentage of children with peak luteinizing hormone (LH ≤3.3 U/L, the percentage of children with peak LH/peak follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ratio 0.05. Conclusions: Domestic leuprorelin is effective and safe in the treatment of Chinese girls with ICPP. Its effectiveness and safety are comparable with imported leuprorelin.

  9. Effects of controlled burning of chaparral on streamflow and sediment characteristics, East Fork Sycamore Creek, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Hjalmarson, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of controlled burning of part of a chaparral-covered drainage basin on streamflow and sediment characteristics were studied in the upper reaches of the Sycamore Creek basin in central Arizona. A paired-watershed method was used to analyze data collected in two phases separated by the controlled burning of 45 percent of the East Fork Sycamore Creek drainage basin by the U.S. Forest Service on October 31, 1981. Statistically significant increases in streamflow in East Fork occurred from October 26, 1982, through August 25, 1984. Streamflow for August 26, 1984, through the end of data collection for the study on May 31, 1986, was generally at or less than preburn levels. An increase in the percentage of time that flow occurred in East Fork was noted for water years 1983 and 1984. No increase in the magnitude of instantaneous peak flows as a result of the burn was discernable at statistically significant levels. Suspended-sediment yields computed for data collected during water year 1983 were significantly greater in the East Fork drainage basin, 546 tons per square mile, than in the West Fork drainage basin, 22.6 tons per square mile. Suspended-sediment yields computed for East Fork and West Fork for water year 1985, 38.3 and 13.3 tons per square mile, respectively, were much closer in yield. These more uniform yields indicate a possible return to preburn conditions. Data collection did not begin until 11 months after the burn; therefore, the largest increases in streamflow and sediment yields, which commonly occur during the year after a burn, may not have been measured. During the second through fourth years after the burn, smaller increases in stream- flow and sediment yields were found in this study than were found in similar studies in this region.

  10. Control of Proteobacterial Central Carbon Metabolism by the HexR Transcriptional Regulator. A Case Study in Shewanella oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyn, Semen; Li, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Qijing; Novichkov, Pavel; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Yang, Chen; Osterman, Andrei L.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2011-08-17

    Bacteria exploit multiple mechanisms for controlling central carbon metabolism (CCM). Thus, a bioinformatic analysis together with some experimental data implicated HexR transcriptional factor as a global CCM regulator in some lineages of Gammaproteobacteria operating as a functional replacement of Cra regulator characteristic of Enterobacteriales. In this study we combined a large-scale comparative genomic reconstruction of HexRcontrolled regulons in 87 species of Proteobacteria with the detailed experimental analysis of HexR regulatory network in Shewanella oneidensis model system. Although nearly all of the HexR-controlled genes are associated with CCM, remarkable variations were revealed in the scale (from 1-2 target operons in Enterobacteriales up to 20 operons in Aeromonadales) and gene content of HexR regulons between 11 compared lineages. A predicted 17-bp pseudo-palindrome with a consensus tTGTAATwwwATTACa, was confirmed as HexR-binding motif for 15 target operons (comprising 30 genes) by in vitro binding assays. The negative effect of the key CCM intermediate, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6- phosphogluconate, on the DNA-regulator complex formation was verified. A dual mode of HexR action on various target promoters, repression of genes involved in catabolic pathways and activation of gluconeogenic genes, was for the first time predicted by the bioinformatc analysis and experimentally verified by changed gene expression pattern in S. oneidensis AhexR mutant. Phenotypic profiling revealed the inability of this mutant to grow on lactate or pyruvate as a single carbon source. A comparative metabolic flux analysis of wild-type and mutant strains of S. oneidensis using 13Clactate labeling and GC-MS analysis confirmed the hypothesized HexR role as a master regulator of gluconeogenic flux from pyruvate via the transcriptional activation of phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA).

  11. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  12. Linking hydropedology and ecosystem services: differential controls of surface field saturated hydraulic conductivity in a volcanic setting in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gómez-Tagle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the variation of field saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Kfs as key control variable and descriptor of infiltration was examined by means of a constant head single ring infiltrometer. The study took place in five coverage types and land uses in a volcanic setting in central Mexico. The tested hypothesis was that there exist a positive relationship between plant cover and surface Kfs for the study area. The examined coverage types included; Second growth pine-oak forest, pasture land, fallow land, gully and Cupresus afforestation. Results indicate that Kfs did not depend exclusively of plant cover; it was related to surface horizontal expression of the unburied soil horizons and linked to land use history. Therefore the Kfs measured at a certain location did not depend exclusively of the actual land use, it was also influenced by soil bioturbation linked to plant succession patterns and land use management practices history. The hypothesis accounts partially the variation between sites. Kfs under dense plant cover at the Cupresus afforestation was statistically equal to that measured at the fallow land or the gully sites, while second growth pine-oak forest Kfs figures were over an order of magnitude higher than the rest of the coverage types. The results suggest the relevance of unburied soil horizons in the soil hydrologic response when present at the surface. Under these conditions loosing surface soil horizons due to erosion, not only fertility is lost, but environmental services generation potential. A conceptual model within the hydropedological approach is proposed. It explains the possible controls of Kfs, for this volcanic setting. Land use history driven erosion plays a decisive role in subsurface horizon presence at the surface and soil matrix characteristic determination, while plant succession patterns seem to be strongly linked to soil bioturbation and

  13. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Lungs & Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Lungs & Respiratory System Print A A A Text Size What's in ... your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, ...

  14. Severe acute respiratory failure managed with continuous positive airway pressure and partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal by an artificial membrane lung. A controlled, randomized animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, M; Kolobow, T; Spatola, R; Prato, P; Tsuno, K

    1988-12-01

    Using an animal model of acute respiratory failure (ARF), we evaluated two treatments: conventional mechanical pulmonary ventilation (MV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with extracorporeal removal of CO2 by an artificial membrane lung. We developed a model of "mild" ARF and a model of "severe" ARF after ventilating healthy sheep at a peak inspiratory pressure of 50 cm H2O for various lengths of time. Sheep from either injury models were randomly assigned to one of the above treatment groups. All 16 sheep from the model with "severe" ARF died, with progressive deterioration in pulmonary function and multiorgan failure irrespective of the treatment. Of 11 sheep from the model with "mild" ARF treated by MV, only three survived, whereas all 11 sheep from the model with "mild" ARF treated with CPAP and extracorporeal removal of CO2 responded well, and nine sheep ultimately recovered. We conclude that CPAP with extracorporeal removal of CO2 provided a better environment for the recovery in our model with "mild" ARF than the conventional arrangement centered on MV alone. Our studies also suggest that lung injury can progress (i.e., model with "severe" ARF) to where neither of the two treatments can succeed. PMID:3144216

  15. On the respiratory mechanics measured by forced oscillation technique in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Almeida Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary complications are the most common cause of death and morbidity in systemic sclerosis (SSc. The forced oscillation technique (FOT offers a simple and detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that SSc may introduce changes in the resistive and reactive properties of the respiratory system, and that FOT may help the diagnosis of these abnormalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested these hypotheses in controls (n = 30 and patients with abnormalities classified using spirometry (n = 52 and pulmonary volumes (n = 29. Resistive data were interpreted with the zero-intercept resistance (Ri and the slope of the resistance (S as a function of frequency. Reactance changes were evaluated by the mean reactance between 4 and 32 Hz (Xm and the dynamic compliance (Crs,dyn. The mechanical load was evaluated using the absolute value of the impedance in 4 Hz (Z4Hz. A compartmental model was used to obtain central (R and peripheral (Rp resistances, and alveolar compliance (C. The clinical usefulness was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The presence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL was also evaluated. For the groups classified using spirometry, SSc resulted in increased values in Ri, R, Rp and Z4Hz (p0.90. In groups classified by pulmonary volume, SSc resulted in reductions in S, Xm, C and Crs,dyn (p0.80. It was also observed that EFL is not common in patients with SSc. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that the respiratory resistance and reactance are changed in SSc. This analysis provides a useful description that is of particular significance for understanding respiratory pathophysiology and to ease the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in these patients.

  16. 全自动刨煤机组集中控制系统的设计%Design of Central Control System of Full Automatic Plough Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永刚; 刘召安; 姚立权

    2012-01-01

    为实现刨煤机组全自动集中控制,系统采用光缆技术、现场总线技术、集中控制技术,不仅可实现井下视频控制和地面控制,并可实现泵站设备、转载机、破碎机、刮板输送机、带式输送机等刨煤机组所有设备的联机控制和保护。重点描述了刨煤机组集中控制系统的设计原理。%In order to realize automatic and centralized control of plough unit, cable technology, field bus technology and centralized control technology are all used in the system. The system can realize underground video control, ground control and the online control. All plough unit equipment, such as pumping station, reversed loader, crusher, scraper conveyor and belt conveyor can be controlled and protected. It focused on the design principle of centralized control system of plough unit.

  17. Paleoclimate controls on late paleozoic sedimentation and peat formation in the central appalachian basin (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, C.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Neuzil, S.G.; Dulong, F.T.; Ruppert, L.F.; Pierce, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    adequately explain variations in mineral matter content and composition in commercial quality coal beds in the central Appalachian basin. Stratigraphic variation in mineral matter in coal beds, and in syngenetic and early diagenetic minerals in rocks associated with the coal beds, appears to be better explained by changes in geochemical conditions of nonmarine sedimentation. Paleoclimate was a principle control on these geochemical conditions. ?? 1986.

  18. Generalized status epilepticus associated with massive pulmonary aspiration and transient central diabetes insipidus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO MAURICIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus causes significant morbidity and mortality. A case of generalized status epilepticus followed by massive pulmonary aspiration, acute respiratory failure and transient central diabetes insipidus is presented. Seizures were promptly controlled, but the patient required mechanical ventilation and correction of polyuria with desmopressin acetate. During hospitalization mental status improved, diabetes insipidus spontaneously remitted and he was discharged without neurologic sequelae. The clinical and pathophysiological features of this case are discussed.

  19. Contemporary Insights and Novel Treatment Approaches to Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Grayburn, Ryan L.; Kaka, Yaquta; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a common and under-diagnosed condition commonly associated with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. It is particularly prevalent in the heart failure population affecting up to 40% of all patients with heart failure. The pathophysiology associated with CSA is based on the underlying effects of hypoventilation and hyperventilation, with neurologic dysregulation of respiratory control as the primary defect. However, therapeutic options are limited due to the prevailing perce...

  20. Progesterone stimulates respiration through a central nervous system steroid receptor-mediated mechanism in cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E; Gallman, E A; Cidlowski, J A

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the effect on respiration of the steroid hormone progesterone, administered either intravenously or directly into the medulla oblongata in anesthetized and paralyzed male and female cats. The carotid sinus and vagus nerves were cut, and end-tidal PCO2 and temperature were kept constant with servo-controllers. Phrenic nerve activity was used to quantitate central respiratory activity. Repeated doses of progesterone (from 0.1 to 2.0 micrograms/kg, cumulative) caused a sustained...