WorldWideScience

Sample records for central receiver power

  1. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracey, T. R.

    1978-09-01

    The design of a 300 MWe tower focus power plant which uses molten salt heat transfer fluids and sensible heat storage is described in detail. The system consists of nine heliostat fields with 7711 heliostats in each. Four cavity receivers are located at the top of a 155-meter tower. Tasks include: (1) review and analysis of preliminary specification; (2) parametric analysis; (3) selection of preferred configuration; (4) commercial plant conceptual design; (5) assessment of commercial-sized advanced central power system; (6) development plan; (7) program plan; (8) reports and data; (9) program management; (10) safety analysis; and (11) material study and test program. (WHK)

  2. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-01

    A management plan is presented for implementation during the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System - Phase I study project. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the 1985-1990 time frame. The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.

  3. Central receiver power plant: an environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, M.; Grether, D.

    1977-06-01

    The technical details of the central receiver design are reviewed. Socio-economic questions are considered including: market penetration, air industrial sector model, demands on industry, employment, effluents associated with manufacture of components, strains due to intensive construction, water requirements, and land requirements. The ecological effects in the vicinity of the central receiver plant site are dealt with, with emphasis on effects on land surface, mammals, and reptiles and amphibians. Climatological considerations are reviewed including: desert types, effects of surface albedo modification, effects of aerosols, effects on evaporation rates, the heliostat canopy, effects on turbulent transfer rates, effects on the wind profile, a model of convection about a central receiver plant, and a global scenario. Drawings of heliostat and plant design are included in appendices. (MHR)

  4. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  5. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Drake [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Kelly, Bruce [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Burkholder, Frank [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  6. Performance of the Solar Two central receiver power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prairie, M.R.; Pacheco, J.E.; Gilbert, R.L.; Reilly, H.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Speidel, P.J. [Shada Environmental Specialists, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Kelly, B.D. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Solar Two is a utility-led project to promote the commercialization of solar power towers by retrofitting the Solar One pilot plant from a water/steam-based system to a molten salt system. Solar Two is capable of producing 10 MW(e) net electricity with enough thermal storage capacity to operate the turbine for three hours after sunset. The plant was turned over to its operations and maintenance contractor in February 1998, marking transition from start-up to the test and evaluation phase. Solar Two has collected as much as 230 MWh thermal and generated as much as 72 MWh(e) gross electricity in one day. The plant has demonstrated dispatchability after dark, during clouds, and during sunshine hours. To date, Solar Two has collected thermal energy at a maximum rate of 39 MW(t) and generated gross electricity at a maximum rate of 11.1 MW(e). Important lessons have been learned in the areas of heat trace, valve selection, materials of construction, and steam generator design. Testing has begun in a number of areas relating to receiver performance, storage tank performance, salt chemistry, overnight thermal conditioning, electricity dispatching, performance monitoring and evaluation, availability tracking, and receiver controls.

  7. Thermoeconomic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. This paper evaluates the use of a high temperature Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant...... and the economic perspectives, the results suggest that it is not beneficial to use the Kalina cycle for high temperature concentrating solar power plants....

  8. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The appendices include: (A) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for all-sodium storage concept; (B) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 100-MWe commercial plant design, for air-rock bed storage concept; (C) electric power generating water-steam system P and I drawing and equipment list, 100-MWe commercial plant design; (D) design data sheets and P and I drawing for 281-MWe commercial plant design; (E) steam generator system conceptual design; (F) heat losses from solar receiver surface; (G) heat transfer and pressure drop for rock bed thermal storage; (H) a comparison of alternative ways of recovering the hydraulic head from the advanced solar receiver tower; (I) central receiver tower study; (J) a comparison of mechanical and electromagnetic sodium pumps; (K) pipe routing study of sodium downcomer; and (L) sodium-cooled advanced central receiver system simulation model. (WHK)

  9. Performance comparison of different thermodynamic cycles for an innovative central receiver solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Sebastián, Andrés; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    The potential of using different thermodynamic cycles coupled to a solar tower central receiver that uses a novel heat transfer fluid is analyzed. The new fluid, named as DPS, is a dense suspension of solid particles aerated through a tubular receiver used to convert concentrated solar energy into thermal power. This novel fluid allows reaching high temperatures at the solar receiver what opens a wide range of possibilities for power cycle selection. This work has been focused into the assessment of power plant performance using conventional, but optimized cycles but also novel thermodynamic concepts. Cases studied are ranging from subcritical steam Rankine cycle; open regenerative Brayton air configurations at medium and high temperature; combined cycle; closed regenerative Brayton helium scheme and closed recompression supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle. Power cycle diagrams and working conditions for design point are compared amongst the studied cases for a common reference thermal power of 57 MWth reaching the central cavity receiver. It has been found that Brayton air cycle working at high temperature or using supercritical carbon dioxide are the most promising solutions in terms of efficiency conversion for the power block of future generation by means of concentrated solar power plants.

  10. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 3. Appendices. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A design study for a central receiver/fossil fuel hybrid power system using molten salts for heat transfer and heat storage is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (A) parametric salt piping data; (B) sample heat exchanger calculations; (C) salt chemistry and salt/materials compatibility evaluation; (D) heliostat field coordinates; (E) data lists; (F) STEAEC program input data; (G) hybrid receiver design drawings; (H) hybrid receiver absorber tube thermal math model; (I) piping stress analysis; (J) 100-MWe 18-hour storage solar central receiver hybrid power system capital cost worksheets; and (K) 500-MWe 18-hour solar central receiver hybrid power system cost breakdown. (WHK)

  11. Thermoeconomic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2016-01-01

    with direct vapour generation and without storage. The use of the ammonia-water mixture as the power cycle working fluid with non-isothermal evaporation and condensation presents the potential to improve the overall performance of the plant. This however comes at a price of requiring larger heat exchangers......Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. This paper evaluates the use of a high temperature Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant...... because of lower thermal pinch and heat transfer degradation for mixtures as compared with using a pure fluid in a conventional steam Rankine cycle, and the necessity to use a complex cycle arrangement. Most of the previous studies on the Kalina cycle focused solely on the thermodynamic aspects...

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Central Receiver Panel Component Fabrication and Testing FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Michael W [Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne; Miner, Kris [Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne

    2013-03-30

    The objective of this project is to complete a design of an advanced concentrated solar panel and demonstrate the manufacturability of key components. Then confirm the operation of the key components under prototypic solar flux conditions. This work is an important step in reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from a central receiver solar power plant. The key technical risk to building larger power towers is building the larger receiver systems. Therefore, this proposed technology project includes the design of an advanced molten salt prototypic sub-scale receiver panel that can be utilized into a large receiver system. Then complete the fabrication and testing of key components of the receive design that will be used to validate the design. This project shall have a significant impact on solar thermal power plant design. Receiver panels of suitable size for utility scale plants are a key element to a solar power tower plant. Many subtle and complex manufacturing processes are involved in producing a reliable, robust receiver panel. Given the substantial size difference between receiver panels manufactured in the past and those needed for large plant designs, the manufacture and demonstration on prototype receiver panel components with representative features of a full-sized panel will be important to improving the build process for commercial success. Given the thermal flux limitations of the test facility, the panel components cannot be rendered full size. Significance changes occurred in the projects technical strategies from project initiation to the accomplishments described herein. The initial strategy was to define cost improvements for the receiver, design and build a scale prototype receiver and test, on sun, with a molten salt heat transport system. DOE had committed to constructing a molten salt heat transport loop to support receiver testing at the top of the NSTTF tower. Because of funding constraints this did not happen. A subsequent plan to

  13. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  14. A nightly conditioning method to reduce parasitic power consumption in molten-salt central-receiver solar-power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J.E.

    1995-06-01

    A method to reduce nightly parasitic power consumption in a molten salt central receiver is discussed where salt is drained from the piping and heat tracing is turned off to allow the piping to cool to ambient overnight, then in the morning the pipes are filled while they are cold. Since the piping and areas of the receiver in a molten-nitrate salt central-receiver solar power plant must be electrically heated to maintain their temperatures above the nitrate salt freezing point (430{degrees}F, 221{degrees}C), considerable energy could be used to maintain such temperatures during nightly shut down and bad weather. Experiments and analyses have been conducted to investigate cold filling receiver panels and piping as a way of reducing parasitic electrical power consumption and increasing the availability of the plant. The two major concerns with cold filling are: (1) how far can the molten salt penetrate cold piping before freezing closed and (2) what thermal stresses develop during the associated thermal shock. Experiments and analysis are discussed.

  15. Thermoeconomic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Haglind, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoeconomic optimization of a high temperature Kalina cycle. • The levelized cost of electricity is minimized for the thermoeconomic optimization. • A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation considered as case study. • Kalina cycle less favourable than the state-of-the-art steam Rankine cycle from thermoeconomic perspective. - Abstract: Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. This paper evaluates the use of a high temperature Kalina cycle for a central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation and without storage. The use of the ammonia-water mixture as the power cycle working fluid with non-isothermal evaporation and condensation presents the potential to improve the overall performance of the plant. This however comes at a price of requiring larger heat exchangers because of lower thermal pinch and heat transfer degradation for mixtures as compared with using a pure fluid in a conventional steam Rankine cycle, and the necessity to use a complex cycle arrangement. Most of the previous studies on the Kalina cycle focused solely on the thermodynamic aspects of the cycle, thereby comparing cycles which require different investment costs. In this study, the economic aspect and the part-load performance are also considered for a thorough evaluation of the Kalina cycle. A thermoeconomic optimization was performed by minimizing the levelized cost of electricity. The different Kalina cycle simulations resulted in the levelized costs of electricity between 212.2 $ MWh −1 and 218.9 $ MWh −1 . For a plant of same rated capacity, the state-of-the-art steam Rankine cycle has a levelized cost of electricity of 181.0 $ MWh −1 . Therefore, when considering both the thermodynamic and the economic perspectives, the results suggest that it is not

  16. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  17. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  18. Central receiver solar thermal power system, phase 1. Progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-04-01

    The program objective is the preliminary design of a 10 MWe pilot solar power plant supported by major subsystem experiments. Progress is reported on the following task elements: 10 MWe pilot plant; collector subsystem design and analysis; receiver subsystem requirements; receiver subsystem design; thermal storage subsystem; electrical power generation subsystem; and pilot plant architectural engineering and support. (WDM)

  19. Optimisation of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Central receiver solar thermal power plants are regarded as one of the promising ways to generate electricity in near future. They offer the possibility of using high temperatures and pressures to achieve high efficiencies with standard power cycles. A direct steam generation approach can be used...... for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation. The variation in the cycle performance with respect to the turbine inlet ammonia mass fraction and pressure and a comparison of the initial investment with that of the basic Rankine cycle are also presented. Only high live steam...

  20. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  1. Power and Efficiency Analysis of a Solar Central Receiver Combined Cycle Plant with a Small Particle Heat Exchanger Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgen, Matthew Miguel

    Two significant goals in solar plant operation are lower cost and higher efficiencies. To achieve those goals, a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) system, which uses the hot gas turbine exhaust to produce superheated steam for a bottoming Rankine cycle by way of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), is investigated in this work. Building off of a previous gas turbine model created at the Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory at SDSU, here are added the HRSG and steam turbine model, which had to handle significant change in the mass flow and temperature of air exiting the gas turbine due to varying solar input. A wide range of cases were run to explore options for maximizing both power and efficiency from the proposed CSP CCGT plant. Variable guide vanes (VGVs) were found in the earlier model to be an effective tool in providing operational flexibility to address the variable nature of solar input. Combined cycle efficiencies in the range of 50% were found to result from this plant configuration. However, a combustor inlet temperature (CIT) limit leads to two distinct Modes of operation, with a sharp drop in both plant efficiency and power occurring when the air flow through the receiver exceeded the CIT limit. This drawback can be partially addressed through strategic use of the VGVs. Since system response is fully established for the relevant range of solar input and variable guide vane angles, the System Advisor Model (SAM) from NREL can be used to find what the actual expected solar input would be over the course of the day, and plan accordingly. While the SAM software is not yet equipped to model a Brayton cycle cavity receiver, appropriate approximations were made in order to produce a suitable heliostat field to fit this system. Since the SPHER uses carbon nano-particles as the solar absorbers, questions of particle longevity and how the particles might affect the flame behavior in the combustor were addressed using the chemical kinetics software Chemkin

  2. Central solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  3. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Monthly technical progress report for the month of December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-17

    Levelized busbar energy costs for the sodium-cooled hybrid central receiver concept using both oil and coal as a fuel were developed as a function of the plant capacity factor and as a function of the solar multiple. The fuel escalation question was reviewed in detail on the basis of past historical data, and it was concluded that the lower escalation numbers that are provided in the requirements definition document appear to be more likely to represent the real situation. Subsystem-level trade studies were continued during this reporting period. A detailed investigation of the series/parallel arrangement of the sodium heater and solar receiver was conducted. The various performance, lifetime, and cost factors were determined for each arrangement for the receiver and nonsolar subsystems, respectively. Collector subsystem studies were continued. Revised cost algorithms that include levelized O and M costs for the heliostats were generated in order that they can be used in the field optimization. On the basis of the subsystem studies and the economic assessment work, a reference configuration was tentatively derived. This configuration does not require storage and uses a parallel arrangement of the receiver and the heater. At this time, a coal-fired heater seems to have a potential economic advantage under realistic assumptions for the escalation of coal relative to oil over the next decade or so.

  4. User's guide for MIRVAL: a computer code for comparing designs of heliostat-receiver optics for central receiver solar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, P L; Hankins, J D

    1979-02-01

    MIRVAL is a Monte Carlo program which simulates the heliostats and a portion of the receiver for solar energy central receiver power plants. Models for three receiver types and four kinds of heliostats are included in the code. The three receiver types modeled are an external cylinder, a cylindrical cavity with a downward-facing aperature, and a north-facing cavity. Three heliostats which track in elevation and azimuth are modeled, one of which is enclosed in a plastic dome. The fourth type consists of a rack of louvered reflective panels with the rack rotatable about a fixed horizontal axis. Phenomena whose effects are simulated are shadowing, blocking, mirror tracking, random errors in tracking and in the conformation of the reflective surface, optical figure of the reflective surface, insolation, angular distribution of incoming sun rays to account for limb darkening and scattering, attenuation of light between the mirrors and the receiver, reflectivity of the mirror surface, and mirror aiming strategy.

  5. Economic assessment of advanced central-receiver solar-thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J. T.; Boyle, R. F.; Malone, M. J.; Doar, D. W.; Parker, W. G.

    1980-10-01

    The value and potential electric utility impact of several advanced central receiver solar thermal plant concepts in the role of electric generating stations were estimated. The impact of interest included economics, the cost of producing electricity, fuels displaced, and utility system reliability. The central receiver plants evaluated included solar/fossil hybrid concepts and solar stand alone plants with thermal storage. Liquid metal/molten salt, closed Brayton cycle, improved water steam, and combined Brayton/Rankine cycle concepts were among those investigated. Detailed modeling of the operation of these plants, as they would operate on several electric utility systems, was the basis of the analysis. Analysis to optimize collector area and storage capacity was also performed. The study indicates that if the cost goals can be achieved and predicted solar plant performance attained, then the advanced solar thermal concepts can be competitive in regions with good insolation and some continued use of oil or other surrogate distillate or gaseous fuels. Some thermal storage (3 to 6 hours) was also found to be desirable for most applications.

  6. Final report on the power production phase of the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the evaluations of the power production testing of Solar One, the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Pilot Plant, a cooperative project of the US Department of Energy and utility firms led by the Southern California Edison Company, began a three year period of power production operation in August 1984. During this period, plant performance indicators, such as capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability, were studied to assess the operational capability of the Pilot Plant to reliably supply electrical power. Also studied was the long-term performance of such key plant components as the heliostats and the receiver. During the three years of power production, the Pilot Plant showed an improvement in performance. Considerable increases in capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability were achieved. Heliostat operation was reliable, and only small amounts of mirror corrosion were observed. Receiver tube leaks did occur, however, and were the main cause of the plant's unscheduled outages. The Pilot Plant provided valuable lessons which will aid in the design of future solar central receiver plants. 53 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  8. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a hybrid power system design that (1) produces minimum cost electric power, (2) minimizes the capital investment and operating cost, (3) permits capacity displacement, (4) and achieves utility acceptance for market penetration. We have met the first three of these objectives and therefore believe that the fourth, utility acceptance, will become a reality. These objectives have been met by utilizing the Martin Marietta concept that combines the alternate central receiver power system design and a high-temperature salt primary heat transfer fluid and thermal storage media system with a fossil-fired nonsolar energy source. Task 1 reviewed the requirements definition document and comments and recommendations were provided to DOE/San Francisco. Task 2 consisted of a market analysis to evaluate the potential market of solar hybrid power plants. Twenty-two utilities were selected within nine regions of the country. Both written and verbal correspondence was used to assess solar hybrid power plants with respect to the utilities' future requirements and plans. The parametric analysis of Task 3 evaluated a wide range of subsystem configurations and sizes. These analyses included subsystems from the solar standalone alternate central receiver power system using high-temperature molten salt and from fossil fuel nonsolar subsystems. Task 4, selection of the preferred commerical system configuration, utilized the parametric analyses developed in Task 3 to select system and subsystem configurations for the commercial plant design. Task 5 developed a conceptual design of the selected commercial plant configuration and assessed the related cost and performance. Task 6 assessed the economics and performance of the selected configuration as well as future potential improvements or limitations of the hybrid power plants.

  9. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  10. Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 1. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The central receiver system consists of a field of heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage unit, an electrical power generation system, and balance of plant. This volume discusses the collector field geometry, requirements and configuration. The development of the collector system and subsystems are discussed and the selection rationale outlined. System safety and availability are covered. Finally, the plans for collector portion of the central receiver system are reviewed.

  11. Performance analysis of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal power plants have attracted increasing interest in the past few years – with respect to both the design of the various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant efficiency is to use direct steam generation with water/steam as both the heat transfer fluid in the solar receivers and the cycle working fluid. This enables operating the plant with higher turbine inlet temperatures. Available literature suggests that it is feasible to use ammonia-water mixtures at high temperatures without corroding the equipment by using suitable additives with the mixture. The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate if there is any benefit of using a Kalina cycle for a direct steam generation, central receiver solar thermal power plant with high live steam temperature (450 °C) and pressure (over 100 bar). Thermodynamic performance of the Kalina cycle in terms of the plant exergy efficiency was evaluated and compared with a simple Rankine cycle. The rates of exergy destruction for the different components in the two cycles were also calculated and compared. The results suggest that the simple Rankine cycle exhibits better performance than the Kalina cycle when the heat input is only from the solar receiver. However, when using a two-tank molten-salt storage system as the primary source of heat input, the Kalina cycle showed an advantage over the simple Rankine cycle because of about 33 % reduction in the storage requirement. The solar receiver showed the highest rate of exergy destruction for both the cycles. The rates of exergy destruction in other components of the cycles were found to be highly dependent on the amount of recuperation, and the ammonia mass fraction and pressure at the turbine inlet. - Highlights: •Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation. •Rankine cycle shows better plant exergy

  12. Heat exchanger modelling in central receiver solar power plant using dense particle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Gómez-García, Fabrisio; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel; Benoit, Hadrien; Flamant, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a detailed thermodynamic model for a heat exchanger (HX) working with a dense particle suspension (DPS) as heat transfer fluid (HTF) in the solar loop and water-steam as working fluid is presented. HX modelling is based on fluidized bed (FB) technology and its design has been conceived to couple solar plant using DPS as HTF and storage media with Rankine cycle for power generation. Using DPS as heat transfer fluid allows extending operating temperature range what will help to reduce thermal energy storage costs favoring higher energy densities but will also allow running power cycle at higher temperature what will increase its efficiency. Besides HX modelling description, this model will be used to reproduce solar plant performance under steady state and transient conditions.

  13. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, P.K.

    1986-12-01

    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  14. Central solar-energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  15. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  16. Performance analysis of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal power plants have attracted increasing interest in the past few years - with respect to both the design of the various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant efficiency is to use...... that the simple Rankine cycle exhibits better performance than the Kalina cycle when the heat input is only from the solar receiver. However, when using a two-tank molten-salt storage system as the primary source of heat input, the Kalina cycle showed an advantage over the simple Rankine cycle because of about 33...... % reduction in the storage requirement. The solar receiver showed the highest rate of exergy destruction for both the cycles. The rates of exergy destruction in other components of the cycles were found to be highly dependent on the amount of recuperation, and the ammonia mass fraction and pressure...

  17. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 2, Book 1. Commercial plant conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The conceptual design of the 100-MW solar tower focus commercial power plant is described in detail. Sodium is pumped up to the top of a tall tower where the receiver is located. The sodium is heated in the receiver and then flows down the tower, through a pressure reducing device, and thence into a large, hot storage tank which is located at ground level and whose size is made to meet a specific thermal energy storage capacity requirement. From this tank, the sodium is pumped by a separate pump, through a system of sodium-to-water steam generators. The steam generator system consists of a separate superheater and reheater operating in parallel and an evaporator unit operating in series with the other two units. The sodium flowing from the evaporator unit is piped to a cold storage tank. From the cold storage tank, sodium is then pumped up to the tip of the tower to complete the cycle. The steam generated in the steam generators is fed to a conventional off-the-shelf, high-efficiency turbine. The steam loop operates in a conventional rankine cycle with the steam generators serving the same purpose as a conventional boiler and water being fed to the evaporator with conventional feedwater pumps. The pressure reducing device (a standard drag valve, for example) serves to mitigate the pressure caused by the static head of sodium and thus allows the large tanks to operate at ambient pressure conditions. (WHK)

  18. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  19. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. Annual progress report (final) for period ending September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-01

    The program activities since the beginning of the program in July of 1975 through September of 1976 are summarized. The primary efforts during the first portion of this period were the preparation of the Pilot Plant Preliminary Design Baseline, and the Conceptual Design of the three subsystem research experiments. The Preliminary Design Baseline for the Pilot Plant was developed from the commercial plant conceptual design that had been defined prior to the start of this program. It definitized each of the basic Pilot Plant Subsystems and provided the basis for development of the conceptual designs of the research experiments. For each of the solar peculiar subsystems, the Collector Subsystem, the Receiver Subsystem and the Thermal Storage Subsystem, a subsystem research experiment was planned. The Conceptual Design of each of these experiments was prepared and reviewed with ERDA and Sandia in order to obtain authorization for the design, build and test of these experiments. In the Collector Subsystem experiment the design was completed, the four experimental heliostats have been fabricated and erected. Initial calorimeter and radiometer data have been obtained and have demonstrated good correlation with the projected performance. The 5 megawatt thermal experiment receiver has been fabricated by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation and is now completing erection at the Radiant Heat Test Facility at Sandia in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This testing is scheduled for the period from December 1976 through February 1977. The Thermal Storage Research Experiment fabrication and erection is nearing completion by Georgia Institute of Technology. Checkout of this experiment is scheduled for the first of December 1976 with the test program to be complete by the end of January 1977.

  20. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  1. Review and Future Perspective of Central Receiver Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-27

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology provides a commercial solar option to the utility-scale electricity market. CSP is unique in its ability to include low-cost thermal storage; thus, it can generate electricity when the sun is not available and dispatch electricity to meet varying load requirements. Within the suite of CSP technologies, the central receiver design represents the state-of-the-art technology, promising low cost, high performance, and dispatchable energy production. Current total capacity of central receiver plants worldwide is about 1.0 gigawatt (electric) with operating plants in Spain and the United States, as well as projects under construction in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Central receiver technology has been under development since the 1950s, and a variety of central receiver designs have been explored. A distinguishing feature is the heat transfer medium. Central receiver designs exist that use dense fluids, gases, and solid particles in this role. Water/steam and molten salt receivers have been adopted in current commercial plants and are often coupled with a steam-Rankine power cycle with an operating temperature of less than 600 degrees C. Many new central receiver concepts, such as the volumetric air, supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), solid particle, and liquid-metal receiver designs, are under active research and development (R&D). New designs target operating temperatures generally higher than 700 degrees C-800 degrees C -- and even above 1000 degrees C -- so that higher-performance power cycles such as the sCO2-Brayton cycle or air-Brayton/steam-Rankine combined cycle can be used to promote greater overall system efficiency. Central receiver thermal storage provides dispatchability unavailable from variable-output renewables such as solar photovoltaic and wind power. Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can

  2. Review and future perspective of central receiver design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology provides a commercial solar option to the utility-scale electricity market. CSP is unique in its ability to include low-cost thermal storage; thus, it can generate electricity when the sun is not available and dispatch electricity to meet varying load requirements. Within the suite of CSP technologies, the central receiver design represents the state-of-the-art technology, promising low cost, high performance, and dispatchable energy production. Current total capacity of central receiver plants worldwide is about 1.0 gigawatt (electric) with operating plants in Spain and the United States, as well as projects under construction in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Central receiver technology has been under development since the 1950s, and a variety of central receiver designs have been explored. A distinguishing feature is the heat transfer medium. Central receiver designs exist that use dense fluids, gases, and solid particles in this role. Water/steam and molten salt receivers have been adopted in current commercial plants and are often coupled with a steam-Rankine power cycle with an operating temperature of less than 600°C. Many new central receiver concepts, such as the volumetric air, supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2), solid particle, and liquid-metal receiver designs, are under active research and development (R&D). New designs target operating temperatures generally higher than 700°C-800°C—and even above 1000°C—so that higher-performance power cycles such as the sCO2-Brayton cycle or air-Brayton/steam-Rankine combined cycle can be used to promote greater overall system efficiency. Central receiver thermal storage provides dispatchability unavailable from variable-output renewables such as solar photovoltaic and wind power. Case study analysis of the California grid shows that there is a limit on the amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation that the grid can accommodate, beyond which

  3. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  4. Evaluation of second-generation central receiver technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, G.L.; Chavez, J.M.; Klimas, P.; Meinecke, W.; Becker, M.; Kiera, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study performed by the US and Germany to assess the technical and economic potential of central receiver power plants and to identify the necessary research and development (R ampersand D) activities required to reach demonstration and commercialization. Second generation power plant designs, employing molten-salt and volumetric-air receivers, were assessed at the size of 30 and 100 MWe. The study developed a common guideline and used data from previous system tests and studies. The levelized-energy costs for the second generation plants were estimated and found to be competitive with costs from fossil-fueled power plants. Potential for further cost reductions exists if technical improvements can be introduced successfully in the long term. Additionally, the study presents results of plant reliability and uncertainty analyses. Mid- and long-term technical potentials are described, as well as recommendations for the R ampersand D activities needed to reach the goal of large-scale commercialization. The results of this study have already helped direct research in the US and Europe. For example, the favorable potential for these technologies has led to the Solar Two molten-salt project in the US and the TSA volumetric receiver test in Spain. In addition, early analysis conducted within this study indicated that an advanced thermal storage medium was necessary to achieve favorable economics for the air plant. This led to the design of the thermal storage system currently being tested in Spain. In summary, each of the investigated receiver technologies has mid- and long-term potential for improving plant performance and reducing capital and energy costs (resulting in less than 10 cts/kWh given excellent insolation conditions) in an environmentally safe way and largely independent of fossil-fuel prices

  5. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    An overview of a study to retrofit the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant with Solar Central Receiver Technology is presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system will displace natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber.

  6. Advanced Thermal Storage for Central Receivers with Supercritical Coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Bruce D.

    2010-06-15

    The principal objective of the study is to determine if supercritical heat transport fluids in a central receiver power plant, in combination with ceramic thermocline storage systems, offer a reduction in levelized energy cost over a baseline nitrate salt concept. The baseline concept uses a nitrate salt receiver, two-tank (hot and cold) nitrate salt thermal storage, and a subcritical Rankine cycle. A total of 6 plant designs were analyzed, as follows: Plant Designation Receiver Fluid Thermal Storage Rankine Cycle Subcritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Subcritical Supercritical nitrate salt Nitrate salt Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical Low temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature H2O Supercritical H2O Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Low temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Two tank nitrate salt Supercritical High temperature CO2 Supercritical CO2 Packed bed thermocline Supercritical Several conclusions have been drawn from the results of the study, as follows: 1) The use of supercritical H2O as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is likely not a practical approach. The specific heat of the fluid is a strong function of the temperatures at values near 400 °C, and the temperature profile in the bed during a charging cycle is markedly different than the profile during a discharging cycle. 2) The use of supercritical CO2 as the heat transport fluid in a packed bed thermocline is judged to be technically feasible. Nonetheless, the high operating pressures for the supercritical fluid require the use of pressure vessels to contain the storage inventory. The unit cost of the two-tank nitrate salt system is approximately $24/kWht, while the unit cost of the high pressure thermocline system is nominally 10 times as high. 3) For the supercritical fluids, the outer crown temperatures of the receiver tubes are in the range of 700 to 800 °C. At temperatures of 700 °C and above

  7. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  8. Solids-based concentrated solar power receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-04-10

    A concentrated solar power (CSP) system includes channels arranged to convey a flowing solids medium descending under gravity. The channels form a light-absorbing surface configured to absorb solar flux from a heliostat field. The channels may be independently supported, for example by suspension, and gaps between the channels are sized to accommodate thermal expansion. The light absorbing surface may be sloped so that the inside surfaces of the channels proximate to the light absorbing surface define downward-slanting channel floors, and the flowing solids medium flows along these floors. Baffles may be disposed inside the channels and oriented across the direction of descent of the flowing solids medium. The channels may include wedge-shaped walls forming the light-absorbing surface and defining multiple-reflection light paths for solar flux from the heliostat field incident on the light-absorbing surface.

  9. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Details of the conceptual design, economic analysis, and development plan for a solar central receiver system for retrofitting the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant are presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system displaces natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber. The solar reformer retrofit system characteristics and its interface with the existing plant are simple, incorporating state of the art components with proven technology. A northfield composed of one thousand forty second generation heliostats provides solar energy to the receiver which is positioned on top of a 90 meter high steel tower. The overall economics of this system can provide over 20% discount cash flow rate of return with proper investment and market conditions.

  10. Central Andean crustal structure from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jamie; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Wagner, Lara; Minaya, Estela; Tavera, Hernado

    2016-07-01

    The Central Andean Plateau (15°-27°S) is a high plateau in excess of 3 km elevation, associated with thickened crust along the western edge of the South America plate, in the convergent margin between the subducting Nazca plate and the Brazilian craton. We have calculated receiver functions using seismic data from a recent portable deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-21°S) region and combined them with waveforms from 38 other stations in the region to investigate crustal thickness and crust and mantle structures. Results from the receiver functions provide a more detailed map of crustal thickness than previously existed, and highlight mid-crustal features that match well with prior studies. The active volcanic arc and Altiplano have thick crust with Moho depths increasing from the central Altiplano (65 km) to the northern Altiplano (75 km). The Eastern Cordillera shows large along strike variations in crustal thickness. Along a densely sampled SW-NE profile through the Bolivian orocline there is a small region of thin crust beneath the high peaks of the Cordillera Real where the average elevations are near 4 km, and the Moho depth varies from 55 to 60 km, implying the crust is undercompensated by 5 km. In comparison, a broader region of high elevations in the Eastern Cordillera to the southeast near 20°S has a deeper Moho at 65-70 km and appears close to isostatic equilibrium at the Moho. Assuming the modern-day pattern of high precipitation on the flanks of the Andean plateau has existed since the late Miocene, we suggest that climate induced exhumation can explain some of the variations in present day crustal structure across the Bolivian orocline. We also suggest that south of the orocline at 20°S, the thicker and isostatically compensated crust is due to the absence of erosional exhumation and the occurrence of lithospheric delamination.

  11. Solar Central Receiver Prototype Heliostat. Volume II. Phase II planning (preliminary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A currently planned DOE program will develop and construct a 10 MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant to demonstrate the feasibility and operational characteristics of Solar Central Receiver Power Generation. The field of heliostats is a major element of the Solar Central Receiver Power Generation system. The primary objective of the program described is to establish and verify the manufacturability, performance, durability, and maintenance requirements of the commercial plant heliostat design. End products of the 16 month effort include: (1) design, fabrication, and test of heliostats; (2) preliminary designs of manufacturing, assembly, installation, and maintenance processes for quantity production; (3) detailed design of critical tooling or other special equipment for such processes; (4) refined cost estimates for heliostats and maintenance; and (5) an updated commercial plant heliostat preliminary design. The program management and control system is discussed. (WHK)

  12. ASTRID© - Advanced Solar Tubular ReceIver Design: A powerful tool for receiver design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas; Uhlig, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    In solar tower power plants the receiver is one of the critical components. It converts the solar radiation into heat and must withstand high heat flux densities and high daily or even hourly gradients (due to passage of clouds). For this reason, the challenge during receiver design is to find a reasonable compromise between receiver efficiency, reliability, lifetime and cost. There is a strong interaction between the heliostat field, the receiver and the heat transfer fluid. Therefore, a proper receiver design needs to consider these components within the receiver optimization. There are several design and optimization tools for receivers, but most of them focus only on the receiver, ignoring the heliostat field and other parts of the plant. During the last years DLR developed the ASTRIDcode for tubular receiver concept simulation. The code comprises both a high and a low-detail model. The low-detail model utilizes a number of simplifications which allow the user to screen a high number of receiver concepts for optimization purposes. The high-detail model uses a FE model and is able to compute local absorber and salt temperatures with high accuracy. One key strength of the ASTRIDcode is its interface to a ray tracing software which simulates a realistic heat flux distributions on the receiver surface. The results generated by the ASTRIDcode have been validated by CFD simulations and measurement data.

  13. Wake-up receiver based ultra-low-power WBAN

    CERN Document Server

    Lont, Maarten; Roermund, Arthur van

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the cross-layer design and optimization of wake-up receivers for wireless body area networks (WBAN), with an emphasis on low-power circuit design. This includes the analysis of medium access control (MAC) protocols, mixer-first receiver design, and implications of receiver impairments on wideband frequency-shift-keying (FSK) receivers. Readers will learn how the overall power consumption is reduced by exploiting the characteristics of body area networks. Theoretical models presented are validated with two different receiver implementations, in 90nm and 40nm CMOS technology.   • Provides an overview of wireless body area network design from the network layer to the circuit implementation, and an overview of the cross-layer design trade-offs; • Discusses design at both the network or MAC-layer and circuit-level, with an emphasis on circuit design; • Covers the design of low-power frequency shift keying (FSK) wake-up-receivers; • Validates theory presented with two different recei...

  14. High temperature helical tubular receiver for concentrating solar power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In the field of conventional cleaner power generation technology, concentrating solar power systems have introduced remarkable opportunity. In a solar power tower, solar energy concentrated by the heliostats at a single point produces very high temperature. Falling solid particles or heat transfer fluid passing through that high temperature region absorbs heat to generate electricity. Increasing the residence time will result in more heat gain and increase efficiency. A novel design of solar receiver for both fluid and solid particle is approached in this paper which can increase residence time resulting in higher temperature gain in one cycle compared to conventional receivers. The helical tubular solar receiver placed at the focused sunlight region meets the higher outlet temperature and efficiency. A vertical tubular receiver is modeled and analyzed for single phase flow with molten salt as heat transfer fluid and alloy625 as heat transfer material. The result is compared to a journal paper of similar numerical and experimental setup for validating our modeling. New types of helical tubular solar receivers are modeled and analyzed with heat transfer fluid turbulent flow in single phase, and granular particle and air plug flow in multiphase to observe the temperature rise in one cyclic operation. The Discrete Ordinate radiation model is used for numerical analysis with simulation software Ansys Fluent 15.0. The Eulerian granular multiphase model is used for multiphase flow. Applying the same modeling parameters and boundary conditions, the results of vertical and helical receivers are compared. With a helical receiver, higher temperature gain of heat transfer fluid is achieved in one cycle for both single phase and multiphase flow compared to the vertical receiver. Performance is also observed by varying dimension of helical receiver.

  15. Power Consumption Models for Decimation FIR Filters in Multistandard Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Grati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decimation filters are widely used in communication-embedded systems. In fact, decimation filters are useful for implementing channel filtering or selection with low-computation complexity requirements. Many multistandard receiver designs that are required in ubiquitous embedded systems are based on a cascade of decimation filter processing. Filter number and implementation architectures have a significant impact on system performances, such as computation complexity, area, throughput, and power consumption. In this work, we present filter power consumption estimation models for FIR filters. Power consumption models were obtained from a large number of FIR filter syntheses using a direct form. Several curves that estimate power consumption were extracted from these synthesis results. Then, we have evaluated the impact of polyphase decomposition on power consumption of FIR filter and compared it with the direct form results. Some tips regarding power consumption were deduced for the polyphase implementation form. The aim of this work is to help a system designer to select an efficient implementation for FIR in terms of power consumption without having to implement and synthesize the different possible solutions. The proposed method is applied for STMicroelectronics libraries 90 nm and 65 nm low power then validated with a use case of multistandard receiver designing.

  16. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system....

  17. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger

    1990-01-01

    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  18. Heliostat field aiming strategies for solar central receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez González, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor La presente tesis está dedicada al desarrollo de modelos ópticos aplicados a la tecnología de central solar tipo torre. Más concretamente, este trabajo se centra en el modelado de mapas de flujo y estrategias de apuntamiento para sistemas de receptor central. Los códigos resultantes son de utilidad en las fases de diseño y operación de centrales solares de torre. Esta memoria fundamentalmente presenta cuatro modelos computacionales. ...

  19. Solar central receiver prototype heliostat CDRL item B. d. Final technical report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, C. R.

    1978-08-01

    This is volume II of a two volume report which presents the results of a study to define a low-cost approach to the production, installation, and operation of heliostats for central receiver solar thermal power plants. Performance and cost analyses are presented, and critical R and D areas are identified. Also, computer printed work sheets are included for heliostat investment, maintenance equipment investment, initial spares investment, and first years operations and maintenance for 2,500, 25,000, 250,000, and 1,000,000 units per year production. (WHK)

  20. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis were conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  1. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  2. Monte-Carlo RAY tracing simulation of a falling particle receiver in connection with a central receiver field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alxneit, I. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The program RAY was developed to perform Monte-Carlo simulations of the flux distribution in solar reactors in connection with an arbitrary heliostat field. The code accounts for the shading of the incoming rays from the sun due to the reactor supporting tower as well as for full blocking and shading of the heliostats among themselves. A simplified falling particle reactor (FPR) was evaluated. A central receiver field was used with a total area of 311 m{sup 2} composed of 176 round, focusing heliostats. No attempt was undertaken to optimise either the geometry of the heliostat field nor the aiming strategy of the heliostats. The FPR was evaluated at two different geographic latitudes (-8.23W/47.542N; PSI and -8.23W/20.0N) and during the course of a day (May 30{sup th}). The incident power passing through the reactor aperture and the flux density distribution within the FPR was calculated. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  3. A low-power CMOS frequency synthesizer for GPS receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunfeng; Xiao Shimao; Zhuang Haixiao; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun; Yue Jianlian

    2010-01-01

    A low-power frequency synthesizer for GPS/Galileo L1/E1 band receivers implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process is introduced. By adding clock-controlled transistors at latch outputs to reduce the time constant at sensing time, the working frequency of the high-speed source-coupled logic prescaler supplying quadrature local oscillator signals has been increased, compared with traditional prescalers. Measurement results show that this synthesizer achieves an in-band phase noise of -87 dBc/Hz at 15 kHz offset, with spurs less than -65 dBc. The whole synthesizer consumes 6 mA in the case of a 1.8 V supply, and its core area is 0.6 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Active Power Dispatch Method for a Wind Farm Central Controller Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Su, Chi; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing integration of the wind power into the power system, wind farm are required to be controlled as a single unit and have all the same control tasks as conventional power plants. The wind farm central controller receives control orders from Transmission System Operator (TSO), the...

  5. Central Asian gas in Eurasian power game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobanli, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, various gas pipeline projects have been proposed to diversify transit routes and export markets of the landlocked Central Asian states. To evaluate the pipeline project's impact on the players' bargaining power, I apply the cooperate game theory to a quantitative model of the Eurasian gas trade and quantify the bargaining power structure via the Shapley value. Due to ample production capacities in Central Asia, I observe little strategic interaction between the West and China. Thus, demand competition with China is not necessarily a disadvantage for the West, and the Turkmenistan–China pipeline does not affect the impact of the westbound projects aiming Europe and Turkey. For Turkmenistan, i.e., the main supplier in the region, a link via the Caspian Sea to Turkey is the most beneficial westbound option. Although the projects carrying gas from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan to Europe enjoy the European Commission's political support, they yield marginal benefits to the European consumers. Thanks to its transit position, Turkey collects a large share of the benefits in the East–West gas trade. - Highlights: • The Eurasian gas trade is represented as a cooperative game which is solved with the Shapley value. • There is no demand competition between the West and China for Central Asian gas. • For Turkmenistan the route via the Caspian Sea is the most beneficial westbound pipeline option. • Turkey emerges as a transit country and collects a large share of the benefits from the East–West gas trade. • A link to Europe yields marginal benefits to Turkmenistan and Europe

  6. Nuclear Power in South-Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    The region of South-Central Brazil includes the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara and Minas Gerais. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in 1962 was 2.16 GW (average generation), with an installed capacity of 3.41 GW and annual mean load factor of 63.4; an increase in power requirements for 1970 was forecast, corresponding to an average output of 5.37 GW and an installed capacity of 8.3 GW. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of 11.9% in generation. ''The energy requirements have grown at an average annual rate of 10.9% since 1955; however, the present forecast is based on the assumption of power being available as required, and hence includes the suppressed demand resulting from existing restrictions in generating and distribution capacity''

  7. Solar power generation by use of Stirling engine and heat loss analysis of its cavity receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tassawar

    Since concentrated power generation by Stirling engine has the highest efficiency therefore efficient power generation by concentrated systems using a Stirling engine was a primary motive of this research. A 1 kW Stirling engine was used to generate solar power using a Fresnel lens as a concentrator. Before operating On-Sun test, engine's performance test was conducted by combustion test. Propane gas with air was used to provide input heat to the Stirling Engine and 350W power was generated with 14% efficiency of the engine. Two kinds of receivers were used for On-Sun test, first type was the Inconel tubes with trapped helium gas and the second one was the heat pipe. Heat pipe with sodium as a working fluid is considered the best approach to transfer the uniform heat from the receiver to the helium gas in the heater head of the engine. A Number of On-Sun experiments were performed to generate the power. A minimum 1kW input power was required to generate power from the Stirling engine but it was concluded that the available Fresnel lens was not enough to provide sufficient input to the Stirling engine and hence engine was lagged to generate the solar power. Later on, for a high energy input a Beam Down system was also used to concentrate the solar light on the heater head of the Stirling engine. Beam down solar system in Masdar City UAE, constructed in 2009 is a variation of central receiver plant with cassegrainian optics. Around 1.5kW heat input was achieved from the Beam Down System and it was predicted that the engine receiver at beam down has the significant heat losses of about 900W. These high heat losses were the major hurdles to get the operating temperature (973K) of the heat pipes; hence power could not be generated even during the Beam Down test. Experiments were also performed to find the most suitable Cavity Receiver configuration for maximum solar radiation utilizations by engine receiver. Dimensionless parameter aperture ration (AR=d/D) and aperture

  8. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  9. Line focus solar thermal central receiver research study. Final report, April 30, 1977-March 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Canio, D.G.; Treytl, W.J.; Jur, F.A.; Watson, C.D.

    1979-04-01

    The results of a study to examine the line focus central receiver alternative for solar thermal generation of electric power on a commercial scale are presented. The baseline concept consists of the following elements: (1) a solar collector (heliostat) whose geometry is the equivalent of a focused parabolic cylinder. The heliostat reflecting surface is composed of an array of flexible rectangular mirror panels supported along their long edges by a framework which rotates about an axis parallel to the ground plane. The mirror panels in one section (18.3 meters by 3.05 meters (60 feet by 10 feet)) are defocused in unison by a simple mechanism under computer control to achieve the required curvature. Two sections (110 meters/sup 2/(591 feet/sup 2/)) are controlled and driven in elevation by one control/drive unit. (2) A linear cavity receiver, composed of 61-meter (200-foot) sections supported by towers at an elevation of 61 meters (200 feet). Each section receives feedwater and produces turbine-rated steam. The cavity is an open cylinder 1.83 meters (6 feet) in inside diameter, with a 1.22 meter (4 foot) aperture oriented at 45 degrees to the collector field. (3) Heliostat control, consisting of a local controller at each heliostat module which communicates with a master control computer to perform elevation tracking and focal length adjustment. The control logic is open-loop, with sun position computer by the master computer with an algorithm. Image sensors, mounted above and below the receiver aperture, are used to monitor the collector field and provide feedback to the master computer for detection of misaligned heliostats. (WHK)

  10. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng; Velazquez-Vargas, Luis G; Maryamchik, Mikhail

    2016-10-04

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vessel connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.

  11. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II, Book 2. Central receiver optical model users manual. CDRL item 2. [HELIAKI code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    HELIAKI is a FORTRAN computer program which simulates the optical/thermal performance of a central receiver solar thermal power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar-generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant which this program simulates consists of a field of individual sun tracking mirror units, or heliostats, redirecting sunlight into a cavity, called the receiver, mounted atop a tower. The program calculates the power retained by that cavity receiver at any point in time or the energy into the receiver over a year's time using a Monte Carlo ray trace technique to solve the multiple integral equations. An artist's concept of this plant is shown.

  12. 47 CFR 15.111 - Antenna power conduction limits for receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna power conduction limits for receivers... DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.111 Antenna power conduction limits for receivers. (a) In addition to... CB receivers that provide terminals for the connection of an external receiving antenna may be tested...

  13. Exergy and Thermoeconomic Analyses of Central Receiver Concentrated Solar Plants Using Air as Heat Transfer Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Toro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The latest developments in solar technologies demonstrated that the solar central receiver configuration is the most promising application among concentrated solar power (CSP plants. In CSPs solar-heated air can be used as the working fluid in a Brayton thermal cycle and as the heat transfer fluid for a Rankine thermal cycle as an alternative to more traditional working fluids thereby reducing maintenance operations and providing the power section with a higher degree of flexibility To supply thermal needs when the solar source is unavailable, an auxiliary burner is requested. This configuration is adopted in the Julich CSP (J-CSP plant, operating in Germany and characterized by a nominal power of 1.5 MW, the heat transfer fluid (HTF is air which is heated in the solar tower and used to produce steam for the bottoming Rankine cycle. In this paper, the J-CSP plant with thermal energy storage has been compared with a hybrid CSP plant (H-CSP using air as the working fluid. Thermodynamic and economic performances of all the simulated plants have been evaluated by applying both exergy analysis and thermoeconomic analysis (TA to determine the yearly average operation at nominal conditions. The exergy destructions and structure as well as the exergoeconomic costs of products have been derived for all the components of the plants. Based on the obtained results, the thermoeconomic design evaluation and optimization of the plants has been performed, allowing for improvement of the thermodynamic and economic efficiency of the systems as well as decreasing the exergy and exergoeconomic cost of their products.

  14. Recommended revised sections to line focus solar central power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-18

    The design requirements, subsystem characteristics, environmental requirements, and cost and performance evaluation techniques are defined for the Line Focus Solar Central Power Systems. Specific passages revised are enumerated. (LEW)

  15. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar Central Receiver Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-01-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPSCRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. The geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the incident power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems has been useful to define a new, simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. AU these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs

  16. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  17. Soft Power in Central Asia: Actors and Its Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article considers theoretical aspects of soft power concept and its use by various actors in Central Asia. It is noted that scholars as well as practitioners are paying insufficient attention to such key concepts position J. Nye, as an attraction. As a result the efficiency of the use of soft power is significantly reduced. It also shows that the attractiveness is not a universal characteristic. For this reason, attractiveness and hence soft power of different actors are different and aimed at different segments of the population. These differences lead to competition of actors, but they do not reduce interaction in the region to zero-sum game. Specific forms and directions of the soft power of Russia, the U.S., the EU and China in Central Asia are discussed. The article emphasizes that the Central Asian states are not just recipients of soft power of external actors, but also themselves form behavioral strategies that are attractive to others.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the Central Basin aquifer system in Tennessee for receiving injected wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    An aquifer may be allowed to receive injected wastes where the aquifer meets criteria established in the Environmental Protection Agency 's Underground Injection Control program. The Central Basin aquifer system in Tennessee consists of Ordovician to Devonian carbonate rocks and it occurs from the Valley and Ridge province to west of the Tennessee River. This aquifer system is currently used for drinking water in the Central Basin and western Highland Rim, but is not used for drinking water in the northern Highland Rim nor the Cumberland Plateau provinces. Part of the northern Highland Rim and the Cumberland Plateau, according to the Environmental Protection Agency 's Underground Injection Control criteria, will not be used as a source of drinking water in the future and may be eligible to receive injected wastes. (USGS)

  19. User's manual for DELSOL2: a computer code for calculating the optical performance and optimal system design for solar-thermal central-receiver plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellin, T.A.; Fish, M.J.; Yang, C.L.

    1981-08-01

    DELSOL2 is a revised and substantially extended version of the DELSOL computer program for calculating collector field performance and layout, and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants. The code consists of a detailed model of the optical performance, a simpler model of the non-optical performance, an algorithm for field layout, and a searching algorithm to find the best system design. The latter two features are coupled to a cost model of central receiver components and an economic model for calculating energy costs. The code can handle flat, focused and/or canted heliostats, and external cylindrical, multi-aperture cavity, and flat plate receivers. The program optimizes the tower height, receiver size, field layout, heliostat spacings, and tower position at user specified power levels subject to flux limits on the receiver and land constraints for field layout. The advantages of speed and accuracy characteristic of Version I are maintained in DELSOL2.

  20. 75 FR 14436 - Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois Public Service Company, Ameren Energy Resources Company, LLC, AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company; Notice of Filing March 18, 2010. Take notice that on March 15, 2010, Ameren Corporation...

  1. Optimal Analytical Solution for a Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer System with One Transmitter and Two Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Minnaert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer from one transmitter to multiple receivers through inductive coupling is slowly entering the market. However, for certain applications, capacitive wireless power transfer (CWPT using electric coupling might be preferable. In this work, we determine closed-form expressions for a CWPT system with one transmitter and two receivers. We determine the optimal solution for two design requirements: (i maximum power transfer, and (ii maximum system efficiency. We derive the optimal loads and provide the analytical expressions for the efficiency and power. We show that the optimal load conductances for the maximum power configuration are always larger than for the maximum efficiency configuration. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that if the receivers are coupled, this can be compensated for by introducing susceptances that have the same value for both configurations. Finally, we numerically verify our results. We illustrate the similarities to the inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT solution and find that the same, but dual, expressions apply.

  2. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna

    2016-07-25

    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  3. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  4. Laser Power Transmission Employing a Dual-Use Photovoltaic Concentrator at the Receiving End, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a wireless laser power transmission system employing a dual-use photovoltaic concentrator at the receiving end. Specifically, the laser...

  5. Laser Power Transmission Employing a Dual-Use Photovoltaic Concentrator at the Receiving End, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a wireless laser power transmission system employing a dual-use photovoltaic concentrator at the receiving end. Specifically, the laser...

  6. Optical analysis of deviations in a concentrating photovoltaics central receiver system with a flux homogenizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmers, Henning; Thor, Wei Yi; Schmidt, Thomas; van Rooyen, De Wet; Bett, Andreas W

    2013-05-01

    The application of a kaleidoscope as a flux homogenizer to a concentrating photovoltaics system with a central receiver is investigated. The optical setup of a primary dish-type concentrator, a secondary homogenizer optics, and a photovoltaic receiver is simulated using ray tracing. The influence of various deviations from the ideal-namely sunshape (circumsolar radiation), shading, tracking error, and shape of the primary optical concentrator-on the performance of the homogenizer is analyzed quantitatively using the optical efficiency and the normalized standard deviation as a measure of inhomogeneity. Flux distributions for different progressively increasing deviations are discussed qualitatively. Experimental validation of the simulation is presented. It is demonstrated that the performance of the homogenizer is not particularly sensitive to sunshape. If sufficient length is provided, the homogenizer effectively compensates for tracking error, misalignment, and shape deviations of the primary concentrator. Yet despite the presence of the homogenizer, shading due to the holder of the receiver significantly affects the flux distribution at the receiver.

  7. Ultra-low power high precision magnetotelluric receiver array based customized computer and wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Xi, X.; Zhao, X.; He, L.; Yao, H.; Shen, R.

    2016-12-01

    Dense 3D magnetotelluric (MT) data acquisition owns the benefit of suppressing the static shift and topography effect, can achieve high precision and high resolution inversion for underground structure. This method may play an important role in mineral exploration, geothermal resources exploration, and hydrocarbon exploration. It's necessary to reduce the power consumption greatly of a MT signal receiver for large-scale 3D MT data acquisition while using sensor network to monitor data quality of deployed MT receivers. We adopted a series of technologies to realized above goal. At first, we designed an low-power embedded computer which can couple with other parts of MT receiver tightly and support wireless sensor network. The power consumption of our embedded computer is less than 1 watt. Then we designed 4-channel data acquisition subsystem which supports 24-bit analog-digital conversion, GPS synchronization, and real-time digital signal processing. Furthermore, we developed the power supply and power management subsystem for MT receiver. At last, a series of software, which support data acquisition, calibration, wireless sensor network, and testing, were developed. The software which runs on personal computer can monitor and control over 100 MT receivers on the field for data acquisition and quality control. The total power consumption of the receiver is about 2 watts at full operation. The standby power consumption is less than 0.1 watt. Our testing showed that the MT receiver can acquire good quality data at ground with electrical dipole length as 3 m. Over 100 MT receivers were made and used for large-scale geothermal exploration in China with great success.

  8. Comparison of Square and Radial Geometries for High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Fast, Brian R.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.; Jalics, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to further advance a realizable form of wireless power transmission (WPT), high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) has been developed for both space and terrestrial applications. Unique optical-to-electrical receivers are employed with near infrared (IR-A) continuous-wave (CW) semiconductor lasers to experimentally investigate the HILPB system. In this paper, parasitic feedback, uneven illumination and the implications of receiver array geometries are considered and experimental hardware results for HILPB are presented. The TEM00 Gaussian energy profile of the laser beam presents a challenge to the effectiveness of the receiver to perform efficient photoelectric conversion, due to the resulting non-uniform illumination of the photovoltaic cell arrays. In this investigation, the geometry of the receiver is considered as a technique to tailor the receiver design to accommodate the Gaussian beam profile, and in doing so it is demonstrated that such a methodology is successful in generating bulk receiver output power levels reaching 25 W from 7.2 sq cm of photovoltaic cells. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers to achieve a 1.0 sq m receiver capable of generating over 30 kW of electrical power. This type of system would enable long range optical "refueling" of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion. In addition, a smaller HILPB receiver aperture size could be utilized to establish a robust optical communications link within environments containing high levels of background radiance, to achieve high signal to noise ratios.

  9. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification

  10. Structure of Lithospheric and Upper Mantle Discontinuities beneath Central Mongolia from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Meltzer, A.; Fischer, K. M.; Stachnik, J. C.; Munkhuu, U.; Tsagaan, B.; Russo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The origin and preservation of high-elevation low-relief surfaces in continental interiors remains an open questions. Central Mongolia constitutes a major portion of the Mongolian Plateau and is an excellent place to link deep earth and surface processes. The lithosphere of Mongolia was constructed through accretionary orogenesis associated with the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) from the late Paleozoic to the early Triassic. Alkaline volcanic basalt derived from sublithospheric sources has erupted sporadically in Mongolia since 30 Ma. Constraining the depth variation of lithospheric and upper mantle discontinuities is crucial for understanding the interaction between upper mantle structure and surface topography. We conducted receiver functions (RF) analyses suitable data recorded at112 seismic broadband stations in central Mongolia to image the LAB and mantle transition zone beneath Central Mongolia. A modified H-κ stacking was performed to determine crustal average thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ). Central Mongolia is characterized by thick crust (43-57 km) enabling use of both P wave RF and to S wave RF to image the LAB. The PRF traces in the depth domain are stacked based on piercing point locations for the 410 and 660 discontinuities using 0.6 ° × 0.6 ° bins in a grid. From south to north, the average lithospheric thickness is 85km in Gobi Altai gradually thinning northeastward to 78km in the southern Hangay Dome, 72 km in the northern Hangay Dome then increases to 75km in Hovsgol area. While there is overall thinning of the lithosphere from SW to NE, beneath the Hangay, there is a slight increase beneath the highest topography. The thickness of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath central Mongolia is similar to global averages. This evidence argues against the hypothesis that a mantle plume exists beneath Central Mongolia causing low velocity anomalies in the upper mantle. To the east of the Hovsgol area in northern Mongolia, the MTZ thickens

  11. Agile Blocker and Clock Jitter Tolerant Low-Power Frequency Selective Receiver with Energy Harvesting Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abul; Helaoui, Mohamed; Ghannouchi, Fadhel M

    2017-08-29

    In this article, a novel tunable, blocker and clock jitter tolerant, low power, quadrature phase shift frequency selective (QPS-FS) receiver with energy harvesting capability is proposed. The receiver's design embraces and integrates (i) the baseband to radio frequency (RF) impedance translation concept to improve selectivity over that of conventional homodyne receiver topologies and (ii) broadband quadrature phase shift circuitry in the RF path to remove an active multi-phase clock generation circuit in passive mixer (PM) receivers. The use of a single local oscillator clock signal with a passive clock division network improves the receiver's robustness against clock jitter and reduces the source clock frequency by a factor of N, compared to PM receivers using N switches (N≥4). As a consequence, the frequency coverage of the QPS-FS receiver is improved by a factor of N, given a clock source of maximum frequency; and, the power consumption of the whole receiver system can eventually be reduced. The tunable QPS-FS receiver separates the wanted RF band signal from the unwanted blockers/interferers. The desired RF signal is frequency down-converted to baseband, while the undesired blocker/interferer signals are reflected by the receiver, collected and could be energy recycled using an auxiliary energy harvesting device.

  12. An Integrated Chip High-Voltage Power Receiver for Wireless Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijith Vijayakumaran Nair

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In near-field wireless-powered biomedical implants, the receiver voltage largely overrides the compliance of low-voltage power receiver systems. To limit the induced voltage, generally, low-voltage topologies utilize limiter circuits, voltage clippers or shunt regulators, which are power-inefficient methods. In order to overcome the voltage limitation and improve power efficiency, we propose an integrated chip high-voltage power receiver based on the step down approach. The topology accommodates voltages as high as 30 V and comprises a high-voltage semi-active rectifier, a voltage reference generator and a series regulator. Further, a battery management circuit that enables safe and reliable implant battery charging based on analog control is proposed and realized. The power receiver is fabricated in 0.35-μm high-voltage Bipolar-CMOS-DMOStechnology based on the LOCOS0.35-μm CMOS process. Measurement results indicate 83.5% power conversion efficiency for a rectifier at 2.1 mA load current. The low drop-out regulator based on the current buffer compensation and buffer impedance attenuation scheme operates with low quiescent current, reduces the power consumption and provides good stability. The topology also provides good power supply rejection, which is adequate for the design application. Measurement results indicate regulator output of 4 ± 0.03 V for input from 5 to 30 V and 10 ± 0.05 V output for input from 11 to 30 V with load current 0.01–100 mA. The charger circuit manages the charging of the Li-ion battery through all if the typical stages of the Li-ion battery charging profile.

  13. Three-phase receiving coil of wireless power transmission system for gastrointestinal robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. W.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Power shortage is the bottleneck for the wide application of gastrointestinal (GI) robot. Owing to the limited volume and free change of orientation of the receiving set in GI trace, the optimal of receiving set is the key point to promote the transmission efficiency of wireless power transmission system. A new type of receiving set, similar to the winding of three-phase asynchronous motor, is presented and compared with the original three-dimensional orthogonal coil. Considering the given volume and the space utilization ratio, the three-phase and the three-orthogonal ones are the parameters which are optimized and compared. Both the transmission efficiency and stability are analyzed and verified by in vitro experiments. Animal experiments show that the new one could provide at least 420 mW power in volume of Φ11 × 13mm with a uniformity of 78.3% for the GI robot.

  14. Verification of 3G and 4G Received Power Measurements in a Crowdsourcing Android App

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Mikkelsen, Lars Møller

    2016-01-01

    Many crowdsourcing Android applications are available for measuring network Key Performance Indicators such as received power, latency, and throughput. The data is useful for end-users, researchers, and Mobile Network Operators, but unfortunately the applications’ accuracy are rarely verified....... In this paper we verify the crowdsourcing Android application NetMap’s ability to measure LTE Reference Signal Received Power by analyzing the Root Mean Squared Error, being 2-3 dB, and cross-correlation coefficient, being above 0.8, with measurements obtained by use of a professional radio network scanner...

  15. Power saving control for the mobile DVB-H receivers based on H.264/SVC standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Evgeny; Grinko, Vitaly; Ukhanova, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the utilization of scalable extension of H.264/AVC standard in digital video broadcasting for handheld devices. In this area the problem of mobile receiver power consumption is critically important. This paper amplifies the well-known idea of the time-slicing and allows...

  16. Wirelessly powered electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) by planar receiver coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sang Hyun; Yuan, Junqi; Yoon, Myung Gon; Cho, Sung Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) is one of the most versatile methods used to control the wettability of liquids using electrical input. In most applications, EWOD is applied using physical wiring, which may restrict its application to implantable EWOD devices. In order to resolve this issue, we have studied and developed a wirelessly powered EWOD by using planar coils at the receiver that are fabricated out of a printed circuit board (PCB) by means of standard micro photolithography. Unlike conventional, bulky, spool coil type, the planar coil type lends itself to compact design and easy integration with EWOD chips. The present wireless powering principle is based on magnetic induction, which is very efficient when the transmitter and receiver coils are close to each other. The voltage obtained at the receiver is much higher than typically required EWOD voltages (>50 V) using a high transmission frequency (~MHz). The span of the EWOD contact angle is over 40°. In addition, amplitude modulation (AM) is implemented in the present wireless powering setup, followed by demodulation, in order to oscillate droplets at low frequency. This technique ensures smooth and reliable droplet movements. The wirelessly powered EWOD is used to transport a droplet and is mounted in a mini-boat which it powers and propels.

  17. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%, which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  18. Study of heat transfer through a cavity receiver for a solar powered advanced Stirling engine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Watanabe, T.

    2016-01-01

    Stirling engine operated by concentrated solar energy can be a great mean to generate power. Highly concentrated solar radiations with minimum heat loss from cavity receiver are required to operate the Stirling engine. Therefore, heat transfer study of the cavity receiver is required for the maximum utilization of solar energy with minimum heat losses for the efficient Stirling engine generator. In this study, experiments were performed to find the most suitable cavity receiver configuration for maximum solar radiation utilizations by an Advanced Stirling Engine Generator (ADSEG). Dimensionless parameter: aperture ration (AR = d/D) and aperture position (AP = H/D) were used to characterize the different configurations of cylindrical cavity receiver. Experimental heat loss analysis (Convection, radiation and total heat loss) as well as air film temperature profiles along the wall height (H) of the receiver for different configurations of the cavity receiver was performed in this experiment for its selection. Based on experimental results, among the four different configurations of cylindrical cavity receiver, Type IV (AR = 0.5 AP = 0.53) was found to be the most suitable receiver for the ADSEG system.

  19. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gregory J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-07

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  20. U.S. Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. S. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, 1976. The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit. The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  1. Thermal performance prediction and sensitivity analysis for future deployment of molten salt cavity receiver solar power plants in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudaoud, S.; Khellaf, A.; Mohammedi, K.; Behar, O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of power plant with molten salt cavity receiver is assessed. • A method has been used to optimize the plant solar multiple, capacity factor and LEC. • Comparison of the simulated results to those of PS20 has shown good agreement. • Higher fossil fuel fraction reduces the LEC and increases the capacity factor. • Highland and Sahara regions are suitable for CRS plants deployment. - Abstract: Of all Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies available today, the molten salt solar power plant appears to be the most important option for providing a major share of the clean and renewable electricity needed in the future. In the present paper, a technical and economic analysis for the implementation of a probable molten salt cavity receiver thermal power plant in Algeria has been carried out. In order to do so, we have investigated the effect of solar field size, storage capacity factor, solar radiation intensity, hybridization and power plant capacity on the thermal efficiency and electricity cost of the selected plant. The system advisor model has been used to perform the technical performance and the economic assessment for different locations (coastal, highland and Sahara regions) in Algeria. Taking into account various factors, a method has been applied to optimize the solar multiple and the capacity factor of the plant, to get a trade-off between the incremental investment costs of the heliostat field and the thermal energy storage. The analysis has shown that the use of higher fossil fuel fraction significantly reduces the levelized electricity cost (LEC) and sensibly increases the capacity factor (CF). The present study indicates that hybrid molten salt solar tower power technology is very promising. The CF and the LEC have been found to be respectively of the order of 71% and 0.35 $/kW e . For solar-only power plants, these parameters are respectively about 27% and 0.63 $/kW e . Therefore, hybrid central receiver systems are

  2. Dual-head wireless powered video capsule based on new type of receiving coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Yan, Guozheng; Xu, Wenming; Kuang, Shuai

    2015-05-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been a great breakthrough in visually detecting the pathological changes of gastrointestinal (GI) wall, but the limit of viewing angle and power by batteries still hinder the wide application of WCE. In order to address these shortcomings, a dual-head video capsule system based on new type of receiving coils is presented. First, the dual-head video capsule system is designed, which could capture images of the whole GI tract in two channels, transforming the images into NTSC videos at a frame rate of 30 f s(-1) and transmitting the signals outside the body. Second, the wireless power transmission platform with new type of receiving coils is established to provide at least 108 mW of continuous, stable energy for the capsule. Then a prototype was fabricated and applied in animal experiments. The designed dual-head video capsule system is proved to be feasible and a potential solution for future clinical application.

  3. Optimal power allocation of a single transmitter-multiple receivers channel in a cognitive sensor network

    KAUST Repository

    Ayala Solares, Jose Roberto

    2012-08-01

    The optimal transmit power of a wireless sensor network with one transmitter and multiple receivers in a cognitive radio environment while satisfying independent peak, independent average, sum of peak and sum of average transmission rate constraints is derived. A suboptimal scheme is proposed to overcome the frequency of outages for the independent peak transmission rate constraint. In all cases, numerical results are provided for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Centralized operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Mitsuru; Sato, Hideyuki; Murata, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    According to the prospect of long term energy demand, in 2000, the nuclear power generation facilities in Japan are expected to take 15.9% of the total energy demand. From this fact, it is an important subject to supply nuclear power more stably, and in the field of instrumentation and control, many researches and developments and the incessant effort of improvement have been continued. In the central operation and monitoring system which is the center of the stable operation of nuclear power plants, the man-machine technology aiding operators by electronic and computer application technologies has been positively developed and applied. It is considered that hereafter, for the purpose of rationally heightening the operation reliability of the plants, the high quality man-machine system freely using the most advanced technologies such as high reliability digital technology, optical information transmission, knowledge engineering and so on is developed and applied. The technical trend of operation and monitoring system, the concept of heightening operation and monitoring capability, the upgrading of operation and monitoring system, and the latest operation, monitoring and control systems for nuclear power plants and waste treatment facilities are described. (K.I.)

  5. Power optimization of digital baseband WCDMA receiver components on algorithmic and architectural level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schämann, M.; Bücker, M.; Hessel, S.; Langmann, U.

    2008-05-01

    High data rates combined with high mobility represent a challenge for the design of cellular devices. Advanced algorithms are required which result in higher complexity, more chip area and increased power consumption. However, this contrasts to the limited power supply of mobile devices. This presentation discusses the application of an HSDPA receiver which has been optimized regarding power consumption with the focus on the algorithmic and architectural level. On algorithmic level the Rake combiner, Prefilter-Rake equalizer and MMSE equalizer are compared regarding their BER performance. Both equalizer approaches provide a significant increase of performance for high data rates compared to the Rake combiner which is commonly used for lower data rates. For both equalizer approaches several adaptive algorithms are available which differ in complexity and convergence properties. To identify the algorithm which achieves the required performance with the lowest power consumption the algorithms have been investigated using SystemC models regarding their performance and arithmetic complexity. Additionally, for the Prefilter Rake equalizer the power estimations of a modified Griffith (LMS) and a Levinson (RLS) algorithm have been compared with the tool ORINOCO supplied by ChipVision. The accuracy of this tool has been verified with a scalable architecture of the UMTS channel estimation described both in SystemC and VHDL targeting a 130 nm CMOS standard cell library. An architecture combining all three approaches combined with an adaptive control unit is presented. The control unit monitors the current condition of the propagation channel and adjusts parameters for the receiver like filter size and oversampling ratio to minimize the power consumption while maintaining the required performance. The optimization strategies result in a reduction of the number of arithmetic operations up to 70% for single components which leads to an estimated power reduction of up to 40

  6. Power optimization of digital baseband WCDMA receiver components on algorithmic and architectural level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schämann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High data rates combined with high mobility represent a challenge for the design of cellular devices. Advanced algorithms are required which result in higher complexity, more chip area and increased power consumption. However, this contrasts to the limited power supply of mobile devices.

    This presentation discusses the application of an HSDPA receiver which has been optimized regarding power consumption with the focus on the algorithmic and architectural level. On algorithmic level the Rake combiner, Prefilter-Rake equalizer and MMSE equalizer are compared regarding their BER performance. Both equalizer approaches provide a significant increase of performance for high data rates compared to the Rake combiner which is commonly used for lower data rates. For both equalizer approaches several adaptive algorithms are available which differ in complexity and convergence properties. To identify the algorithm which achieves the required performance with the lowest power consumption the algorithms have been investigated using SystemC models regarding their performance and arithmetic complexity. Additionally, for the Prefilter Rake equalizer the power estimations of a modified Griffith (LMS and a Levinson (RLS algorithm have been compared with the tool ORINOCO supplied by ChipVision. The accuracy of this tool has been verified with a scalable architecture of the UMTS channel estimation described both in SystemC and VHDL targeting a 130 nm CMOS standard cell library.

    An architecture combining all three approaches combined with an adaptive control unit is presented. The control unit monitors the current condition of the propagation channel and adjusts parameters for the receiver like filter size and oversampling ratio to minimize the power consumption while maintaining the required performance. The optimization strategies result in a reduction of the number of arithmetic operations up to 70% for single components which leads to an

  7. Nuclear power in eastern and central Europe. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1993-11-01

    The breakup of the former Soviet Union and other political changes in eastern and central Europe have opened up the area to closer scrutiny than was previously possible. Because of the accident at Chernobyl, nuclear power is one of the subjects that western nations have had a great deal of interest in exploring. The former Soviet Union designed and/or helped build more than 60 civilian reactors in the region. Most of these reactors follow one of two distinctly different designs: the VVER, or pressurized water reactor series; and the RBMK, which is a graphite-moderated, multi-channel reactor (the so-called Chernobyl type). In addition, there are two fast-breeder reactors and four graphite-moderated boiling water reactors for combined heat and power in operation in Russia. These last two designs are not widely distributed and so are not discussed in detail in this report. As noted above, the safety of Soviet-designed reactors has been of great concern around the world since the catastrophic events at Chernobyl in 1986. This paper will briefly describe the technology involved. It will also examine the main safety concerns, both technical and organizational, associated with each reactor type. In addition, the paper will review the nuclear power programs in the new countries emerging from the former Soviet Union and its satellites and discuss the international efforts underway to address the most pressing problems. (author). 1 tab

  8. Frequency Splitting Elimination and Cross-Coupling Rejection of Wireless Power Transfer to Multiple Dynamic Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanamoorthi R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous power transfer to multiple receiver (Rx system is one of the key advantages of wireless power transfer (WPT system using magnetic resonance. However, determining the optimal condition to uniformly transfer the power to a selected Rx at high efficiency is the challenging task under the dynamic environment. The cross-coupling and frequency splitting are the dominant issues present in the multiple Rx dynamic WPT system. The existing analysis is performed by considering any one issue present in the system; on the other hand, the cross coupling and frequency splitting issues are interrelated in dynamic Rx’s, which requires a comprehensive design strategy by considering both the problems. This paper proposes an optimal design of multiple Rx WPT system, which can eliminate cross coupling, frequency splitting issues and increase the power transfer efficiency (PTE of selected Rx. The cross-coupling rejection, uniform power transfer is performed by adding an additional relay coil and independent resonance frequency tuning with capacitive compensation to each Rx unit. The frequency splitting phenomena are eliminated using non-identical transmitter (Tx and Rx coil structure which can maintain the coupling between the coil under the critical coupling limit. The mathematical analysis of the compensation capacitance calculation and optimal Tx coil size identification is performed for the four Rx WPT system. Finite element analysis and experimental investigation are carried out for the proposed design in static and dynamic conditions.

  9. Shostakovich versus the Central Committee: the power of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard H R

    2008-08-01

    The centenary of Shostakovich's birth, celebrated in 2006, generated considerable interest in his life and music. During the Cold War his music was rarely played in the West, and it was not until after his death in 1975 that it re-emerged. The publication of his memoirs in the UK, in 1979, gave new insights into his life in Soviet Russia. Music, like art and literature, has the power to shock and can reflect anger and frustration at contemporary social issues. Much debate has focused on whether Shostakovich was a victim or mouthpiece of Communism. In order to fully appreciate his music, it is essential to understand his personal and professional life under Josef Stalin--in particular his public humiliation by the Central Committee, and by professional musicians who were Communist Party members.

  10. Wide-Range Highly-Efficient Wireless Power Receivers for Implantable Biomedical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud

    2016-11-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is the key enabler for a myriad of applications, from low-power RFIDs, and wireless sensors, to wirelessly charged electric vehicles, and even massive power transmission from space solar cells. One of the major challenges in designing implantable biomedical devices is the size and lifetime of the battery. Thus, replacing the battery with a miniaturized wireless power receiver (WPRx) facilitates designing sustainable biomedical implants in smaller volumes for sentient medical applications. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose a miniaturized, fully integrated, wirelessly powered implantable sensor with on-chip antenna, designed and implemented in a standard 0.18μm CMOS process. As a batteryless device, it can be implanted once inside the body with no need for further invasive surgeries to replace batteries. The proposed single-chip solution is designed for intraocular pressure monitoring (IOPM), and can serve as a sustainable platform for implantable devices or IoT nodes. A custom setup is developed to test the chip in a saline solution with electrical properties similar to those of the aqueous humor of the eye. The proposed chip, in this eye-like setup, is wirelessly charged to 1V from a 5W transmitter 3cm away from the chip. In the second part, we propose a self-biased, differential rectifier with enhanced efficiency over an extended range of input power. A prototype is designed for the medical implant communication service (MICS) band at 433MHz. It demonstrates an efficiency improvement of more than 40% in the rectifier power conversion efficiency (PCE) and a dynamic range extension of more than 50% relative to the conventional cross-coupled rectifier. A sensitivity of -15.2dBm input power for 1V output voltage and a peak PCE of 65% are achieved for a 50k load. In the third part, we propose a wide-range, differential RF-to-DC power converter using an adaptive, self-biasing technique. The proposed architecture doubles

  11. Proposal of a fluid flow layout to improve the heat transfer in the active absorber surface of solar central cavity receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, M.J.; Rovira, A.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Ramos, A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of concentrated solar power is to increase the thermal energy of a fluid, for the fluid to be used, for example, in a power cycle to generate electricity. Such applications present the requirement of appropriately designing the receiver active absorber surface, as the incident radiation flux can be very high. Besides that, the solar image in the receiver is not uniform, so conventional boilers designs are not well suited for these purposes. That point is particularly critical in solar central receivers systems (CRS), where concentrated solar flux is usually above 500 kW/m 2 , causing thermal and mechanical stress in the absorber panels. This paper analyzes a new thermofluidynamic design of a solar central receiver, which optimizes the heat transfer in the absorber surface. This conceptual receiver presents the following characteristics: the fluid flow pattern is designed according to the radiation flux map symmetry, so more uniform fluid temperatures at the receiver outlet are achieved; the heat transfer irreversibilities are reduced by circulating the fluid from the lower temperature region to the higher temperature region of the absorber surface; the width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient, to get lower temperature differences between the side tubes of the same pass; and the cooling requirement is ensured by means of adjusting the fluid flow velocity per tube, taking into account the pressure drop. This conceptual scheme has been applied to the particular case of a molten salt single cavity receiver, although the configuration proposed is suitable for other receiver designs and working fluids. - Highlights: ► The solar receiver design proposed optimizes heat transfer in the absorber surface. ► The fluid flow pattern is designed according to the solar flux map symmetry at noon. ► The fluid circulates from the lower to the higher temperature regions. ► The width of each pass is adjusted to the solar flux gradient.

  12. Carrier-to-noise power estimation for the Block 5 Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, A. M.

    1991-01-01

    Two possible algorithms for the carrier to noise power (P sub c/N sub 0) estimation in the Block V Receiver are analyzed and their performances compared. The expected value and the variance of each estimator algorithm are derived. The two algorithms examined are known as the I arm estimator, which relies on samples from only the in-phase arm of the digital phase lock loop, and the IQ arm estimator, which uses both in-phase and quadrature-phase arm signals. The IQ arm algorithm is currently implemented in the Advanced Receiver II (ARX II). Both estimators are biased. The performance degradation due to phase jitter in the carrier tracking loop is taken into account. Curves of the expected value and the signal to noise ratio of the P sub c/N sub 0 estimators vs. actual P sub c/N sub 0 are shown. From this, it is clear that the I arm estimator performs better than the IQ arm estimator when the data to noise power ratio (P sub d/N sub 0) is high, i.e., at high P sub c/N sub 0 values and a significant modulation index. When P sub d/N sub 0 is low, the two estimators have essentially the same performance.

  13. Wideband Impulse Modulation and Receiver Algorithms for Multiuser Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Tonello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a bit-interleaved coded wideband impulse-modulated system for power line communications. Impulse modulation is combined with direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA to obtain a form of orthogonal modulation and to multiplex the users. We focus on the receiver signal processing algorithms and derive a maximum likelihood frequency-domain detector that takes into account the presence of impulse noise as well as the intercode interference (ICI and the multiple-access interference (MAI that are generated by the frequency-selective power line channel. To reduce complexity, we propose several simplified frequency-domain receiver algorithms with different complexity and performance. We address the problem of the practical estimation of the channel frequency response as well as the estimation of the correlation of the ICI-MAI-plus-noise that is needed in the detection metric. To improve the estimators performance, a simple hard feedback from the channel decoder is also used. Simulation results show that the scheme provides robust performance as a result of spreading the symbol energy both in frequency (through the wideband pulse and in time (through the spreading code and the bit-interleaved convolutional code.

  14. Management of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropic support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangregorio, Maeve; Mott, Sandra; Tong, Elizabeth; Handa, Sonia; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean Anne

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate present practice of maintaining PICC line patency in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropes by comparing one cohort receiving low dose continuous heparin with one receiving no heparin. A case control retrospective chart review compared the two cohorts on duration of patency (measured in days) and need for thrombolytic agents. Median duration of patency for the heparin group was 24 days versus 16 days for the no heparin group (p=0.07). Use of thrombolytic agents was 28% in the heparin group compared to 50% in the no heparin group (p=0.08). Although not statistically significant, findings were clinically significant and supportive of current practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - State-of-the-art and advanced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulawka, A.; Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical and near-term cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for large-scale, central photovoltaic power stations. Various commercially available PCS hardware suitable for use in today's central photovoltaic power stations are also surveyed. Federal and industrial activities in the research and development of advanced PCSs that will contribute to the attainment of fully competitive, large-scale photovoltaic power stations are reviewed. The status of the DOE central station PCS program is discussed.

  16. Comparison of three types of central venous catheters in patients with malignant tumor receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shirong Fang,1 Jinhong Yang,2 Lei Song,3 Yan Jiang,1 Yuxiu Liu4 1Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Oncology, Weifang People’s Hospital, Weifang, 3Intensive Care Unit, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 4Nursing College, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, People’s Republic of China Background: Central venous catheters (CVCs have been an effective access for chemotherapy instead of peripherally intravenous catheters. There were limited studies on the choices and effects of different types of CVCs for chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the complications, cost, and patients’ quality of life and satisfaction of three commonly used CVCs for chemotherapy, such as implanted venous port, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs, and external non-tunneled central venous catheters (NTCs.Methods: A double-center prospective cohort study was carried out from March 2014 to December 2016. Catheterization situation, complications, catheter maintenance, cost, and patients’ quality of life and satisfaction were recorded, investigated, and analyzed. Forty-five ports, 60 PICCs and 40 NTCs were included. All the CVCs were followed up to catheter removal.Results: There was no statistical difference in catheterization success rates between port and PICC. NTC had less success rate by one puncture compared with port. Ports had fewer complications compared with PICCs and NTCs. The complication rates of ports, PICCs and NTCs were 2.2%, 40%, and 27.5%, respectively. If the chemotherapy process was <12 months, NTCs cost least, and the cost of port was much higher than PICC and NTC. When the duration time was longer than 12 months, the cost of port had no difference with the cost of PICC. Quality of life and patients’ satisfaction of port group were significantly higher than the other two groups. Conclusion: Although port catheterization costs more and needs professional medical staff and strict operational

  17. Receiver function images of the central Chugoku region in the Japanese islands using Hi-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, D. S.; Wakatsu, H. K.; Watada, S.; Yuan, X.

    2005-04-01

    Crustal configuration of the central Chugoku region with disposition of the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) in this area are investigated through the receiver function approach using short-period Hi-net data. Images of the upper mantle discontinuities are also obtained. Restituted short-period receiver functions bring out discernible variations in average composition of the crust and its thickness in the study region. The Vp/ Vs values in the study area are generally high, reaching values in excess of 1.85 at a few places. The central part of the study region showing the highest Vp/ Vs values is coincidentally a subregion of least seismicity, possibly bestowed with special subsurface structure. Migrated receiver function images, both Ps and Pps images, unambiguously trace the NW subducting PHS taking a steeper plunge in the northwest part of the Chugoku region reaching depths of 70 km from its low dip disposition in the southeast. An excellent correlation of the subducting PHS with the hypocenters is also seen. We demonstrate that short-period data after restitution and application of appropriate low pass filters can indeed detect presence of the global 410-km and 660-km discontinuities and map their disposition reasonably well. Our migrated receiver functions image the deflections in the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities in an anti-correlated fashion on expected lines of Clapeyron slope predictions induced by subduction of the Pacific plate (PAC) beneath Japanese islands, though PAC itself is feebly traced but shows good correlation with slab seismicity.

  18. SPGD: A central power system for space title in French

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widrig, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Power Generation and Distribution (SPGD) concept for providing power to any satellite in earth orbit via power beaming. Other applications such as providing power for terrestrial or space exploration purposes are identified. An assessment of SPGD versus conventional space power is summarized concluding SPGD appears extremely attractive for our space future. 1 ref

  19. Comparison of three types of central venous catheters in patients with malignant tumor receiving chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shirong; Yang, Jinhong; Song, Lei; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Yuxiu

    2017-01-01

    Background Central venous catheters (CVCs) have been an effective access for chemotherapy instead of peripherally intravenous catheters. There were limited studies on the choices and effects of different types of CVCs for chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the complications, cost, and patients’ quality of life and satisfaction of three commonly used CVCs for chemotherapy, such as implanted venous port, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), and external non-tunneled central venous catheters (NTCs). Methods A double-center prospective cohort study was carried out from March 2014 to December 2016. Catheterization situation, complications, catheter maintenance, cost, and patients’ quality of life and satisfaction were recorded, investigated, and analyzed. Forty-five ports, 60 PICCs and 40 NTCs were included. All the CVCs were followed up to catheter removal. Results There was no statistical difference in catheterization success rates between port and PICC. NTC had less success rate by one puncture compared with port. Ports had fewer complications compared with PICCs and NTCs. The complication rates of ports, PICCs and NTCs were 2.2%, 40%, and 27.5%, respectively. If the chemotherapy process was PICC and NTC. When the duration time was longer than 12 months, the cost of port had no difference with the cost of PICC. Quality of life and patients’ satisfaction of port group were significantly higher than the other two groups. Conclusion Although port catheterization costs more and needs professional medical staff and strict operational conditions, ports have fewer complications and higher quality of life and patients’ satisfaction than PICCs and NTCs. Therefore, not following consideration of the economic factor, we recommend port as a safe and an effective chemotherapy access for cancer patients, especially for whom needing long chemotherapy process. PMID:28744109

  20. Line-focus solar central power system, Phase I. Final report, 29 September 1978 to 30 April 1980. Volume II. Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    The conceptual design, parametric analysis, cost and performance analysis, and a commercial assessment of a 100-MWe high-temperature line-focus central power system are presented. Parametric analyses and conceptual design of the heliostat subsystem, receiver subsystem, heat transport subsystem, energy storage subsystem, electrical power generating subsystem, and master control subsystem are included. A market analysis and development plan are given. (WHK)

  1. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing distributed receiver technology project. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The accomplishments of the Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project during fiscal year 1979 are detailed. Present studies involve designs of modular units that collect and concentrate solar energy via highly reflective, parabolic-shaped dishes. The concentrated energy is then converted to heat in a working fluid, such as hot gas. In modules designed to produce heat for industrial applications, a flexible line conveys the heated fluid from the module to a heat transfer network. In modules designed to produce electricity the fluid carries the heat directly to an engine in a power conversion unit located at the focus of the concentrator. The engine is mechanically linked to an electric generator. A Brayton-cycle engine is currently being developed as the most promising electrical energy converter to meet near-future needs.

  2. Bearing support for receiving used fuel elements of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, F.

    1979-01-01

    A bearing support for receiving used fuel elements of nuclear power stations includes a plurality of chambers which have square cross-sections and each include inner and outer spaced apart walls with screening plates therebetween for screening the radiating fuel elements. Each chamber is detachably secured at its underside to a common foot plate and is held in position at its upper side by spacer elements. The outer wall comprises two equal-sided angle sheets and the inner wall comprises a closed square tube. The thickness of the outer wall is smaller than that of the inner wall and the outer walls are held in spaced relationship to each other at their upper sides by detachable bar grates

  3. Analysis of impact of “strong DC and weak AC” on receiving-end power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Tianran; Yang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    The rapid development of UHVDC transmission project has brought abundant power supply to the receiving-end power system area, but also many security and stability problems. This paper summarizes four elements that affect the strength of AC system, and then simulates the most basic two-terminal single-pole UHV transmission system by MATLAB/Simulink. It analyses the impact of receiving-end AC power system strength on real-time power, frequency and voltage. Finally, in view of operation risk of “strong DC and weak AC”, this paper puts forward three countermeasures.

  4. Insights into Dynamic Tuning of Magnetic-Resonant Wireless Power Transfer Receivers Based on Switch-Mode Gyrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic-resonant wireless power transfer (WPT has become a reliable contactless source of power for a wide range of applications. WPT spans different power levels ranging from low-power implantable devices up to high-power electric vehicles (EV battery charging. The transmission range and efficiency of WPT have been reasonably enhanced by resonating the transmitter and receiver coils at a common frequency. Nevertheless, matching between resonance in the transmitter and receiver is quite cumbersome, particularly in single-transmitter multi-receiver systems. The resonance frequency in transmitter and receiver tank circuits has to be perfectly matched, otherwise power transfer capability is greatly degraded. This paper discusses the mistuning effect of parallel-compensated receivers, and thereof a novel dynamic frequency tuning method and related circuit topology and control is proposed and characterized in the system application. The proposed method is based on the concept of switch-mode gyrator emulating variable lossless inductors oriented to enable self-tunability in WPT receivers.

  5. A Digital Sine-Weighted switched-Gm mixer for Single-Clock Power-Scalable parallel receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasri, Reda; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Cathelin, Philippe; Tournier, Eric; Nauta, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Abstract— This paper presents a mixed A/D architecture for parallel channelized RF receiver applications. Its power consumption scales with the number of active receivers and hence with the available overall data rate. A digital sine-weighted switched-Gm mixer with a DDFS per channel is proposed as

  6. 30 CFR 75.704 - Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems. 75.704 Section 75.704 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.704 Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving...

  7. 30 CFR 75.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding of equipment... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current power systems. For purposes of grounding metallic frames...

  8. Optical design of a 4-off-axis-unit Cassegrain ultra-high concentrator photovoltaics module with a central receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Juan P; Fernández, Eduardo F; Almonacid, Florencia; Pérez-Higueras, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    Ultra-high concentrator photovoltaics (UHCPV), with concentrations higher than 1000 suns, have been pointed out by different authors as having great potential for being a cost-effective PV technology. This Letter presents a UHCPV Cassegrain-based optical design in which the sunrays are concentrated and sent from four different and independent paraboloid-hyperboloid pairs optical units onto a single central receiver. The optical design proposed has the main advantage of the achievement of ultra-high concentration ratios using relative small mirrors with similar performance values of efficiency, acceptance angle, and irradiance uniformity to other designs.

  9. Mapping the mantle transition zone beneath the central Mid-Atlantic Ridge using Ps receiver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, M. R.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.; Kendall, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the mechanisms taking place beneath ridges is important in order to understand how tectonic plates form and interact. Of particular interest is establishing the depth at which these processes originate. Anomalies such as higher temperature within the mantle transition zone may be inferred seismically if present. However, most ridges are found in remote locations beneath the oceans restricting seismologists to use far away land-based seismometers, which in turn limits the imaging resolution. In 2016, 39 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, along the Romanche and Chain fracture zones as part of the PI-LAB research project (Passive Imaging of the Lithosphere and Asthenosphere Boundary). The one-year long seismic data is now retrieved and analysed to image the mantle transition zone beneath the ridge. We determine P-to-s (Ps) receiver functions to illuminate the 410- and 660-km depth mantle discontinuities using the extended multitaper deconvolution. The data from ocean-bottom seismometers have tilt and compliance noise corrections and is filtered between 0.05-0.2 Hz to enhance the signal. 51 teleseismic earthquakes generated hundreds of good quality waveforms, which are then migrated to depth in 3-D. The topography at the d410 deepens towards the west of the Romanche and Chain fracture zone by 15 km, whereas the topography of d660 shallows beneath the ridge between the two zones. Transition zone thickness thins from 5 to 20 km. Thermal anomalies determined from temperature relationships with transition zone thickness and depth variations of the d410 and d660 suggests hotter temperatures of about 200 K. Overall, the result suggests mid-ocean ridges may have associated thermal signatures as deep as the transition zone.

  10. 77 FR 11596 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-423; NRC-2012-0044] Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of Consideration of Approval of Application Regarding... License (No. NPF- 49) for the Millstone Power Station, Unit 3 (MPS3) to the extent held by Central Vermont...

  11. A Maximum Efficiency Point Tracking Control Scheme Based on Different Cross Coupling of Dual-Receiver Inductive Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruikun Mai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising inductive power transfer applications is the wireless power supply for locomotives which may cancel the need for pantographs. In order to meet the dynamic and high power demands of wireless power supplies for locomotives, a relatively long transmitter track and multiple receivers are usually adopted. However, during the dynamic charging, the mutual inductances between the transmitter and receivers vary and the load of the locomotives also changes randomly, which dramatically affects the system efficiency. A maximum efficiency point tracking control scheme is proposed to improve the system efficiency against the variation of the load and the mutual inductances between the transmitter and receivers while considering the cross coupling between receivers. Firstly, a detailed theoretical analysis on dual receivers is carried out. Then a control scheme with three control loops is proposed to regulate the receiver currents to be the same, to regulate the output voltage and to search for the maximum efficiency point. Finally, a 2 kW prototype is established to validate the performance of the proposed method. The overall system efficiency (DC-DC efficiency reaches 90.6% at rated power and is improved by 5.8% with the proposed method under light load compared with the traditional constant output voltage control method.

  12. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  13. Use of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in children receiving autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Stefano; Ceresoli, Rosanna; Boroni, Giovanni; Parolini, Filippo; Porta, Fulvio; Alberti, Daniele

    2018-03-01

    The aim of our study was to present our experience with the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in pediatric patients receiving autologous or allogenic blood stem-cell transplantation. The insertion of the device in older children does not require general anesthesia and does not require a surgical procedure. From January 2014 to January 2017, 13 PICCs were inserted as a central venous device in 11 pediatric patients submitted to 14 autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, at the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit of the Children's Hospital of Brescia. The mean age of patients at the time of the procedure was 11.3 years (range 3-18 years). PICCs remained in place for an overall period of 4104 days. All PICCs were positioned by the same specifically trained physician and utilized by nurses of our stem-cell transplant unit. No insertion-related complications were observed. Late complications were catheter ruptures and line occlusions (1.2 per 1000 PICC days). No rupture or occlusion required removal of the device. No catheter-related venous thrombosis, catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), accidental removal or permanent lumen occlusion were observed. Indications for catheter removal were completion of therapy (8 patients) and death (2 patients). Three PICCs are currently being used for blood sampling in follow-up patients after transplantation. Our data suggest that PICCs are a safe and effective alternative to conventional central venous catheters even in pediatric patients with high risk of infectious and hemorrhagic complications such as patients receiving stem-cell transplantation.

  14. Integral power evaluation in fossil fuel power plants; Evaluacion energetica integral en unidades de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa I, Luis R; Sanchez H, Laura E; Rodriguez M, Jose H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Nebradt G, Jesus [Unidad de Investigacion y Desarrollo de la Subdireccion de Generacion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this occasion, a methodology is presented that carries out an integral energy evaluation of fossil fuel power plants units (FFPPU) with the purpose of determining the root of the significant decrements of power produced soon after the annual maintenance service. This proposal, besides identifying the origin of the energy efficiency problems, offers information about the contributions of each one of the involved equipment in the total decrement of the unit. With this methodology, the maintenance focuses in the equipment that contributes to the greater energy loss. This document presents such methodology along with its application in a real case, results and necessary remedial actions, demonstrating that its application offers bases for the investment in corrective measures. [Spanish] En esta ocasion se presenta una metodologia que efectua una evaluacion energetica integral de las unidades de centrales termoelectricas (UCT) con el fin de determinar la raiz de los decrementos de potencia significativos producidos luego del servicio anual de mantenimiento. Dicha propuesta, ademas de identificar el origen de los problemas de eficiencia energetica, brinda informacion acerca de las aportaciones de cada uno de los equipos involucrados al decremento total de la unidad. Con esta metodologia, el mantenimiento se enfoca a los equipos que contribuyen a la mayor perdida de potencia. Este documento exhibe tal metodologia junto con su aplicacion en un caso real, resultados y las acciones correctivas necesarias, demostrando que su aplicacion ofrece bases para una inversion futura en medidas correctivas.

  15. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  16. A Low-Power WLAN Communication Scheme for IoT WLAN Devices Using Wake-Up Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanseul Hong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a delay- and power-efficient, multi-user, low-power wireless local area network (WLAN communication scheme for Internet of Things (IoT WLAN devices. Extremely low-power operation is one of the key requirements of emerging IoT devices. However, the current duty-cycle-based power saving approach may incur large access delay times owing to the trade-offs between the power consumption and the access delay. In order to reduce this delay and enhance the power-saving performance, wake-up receiver-based schemes have been proposed. However, because wake-up receiver-based schemes do not consider multiuser operation in dense communication environments, large delays are inevitable in the case of multiuser operation. In order to provide extremely low-power operation and under 1-mW standby power with reduced delay, we employed the optimized multiuser transmission scheduling of IEEE 802.11ax in the proposed scheme and proper enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA parameter settings. This is with the aim to reduce the delay caused by long wake-up times, and to avoid collisions caused by simultaneous transmission in uplink multiuser scenario. By using the proposed scheme, simultaneous IoT communication with multiple mobile IoT devices is possible while providing low-power operation. Simulation results verified the outstanding delay performance of the proposed scheme.

  17. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  18. Design and evaluation of a high temperature/pressure supercritical carbon dioxide direct tubular receiver for concentrating solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jesus Daniel

    This work focuses on the development of a solar power thermal receiver for a supercritical-carbon dioxide (sCO2), Brayton power-cycle to produce ~1 MWe. Closed-loop sCO2 Brayton cycles are being evaluated in combination with concentrating solar power to provide higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies relative to conventional steam Rankine cycles. High temperatures (923--973 K) and pressures (20--25 MPa) are required in the solar receiver to achieve thermal efficiencies of ~50%, making concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. In this study, the CSP receiver is required to achieve an outlet temperature of 923 K at 25 MPa or 973 K at 20 MPa to meet the operating needs. To obtain compatible receiver tube material, an extensive material review was performed based the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ASME B31.1 and ASME B313.3 codes respectively. Subsequently, a thermal-structural model was developed using a commercial computational fluid (CFD) dynamics and structural mechanics software for designing and analyzing the tubular receiver that could provide the heat input for a ~2 MWth plant. These results were used to perform an analytical cumulative damage creep-fatigue analysis to estimate the work-life of the tubes. In sequence, an optical-thermal-fluid model was developed to evaluate the resulting thermal efficiency of the tubular receiver from the NSTTF heliostat field. The ray-tracing tool SolTrace was used to obtain the heat-flux distribution on the surfaces of the receiver. The K-ω SST turbulence model and P-1 radiation model used in Fluent were coupled with SolTrace to provide the heat flux distribution on the receiver surface. The creep-fatigue analysis displays the damage accumulated due to the cycling and the permanent deformation of the tubes. Nonetheless, they are able to support the required lifetime. The receiver surface temperatures were found to be within the safe

  19. Central Political Institutions in Benin and Balance of Power Under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the nature and character of central political institutions in Benin and how these institutions checkmated one another. Such institutions included the Oba, the Uzama, the Eghaevbo orders, the Edaiken, the lyoba and the state council. It dwells in particular on the place of the Iyase (Prime Minister) in ...

  20. A Novel WPT System Based on Dual Transmitters and Dual Receivers for High Power Applications: Analysis, Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Wireless Power Transfer (WPT systems only have one energy transmission path, which can hardly meet the power demand for high power applications, e.g., railway applications (electric trains and trams, etc. due to the capacity constraints of power electronic devices. A novel WPT system based on dual transmitters and dual receivers is proposed in this paper to upgrade the power capacity of the WPT system. The reliability and availability of the proposed WPT system can be dramatically improved due to the four energy transmission paths. A three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA tool ANSYS MAXWELL (ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA, USA is adopted to investigate the proposed magnetic coupling structure. Besides, the effects of the crossing coupling mutual inductances among the transmitters and receivers are analyzed. It shows that the same-side cross couplings will decrease the efficiency and transmitted power. Decoupling transformers are employed to mitigate the effects of the same-side cross couplings. Meanwhile, the output voltage in the secondary side can be regulated at its designed value with a fast response performance, and the system can continue work even with a faulty inverter. Finally, a scale-down experimental setup is provided to verify the proposed approach. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method could improve the transmitted power capacity, overall efficiency and reliability, simultaneously. The proposed WPT structure is a potential alternative for high power applications.

  1. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  2. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized...... the proposed system, which benefits for implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A hybrid MPPT control strategy is proposed for this HCD power conditioning system. The characteristics, circuit implementation and operation principles of the proposed system are presented...

  3. Modeling and Zoning Solar Energy Received at the Earth's Surface in Arid and Semiarid Regions of Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam gholamnia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solar radiation (Rs energy received at the Earth's surface is measured usingclimatological variables in horizontal surface and is widely used in various fields. Domination of hot and dry climates especially in the central regions of Iran results from decreasing cloudiness and precipitation and increasing sunshine hours, which shows the high potential of solar energy in Iran. There is a reasonable climatic field and solar radiation in most of regions and seasons which have provided an essential and suitable field to use and extend new and pure energy. Materials and Methods: One of the common methods to estimate the solar energy received by the earthis usingtemperature variables in any place . An empirical model is proposed to estimate the solar energy as a function of other climatic variables (maximum temperature recorded in 50 climatological, conventional stations; this model is helpful inextending the climatological solar-energy estimation in the study area. The mean values of both measured and estimated solar energy wereobjectively mapped to fill the observation gaps and reduce the noise associated with inhomogeneous statistics and estimation errors. This analysis and the solar irradiation estimation method wereapplied to 50 different climatologicalstations in Iran for monthly data during1980–2005. The main aim of this study wasto map and estimate the solar energy received in four provinces of Yazd, Esfahan, Kerman and Khorasan-e-Jonoubi.The data used in this analysis and its processing, as well as the formulation of an empirical model to estimate the climatological incident of solar energy as a function of other climatic variables, which is complemented with an objective mapping to obtain continuous solar-energy maps. Therefore, firstly the Rswasestimated using a valid model for 50 meteorological stations in which the amounts of solar radiation weren't recorded for arid and semi-arid areas in Iran. Then, the appropriate method

  4. Limit distributions for the terms of central order statistics under power normalization

    OpenAIRE

    El Sayed M. Nigm

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the limiting distributions for sequences of central terms under power nonrandom normalization are obtained. The classes of the limit types having domain of L- attraction are investigated.

  5. Limit distributions for the terms of central order statistics under power normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed M. Nigm

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the limiting distributions for sequences of central terms under power nonrandom normalization are obtained. The classes of the limit types having domain of L- attraction are investigated.

  6. Design of the Heat Receiver for the U.S./Russia Solar Dynamic Power Joint Flight Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, Hal J.; Krystkowiak, Christopher; Klucher, Beth A.

    1996-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russia program is being conducted to develop, fabricate, launch, and operate a solar dynamic demonstration system on Space Station Mir. The goal of the program is to demonstrate and confirm that solar dynamic power systems are viable for future space applications such as the International Space Station Alpha The major components of the system include a heat receiver, a closed Brayton cycle power conversion unit, a power conditioning and control unit, a concentrator, a radiator, a thermal control system, and a Space Shuttle Carrier. This paper discusses the design of the heat receiver component. The receiver comprises a cylindrical cavity, the walls of which are lined with a series of tubes running the length of the cavity. The engine working fluid, a mixture of xenon and helium, is heated by the concentrated sunlight incident on these tubes. The receiver incorporates integral thermal storage, using a eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride as the thermal storage solid-to-liquid phase change materiaL This thermal storage is required to enable power production during eclipse. The phase change material is contained in a series of individual containment canisters.

  7. 30 CFR 75.701-2 - Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved method of grounding metallic frames... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-2 Approved method of grounding metallic frames, casings and other enclosures receiving power from single-phase 110-220-volt...

  8. 30 CFR 77.701-1 - Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding of equipment... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.701-1 Approved methods of grounding of equipment receiving power from ungrounded alternating current...

  9. 30 CFR 77.703 - Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems. 77.703 Section 77.703 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY..., SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.703 Grounding frames of...

  10. A Low-Power High-Dynamic-Range Receiver System for In-Probe 3-D Ultrasonic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, Hourieh; Xu, Ye; Ytterdal, Trond

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a dual-mode low-power, high dynamic-range receiver circuit is designed for the interface with a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer. The proposed ultrasound receiver chip enables the development of an in-probe digital beamforming imaging system. The flexibility of having two operation modes offers a high dynamic range with minimum power sacrifice. A prototype of the chip containing one receive channel, with one variable transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and one analog to digital converter (ADC) circuit is implemented. Combining variable gain TIA functionality with ADC gain settings achieves an enhanced overall high dynamic range, while low power dissipation is maintained. The chip is designed and fabricated in a 65 nm standard CMOS process technology. The test chip occupies an area of 76[Formula: see text] 170 [Formula: see text]. A total average power range of 60-240 [Formula: see text] for a sampling frequency of 30 MHz, and a center frequency of 5 MHz is measured. An instantaneous dynamic range of 50.5 dB with an overall dynamic range of 72 dB is obtained from the receiver circuit.

  11. Construction of Power Receiving Rectenna Using Mars- In-Situ Materials; A Low Energy Materials Processing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It is highly desirable to have a non-nuclear power rich option for the human exploration of Mars. Utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion, SEP, / Power Beaming architecture for a non-nuclear power option for a human Mars base potentially avoids the weather and dust sensitivities of the surface photovoltaic option. Further from Mars areosynchronous orbit near year round power can be provided. Mission analysis, however, concludes that ultra high (245 GHz) frequencies or laser transmission technologies are required for Mars landed mass competitiveness with the surface photovoltaic option if the receiving rectifying antenna "rectenna" is transported from Earth. It is suggested in this paper that producing rectenna in situ on Mars surface might make a more conventional 5.8 GHz system competitive with surface PV. The premium of a competitive, robust, continuous base power might make the development of a 10 plus MWe class SEP for human Mars mission a more attractive non-nuclear option.

  12. 77 FR 59679 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0044; Docket No. 50-423] Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving Application Regarding Corporate Restructuring and Conforming Amendment I Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. (DNC), Central Vermont Public Service...

  13. 75 FR 64303 - Vermont Marble Power, Division of Omya Inc.; Central Vermont Public Service Corporation; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ..., Division of Omya Inc. (transferor) and Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (transferee) filed an... Energy Regulatory Commission Vermont Marble Power, Division of Omya Inc.; Central Vermont Public Service Corporation; Notice of Application of Transfer of Licenses, Substitution of Relicense Applicant, and...

  14. 75 FR 6199 - Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group, Inc.; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal... Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group, Inc. (CMMPA/ MMTG) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an amended Petition for a Declaratory Order concerning formula rates...

  15. Optimal Power Consumption in a Central Heating System with Geothermal Heat Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Driving a ground source heat pump in a central heating system with the minimum power consumption is studied. The idea of control is based on the fact that, in a heat pump, the temperature of the forward water has a strong positive correlation with the consumed electric power by the compressor. Th...

  16. Crustal structure of the Central Precordillera of San Juan, Argentina (31°S) using teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, Jean-Baptiste; Alvarado, Patricia; Perarnau, Marcelo; Saez, Mauro; Monsalvo, Guillermo

    2013-10-01

    The subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate around 31°S is characterized by flat slab geometry. The (Chilean) Pampean flat slab of Argentina associated with the subduction of the Juan Fernandez ridge lies in a region of a series of foreland uplifts corresponding to the thin-skinned Precordillera and basement cored Sierras Pampeanas ranges. The SIEMBRA project deployed 40 broadband stations in 2008-2009 in both the Precordillera and the Sierras Pampeanas with the aim to foster the understanding of the entire central Andean flat slab region. One of the SIEMBRA station (DOCA) located on the western flank of Sierra de la Invernada in the Central Precordillera appears particularly appropriate to study the crustal structure and eventually detect discontinuities related to terranes establishment. We thus performed a receiver function analysis using teleseismic data recorded at the DOCA station during the SIEMBRA project and from October 2011 to June 2012 using a broadband UNSJ (National University of San Juan) seismic station with the purpose to obtain crustal images with details of the intracrustal structure consistent with a mechanism that could explains both the observed earthquake depths and the uplift pattern in the Central Precordillera. Our results show that the Moho beneath the Precordillera lies at a depth of about 66 km. The Moho signal appears diminished and behaves irregularly as a function of azimuthal orientations. Although this observation could be the result of an irregular geometry it also correlates with the hypothesis of partial eclogitisation in the lower crust. Two mid-crustal discontinuities have also been revealed. The shallower one could correspond to a décollement level between the Precordilleran strata and the Cuyania basement at 21 km depth. The deeper one which the presence has been matched with a sharp decrease of the crustal seismic activity drove us to the hypothesis of a major change in crustal composition at 36 km

  17. Line-focus solar central power systems, Phase I. Monthly technical progress report, 31 January 1979-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, A J

    1979-03-01

    The work performed during the fifth month of the Phase I study of the High Temperature Line-Focus Solar Central Power System is summarized. During the reporting period, the optical and receiver computer analysis programs and parametricized data have been combined in a computer program to give the projected annualized Bus Bar Energy Costs for a specified design. Although some of the data are incomplete or need further refinement, the program has been used to examine the sensitivity of some parameters, and to make preliminary optimizations.

  18. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India's rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs

  19. Comparison of large central and small decentralized power generation in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-01

    This reports evaluates two options for providing reliable power to rural areas in India. The benefits and costs are compared for biomass based distributed generation (DG) systems versus a 1200-MW central grid coal-fired power plant. The biomass based DG systems are examined both as alternatives to grid extension and as supplements to central grid power. The benefits are divided into three categories: those associated with providing reliable power from any source, those associated specifically with biomass based DG technology, and benefits of a central grid coal plant. The report compares the estimated delivered costs of electricity from the DG systems to those of the central plant. The analysis includes estimates for a central grid coal plant and four potential DG system technologies: Stirling engines, direct-fired combustion turbines, fuel cells, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles. The report also discusses issues affecting India`s rural electricity demand, including economic development, power reliability, and environmental concerns. The results of the costs of electricity comparison between the biomass DG systems and the coal-fired central grid station demonstrated that the DG technologies may be able to produce very competitively priced electricity by the start of the next century. The use of DG technology may provide a practical means of addressing many rural electricity issues that India will face in the future. Biomass DG technologies in particular offer unique advantages for the environment and for economic development that will make them especially attractive. 58 refs., 31 figs.

  20. Collection probability with discrete random signal-to-interference power ratios in multiple interferences for electronic intelligence receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ric A. Romero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In certain applications, signal transmit power is adjusted in discrete levels. Moreover, interference powers themselves can be discretely random. For electronic intelligence applications, the authors refer to the signal to be collected as signal of interest (SoI. Thus, for a passive receiver, the resulting instantaneous SoI-to-interference power ratio (SIR in multiple interferences is a discrete random variable. This means signal detection or collection is not guaranteed. They proposed collection probability (CP as a metric when the SIR is random. In this study, the authors evaluate CP probabilistically and show CP against SIR threshold degradation and/or improvement as a function of increasing number of interferences, increasing signal power range and increasing distribution gain.

  1. A Novel Design of an RF-DC Converter for a Low–Input Power Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Duc Au

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave wireless power transmission (MWPT is a promising technique for low and medium power applications such as wireless charging for sensor network or for biomedical chips in case with long ranges or in dispersive media such. A key factor of the MWPT technique is its efficiency, which includes the wireless power transmission efficiency and the radio frequency (RF to direct current (DC voltage efficiency of RF–DC converter (which transforms RF energy to DC supply voltage. The main problem in designing an RF–DC converter is the nonlinear characteristic of Schottky diodes; this characteristic causes low efficiency, higher harmonics frequency and a change in the input impedance value when the RF input power changes. In this paper, rather than using harmonic termination techniques of class E or class F power amplifiers, which are usually used to improve the efficiency of RF-DC converters, we propose a new method called “optimal input impedance” to enhance the performance of our design. The results of simulations and measurements are presented in this paper along with a discussion of our design concerning its practical applications.

  2. Mantle transition zone beneath central-eastern Greenland: Possible evidence for a deep tectosphere from receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Helene Anja; Vinnik, Lev; Thybo, Hans

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the mantle of central-eastern Greenland by using recordings with data from 24 local broad-band seismograph stations. We apply P wave receiver function technique and evaluate the difference in the arrival times of seismic phases that are formed by P to SV mode conversion at the 410-km and 660-km seismic discontinuities. These boundaries mark the top and bottom of the mantle transition zone (MTZ). The difference in the arrival time of the phases from the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities is sensitive to the thickness of the MTZ and relatively insensitive to volumetric velocity anomalies above the 410-km discontinuity. Near the east coast of Greenland in the region of the Skaergaard basalt intrusions we find two regions where the differential time is reduced by more than 2 s. The 410-km discontinuity in these regions is depressed by more than 20 km. The depression may be explained by a temperature elevation of 150 °C. We hypothesize that the basaltic intrusions and the temperature anomalies at a depth of 400 km are, at least partly, effects of the passage of Greenland over the Iceland hotspot at about 55 Ma. This explanation is consistent with the concept of tectosphere and implies that the upper mantle to a depth of 400 km translates coherently with the Greenland plate.

  3. Single-Stage Low-Power Quadrature RF Receiver Front-End: The LMV Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liscidini, Antonio; Mazzanti, Andrea; Tonietto, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first quadrature RF receiver front-end where, in a single stage, low-noise amplifier (LNA), mixer and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) share the same bias current. The new structure exploits the intrinsic mixing functionality of a classical LC-tank oscillator providing ...

  4. The Under-side of the Andes: Using Receiver Functions to Map the North Central Andean Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project is an interdisciplinary project to investigate connections between lithospheric removal, crustal shortening and surface uplift in the northern Bolivia and southern Peru region of the South American Andean orogen. The central Andes are defined by six major tectonomorphic provinces; the forearc, the volcanically active Western Cordillera (WC, ~6 km elevation), the internally drained Altiplano (~4 km elevation), an inactive fold and thrust belt in the Eastern Cordillera (EC, ~6 km elevation), a lower elevation active fold and thrust belt in the Subandean (SA) zone and the Beni, a foreland basin. Forty seismic stations installed for the CAUGHT project were deployed between 13° and 18° S latitude, covering the transition zone where the Altiplano region pinches out in southern Peru, in an effort to better constrain the changing character of the crust and mantle lithosphere. Geologic studies across the northern Bolivian portion of the eastern Andean margin (15-17° S) have documented a total of 275 km of upper crustal shortening (McQuarrie et al, Tectonics, v27, 2008), which may be associated with crustal thickening and/or the removal of lithospheric material as a thickened lithosphere root becomes unstable. For this receiver function (converted wave) study, we have little coverage in the forearc and foreland, ~75 km spacing in most of the array, and a relatively dense ~20 km spaced profile along the Charaña-La Paz-Yucumo transect, the eastern portion of which is nearly coincident with the balanced cross-section of McQuarrie et al. (2008). Using the first year of available data, more than 1200 receiver functions have been calculated using an iterative deconvolution method, and stacked using the common conversion point (CCP) method, along profiles parallel to and nearly coincident to those used for the geologic shortening estimates. We identified arrivals for the Moho and generated a 3D map of

  5. An estimation method of the gross Beta activity in receiving river water of a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Tao, Yun-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, an estimation method of gross beta activity from radionuclide concentrations in river water based on decay data was presented by introducing a concept of gross beta conversion factor. With the factors, the gross beta activities of some downstream water intakes and the locations downstream 1 km away from a planning nuclear power plant in inland China were estimated. The results indicated that the gross beta activities in the receiving river water due to the liquid effluent discharge of the nuclear power plant with 4 CPR 1,000 units during normal operation are lower than the recommended guideline level of 1 Bq L from the legal standard on these sites.

  6. Stakeholder consultations regarding centralized power procurement processes in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Ontario held 4 Requests for Proposals (RFPs) to encourage the development of new clean renewable combined heat and power generation and the implementation of conservation and demand management programs. Details of a stakeholder consultation related to the RFP process were presented were in this paper. The aim of the consultation was to synthesize stakeholder comments and to provide appropriate recommendations for future RFPs held by the Ontario Power Authority (OPA). The financial burden of bidding was discussed, as well as communications procedures and contract ambiguities. Issues concerning the criteria used for qualifying potential bidders and evaluating project submissions were reviewed. Recommendations for future processes included prequalification, a simplification in collusion requirements, and a fixed time response. It was also recommended that the process should not emphasize financing as lenders do not make firm commitments to bidders prior to a bid being accepted. It was suggested that the amount of bid security should vary with the project size and phase of development, and that the contracts for differences format should be refined to allow participants to propose parameters. Issues concerning audit procedures and performance deviations were reviewed. It was suggested that contract terms should be compatible with gas markets. It was also suggested that the OPA should adopt a more simplified approach to co-generation proposals, where proponents can specify amounts of energy and required prices. The adoption of the Swiss challenge approach of allowing other vendors an opportunity to match or beat terms on an offer was recommended. It was suggested that renewables should be acquired through a targeted and volume limited standard-offer process to be set yearly. Conservation and demand management recommendations were also presented. It was suggested that the OPA should serve as a facilitator of clean development mechanism (CDM) programs. It was

  7. New instrument for the confirmation of declared power histories of central station nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdy, E.J.; Robba, A.A.; Hastings, R.D.; France, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    An operationally simple, portable, microprocessor-based, unattended reactor power monitor was developed for International Atomic Energy Agency inspector use in confirming operator records of the power history of nuclear power plants. The monitor is based on the principle that the leakage neutron flux outside the biological shield is proportional to the thermal power level. The leakage flux is detected and compared with the leakage flux from the same reactor for a confirmed calibration period. Several output options are available, and a record of more than three months of hourly measurements of the themal power of the plant can be obtained. The monitor has battery backup power for interruptions of host power of duration up to 18 hours

  8. Productivity and Efficiency Measurement of the Danish Centralized Biogas Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racz, Viktor Jozsef; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Danish centralizes biogas CHP power plants is crucial in order to study whether there is a most efficient power plant which can be introduced as a “best practice” innovative technology for the future's Danish biogas power plants. In this paper we use the intertemporal Malmquist total factor productivity......The widespread use of the renewable energy sources in the future's energy production is necessary, in order to avoid the predicted environmental, economic and social effects which can be derived from the overuse of fossil fuels. Denmark has announced to be fossil fuel independent with a renewable...... energy based heat and power source by 2050. Theoretically, the centralized biogas combined heat and power plants can play a determinant role in the subsequent Danish energy supply scheme, due to its feature to satisfy base load demand. The productivity and efficiency analysis of the currently operating...

  9. Optimization of heliostat field layout in solar central receiver systems on annual basis using differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atif, Maimoon; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Differential evolution optimization model was developed to optimize the heliostat field. • Five optical parameters were considered for the optimization of the optical efficiency. • Optimization using insolation weighted and un-weighted annual efficiency are developed. • The daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 while the monthly was 0.5025. • The insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency was 0.5634. - Abstract: Optimization of a heliostat field is an essential task to make a solar central receiver system effective because major optical losses are associated with the heliostat fields. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to effectively optimize the heliostat field on annual basis using differential evolution, which is an evolutionary algorithm. The heliostat field layout optimization is based on the calculation of five optical performance parameters: the mirror or the heliostat reflectivity, the cosine factor, the atmospheric attenuation factor, the shadowing and blocking factor, and the intercept factor. This model calculates all the aforementioned performance parameters at every stage of the optimization, until the best heliostat field layout based on annual performance is obtained. Two different approaches were undertaken to optimize the heliostat field layout: one with optimizing insolation weighted annual efficiency and the other with optimizing the un-weighted annual efficiency. Moreover, an alternate approach was also proposed to efficiently optimize the heliostat field in which the number of computational time steps was considerably reduced. It was observed that the daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 as compared to the monthly averaged annual optical efficiency, 0.5025. Moreover, the insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency of the heliostat field was 0.5634 for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The code developed can be used for any other

  10. Thermal Power Systems, Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver Technology Project. Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 1978. Volume II. Detailed report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-15

    Thermal or electrical power from the sun's radiated energy through Point-Focusing Distributed Receiver technology is the goal of this Project. The energy thus produced must be economically competitive with other sources. This Project supports the industrial development of technology and hardware for extracting energy from solar power to achieve the stated goal. Present studies are working to concentrate the solar energy through mirrors or lenses, to a working fluid or gas, and through a power converter change it to an energy source useful to man. Rankine-cycle and Brayton-cycle engines are currently being developed as the most promising energy converters for our near future needs. Accomplishments on point-focusing technology in FY 1978 are detailed.

  11. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  12. Comparative analysis of collective doses received since 1976 at the Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye, Louis

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of the collective doses at the Centrale nucleaire des Ardennes povides valuable data about the origin of exposures in P.W.R. reactors and their evolution regarding the increase of activity of the circuits after more than 10 years of operation. The investigations led for most of the works since 1976 reveals that, in some cases, the use of sophisticated implements combined with modifications of equipments and procedures may bring appreciable savings on doses during normal operation as well as maintenance and refuelings shut-down. However, the study gives the 'reasonably achievable' limits than can be aimed in a plant on operation, the doses resulting mainly from problems that should be taken into account at design [fr

  13. System for a displaying at a remote station data generated at a central station and for powering the remote station from the central station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A system for displaying at a remote station data generated at a central station and for powering the remote station from the central station is presented. A power signal is generated at the central station and time multiplexed with the data and then transmitted to the remote station. An energy storage device at the remote station is responsive to the transmitted power signal to provide energizing power for the circuits at the remote station during the time interval data is being transmitted to the remote station. Energizing power for the circuits at the remote station is provided by the power signal itself during the time this signal is transmitted. Preferably the energy storage device is a capacitor which is charged by the power signal during the time the power is transmitted and is slightly discharged during the time the data is transmitted to energize the circuits at the remote station.

  14. Dose received during work in the active zone of the BIBLIS power plant, instalment A, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallmeyer, D.; Ambros, R.; Schroeder, H.J.; Kausch, S.

    1978-01-01

    In the Biblis station, instalment A, of the Rheinisch-Wesfaelisches-Elektrizitaetswerk, a study was conducted in 1977 to determine the doses received as a function of work carried out. The aim was to establish in a general study the dose which appears in each case during work on systems (or components of systems) in the active zone. An attempt was made as far as possible to relate the doses to specific occupations. This correlation is governed in two ways by conditions inherent in the organisation of the Biblis station a) maintenance and repair work are carried out under work contracts; the dose can be related to this work by the order number of the contract in question. b) Some activities, apart from maintenance and repair may be carried out without a contract. The dose which then appears is related to the type of activity concerned

  15. Survival of juvenile fishes receiving thermal and mechanical stresses in a simulated power plant condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedl, R.J.; Coutant, C.C.

    Experiments were conducted in a water-recirculating loop to determine the effects of fluid-induced stresses (e.g., turbulence, pressure, and vacuum) on six species of larval fish and one species each of frog tadpoles and zooplankton. These stresses simulate the insults developed in the condenser portion, but not including the pump, of a steam power plant. Some experiments were conducted with thermal stresses superimposed on fluid-induced stresses. Fluid-induced stresses of the magnitude developed in these experiments were generally not fatal to the larval fish within the precision of the experiments, although some sublethal effects were noted. When thermal stress was superimposed on the fluid-induced stresses, the mortalities were equivalent to those resulting from thermal stress alone. Fluid-induced stresses of low magnitude were not fatal to Daphnia magna, but fluid-induced stresses of higher magnitude were responsible for significant mortalities. (U.S.)

  16. A low power wide-band CMOS PLL frequency synthesizer for portable hybrid GNSS receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Shimao; Yu Yunfeng; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Yin Ming, E-mail: xiaoshimao@casic.ac.c [Hangzhou Zhongke Microelectronics Co Ltd, Hangzhou 310053 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The design consideration and implementation of a CMOS frequency synthesizer for the portable hybrid global navigation satellite system are presented. The large tuning range is achieved by tuning curve compensation using an improved VCO resonant tank, which reduces the power consumption and obtains better phase noise performance. The circuit is validated by simulations and fabricated in a standard 0.18 {mu}m 1P6M CMOS process. Close-loop phase noise measured is lower than -95 dBc at 200 kHz offset while the measured tuning range is 21.5% from 1.47 to 1.83 GHz. The proposed synthesizer including source coupled logic prescaler consumes 6.2 mA current from 1.8 V supply. The whole silicon required is only 0.53 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.; Waymire, Russell L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Systems Analysis Dept.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  18. Coupled optical-thermal-fluid and structural analyses of novel light-trapping tubular panels for concentrating solar power receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jesus D.; Christian, Joshua M.; Yellowhair, Julius E.; Ho, Clifford K.

    2015-09-01

    Traditional tubular receivers used in concentrating solar power are formed using tubes connected to manifolds to form panels; which in turn are arranged in cylindrical or rectangular shapes. Previous and current tubular receivers, such as the ones used in Solar One, Solar Two, and most recently the Ivanpah solar plants, have used a black paint coating to increase the solar absorptance of the receiver. However, these coatings degrade over time and must be reapplied, increasing the receiver maintenance cost. This paper presents the thermal efficiency evaluation of novel receiver tubular panels that have a higher effective solar absorptance due to a light-trapping effect created by arranging the tubes in each panel into unique geometric configurations. Similarly, the impact of the incidence angle on the effective solar absorptance and thermal efficiency is evaluated. The overarching goal of this work is to achieve effective solar absorptances of ~90% and thermal efficiencies above 85% without using an absorptance coating. Several panel geometries were initially proposed and were down-selected based on structural analyses considering the thermal and pressure loading requirements of molten salt and supercritical carbon-dioxide receivers. The effective solar absorptance of the chosen tube geometries and panel configurations were evaluated using the ray-tracing modeling capabilities of SolTrace. The thermal efficiency was then evaluated by coupling computational fluid dynamics with the ray-tracing results using ANSYS Fluent. Compared to the base case analysis (flat tubular panel), the novel tubular panels have shown an increase in effective solar absorptance and thermal efficiency by several percentage points.

  19. Optimal heliostat aiming strategy for uniform distribution of heat flux on the receiver of a solar power tower plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besarati, Saeb M.; Yogi Goswami, D.; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The HFLCAL method is used to find the flux distribution of individual heliostats. • An optimization algorithm is developed based on the principles of genetic algorithm. • The objective is to minimize the standard deviation of flux density distribution. • The optimization algorithm finds which heliostats should aim at which point. • By using the new algorithm the maximum flux is reduced by an order of magnitude. - Abstract: Temperature distribution on the receiver surface of a solar power tower plant is of great importance. High temperature gradients may lead to local hot spots and consequently failure of the receiver. The temperature distribution can be controlled by defining several aiming points on the receiver surface and adjusting the heliostats accordingly. In this paper, a new optimization algorithm which works based on the principles of genetic algorithm is developed to find the optimal flux distribution on the receiver surface. The objective is to minimize the standard deviation of the flux density distribution by changing the aiming points of individual heliostats. Flux distribution of each heliostat is found by using the HFLCAL model [1], which is validated against experimental data. The results show that after employing the new algorithm the maximum flux density is reduced by an order of magnitude. The effects of number of aiming points and size of the aiming surface on the flux density distribution are investigated in detail

  20. External and internal radiation doses from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident received by residents of Chiba, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Ohta, Yuji; Banba, Shigeru; Maeyama, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) first reached the Chiba-City on March 15, 2011. Atmospheric and tap water samples were collected from March 2011 to August 2012 to measure of radioactivity in the Chiba-City, about 220 km SSE of the Fukushima NPP. We then used the data to analyze the external and internal (from inhalation of contaminated air or ingestion of contaminated drinking water) radiation doses received by the residents of the Chiba-City after the accident. (author)

  1. 77 FR 42768 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-423; NRC-2012-0044] Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of Consideration of Approval of Transfer of Facility... Public Service Corporation (CVPS)' interest in the Renewed Facility Operating License (No. NPF-49) for...

  2. Ultra-low-power and ultra-low-cost short-range wireless receivers in nanoscale CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhicheng; Martins, Rui Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a description of state-of-the-art techniques to be used for ultra-low-power (ULP) and ultra-low-cost (ULC), short-range wireless receivers. Readers will learn what is required to deploy these receivers in short-range wireless sensor networks, which are proliferating widely to serve the internet of things (IoT) for “smart cities.” The authors address key challenges involved with the technology and the typical tradeoffs between ULP and ULC. Three design examples with advanced circuit techniques are described in order to address these trade-offs, which specially focus on cost minimization. These three techniques enable respectively, cascading of radio frequency (RF) and baseband (BB) circuits under an ultra-low-voltage (ULV) supply, cascoding of RF and BB circuits in current domain for current reuse, and a novel function-reuse receiver architecture, suitable for ULV and multi-band ULP applications such as the sub-GHz ZigBee. ·         Summarizes the state-of-the-art i...

  3. A Prototype PZT Matrix Transducer With Low-Power Integrated Receive ASIC for 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Raghunathan, Shreyas B; Yu, Zili; Shabanimotlagh, Maysam; Chen, Zhao; Chang, Zu-yao; Blaak, Sandra; Prins, Christian; Ponte, Jacco; Noothout, Emile; Vos, Hendrik J; Bosch, Johan G; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation of a prototype lead zirconium titanate (PZT) matrix transducer with an integrated receive ASIC, as a proof of concept for a miniature three-dimensional (3-D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe. It consists of an array of 9 ×12 piezoelectric elements mounted on the ASIC via an integration scheme that involves direct electrical connections between a bond-pad array on the ASIC and the transducer elements. The ASIC addresses the critical challenge of reducing cable count, and includes front-end amplifiers with adjustable gains and micro-beamformer circuits that locally process and combine echo signals received by the elements of each 3 ×3 subarray. Thus, an order-of-magnitude reduction in the number of receive channels is achieved. Dedicated circuit techniques are employed to meet the strict space and power constraints of TEE probes. The ASIC has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and consumes only 0.44 mW/channel. The prototype has been acoustically characterized in a water tank. The ASIC allows the array to be presteered across ±37° while achieving an overall dynamic range of 77 dB. Both the measured characteristics of the individual transducer elements and the performance of the ASIC are in good agreement with expectations, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  4. MPC for Wind Power Gradients - Utilizing Forecasts, Rotor Inertia, and Central Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    decentralized energy storage in the turbines’ inertia combined with a central storage unit or deferrable consumers can be utilized to achieve this goal at a minimum cost. We propose a variation on model predictive control to incorporate predictions of wind speed. Due to the aerodynamics of the turbines...... the model contains nonconvex terms. To handle this nonconvexity, we propose a sequential convex optimization method, which typically converges in fewer than 10 iterations. We demonstrate our method in simulations with various wind scenarios and prices for energy storage. These simulations show substantial......We consider the control of a wind power plant, possibly consisting of many individual wind turbines. The goal is to maximize the energy delivered to the power grid under very strict grid requirements to power quality. We define an extremely low power output gradient and demonstrate how...

  5. 78 FR 16490 - Jersey Central Power and Light Company, PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Authorization for Continued...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2309-000] Jersey Central Power and Light Company, PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On February 18, 2011, the Jersey Central Power and Light Company and PSEG Fossil LLC, licensees for the Yards...

  6. 76 FR 13173 - Jersey Central Power & Light Company and PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2309-019] Jersey Central Power & Light Company and PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Date Filed: February 18, 2011. d. Applicant: Jersey Central Power & Light Company and PSEG Fossil, LLC...

  7. 76 FR 35201 - Jersey Central Power and Light; PSEG Fossil LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2309-019] Jersey Central Power and Light; PSEG Fossil LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...: Jersey Central Power and Light and PSEG Fossil LLC. e. Name of Project: Yards Creek Pumped Storage...

  8. The power consumption of mural central heating boilers; La consommation electrique des chaudieres murales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-10-01

    Two huge campaigns of measurements in the residential sector have revealed the unsuspected level of power consumption of heating and ventilation auxiliaries. It is important to know these levels in order to reduce them as they can significantly increase the energy bill of the lodging. This paper analyzes the case of mural central heating boilers with their auxiliaries: circulating pump of the heating loop and of the sanitary hot water production, ventilation systems, impact of the type of control system used (programmable clock, thermostat or none), annual and seasonal power consumption and the different solutions to reduce these over-consumptions. (J.S.)

  9. Cost analysis of an air Brayton receiver for a solar thermal electric power system in selected annual production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  10. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  11. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  12. On power consumption issues in FIR filters with application to communication receivers: complexity, word length, and switching activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havashki, Asghar

    2009-10-15

    Power consumption in CMOS VLSI circuits has in recent years become a major design constraint. This is in particular important for wireless networks, due to the limited life time of the batteries that wireless nodes are operating on. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one example of a technique which in recent years has become widely applied in wireless communication systems. However, the performance of OFDM and other spectrally efficient schemes depends, to a large extend, on advanced digital signal processing (DSP) and on the use of efficient and possibly adaptive resource allocation and transmission techniques. These in turn require that accurate estimates of the channel are available in the receiver and transmitter. However, accurate channel estimation of a time and frequency dispersive wireless fading channel calls for complex estimators, which might lead to significant power dissipation in such devices. Therefore, characterizing and analyzing power consumed by such devices under different channel conditions, and optimizing for power is important to reduce the overall power consumption of the system. In this thesis a certain chosen class of estimators, i.e., a linear FIR estimator, is considered, which is based on finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The work in this thesis considers the power related challenges in such estimators. The power consumed by such estimators depends, in part, on the complexity of the estimator, i.e., the length of the FIR filter. The filter length is one of the factors affecting the estimation accuracy. An analysis of the relation between the performance of such estimators and the required complexity for these devices under different channel conditions, i.e., in the presence of noise, is performed in this thesis. In this study we show that a small increase in this noise can lead to a considerable increase in the required estimator complexity if a given Normalized Mean Square Error (NMSE) performance for the

  13. Effectiveness of a large mimic panel in an existing nuclear power plant central control board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Sasajima, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Ryutaro; Shibuya Shinya

    1999-01-01

    We conducted the analysis of the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators' behaviors under emergency conditions by using training simulators as a joint research project by Japanese BWR groups for twelve years. In the phase-IV of this project we executed two kinds of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the interfaces. One was for evaluations of the interfaces such as CRTs with touch screen, a large mimic panel, and a hierarchical annunciator system introduced in the newly developed ABWR type central control board. The other was that we analyzed the operators' behaviors in emergency conditions by using the first generation BWR type central control board which was added new interfaces such as a large display screen and demarcation on the board to help operators to understand the plant. The demarcation is one of the visual interface improvements and its technique is that a line enclosing several components causes them to be perceived as a group.The result showed that both the large display panel Introduced in ABWR central control board and the large display screen in the existing BWR type central control board improved the performance of the NPP operators in the experiments. It was expected that introduction of the large mimic panel into the existing BWR type central control boards would improve operators' performance. However, in the case of actual installation of the large display board into the existing central control boards, there are spatial and hardware constraints. Therefore the size of lamps, lines connecting from symbols of the pumps or valves to the others' will have to be modified under these constraints. It is important to evaluate the displayed information on the large display board before actual installation. We made experiments to solve these problems by using TEPCO's research simulator which is added a large mimic panel. (author)

  14. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG ampersand E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it's new marketing plan

  15. Dual-beam ELF wave generation as a function of power, frequency, modulation waveform, and receiver location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D.; Moore, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Dual-beam ELF wave generation experiments performed at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter are used to investigate the dependence of the generated ELF wave magnitude on HF power, HF frequency, modulation waveform, and receiver location. During the experiments, two HF beams transmit simultaneously: one amplitude modulated (AM) HF beam modulates the conductivity of the lower ionosphere at ELF frequencies while a second HF beam broadcasts a continuous waveform (CW) signal, modifying the efficiency of ELF conductivity modulation and thereby the efficiency of ELF wave generation. We report experimental results for different ambient ionospheric conditions, and we interpret the observations in the context of a newly developed dual-beam HF heating model. A comparison between model predictions and experimental observations indicates that the theoretical model includes the essential physics involved in multifrequency HF heating of the lower ionosphere. In addition to the HF transmission parameters mentioned above, the model is used to predict the dependence of ELF wave magnitude on the polarization of the CW beam and on the modulation frequency of the modulated beam. We consider how these effects vary with ambientD-region electron density and electron temperature.

  16. Design of a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS multi-band compatible low power GNSS receiver RF frontend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Bing; Zhuang Yiqi; Long Qiang; Jin Zhao; Li Zhenrong; Jin Gang, E-mail: waxmax@126.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-03-15

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully integrated multi-band RF receiver frontend for GNSS applications on L-band. A single RF signal channel with a low-IF architecture is adopted for multi-band operation on the RF section, which mainly consists of a low noise amplifier (LNA), a down-converter, polyphase filters and summing circuits. An improved cascode source degenerated LNA with a multi-band shared off-chip matching network and band switches is implemented in the first amplifying stage. Also, a re-designed wideband double balance mixer is implemented in the down conversion stage, which provides better gain, noise figure and linearity performances. Using a TSMC 0.18 {mu}m 1P4M RF CMOS process, a compact 1.27 GHz/1.575 GHz dual-band GNSS frontend is realized in the proposed low-IF topology. The measurements exhibit the gains of 45 dB and 43 dB, and noise figures are controlled at 3.35 dB and 3.9 dB of the two frequency bands, respectively. The frontend model consumes about 11.8-13.5 mA current on a 1.8 V power supply. The core occupies 1.91 x 0.53 mm{sup 2} while the total die area with ESD is 2.45 x 2.36 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. The Dutch Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI): Factor Analysis, Discriminative Power, and Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregel, Jeroen; Vuijk, Pieter J; Descheemaeker, Filip; Keizer, Doeke; van der Noord, Robert; Nijs, Jo; Cagnie, Barbara; Meeus, Mira; van Wilgen, Paul

    2016-07-01

    A standardized assessment of central sensitization can be performed with the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI), an English questionnaire consisting of 25 items relating to current health symptoms. The aim of this study was to translate the CSI into Dutch, to perform a factor analysis to reveal the underlying structure, examine its discriminative power, and test-retest reliability. The CSI was first translated into Dutch. A factor analysis was conducted on CSI data of a large group of chronic pain patients (n=368). The ability to discriminate between chronic pain patients (n=188) and pain-free controls (n=49) was determined and the test-retest reliability for chronic pain patients (n=36) and controls (n=45) with a time interval of 3 weeks was evaluated. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 4-factor model based on 20 items, representing the domains "General disability and physical symptoms" (Cronbach α=0.80), "Higher central sensitivity"(Cronbach α=0.78), "Urological and dermatological symptoms"(Cronbach α=0.60), and "Emotional distress"(Cronbach α=0.80). Furthermore, a parsimonious second-order factor model was found, where the factor "General central sensitization" was underlying the 4 first-order factors. Chronic pain patients scored significantly worse on all 4 factors. The test-retest reliability was excellent values in both chronic pain patients (ICC=0.88) and controls (ICC=0.91). The original CSI was translated into Dutch and did not reveal any problems during data acquisition. The domains represented by the 4 factors may be useful in setting up specific patient profiles and treatment targets. To conclude, the Dutch CSI revealed 4 distinguishable domains, showed good internal consistency for the total score and 3 out of 4 domains, good discriminative power, and excellent test-retest reliability.

  18. Crustal structure in the southern part of Central Java based on analysis of tele-seismic receiver function using a neighbourhood algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, P.; Syuhada; Rosid, S.; Anggono, T.; Januarti, Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we applied receiver functions analysis to determine the crustal thickness, the ratio of Vp/Vs and the S wave velocity in the southern part of the Central Java. We selected tele-seismic data with magnitude more than 6 (M>6) and epicenter distance 30°-90° recorded from 3 broadband stations: UGM, YOGI, and WOJI station, as part of Indonesia-Geophone Network (IA-GE). Inversions were performed using nonlinear Neighborhood Algorithm (NA). We observed Ps phase conversion on the receiver functions corresponding to Moho depth at around 36-39 km. We also observed strong negative phase arrivals at around 10-12 s which might be associated with Indo-Australian subducting slab underneath the stations. The inversion results show the presence of low velocity zone with high Vp/Vs ratio (>1.78) in the middle crust around the study area which could be related to the Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA).

  19. Handling transmission limitations in the central power network; Haandtering av overfoeringsbegrensninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    From 1996, the Norwegian and Swedish power markets were joined and a common power exchange was established. The two countries deal differently with bottlenecks (transmission obstruction) in their central networks. This report compares methods for dealing with such bottlenecks and looks at the alternatives. It emphasises the efficiency of pricing and incentives and the possibility of exercising market power under the different methods. Norway uses a method of price regions, or bottleneck tax. Prices are determined for the various price regions so as to keep the power flow below specified bounds. A surplus region is assigned a lower price than a deficit region and the bottleneck tax is the difference in price between two such price regions. The Swedish system is based on a counter purchase concept. In his offer to the spotmarket, the supplier has bound himself to provide a certain amount to the current system price regardless of network limitations. Up-regulation means that he produces more than this amount. Down-regulation means that he is paid for supplying less than he had offered to the current system price. In up- or down-regulation, compensation is given as the difference between the system price and the price on the counter purchase market. The main conclusions are: (1) Counter purchase is unsuitable as the main strategy for Norway. (2) Counter purchase may be suitable with short-lived and unpredicted bottlenecks; price regions may be suitable for long-lasting and predicted bottlenecks. Time is a central factor. (3) Present-day models for bottleneck management in Norway and Sweden do not give the optimum short-term load distribution on the network. In general, the current Norwegian system works fairly well, although it might be worthwhile to consider a system that approaches node pricing. 3 refs., 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Low power transpupillary thermotherapy with retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide for central exudative chorioretino- pathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of low power transpupillary thermotherapy(TTTwith retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide(TAfor central exudative chorioretinopathy(CEC.METHODS: Fourteen eyes with idiopathic choroidal neovascularization were treated with retrobulbar injection of TA and performed by low power TTT after one week. Laser parameters were as follows: spot diameter 0.8-3.0mm, low power 120-360mW, time 60 seconds. By 3 to 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity, ophthalmoscope, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFAand optical coherence tomography(OCTwere used to observe the curative effects.RESULTS: Visual acuity were improved in 5 eyes(36%, remained stable in 8 eyes(57%and declined in 1 eye(7%after treatment. The macular hemorrhage and exudation were reduced significantly in 12 eyes. FFA showed that the fluorescein leakage ceased or decreased in 7 eyes, unchanged in 5 eyes, and enlarged in 2 eyes. The macular edema of 12 eyes in OCT was reduced unequally.CONCLUSION: Low power TTT combined with retrobulbar injection of TA shows good therapeutic effect on CEC.

  1. Maintainability considerations for the central cell in WITAMIR-I, a conceptual design of a tandem mirror fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1980-10-01

    The concepts for maintaining the central cell reactor components for WITAMIR-I are described. WITAMIR-I is a conceptual tandem mirror fusion power reactor utilizing thermal barriers designed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Unique solutions to the difficult problems of routine blanket replacement and maintenance are proposed. Solutions are also proposed for maintaining the central cell coils and the shield

  2. Comparison of peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) versus subcutaneously implanted port-chamber catheters by complication and cost for patients receiving chemotherapy for non-haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, G S; Jain, K; Kumar, R; Strickland, A H; Pellegrini, L; Slavotinek, J; Eaton, M; McLeay, W; Price, T; Ly, M; Ullah, S; Koczwara, B; Kichenadasse, G; Karapetis, C S

    2014-01-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) have been increasingly used to enable delivery of intravenous chemotherapy. We aimed to compare the safety and cost of two commonly used CVCs, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICCs) and ports, in the delivery of chemotherapy in patients with non-haematological malignancies. Seventy patients were randomly assigned to receive either a PICC or a port. The primary endpoint was occurrence of major complications, which required removal of the CVC and secondary endpoints included occurrence of any complications. Port devices were associated with fewer complications compared with PICC lines (hazard ratio of 0.25, CI, 0.09-0.86, P = 0.038). Major complication rate was lower in the port arm compared to the PICC arm (0.047 versus 0.193 major complications/100 catheter days, P = 0.034) with 6 versus 20 % of patients experiencing major complications, respectively. Thrombosis, the most common complication, was significantly higher in the PICC arm compared to the port arm (25 versus 0 %, P = 0.013). Quality of life and cost estimates did not differ significantly between the two arms. Port devices are associated with a lower risk of complications, with no difference in cost, compared to PICC lines in patients with non-haematological malignancies receiving intravenous chemotherapy.

  3. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

  4. Neuroanatomical and resting state EEG power correlates of central hearing loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Nathalie; Hirsiger, Sarah; Muri, Raphaela; Kegel, Andrea; Dillier, Norbert; Meyer, Martin

    2018-01-01

    To gain more insight into central hearing loss, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness and surface area, speech-relevant resting state EEG power, and above-threshold auditory measures in older adults and younger controls. Twenty-three older adults and 13 younger controls were tested with an adaptive auditory test battery to measure not only traditional pure-tone thresholds, but also above individual thresholds of temporal and spectral processing. The participants' speech recognition in noise (SiN) was evaluated, and a T1-weighted MRI image obtained for each participant. We then determined the cortical thickness (CT) and mean cortical surface area (CSA) of auditory and higher speech-relevant regions of interest (ROIs) with FreeSurfer. Further, we obtained resting state EEG from all participants as well as data on the intrinsic theta and gamma power lateralization, the latter in accordance with predictions of the Asymmetric Sampling in Time hypothesis regarding speech processing (Poeppel, Speech Commun 41:245-255, 2003). Methodological steps involved the calculation of age-related differences in behavior, anatomy and EEG power lateralization, followed by multiple regressions with anatomical ROIs as predictors for auditory performance. We then determined anatomical regressors for theta and gamma lateralization, and further constructed all regressions to investigate age as a moderator variable. Behavioral results indicated that older adults performed worse in temporal and spectral auditory tasks, and in SiN, despite having normal peripheral hearing as signaled by the audiogram. These behavioral age-related distinctions were accompanied by lower CT in all ROIs, while CSA was not different between the two age groups. Age modulated the regressions specifically in right auditory areas, where a thicker cortex was associated with better auditory performance in older adults. Moreover, a thicker right supratemporal sulcus predicted more rightward theta

  5. On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimbrall, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kW tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated. A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 MW tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation s 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one MW per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine s Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 MPa, 2900 psi) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, watermiscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC s cross-flow turbines are also discussed. For 15 MW of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

  6. Cob biomass supply for combined heat and power and biofuel in the north central USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmer, Marty R.; Dose, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central United States (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) using existing corn grain ethanol plants as a proxy for possible future co-located cellulosic ethanol plants. Cob production estimates averaged 6.04 Tg and 8.87 Tg using a 40 km radius area and 80 km radius area, respectively, from existing corn grain ethanol plants. The use of CHP from cobs reduces overall GHG emissions by 60%–65% from existing dry mill ethanol plants. An integrated biorefinery further reduces corn grain ethanol GHG emissions with estimated ranges from 13.9 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 to 17.4 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 . Significant radius area overlap (53% overlap for 40 km radius and 86% overlap for 80 km radius) exists for cob availability between current corn grain ethanol plants in this region suggesting possible cob supply constraints for a mature biofuel industry. A multi-feedstock approach will likely be required to meet multiple end user renewable energy requirements for the north central United States. Economic and feedstock logistics models need to account for possible supply constraints under a mature biofuel industry. - Highlights: • Corn cob biomass was estimated for the north central United States region. • Cobs were evaluated for combined heat and power generation and bioethanol. • Co-located ethanol plants showed a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. • Biomass supply constraints may occur under a mature cellulosic ethanol scenario

  7. On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimball, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kilowatt tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated.A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 megawatt tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation's 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one megawatt per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine's Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 megapascals, 2900 pounds per square inch) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, water-miscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC's cross-flow turbines are also discussed.For 15 megawatt of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

  8. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, R. Z. [Saratov Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Pron’, D. M. [Yu. A. Gagarin Saratov State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  9. Central-Receiver Solar-Thermal Power System 10-MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant: collector subsystem manufacturing plan report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-15

    The overall manufacturing planning effort included: design modification analysis; manufacturing/tooling conceptual trades; process/tooling verification experiments; and documentation of manufacturing plans and cost estimates. Innovative tooling concepts were evaluated. Studies also included comparison of costs of both field and shop assembly of heliostats.

  10. A two-hop wireless power transfer system with an efficiency-enhanced power receiver for motion-free capsule endoscopy inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Zhihua

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system for a motion-free capsule endoscopy inspection. Conventionally, a wireless power transmitter in a specifically designed jacket has to be connected to a strong power source with a long cable. To avoid the power cable and allow patients to walk freely in a room, this paper proposes a two-hop wireless power transfer system. First, power is transferred from a floor to a power relay in the patient's jacket via strong coupling. Next, power is delivered from the power relay to the capsule via loose coupling. Besides making patients much more conformable, the proposed techniques eliminate the sources of reliability issues arisen from the moving cable and connectors. In the capsule, it is critical to enhance the power conversion efficiency. This paper develops a switch-mode rectifier (rectifying efficiency of 93.6%) and a power combination circuit (enhances combining efficiency by 18%). Thanks to the two-hop transfer mechanism and the novel circuit techniques, this system is able to transfer an average power of 24 mW and a peak power of 90 mW from the floor to a 13 mm × 27 mm capsule over a distance of 1 m with the maximum dc-to-dc power efficiency of 3.04%.

  11. The history and development of off-site nuclear power plant training in the Central Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, V.J.; Bindon, F.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the history and development of off-site nuclear power plant training in the Central Electricity Generating Board (United Kingdom). A description is given of: the training at Calder Hall, -circa 1958, early simulator training at Berkeley Power Station, Oldbury Nuclear Power Training Centre, Heysham 2, and PWR training. The paper also looks at future developments likely to occur in the next few years. (UK)

  12. ON THE POWER FUNCTION OF TESTS OF PERCENTAGE POINTS BASED ON THE NON-CENTRAL T-STATISTIC,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The note considers the power function of one-sided tests of the 100 Beta % point of a normal population which are based on the non-central t...statistic. By combining two approximations given by Johnson and Welch, an approximate expression for the power function is obtained which has desirable...properties from the viewpoint of power function comparisons. Use of this approximation is illustrated by several examples. (Author)

  13. 18 CFR 367.1430 - Account 143, Other accounts receivable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 143, Other accounts receivable. 367.1430 Section 367.1430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT...

  14. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  15. Structural cost optimization of photovoltaic central power station modules and support structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P. D.; Stolte, W. J.; Marsh, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of photovoltaic module structural support concepts for photovoltaic central power stations and their associated costs are presented. The objective of the study has been the identification of structural cost drivers. Parametric structural design and cost analyses of complete array systems consisting of modules, primary support structures, and foundations were performed. Area related module cost was found to be constant with design, size, and loading. A curved glass module concept was evaluated and found to have the potential to significantly reduce panel structural costs. Conclusions of the study are: array costs do not vary greatly among the designs evaluated; panel and array costs are strongly dependent on design loading; and the best support configuration is load dependent

  16. Estimating achievable signal-to-noise ratios of MRI transmit-receive coils from radiofrequency power measurements: applications in quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The inverse relationship between the radiofrequency (RF) power needed to transmit a 90 deg. RF pulse, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) available from a transmit-receive RF coil is well known. The theory is restated and a formula given for the signal-to-noise ratio from water, achievable from a single-shot MRI experiment, in terms of the net forward RF power needed for a rectangular 90 deg. RF pulse of known shape and duration. The result is normalized to a signal bandwidth of 1 Hz and a sample mass of 1 g. The RF power information needed is available on most commercial scanners, as it is used to calculate specific absorption rates for RF tissue heating. The achievable SNR figure will normally be larger that that actually observed, mainly because of receiver noise, but also because of inaccuracies in setting RF pulse angles, and relaxation effects. Phantom experiments were performed on the transmit-receive RF head coil of a commercial MRI system at 0.95 T using a projection method. The measured SNR agreed with that expected from the formula for achievable SNR once a correction was made for the noise figure of the receiving chain. Comparisons of measured SNR figures with those calculated from RF power measurements are expected to be of value in acceptance testing and quality control. (author)

  17. Effective Power-Law Dependence of Lyapunov Exponents on the Central Mass in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Kalapotharakos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Using both numerical and analytical approaches, we demonstrate the existence of an effective power-law relation L alpha m(sup p) between themean Lyapunov exponent L of stellar orbits chaotically scattered by a supermassive black hole (BH) in the centre of a galaxy and the mass parameter m, i.e. ratio of the mass of the BH over the mass of the galaxy. The exponent p is found numerically to obtain values in the range p approximately equals 0.3-0.5. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these exponents, based on estimates of local 'stretching numbers', i.e. local Lyapunov exponents at successive transits of the orbits through the BH's sphere of influence. We thus predict p = 2/3 - q with q approximately equaling 0.1-0.2. Our basic model refers to elliptical galaxy models with a central core. However, we find numerically that an effective power-law scaling of L with m holds also in models with central cusp, beyond a mass scale up to which chaos is dominated by the influence of the cusp itself. We finally show numerically that an analogous law exists also in disc galaxies with rotating bars. In the latter case, chaotic scattering by the BH affects mainly populations of thick tube-like orbits surrounding some low-order branches of the x(sub 1) family of periodic orbits, as well as its bifurcations at low-order resonances, mainly the inner Lindblad resonance and the 4/1 resonance. Implications of the correlations between L and m to determining the rate of secular evolution of galaxies are discussed.

  18. Effective power-law dependence of Lyapunov exponents on the central mass in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Kalapotharakos, C.

    2015-04-01

    Using both numerical and analytical approaches, we demonstrate the existence of an effective power-law relation L ∝ mp between the mean Lyapunov exponent L of stellar orbits chaotically scattered by a supermassive black hole (BH) in the centre of a galaxy and the mass parameter m, i.e. ratio of the mass of the BH over the mass of the galaxy. The exponent p is found numerically to obtain values in the range p ≈ 0.3-0.5. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these exponents, based on estimates of local `stretching numbers', i.e. local Lyapunov exponents at successive transits of the orbits through the BH's sphere of influence. We thus predict p = 2/3 - q with q ≈ 0.1-0.2. Our basic model refers to elliptical galaxy models with a central core. However, we find numerically that an effective power-law scaling of L with m holds also in models with central cusp, beyond a mass scale up to which chaos is dominated by the influence of the cusp itself. We finally show numerically that an analogous law exists also in disc galaxies with rotating bars. In the latter case, chaotic scattering by the BH affects mainly populations of thick tube-like orbits surrounding some low-order branches of the x1 family of periodic orbits, as well as its bifurcations at low-order resonances, mainly the inner Lindblad resonance and the 4/1 resonance. Implications of the correlations between L and m to determining the rate of secular evolution ofx galaxies are discussed.

  19. An Ultraviolet Excess in the Superluminous Supernova Gaia16apd Reveals a Powerful Central Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Blanchard, P. K.; Milisavljevic, D.; Challis, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Margutti, R. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Metzger, B. D. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chornock, R., E-mail: matt.nicholl@cfa.harvard.edu [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Since the discovery of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) in the last decade, it has been known that these events exhibit bluer spectral energy distributions than other supernova subtypes, with significant output in the ultraviolet. However, the event Gaia16apd seems to outshine even the other SLSNe at rest-frame wavelengths below ∼3000 Å. Yan et al. have recently presented HST UV spectra and attributed the UV flux to low iron-group abundance in the outer ejecta, and hence reduced line blanketing. Here, we present UV and optical light curves over a longer baseline in time, revealing a rapid decline at UV wavelengths despite a typical optical evolution. Combining the published UV spectra with our own optical data, we demonstrate that Gaia16apd has a much hotter continuum than virtually any SLSN at maximum light, but it cools rapidly thereafter and is indistinguishable from the others by ∼10–15 days after peak. Comparing the equivalent widths of UV absorption lines with those of other events, we show that the excess UV continuum is a result of a more powerful central power source, rather than a lack of UV absorption relative to other SLSNe or an additional component from interaction with the surrounding medium. These findings strongly support the central-engine hypothesis for hydrogen-poor SLSNe. An explosion ejecting M {sub ej} = 4.8(0.2/ κ ) M {sub ⊙}, where κ is the opacity in cm{sup 2} g{sup −1}, and forming a magnetar with spin period P = 2 ms, and B = 2 × 10{sup 14} G (lower than other SLSNe with comparable rise times) can consistently explain the light curve evolution and high temperature at peak. The host metallicity, Z = 0.18 Z {sub ⊙}, is comparable to other SLSNe.

  20. Simulation of an offshore wind farm using fluid power for centralized electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jarquin Laguna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A centralized approach for electricity generation within a wind farm is explored through the use of fluid power technology. This concept considers a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A numerical model was developed to capture the relevant physics from the dynamic interaction between different turbines coupled to a common hydraulic network and controller. This paper presents a few examples of the time domain simulation results for a hypothetical hydraulic wind farm subject to turbulent wind conditions. The performance and operational parameters of individual turbines are compared with those of a reference wind farm based on conventional wind turbine generator technology using the same wind farm layout and environmental conditions. For the presented case studies, results indicate that the individual wind turbines are able to operate within operational limits. Despite the stochastic turbulent wind conditions and wake effects, the hydraulic wind farm is able to produce electricity with reasonable performance in both below and above rated conditions. With the current pressure control concept, a continuous operation of the hydraulic wind farm is shown including the full stop of one or more turbines.

  1. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  2. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Gregory N., E-mail: gregory.gan@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Camidge, D. Ross [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  3. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings.

  4. A double-helix and cross-patterned solenoid used as a wirelessly powered receiver for medical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-05-01

    Many medical implants need to be designed in the shape of a cylinder (rod), a cuboid or a capsule in order to adapt to a specific site within the human body or facilitate the implantation procedure. In order to wirelessly power these types of implants, a pair of coils, one is located inside the human body and one is outside, is often used. Since most organs such as major muscles, blood vessels, and nerve bundles are anatomically parallel to the body surface, the most desired wireless power transfer (WPT) direction is from the external power transmission pad (a planar coil) to the lateral surface of the implant. However, to obtain optimal coupling, the currently used solenoid coil requires being positioned perpendicular to the body surface, which is often medically or anatomically unacceptable. In this research, a concentric double-helix (DH) coil with an air core is presented for use in implantable devices. Two helical coils are tilted at opposite angles (±45 degrees) to form a cross pattern. The WPT system is designed using the magnetic resonance concept for wireless power transfer (MR-WPT). The power transfer efficiency (PTE) relies on the near-field magnetic coupling which is closely related to the location and orientation of the DH coil. We explain how the novel structure of the DH solenoid magnifies the mutual inductance with the widely adopted circular planner coil and how the PTE is improved in comparison to the case of the conventional solenoid coil. We also study an important case where the double-helix power reception coil is laterally and angularly misaligned with the transmitter. Finally, our computational study using the finite element method and experimental study with actually constructed prototypes are presented which have proven our new double-helix coil design.

  5. Study of the dose received by the population living in the surroundings of Nuclear Power Station, by the Polonium 210 incorporated through the consumption of sea organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.; Alonso, C.; Batista, M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the study of the doses received by the population in the surrounding of Juragua Nuclear Power Station, now under construction, it was determined the amount of Po-210 in the doses for the consumption of sea organisms. In the zone comprising 30 Km around the Nuclear Power Station, two populations were chosen for the study: the city of Cienfuegos- with a higher number of inhabitants in the zone- and the village know as Castillo de Jagua- where a higher number of sea organism is consumed

  6. Robustness analysis of complex networks with power decentralization strategy via flow-sensitive centrality against cascading failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenzhang; Wang, Hao; Wu, Zhengping

    2018-03-01

    Most existing cascading failure mitigation strategy of power grids based on complex network ignores the impact of electrical characteristics on dynamic performance. In this paper, the robustness of the power grid under a power decentralization strategy is analysed through cascading failure simulation based on AC flow theory. The flow-sensitive (FS) centrality is introduced by integrating topological features and electrical properties to help determine the siting of the generation nodes. The simulation results of the IEEE-bus systems show that the flow-sensitive centrality method is a more stable and accurate approach and can enhance the robustness of the network remarkably. Through the study of the optimal flow-sensitive centrality selection for different networks, we find that the robustness of the network with obvious small-world effect depends more on contribution of the generation nodes detected by community structure, otherwise, contribution of the generation nodes with important influence on power flow is more critical. In addition, community structure plays a significant role in balancing the power flow distribution and further slowing the propagation of failures. These results are useful in power grid planning and cascading failure prevention.

  7. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

  8. Line focus solar central power systems. Phase I. Final report, September 30, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    A conceptual design study was performed of a stand-alone Line Focus Solar Central Power System based on the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) for heat collection and draw salt (a 50% molar mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate) for heat transport and storage. Parametric analyses were performed at the subsystem level, and models were developed that were employed in a computerized simulation to minimize the cost of electricity (COE) by adjusting system design parameters. A design was prepared and costed for a first commercial plant with a rating of 100 MW(e) and a storage capacity equivalent to 420 MW(e)-hr of generation. The resulting plant achieves an annual capacity of 45.6%. Scaling studies indicate reductions in the COE for increased capacity factor and increased plant rating. Assessments of the plant concept indicate it should be acceptable to utilities on the basis of technical and operational considerations, but that reductions from the first 100-MW(e) plant cost would be required to achieve substantial market penetration.

  9. Russian and Chinese Policies of Soft Power in the Central Asia (the Case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The policy of “soft power” has lost some of its power in the Russian foreign policy, but continues to dominate in the minds of researchers. There are a lot of scientific and journalistic articles on this subject. The notion has already become a kind of trend, not only in the field of international relations and in the field of political science. The key criterion for determining the impact of “soft power” is “attraction”, that is how the subject can woo the object in order to have some influence on it. Both Russia and China have a set of instruments of “soft power”, which in varying degrees, allow them to influence the objects, including the countries of Central Asia, especially Kazakhstan. Due to the fact that the KR unofficially became the leader of the region, its example can be most clearly trace the desire of Russia and China to become the most attractive partner for Kazakhstan. The study is based on the Comparative Approach, which allows not only to identify the characteristics of the “soft power” of Russia and China, but to compare their effectiveness. The activities of the two countries is analyzed through the prism of tools used in the region of “soft power”, including investment, educational, scientific and cultural programs.

  10. The Study for Optimizing of the Electricity Power Supply in Central Java Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdinie, Sc S; Sudi-Ariyanto; Edi-Sartono; Suprapto; Nuryanti

    2004-01-01

    Electricity planning includes identification of electricity generation potential and problem where solution are being planned through the annual program. Due to correlation between electricity growth and economic growth, the sensitivity study for Central Java province has been done using three scenarios of annual electricity growth, i.e.: 6.7 %, 8 % and 10 % within the study period of 2003-2020. The tool used in this sensitivity study is WASP IV. From result the calculation gives total installed capacity in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 3960 MW, 5500 MW and 8620 MW respectively. Total produced energy in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 32301 G Wh, 39619 G Wh and 54374 G Wh. For total fuel required. Coal still predominate in all scenarios, followed by HSD and Gas. According to this study, Nuclear power plant can be introduced in 2020 for scenario of 8 % growth and 2017 for that of 10 % growth. WASP is utilized for projecting electricity supply. (author)

  11. 77 FR 7142 - Jersey Central Power and Light Company, PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2309-019] Jersey Central Power and Light Company, PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's...

  12. Metal impurity transport control in JET H-mode plasmas with central ion cyclotron radiofrequency power injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valisa, M.; Carraro, L.; Predebon, I.

    2011-01-01

    The scan of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) power has been used to systematically study the pump out effect of central electron heating on impurities such as Ni and Mo in H-mode low collisionality discharges in JET. The transport parameters of Ni and Mo have been measured by introducing...

  13. Puertollano IGCC Power Plant; Central de Gasificacion Integrada en Ciclo Combinado de Puertollano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Puertollano IGCC Power Plant, rated 335 MW and located in Puertollano, Ciudad Real, in the central area of Spain, is a project led by ELCOGAS, a company incorporated by the European utilities ENDESA, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE, IBERDROLA HIDROCANTABRICO ELECTRICIDADE DE PURTUGAL, ENEL and NATIONAL POWER and the technology and equipment suppliers SIEMENS, KRUPP UHDE and BABCOCK WILCOX ESPANOLA. IGCC technology is based in a process of coal gasification to obtain a clean combustion synthetic gas, integrated with a combined cycle, agas and steam, electricity-generating unit. The energy efficiency which is aimed to achieve at the Plant is 46% in ISO conditions. The Gasification unit uses the process of pressurised entrained flow for coal gasification. The gas is produced by the reaction of coal with oxygen at high temperatures, of up to 1600 degree centigree. This process is capable of gasifying a wide variety of types and qualities of coal for the production of a synthetic fuel gas. In the case of Puertollano, the raw fuel is a 50% mixture by weight of local coal and petroleum coke. The oxygen needed in the process and the nitrogen used for covering the fuel is generated in the Air Separation. The Gas Cleaning and Sulphur Recovery Unit clean the gases from contaminants and solid particles before to send them to the Gas Turbine. The clean gas is burnt in gas turbine of the Combined Cycle Plant, producing electricity. The exhaust gases feed a heat recovery steam generator, which produces steam used to generate additional electricity in a conventional steam turbine. The gas turbine is capable of operating both with synthetic gas and with natural gas, allowing operation flexibility. The net output of the plant up to December 1999 was 3.061 GWh, from them 344 GWh were produced with synthetic gas. This project has an important technological value, being the first power plant which uses coal gasification to feed a combined cycle in Spain and being also the biggest power plant

  14. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in patients who receive Bone Targeting Agents (BTAs): the power of e-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Migliorati, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    The definition, pathobiology and risk factors of ONJ in cancer patients who receive BTAs are discussed in the recent ecancer module for osteonecrosis of the jaw (http://ecancer.org/education/module/276-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw.php). ONJ prevention, early diagnosis and management are presented. The critical question of the performance of dental extraction, during BTA therapy, as indicated with the recent studies, is supported. The importance of the collaboration between dental and oncology professionals and the patients is highlighted and can be achieved through appropriate education. The ecancer modules are valuable tools for successful e-learning in medical oncology education, including ONJ.

  15. Design of Peak Efficiency of 85.3% WPC/PMA Wireless Power Receiver Using Synchronous Active Rectifier and Multi Feedback Low-Dropout Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaffar Hayat Nawaz Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synchronous active rectifier and Multi Feedback low drop out (LDO Regulator coupled with a wireless power receiver (WPR is proposed in this study. An active rectifier with maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE of 94.2% is proposed to mitigate the reverse leakage current using zero current sensing. Output voltage and current are regulated by multi-feedback LDO regulator, sharing the single path transistor. The proposed chip is fabricated in the 0.18 μm BCD technology having die area of 16.0 mm2. A 94.2% power conversion efficiency with the load current of 800 mA is measured for the proposed active rectifier.

  16. Cogeneration in large processing power stations; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel [Observatorio Ciudadano de la Energia A. C., (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this communication it is spoken of the cogeneration in large processing power stations with or without electricity surplus, the characteristics of combined cycle power plants and a comparative analysis in a graph entitled Sale price of electricity in combined cycle and cogeneration power plants. The industrial plants, such as refineries, petrochemical, breweries, paper mills and cellulose plants, among others, with steam necessities for their processes, have the technical and economical conditions to cogenerate, that is, to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. In fact, many of such facilities that exist at the moment in any country, count on cogeneration equipment that allows them to obtain their electricity at a very low cost, taking advantage of the existence steam generators that anyway are indispensable to satisfy their demand. In Mexico, given the existing legal frame, the public services of electricity as well as the oil industry are activities of obligatory character for the State. For these reasons, the subject should be part of the agenda of planning of this power sector. The opportunities to which we are referring to, are valid for the small industries, but from the point of view of the national interest, they are more important for the large size facilities and in that rank, the most numerous are indeed in PEMEX, whereas large energy surplus and capacity would result into cogenerations in refineries and petrochemical facilities and they would be of a high value, precisely for the electricity public service, that is, for the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de la cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso con o sin excedentes de electricidad, las caracteristicas de plantas de ciclo combinado y se muestra el analisis comparativo en una grafica titulada precio de venta de electricidad en plantas de ciclo combinado y de cogeneracion. Las plantas industriales, tales como refinerias, petroquimicas

  17. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar facilities design integration: collector-field optimization report (RADL item 2-25)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Appropriate cost and performance models and computer codes have been developed to carry out the collector field optimization, as well as additional computer codes to define the actual heliostat locations in the optimized field and to compute in detail the performance to be expected of the defined field. The range of capabilities of the available optimization and performance codes is described. The role of the optimization code in the definition of the pilot plant is specified, and a complete description of the optimization process itself is given. The detailed cost model used by the optimizer for the commercial system optimization is presented in the form of equations relating the cost element to each of the factors that determine it. The design basis for the commercial system is presented together with the rationale for its selection. The development of the individual heliostat performance code is presented. Use of the individual heliostat code in a completed study of receiver panel power under sunrise startup conditions is described. The procedure whereby performance and heliostat spacing data from the representative commercial-scale system are converted into coefficients of use in the layout processor is described, and the actual procedure used in the layout processor is described. Numerous special studies in support of the pilot plant design are described. (LEW)

  18. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  19. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  20. Extraordinary Cosmic Laboratory Helps Unravel Mysteries of a Galaxy's Powerful Central "Engine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extraordinary cosmic laboratory 21 million light-years away is providing radio astronomers their best opportunity yet to decipher the mysteries of the ultra-powerful "engines" at the hearts of many galaxies and quasars. An international research team using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescopes has peered deeply into the core of the galaxy NGC 4258, learning important new information about the mysterious region from which high-speed jets of subatomic particles are ejected. The scientists announced their findings today at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Toronto, Ontario. The new research provides significant quantitative support for a theoretical model for the origin of such jets first proposed in 1979. NGC 4258 is the galaxy in which a warped disk of water molecules was discovered in 1994. That disk, observed in detail with the VLBA, was shown to be orbiting a central mass some 35 million times more massive than the Sun. That central mass, the astronomers believe, is a black hole. More recent studies of the disk and its surroundings have given astronomers their most detailed look yet at the heart of an active galactic nucleus (AGN), including the ability to pinpoint the exact center of the system, where the black hole resides. The 1994 observations provided the best evidence to date for the existence of a black hole at the heart of a galaxy. Black holes, so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational fields, have long been suspected as the driving force behind the energetic central engines of AGNs. The fortuitous existence of the molecular disk in NGC 4258 has helped astronomers use the ultrasharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA to probe with unprecedented clarity into the heart of that galaxy's central engine. The researchers are: James Herrnstein, James Moran, and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Philip Diamond of the

  1. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  2. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  3. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world. 1997; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde. 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maubacq, F.; Tailland, C

    1997-04-01

    This small booklet provides information about all type of nuclear power plants worldwide. It is based on the data taken from the CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The content comprises: the 1996 highlights, the main characteristics of the different type of reactors in operation or under construction, the map of the French nuclear power plant sites, the worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1996, the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction or on order (by groups of reactor-types), the power capacity evolution of power plants in operation, the net and gross capacity of the power plants on the grid, the commercial operation and grid connection forecasts, the first achieved or expected power generation supplied by a nuclear reactor for each country and the power generation from nuclear reactors, the performance indicator of the PWR units in France, the trends of the power generation indicator worldwide, the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, decommissioned and exported worldwide, the schedule of steam generator replacements, and the MOX fuel plutonium recycling programme. (J.S.)

  4. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  5. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary.

  6. Insights from Siting New Nuclear Power Plants in the Central and Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Clifford G.; Kugler, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review for four early site permits and for four standard reactor designs. It is currently reviewing applications for fourteen combined license applications and three additional reactor designs. The staff is applying lessons it has learned from the reviews to date to the review work going forward. The licensing process being used by current applicants differs significantly from that used by the current operating fleet. The previous process required two steps. First an applicant had to obtain a construction permit to build the plant. Then, near the end of construction, the applicant had to obtain an operating license. Under the process in Part 52, an applicant can apply for a combined license (COL) that allows construction and (once certain conditions are met) operation of a new plant - a one-step process. An applicant for a COL may reference an early site permit (ESP13), a standard design certification, both, or neither. In addition to developing Part 52, the NRC also revised CFR Part 100 by adding Subpart B, which includes sections 100.21, 'Non-seismic siting criteria', and 100.23, 'Geologic and seismic siting criteria'. The NRC staff also revised the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800) and developed Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.206, 'Combined License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (LWR Edition).' The NRC staff incorporated into the revision of NUREG-0800 and development of RG 1.206 some early lessons learned from its review of the first three ESPs. Staff work begins before the application is received, as the staff interacts with the applicant to identify issues that will require special treatment or specific staff resources. After the application is submitted, if the NRC finds the application acceptable, the safety and environmental reviews begin, proceeding in parallel. The safety review culminates in the issuance of a safety evaluation report (SER) after it

  7. Superiority of centralized procurement and its technical and economic analysis for nuclear power intensification construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng

    2010-01-01

    The intensified management is the basic orientation for modernized enterprise group to improve efficiency and benefit. For most industrial enterprises, in the implementation of intensification management process, the centralized procurement is one of most efficient paths. At present most of the international's and domestic outstanding enterprises are studying and positively using this approach. This article indicated that the centralized procurement mode is inevitable during intensification construction process based on the theoretical analysis of the advantage of centralized procurement and the economic analysis of typical cases. (author)

  8. Communication dated 30 May 2014 received from the Permanent Mission of Uzbekistan to the Agency regarding the implementation of the initiative of the President of Uzbekistan on Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale dated 30 May 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Uzbekistan to the Agency regarding the implementation of the initiative of the President of Uzbekistan, HE Mr Islam Karimov, on Establishing a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia. The note verbale and its attachment are circulated herewith for information, as requested by the Permanent Mission

  9. 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: solar facilities design integration. Construction package No. 10 (RADL Item 7-34) field erected tanks. Part I. Thermal storage unit (TUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The final design, fabrication and erection of two different tanks upon foundations are given. Technical specifications and supplemental construction drawings are included for both the thermal storage unit and the plant support system caloria makeup tank for use at the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plnat. (LEW)

  10. Experimental tests about the cooling/freezing of the molten salts in the receiver tubes of a solar power plant with parabolic trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Walter; Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Rinaldi, Luca; Di Ascenzi, Primo

    2017-06-01

    In 2003 ENEA realized the PCS experimental Facility at Casaccia Research Centre (Rome, Italy), in order to test in real operating conditions the components of a parabolic trough solar plant, and to evaluate the technical feasibility of using the solar molten salts mixture (60% NaNO3, 40% KNO3, melting point 220÷240°C) in such a type of plant. ENEA also had the need to assess the behaviour of the solar receiver tubes during abnormal operating situations (wrong operation, pump block, power failure, etc.), when a block of the circulation of the molten salts may occur and cause the cooling or, worse, the freezing of the salts mixture inside the pipes. Some experimental tests have been performed, aimed to examine what happens in such a cases. In fact, without quick maneuvers to restart the circulation of the molten salts or to readily empty the receiver tubes, the molten salts contained in them may cool down to temperatures near/below the solidification. In this report are shown the results of the experimental tests carried out on the receiver tubes of the PCS Facility by cooling the process fluid down to temperatures near or below its freezing point. The tests show that the solidification of the salts does not damage the components of the plant but it is manageable and reversible, provided you apply the correct procedures.

  11. Complications after implantation of subcutaneous central venous ports (PowerPortⓇ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: PowerPort is a multifunctional port. Benign disease was a risk factor for postoperative complications. Because many types of subcutaneously implanted ports are used in our hospital, we had to inform the hospital staff about the functions of PowerPort.

  12. Working in a virtual power plant; Travailler dans une centrale virtuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, G.; Smadja, S

    1999-07-01

    Graphical simulations on computer providing a virtual and reversible experience can now be used for maintenance in nuclear power plants allowing operations to be tested and tools to be optimised. Eventually, operatives will be trained to work in virtual nuclear power plants in complete safety. (authors)

  13. Context-independent centrality measures underestimate the vulnerability of power grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, T.; Ellens, W.; Kooij, R.E.

    2015-01-01

    Power grids vulnerability is a key issue in society. A component failure may trigger cascades of failures across the grid and lead to a large blackout. Within complex network analysis, structural vulnerabilities of power grids have been studied mostly using purely topological approaches, which

  14. Improving RF Transmit Power and Received Signal Strength in 2.4 GHz ZigBee Based Active RFID System with Embedded Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'ad, F. A.; Ismail, W.; Jusoh, J. F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the experiments and analysis conducted on 2.4 GHz embedded active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) - Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based system that has been developed for the purposes of location tracking and monitoring in indoor and outdoor environments. Several experiments are conducted to test the effectiveness and performance of the developed system and two of them is by measuring the Radio Frequency (RF) transmitting power and Received Signal Strength (RSS) to prove that the embedded active RFID tag is capable to generate higher transmit power during data transmission and able to provide better RSS reading compared to standalone RFID tag. Experiments are carried out on two RFID tags which are active RFID tag embedded with GPS and GSM (ER2G); and standalone RFID tag communicating with the same active RFID reader. The developed ER2G contributes 12.26 % transmit power and 6.47 % RSS reading higher than standalone RFID tag. The results conclude that the ER2G gives better performance compared to standalone RFID tag and can be used as guidelines for future design improvements.

  15. How to Identify the Most Powerful Node in Complex Networks? A Novel Entropy Centrality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Centrality is one of the most studied concepts in network analysis. Despite an abundance of methods for measuring centrality in social networks has been proposed, each approach exclusively characterizes limited parts of what it implies for an actor to be “vital” to the network. In this paper, a novel mechanism is proposed to quantitatively measure centrality using the re-defined entropy centrality model, which is based on decompositions of a graph into subgraphs and analysis on the entropy of neighbor nodes. By design, the re-defined entropy centrality which describes associations among node pairs and captures the process of influence propagation can be interpreted explained as a measure of actor potential for communication activity. We evaluate the efficiency of the proposed model by using four real-world datasets with varied sizes and densities and three artificial networks constructed by models including Barabasi-Albert, Erdos-Renyi and Watts-Stroggatz. The four datasets are Zachary’s karate club, USAir97, Collaboration network and Email network URV respectively. Extensive experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. 2013 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): San Simeon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  17. Allocation of responsibilities between central and local authorities concerning nuclear power plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines Belgian regulations on licences to construct and operate nuclear power plants in the context of implementation of the 1980 Act concerning regionalisation. It also reviews the relevant nuclear legislation in certain other countries. (NEA) [fr

  18. 2010 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Diablo Canyon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Diablo Canyon (2010), and San...

  19. 2011 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Los Osos, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  20. Risk and cost comparison of energy technologies for central electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterrett, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of nuclear energy as it relates to alternative sources of electric power generation is presented. Citing Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station, the nuclear option in the past was the obvious choice. Today it is still the preferred alternative both economically and because of increasing environmental concerns over other energy alternatives. Public acceptance of nuclear generation, following Three Mile Island, remains a significant hurdle in its path

  1. Replacement power supply with micro-hydropower. Case micro central - Pipinta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Jorge I; Hincapie, Luis A; Woodcock, Edgar; Arregoces Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Micro-Hydro Electric Pipinta through its main components and their parameters. An evaluation of the actual power plant costs and a proposed redesign are also given with prices referenced to year 2004. A comparison between the electricity price supplied by the grid and the cost for the electricity in this Micro-Hydro Power Plant let conclude that projects of this type are available in rural areas of Colombia reached by the grid.

  2. Nuclear power plants making a comeback in Japan; El retorno de la centrales nucleares en Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralbo, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    We reproduce in this magazine the interesting article published by the president of the SNE in issue 46 of Cuadernos de Energia in October 2015, which describes the events that have taken place since the March 11, 2011 earthquake in Japan, the largest in its history, and the subsequent tsunami, which affected the Fukushima power plant, as well as the measures implemented since then and how some of this country nuclear power plants are being started up again. (Author)

  3. Fluid power network for centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and completely different wind-energy conversion system is studied where a centralized electricity generation within a wind farm is proposed by means of a hydraulic network. This paper presents the dynamic interaction of two turbines when they are coupled to the same hydraulic network.

  4. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign

  5. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  6. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system. PMID:28329023

  7. A Low Cost Bluetooth Low Energy Transceiver for Wireless Sensor Network Applications with a Front-end Receiver-Matching Network-Reusing Power Amplifier Load Inductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Li, Bin; Huang, Mo; Zheng, Yanqi; Ye, Hui; Xu, Ken; Deng, Fangming

    2017-04-19

    In this work, a low cost Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, with a receiver (RX)-matching network-reusing power amplifier (PA) load inductor, is presented. In order to decrease the die area, only two inductors were used in this work. Besides the one used in the voltage control oscillator (VCO), the PA load inductor was reused as the RX impedance matching component in the front-end. Proper controls have been applied to achieve high transmitter (TX) input impedance when the transceiver is in the receiving mode, and vice versa. This allows the TRX-switch/matching network integration without significant performance degradation. The RX adopted a low-IF structure and integrated a single-ended low noise amplifier (LNA), a current bleeding mixer, a 4th complex filter and a delta-sigma continuous time (CT) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The TX employed a two-point PLL-based architecture with a non-linear PA. The RX achieved a sensitivity of -93 dBm and consumes 9.7 mW, while the TX achieved a 2.97% error vector magnitude (EVM) with 9.4 mW at 0 dBm output power. This design was fabricated in a 0.11 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and the front-end circuit only occupies 0.24 mm². The measurement results verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed BLE transceiver for WSN applications.

  8. Centralization as a predictor of provocation discography results in chronic low back pain, and the influence of disability and distress on diagnostic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, Mark; Oberg, Birgitta; Aprill, Charles N; McDonald, Barry

    2005-01-01

    The "centralization phenomenon" (CP) is the progressive retreat of referred pain towards the spinal midline in response to repeated movement testing (a McKenzie evaluation). A previous study suggested that it may have utility in the clinical diagnosis of discogenic pain and may assist patient selection for discography and specific treatments for disc pain. Estimation of the diagnostic predictive power of centralization and the influence of disability and patient distress on diagnostic performance, using provocation discography as a criterion standard for diagnosis, in chronic low back pain patients. This study was a prospective, blinded, concurrent, reference standard-related validity design carried out in a private radiology clinic specializing in diagnosis of chronic spinal pain. Consecutive patients with persistent low back pain were referred to the study clinic by orthopedists and other medical specialists for interventional radiological diagnostic procedures. Patients were typically disabled and displayed high levels of psychosocial distress. The sample included patients with previous lumbar surgery, and most had unsuccessful conservative therapies previously. results of provocation discography. The CP. Psychometric evaluation: Roland-Morris, Zung, Modified Somatic Perception questionnaires, Distress Risk Assessment Method, and 100-mm visual analog scales for pain intensity. Patients received a single physical therapy examination, followed by lumbar provocation discography. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of the CP were estimated in the group as a whole and in subgroups defined by psychometric measures. A total of 107 patients received the clinical examination and discography at two or more levels and post-discography computed tomography. Thirty-eight could not tolerate a full physical examination and were excluded from the main analysis. Disability and pain intensity ratings were high, and distress was common. Sensitivity, specificity, and

  9. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant; Aceleracion del suelo en una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E., E-mail: pablo.pena@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  10. Distributed control and data processing system with a centralized database for a BWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, K.; Neda, T.; Kawamura, A.; Monta, K.; Satoh, K.

    1980-01-01

    Recent digital techniques based on changes in electronics and computer technologies have realized a very wide scale of computer application to BWR Power Plant control and instrumentation. Multifarious computers, from micro to mega, are introduced separately. And to get better control and instrumentation system performance, hierarchical computer complex system architecture has been developed. This paper addresses the hierarchical computer complex system architecture which enables more efficient introduction of computer systems to a Nuclear Power Plant. Distributed control and processing systems, which are the components of the hierarchical computer complex, are described in some detail, and the database for the hierarchical computer complex is also discussed. The hierarchical computer complex system has been developed and is now in the detailed design stage for actual power plant application. (auth)

  11. Power, Order, and the Politics of Social Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    I discuss the use of power to safeguard political stability by policymakers in four post-communist cases: Hungary and Poland, and Estonia and Latvia. My treatment is in line with traditional path dependency and 'generous' or 'emergency' welfare state interpretations, but adds a more strategic....... Building on Laitin (1998, 2007), Bloom (2008), and others, my two Baltic cases in turn discuss the use of political power along yet another dimension - ethnicity. Recent advances in political economy (Alesina and La Ferera 2005) and social capital theory (Putnam 2007) have documented the manifold negative...... effects of ethno-linguistic heterogeneity on variables such as public good provision, and other forms of social solidarity. Here I point out how the new Baltic elites proactively remodeled the distribution of transition winners and losers along ethnic lines. Power-holders thereby designed public policies...

  12. The effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, J. M.; de Boer, J. P.; Dalesio, O.; Holtkamp, M. J.; Lucas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Immuno-compromised patients are at high risk for all kind of infections. Unfortunately, they need central venous catheters (CVCs), which are associated with infectious complications. In this study we examined the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs to prevent

  13. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE PURCHASING POWER PARITY IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The empirical record on PPP tests for transition economies is far from being so opulent as it is for the developed market economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by scrutinizing the theory of PPP on a sample of Central and Eastern European economies. The paper has two main advances with respect to previous PPP studies. First, it employs a monthly data base on real exchange rates for a panel of 12 Central and Eastern European economies by testing the theory separately with respect to US dollar and with respect to Euro. Second, we utilise a panel unit root test that involves the estimation of the ADF regression in a SUR framework. Since our study found support for the validity of PPP in some reforming European economies, special attention should be devoted to individual country-specific factors that cause PPP deviations.

  14. Central and Peripheral Corneal Power Change in Myopic Orthokeratology and Its Relationship With 2-Year Axial Length Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zhi; Xue, Feng; Miao, Huamao; Zhou, Xingtao

    2015-07-01

    We assessed the relationship between axial length (AL) change and corneal refractive power change induced by orthokeratology (ortho-k) contact lens wear. A total of 88 myopic children aged 7 to 12 years were fitted with ortho-k lenses for overnight wear. Axial length was measured before enrollment and every 6 months after initiation of lens wear up to 24 months. Corneal apical refractive power and the mean power of each concentric ring from 0.5 to 7.2 mm in diameter at 0.1-mm intervals were measured using the Pentacam HR, and compared before and after 3 months of ortho-k lens wear. Summed corneal power change (SCPC) was defined as the sum of relative corneal power change within the central 7.2-mm diameter corneal region. Age, baseline spherical equivalent refractive error (SERE), and SCPC were tested against 2-year AL growth in a stepwise multiple linear regression model. Of the 88 myopic children who were successfully fitted with ortho-k lenses, 64 completed the 2-year follow-up period. These completed test subjects experienced a mean axial growth of 0.37 ± 0.27 mm. Spherical equivalent refractive error and corneal apical refractive power decreased from baseline values of -2.88 ± 0.96 diopters (D) and 43.47 ± 1.03 D to -0.20 ± 0.85 D and 40.61 ± 1.23 D, respectively, after 3 months of lens wear. The mean SCPC was 10.84 ± 5.28 D · mm after 3 months. Axial elongation was significantly correlated with SCPC (standardized β = -0.573, P SCPC and baseline age to predict axial elongation was acceptable (adjusted R2 = 0.56) and statistically significant (F2,61 = 41.09, P < 0.001). Axial elongation in children undergoing ortho-k therapy is negatively correlated with the age of the wearer and summed corneal power change from the central to the mid-peripheral cornea. We speculate that axial elongation is influenced by the extent to which the retinal defocus profile is altered with ortho-k lens wear. (http://www.chictr.org number, ChiCTR-TNRC-11001210.).

  15. Determination of the flows profile in the role of power in the central thimble of TRIGA Mark III Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia F, A.

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of the thesis project is to determine the flow profiles sub cadmic and epi cadmic in the central thimble to different powers and operation times of TRIGA Mark III Reactor, using activation foils as detectors. In the reactor operation, it is necessary to know the neutron flow profile for to realize other tasks as: the radioisotopes production, research in reactors physics and fuel burning. The distribution of the neutron flow, accurately reflects what is happening in the reactor core, plus the flows value in this distribution is directly related to the power generated. For this reason it is performed the sub cadmic flow measurement with energies between 0 and 0.4 eV (energy of the cadmium cut E cd ∼ 0.4 eV) and epi cadmic flow with energies greater than 0.4 eV, in the central thimble powers to the powers of 10, 100 W, 1, 10 100 Kw and 1 MW. The method used is known as flakes activation, which is to be arranged by placing flakes ( 3 mm of diameter and 0.0508 mm of thickness) of a given material (either Au, In, Cu, Mn, etc.) into an aluminum tube outside diameter equal to 6.35 mm, alternating flakes with lids covered and discovered of cadmium (3.4 mm of diameter and 0.508 mm of thickness) and separated by lucite pieces of 3 mm of diameter and 25.4 mm in length. After irradiating the flakes for some time, is measured the gamma activity of each of them, using a hyper pure germanium detector of high resolution. Already known gamma activity, proceed to calculate the epi cadmic and sub cadmic flows using a computer program in Fortran language, called Caflu. (Author)

  16. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, T.; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2010), s. 571-598 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign bank entry * bank efficiency * market power Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2010

  17. The micro power station of Verbois; Ouvrage Micro-centrale de Verbois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quercia, P.; Martinez, J.-L. [Services industriels de Geneve, Service de l' electricite, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The policy of the public utilities of the City of Geneva includes the promotion of renewable energy and the conservation of the environment. The erection of the most important hydroelectric power plant in the canton of Geneva at Verbois, on the Rhone River dates back to the years 1938 to 1944. Several retrofits have been made since then, the last dating from 1996 to 1998. In 2000, due to ecological considerations, a fish ladder was added, resulting in a loss of generated power equivalent to a water flow of 2 m{sup 3}/s at a height of 18.35 meters. In order to compensate for this energy loss, a micro hydropower station with a maximum output power of 316 kW was added. It is fitted with a Francis turbine with horizontal axis and fixed opening; the rotation speed is 605 rpm. A reduced power output could be traced back to the deposition of solids on the grids upstream of the water supply duct. The necessary modifications are discussed.

  18. Electrochemical techniques application in corrosion problems of fossil power plants; Aplicacion de tecnicas electroquimicas en problemas de corrosion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Garcia Ochoa, Esteban Miguel; Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Mariaca Rodriguez, Liboria; Malo Tamayo, Jose Maria; Uruchurtu Chavarin, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    Some aspects of the electrochemical techniques employed to evaluate the corrosion at low temperature in fossil power plants are commented, as well as the results obtained with the application of them in three power plants of this type. [Espanol] Se comentan algunos aspectos de tecnicas electroquimicas utilizadas para evaluar la corrosion en baja temperatura en centrales termoelectricas, asi como los resultados de la aplicacion de las mismas en tres centrales de este tipo.

  19. A position paper for a central procurement organization for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper integrates the results of numerous nuclear utility industry meetings with commercial business practices. The Central Procurement Organization (CPO) is designed to achieve an immediate 30%--50% reduction in total procurement, engineering qualification, warehousing, and distribution cost. Three (3) areas define a CPO success criteria: (1) Lean, credible, and cost-effective issues discussed include facility cost, operational cost, staff expertise, product priorities, warehousing, and distribution, (2) Common technical, commercial, and quality requirement issues discussed include current industry practices and proposed future methodologies, and (3) Financial survivability issues which are the most critical since the CPO must exist during changing internal and external utility environments

  20. Engineering for new-built nuclear power plant projects; Ingenieria para proyectos de nuevas centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, A.

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the opportunities existing in the market (electrical utilities and reactor vendors) for an engineering company with the profile of Empresarios Agrupados (EA) in new-built nuclear power plant projects. To do this, reference is made to some representative examples of projects in which EA has been participating recently. the article concludes sharing with the reader some lessons learned from this participation. (Author)

  1. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants; Specifications chimiques et radiochimiques - Centrales REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzmann, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-07-01

    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  2. Fire protection of PWR-type nuclear power plants; Protection incendie des centrales nucleaires REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the fire protection principles applied by Electricite de France (EdF) to PWR-type nuclear power plants, and stresses on the recent evolutions of the design and exploitation approach of fire protection which have contributed to the improvement of nuclear facilities safety: 1 - general presentation; 2 - objectives of the fire protection: integrity of safety systems, personnel and people protection, equipments protection and keeping up of availability; 3 - design requirements: fire prevention, fire confinement, fire mastery, checking approach, formalization of the design approach, experience feedback of the design approach; 4 - example of application, the Chooz B power plant, head of the N4 step series: common dispositions to the different buildings, protection of the reactor building, protection of electrical facilities, protection of the turbine building, protection of transformers, protection of the emergency power sets, protection of hydrogen hazard buildings; 5 - in-service protection: intervention of the operator, fire fighting organization, reactor operation during fire accident; 6 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  3. The power-law dependence of the Lyapunov exponents on the central mass in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, N.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a theoretical interpretation for the observed (in numerical simulations) relation L~m^p , where L is the mean Lyapunov characteristic exponent of the chaotic orbits in galaxies hosting central black holes, and m is the ratio of the mass of the black hole over the mass of the galaxy. We construct a simple analytical model showing that in every close encounter with the central mass, a star's orbit exhibits a locally positive `stretching number', i.e. local Lyapunov exponent. Also, by the geometrical properties of the orbits, we estimate the frequency of visits of a chaotic orbit inside the black hole's sphere of influence, as well as the mean Lyapunov number as a function of the energy of an orbit. Combining these estimates, we find a theoretical value of the exponent p=2/3-q, with q~0.1-0.2. This value is verified by detailed numerical experiments. Finally, we show the applicability of the L~m^p law also in the case of rotating barred galaxies.

  4. Methodological and Practical Considerations for DevelopingMultiproject Baselines for Electric Power and Cement Industry Projects inCentral America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant; Galitsky, Christina; Dorion,Kristel

    2004-09-02

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) andthe Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA) conductedtechnical studies and organized two training workshops to developcapacity in Central America for the evaluation of climate changeprojects. This paper describes the results of two baseline case studiesconducted for these workshops, one for the power sector and one for thecement industry, that were devised to illustrate certain approaches tobaseline setting. Multiproject baseline emission rates (BERs) for themain Guatemalan electricity grid were calculated from 2001 data. Inrecent years, the Guatemalan power sector has experienced rapid growth;thus, a sufficient number of new plants have been built to estimateviable BERs. We found that BERs for baseload plants offsetting additionalbaseload capacity ranged from 0.702 kgCO2/kWh (using a weighted averagestringency) to 0.507 kgCO2/kWh (using a 10th percentile stringency),while the baseline for plants offsetting load-followingcapacity is lowerat 0.567 kgCO2/kWh. For power displaced from existing load-followingplants, the rate is higher, 0.735 kgCO2/kWh, as a result of the age ofsome plants used for meeting peak loads and the infrequency of their use.The approved consolidated methodology for the Clean Development Mechanismyields a single rate of 0.753 kgCO2/kWh. Due to the relatively smallnumber of cement plants in the region and the regional nature of thecement market, all of Central America was chosen as the geographicboundary for setting cement industry BERs. Unfortunately, actualoperations and output data were unobtainable for most of the plants inthe region, and many data were estimated. Cement industry BERs rangedfrom 205 kgCO2 to 225 kgCO2 per metric ton of cement.

  5. Knowledge management in nuclear power plants; Gestion del conocimiento en las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, C. de la; Barasoain, F.; Buedo, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    This article aims to show the importance of knowledge management from different perspectives. In this first part part of the article, the overall approach that performs CNAT of knowledge management is described. In the second part, a specific aspect of knowledge management in ANAV, tacit knowledge transfer is showed. finally, the third part discusses the strategies and actions that are followed in CNCO for knowledge management. All this aims to show an overview of knowledge management held in the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  6. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Two Thermal Energy Storage Tank Design Concepts for Use with a Solid Particle Receiver-Based Solar Power Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman El-Leathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an extensive study of two thermal energy storage (TES systems. The goal of the research is to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of electricity. A small-scale TES system was first built. The inner to outer layers were made of firebrick (FB, autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC and reinforced concrete brick (CB. The experiments were conducted at temperatures of up to 1000 °C for sustained periods of time. AAC was found to be prone to cracking at temperatures exceeding 900 °C; as a result, AAC was eliminated from the second TES system. The second, larger-scale TES system was subsequently built of multiple layers of readily available materials, namely, insulating firebrick (IFB, perlite concrete (PC, expansion joint (EJ, and CB. All of the surfaces were instrumented with thermocouples to estimate the heat loss from the system. The temperature was maintained at approximately 800 °C to approximate steady state conditions closely. The steady state heat loss was determined to be approximately 4.4% for a day. The results indicate that high-temperature TES systems can be constructed of readily available materials while meeting the heat loss requirements for a falling particle receiver system, thereby contributing to reducing the overall cost of concentrating solar power systems.

  7. DC wiring system grounding and ground fault protection issues for central station photovoltaic power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The DC wiring system for a photovoltaic power plant presents a number of unique challenges to be overcome by the plant designers. There are a number of different configurations that the grounding of the DC wiring system can take, and the choice will affect the number and type of protective devices required to ensure safety of personnel and protection of equipment. The major grounding and fault protection considerations that must be taken into account when selecting the basic overall circuit configuration are summarized. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of each type of circuit grounding (resistance or solid) along with the personnel safety and equipment protection issues for each of these grounding methods are presented.

  8. Optimization of thermal efficiency of nuclear central power like as PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Nelbia da Silva

    2005-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is the definition of operational conditions for the steam and power conservation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant in order to increase its system thermal efficiency without changing any component, based on the optimization of operational parameters of the plant. The thermal efficiency is calculated by a thermal balance program, based on conservation equations for homogeneous modeling. The circuit coefficients are estimated by an optimization tool, allowing a more realistic thermal balance for the plans under analysis, as well as others parameters necessary to some component models. With the operational parameter optimization, it is possible to get a level of thermal efficiency that increase capital gain, due to a better relationship between the electricity production and the amount of fuel used, without any need to change components plant. (author)

  9. Power in trust: the environmental history of the Central Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheail, John

    1991-01-01

    The rapid and large-scale development of the electricity supply industry in the United Kingdom since the early years of the century has brought to the fore a large number of environmental issues. affecting the use of town and countryside, rivers and coastal waters, and the protection of amenity, wildlife, and out-door recreational interests. Few industries have experienced so much opposition. As the industry found to its cost, the basic attributes of land, air, and water are never so much cherished as when they are threatened by some novel form of development. Few enterprises have been so resourceful in responding to this public concern. Great importance has been attached to explaining development policies and technical options. Large programmes of research have been carried out. This is the first book to examine in depth the environmental issues that have arisen since the National Grid was first planned in the 1920s. The main focus is on the impact of power stations and the main transmission lines of England and Wales since the nationalization of the industry in 1947. Insights are provided into how issues were regarded at the time, and the manner in which they were tackled within the opportunities and constraints presented by advances in the use of coal, oil, hydro-electricity, and nuclear power. The story ends with the privatization of the industry under the Electricity Act of 1989. A distinctive feature of the book is the considerable use made of the archives of the industry itself, and of the Government departments and other bodies with which the industry had to work. Much of this material has not previously been published. (author)

  10. Fluid power network for centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarquin-Laguna, A

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and completely different wind-energy conversion system is studied where a centralized electricity generation within a wind farm is proposed by means of a hydraulic network. This paper presents the dynamic interaction of two turbines when they are coupled to the same hydraulic network. Due to the stochastic nature of the wind and wake interaction effects between turbines, the operating parameters (i.e. pitch angle, rotor speed) of each turbine are different. Time domain simulations, including the main turbine dynamics and laminar transient flow in pipelines, are used to evaluate the efficiency and rotor speed stability of the hydraulic system. It is shown that a passive control of the rotor speed, as proposed in previous work for a single hydraulic turbine, has strong limitations in terms of performance for more than one turbine coupled to the same hydraulic network. It is concluded that in order to connect several turbines, a passive control strategy of the rotor speed is not sufficient and a hydraulic network with constant pressure is suggested. However, a constant pressure network requires the addition of active control at the hydraulic motors and spear valves, increasing the complexity of the initial concept. Further work needs to be done to incorporate an active control strategy and evaluate the feasibility of the constant pressure hydraulic network

  11. Energy and Power Spectra of Thunder in the Magdalena Mountains, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. L.; Johnson, J. B.; Arechiga, R. O.; Michnovicz, J. C.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.

    2011-12-01

    Thunder is generated primarily by heating and expansion of the atmosphere around a lightning channel and by charge relaxation within a cloud. Broadband acoustic studies are important for inferring dynamic charge behavior during and after lightning events. During the Summer monsoon seasons of 2009-2011, we deployed networks of 3-5 stations consisting of broadband (0.01 to 500 Hz) acoustic arrays and audio microphones in the Magdalena Mountains in central New Mexico. We utilize Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data for accurate timing of lightning events within a 10 km radius of our network. Unlike the LMA, which detects VHF signals from breakdown processes, thunder signals may be used to observe charge dynamics and thermal shocking of the atmosphere. Previous investigations show that thunder spectral content may distinguish between electrostatic and thermal heating processes. We collected extensive datasets in terms of number of independent broadband sensors (up to 20), number of observed flashes (hundreds from multiple storms), and available coincident LMA data. We use infrasound and audio data to quantify total acoustic energy produced at lightning sources in various frequency bands. We attribute the spectral content and intensity of thunder signals to source characteristics, sensor locations, propagation effects, and noise. We observe variations in acoustic energy for both entire storm systems and individual lightning flashes. We propose that some variations may be related to the type of lightning flash and that spectral content is important for distinguishing between thunder generation mechanisms.

  12. Preliminary studies of radiation port in children receiving cranial irradiation for preventing central nervous system (CNS) disease of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Takeyoshi; Sato, Takeyuki; Okimoto, Yuri; Sunami, Shosuke; Komori, Isao; Oda, Hideaki; Shima, Yukichi; Arimizu, Noboru; Nakajima, Hironori

    1986-01-01

    For preventing CNS leukemia in children with ALL, simple whole skull irradiation that included only retro-orbital spaces and not anterior part of the cribriform plate and first two cervical vertebrae had been given until March 1982 to patients who had remission after drug therapy. Since March 1982, however, such patients have received new modified cranial irradiation of Pinkel's method of preventive CNS therapy to include the cribriform plate. Pinkel's method usually includes first two cervical vertebrae in radiation port, but sometimes his method of radiation fails to reach the brain and the meninges on the anterior parts of the lamina cribrosa. In this study, a comparison of CNS-relapes ratio between these two methods of preventive CNS therapy was carried out. The frequency of CNS leukemia was remarkably high in patients given the simple whole skull irradiation. Of 18 patients, 7 developed CNS leukemia. Among these 7, 5 patients (71 %) had occurence of CNS-relapse within 1 year 7 months with the other one patient, making a total of 86 %, having CNS-relapse within 1 year 11 months. On the other hand, 17 of 39 patients who received new modified cranial irradiation were followed up for more than 1 year 9 months, and all patient had no CNS-relapse to date. This result showed that the irradiation of whole circulation areas of cerebrospinal fluid of the brain and the spine at first two cervical vertebra levels had great importance in preventing CNS-relapse after achievement of drug-induced remission. (author)

  13. Occurrence of AH1N1 viral infection and clinical features in symptomatic patients who received medical care during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Palencia, Juan Pablo; Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2012-12-20

    In 2009 a new influenza serotype (AH1N1) was identified in Mexico that spread rapidly generating worldwide alarm. San Luis Potosi (SLP) was the third state with more cases reported in that year. The clinical identification of this flu posed a challenge to medical staff. This study aimed at estimating the AH1N1 infection, hospitalization and mortality rates, and at identifying related clinical features in persons who received medical care during the influenza pandemic. Retrospective study with persons with flu-like illness who received public or private medical care in SLP from 15.03.09 to 30.10.09. Physicians purposely recorded many clinical variables. Samples from pharyngeal exudate or bronchoalveolar lavage were taken to diagnose AH1N1 using real-time PCR. Clinical predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with infection as a dependent variable. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Analyses were stratified by age group based on the distribution of positive cases. From the 6922 persons with flu symptoms 6158 had available laboratory results from which 44.9% turned out to be positive for AH1N1. From those, 5.8% were hospitalized and 0.7% died. Most positive cases were aged 5-14 years and, in this subgroup, older age was positively associated with A H1N1 infection (95% CI 1.05-1.1); conversely, in patients aged 15 years or more, older age was negatively associated with the infection (95% CI 0.97-0.98). Fever was related in those aged 15 years or more (95% CI 1.4-3.5), and headache (95% CI 1.2-2.2) only in the 0-14 years group. Clear rhinorrhea and cough were positively related in both groups (p influenza and revealed that some of them can be age-specific.

  14. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Books Received. Challenge and Thrill of Pre-College. Mathematics. V Krishnamurthy et al. New Age International. 1996, Rs.220. Mathematics for Science. S M Uppal and H M Humphreys. New Age International. 1996, Rs.17S. Physics for Engineers. M R Srinivasan. New Age Publications. 1996. Statement about ownership ...

  15. Tritium containment and blanket design challenges for a 1 GWe mirror fusion central power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1976-06-01

    Tritium containment and removal problems associated with the blanket and power-systems for a mirror fusion reactor are identified and conceptual process designs are devised to reduce emissions to the environment below 1 Ci/day. The blanket concept development proceeds by starting with this emission goal of 1 Ci/day and working inward to the blanket. At each decision point, worker safety, operational labor costs, and capital cost tradeoffs are contrasted. The conceptual design uses air for the reactor hall with a continuous catalytic oxidizer-molecular sieve adsorber cleanup system to maintain a 40 μCi/m 3 tritium level (5 μCi/m 3 HTO) against 180 Ci/day leakage from reactor components, energy recovery systems, and process piping. This blanket contains submodules with Li 2 Be 2 O 3 --Be for tritium breeding and submodules with Be for mostly energy production. Tritium production in both is handled by separately containing this breeding material and scavenging this container with lithium vapor-doped helium gas stream

  16. Factors Leading to Improved Gait Function in Patients with Subacute or Chronic Central Nervous System Impairments Who Receive Functional Training with the Robot Suit Hybrid Assistive Limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Shigetaka; Kinjo, Yuki; Hokama, Yohei; Sugawara, Kenichi; Tsuchida, Yukio; Tominaga, Daisuke; Ishiuchi, Shogo

    2018-01-15

    The factors that lead to the improvement of gait function in patients with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) who use a hybrid assistive limb (HAL) are not yet fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze these factors to determine the prognosis of the patients' gait function. Patients whose CNS disease was within 180 days since onset were designated as the subacute-phase patients, and patients whose disease onset had occurred more than 180 days previously were designated as chronic-phase patients. Fifteen subacute-phase patients and 15 chronic-phase patients were given HAL training. The study analyzed how post-training walking independence in these patients was affected by the following factors: age, disease, lesion area, lower limb function, balance, period until the start of training, number of training sessions, additional rehabilitation, higher-order cognitive dysfunction, HAL model, and the use of a non-weight-bearing walking-aid. In subacute-phase patients, walking independence was related to lower limb function (r s = 0.35). In chronic-phase patients, there was a statistically significant correlation between post-training walking independence and balance (r s = 0.78). In addition, in patients with a severe motor dysfunction that was accompanied by inattention and global cognitive dysfunction, little improvement occurred, even with double-leg model training, because they had difficulty wearing the device. The results demonstrated that the factors that improved walking independence post HAL training differed between patients with subacute- and chronic-stage CNS diseases. The findings may serve as valuable information for future HAL training of patients with CNS diseases.

  17. Feasibility of the operation CFE`s conventional power plants for industrial cogeneration; Factibilidad de operar las centrales termoelectricas convencionales de la CFE para cogeneracion industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H.; Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    An analysis is made on how cogeneration could help to maximize the power plant performance since thanks to cogeneration this type of power plants could utilize a part of the waste energy to be supplied to other processes. Also mention is made of the utilization of computer programs to help the design and the realization of functioning tests of this type of power plants. An economic evaluation is presented on the feasibility of operating this type of power plants as cogeneration units and it is concluded that the operation of fossil power plants in the cogeneration mode is not affected by the site where the power plant is located [Espanol] Se analiza como la cogeneracion podria ayudar a maximizar el rendimiento de las centrales termoelectricas ya que gracias a la cogeneracion este tipo de centrales podrian utilizar una parte de la energia desechada para suministrarla a otros procesos. Tambien se menciona la utilizacion de programas de computo para auxiliar en el diseno o realizacion de pruebas de funcionamiento sobre este tipo de plantas. Se presenta una evaluacion economica sobre la factibilidad de operar este tipo de plantas como unidades de cogeneracion y se concluye en que la operacion de centrales termoelectricas en modo de cogeneracion no se ve afectado por el sitio donde se encuentra la central

  18. The influence of coal-fired power plants on lake sediment in central Alberta, Canada (work in progress)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Sanei; F. Goodarzi [University of Victoria (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2003-07-01

    This study focuses on the distribution, mobility, and early diagenesis of elements in the sediments and pore water from Wabamun Lake, Isle Lake and Lac St. Anne. These lakes are all located in Central Alberta, within the emission range of four major coal-fired power plants. The sediments are dated using 210Pb and 137Cs. The vertical profile of the elements in conjunction with the age of the sediments may reveal the history of the lake basin as related to the activities of the coal-fired power plants versus those of other anthropogenic and natural sources. However, the proper interpretation of the elemental data, in terms of historical events requires careful examination of the sediments in relation to the pore water found within the sediments. This task can be accomplished by collecting the pore water from the sediments and studying the elemental concentration in both media under anoxic conditions. The exchange of elements between sediments and pore water and therefore the mobility of the elements throughout the sediment profile in the early diagenesis, may alter the historical record of elements. Furthermore, the organic matter can be studied using conventional methods used in petroleum geochemistry such as Rock-Eval analyses and organic petrology. This is to study the role of organic matter in adsorption of elements and also to trace the organic matter originating from the coal seams or emitted from the power plants into surrounding lakes. The study also investigates possible correlations between the elements and other physical and geochemical factors involved in the sedimentation process (e.g., organic matter, grain size, catchments properties, etc.). 3 refs., 2 figs.

  19. The Bases of Power: Origins and Recent Developments. A Presentation in Honor of John R. P. French on the Occasion of His Receiving the Kurt Lewin Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Bertram H.

    The history and background of the analysis of the basis of power is examined, beginning with its origins in the works of Kurt Lewin and his followers at the Research Center for Group dynamics. The original French and Raven (1959) bases of power model posited six bases of power: reward, coercion, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational (or…

  20. Differences in Power Structures Regarding Access to Natural Resources at the Village Level in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Barkmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mountain forests of the Indonesian province of Central Sulawesi include core areas of the global Wallacea biodiversity “hotspot”. Remote sensing data indicated that deforestation rates around Central Sulawesi’s Lore-Lindu National Park differ more strongly between villages than could be explained by differences in the individual characteristics of the village households as assessed by quantitative village censuses. This setting provided the background for a study into inter-village differences in power structures regarding access to natural resources. Our results are abstracted from 3*10 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with key informants from the leading groups of autochthonous and migrant households of three contrasting villages. In village A, nearly feudal power relationships are exerted by a group of local “first settler” families that dominate formal village leadership as well as the influential Council of Traditional Leaders (Lembaga Adat, and that restrict deforestation and land transactions. No such institutional restrictions exist in village C. Traditional power relationships are replaced by economic power based on petty capitalist type production of the international agricultural commodity cocoa. Deforestation is muchhigher in village C. In village B, traditional institutions and power structures still appear in place although land transactions are less restricted than in village A, resulting also in high deforestation rates. While contrasting problematic social effects, our study highlights the potential efficacy of traditional institutions in the regulation of access to resources. ----- Die Bergregenwälder Zentralsulawesis sind Teil des globalen Wallacea-Biodiversität-"Hotspots" und beheimaten viele endemische Tier- und Pflanzenarten. Die Entwaldung im Bereich des dortigen Lore-Lindu Nationalparks unterscheidet sich zwischen umliegenden Dörfern stärker, als dies durch quantitative Haushaltsdaten zu erkl

  1. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  2. Statistical analysis of the wind around a nuclear power plant; Analisis estadistico del viento alrededor de una central nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda, A; Alvarez, Oscar; Contreras, A. D.; Jauregui, E. [Universidad Veracruzana, (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In order to show an appropriate methodology for the climatic analysis of the wind, some of the recent results in the investigation of the field flow around the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station, at Veracruz State (Mexico,) through the angular correlation coefficients and contingency tables among the registered wind directions by a meteorological tower at the levels of 10 and 60 meters high are presented. Finally, by applying an objective analysis of the data some conclusions are obtained in connection with the local winds with the mesoscale systems. [Espanol] Con el objeto de mostrar una metodologia apropiada en el analisis climatico del viento, se presentan algunos resultados recientes en la investigacion del campo de flujo en los alrededores de la central nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico), a traves de los coeficientes de correlacion angulares y de tablas de contingencia entre las direcciones del viento registradas por una torre meteorologica en los niveles de 10 y 60 metros de altura. Finalmente, aplicando analisis objetivo de los datos, se obtienen algunas conclusiones sobre la conexion de los vientos locales con los sistemas de mesoescala.

  3. Central receiver solar thermal power system. Phase 1. CDRL item 2; Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume II. System decription and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    An active system analysis and integration effort has been maintained. These activities have included the transformation of initial program requirements into a preliminary system design, the evolution of subsystem requirements which lay the foundation for subsystem design and test activity, and the overseeing of the final preliminary design effort to ensure that the subsystems are operationally compatible and capable of producing electricity at the lowest possible cost per unit of energy. Volume II of the Preliminary Design Report presents the results of the overall system effort that went on during this contract. The effort is assumed to include not only the total system definition and design but also all subsystem interactions.

  4. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CRDL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 2. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The methods and plans for the manufacture of the 10-MW collector heliostats and associated controls for the pilot plant are detailed. An in-depth description of the production, installation, and verification testing of heliostats for the pilot plant is presented. Specifications for the performance, design, and test requirements for the pilot plant collector subsystem are included. Also, a heliostat location summary report is given. (WHK)

  5. Method of estimating the exposure of the natural environment to 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields in power systems with distributed and centralized generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeńczak Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a distributed generation will influence the structure of the power transmission and distribution network. Distributed sources have lower power and therefore the lines of lower voltage are used. Therefore, the electric field intensity near such lines is lower. On the other hand magnetic field intensity may prove essential. The main aim of the paper is to present a method estimating the “ballast” of the natural environment at 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields in the power system, with distributed and centralized generation in real operating conditions.

  6. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele l'integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en France, les auteurs se penchent surtout sur l'evolution des techniques appliquees dans l'equipement des centrales nucleaires francaises et decrivent les moyens mis en oeuvre pour reduire les prix de revient du kWh d'EDF2 et d'EDF3 par rapport a EDF1: la puissance electrique par tonne d'uranium varie de 493 kW/t pour EDF1 a 970 kW/t pour EDF3. C'est dans ce but que les puissances thermiques et la puissance unitaire des groupes turbo-alternateurs passent respectivement de 290 MWt pour EDF1 a 1200 ou 1600 MWt pour EDF3 et de 82 a 250 MW. Les resultats sont obtenus par une amelioration des caracteristiques neutroniques, des progres realises sur la technologie des elements

  7. Study on the radiation flux and temperature distributions of the concentrator-receiver system in a solar dish/Stirling power facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhigang; Tang Dawei; Du Jinglong; Li Tie

    2011-01-01

    Uniform heater temperature and high optical-thermal efficiency are crucial for the reliable and economical operation of a Solar Dish/Stirling engine facility. The Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method is utilized to predict the radiation flux distributions of the concentrator-receiver system. The ray-tracing method is first validated by experiment, then the radiation flux profiles on the solar receiver surface for faceted real concentrator and ideal paraboloidal concentrator, irradiated by Xe-arc lamps and real sun, for different aperture positions and receiver shapes are analyzed, respectively. The resulted radiation flux profiles are subsequently transferred to a CFD code as boundary conditions to numerically simulate the fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in the receiver cavity by coupling the radiation, natural convection and heat conduction together, and the CFD method is also validated through experiment. The results indicate that a faceted concentrator in combination with a solar simulator composed of 12 Xe-arc lamps is advantageous to drive the solar Stirling engine for all-weather indoor tests. Based on the simulation results, a solar receiver-Stirling heater configuration is designed to achieve a considerably uniform temperature distribution on the heater head tubes while maintaining a high efficiency of 60.7%. - Highlights: → Radiation flux in Dish/Stirling system is analyzed by validated ray-tracing method. → Temperature field on the solar receiver is analyzed by a validated CFD method. → Effects of Xe-arc lamp solar simulator and faceted real concentrator are analyzed. → Effects of different receiver positions and receiver shapes are investigated. → A Stirling heater configuration is presented with uniform temperature field.

  8. Foreseeing techniques and control of emissions in thermal power plants. Workshop Latin American. [Selected Papers]; Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Morales, F.; Urrutia, M. [eds.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document contains the conference proceedings of the Latin-American Workshop ``Control and Prevision Techniques of Emissions in Power Plants`` carried out in Cuernavaca, Mexico on June 1996, with the participation of representatives of Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela, as well as specialists from the European Union. The core issue analyzed in this workshop was the control and the evaluation techniques of polluting emissions in Power Plants [Espanol] Este documento contiene las memorias de conferencia del Taller Latinoamericano ``Control y tecnicas de prevision de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas`` que se llevo a cabo en Cuernavaca, Mexico en junio de 1996. Participaron representantes de Argentina, Chile, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama y Venezuela, asi como especialistas de la Union Europea. El tema central tratado en este taller fue el control y tecnicas de evaluacion de las emisiones contaminantes en centrales termoelectricas

  9. Generalized conventional and intelligent supervisory control system for combined cycle generation power plants; Sistema de control supervisorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel

    2004-12-15

    The Mexican Electricity Utility (Comision Federal de Electricidad - CFE) growing program in Power Generation for the 2004 - 2008 period is based on Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). In accordance with [CFE, 2000], the expected power generation capacity developed during such period will rise by the amount of 12876 MW, 10655 MW belonging to CCPP (82.75 %). With such important program for the increasing of Power Generation in Mexico, researches have to receive new technologies for CCPP, some of them not completely tested and immature, with the compromise to make then more efficient and reliable. Under such idea and looking to increase the automation level for CCPP with better control algorithms, the Supervisory Generalized Control (SGC) for CCPP was developed in this thesis, based on PID strategies and intelligent (fuzzy) control strategies. With the SGC is possible to get the best performance for the whole CCPP through the automatic starting, synchronizing and loading of the generating units (two gas turbines and one steam turbine) with a minimum participation of operators. To get the increased efficiency, the SGC generates the reference paths for both gas turbines (GT) first, and the steam turbine (ST). The SGC accelerates each unit with a minimum effort and vibrations getting the synchronizing speed in a minimum time and wasted energy. Then the SGC synchronize each unit taking minimum load quickly and loading up to the highest electric power value. All these can be done in an automated operation. The SGC employs two critical-process variable- control strategies, based on blade path temperature average (BPT Average) for Gas Turbines (GT) and the throttle steam pressure for the Steam Turbine (ST). The control algorithms designed take both units, the GT and the ST, picking up load to the highest process value avoiding the alarms activation and shutdown. This is possible only with such an automated control strategy. Test performed showed that with the SGC

  10. Analysis of Limiting Measures of Three-phase Short-circuit Current of 500kV Intensive Receiving-end Power Grid in the Early Stage of UHV Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiao Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper took the intensive receiving-end power grid as the research object and analysed the problems of three-phase short-circuit current over-limited of 500kV intensive power grid in the early stage of UHV construction. Firstly, this paper analysed the influence factors of the short-circuit current based on self-impedance analysis model of two-port network theory and the equivalent model of UHV power grid. Then, the applicable current-limiting measures were put forward. Finally, this paper proposed one scheme to solve the problems of three-phase short-circuit current over-limited of 500kV buses in one practical receiving-end power grid and verified the feasibility of this scheme from three different aspects. Aiming at the over-limited influential factors, the applicable current-limiting measures can be taken as follows: separating the 500kV bus at UHV substation, lapping the lines outside the substation and decentralizing the power supplies. The proposed measures can effectively solve the problems of short-circuit current over-limited in the early stage of UHV construction and provide reference for other power grid.

  11. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  12. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  13. Short-term benefits from central unit commitment and dispatch: Application to the Southern African Power Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brian Hugh

    1998-12-01

    Electricity utilities in the Southern African region are conscious that gains could be made from more economically efficient trading but have had no tools with which to analyze the effects of a change in policy. This research is the first to provide transparent quantitative techniques to quantify the impacts of new trading arrangements in this region. The study poses a model of the recently formed Southern African Power Pool, built with the collaboration of the region's national utilities to represent each country's demand and generation/transmission system. The multi-region model includes commitment and dispatch from diverse hydrothermal sources over a vast area. Economic gains are determined by comparing the total costs under free-trade conditions with those from the existing fixed-trade bilateral arrangements. The objective function minimizes production costs needed to meet total demand, subject to each utility's constraints for thermal and hydro generation, transmission, load balance and losses. Linearized thermal cost functions are used along with linearized input output hydropower plant curves and hydrothermal on/off status variables to formulate a mixed-integer programming problem. Results from the modeling show that moving to optimal trading patterns could save between 70 million and 130 million per year. With free-trade policies the quantity of power flow between utilities is doubled and maximum usage is made of the hydropower stations thus reducing costs and fuel use. In electricity exporting countries such as Zambia and Mozambique gains from increased trade are achieved which equal 16% and 18% respectively of the value of their total manufactured exports. A sensitivity analysis is conducted on the possible effects of derating generation, derating transmission and reducing water inflows but gains remain large. Maximum economic gains from optimal trading patterns can be achieved by each country allowing centralized control through the newly founded SAPP

  14. Transformation of ecofunctional parameters of soil microbial cenoses in clearings for power transmission lines in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ponomareva, T. V.; Efimov, D. Yu.; Shishikin, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    Changes in soil microbial processes and phytocenotic parameters were studied in clearings made for power transmission lines in the subtaiga and southern taiga of Central Siberia. In these clearings, secondary meadow communities play the main environmental role. The substitution of meadow vegetation for forest vegetation, the increase in the phytomass by 40-120%, and the transformation of the hydrothermic regime in the clearings led to the intensification of the humus-accumulative process, growth of the humus content, reduction in acidity and oligotrophy of the upper horizons in the gray soils of the meadow communities, and more active microbial mineralization of organic matter. In the humus horizon of the soils under meadows, the microbial biomass (Cmicr) increased by 20-90%, and the intensity of basal respiration became higher by 60-90%. The values of the microbial metabolic quotient were also higher in these soils than in the soils under the native forests. In the 0- to 50-cm layer of the gray soils under the meadows, the total Cmicr reserves were 35-45% greater and amounted to 230-320 g/m3; the total microbial production of CO2 was 1.5-2 times higher than that in the soil of the adjacent forest and reached 770-840 mg CO2-C/m3 h. The predominance of mineralization processes in the soils under meadows in the clearings reflected changes in edaphic and trophic conditions of the soils and testified to an active inclusion of the herb falloff into the biological cycle.

  15. Analysis of pumping systems to large flows of cooling water in power plants; Analisis de sistemas de bombeo para grandes flujos de agua de enfriamiento en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon; Herrera Velarde, Jose Ramon; Gonzalez Sanchez, Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rsanchez@iie.org.mx; jrhv@iie.org.mx; ags@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    Accurate measurement of large water flows remains being a challenge in the problems of implementation of circulating water systems of power plants and other applications. This paper, presents a methodology for the analysis in pumping systems with high rates of water in power plants, as well as their practical application and results in pipelines water flow of a thermoelectrical power plant of 350 MW. In this power plant, the water flow per pipeline for a half of condenser oscillates around 7 m{sup 3}/s (14 m{sup 3}/s per power generating unit). In this analysis, we present the techniques used to measure large flows of water with high accurately, as well as the computational model for water circulating system using PIPE FLO and the results of practical application techniques. [Spanish] La medicion precisa de grandes flujos de agua, sigue siendo un reto en los problemas de aplicacion de sistemas de agua de circulacion de centrales termoelectricas, entre otras aplicaciones. En este articulo, se presenta una metodologia para el analisis de sistemas de bombeo con grandes flujos de agua en centrales termoelectricas, asi como, su aplicacion practica y los resultados obtenidos en los ductos de agua de circulacion de una central generadora con unidades de 350 MW. En esta central, los flujos por caja de agua oscilan alrededor de los 7 m{sup 3}/s (14 m{sup 3}/s por unidad generadora). En el analisis, se presentan las tecnicas utilizadas para medir con precision grandes flujos de agua (tubo de Pitot), asi como, el modelado del sistema de agua de circulacion por medio de un paquete computacional (PIPE FLO) y resultados obtenidos de la aplicacion de dichas tecnicas.

  16. United States Department of Energy solar receiver technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.; Diver, R. B.; Chavez, J. M.

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Sandia National Laboratories, has been conducting a Solar Thermal Receiver Technology Development Program, which maintains a balance between analytical modeling, bench and small scale testing, and experimentation conducted at scales representative of commercially-sized equipment. Central receiver activities emphasize molten salt-based systems on large scales and volumetric devices in the modeling and small scale testing. These receivers are expected to be utilized in solar power plants rated between 100 and 200 MW. Distributed receiver research focuses on liquid metal refluxing devices. These are intended to mate parabolic dish concentrators with Stirling cycle engines in the 5 to 25 kW(sub e) power range. The effort in the area of volumetric receivers is less intensive and highly cooperative in nature. A ceramic foam absorber of Sandia design was successfully tested on the 200 kW(sub t) test bed at Plataforma Solar during 1989. Material integrity during the approximately 90-test series was excellent. Significant progress has been made with parabolic dish concentrator-mounted receivers using liquid metals (sodium or a potassium/sodium mixture) as heat transport media. Sandia has successfully solar-tested a pool boiling reflux receiver sized to power a 25 kW Stirling engine. Boiling stability and transient operation were both excellent. This document describes these activities in detail and will outline plans for future development.

  17. Internalization of externalities in the generation costs of electric power centrals of carbon, combined cycle and nuclear; Internalizacion de externalidades en los costos de generacion de centrales electricas de carbon, ciclo combinado y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez R, M.C. [Universidad Anahuac del Norte (Mexico); Palacios H, J.; Ramirez S, R.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5 Ocoyoacac 52750 Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: fgrivera@avantel.net

    2007-07-01

    The technologies of electric power generation that use fossil fuels, they incorporate in the Even Total Cost of Generation (CTNG) only the direct costs of generation (investment, fuel costs, operation costs and maintenance). nevertheless, the nuclear energy incorporates besides the direct costs, the externalities that causes to the human health and the environment. In this work the CTNG is calculated that incorporates the externalities, of a thermoelectric power station of coal, a plant of combined cycle and of four reactors of Generation III (ABWR, ACR, AP1000 and EPR). The obtained results show that the nuclear power station has smaller CTNG that the technologies that use fossil fuels. It is important to stand out that they are only considering the externalities of the stage of electricity generation, for what the mining phase and transport of the fuel toward the central are not considered in the present document. (Author)

  18. Effectiveness of transmitting safety-measures information in risk communication of nuclear power generation. Evaluation by the receiver of the messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takanobu; Shiomi, Tetsuro

    2004-01-01

    Effectiveness of risk communication were previously discussed through both ''risk information'' and ''benefit information'' of its topics. However, in technical facilities facilities such as nuclear power plant where safeness is an important concern, not only these two aspects but also safety-measures information'' are required. There have been previously no such discussions about risk communication that included ''safety-measures information''. In this report, we investigated general public's view of the difference in effectiveness of risk communication between two cases. In the first case, only ''risk'' and ''benefit information'' were given. In the second case, we added ''safety-measures information'' as well as ''risk'' and benefit information''. Measurement of the effect was performed using a questionnaire. We divided the subjects into two groups. Each group was shown one side of two pamphlets which had information concerning two conditions, and asked how it feels about ''reliance on information'', ''reliance on informer'', ''posture considered with informer'' which are factors in the process of the attitude change that is shown in the paradigm of risk communication (Kinoshita and Kikkawa, (1990)). Prior to this investigation, we identified each subject is position on nuclear power generation. Thus we were able to clarify the effectiveness of each risk communication style depending on each subject is position (approval, neutrality, objection). As a result, we reached the following conclusions: First about ''reliance on information'', where asked whether the contents of a pamphlet would be reliable, it was found that the person negative to nuclear power generation evaluated lower the pamphlet which included ''safety-measures information'' than the other. However, it was found that regardless of the difference in the position towards nuclear power generation, people who read the pamphlet including ''safety-measures information'' evaluated higher ''reliance on

  19. Communication dated 19 May 2011 received from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency regarding Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 19 May 2011 from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency, attaching the Proposal for the Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants, as described in document GOV/2011/10. As requested by the Resident Representative, the letter and its attachment are circulated herewith for information of all Member States [es

  20. Communication dated 19 May 2011 received from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency regarding Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 19 May 2011 from the Resident Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Agency, attaching the Proposal for the Assurance of Supply of Enrichment Services and Low Enriched Uranium for Use in Nuclear Power Plants, as described in document GOV/2011/10. As requested by the Resident Representative, the letter and its attachment are circulated herewith for information of all Member States

  1. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  2. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  3. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  4. Radiation hygienic assessment of centralized heat and hot water supply of Bilibino village from Bilibin central nuclear heating- and power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, V.A.; Marej, A.N.; Nechiporenko, N.I.; Rasskazov, A.P.; Sayapin, N.P.; Soldatov, G.E.; Shcherbinin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The experience in using an atomic power plant for heat and hot water supply of the village of Bilibino is outlined. Particular attention is given to the population radiation safety. It has been demonstrated that radiation safety of the system is ensured by maintaining fixed pressure levels in the heating media and by the hermetic state of heat exchanges. Water in the heat and hot water supply network meets the requirements for drinking water. Radioactive corrosion products were not detected in the test water. Gamma-radiation dose rate from the surface of heating devices and pipe-lines in the test premises did not exceed the natural background, that is, U.U1-0.025 mrad

  5. Study of the influence of central nuclear power plants at Valdaliga (Civitavecchia) on the chemical composition of local rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargagli, A.; Morabito, R.; Basili, N.; Tidei, F.

    1989-05-01

    Data from a wet deposition sampling over the area collocated nearby Civitavecchia power plants are here presented and discussed. In order to establish the possible influence of the power plants emission on the chemical composition of the rain collected, the experimental data have been correlated with synoptic and local meteorological conditions. (author)

  6. Technical and environmental aspects of combined cycle power stations with integrated gasification (CCGI); Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A description is presented of the operation of the Combined Cycle Power Stations with Integrated Gasification (CCGI) where the use of solid fuels (coal, vacuum residues, petroleum coke, and biomass) or liquids is possible in a thermal power station with the efficiency and many of the own environmental benefits of the combined cycles. The gasification process is analyzed, that is a thermo-chemical process by means of which a fuel that is in solid state or liquid becomes to the gaseous state by means of a partial oxidation and the obtained gas of this process is called synthesis gas (syngas, by its abbreviations in English) that is used in Combined Cycle Power Stations as a substitute for the natural gas. Also the other components of this type of power stations are shown, such as the air separating unit, and some of the modifications that are due to make to adapt a gas turbine so that it uses syngas, and the considerations of their integration with the air separating unit to optimize the operation of the plant are detailed. A comparison of efficiency values of power stations CCGI with the conventional carbon-electric and the power stations of combined cycle that use natural gas is also shown. Finally the emissions of pollutants of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} are analyzed. The possibility of using fuels like petroleum coke and vacuum tower residues that are produced in the Cadereyta refinery is studied for the possible construction of a CCGI power station in Mexico. [Spanish] Se presenta la descripcion del funcionamiento de las centrales ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI) donde es posible el uso de combustibles solidos (carbon, residuos de vacio, coque de petroleo, biomasa) o liquidos en una central termica con la eficiencia y muchos de los beneficios ambientales propios de los ciclos combinados. Se analiza el proceso de gasificacion, que es un proceso termoquimico mediante el cual se convierte un combustible que se encuentra en estado solido o

  7. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  8. Study on the efficiency of a central neutron source for the 300-MW(e)-THTR-Nuclear Power Station Schmehausen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsch, U.; Scherer, W.; Gerwin, H.

    1976-03-01

    The loading and starting phase of the THTR-300 is controlled by an external neutron source. The possible positions of this source result from the requirement to fulfil certain criteria concerning the intensity and the interpretation of the detector-signal. In this study it is investigated how far a source centrally inserted into the reactor can be equal to this task and whether it is possible to go over to a non-central position at a later point of time. It is shown that the central source can fulfil all discussed demands. A source position lying in the vicinity of the side reflector demands a special choice of the detector position, which can be exactly determined only by further three-dimensional calculations. Beyond that, this study shows that during the loading phase in the subcritical range the spatial neutron flux distribution is expected to be completely different from that of the critical reactor. (orig.) [de

  9. Statistical Power Analysis with Microsoft Excel: Normal Tests for One or Two Means as a Prelude to Using Non-Central Distributions to Calculate Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texeira, Antonio; Rosa, Alvaro; Calapez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article presents statistical power analysis (SPA) based on the normal distribution using Excel, adopting textbook and SPA approaches. The objective is to present the latter in a comparative way within a framework that is familiar to textbook level readers, as a first step to understand SPA with other distributions. The analysis focuses on the…

  10. Could Changing Power Relationships Lead to Better  Water Sharing in Central Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek Zhupankhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though Central Asia is water rich, water disputes have characterized the region after crumbling of the Soviet Union in 1991. The uneven spatial distribution and complex pattern of transboundary water sources with contrasting national water needs have created an intricate water dilemma. Increasing national water needs, water claims by surrounding countries, uncertainties in renewable water volumes, and effects of climate change will put further strain on the future water use in Central Asia. We argue that the present power distribution with three downstream hegemons (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan and two upstream much poorer countries with less political influence (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is not likely to lead forward to a greater willingness to share water. We discuss this situation with the analogue Egypt-Sudan-Ethiopia in the Nile Basin. Thus, as in the case of Ethiopia in the Nile Basin, gradually economically stronger upstream countries Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan due to hydropower development are likely to eventually re-define the hydropolitical map of Central Asia. As in the case of the Nile Basin, a more even power balance between upstream and downstream countries may lead to an improved political structure for a much-needed better collaboration on water issues.

  11. Nuclear power plant of Fessenheim: evaluation of the seismic risk; Centrale Nucleaire de Fessenheim: appreciation du risque sismique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The seismic risk taken into account during the sizing of the nuclear power plant of Fessenheim seems to have been under evaluated at this time. The revaluation of the seismic risk, as proposed, until this day by EDF in order to the third ten-year visit of the power plant, planned for 2009, leads to a significant under evaluation of the risk and then is not acceptable. The present expertise details point by point the weaknesses of these revaluation. The power plant has been sized in an elastic manner that is generally strongly for the safety side. It is imperative to proceed the most quickly as possible to a deep control of the seismic resistance of the power plant of Fessenheim and then after having proceeded to a revision of the seismic risk in taking into account the actual knowledge in this field. (N.C.)

  12. On the Existence of Uniformly Most Powerful Bayesian Tests With Application to Non-Central Chi-Squared Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Nikooienejad, Amir; Johnson, Valen E.

    2018-01-01

    Uniformly most powerful Bayesian tests (UMPBTs) are an objective class of Bayesian hypothesis tests that can be considered the Bayesian counterpart of classical uniformly most powerful tests. Unfortunately, UMPBTs have only been exposed for application in one parameter exponential family models. The purpose of this article is to describe methodology for deriving UMPBTs for a larger class of tests. Specifically, we introduce sufficient conditions for the existence of UMPBTs and propose a unifi...

  13. Operator training for the Yacyreta binational hydroelectric power plant; Formacion de operadores para la Central Hidroelectrica de Yacireta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dure, Francisco; Tachella, Heriberto [Entidad Binacional Yacyreta, Isla Yacireta (Paraguay). Central Hidroelectrica Yacyreta]. E-mail: yacyreta@internet.siscotel.com

    1998-07-01

    This work is oriented to the power plant operators, by exposing the criteria and methods adopted for operators selection, training and incorporation to the Yacyreta Hydroelectric Power Plant. The used criteria considered some aspects, as follows: the operation staff should be consisted of equal numbers of Argentine and Paraguayan nationalities, viewing the both systems operation; experience of the shift supervisors in operating a plant for a minimum of 10 years; the supervisors should participate training the auxiliary operators.

  14. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the company's energy use, and reduce costs in an environmentally responsible manner.

  15. Solar thermal power: the seamless solar link to the conventional power world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, Michael; Quaschning, Volker

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on solar thermal power generation and describes two solar thermal power concepts, namely, the parabolic trough or solar farm, and the solar central receiver or power tower. Details are given of grid-connected parabolic trough power plants in California and recent developments in collector design and absorber tubes, and the operation of power tower plants with different heat transfer media. Market issues are discussed, and solar thermal power projects under development, and application for support for solar thermal power projects under the Global Environment Facility's Operational Programme by Egypt, India, Iran, Mexico and Morocco are reported

  16. Modernization and power uprate of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico); Modernizacion y aumento de potencia de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, L.; Merino, A.; Garcia-Serrano, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this project is to perform the modifications on the thermal cycle of the plant required by an Extended Power Update, to achieve a safe and reliable operation of the plant at 120% of its original thermal power. The scope includes the design, engineering, training, supply of equipment, dismantling, installation, testing and commissioning. The duration of the project is 4,5 years (2007-2011), and all the modifications have been implemented in four outages, two per unit. The main modification carried out are the change of the condenser, moisture separator and main steam reheaters, the feedwater haters, the turbogenerator and its auxiliaries, transformers, isolated phase bus and main circuit breaker, etc. In this paper, the results obtained after all the modifications will be introduced. In addition, the most representative experience will be presented, as well as the lessons learned during the Project execution. (Author)

  17. Modernization and power increase nuclear power plant Laguna Verde (Mexico); Modernizacion y aumento de potencia de la central nuclear Laguna Verde (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Serrano, J. L.; Merino, A.; Ruiz Gutierrez, L.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to perform the modifications on the thermal cycle of the plant required by an Extended Power Uprate, to achieve a safe and reliable operation of the plant at 120% of its original thermal power. The scope includes the design, engineering training, supply of equipment, dismantling, installation, testing and commissioning. The duration of the project is 4 years (82007-2010), and all the modifications have been implemented in four outages, two per unit. The main modification carried out are the change of the condenser, moisture separator and main steam reheaters, the feedwater haters, the turbogenerator and its auxiliaries, transformers, isolated phase bus and main circuit breaker, etc. (Author)

  18. Reproduction of the flow-power map of the Laguna Verde power plant; Reproduccion del mapa flujo-potencia de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador G, R.; Gonzalez M, V.M. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1993-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) requires to have calculation tools which allows it to make analysis independent of the behavior of the reactor core of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (CNLV) with the purpose to support the evaluation and discharge activities of the fuel recharges licensing. The software package Fms (Fuel Management System) allows to carry out an analysis of the core of the BWR type reactors along the operation cycle to detect possible anomalies and/or helping in the fuel management. In this work it is reproduced the flow-power for the CNLV using the Presto code of the Fms software package. The comparison of results with the map used by the operators of CNLV shows good agreement between them. Another exercise carried out was the changes study that the axial and radial power outlines undergo as well as the thermohydraulic parameters (LHGR, APLHGR, CPR) when moving a control rod. The obtained results show that is had the experience to effect analysis of the reactor behavior using the Presto-Fms code therefore the study of the rest of the software package for the obtention of nuclear parameters used in this code is recommended. (Author)

  19. Dynamics of display of power capabilities for girls 4-13 years of central region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voropay S. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of display of power capabilities of different muscular groups for girls in ontogenesis is considered. More than 1000 girls of preschool and school establishments were inspected (age 4-13 years. There were taken types of tests in basis of battery of tests: dynamometry of prepotent hand; bending and unbending of hands in support, lying on the floor; hang on arcuated hands; raising of trunk in grey for 1 minute; broad jump and upwards from a place. It is set that speed-power potential of muscles of lower extremities is most expressed shows a tendency to growth for girls 4-7 years. Thus there is an increase speed-power to potential scope from 18% to 67,4% annually. It is set that the most favorable period of display of power endurance of muscles of humeral belt was observed from 6 to 9 years. A general tendency was thus saved to the increase from a year to the year of power potential from 35,5% to 40,6%.

  20. Design optimization of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station fuel recharge; Optimacion del diseno de recargas de combustible para la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Campos, Carlos Cristobal [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Montes Tadeo, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    It is described, in general terms, the procedure that is followed to accomplish the optimization of the recharge design, and an example is shown where this procedure was applied for the analysis of the type BWR reactor of Unit No. 1 of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. [Espanol] Se describe en terminos generales el procedimiento que se sigue para realizar la optimacion del diseno de recargas, y se muestra un ejemplo en el que se utilizo dicho procedimiento para el analisis del reactor tipo BWR de la unidad 1, de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV).

  1. Training-related activities for nuclear power plant personnel in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A Technical Cooperation Meeting on Training-Related Activities for NPP Personnel in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union was held at the IAEA, Vienna. The main objective of the meeting was to identify, through information exchange and discussion, possible TC projects and assistance related to nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel training, which would meet overall coherent national goals and would demonstrate and important impact and relevance for national policy priorities. An array of such projects were identified for each participating country of the CEEC and FSU as were a number of regional cooperation projects. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants; Sistemas de gestion ambiental implantados en las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, R.; Fernandez Guisado, M. B.; Hortiguela, R.; Bustamante, L. F.; Esparza, J. L.; Villareal, M.; Yague, F.

    2013-09-01

    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  3. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  4. Analysis of geological aspects and visual impact rising from the realisation of a wind power station in an Italian mountain area (Central Appennines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, L.; Mizzoni, G.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates some aspects of the environmental impacts arising from the wind power station in the Central Appennines of Italy, particularly with reference to the geological and geotechnical conditions of the site and the visual impact on the landscape. Starting from a large-scale analysis that takes into account the Appennines orogeny and their geodynamic process, it is possible to define the geological characteristics of the considered area. It is possible to analyse structural and morphological aspects, in this way it is possible to identify the most suitable location of power generators in the area and to optimise the road network. The geo-stratigraphical study aids decisions about foundations, excavations and works of containments. Considerations on earth traspiration and on rill identify the necessity of controlling surface waters, evolutionary phenomena and the soil stability of the considered areas. Particular attention has been given to analyse effects on the landscape. (author)

  5. Visit of Mr. Susumu Yoda, Japanese Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Nobuo Natsume, Vice-President, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan (CRIEPI), Mr. Nobuya Yoshiki, CRIEPI, Mrs. Seiko Ichikawa, Interpreter, with Mr. Taylor of CERN, visiting SM18

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Visit of Mr. Susumu Yoda, Japanese Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Nobuo Natsume, Vice-President, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan (CRIEPI), Mr. Nobuya Yoshiki, CRIEPI, Mrs. Seiko Ichikawa, Interpreter, with Mr. Taylor of CERN, visiting SM18

  6. Simulation of the fluctuations of hydraulic pressure in thermal power plants; Simulacion de golpe de ariete en centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzada Mazeres, P. de la [INITEC (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    In this study the different equipments of the circulation waste system in thermal power plants are modellized (refrigeration water from the condenser). The purpose is to analyze the transient generated when the pump trip is produced at different shutting times of discharge valve. (Author)

  7. China’s cultural soft power: the central concept in the early Xi Jinping era (2012–2017)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Ondřej

    -, č. 4 (2017), s. 127-150. ISBN 978-80-246-2029-9. ISSN 0474-6635 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21829S Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : cultural soft power * China * Xi Jinping Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences OBOR OECD: Political science

  8. Internet applications in nuclear power plant operation management; Aplicaciones de internet en la gestion de la explotacion de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, M. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I. E. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The use of the Internet is quickly becoming widespread in practically all areas of business and industry. The nuclear industry should not remain indifferent to this new trend. This paper analyses some of the Internet applications that can be easily adapted to nuclear power plant operation management, including. (Author)

  9. Geochemistry of the recent sediments from lake in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Sanei; F. Goodarzi; K. Telmer [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Environmental Study Group

    2005-07-01

    This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of recent sediments and their porewaters from the Wabamun Lake in central Alberta (Canada) to elucidate the possible impact from coal utilization in this region. A multi-elemental analysis of recent sediments in conjunction with other inorganic and organic geochemical approaches are applied to determine the sources, quantity, and processes involved in the distribution of trace elements in the sediments. Concentration versus depth profiles in the sediments and the associated porewaters suggest that geochemical processes impact the mobility and vertical distribution of trace elements in these sediments. Although inputs of trace elements to ecosystems have clearly been elevated by emissions from the coal-fired power plants, diagenetic processes and natural inputs cannot be ignored in the distribution of lake sediments. A combination of various biogeochemical processes may control the distribution of elements in sediment and porewater. However, because of the alkalinity and eutrophic conditions of the studied lake, the Ca-OM fraction plays the most important role as substrate for trace elements. The higher input of calcareous fly ash in the Wabamun Lake, adjacent to the power plants, may cause scavenging of trace metals. The size of fly ash particles tends to decrease towards the more recent part of the sediment profile indicating the effect of particle emission control measures adopted by the power plants. There is no evidence of fly ash particles in the sediments deposited prior to the commencement of coal-fired power plants in the study area (before 1956).

  10. Spatial distribution of mercury and other trace elements in recent lake sediments from central Alberta, Canada: An assessment of the regional impact of coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanei, H.; Goodarzi, F. [Geological Survey of Canada, 3303-33rd Street, N.W., Calgary, Alberta, T2L 2A7 (Canada); Outridge, P.M. [Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, K1A 0E8 (Canada)

    2010-05-01

    These have been growing concerns over the environmental impacts of the coal-fired power plants in the western Canadian province of Alberta, which collectively comprise one of the largest point sources of Hg and other trace elements nationally. The overall cumulative impact of the power plants since the beginning of their activities several decades ago has been a critical question for industry, government agencies, and the research community. This paper aims to delineate the cumulative geographic extent of impact by investigating the spatial distribution of mercury and other trace elements of environmental concern in nine freshwater lakes, which cover the large area surrounding the coal-fired power plants in central Alberta, Canada. 210-Lead dating was used in conjunction with physical evidence of deposited fly ash to determine the sediments' age and hence the depths corresponding to the onset of coal-fired power generation in 1956. Total mean concentrations and fluxes of elements of environmental concern with integrated values since 1956 were then determined. The concentration values do not reflect the catastrophic oil spill at Lake Wabamun in 2005. The post-1956 flux rates of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, W, and Zn were generally highest in sediment cores obtained from two lakes adjacent to power plants. However, the variable prevailing wind directions played an important role in determining the aerial distribution of Hg and other trace elements to the southeast and to the west of the power plants. Post-1956 fluxes of most elements declined downwind (westward), consistent with strong easterly winds transporting metal pollution further to the west of the power plants. However, spatial interpolation of the data suggested a major southern extension to the area of maximum metal deposition, which has not been sampled by this or previous studies in the region. An atmospheric model estimate of total Hg flux in 2007 near the Genesee power plant was

  11. Effects of massive wind power integration on short-term water resource management in central Chile - a grid-wide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Olivares, M. A.; Palma, R.

    2013-12-01

    In central Chile, water from reservoirs and streams is mainly used for irrigation and power generation. Hydropower reservoirs operation is particularly challenging because: i) decisions at each plant impact the entire power system, and ii) the existence of large storage capacity implies inter-temporal ties. An Independent System Operator (ISO) decides the grid-wide optimal allocation of water for power generation, under irrigation-related constraints. To account for the long-term opportunity cost of water, a future cost function is determined and used in the short term planning. As population growth and green policies demand increasing levels of renewable energy in power systems, deployment of wind farms and solar plants is rising quickly. However, their power output is highly fluctuating on short time scales, affecting the operation of power plants, particularly those fast responding units as hydropower reservoirs. This study addresses these indirect consequences of massive introduction of green energy sources on reservoir operations. Short-term reservoir operation, under different wind penetration scenarios, is simulated using a replica of Chile's ISO's scheduling optimization tools. Furthermore, an ongoing study is exploring the potential to augment the capacity the existing hydro-power plants to better cope with the balancing needs due to a higher wind power share in the system. As reservoir releases determine to a great extent flows at downstream locations, hourly time series of turbined flows for 24-hour periods were computed for selected combinations between new wind farms and increased capacity of existing hydropower plants. These time series are compiled into subdaily hydrologic alteration (SDHA) indexes (Zimmerman et al, 2010). The resulting sample of indexes is then analyzed using duration curves. Results show a clear increase in the SDHA for every reservoir of the system as more fluctuating renewables are integrated into the system. High

  12. Qualified Coatings in Nuclear Power Plants. Commercial products; Qualified Coatings in Nuclear Power Plants. Commercial products. Pinturas homologadas en centrales nucleares. Productos comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcena, J.; Nunez, B.; Romero, M.; Baladiam, M.

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the supplier of paints that were qualified for use in nuclear applications as protective coatings have ceased to supply in Spain the paints that was used in areas or components with special requirements for nuclear power plants (NPPs). This lack of the common commercial products called for the search for and homologation of other products. A study was performed on the current status of the homologation of commercial products for NPPs and on the codes and standards governing them. The criteria to be met have been defined and the results of the tests performed on the selected paints have been compared against the established criteria so as to allow the homologation of the paints. (Author)

  13. The possibility of using underground chloride sodium brines in the territory of the Central Federal District to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of power equipment of TPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A. Y.; Burakov, I. A.; Verkhovsky, A. E.; Nikitina, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term use of ground sodium chloride brine at power plants of “Mosenergo” for the purposes of regeneration Na-cation unit of water treatment plants chemical plants provides the preconditions for operation of underground brines and other power systems of our country. Underground sodium chloride brines used in “Mosenergo” since 1979, when the first wells for the extraction of brines in the territory of TPP-22 was drilled. Currently production brines are well in 13 TPP of PJSC “Mosenergo”. Underground sodium chloride brines can be used to regenerate the sodium cation filters under the following conditions: salinity brines should be not less than 100 g/dm3; the ratio of sodium ion content (in mg-Eq/dm3) to the total rigidity brine (in mg-Eq/dm3) should not be less than 3.5. Performed zoning district on the possibility of using underground brine for regeneration of the sodium-cation filters On the basis of these requirements. The analysis of the possibility of using underground brine directly to the location of CHP stations in the northern part of the Central Federal District on the basis of geological and hydrogeological data. Particular attention is drawn to the area of large cities, where the use of underground brines most effectively. The conclusion about the possibility of using sodium chloride brines underground in most parts of the Central Federal District for energy purposes.

  14. Environmental management project of the Patache power plant project and associated transmission line; Gestion ambiental proyecto central termoelectrica Patache y linea de transmision asociada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreno Paredes, Cristian [Compania Electrica Tapaca (CELTA, S. A.), (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    This report makes a brief description of the services developed by INGENDESA of the projects executed in the area of engineering as well as in the area of environmental matters. In a second instance a relatively detailed presentation is made of the most important background of the Chilean project: {sup E}nvironmental Management of the Patache Power Plant and the Associated Transmission Line-Compania Electrica Tarapaca (CELTA, S.A.) Region I{sup .} The justification for the construction of the power plant and the environmental problems associated with the same are described [Espanol] En el presente informe se hace una breve presentacion de los servicios desarrollados por INGENDESA, de los proyectos elaborados tanto en el area de la ingenieria como en la tematica ambiental. En segunda instancia, se hace una presentacion relativamente detallada de los antecedentes mas importantes del proyecto chileno {sup G}estion Ambiental Central Patache y Linea de Transmision Asociada - Compania Electrica Tarapaca (CELTA, S.A.) I Region{sup .} Se describe la justificacion de la construccion de esta central termoelectrica y los problemas ambientales asociados a la misma

  15. Transmitter-receiver system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, E.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a transmitter-receiver system comprising at least three transmitters and at least a first receiver and a second receiver, wherein the receivers are connected to a computing device that is arranged to analyse signals that said receivers receive from said transmitters and to

  16. Economic power schedule and transactive energy through an intelligent centralized energy management system for a DC residential distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Jingpeng; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Chendan

    2017-01-01

    is aligned with the command of the unit power schedule. In this work, a DC RDS is used as a case study to demonstrate the process, the RDS is associated with unit economic models, and a cost minimization objective is proposed that is to be achieved based on the real-time electrical price. The results show...... that the proposed framework and methods will help the targeted DC residential system to reduce the total cost and reach stability and efficiency....

  17. Solar dynamic heat receiver technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements specified for electrical power modules on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to power a heat engine in a closed Brayton cycle using a mixture of helium-xenon gas as the working fluid. The electrical power output of the engine, 25 kW, requires a 100 kW thermal input throughout a 90 minute orbit, including when the spacecraft is eclipsed for up to 36 minutes from the sun. The heat receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat available through the phase change of a high-temperature salt mixture. A near eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride is used as the phase change material. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification. Fabrication of the receiver is complete and it was delivered to NASA for verification testing in a simulated low-Earth-orbit environment. This document reviews the receiver design and describes its fabrication history. The major elements required to operate the receiver during testing are also described.

  18. Solution to the colloidal silica problem in the San Luis Potosi power plant; Solucion del problema de silice coloidal en la central termoelectrica San Luis Potosi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rubalcava, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Guerra, Protasio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In June 1986 the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) made tests to raise the load of the first normalized unit of 350 MW of the San Luis Potosi Power Plant; although the new system for colloidal silica removal had not yet been installed, consisting of a hollow fibers ultra-filtration system with a capacity of 110 m{sup 3}, that for the first time would be applied in a Mexican power plant. It was decided to install this system due to the fact that the well water supplying this power plant comes from a geothermal reservoir, with water at 38 degrees Celsius and a silica content of 15 to 250 parts per billion (ppb) of colloidal silica, which makes it necessary to eliminate it in order to enable the boiler operation at its design conditions (175 bars (2573 psig) and 540 degrees Celsius). Although a demineralizing plant existed for the boiler feed water make up, the ion exchange resins were not able to retain the colloidal silica. Also, the First Unit operation was held at 25% of its rated capacity; in trying to raise the output to 50%, the silica concentration in the boiler water went over the allowed limits, resulting in a concentration of 1,500 ppb in the boiler water and 28 ppb in the steam. One the ultra-filtration plant was installed, the power plant operated at full rated capacity with silica concentrations in the steam lower than the permitted concentration, i.e. 10 ppb . By the end of 1987 the Second Unit of 350 MW was put into operation with the ultra-filtration system in operation, reaching full load without any problem. Once confirmed the efficiency of the ultra-filtration for the colloidal silica removal, CFE will apply this system in other power plants of the country having the same problem. [Espanol] En junio de 1986, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) efectuo pruebas de elevacion de carga en la primera unidad normalizada de 350 MW de la central termoelectrica San Luis Potosi; sin embargo, aun no se terminaba de instalar el nuevo sistema para la

  19. El mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia; su análisis en el caso de una Central termoeléctrica cubana;Maintenance of power transformers; its analysis in the case of a Cuban thermal power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Juan Montané - García,et al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está dirigido a la exposición del proceso de mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento preventivo, las normativas de mantenimiento y las pruebas a transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento predictivo, el análisis de gases disueltos en el aceite de transformadores, las condiciones de los transformadores según este análisis, las más importantes características del aislamiento de celulosa de los transformadores de potencia y la necesidad de complementar el análisis de gases disueltos con el análisis de derivados furánicos en el aceite para evaluar la disminución del grado de polimerización del aislamiento de celulosa, los índices de clase mundial del proceso de mantenimiento a transformadores de potencia y su cálculo para el caso de una central termoeléctrica cubana y el análisis del proceso utilizando la Distribución de Weibull, ofreciéndose recomendaciones para mejorar este proceso de mantenimiento.The authors write about the process of power transformers maintenance, the preventive maintenance, the maintenance standards and the tests of power transformers, the predicative maintenance, the analysis of dissolved gas in the transformers oil, the conditions of transformers in accordance with this analysis, the most important characteristics of the cellulose insulation of power transformers and the necessity to complement the dissolved gas analysis with the analysis of furan byproducts in the transformers oil in order to assess the reduction of the degree of polymerization of the cellulose insulation, the world class indicators of the process of power transformers maintenance and its calculation in the case of one of the Cuban steam power plants and the assess of this process using the Weibull distribution; at the end, authors give recommendations to improve the process of power transformers maintenance.

  20. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements in the extreme ultraviolet region of central carbon concentrations during high power neutral beam heating in TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, B.C.; Fonck, R.J.; Ramsey, A.T.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX

    1989-09-01

    The carbon concentration in the central region of TFTR discharges with high power neutral beam heating has been measured by charge-extracted recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) of the C +5 n = 3--4 transition in the extreme ultraviolet region. The carbon concentrations were deduced from absolute measurements of the line brightness using a calculation of the beam attenuation and the appropriate cascade-corrected line excitation rates. As a result of the high ion temperatures in most of the discharges, the contribution of beam halo neutrals to the line brightness was significant and therefore had to be included in the modeling of the data. Carbon concentrations have been measured in discharges with I p = 1.0-1.6 MA and beam power in the range of 2.6-30 MW, including a number of supershots. The results are in good agreement with carbon concentrations deduced from the visible bremsstrahlung Z eff and metallic impurity concentrations measured by x-ray pulse-height analysis, demonstrating the reliability of the atomic rates used in the beam attenuation and line excitation calculations. Carbon is the dominant impurity species in these discharges; the oxygen concentration measured via CXRS in a high beam power case was 0.0006 of n e , compard to 0.04 for carbon. Trends with I p and beam power in the carbon concentration and the inferred deuteron concentration are presented. The carbon concentration is independent of I p and decreases from 0.13 at 2.6 MW beam power to 0.04 at 30 MW, while the deuteron concentration increases from 0.25 to 0.75 over the same range of beam power. These changes are primarily the result of beam particle fueling, as the carbon density did not vary significantly with beam power. The time evolutions of the carbon and deuteron concentrations during two high power beam pulses, one which exhibited a carbon bloom and one which did not, are compared. 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  1. CHAMP+ : A powerful array receiver for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemann, C.; Güsten, R.; Heyminck, S.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Philipp, S.D.; Korn, A.; Schneider, G.; Henseler, A.; Baryshev, A.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    CHAMP+, a dual-color 2 × 7 element heterodyne array for operation in the 450 ?m and 350 ?m atmospheric windows is under development. The instrument, which is currently undergoing final evaluation in the laboratories, will be deployed for commissioning at the APEX telescope in August this year. With

  2. CHAMP + : A powerful array receiver for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemann, C.; Güsten, R.; Heyminck, S.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Philipp, S. D.; Korn, A.; Schneider, G.; Henseler, A.; Baryshev, A.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    CHAMP +, a dual-color 2 × 7 element heterodyne array for operation in the 450 μm and 350 μm atmospheric windows is under development. The instrument, which is currently undergoing final evaluation in the laboratories, will be deployed for commissioning at the APEX telescope in August this year. With

  3. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR; Planes de gestion de vida en centrales nucleares PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-10-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  4. New simulator for Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant; El nuevo simulador de la Central Nuclear Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, F.; Blanco, J.; Sastre, J. L.; Pomar, C.; Canas, A.; Delgado, R.; Ruiz, J. A.

    2002-07-01

    The new Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant simulator was recently installed in a building next to the Training School built for this purpose. Development of this simulator was based on the SGIZ (Zorita Interactive Graphic Simulator), which has been in operation for the last few years. The most outstanding feature of this simulator are the virtual panels, which provide the interface with operators. The virtual panels represent the Control Room instrumentation on one hundred 21'' screens (of which approximately 50% are tactile), by means of digitized photographs of real elements that dynamically respond to simulation and to operator actions. (Author)

  5. Questions to the reactors power upgrade of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde; Cuestionamientos al aumento de potencia de los reactores de la Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas M, B., E-mail: salasmarb@yahoo.com.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The two reactors of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) were subjected to power upgrade labors with the purpose of achieving 20% upgrade on the original power; these labors concluded in August 24, 2010 for the Reactor 1 and in January 16, 2011 for the Reactor 2, however in January of 2014, the NNP-L V has not received by part of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) the new Operation License to be able to work with the new power, because it does not fulfill all the necessary requirements of safety. In this work is presented and analyzed the information obtained in this respect, with data provided by the Instituto Federal de Acceso a la Informacion Publica y Proteccion de Datos (IFAI) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in Mexico, as well as the opinion of some workers of the NPP-L V. The Governing Board of the CFE announcement that will give special continuation to the behavior on the operation and reliability of the NPP-L V, because the frequency of not announced interruptions was increased 7 times more in the last three years. (Author)

  6. Current status of the Colombia power plants emissions; Estado de las emisiones en las centrales termoelectricas de Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quijano Hurtado, Ricardo [Ministerio de Minas y Energia, (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    The characteristics of the Colombian thermal electric resource and the environmental characteristics of the region such as: the climate where the power plants are located; the Geology and the type of soils; the technology employed for the atmospheric emissions control; the water consumption in the region; the systems for ash extraction an social-economical aspects are described [Espanol] Se describen las caracteristicas del parque termico de Colombia y las caracteristicas ambientales de la region como son: el clima donde estan localizadas las plantas; la geologia y los tipos de suelos; la tecnologia utilizada en el control de las emisiones atmosfericas; el consumo de agua en la region; los sistemas de extraccion de cenizas y aspectos socioeconomicos

  7. Environmental management in Chile: The power plants case; Gestion ambiental en Chile: Caso de las centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrijevic, Maritza [Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente, (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the general aspects of the historic evolution o the legal norms on environmental matters in Chile; general aspects of the electric generation system and the instruments of environmental management currently applied in the fossil fueled power plants, such as: the assessment system of the environmental impact; compliance of the air quality and emissions Standards and plans for decontamination [Espanol] En este trabajo se dan a conocer aspectos generales de la evolucion historica de las normas juridicas en materia ambiental en Chile; aspectos generales del sistema de generacion electrica y los instrumentos de gestion ambiental que actualmente se aplican a las plantas de generacion termoelectricas, tales como: el sistema de evaluacion de impacto ambiental; cumplimiento de normas de la calidad de aire y de emision y, planes de descontaminacion

  8. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  9. Conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control for combined cycle generating power stations.; Control supervisiorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Sanchez P, Marino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gonzalez Rubio S, Jose L [Cento Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Under the expectations of expansion of electric power generation in Mexico, this work exposes the development of a conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control (CSG) for a combined cycle generation power plant. This one allows to obtain the optimal operation of the power plant through the automatic starting of the generating units and to obtain the maximum possible amount of electrical power in automatic and safe form. For the development of the CSG a control loop by temperature was implemented for the gas turbine system and a control loop by strangled pressure for the gas turbine and a control loop by strangled pressure for the steam turbine. The design of these supervisory systems was made with base in the critical limits on the involved variables of the process: blading average temperature, for the gas turbine (GT) and strangled pressure for the steam turbine (ST) [Spanish] Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, este trabajo expone el desarrollo de un control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) para una central generacion de ciclo combinado. Este permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor. El diseno de estos sistemas supervisorio se realizo con base en los limites criticos de las variables del proceso involucradas: temperatura promedio de empaletado para la turbina de gas (TG) y presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV)

  10. Diffusion and dispersion heat of hydrotermal discharge from power plant; Difusion y dispersion de calor de la descarga hidrotermal de una central termoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Villalobos, J. Rodolfo

    1996-12-31

    This study describe the numerical simulation results of hydrodynamical behavior of the surface discharge cooling water to the sea incoming from the Tuxpan Power Plant under two different meteorological and oceanographic conditions; Case I, southwest variable winds average speeds of 3 m s-1 and Case II, northwest variable winds average speeds of 11.10 m s-1 . The numerical simulations were made using a three-dimensional model of coastal circulation and heat exchange. The statistical analysis of the wind speed and direction time series measured from January 1, 1981 to December 31, 1983, shows that the larger part of the winds were predominantly from 180 degrees to 315 degrees. Therefore, the southerly winds induce a sea surface circulation towards the north which move the discharged heat water away from the intake. On the contrary, the north winds drives the hydrothermal effluent towards the intake. Comparisons between the numerical simulation results and field data show that under different meteorological and oceanographic conditions, representative of the Tuxpan Site, the model correctly predicts the hydrothermal effluents surface diffusion and Dispersion measured on August 19-20 and 21, 1992 (Case I) and November 26, 1992 (Case II). The model predicts the extent of the impacted areas with cooling water with a precision of {+-} 11%. For all analyzed cases, the real size of the impacted areas that might have adverse effects on the marine ecosystems was not gibber than 0.1 km{sup 2}. Thus, these possible adverse effects are considered to be of local significance only. The simulated vertical profiles of temperature show that the cooling water discharged remains mostly o the surface of the receiving water mass and reaches a maximum depth of 3.5 m. This floatability if a consequence of the low density and small Froude number (Fr << 1), at the discharge, that characterizes the Tuxpan Power Plant Effluent. [Espanol] Este estudio describe los resultados de la simulacion

  11. Statistical analysis about corrosion in nuclear power plants; Analisis estadistico de la corrosion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquid G, C.; Medina F, A.; Zamora R, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays, it has been carried out the investigations related with the structure degradation mechanisms, systems or and components in the nuclear power plants, since a lot of the involved processes are the responsible of the reliability of these ones, of the integrity of their components, of the safety aspects and others. This work presents the statistics of the studies related with materials corrosion in its wide variety and specific mechanisms. These exist at world level in the PWR, BWR, and WWER reactors, analysing the AIRS (Advanced Incident Reporting System) during the period between 1993-1998 in the two first plants in during the period between 1982-1995 for the WWER. The factors identification allows characterize them as those which apply, they are what have happen by the presence of some corrosion mechanism. Those which not apply, these are due to incidental by natural factors, mechanical failures and human errors. Finally, the total number of cases analysed, they correspond to the total cases which apply and not apply. (Author)

  12. An approach to power efficiency determination in the solar energy systems using central composite design and Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas Mendez, Juan

    We are living in an industrialized world that relies on fossil fuels. The ways, in which these fossil fuels have damaged the earth, in special the environment is worth of special attention and corrective actions. In our days, the climate change (global warming) it is becoming the number one topic. These changes are affecting our health, comfort and our way of living. Solar systems have been working among us since several years, but the truth is that most of us really don't understand how they work and more important, how they work in time in different conditions. Solar panels are one of the most promising renewable energy ways to handle electrification requirements off several isolated consumers worldwide. Because of this, it was clear which way to take. The main focus of this research is the study of solar panels; watch their behavior on different conditions to determine on which ones this kind of systems can give us more output power. The variables to deal with are going to be the temperature, the angle of the light and the color temperature of the light, all this occurs on a controlled environment following two different methods to analyze the collected data. As objectives, three different point were stated. To find out if all the variables affect our system, which one is the most significant adobe the other for this particular study and to demonstrate the importance of the color temperature of the light on solar panels electricity production.

  13. The power of strategy expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    This paper explores the power of strategy expertise in strategy making. Strategy has become central and ubiquitous in management within the last decades. Recently, research has started to explore how the power of strategy expertise unfolds in strategy making, for instance through specific logics......, languages, metaphors, etc., however, research has only to a very limited extent been studying how strategy expertise is being received and reproduced in strategic practices. This paper contributes to the research engaged in exploring the power of strategy expertise. This paper unfolds a conception...... of strategy expertise that stresses its innovative and critical capacity as well as its structural constraints....

  14. Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaeriyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium (Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP in the North Pacific is still unclear due to the limitation of direct measurement of the seawater in the open ocean. We present the result of direct observation of radioactive Cs in surface seawater collected from a broad area in the western and central North Pacific in July 2011, October 2011 and July 2012. We also conducted a simple particle tracking experiment to estimate the qualitative spatial distribution of radioactive Cs in the North Pacific. 134Cs was detected at 94 stations out of 123 stations, and 137Cs was detected at all stations. High 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations more than 10 m Bq kg−1 were observed in the area of the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 144° E and 155° E in July 2011, in the area 147–175° E around 40° N in October 2011, and the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 155° E and 175°30´ E in July 2012. Combining the result of direct observations and particle tracking experiment, the radioactive Cs derived from the FNPP had been dispersed eastward to the central North Pacific during 2011. It was considered from the horizontal distribution that radioactive Cs was dispersed not only eastward but also north- and southward in the central North Pacific. Pronounced dilution process of radioactive Cs from the FNPP during study period is suggested from temporal change in the activity ratio of 134Cs / 137Cs, which was decay-corrected on 6 April 2011, and relationships between radioactive Cs and temperature.

  15. Development of High-Powered Steam Turbines by OAO NPO Central Research and Design Institute for Boilers and Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Kovalev, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the developments by OAO NPO TsKTI aimed at improvement of components and assemblies of new-generation turbine plants for ultra-supercritical steam parameters to be installed at the power-generating facilities in service. The list of the assemblies under development includes cylinder shells, the cylinder's flow paths and rotors, seals, bearings, and rotor cooling systems. The authors consider variants of the shafting-cylinder configurations for which advanced high-pressure and intermediate-pressure cylinders with reactive blading and low-pressure cylinders of conventional design and with counter-current steam flows are proposed and high-pressure rotors, which can increase the economic efficiency and reduce the overall turbine plant dimensions. Materials intended for the equipment components that operate at high temperatures and a steam cooling technique that allows the use of cheaper steel grades owing to the reduction in the metal's working temperature are proposed. A new promising material for the bearing surfaces is described that enables the operation at higher unit pressures. The material was tested on a full-scale test bench at OAO NPO TsKTI and a turbine in operation. Ways of controlling the erosion of the blades in the moisture-steam turbine compartments by the steam heating of the hollow guide blades are considered. To ensure the dynamic stability of the shafting, shroud and diaphragm seals that prevent the development of the destabilizing circulatory forces of the steam flow were devised and trialed. Advanced instrumentation and software are proposed to monitor the condition of the blading and thermal stresses under transient conditions, to diagnose the vibration processes, and to archive the obtained data. Attention is paid to the normalization of the electromagnetic state of the plant in order to prevent the electrolytic erosion of the plant components. The instrumentation intended for monitoring the relevant electric

  16. Atmospheric emissions control at ENELVEN`s Ramon Laguna thermal power plant; Control de emisiones a la atmosfera en la central termoelectrica Ramon Laguna de ENELVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Rincon, Edis Rafael [Empresa de Servicio Electrico (ENELVEN), (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    ENELVEN is an electric utility that covers the areas of generation, transmission and distribution of the Western an South coast of the Maracaibo Lake of the Zulia State, Venezuela. General aspects of the Ramon Laguna of ENELVEN fossil power plant are presented, as well as the environmental measures implanted in this power station to avoid detrimental effects on the environment that could be caused by the emission of combustion products without the appropriate control, such as particulate matter, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and carbon oxides [Espanol] ENELVEN es una empresa de servicio electrico que cubre las areas de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la Costa Occidental y Sur del Lago de Maracaibo, del Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se presentan aspectos generales de la planta termoelectrica Ramon Laguna de la empresa ENELVEN, asi como las medidas ambientales implantadas en esta central para evitar efectos adversos sobre el ambiente que pudieran producirse por la emision de productos de la combustion si no existiera el debido control, tales como: particulas, oxidos de azufre, oxidos de nitrogeno y oxidos de carbono

  17. El mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia; su análisis en el caso de una Central termoeléctrica cubana; Maintenance of power transformers; its analysis in the case of a Cuban thermal power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Juan Montané García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está dirigido a la exposición del proceso de mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento preventivo, las normativas de mantenimiento y las pruebas a transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento predictivo, el análisis de gases disueltos en el aceite de transformadores, las condiciones de los transformadores según este análisis, las más importantes características del aislamiento de celulosa de los transformadores de potencia y la necesidad de complementar el análisis de gases disueltos con el análisis de derivados furánicos en el aceite para evaluar la disminución del grado de polimerización del aislamiento de celulosa, los índices de clase mundial del proceso de mantenimiento a transformadores de potencia y su cálculo para el caso de una central termoeléctrica cubana y el análisis del proceso utilizando la Distribución de Weibull, ofreciéndose recomendaciones para mejorar este proceso de mantenimiento.    The authors write about the process of power transformers maintenance, the preventive maintenance, the maintenance standards and the tests of power transformers, the predicative maintenance, the analysis of dissolved gas in the transformers oil, the conditions of transformers in accordance with this analysis, the most important characteristics of the cellulose insulation of power transformers and the necessity to complement the dissolved gas analysis with the analysis of furan byproducts in the transformers oil in order to assess the reduction of the degree of polymerization of the cellulose insulation, the world class indicators of the process of power transformers maintenance and its calculation in the case of one of the Cuban steam power plants and the assess of this process using the Weibull distribution; at the end, authors give recommendations to improve the process of power transformers maintenance.

  18. Improvement of the availability of nuclear power station maintenance teleprocessing; Amelioration de la disponibilite des teletraitements de maintenance des centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badellon, D.; Bloton, Y.; Bres, J.P.; Cuche, A.; Trabaud, C.

    1993-11-01

    The Data processing department at the DEPT manages a centralized maintenance application for the nineteen power plants in France. This application performs fourteen million CICS transactions every month, passing through the Electricite de France national teleprocessing network. Operation is split among two IBM 9021 computer partitions located one hundred kilometres apart for backup and security reasons in the two computer centres of the STI (EDF Data Processing Department) and the R and DD (EDF Research and Development Department). The CICS are stopped each night at 10.30 so that the data bases can be backed up onto cassettes and so that the work from the plants can be processed in batches. The plants update the number of bases and extract subsets intended for the plants. From the outset, considerable resources were assigned to this operation: cassette insertion robots, a high-power batch processing scheduling and planning tool optimizing parallel step work, high-power computers: two IBM 3090-40J computers were dedicated to this application as early as 1989. However, the buildup and evolution of this application led to ever greater basic volumes and increasingly voluminous and complex batch processing, leading to reduced transactional availability by pushing back the startup times. To combat this trend, the Data Processing Department at the DEPT, together with the Departments operating the computers, took a number of steps to speed up batch processing and thus improve teleprocessing availability. In particular, on the partition operated by the computer Centre in the Applied Mathematics and Data Processing Service of the Research and Development Department at EDF, a number of studies were conducted, as described in the following text. This description comprises three parts: - report on the studies and steps taken, both from the hardware and the software viewpoint; - an evaluation of their effectiveness and the results obtained; - the new areas for study selected.

  19. Lake-sediment record of PAH, mercury, and fly-ash particle deposition near coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barst, Benjamin D; Ahad, Jason M E; Rose, Neil L; Jautzy, Josué J; Drevnick, Paul E; Gammon, Paul R; Sanei, Hamed; Savard, Martine M

    2017-12-01

    We report a historical record of atmospheric deposition in dated sediment cores from Hasse Lake, ideally located near both currently and previously operational coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada. Accumulation rates of spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), an unambiguous marker of high-temperature fossil-fuel combustion, in the early part of the sediment record (pre-1955) compared well with historical emissions from one of North America's earliest coal-fired power plants (Rossdale) located ∼43 km to the east in the city of Edmonton. Accumulation rates in the latter part of the record (post-1955) suggested inputs from the Wabamun region's plants situated ∼17-25 km to the west. Increasing accumulation rates of SCPs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hg coincided with the previously documented period of peak pollution in the Wabamun region during the late 1960s to early 1970s, although Hg deposition trends were also similar to those found in western North American lakes not directly affected by point sources. A noticeable reduction in contaminant inputs during the 1970s is attributed in part to technological improvements and stricter emission controls. The over one hundred-year historical record of coal-fired power plant emissions documented in Hasse Lake sediments has provided insight into the impact that both environmental regulations and changes in electricity output have had over time. This information is crucial to assessing the current and future role of coal in the world's energy supply. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solar heated-air cavity receiver development (SHARE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of advanced receivers for solar thermal heated-air Brayton power systems have been under way at MIT/Lincoln Laboratory since 1975 and have shown that the ceramic domed cavity receiver concept is a promising approach for central receiver systems. Development of the novel ceramic receiver concept, which heats pressurized gas to 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use with gas turbine units, has been proceeding under Department of Energy sponsorship since May 1978. The advanced development program is focused on the solution of technologically pacing items in the receiver; for instance, the development of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized air and high-temperature ceramic dome material. Progress made on a number of elements in the development program including ceramic dome stress calculations, metalization of ceramics, selection of a preferred receiver/dome sealing approach, and mechanical seal leak measurement is discussed. The continuing experimental program to develop and demonstrate seals on ceramic domes to one-foot diameter is described.

  1. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants; Revision des arretes de rejets des centrales nucleaires d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, {sup 14}C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  2. Solar heat receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Hansen, Leif J.; Evans, David B.

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  3. Contesting State Forests in Post-Suharto Indonesia: Authority Formation, State Forest Land Dispute, and Power in Upland Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Lounela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ongoing conflict over state forest land between the local population and the State Forestry Corporation (SFC in a village in upland Central Java with regard to authority formation. It looks at how different agents draw on different sources of authority in the course of the conflict and its negotiations. The principal questions are to what kind of sources of authority villagers refer to and how the formation of authority informs the relations between the state and society in the land dispute. The article is based on 11 months of ethnographic fieldwork and focuses on the central figure of Pak Wahid who took a leading position in the forest land dispute and in mobilising peasants in the village. The article argues that in post-Suharto Java, leadership in the struggle for state forest land at the village level is embedded in the interaction of Javanese ideas of power and authority as well as administrative authority. Due to political and institutional reforms, new sources of authority could be invoked while there are no real changes in the power relations within the village or between the SFC and the villagers. ----- Dieser Artikel untersucht den anhaltenden Konflikt um staatliche Waldflächen zwischen der lokalen Bevölkerung und der State Forestry Corporation (SFC in einem Dorf im Hochland von Zentral- Java in Bezug auf die Entwicklung von Autorität. Es wird untersucht, wie sich unterschiedliche AkteurInnen im Rahmen des Konflikts und dessen Verhandlung auf unterschiedliche Bezugsquellen von Autorität beziehen. Die zentralen Forschungsfragen in diesem Zusammenhang sind, auf welche Bezugsquellen von Autorität sich DorfbewohnerInnen beziehen und wie die Entwicklung von Autorität die Beziehungen zwischen Staat und Gesellschaft im Rahmen des Landkonflikts beeinflusst. Der Artikel basiert auf einer 11-monatigen ethnografischen Feldforschung und fokussiert auf die Person von Pak Wahid, der eine Schlüsselrolle im Konflikt

  4. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  5. 30 years in the Veracruz state coast landscape: Laguna Verde nuclear power station. 1. ed.; 30 anos de paisaje costero veracruzano: Central Nucleoelectrica Laguan Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, S; Moreno Casasola, P; Castillo Campos, G; Dorantes, C; Gonzalez Garcia, F; Halffter, G; Isunza, E; Lot H, A; Mendoza, R; Paradowska, K; Priego, A; Sanchez Vigil, C; Vazquez, G [Comision Federal de Electricidad and Instituto Nacional de Ecologia A.C. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    results of the environmental measurements also demonstrate that the nuclear option of electrical energy generation, when it is operated with safety and efficiency, is one of the friendlier forms with the environment of power generation. [Spanish] Hace 36 anos nacio uno de los proyectos energeticos mas importantes de Mexico; el diseno y construccion de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde. Este proyecto se volvio realidad gracias al compromiso de un grupo de profesionistas mexicanos que dieron lo mejor de ellos para su realizacion. En Mexico no existia en ese momento una legislacion que contemplara la proteccion del medio ambiente; sin embargo, la Constitucion preve que cuando en el pais no exista legislacion para el desarrollo de un proyecto. Este debe adoptar la legislacion del pais que lo esta vendiendo. En el caso especifico de Laguna Verde, se adopto la legislacion de los Estados Unidos de America y en la parte ambiental se tuvo que realizar el primer Manifiesto de Impacto Ambiental, que se titulo Informe ambiental para la construccion de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde en el Estado de Veracruz. Este estudio lo realizaron varias instituciones tanto nacionales como extranjeras. Entre las mas sobresalientes se cuenta con: la Universidad Nacional autonoma de Mexico, el Instituto Politecnico Nacional, la Universidad Veracruzana, el Instituto Nacional para la Investigacion de los Recursos Biologicos, el Instituto de Ecologia, A.C. Con este informe, los ingenieros se dieron a la tarea de disenar y construir, los biologos y ecologos a realizar los estudios para mitigar los efectos causados al medio ambiente durante la construccion y, posteriormente, durante la operacion de la Central Nuclear. Despues de 18 anos de operacion comercial de la central se concluye el presente libro, en el cual se comparan los resultados obtenidos en 1972, cuando se iniciaron los estudios para el informe ambiental, contra los obtenidos a lo largo de este periodo. Es importante ver en los resultados de

  6. Diffuse control of gas turbines in power stations of combined cycle; Contral difuso de turbinas de gas en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Garduno R, Raul; De Lara J, Salvadror; Castelo C, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article the application of the technology of the fuzzy logic to the control of gas turbines is presented in order to evaluate it in one of the most difficult processes and with stricter control requirements that exist in the electrical generation industry. For being important for the generation electrical sector, given their use in Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the first selected prototype was the gas turbines model W501 of Westinghouse, installed in the of combined cycle power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Gomez Palacio, Durango and Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. The second selected prototype was the one of the turbo gas units type 5001 (that applies to the GE 5001 models and Westinghouse of series 191 and 251). Based on the analysis of the performance of the system of conventional control previously made, the controllers of speed and generation of electrical power were selected to be replaced by diffuse controllers. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta la aplicacion de la tecnologia de la logica difusa al control de turbinas de gas con el proposito de evaluarla en uno de los procesos mas dificiles y con requerimientos mas estrictos de control que existen en la industria de generacion electrica. Por ser importantes para el sector electrico de generacion, dada su utilizacion en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), el primer prototipo seleccionado fueron las turbinas de gas modelo W501 de Westinghouse, instaladas en la central de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Gomez Palacio, Durango y Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. El segundo prototipo seleccionado fue el de unidades turbogas tipo 5001 (que aplica a los modelos GE 5001 y Westinghouse de la serie 191 y 251). Basados en el analisis del desempeno del sistema de control convencional realizado previamente, los controladores de velocidad y de generacion de potencia electrica fueron seleccionados para ser sustituidos por controladores difusos.

  7. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  8. Analysis of the problems of induced draft fans in a carbo-electric power station; Analisis de la problematica de ventiladores de tiro inducido de una central carboelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Sanchez, Valentin de Jesus; Vital Flores, Francisco [LAPEM, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The induced draft fans of the 350 MW units of a Thermo-electric power plant presented problems consisting of the failure of the capacity of gases extraction, together with the presence of cracks in the blades; this condition was observed since the stage of putting into service. Consequently, losses have been originated in the availability in two units, as well as, losses due to the manufacture of new impellers, which also originated that, in some cases, that the measures of the impellers, locally manufactured, differed from the originals, resulting in differences in the unit's efficiency. [Spanish] Los ventiladores tiro inducido de las unidades de 350 MW de una Central Termoelectrica presentaban una problematica consistente en la falla de capacidad de extraccion de gases, aunado a la presencia de fracturas en las aspas de los impulsores, esta condicion se observo desde la etapa de puesta en servicio. En consecuencia se han ocasionado perdidas de disponibilidad en dos unidades, asi como tambien, perdidas debido a la fabricacion de nuevos impulsores, lo que tambien origino que, en algunos casos, las medidas de los impulsores, fabricados localmente, diferian de los originales, dando como resultado diferencias en la eficiencia de las unidades.

  9. A simple model to evaluate the impact of the thermal power plants emissions; Un modelo simple para evaluar el impacto de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodas Grapain, Arturo; Salcido, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Formulation and validation of a dispersion model for relative plumes are presented in this paper. This model (MOTTQUIP: Modelo de Transporte Turbulento y Quimico de Plumas) was developed to assess the environmental impact of power generation. The theoretical formulation if this model is based on the integral form of the mass balance equation. MOTTQUIP can simulate (in two dimensions) the turbulent dispersion and chemical transformation phenomena of a nitrogen oxides (Nox) non-buoyant plume in an ozone (O{sub 3}) atmosphere. The results produced by MOTTQUIP, however, can run in a personal computer consuming relatively short CPU times. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan la formulacion y la validacion de un modelo (MOTTQUIP: Modelo de Transporte Turbulento y Quimica de Plumas) para evaluar el impacto de las emisiones de contaminantes reactivos de centrales termoelectricas. Este modelo se formula a partir de la forma integral de la ecuacion de balance de masa, y no de su forma diferencial, como se procede generalmente. MOTTQUIP simula, en dos dimensiones, la dispersion turbulenta y transformacion quimica de una pluma no flotante de oxidos de nitrogeno (Nox), misma que se interna paulatinamente en un ambiente de ozono (O{sub 3}). Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los de modelos alternos que simulan el mismo sistema reactivo, encontrandose una concordancia bastante aceptable. Una ventaja de MOTTQUIP, sin embargo, es que puede utilizarse en sistemas de computo pequenos, empleando tiempos de CPU relativamente cortos.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.306 Air receivers. (a) General... caissons. This section is not intended to apply to compressed air machinery and equipment used on...

  11. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  12. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  13. Geostatistical analysis of the power-law exponents of the size distribution of earthquakes, Quaternary faults and monogenetic volcanoes in the Central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ponce, A.; Perez Lopez, R.; Guardiola-Albert, C.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Figueroa-Soto, Á.

    2017-12-01

    The Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is related to the convergence between the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate by the Middle America Trench (MAT). Moreover, there is also intraplate faulting within the TMVB, which is responsible of important earthquakes like the Acambay in 1912 (Mw 7.0) and Maravatío in 1979 (Mb 5.3). In this tectonic scheme, monogenetic volcanoes, active faulting and earthquakes configure a complex tectonic frame where different spatial anisotropy featured this activity. This complexity can be characterized by the power-law of the frequency-size distribution of the monogenetic volcanoes, the faults and the earthquakes. This power-law is determined by the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law in case of the earthquakes. The novelty of this work is the application of geostatistics techniques (variograms) for the analysis of spatial distribution of the b-values obtained from the size distribution of the basal diameter for monogenetic volcanoes in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (bmv), surface area for faults in the Morelia-Acambay fault system (bf) and the seismicity in the Central TMVB (beq). Therefore, the anisotropy in each case was compared and a geometric tectonic model was proposed. The evaluation of the spatial distribution of the b-value maps gives us a general interpretation of the tectonic stress field and the seismic hazard in the zone. Hence, the beq-value map for the seismic catalog shows anomalously low and high values, reveling two different processes, one related to a typical tectonic rupture (low b-values) and the other one related to hydraulic fracturing (high b-values). The resulting bmv-map for the diameter basal cones indicates us the locations of the ages of the monogenetic volcanoes, giving important information about the volcanic hazard. High bmv-values are correlated with the presence of young cinder cones and an increasing probability of a new volcano. For the Morelia-Acambay fault system

  14. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kameník

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2–1.5 Bq m–3 were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6–1.8 Bq m–3 were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m–3 (Station Aloha, 18 values. In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1–4 Bq m–3, and 137Cs levels were about 2–3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  15. Technological tendencies for the improvement of the performance of combined cycle power stations; Tendencias tecnologicas para el mejoramiento del desempeno de centrales de cilco combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Garduno R, Raul; Chavez T, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article are dealt some the aspects that have turned the combined cycle generating power stations (CCGPS) into the dominant way for the electrical generation in the world. In the first part it is presented the plan of expansion of the national electrical generation and similar information that the U.S.A. has for the CCGPS, which will give an idea of the importance and the impact that has this technology at the moment. The basic characteristics that are necessary to specify in order to satisfy the environmental and operation requirements, and the available technologies to increase the global efficiency of the CCGPS are also exposed. Finally it describes the evolution of the technology of control for CCGPS developed in the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI), as well as the capacities available to support the electrical sector in this technological discipline. [Spanish] En este articulo se tratan algunos de los aspectos que han convertido a las centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado (CGCC) en el modo dominante para la generacion electrica en el mundo. En la primera parte se presenta el plan de expansion de la generacion electrica nacional e informacion similar que los EE.UU. tienen para las CGCC, lo que dara una idea de la importancia y del impacto que tiene actualmente esta tecnologia. Se exponen tambien las caracteristicas principales que es necesario especificar a fin de satisfacer los requerimientos ambientales y de operacion, y las tecnologias disponibles para incrementar la eficiencia global de las CGCC. Finalmente se describe la evolucion de la tecnologia de control para CGCC desarrollada en la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI), asi como las capacidades disponibles para apoyar al sector electrico en esta disciplina tecnologica.

  16. Variable velocity in solar external receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. R.; Sánchez-González, A.; Acosta-Iborra, A.; Santana, D.

    2017-06-01

    One of the major problems in solar external receivers is tube overheating, which accelerates the risk of receiver failure. It can be solved implementing receivers with high number of panels. However, it exponentially increases the pressure drop in the receiver and the parasitic power consumption of the Solar Power Tower (SPT), reducing the global efficiency of the SPT. A new concept of solar external receiver, named variable velocity receiver, is able to adapt their configuration to the different flux density distributions. A set of valves allows splitting in several independent panels those panels in which the wall temperature is over the limit. It increases the velocity of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and its cooling capacity. This receiver does not only reduce the wall temperature of the tubes, but also simplifies the control of the heliostat field and allows to employ more efficient aiming strategies. In this study, it has been shown that variable velocity receiver presents high advantages with respect to traditional receiver. Nevertheless, more than two divisions per panels are not recommendable, due to the increment of the pressure drop over 70 bars. In the design point (12 h of the Spring Equinox), the use of a variable number of panels between 18 and 36 (two divisions per panel), in a SPT similar to Gemasolar, improves the power capacity of the SPT in 5.7%, with a pressure drop increment of 10 bars. Off-design, when the flux distribution is high and not symmetric (e.g. 10-11 h), the power generated by the variable velocity receiver is 18% higher than the generated by the traditional receiver, at these hours the pressure drop increases almost 20 bars.

  17. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  18. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  19. JSSG - SPACED RECEIVER MEASUREMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The height of ionospheric irregularities was measured by several laboratories belonging to the Joint Satellite Studies Group, using spaced receiver techniques. The method of analysis and results obtained are presented. (Author)

  20. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  1. Thermo-mechanical and optical optimization of the molten salt receiver for a given heliostat field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Germain; Das, Apurba K.; Boschek, Erik; Clark, Michael M.

    2016-05-01

    The tower type molten salt solar thermal power plant has proven to be advantageous over other utility scale solar power plant configurations due to its scalability and provision of storage, thereby improving the dispatchability. The configuration consists of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) located atop an optimally located tower within a heliostat field with thousands of mirrors. The MSCR receives the concentrated energy from the heliostat field which heats a molten salt heat transfer fluid for thermal storage and utilization in producing steam as and when required for power generation. The MSCR heat transfer surface consists of banks of tangent tubes arranged in panels. The combined cost of the heliostat field and the receiver is 40%-50% of the total plant cost, which calls for optimization to maximize their utilization. Several previous studies have looked into the optimum solar power plant size based on various site conditions. However, the combined optimization of the receiver and the heliostat field has not been reported before. This study looks into the optimum configuration of the receiver for a given heliostat field. An in-house tool has been developed to select and rank a few receiver surface configurations (typically <50) from a list of hundreds of thousands of possible options. The operating limits which the heliostat field needs to obey are defined for the ranked surface configurations based on several different design considerations (e.g. mechanical integrity, corrosion limits). The thermal output of the receiver configurations for a given heliostat field is maximized. A combined rank indicating the optimum configurations in descending order of preference is presented based on the performance and various other practical considerations (e.g. total surface area, cost of material, ability of aiming strategies to distribute the flux). The methodology thus provided can be used as a guideline to arrive at an optimum receiver configuration for a given

  2. DMSK Receiver For Mobile/Satellite Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Simon, Marvin K.; Sumida, Joe T.

    1989-01-01

    Receiver for 2.4-kbit/s differential minimum-shift keying (DMSK) and Gaussian minimum-shift keying(GMSK) suitable for communication between land-mobile stations via geostationary satellites. Operating on phase-shifted signal in 800-MHz band, in presence of fading and Doppler frequency shifts, receiver compact, makes efficient use of frequency spectrum, and wastes little power. Receiver design implemented in very-large-scale-integrated circuits. Basic DMSK receiver design relies on baseband rather than intermediate-frequency processing of in-phase and quadrature signal components because phase errors due to differential delays smaller at baseband.

  3. CFD analysis of supercritical CO2 used as HTF in a solar tower receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, M. I.; Fernández-Reche, J.

    2016-05-01

    The relative cost of a solar receiver can be minimized by the selection of an appropriate heat transfer fluid capable of achieving high receiver efficiencies. In a conventional central receiver system, the concentrated solar energy is transferred from the receiver tube walls to the heat transfer fluid (HTF), which passes through a heat exchanger to generate steam for a Rankine cycle. Thus, higher working fluid temperature is associated with greater efficiency in receiver and power cycle. Emerging receiver designs that can enable higher efficiencies using advanced power cycles, such as supercritical CO2 (s-CO2) closed-loop Brayton cycles, include direct heating of s-CO2 in tubular receiver designs capable of withstanding high internal fluid pressures (around 20 MPa) and temperatures (900 K). Due to the high pressures required and the presence of moving components installed in pipelines (ball-joints and/or flexible connections), the use of s-CO2 presents many technical challenges due to the compatibility of seal materials and fluid leakages of the moving connections. These problems are solved in solar tower systems because the receiver is fixed. In this regard, a preliminary analysis of a tubular receiver with s-CO2 as HTF has been developed using the design of a molten-salt receiver which was previously tested at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA). Therefore, a simplified CFD model has been carried out in this study in order to analyze the feasibility of s-CO2 as HTF in solar towers. Simulation results showed that the heat gained by s-CO2 was around 75% greater than the one captured by molten salts (fluid inlet temperature of 715 K), but at a pressure range of 7.5-9.7 MPa. Thus, the use of s-CO2 as HTF in solar tower receivers appears to be a promising alternative, taking into account both the operating conditions required and their maintenance cost.

  4. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  5. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  6. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m 3 ; XB, 58.94 μg/m 3 ) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m 3 ; XB, 43.46 μg/m 3 ), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Análisis de ruido en áreas de la central termoeléctrica Habana. // Noise analysis in the Habana thermoelectrial power station areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Felipe Sexto

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aborda los aspectos más significativos que se derivan de las mediciones de ruido efectuadas en áreas de laCentral Termoeléctrica Habana, en enero del 2000, realizando una caracterización del paisaje sonoro inherente a la sala demáquinas dónde se encuentran en explotación tres grupos de turbogeneradores de 100 MW cada uno. También se ofrecenlos resultados en otras zonas importantes de la planta. Se exponen las emisiones características de algunos equipos bajocondiciones de campo directo y reverberante. Además, se valoran algunos riesgos que afectan al personal expuesto y semencionan acciones necesarias para contrarrestar los efectos de la contaminación sonora. Entre los parámetros empleadospara la evaluación del ruido se hallan el nivel sonoro con ponderación AF, el nivel sonoro continuo equivalente, los valoresmáximo y mínimo, el análisis de frecuencias, el tiempo de exposición y el índice NR (noise rating curves. También, setratan criterios y recomendaciones dadas por ISO, EPA y NIOSH.Palabras claves: Ruido, contaminación, salud, turbogenerador, medición de ruido.___________________________________________________________________AbstractThe work approaches the most significant aspects that are derived from the conducted noise measurements in areas of theThermoelectrial Power station Habana, and a characterization of the inherent sonorous landscape in the engine room wherethree groups of turbogenerators of 100 MW each are in operation. Also the results in other important zones of the plant areoffered. The transmissions characteristic of some equipment under conditions of direct and reverberante field are exposed.In addition, some risks that affect the exposed personnel and actions necessary to resist the effects of the sonorouscontamination are mentioned. Between the parameters used for the noise evaluation are the sonorous level withponderación AF, the equivalent continuous sonorous level, the maximum and

  8. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact; Veillissement des centrales Impacts socio-economiques, sanitaires et environnementaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch. [Depute du nord (France); Denner, M. [EDF pour la Region Bourgogne (France); Vouilloux, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Foucher, L. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Serviere, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Vila d' Abadal Serra, M

    2005-07-01

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  9. Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Lee A.; Loomis, James; Bhatia, Bikram; Bierman, David M.; Wang, Evelyn N.; Chen, Gang

    2015-12-09

    Solar energy is a bountiful renewable energy resource: the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth in an hour exceeds the energy consumed by all of humanity in a year.(1) While the phrase “solar energy conversion” probably brings photovoltaic (PV) cells to mind first, PV is not the only option for generating electricity from sunlight. Another promising technology for solar energy conversion is solar–thermal conversion, commonly referred to as concentrating solar power (CSP).(2) The first utility-scale CSP plants were constructed in the 1980s, but in the two decades that followed, CSP saw little expansion.(3, 4) More recent years, however, have seen a CSP renaissance due to unprecedented growth in the adoption of CSP.(3, 5) Photographs of two operating CSP plants, a parabolic trough collector plant and a central receiver (or “power tower”), are shown here.

  10. Exploration mission enhancements possible with power beaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.; Segna, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    A key factor in the exploration and development of the space frontier is the availability of energy where and when it is needed. Currently all space satellites and platforms include self-contained power systems that supply the energy necessary to accomplish mission objectives. An alternative approach is to couple advanced high power systems with energy beam transmitters and energy receivers to form an infrastructure of a space power utility where a central power system provides power to multiple users. Major space activities, such as low Earth orbit space commercialization and the colonization of the Moon or Mars, would benefit significantly from a central power generation and transmission system. This paper describes the power-beaming concept and system components as applied to space power generation and distribution in support of the Space Exploration Initiative. Beam-power scenarios are discussed including commonality of systems and hardware with cargo transport vehicles, power beaming from orbit to stationary and mobile users on the Lunar and Mars surfaces, and other surface applications

  11. Sender-Receiver Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the

  12. Russia, China, and the United States in Central Asia: Prospects for Great Power Competition and Cooperation in the Shadow of the Georgian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wishnick, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    .... The monograph takes a critical look at the Sino-Russian partnership and points to differences on energy and economic integration in Central Asia, despite common interests in maintaining regime security and limiting U.S...

  13. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. [Sensible heat storage using Caloria HT43 and mixture of gravel and sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The proposed 100-MWe Commercial Plant Thermal Storage System (TSS) employs sensible heat storage using dual liquid and solid media for the heat storage in each of four tanks, with the thermocline principle applied to provide high-temperature, extractable energy independent of the total energy stored. The 10-MW Pilot Plant employs a similar system except uses only a single tank. The high-temperature organic fluid Caloria HT43 and a rock mixture of river gravel and No. 6 silica sand were selected for heat storage in both systems. The system design, installation, performance testing, safety characteristics, and specifications are described in detail. (WHK)

  14. Monitoring systems online of oil for transformers of nuclear power plants; Sistemas de monitorizacion online del aceite para transformadores de potencia de Centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarandeses, S.

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear power plants are showing their concern due to the existence of recent failures related to the bulky transformers of power. These transformers are not security, but are important for the production of power as its failure can cause transient on the floor, reactor scram or shooting, that can cause interruptions in the production of energy or might force us to reduce the power of production The analysis of gases dissolved in transformer oil is recognized as a trial key to identify a submerged transformer failure in oil. With this analysis it is not possible to ensure that there is no damage in the transformer, but the probability of risk of this type of failure can be reduced. The industry recommended to equip the new large power transformers with oil online monitoring systems and in some cases also be It recommended its use in existing transformers. (Author)

  15. Centralized Accounting and Electronic Filing Provides Efficient Receivables Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    An electronic filing system makes financial control manageable at Bowling Green State University, Ohio. The system enables quick access to computer-stored consolidated account data and microfilm images of charges, statements, and other billing documents. (MLF)

  16. Automatic system of tests for control equipment in combined cycle power stations; Sistema automatico de pruebas para equipos de control en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Flores L, Zenon; Delgadillo V, Miguel A; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    This article deals on the Automatic System of Tests, denominated PROBADOR, used by the Gerencia de Control e Instrumentation (GCI) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)for the accomplishment of dynamic tests in laboratory, to the systems of acquisition and control developed with the electronic line SAC-IIE that are installed in the Thermoelectric Power station of Combined Cycle (CTCC) of Dos Bocas, Veracruz and Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Also the architecture, the functions that are carried out in the equipment of the System of Acquisition and control (SAC) and in the personal computer (PC) that conforms it are described, as well as the methodology used for the development of the tests. The PC constitutes Interface Man-Machine (IMM) and in the SAC equipment the simulation of the processes is made (by means of the execution of algebraic-differential equations) in the compressor, combustion chamber, gas turbine, heat recuperators, steam turbines and condenser equipment that integrate a CTCC. The equations that are used are based in the thermodynamics, flow dynamics and heat transfer; they become attached to the real process with a margin of error that is estimated in 10%. Finally, the tendencies of the PROBADOR and the technical and economic advantages are described that it has provided for the improvement in the performance of the control systems, before different situations, with no need to have the real process. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre el Sistema Automatico de Pruebas, denominado PROBADOR, utilizado por la Gerencia de Control e Instrumentacion (GCI) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas para la realizacion de pruebas dinamicas en laboratorio, a los sistemas de adquisicion y control desarrollado con la linea electronica SAC-IIE que estan instalados en las Centrales Termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado (CTCC) de Dos Bocas, Veracruz y Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico. Tambien se describen la arquitectura, las funciones que se llevan

  17. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available is critical. This is partly because timing recovery functions must follow rapid parameter changes inherent in mobile systems and partly because both bandwidth and power must be conserved in low signal to noise ratio communication channels. The ultimate goal... in low signal to noise ratios. In order to develop a bandwidth and power efficient timing recovery method for wireless mobile receivers, a raised cosine filter and a multilevel phase shift keying modulation scheme are implemented and no clock signals...

  18. Ultra-wideband receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  19. Experiences in the computerized control rooms design for Nuclear Power Plants; Experiencias en el diseno de salas de control computarizadas para centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyano de la Heras, N.; Fernandez Illobre, L.; Valdivia Martin, C.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents Tecnatom experiences obtained during the control rooms design for the Fuming and Fangjiasham Nuclear Power Plants (CPR type). These are two different locations where two pressurized water reactors, with three loops each one, will be installed.

  20. Engineering and maintenance applied to safety-related valves in nuclear power plants; Ingenieria y mantenimiento aplicado a valvulas relacionadas con la seguridad en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, M. F.; Perez-Aranda, J.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear Division in Iberdrola engineering and Construction has a team with extensive experience on engineering and services works related to valves. Also, this team is linked to UNESA as Technical support and Reference Center. Iberdrola engineering and construction experience in nuclear power plants valves, gives effective response to engineering and maintenance works that can be demanded in a nuclear power plant and it requires a high degree of qualification and knowledge both in Operation and Outages. (Author)

  1. Russia, China, and the United States in Central Asia: Prospects for Great Power Competition and Cooperation in the Shadow of the Georgian Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Kazakh foreign minister Marat Tazhin.149 This fall Chinese leaders also visited Central Asia. In late October Prime Minister Wen Jiabao traveled...KazTransOil Announces Beginning of Russian Crude Transit to China,” Interfax, January 21, 2008, www.uoalberta.ca, accessed July 24, 2008. 114. Marat Gurt

  2. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  3. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...

  4. Interconnects, Transmitters, and Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Interconnects on-chip between transistors and between functions like processors and memories, between chips on carriers or in stacks, and the communication with the outside world have become a highly complex performance, reliability, cost, and energy challenge. Twelve layers of metal interconnects, produced by lithography, require, including the contact vias, 24 mask and process cycles on top of the process front-end. The resulting lines are associated with resistance, capacitance and inductance parasitics as well as with ageing due to high current densities. Large savings in wiring lengths are achieved with 3D integration: transistor stacking, chip stacking and TSV's, a direction, which has exploded since 2005 because of many other benefits and, at the same time, with sensitive reliability and cost issues. On top of this or as an alternative, non-contact interconnects are possible with capacitive or inductive coupling. Inductive in particular has proven to be attractive because its transmission range is large enough for communication in chip stacks and yet not too large to cause interference.Optical transmitters based on integrated III-V compound-semiconductor lasers and THz power amplifiers compete with ascending low-cost, parallel-wire transmitters based on BiCMOS technologies. Parallel mm-wave and THz transceiver arrays enable mm-wave radar for traffic safety and THz computed-tomography. In spite of all these technology advances, the power efficiency of data communication will only improve 100× in a decade. New compression and architectural techniques are in high demand.

  5. Innovation, creative ideas to attend the challenges of the Central Laguna Verde for the period 2011-2015 due to new 100% of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera C, A.

    2011-11-01

    For the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (CLV) is an opportunity to present to the nuclear community in Mexico the improvement areas and challenges for the period 2011-2015, now that has been concluded the phase of starting tests of the CLV modernization, with an increment of power of 20% that represents a new generation of electrical power of 815 M We per hour in the 2 Units, with these new challenges the strategic planning 2011 at 2015 take relevance to give guide to the innovation, with new ideas of improvement to the processes, human resources and leadership, with the purpose of maintaining reliable all the equipment s and process systems by means of the use of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats analysis, in order to make strategies that aid to generate competitive advantages for the production of electric power in Mexico, using privileged information that contain the database of the improvement systems, like are the programs of corrective action, of human acting, of external operational experience, of auto-evaluation and of benchmarking that is the referential comparison with other similar power stations. At present, in the general management of operation exist the training by coaching to grow in the formation of the half commands and line supervisors, reinforcing the wanted behaviors, the abilities of the technicians, and the orientation in deficient performances in the search of the operational excellence. (Author)

  6. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  7. Technological tendencies for the development and implementation of fault tolerant active controls in combined cycle power plants; Tendencias tecnologicas para el desarrollo e implantacion de controles activos tolerantes a fallas en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Verde R, Cristina [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This document proposes a methodology that reunites support tools for the operator of a Combined Cycle Generating Power Station allowing him to identify and to classify gas turbine faults, it also reunites some tools for the generation of action advices in the decision making on the operation maneuvers necessary to counteract the effects caused by faults. We are talking about a system implemented in a power station with the reconfiguration of processes and fault arrangement capacities. For this purpose, the line of exhibition delimits first the existing knowledge on automatic control and operations supervision systems in a CCPP and immediately emphasizes the cracks of the system to let pass to the fault tolerant active control system that will detect faults of the gas and steam turbo-generators of a Combined Cycle Generating Power Plant. [Spanish] El presente documento propone una metodologia que reuna herramientas de ayuda al operador de una Central Generadora de Electricidad de Ciclo Combinado para permitirle la identificacion y clasificacion de fallas en las turbinas de gas, asi como herramientas para la generacion de consejos de accion en la toma de decisiones sobre las maniobras de operacion necesarias para contrarrestar los efectos provocados por fallas. Se trata principalmente de un sistema implantado en una central con las capacidades de re-configuracion de procesos y acomodo de fallas. Para esto, la linea de exposicion delimita primero el conocimiento existente sobre sistemas automaticos de control y supervision de operacion en una CGCC y resalta enseguida las grietas del sistema para darle paso al sistema de control activo tolerante a fallas que detectara fallas de los turbogeneradores de gas y vapor de una Central Generadora de Electricidad de Ciclo Combinado.

  8. Analysis of the preliminary trajectory of emergency venting of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde using RELAP5; Analisis de la trayectoria preliminar del venteo de emergencia de la Central Laguna Verde mediante RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecenas F, M.; Jimenez S, R.; Ovando C, R. [Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energias Limpias, Reforma No. 113, Col. Palmira, 42490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Tijerina S, F.; Tapia M, R. N., E-mail: mcf@iie.org.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km. 7.5, 94271 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    For a commercial nuclear plant, the availability of a vent line to the atmosphere is an improvement to achieve the prevention and mitigation of the consequences of a severe accident. The importance of this system received greater attention after the Fukushima accident in 2011. Subsequently, in 2012 and 2013, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued documents stating that the venting must be able to dislodge 1% of the rated thermal power of the core without over pressurizing the primary container. To analyze the venting of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, the line and the primary container are modeled using the thermo-hydraulic code RELAP5, simulating a release of 1% of the nominal licensed power to the container in the form of saturated steam. The vent has no problem to evacuate the energy and manages to keep the container without exceeding its design limit, and the highest percentage of thermal power that can channel the vent to the outside is approximately 3%. A sensitivity analysis increasing the diameter of the line to 14 inches allows increasing in 10% the percentage of power that can be vented to the outside without problem for the containment. (Author)

  9. Assessment of occupational radiation protection conditions during power enhancement of the Angra-2 nuclear power plant; Avaliacao das condicoes de radioprotecao ocupacional durante a elevacao de potencia na Unidade 2 da Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - Angra-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Eduardo M.; Rocha, Antonio Carlos S.; Ferreira, Paulo R.R.; Mouco, Charles Dickens C.L.; Godoy, Jose M.O.; Matta, Luiz E.S.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper intend to analyse the occupational radioprotection conditions of the Angra-2 nuclear power plant, from the startup up to reach 100% of the nominal power. To perform this work a group of dose rates measures was made including beta/gamma and neutron radiation, particulates and iodine monitoring, and surface contamination, during the whole process. These measures were made inside of the three main buildings: the reactor buildings (UJA - reactor core and UJB) and the Reactor Auxiliary Building (UKA). (author)

  10. Life time of nuclear power plants and new types of reactors; La duree de vie des centrales nucleaires et les nouveaux types de reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This report, realized by the Evaluation Parliamentary Office of scientific and technological choices, aims to answer simple but fundamental questions for the french electric power production. What are the phenomena which may limit the exploitation time of nuclear power plants? How can we fight against the aging, at which cost and with which safety? The first chapter presents the management of the nuclear power plants life time, an essential element of the park optimization but not a sufficient element. The second chapter details the EPR and the other reactors for 2015 as a bond between the today and tomorrow parks. The last chapter deals with the necessity of efforts in the research and development to succeed in 2035 and presents other reactors in project. (A.L.B.)

  11. Relationship between the electric power supplier and customer during Romania's transition from an over-centralized to a market economy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conecini, I.; Lung, I.

    1996-01-01

    A series of undertakings of RENEL is introduced which aim to improve the mutual relations between supplier and customer and to settle these relations on a partnership basis incurring responsibilities for both parties. Among these undertakings, one aims to improve the metering and billing system, with subsequent effects upon both electric power customer and supplier. The new relations, settled on a contract basis and made proper to the market economy make it necessary to control the electric power quality as well as the quality of the whole supply service to every customer. Within the electric power supply department, a privileged activity is the improvement of the systems for meter reading, billing and financial receipts. The document describes also the results obtained by RENEL following a market study. (author)

  12. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de la base de datos para el combustible gastado y residuos especiales de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.

    2013-07-01

    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  13. Negative sequence relay applied to generator 1 of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Aplicacion de un relevador de secuencia negativa en el generador 1 de la central de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz de la Serna P, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    The rotor of a synchronous generator can be dangerously heated in a short time by stator current unbalance, therefore it must be protected with a specific relay. This article discusses the protection and the adjustments selected for Unit 1 of the Comision Federal de Electricidad Laguna Verde Nuclear Nuclear Power Station. [Espanol] El rotor de un generador sincrono puede calentarse peligrosamente en un tiempo corto debido a desbalance de corrientes en el estator, por lo que debe protegerse con un relevador especifico. En este articulo se describen la proteccion y los ajustes seleccionados para la unidad 1, de la central nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde de la Comision Federal de Electricidad.

  14. The positioning of Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion in the market for new electric power plants; Posicionamiento de Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion en el mercado de las nuevas centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnica, E.; Cubain, B.; Chimeno, M. A.; Ortego, A.

    2009-07-01

    IBERDROLA Ingeneria y Contruccion carrying out a wide plant of activities oriented to position the company in the emerging marketplace of new nuclear power plants whose expectation for the next years is highly promising. Obviously, the plan is focused in their technicians, which include people that are very knowledgeable and others younger, both strongly committed with the managerial project. During the las years, the gained experience in nuclear projects, together with other successfully generation projects (combined cycles gas turbine and renewable) allow warranty the success in the challenge of building new nuclear power plants for the next years. (Author)

  15. Economic and financial evaluation of the wind power project in Northeast region, Brazil; Avaliacao economico-financeira de projeto de central eolica na regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Paulo Glicio da; Lima, Maria Angela de Queiroz; Melo Junior, Adalberto de Bastos [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DFPL/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Planejamento Economico-Financeiro], Emails: paulogr@chesf.gov.br, angelq@chesf.gov.br, adalbert@chesf.gov.br; Bezerra, Pedro; Bittencourt, Rogerio [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DEFA/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Projetos de Fontes Alternativas], E-mails: pbezerra@chesf.gov.br, rogeriob@chesf.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the analysis of economic and financial feasibility of using wind power in the Northeast region for electric power production, considering the new electricity sector model. The case study presented here refers to the design of a 50 MW Wind Farm in the region, based on preliminary data from wind collected in the period from 1993 to 1995. Some programs were used to evaluate this project: ALWIN, which estimates the potential for wind energy production; NEWAVE for determination operating marginal costs and generation plants values and ANAFIN, for economic and financial evaluation of the project, using scenarios, through the deterministic and probabilistic analysis.

  16. Conditions of call for tenders on the offshore wind power plants; Conditions de l'appel d'offres portant sur des centrales eolienne en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the renewable energies sources development, the french government decided to launch a call for tenders for the realization of offshore wind power plants in 2007. The call for tenders conditions concern: the energetic and technical characteristics of the installations as the primary energy, the production technic, the power; the industrial implementing delay; the exploitation and the operating time; the implementing sites; the weighting and the classification principles. The main conditions concerning the utilization of the maritime public land property outside of the harbors. (A.L.B.)

  17. An automatic pilot to take off coal fired power plants performance; Un pilote automatique pour faire decoller les performances des centrales au charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falinower, C.M.; Maurin, S.; Ambos, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Dept. de Controle-Commande des Centrales; Dewasmes, M. [Electricite de France, 76 - Le Havre (France). Dept. Ressources Humaines et Financieres

    1999-10-01

    Realizing an automatic pilot for the electric power of fossil fuel plants constitutes a basic measure in order to optimise the production: better availability, increased flexibility for the network, less stress for the plant equipment. Such an automatic pilot has been successfully installed at Le Havre. I coal fired power plant with a better dispatch and load following, a better control for the steam pressure and temperatures. Instrumentation and Control renewal with DCS as well as the use of modern and efficient technics from control theory have led to these promising results. (authors)

  18. Molecular Spectroscopy With a Compact 557-GHz Heterodyne Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    Neumaier, Philipp F.-X.; Richter, Heiko; Stake, Jan; Zhao, Huan; Tang, Aik-Yean; Drakinskiy, Vladimir; Sobis, Peter; Emrich, Anders; Hülsmann, Axel; Johansen, Tom K.; Bryllert, Tomas; Hanning, Johanna; Krozer, Viktor; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    We report on a heterodyne terahertz spectrometer based on a fully integrated 557-GHz receiver and a digital fast Fourier transform spectrometer. The receiver consists of a chain of multipliers and power amplifiers, followed by a heterostructure barrier varactor tripler that subharmonically pumps a membrane GaAs Schottky diode mixer. All sub-components are newly developed and optimized with regard to the overall receiver performance such as noise temperature, power consumption, weight and phys...

  19. Analysis of the evolution of the collective dose in nuclear power plants in Spain; Analisis de la evolucion de la dosis colectiva en las centrales nucleares de Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponjuan Reyes, G.; Ruibia Rodiz, M. A. de la; Rosales Calvo, M.; Labarta Mancho, T.; Calavia Gimenez, I.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of the evolution of occupational collective dose of the Spanish nuclear power plants during the period 2000 - 2008 within the international context, by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) in order to have information contrasted to assessing the extent of application of the ALARA criteria in the Spanish plants and identify areas of priority attention.

  20. Conditions of call for tenders on the wind power plants; Conditions de l'appel d'offres portant sur des centrales eolienne a terre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The call for tenders conditions concern: the energetic and technical characteristics of the installations as the primary energy, the power; the industrial implementing delay; the implementing sites; the economic and financial conditions; the weighting and the classification principles. (A.L.B.)

  1. Benchmarking on the management of radioactive waste in the Spanish Nuclear Power; Benchmarking sobre la gestion de residuos radiactivos en las Centrales Nucleares Espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. A.; Gonzalez, R.; Gomez, N.

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of this project is to perform a comparative evaluation of the practices carried out in the field of waste management in the Spanish nuclear power plants. Once compared such practices have been established recommendations that may be of interest for application in other plants.

  2. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  3. Study of CO{sub 2} capture processes in power plants; Etude de procedes de captage du CO{sub 2} dans les centrales thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.M

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO{sub 2} from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture by methanol and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO{sub 2}. These processes were evaluated using the process software Aspen PlusTM to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. With regard to post-combustion, an aqueous solution based on a mixture of amines (N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA)) was developed. Measurements of absorption were carried out between 298 and 333 K in a Lewis cell. CO{sub 2} partial pressure at equilibrium, characteristic of the CO{sub 2} solubility in the solvent, was determined up to 393 K. The solvent performances were compared with respect to more conventional solvents such as MDEA and monoethanolamine (MEA). For oxy-fuel combustion, a recovery process, based on a cryogenic separation of the components of the flue gas, was developed and applied to power plants. The study showed that O{sub 2} purity acts on the CO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas and thus on the performances of the recovery process. The last option is natural gas reforming with CO{sub 2} pre-combustion capture. Several configurations were assessed: air reforming and oxygen reforming, reforming pressure and dilution of the synthesis gas. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents. (author)

  4. Electrical systems at the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde after the event in Fukushima; Sistemas electricos en la central nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde despues del evento de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez J, J. F., E-mail: jflopez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose M. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    During the event at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daichii (Japan), the electrical systems were affected both Onsite and Offsite, which were lost for a long time with irreversible consequences. Therefore, the Mexican Regulatory Body known as the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) has taken various actions to review the current capacity of the electrical systems at the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) before an event beyond the design bases. The CNSNS made special inspections to the NPP-LV to verify the current capacity of the electrical systems of Ac and Dc; as a result of the inspections, requirements were generated that must be met to demonstrate that has the capacity to deal with events beyond the design bases. In addition, CNSNS has participated in the Ibero-American Forum to deal with resistance testing. Is important to note that prior to the event at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima, the NPP-LV had implemented 1) the project Extended Power Increase in both Units of the NPP-LV, and 2) the Generic Charter 2006-02, both issues are considered contributions in the robustness of electrical systems. But it is also important to mention that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission will soon issue mitigation strategies for a Station Blackout event, which could involve new actions at nuclear power plants. Based on the aforementioned, the CNSNS concludes that all the actions being taken contribute to the strengthening of the NPP-LV electrical systems, in order to increase their reliability, safety and operation when these are required to deal with events beyond the design bases as the event occurred in Fukushima Daichii and avoid as far as possible, damage in the reactor cores of the NPP-LV. (Author)

  5. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants; Fukushima, dos anos despues, requerimientos de modificacion en centrales nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A., E-mail: jerson.sanchez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  6. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  7. SUBSTANTIAL AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MENTAL STATUS OF THE PERSONS WHO HAVE RECEIVED SMALL DOSES OF RADIATION DURING LIGUIDATION OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Baranova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the peculiarities of ideas about the catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster at the persons who have suffered from radiation during liquidation of the accident’s consequences. View of the accident was considered as a key element of a person’s mind, in particular the adaptive. There were 30 persons, who took part in the research – participants of Chernobyl disaster’s liquidation, veterans of division of an extra risk. The subjective assessment of mental health at persons who survived in Chernobyl disaster was defined; personal properties of victims were revealed; interrelations between personal properties and subjective assessment of mental health were established. It is possible to assume that in process of moving away from the moment of the accident the content of view of Chernobyl disaster shows concentration of the person on experience of mental health and the personal potential.

  8. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel communication strategy called Power Talk is introduced to realize the power line communication among the Voltage Source Converters (VSC) of DC MicroGrids (MGs). Each VSC transmits information by changing the control parameters, and receives information by observing the local...... output power. By using common coding schemes, which transform the DC MGs in some familiar communication channels, some important communication challenges can be addressed, such as random load variations and VSCs switching, as it do not need a separate communication channel. For this purpose, two multiple...

  9. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Angjelichinoski, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel communication strategy for DC Micro Grids (MGs), termed power talk, in which the devices communicate by modulating the power levels in the DC bus. The information is transmitted by varying the parameters that the MG units use to control the level of the common bus voltage......, while it is received by processing the bus measurements that units perform. This implies that the communication does not require a dedicated modem, but instead it is piggybacked on top of the power electronics. The communication is challenged by the random fluctuations of the voltage level due...

  10. Retrofitting of the hydro-power installation of Vicques, Switzerland; Rehabilitation de la centrale de Vicques, Emile Aebin SA. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work involved in obtaining a new concession for the use of the water in the mill canal in Vicques, Switzerland on the Scheulte river. The author states that the existing concession for use is not optimal and should be optimised. A window of opportunity exists as a new river protection law requires a higher residual water flow rate and the creation of a fish passage facility. The paper discusses how the production of electrical energy could be doubled. The existing installation is described. Details of existing conduits and the installed power generator are presented. The measures proposed for the renewal of the hydro-power plant are described. An annex includes a copy of the construction plans.

  11. Actions for the environmental adequateness and emissions control at the Martin del Corral power plant-Termozipa; Obras de adecuacion ambiental y control de emisiones para la central termoelectrica Martin del Corral - Termozipa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo Osorio, Luis [Empresa de Energia de Bogota, Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the general data on the Martin del Corral-Termozipa, of Colombia, fossil fueled power plant are exposed. The results of a study to determine the environmental impact originated in the influence zone of this Power Plant are presented, particularly on the Bogota River. The study was framed into the environmental policy driven by the Colombian sector. Different solutions addressed to the optimization of the handling, capacity and control of the emissions and counteract the pollution possibilities of the Bogota River are described [Espanol] En esta ponencia se exponen datos generales de la central termoelectrica Martin del Corral - Termozipa-, de Colombia. Se presentan los resultados de un estudio para determinar el impacto ambiental ocasionado en la zona de influencia de esta central, y en particular sobre el rio Bogota. El estudio se enmarco dentro de la politica ambiental impulsada por el sector colombiano. Se describen diversas soluciones encaminadas a optimizar el manejo, capacidad y control de las emisiones y contrarrestar las posibilidades de contaminacion del rio Bogota

  12. Training simulators for power plant operation based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality; Simuladores para entrenamiento en la operacion de centrales basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossano Roman, Miguel; Tavira Mondragon, Jose A.; Romero Jimenez, Guillermo; Buenabad Arias, Maria de los Angeles [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The possibility of utilizing simulators to support the fossil fuel power plants operation personnel training, is analyzed. These simulators can be based in multimedia, intelligent tutorials and virtual reality. The software and hardware advances of these technologies are analyzed and it is concluded that the simulators development for operators training supported in the fore mentioned technologies represents a new alternative for the instruction of personnel of this type of power stations that has to be analyzed and evaluated, since one of the disadvantages of this type of technologies is the equipment and software investment cost [Espanol] Se analiza la posibilidad de utilizar simuladores para ayudar al entrenamiento del personal en la operacion de centrales termoelectricas, dichos simuladores pueden estar basados en multimedia, tutores inteligentes y realidad virtual. Se describen los avances en software y hardware de estas tecnologias y se concluye en que el desarrollo de simuladores para el entrenamiento de operadores apoyados con las tecnologias antes mencionadas representa una nueva alternativa para la instruccion del personal de este tipo de centrales, que hay que analizar y evaluar, ya que una de las desventajas de este tipo de tecnologias es el costo de inversion en equipo y software

  13. Risks and challenges associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant; Control de riesgos y retos asociados al diseno y construccion de una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebana Martinez, B.; Armas Garcia, A.; Martinez Gozalo, I.

    2011-07-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant project, considering the period prior to the operation of the plant, requires a very strict risk control to ensure compliance with a series of challenges. The present paper identifying the most important challenges facing the construct ability and license requirements of the process, identifying the interfaces and proposing a methodology of construction to meet the challenge of a construction process in 5 years.

  14. Establishment and evolution of Radiological Environmental Monitoring Programmes in nuclear power plants; Establecimiento y evolucion de los programas de vigilancia radiologica ambiental en las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marugan, I.; Luque, S.; Martin, J. L.; Rey, C.; Salas, R.; Sterling, A.; Ramos, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a brief overview of how the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Programmes carried out around nuclear power plants have evolved associated to different reasons as the legal framework, operational phases of the facilities, development on the detection and measurement of low levels of radiation due to the state of art and best available technologies, changes within sites as well as in their surroundings and accident taken place inside and outside of our borders. (Author)

  15. The Schroedinger equation for central power law potentials and the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.L.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the rational power law potentials in the two-body radial Schrodinger equations admit a systematic treatment available from the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order. The resulting potentials come into families evolved from equations having a fixed number of elementary regular singularities. As a consequence, relations are found and discussed among the several potentials in a family. (Author) [pt

  16. The Schroedinger equation for central power law potentials and the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.L.; Mignaco, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the rational power law potentials in the two-body radial Schoedinger equation admit a systematic treatment available from the classical theory of ordinary linear differential equations of the second order. The admissible potentials come into families evolved from equations having a fixed number of elementary singularities. As a consequence, relations are found and discussed among the several potentials in a family. (Author) [pt

  17. The continuous improvement system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; El sistema de mejora continua de la central nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera C, A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)], e-mail: arr99999@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    This paper describes the continuous improvement system of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde and the achievements in implementing the same and additionally two study cases are presents. In February 2009 is noteworthy because the World Association of Nuclear Operators we identified as a learning organization, qualification which shows that the continuous improvement system has matured, and this system will expose as I get to learn to capitalize on our own experiences and external experiences diffused by the nuclear industry. In 2007 the management of nuclear power plants integrates its improvement systems and calls it continuous improvement system and is presented in the same extensive report that won the National Quality Award. This system is made up of 5 subsystems operating individually and are also related 1) human performance; 2) referential comparison or benchmarking; 3) self-assessment; 4) corrective action and 5) external operating experience. Five subsystems that plan, generate, capture, manage, communicate and protect the knowledge generated during the processes execution of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, as well as from external sources. The target set in 2007 was to increase the intellectual capital to always give response to meeting the security requirements, but creating a higher value to quality, customer, environment protection and society. In brief each of them, highlighting the objective, expectations management, implementation and some benefits. At the end they will describe two study cases selected to illustrate these cases as the organization learns by their continuous improvement system. (Author)

  18. Implementation of the project of equipment reliability in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Implementacion del proyecto de confiabilidad de equipo en la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios O, J. E.; Martinez L, A. G. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Subgerencia General de Operacion, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrios@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-07-01

    A equipment is reliable if it fulfills the function for which was designed and when it is required. To implement a project of reliability in a nuclear power plant this associate to a process of continuous analysis of the operation, of the conditions and faults of the equipment. The analysis of the operation of a system, of the equipment of the same faults and the parts that integrate to equipment take to identify the potential causes of faults. The predictive analysis on components and equipment allow to rectify and to establish guides to optimize the maintenance and to guarantee the reliability and function of the same ones. The reliability in the equipment is without place to doubts a wide project that embraces from the more small component of the equipment going by the proof of the parts of reserve, the operation conditions until the operative techniques of analysis. Without place of doubt for a nuclear power plant the taking of decisions based on the reliability of their systems and equipment will be the appropriate for to assure the operation and reliability of the same one. In this work would appear the project of reliability its processes, criteria, indicators action of improvement and the interaction of the different disciplines from the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde like a fundamental point for it put in operation. (Author)

  19. Computerized system for the support of the predictive maintenance in thermoelectric power stations of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Sistema computarizado para el apoyo del mantenimiento predictivo en centrales termoelectricas de la Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda A, Segio; Garcia M, Raul; Poujol G, Francisco; Chairez C, Carlos; Dominguez M, Nely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the functionality of the Integral System of Information for the Diagnosis of Predictive Maintenance (SIIDMP) in the thermoelectric centrals, whose primary target is to give support to the personnel related with the maintenance and operation of the thermoelectric central to optimize the application of the inspection, maintenance and its associated costs. It is important to comment that in the generating power stations of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) techniques and methodologies for the preventive and corrective maintenance are applied, in addition of which they count on electronic equipment of operation dedicated to the inspection and control of vibratory equipment. The architecture of the SIIDMP is of the client-server type and for its design and implantation Windows NT 4.0 was used as operating system, SQL Server 7.0 as server and manager of the database, Visual C++ for the programs of data mining, Vision Basic 6.0 for the codification of the application programs and Interface Man-Machine (IMM), the communication mechanism Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) to establish the connection with the different data sources, as well as libraries of symbols and graphs that were included in the interface of the user. The main objective of the SIIDMP is to take care of the own necessities on optimization, improvements and savings in the operation of the power stations. With systems like the SIIDMP, a reduction of the costs due to shutdowns by accidental failures of the main equipment is looked for, limiting the deterioration of the equipment, as well as to provide knowledge and aid to all the personnel who take part in the management of the operation and conservation of the facilities of the power station. [Spanish] Se describe la funcionalidad del Sistema Integral de Informacion para el Diagnostico de Mantenimiento Predictivo en las centrales termoelectricas (SIIDMP), cuyo objetivo principal es apoyar al personal relacionado con el

  20. Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaib Ammari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will size an optimum hybrid central content three different generators, two on renewable energy (solar photovoltaic and wind power and two nonrenewable (diesel generator and storage system because the new central generator has started to consider the green power technology in order for best future to the world, this central will use all the green power resource available and distributes energy to a small isolated village in southwest of Algeria named “Timiaouine”. The consumption of this village estimated with detailed in two season; season low consumption (winter and high consumption (summer, the hybrid central will be optimized by program Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER PRO, this program will simulate in two configuration, the first with storage system, the second without storage system and in the end the program HOMER PRO will choose the best configuration which is the mixture of both economic and ecologic configurations, this central warrants the energetic continuity of village. Article History: Received May 18th 2017; Received in revised form July 17th 2017; Accepted Sept 3rd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ammari, C., Hamouda,M., and Makhloufi,S. (2017 Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(3, 263-272. http://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.263-272

  1. Circuit for Communication Over Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Normal F.; Greer, Lawrence C., III; Nappier, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many distributed systems share common sensors and instruments along with a common power line supplying current to the system. A communication technique and circuit has been developed that allows for the simple inclusion of an instrument, sensor, or actuator node within any system containing a common power bus. Wherever power is available, a node can be added, which can then draw power for itself, its associated sensors, and actuators from the power bus all while communicating with other nodes on the power bus. The technique modulates a DC power bus through capacitive coupling using on-off keying (OOK), and receives and demodulates the signal from the DC power bus through the same capacitive coupling. The circuit acts as serial modem for the physical power line communication. The circuit and technique can be made of commercially available components or included in an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design, which allows for the circuit to be included in current designs with additional circuitry or embedded into new designs. This device and technique moves computational, sensing, and actuation abilities closer to the source, and allows for the networking of multiple similar nodes to each other and to a central processor. This technique also allows for reconfigurable systems by adding or removing nodes at any time. It can do so using nothing more than the in situ power wiring of the system.

  2. Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Optoelectronic Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    A. Vera-Marquina; J. Martínez-Castillo; I.E. Zaldivar-Huerta; A. Díaz-Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the optical and electrical characterization of an integrated optoelectronic receiver. The receiver is composed of a photodiode and a transimpedance amplifier, both fabricated in silicon technology using a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The total area occupied by the photodiode is of 10,000 μm2. In a first step, the generated photocurrent of the photodiode is measured for the wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm at different levels of optical power. In a second step, the responsivity a...

  3. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct...... conversion receiver. In the presented solution, the filtered down-converted radio signals are randomly sampled with an average sampling frequency lower than its Nyquist rate, and then reconstructed in a DSP system. To enable compressed sensing, this approach exploits the frequency domain sparsity of the down...

  4. Actinides inventory of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde Unit 1; Inventario de actinidos de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde Unidad 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Alonso V, G., E-mail: eduardo.martinez@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U. P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    At the present time 435 nuclear power reactors exist for the electricity generation operating in the world and 63 in construction. Mexico has two reactors type BWR in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The nuclear fuel that is used in the nuclear reactors is retired of the reactor core when the energy that this contained has been extracted. This used fuel is known as spent nuclear fuel, the problem with this fuel is that was irradiated inside the reactor and continuous emitting a high radiation, as well as a significant heat quantity when being extracted, for what is necessary to maintain it in cooling and with some shielding to be protected of the radiation that emits. This objective is achieved confining the fuel in the spent nuclear fuel pool, where it is cooled and the same pool provides the necessary shielding to maintain the surroundings in safety radiation levels for the personnel that work in the power plant. An inconvenience of the pools is its limited storage capacity and that after certain time is necessary to remove the fuel, according to the established regulation to continue operating. To correct this inconvenience, two alternatives of spent fuel disposition exist, 1) the final disposition in deep geologic repositories and 2) the reprocessing and recycled of spent fuel. Each alternative presents its particularities and specific problems; however taking many years to be able to implement anyone of them. To carry out the second option, is indispensable to estimate the total mass of actinides generated in the spent nuclear fuel, that which represents to develop a methodology for it, this action is the main purpose of the present work. Inside our calculation method was necessary to appeal to diverse computation tools as the codes Origin-S and Keno V.a. Later on the obtained were compared with a problem type Benchmark, being obtained a smaller absolute error to 1.0%. (Author)

  5. Communication and surrounding of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants; La comunicacion y el entorno de las centrales de Asco y Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Asco and Vandellos-II power plants have always been integrated into the regions where they are located, and they take an active part in the development of surrounding towns through quality employment provided by our facilities, social and cultural support and aid to development promoted by regional councils. Communication to media is a corporate priority defined in our strategic plant, to ensure openness, rigour and punctuality. We also attend to the visitors who want to learn more about our facilities in the visitor center, and we have agreements with agrarian institutions in the area so that students can de practical training in the farms we own for agricultural production. (Author)

  6. The added value of the replica simulators in the exploitation of nuclear power plants; El valor anadido de los simuladores replica en la explotacion de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Giron, P. a.; Ortega, F.; Rivero, N.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power plants full scope replica simulators were in the past solely designed following operational personnel training criteria. Nevertheless, these simulators not only feature a high replica control room but also provide an accurate process response. Control room replica simulators are presently based on complex technological platforms permitting highest physical and functional fidelity, allowing to be used as versatile and value added tools in diverse plants operation and maintenance activities. In recent years. Tecnatom has extended the use of such simulators to different engineering applications. this article intends to identify the simulators use in training and other applications beyond training. (Author)

  7. What they have in common the engineering from the Spanish nuclear power plants?; Que tienen en comun las ingenierias de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Mendez, M.

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, Spain Nuclear Power Plant Engineering have switched their project/task management method to Critical Chain multi-project management, developed by Dr. Goldratt, achieving outstanding results in improving quality and productivity. Multitasking reduction, task and resource synchronizing without the need of exact schedules, implementing a real-time priority information system, relying on the software Concerto, and daily decision making are the basis for the management change that has generated productivity increases of between 20% to 50%, opening new horizons for improvement in other scenarios such as optimizing refueling shutdowns. (Author)

  8. Measurement of Hydrogen Purge Rates in Parabolic Trough Receiver Tubes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods to remove hydrogen centrally from commercial parabolic trough power plants. A mathematical model was developed that tracks the generation and transport of hydrogen within an operating plant. Modeling results predicted the steady-state partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to be ~1 torr. This result agrees with measured values for the hydrogen partial pressure. The model also predicted the rate at which hydrogen must be actively removed from the expansion tank to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to less than 0.001 torr. Based on these results, mitigation strategies implemented at operating parabolic trough power plants can reduce hydrogen partial pressure to acceptable levels. Transient modeling predicted the time required to reduce the hydrogen partial pressures within receiver annuli to acceptable levels. The times were estimated as a function of bellows temperature, getter quantity, and getter temperature. This work also includes an experimental effort that will determine the time required to purge hydrogen from a receiver annulus with no getter.

  9. Possible uses and applications of drones in a nuclear power plant; Posibles usos y aplicaciones de los drones en una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celis del A, L.; Palacios, J.; Rivero, T.; Valero, D., E-mail: lina.celis@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The versatility of drones is one of the strengths that have led to the rapid development of this technology, as they adapt relatively easily to new applications, presenting considerable advantages such as greater energy efficiency, longer life and a significant lower operation cost than manned systems. The current applications of the drones, in addition to the military, are very wide and varied. The nuclear industry represents an important area of opportunity for drones, mainly in response to radiological emergencies, since in this case there is a latent risk of the general population being exposed to high radiation doses. Drones can be used in environments with high chemical and radiological toxicity without endangering human lives. Some of the possible applications of the drones in a nuclear power plant are: perimeter surveillance in physical security, where equipped with a high definition camera can be used as support to physical security systems in general; visual inspection at sites, structures, equipment and pipelines, etc., as part of preventive maintenance in order to avoid the loss of material due to corrosion, oxidation, cracking, subsidence; the visual inspection through thermo-graphic images to be able to detect hot spots in some critical element; measurement and radiological mapping on surfaces to maintain monitoring of radiological safety at nuclear power plant facilities; the monitoring of environmental parameters and the Environmental Impact Assessment to obtain important information to determine the environmental impact of a given area; and accident support by providing information that allows staff to size the magnitude of the damage. (Author)

  10. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Lada; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Lada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Lada coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  11. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Anllares; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Anllares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Anllares coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  12. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Velilla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Velilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. c.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. a.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238U, 235U, 232Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Velilla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  13. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Meirama; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Meirama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Meirama coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  14. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  15. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of La Robla; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de La Robla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Trueba, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Guillen, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of 238{sup U}, 235{sup U}, 232{sup T}h and also the 40{sup K}, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the non-combustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the La Robla coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  16. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Abono; Estudio del Impacto Radiologico de la Central Termica de Carbon de Abono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the {sup 4}0K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Abono coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  17. Economic analysis of extended cycles in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Analisis economico de ciclos de extendidos en la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez N, H.; Hernandez M, J.L.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hermilo@correo.unam.mx

    2004-07-01

    The present work presents a preliminary analysis of economic type of extended cycles of operation of the Unit One in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. It is analysed an equilibrium cycle of 18 months firstly, with base to the Plan of Use of Energy of the Federal Commission of Electricity, being evaluated the cost of the energy until the end of the useful life of the plant. Later on an alternative recharge scenario is presented with base to an equilibrium cycle of 24 months, implemented to the beginning of the cycle 11, without considering transition cycles. It is added in both cycles the cost of the substitution energy, considering the unitary cost of the fuel of a dual thermoelectric power station of 350 M We and evaluating in each operation cycle, in both scenarios, the value of the substitution energy. The results show that a reduction of the days of recharge in the cycle of 24 months could make this option but favorable economically. The duration of the period of recharge rebounds in considerable grade in the cost of energy generation for concept of fuel. (Author)

  18. 15 years of production of electric energy of the Laguna Verde power plant, its plans and future; 15 anos de produccion de energia electrica de la Central Laguna Verde, sus planes y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera C, A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: arr99999@cfe.gob.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the year 2005 Laguna Verde power plant reaches 15 years of producing electric power in Mexico arriving to but of 100 million Megawatts-hour from their beginning of commercial activities. The Unit 1 that entered at July 29, 1990 and the Unit 2 at April 10, 1995, obtaining the Disposability Factors from their origin is: 84.63% in Unit 1 and 83.67% in Unit 2. The march of the X XI century gives big challenges of competition to the Laguna Verde Central, with the possible opening of the electric market to private investment, for their Goals and Objectives of a world class company, taking the evaluation system and qualification of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) that promotes the Excellence in the operation of the nuclear power stations in all their partners. This Association supports the development of programs that allow the monitoring of the behavior in Safety Culture, Human fulfilment, Equipment reliability, Industrial Safety, Planning, Programming and Control, Personalized Systematic Training, and the use of the Operational experience in the daily tasks. The present work tries to explain the system of evaluation/qualification of WANO, the definition of Goals and Objectives to reach the excellence and of the programs, it will present the Program of the Reliability of Equipment with its main actions the productivity. (Author)

  19. Techno-economic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide power blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Beath, Andrew; Gwynn-Jones, Stephen; Veeraragavan, Anand; Gurgenci, Hal; Hooman, Kamel

    2017-06-01

    Developing highly efficient power blocks holds the key to enhancing the cost competitiveness of Concentration Solar Thermal (CST) technologies. Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycles have proved promising in providing equivalent or higher cycle efficiency than supercritical or superheated steam cycles at temperatures and scales relevant for Australian CST applications. In this study, a techno-economic methodology is developed using a stochastic approach to determine the ranges for the cost and performance of different components of central receiver power plants utilizing sCO2 power blocks that are necessary to meet the Australian Solar Thermal Initiative (ASTRI) final LCOE target of 12 c/kWh.

  20. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests.......This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development...

  1. On the protection and operation of nuclear power plants and great structures in Central Europe with respect to the tectonics of European Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedoma, J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show that the financial resources needed for exploitation of the energetical resources as well as for the security of great energetical structures (i.e. nuclear power plants (NPP), deep mines, great waterdams, etc.), can be employed with high efficiency only when using appropriate basic and applied geological and geophysical investigations. One can only by this way save money expended during the last years to great structures built in critical regions. The breakdown of the Chernobyl NPP and the catastrophic earthquake in Armenia as well as the construction of a NPP there, situated on the Ararat deep fault, in a relatively small distance from the earthquake region, warn us and constitute the main reason for the realization of the research programme presented here as well as for the recommendation of this research programme to be solved within the framework of a Pentagonal group. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs

  2. Modular plants with high power gas engines (1 to 30 MWe); Centrales modulaires a moteurs gaz de forte puissance (de 1 a 30 MWe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haushalter, J. [Wartsila (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies about the high power gas engines manufactured by Waertsilae NSD Corporation company. The first par recalls the NO{sub x} and CO air pollution regulations worldwide, the German TA-Luft standards and the French 2910 by-law according to the engine type (2 and 4 stroke, dual-fuel, natural gas, LPG, others..) and to the type of pollutants (NO{sub x}, dusts, SO{sub 2}, CO, noise..). The second part presents the Waertsilae NSD Corporation concept of gas-fueled spark ignition engines (Otto cycle, emissions, performances, technology, fuel system, combustion optimization, fuel-air ratio regulation, pollution control equipment) and of the `pure energy` global concept of plants. (J.S.)

  3. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants; Gestion del ciclo de combustible por las empresas electricas y centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celma, E. M.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, J. V.; Melara, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinez, J. C.; Culbras, F.; Blanco, J.; Francia, L.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Group reports to the Technology Committee of the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee, and is constituted by representatives of both the Spanish Utilities and the Nuclear Power Plants. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel. Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. (Author)

  4. Optimization of thermal efficiency of nuclear central power like as PWR; Otimizacao da eficiencia termica de uma usina nuclear do tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Nelbia da Silva

    2005-10-15

    The main purpose of this work is the definition of operational conditions for the steam and power conservation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant in order to increase its system thermal efficiency without changing any component, based on the optimization of operational parameters of the plant. The thermal efficiency is calculated by a thermal balance program, based on conservation equations for homogeneous modeling. The circuit coefficients are estimated by an optimization tool, allowing a more realistic thermal balance for the plans under analysis, as well as others parameters necessary to some component models. With the operational parameter optimization, it is possible to get a level of thermal efficiency that increase capital gain, due to a better relationship between the electricity production and the amount of fuel used, without any need to change components plant. (author)

  5. Review of central power magnetohydrodynamics at the University of Tennessee Space Institute and its relation to the world effort in MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    The first generation of electrical plants powered by MHD generators performs at 50 to 55 percent thermal efficiencies, while later versions of these plants perform at efficiencies up to 75 percent. There are three types of MHD energy conversion: (1) the open-cycle system utilizes the fossil fuel as its heat source, the resulting combustion gas being the working fluid; (2) the closed-cycle generator usually refers to the closed-cycle plasma generator which requires an external heating source to heat a noble gas as the working fluid; and (3) there is the liquid-metal generator which is also closed-cycle, but utilizes a two-phase mixture. The open-cycle system is the most promising, the most advanced, and is emphasized in this paper; the Univ. of Tennessee Space Institute has focused its attention on directly coal-fired MHD generators and has succeeded in demonstrating successful operation. A review of MHD research in the USSR indicates that all three types of generators are being tested, but emphasis is also placed there on the open-cycle system. Its most important facility is the U-25 at the Institute of High Temperatures; this generator was expected to be delivering 20 MW by the end of 1975. The cost savings to the U. S. through the development of MHD power generation is discussed. It is concluded that from its development, the sulfur dioxide pollution in high-sulfur coals is reduced by 120 times, nitrogen oxides by many times, particulate matter by 10 times and finally, thermal pollution is reduced by more than 50 percent even without the use of cooling towers. The cost of this development is placed at $410 million in 10 years

  6. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddhibi, F; Amara, M Ben; Balghouthi, M; Guizani, A

    2015-01-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature

  7. Multi-Criteria GIS Methodology Focused on the Location of Optimal Places for Small Hydro Power Via Hydrological and Geostatistic Aplications; Metodologia SIG Multicriterio Enfocada a la Localizacion de Enclaves Optimos para Centrales de Minihidroelectricas mediante Aplicaciones Hidrologicas y Geoestadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C. de la

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this research is the development of a location methodology for sitting optimization of small hydro power (SHP) centrals. In order of achieve this goal, a Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methodology implemented through the use of tools in a GIS environment: Spatial Analysis, Geostatistic Analysis, and Hydrology have been developed. This methodology includes two different models based on the same MCE process. The substantial difference of both models is in the input data and the tools applied to estimate the energy resource and the principal factor of the methodology (caudal or accumulated flow). The first model is generated from caudal data obtained in the study area (El Bierzo), and the second one from pluviometric data and Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Both models include viability maps with greater ability areas to locate SHP facilities. As an additional objective, the study allows contrasting the results of the two developed models to evaluate their similarity. (Author)

  8. On line chemical analyzers for high purity steam and water, applied to steam power plants; Analizadores quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, aplicados a centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Perez, Ruth [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    This article presents a general overview of the advances in the subject of on line analyzers of chemical parameters for high purity water and steam and specifies which ones are commercially available. Also are mentioned besides, the criteria nowadays applied for the selection of the sites for sample grabbing and the analysis that is necessary to perform in each point, depending on the power plant type and the treatment administered (phosphates-Ph coordinated or AVT treatment). [Espanol] El articulo presenta un panorama general de los avances que en materia de analizadores de parametros quimicos en linea para agua y vapor de alta pureza, y especifica cuales estan disponibles en forma comercial. Se citan, ademas los criterios que se aplican actualmente para seleccionar los puntos de toma de muestra y los analisis que es necesario efectuar en cada punto, dependiendo del tipo de central y del tratamiento que se le administre (fosfatos-pH coordinado o tratamiento AVT).

  9. Present situation of the control of the transmissions of thermal power plants in Colombia; Situacion actual del control de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lozada, Hector [Consultor Ambiental, Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents, departing from a historical recollection, the evolution analysis of the Colombian Electric Sector, with emphasis in the electric component performance. Also, a general view is offered on the characteristics of the thermal electric resource in terms of energy production level, type of fuels used and annual amount of air pollutants originated in the combustion process. In the second part of the paper the normative scheme and the regulation for emissions control, particularly coming from power plants; and the tendencies in the policies that for the management of the atmospheric resource are being implemented in the country are identified. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta, a partir de un breve recuento historico, el analisis de la evolucion del Sector Electrico Colombiano con enfasis en el comportamiento del componente termoelectrico. Asi mismo se ofrece una vision general sobre las caracteristicas del parque termico, en terminos de los niveles de produccion de energia, los tipos de combustibles utilizados y las cantidades anuales de contaminantes atmosfericos que se generan en el proceso de combustion. En la segunda parte del trabajo se comenta el esquema normativo y la regulacion para el control de las emisiones, en particular de las procedentes de plantas termoelectricas; y se identifican las tendencias de las politicas que para la administracion del recurso atmosferico se estan implantando en el pais.

  10. RFI mitigating receiver back end for radiometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal requests support for Alphacore, Inc. to design and a low power application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) RFI mitigating receiver back...

  11. Advantages of using 3D design tools in the nuclear power plants projects; Ventajas del uso de herramientas de diseno 3D en los proyectos de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan, P.; Melendro, J.; Gomez, A.; Hermana, I.

    2011-07-01

    It there is anything that distinguished Iberdrola Ingeneria y Construccion, as part of the Iberdrola Group, it is its firm commitment to innovation and continuous improvement. This is the philosophy that led the company to its interest in three-dimensional design tools back when they were in an early stage of development : very little international implementation, lack of integration with other applications, absence of previous experiences to understand the best possible configuration for each case, etc. Nevertheless, the company was able to see the tremendous advantage of having a construction program in the early months of a project- a detailed program that could predict, and therefore avoid, the problems that, if not anticipated, would arise in the construction phase when they result in higher costs, longer time frames and a multitude of complications. This is precisely what 3D design tools offer prediction and this has been proven in the latest combined cycle projects executed with these tools. A project executed without errors not only decreases cost and time overruns, but also necessarily increases the quality of the end result. Efficiency and quality: these are both basic goals of Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion. The knowledge of and skill in the use of these tools have grown at the same time that their development has reached increasingly higher levels. As a result, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Conctruccion now has intensive experience in the use of 3D design tools and is preprared for the future challenges posed by these tools, the capabilities of which have attained such heights that it is possible to take on one of the most technically challenging projects that exists a nuclear power plant. And we are ready. (Author)

  12. The PFBC Power Plant of Escatron; Proyecto de Demostracion de la Combustion en Lecho Fuido a Presion Central Termica de Escatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Escatron Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Demonstration Plant was led by ENDESA which set out on the Project with its own specific objectives, and also have involved contributions from designers and suppliers, as ABB and BWE. The project objectives may be defined as follows: To make progress in the development of clean and efficient technology applicable to a wide range of coal types, specially to the peculiar Spanish black lignites. To be able to design and manufacture a new technology in the contest of European Union, specially developing capacity in Spain. All this give rise to a framework which took shape in the Escatron Project Monitoring Committee. Sulphur retention in PFBC technology has proved to be efficient, with levels higher than 90%. The nitric oxides emissions fall within limits set by present regulations. It is likely that more restrictive regulations in the future, will require the consideration of injecting ammonium technic over free-chamber bed. The most significant problem is that the flue gas from the cyclones to the gas turbine, has a high dust content. The cleaning system for this gas should be improved, and the best option appear to be the introduction of ceramic filters. The new plants could be built at higher power, as should be 300-400 MWe, operating with higher pressure (16 bar). This option together with better steam conditions, gives rise to a better energy yields and competitive electric energy production. But we should not dimis more proved designs of 100-200 MWe, as an interesting modular solution. (Author)

  13. Methodology for maintenance analysis based on hydroelectric power stations reliability; Metodologia para realizar analisis de mantenimiento basado en confiabilidad en centrales hidroelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea Soto, Rogelio; Calixto Rodriguez, Roberto; Sandoval Valenzuela, Salvador; Velasco Flores, Rocio; Garcia Lizarraga, Maria del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    A methodology to carry out Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) studies for hydroelectric power plants is presented. The methodology is an implantation/extension of the guidelines proposed by the Engineering Society for Advanced Mobility Land, Sea and Space in the SAE-JA1012 standard. With the purpose of answering the first five questions, that are set out in that standard, the use of standard ISO14224 is strongly recommended. This approach standardizes failure mechanisms and homogenizes RCM studies with the process of collecting failure and maintenance data. The use of risk matrixes to rank the importance of each failure based on a risk criteria is also proposed. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia para realizar estudios de mantenimiento Basado en Confiabilidad (RCM) aplicados a la industria hidroelectrica. La metodologia es una implantacion/ extension realizada por los autores de este trabajo, de los lineamientos propuestos por la Engineering Society for Advanced Mobility Land, Sea and Space en el estandar SAE-JA1012. Para contestar las primeras cinco preguntas del estandar se propone tomar como base los modos y mecanismos de fallas de componentes documentados en la guia para recopilar datos de falla en el estandar ISO-14224. Este enfoque permite estandarizar la descripcion de mecanismos de fallas de los equipos, tanto en el estudio RCM como en el proceso de recopilacion de datos de falla y de mantenimiento, lo que permite retroalimentar el ciclo de mejora continua de los procesos RCM. Tambien se propone el uso de matrices de riesgo para jerarquizar la importancia de los mecanismos de falla con base en el nivel de riesgo.

  14. Advances in the research line of diagnosing of faults in fossil fuel power plants; Avances en la linea de investigacion de diagnostico de fallas en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruz H, Jose A [Universidad Autonoma del Carmen, Campeche (Mexico); Sanchez C, Edgar N [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Suarez Cerda, Dionisio A; Quintero R, Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This article deals with a research in progress searching to take care of the faults that occur with greatest frequency in the fossil fuel power plants of Mexico with the aid of tools of computational intelligence such as the neuronal networks and the fuzzy logic, for the online recognition of the dynamic behavior patterns of variable groups. What this research looks for is the development of individual systems, in relation to the computational intelligence techniques that continuously supervise the functioning of the unit and inform the operator of the eventual faults in the understanding that on time attention to the faults will result in a minimum cost. The advantages of these diagnosis mechanisms are established in comparison to alternative diagnosis methods, such as their associative memory useful to store fault patterns. [Spanish] Se trata de una investigacion en progreso que busca atender las fallas que ocurren con mayor frecuencia en las unidades termoelectricas de Mexico con la ayuda de herramientas de inteligencia computacional como las redes neuronales y la logica difusa, para el reconocimiento en linea de patrones de comportamiento dinamico de grupos de variables. Lo que esta investigacion busca es desarrollar sendos sistemas, en relacion a las tecnicas de inteligencia computacional, que supervisen continuamente el funcionamiento de la unidad e informen al operador de fallas eventuales, en el entendido que la oportuna atencion a fallas redituara en un costo minimo. Las ventajas de estos mecanismos de diagnostico se establecen en comparacion a metodos de diagnostico alternativos, como su memoria asociativa util para almacenar patrones de falla.

  15. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Ba-hat t B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: jean-claude.commercon@insa-lyon.fr; Badard, Robert [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Bat B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: robert.badard@insa-lyon.fr

    2005-02-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal.

  16. Environmental Assessment for Central Power and Light Company`s proposed Military Highway-CFE tie 138/69-kV transmission line project Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Central Power and Light Company (CPL) intends to upgrade its existing transmission line ties with the Commision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) system in Mexico. CPL currently has a single 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line in the Brownsville area which connects CPL`s system with the system of CFE. This existing line runs between the Brownsville Switching Station, located on Laredo Road in Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas, and an existing CFE 69-kV line at the Rusteberg Bend of the Rio Grande in Cameron County. Under current conditions of need, the existing 69-kV line does not possess sufficient capability to engage in appropriate power exchanges. Therefore, CPL is proposing to build a new line to link up with CFE. This proposed line would be a double-circuit line, which would (1) continue (on a slightly relocated route) the existing 69-kV tie from CPL`s Brownsville Switching Station to CFE`s facilities, and (2) add a 138-kV tie from the Military Highway Substation, located on Military Highway (US Highway 281), to CFE`s facilities. The proposed 138/69-kV line, which will be constructed and operated by CPL, will be built primarily on steel single-pole structures within an average 60-foot (ft) wide right-of-way (ROW). It will be approximately 6900--9200 ft (1.3--1.7 miles) in length, depending on the alternative route constructed.

  17. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  18. Monitoring and diagnosis of condensation systems in thermoelectric power stations: behavior indicators; Monitoreo y diagnostico de sistemas de condensacion en centrales termoelectricas: indicadores de comportamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Hugo; Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this article are described the basic characteristics, capacities and benefits of a computer system for the monitoring and operation diagnosis of the main equipment of a condensation system of thermoelectric power plants. The system monitors the process variables in real time and, with base in these variables, it can realize a diagnosis of the cooling tower, the condenser, the circulation water and the circulating water pumps, deducting the possible problems (deficiency causes) and raising alternatives to improve the system performance or to solve the problem. It is important to mention that with base in the raised alternatives, the user can take decisions to diminish or eliminate the problem. The essential content of the article focuses in the description of the basic procedures for the calculation of the performance and diagnosis indicators of the condensation system of the equipment. The equipment evaluation is carried out by means of the comparison between the indicators values and the expected ones, whereas the diagnosis is realized by means of an expert system. [Spanish] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas principales, capacidades y beneficios de un sistema computacional para el monitoreo y diagnostico del funcionamiento de los equipos principales de un sistema de condensacion de plantas termoelectricas. El sistema monitorea las variables del proceso en tiempo real y, con base en dichas variables, puede realizar un diagnostico de la torre de enfriamiento, el condensador y las bombas de agua de circulacion, deduciendo los posibles problemas (causas de las deficiencias) y planteando alternativas para mejorar el desempeno del sistema o solucionar el problema. Es importante mencionar que con base en las alternativas planteadas, el usuario puede tomar decisiones para reducir o eliminar el problema. El contenido esencial del articulo se enfoca en la descripcion de los procedimientos basicos para el calculo de los indicadores de desempeno y

  19. Wind power in modern power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, and large-scale wind turbines/wind farms have been developed and connected to power systems. However, the traditional power system generation units are centralized located synchronous generators with different characteristics compared...... with wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of the issues about integrating large-scale wind power plants into modern power systems. Firstly, grid codes are introduced. Then, the main technical problems and challenges are presented. Finally, some possible technical solutions are discussed....

  20. STREAMLINING THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF A RECEIVER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    See also. Leonards Carrying Co Ltd V. Asiatic Petroleum Co Ltd (1915)A.C. In Trenco (Nig) Ltd v. African Real Estate Ltd 3S.C Lord Aniagolu(JSC) posited that a corporation is an abstraction.. its active and directing will must be sought in the person of somebody who for some purpose may be called an agent. 6. See section ...