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Sample records for central province cameroon

  1. Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The US profile of Cameroon indicates brief statistics on the population, geography, government, and economy and brief descriptions of the population, the history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations with the US. Principal government and US officials are furnished. The 1991 estimated population of Cameroon was 11.7 million of which 60% is rural. There are 200 different tribes who speak many African languages and dialects. The French and English languages both have official status. Muslims live in the north and Christians in the south. 80% live in the formerly French east. The growth rate is 3%. There is 65% literacy. Infant mortality is 20%. 70% are agricultural workers, 13% industrial and commercial, and 17% other. The government is an independent republic with an executive and legislative branch. Independence was achieved in 1960. There is 1 ruling party. Traditional courts administer the laws. Traditional rulers are treated as administrative adjuncts. Suffrage is universal adult. The central government budget is 1.4 billion of which 8.7% is for defense. There are 10 provinces and 4 major cities. The seaport city Douala is the largest at 1.5 million. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $12.5 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.3% and an inflation rate of 2%. Growth has been variable since 1988 and reached a low of 2.4% in 1988-89. Oil, natural gas, bauxite, iron core, and timber are natural resources. 27% of the GDP is in agricultural products (cocoa, coffee, cotton, fishing, and forestry). 13% of the GDP is manufacturing and 24% is industry. Exports are valued at $2.9 billion and imports at $2.2 billion. Major markets are France, Netherlands, and the US. Imports include intermediate goods, capital goods, fuel and lubricants, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco. Early inhabitants were the Pygmies, followed later by Bantu speakers, and Muslim Fulani. Political consolidation was achieved in 1970 after a period of

  2. Treatment of malaria from monotherapy to artemisinin-based combination therapy by health professionals in urban health facilities in Yaoundé, central province, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Bley Daniel; Malvy Denis; Vernazza-Licht Nicole; Gausseres Mathieu; Sayang Collins; Millet Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background After adoption of artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ) as first-line therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria by the malaria control programme, this study was designed to assess the availability of anti-malarial drugs, treatment practices and acceptability of the new protocol by health professionals, in the urban health facilities and drugstores of Yaoundé city, Cameroon. Methods Between April and August 2005, retrospective and current information was collected by cons...

  3. Treatment of malaria from monotherapy to artemisinin-based combination therapy by health professionals in urban health facilities in Yaoundé, central province, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bley Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After adoption of artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ as first-line therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria by the malaria control programme, this study was designed to assess the availability of anti-malarial drugs, treatment practices and acceptability of the new protocol by health professionals, in the urban health facilities and drugstores of Yaoundé city, Cameroon. Methods Between April and August 2005, retrospective and current information was collected by consulting registers and interviewing health practitioners in urban health facilities using a structured questionnaire. Results In 2005, twenty-seven trade-named drugs have been identified in drugstores; quinine tablets (300 mg were the most affordable anti-malarial drugs. Chloroquine was restricted to food market places and no generic artemisinin derivative was available in public health centres. In public health facilities, 13.6% of health professionals were informed about the new guidelines; 73.5% supported the use of AS-AQ as first-line therapy. However, 38.6% apprehended its use due to adverse events attributed to amodiaquine. Malaria treatment was mainly based on the diagnosis of fever. Quinine (300 mg tablets was the most commonly prescribed first-line anti-malarial drug in adults (44.5% and pregnant women (52.5%. Artequin® was the most cited artemsinin-based combination therapy (ACT (9.9%. Medical sales representatives were the main sources of information on anti-malarials. Conclusion The use of AS/AQ was not implemented in 2005 in Yaoundé, despite the wide range of anti-malarials and trade-named artemisinin derivatives available. Nevertheless, medical practitioners will support the use of this combination, when it is available in a paediatric formulation, at an affordable price. Training, information and participation of health professionals in decision-making is one of the key elements to improve adherence to new protocol guidelines. This baseline

  4. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  5. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals one and seven dealing with extreme poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concepts of sustainable tourism development and local economic development (in sub-Saharan Africa are examined. Through field observations and semi-structured interviews with 21 tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in LED and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 1 & 7 is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to local economic development and the attainment of these goals in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.

  6. Measurement of radium isotope activities in reservoir and spring water in the Cameroon Central Region

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    Rose Lydie Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in the reservoir and spring water samples respectively during the dry and the rainy seasons; and to calculate the annual intake Ii (Bq/y for each type of water samples. Methods: Using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl and HPGe detector systems, it was possible to determine the average specific activity of those radium’s isotopes in water samples which were collected in 2010, from Reservoirs and springs in Cameroon central region including Ngoaekelle, Minboman, Etoudi and Njoungolo. Results: The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra and 228Ra in reservoir water samples were 8.76 ± 3.50 BqL-1 and 0.64 ± 0.28 BqL-1 during the dry season and, 8.24 ±3.48 BqL-1 and 0.58 ± 0.24 BqL-1 during the rainy season respectively. For spring water, the average values were 3.50 ± 0.63 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the dry season; 3.20 ± 0.60 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the rainy season respectively. Assuming that the volume of drinking water for adult is 2.5 litres per day, the average annual intakes of 226Ra and 228Ra through ingestion in these water samples were 7702 Bq/y and 575 Bq/y for reservoir water; 2993 Bq/y and < 0.25 for spring water respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that the annual intake by the population of sampling region as a result of 226Ra in these drinking waters is 7.7 × 103Bq/y more than the maximum limit fixed by ICRP which is 7 × 103 Bq/y. There is a need for regular monitoring the radiological water quality aspect in this region.

  7. An evaluation of a small-scale biodiesel production technology: Case study of Mango’o village, Center province, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, Ioannis; Che, Franklin; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Bakirtzoglou, Vagios; Azangue, Willy; Bienvenue, Donatien; Ndipen, Frankline Mulluh

    It is an undeniable fact that isolated areas lack sufficient energy resources and that energy supply is central in order to achieve sustainable development goals. On the other hand, agricultural materials, whose trade profit fluctuates in low levels, are produced locally in wide range. As a result, the implementation of an alternative, more effective approach, which ensures the sustainability in social, economical and environmental dimension, is a crucial issue for developing countries. In this particular study, in order to cover the local energy needs, the possibility of installing a small biodiesel plant in a rural area of Cameroon, has been analyzed. The final biodiesel product can also be disposed directly to the market leading to an additional local income. In this paper, both the monthly potential of palm oil in Mango’o region and the recommended biodiesel production process are presented. Some significant benefits that can be achieved are independence from fossil fuels, mechanization of palm oil production process and additional prevention of local depopulation.

  8. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  9. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

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    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  10. Chemistry and origin of the Mayo Kila sapphires, NW region Cameroon (Central Africa): Their possible relationship with the Cameroon volcanic line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Mbih, Kemeng; Meffre, Sebastien; Yongue, Rose Fouateu; Kanouo, Nguo Sylvestre; Jay, Thomson

    2016-06-01

    Mineralogical, chemical and geochronological studies constrained the origin of sapphires from Mayo Kila, Northwest Cameroon. The sapphires are mostly blue, with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. The pale blue grains are transparent, whereas, other corundums are transparent to translucent and/or opaque. The sapphires are dominantly euhedral to sub-hedral with few polished lustrous grains, acquired features during moderate to short distance transport from a proximal source rock. Solid inclusions are limited to rutile and zircon. Trace element analysis of sapphires shows significant concentration (in ppm) in some elements: Fe (2208-14,473), Ti (82-1783), Ga (77-512), Mg (0.9-264.9), Cr (b.d.l -168) and V (1.3-82). The other elements (e.g. Sn, Nb, Ta, Th, Zr, Ni, Ce) are generally below 10 ppm. The calculated ratios for some of the selected elements show an extreme variation: Fe/Mg (43-3043), Fe/Ti (2-76), Ti/Mg (1-328), and Ga/Mg (0.4-363). They are dominantly corundum crystallized in alkaline magma (s) with few from metamorphic source (s). Trace elemental features with Hf (13,354-26,238 ppm), Th (4018-45,584 ppm) and U (7825-17,175 ppm), and Th/U (0.39-2.65) found in zircon inclusions are compatible with quantified values in magmatic crystallized zircons. The Cenozoic age (mean of 30.78 ± 0.28 Ma) obtained for zircon inclusions is close to the age of some igneous rocks found within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (e.g. rocks of the Mount Oku: 31-22 Ma), showing the same period of formation. The most probable source of the zircon host sapphires is the Oku Mountain located SW of Mayo Kila.

  11. Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Morgan F; Wright, James D; Kent, Dennis V

    2011-03-18

    The effects of a large igneous province on the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO₂) are mostly unknown. In this study, we estimate PCO₂ from stable isotopic values of pedogenic carbonates interbedded with volcanics of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Basin, eastern North America. We find pre-CAMP PCO₂ values of ~2000 parts per million (ppm), increasing to ~4400 ppm immediately after the first volcanic unit, followed by a steady decrease toward pre-eruptive levels over the subsequent 300 thousand years, a pattern that is repeated after the second and third flow units. We interpret each PCO₂ increase as a direct response to magmatic activity (primary outgassing or contact metamorphism). The systematic decreases in PCO₂ after each magmatic episode probably reflect consumption of atmospheric CO₂ by weathering of silicates, stimulated by fresh CAMP volcanics.

  12. Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran

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    MR Abai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: The aims of this study was to analysis the current situation of malaria and to find the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes, as probable vectors of the disease, in Qom Province, central Iran. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. "nResults: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%, mainly from Afghanistan (56.5% and Pakistan (16.3%. Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, fol­lowed by P. falciparum (6.25%. More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%. Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. "nConclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case, shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area. "n  "nKeywords: Malaria, Iran, Epidemiology

  13. Evidence for Archean inheritance in the pre-Panafrican crust of Central Cameroon: Insight from zircon internal structure and LA-MC-ICP-MS Usbnd Pb ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganwa, Alembert Alexandre; Klötzli, Urs Stephan; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The main geological feature of Central Cameroon is the wide spread occurrence of granitoids emplaced in close association with transcurrent regional shear zones. The basement of this vast domain is a Paleoproterozoic ortho-and para-derivative formation, which has been intensely reworked, together with subsequent intrusions and sediments, during the Panafrican orogenesis in the Neoproterozoic. As consequence, the area underwent pervasive metamorphism and intense deformation. This makes it difficult to distinguish between Panafrican metasediments or syntectonic plutonites and their respective basement. Our study presents zircon features (CL-BSE-SE) and in-situ U-Th-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronology of a meta-sedimentary pyroxene-amphibole-bearing gneiss of the Méiganga area in Central Cameroon. Based on the Internal structures of the zircon four characteristic zonation patterns can be deciphered: 1) cores with magmatic oscillatory zonation 2) zircons with oscillatory or sector zonation, 3) zircons with sector zoning or blurred zoning, and 4) narrow bright un-zoned rims. These groups suggest that the rock experienced a number of geological events. Considering this zircon characteristic, the U-Th-Pb data allow to distinguish four ages: 2116 ± 57 Ma, consistent with ages from the Paleoproterozoic West Central African Belt; 2551 ± 33 Ma which marks a late Neoarchean magmatic event; 2721 ± 27 Ma related to a Neoarchean magmatic even in Central Cameroon, similar to one found in the Congo Craton. A zircon core gives ages around 2925 Ma which provides some evidence of the presence of the Mesoarchean basement prior to the Neoarchean magmatism. A weighted average of lower intercepts ages gives a value of 821 ± 50 Ma, representing the age of later metamorphism event. The various characteristic group and related ages reflect not only the complexity of the history of the pyroxene amphibole gneiss, but also show that the meta-sediment has at least three zircon contributing

  14. Analysis of an Abrupt Rainstorm Process in Central Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim is to expound the abrupt rainstorm in the central Hunan Province on May 6 in 2010.[Method] By dint of NCEP 1°×1° reanalysis data,routine observation data,auto-station precipitation and FY-2C satellite data,the large-scale circulation background and physical condition during the large rainstorm period from the night on May 5 to 6 in 2010 were analyzed.The large scale environment,meso-scale characteristics and potential causes for the formation of large precipitation were revealed.By dint ...

  15. Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Farzinnia

    2010-12-01

    Methods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%, mainly from Afghanistan (56.5% and Pakistan (16.3%. Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, fol­lowed by P. falciparum (6.25%. More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%. Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. Conclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case, shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area.

  16. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  17. Diagnostic Analysis on a Regional Rainstorm Weather in North-central Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze a regional rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province. [Method] Based on the conventional meteorological observation data and the rainfall data of Henan Meteorological Station, the diagnostic analysis of atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics on a rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province on July 19, 2010 was carried out. The characteristics of physical quantity field and the evolution of weather situation in north-central Henan Provi...

  18. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Van; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Nguyen, Dung; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Siridamrongvattana, Sirivara; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Schelp, Frank P

    2013-01-01

    A community-based assessment of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was conducted at the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. By cluster sampling, a total of 410 pregnant women attending the antenatal care service at 30 commune health centers were recruited consecutively from September 2011 to June 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) analysis was performed using an automated Hb analyzer. α-Thalassemia (α-thal) genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Out of the 410 pregnant women, 2.7% carried α(0)-thal and 1.2% were β-thal carriers. One woman with the - -(THAI) deletion was also found. Among the females under survey, structural Hb variants with 3.2% Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.78G>C] and 3.7% Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA (α2); HBA2: c.427T>C] were found. Assessing the frequency of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies by ethnicity, Kinh (Vietnamese) and ethnic minority groups, Hb CS with a high frequency of 24.0% was observed in the ethnic minority groups. These results provide basic population-based information, are useful not only for implementing measures for prevention and control of thalassemias in the region but also for studying the importance of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in ethnic minorities within Southeast Asia.

  19. Management of flood victims: Chainat Province, central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitwong, Anchaleeporn; McMillan, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    This article focuses on the processes of flood management and the experiences of flood victims in Chainat Province, central Thailand, so as to develop knowledge about the future handling of such disasters. A phenomenological qualitative approach was used to describe the processes of providing assistance to flood victims. In-depth interviews and observation were used to collect the data. Criterion sampling was used to select 23 participants. Content analysis of the data revealed that some flood victims could predict flooding based on prior experiences, so they prepared themselves. The data revealed six themes that demonstrated that those who could not predict how floods would impact on them were unprepared and suffered losses and disruption to their daily life. Damaged routes meant people could not go to work, resulting in the loss of income. There was a lack of sanitary appliances and clean drinking water, people were sick, and experienced stress. At the community level, people helped one another, making sandbags and building walls as a defense against water. They formed support groups to enable the processing of stressful experiences. However, later, the water became stagnant and contaminated, creating an offensive smell. The government provided assistance to cut off electricity services, food and water, toilets and health services, and water drainage. In the recovery phase, the victims needed money for investment, employment opportunities, books for children, extra time to pay off loans, reconnection of electricity, surveys of damage, and pensions to deal with damage and recovery.

  20. Experimental waterfowl breeding population survey Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec during 1997. The primary purpose of...

  1. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces, Indonesia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed gas resource in the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces of Indonesia.

  2. Vegetation response to the "African Humid Period" termination in Central Cameroon (7° N – new pollen insight from Lake Mbalang

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    M. Servant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new pollen sequence from the Lake Mbalang (7°19´ N, 13°44´ E, 1110 m a.s.l. located on the eastern Adamawa plateau, in Central Cameroon, is presented in this paper to analyze the Holocene African Humid Period (AHP termination and related vegetation changes at 7° N in tropical Africa, completing an important transect for exploring shifts in the northern margin of the African Monsoon. This sequence, spanning the last 7000 cal yr BP, shows that the vegetation response to this transitional climatic period was marked by significant successional changes within the broad context of long-term aridification. Semi-deciduous/sub-montane forest retreat in this area is initially registered as early as ca. 6100 cal yr BP and modern savannah was definitely established at ca. 3000 cal yr BP and stabilized at ca. 2400 cal yr BP; but a slight forest regeneration episode is observed between ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 cal yr BP. In this area with modern high rainfall, increasing in the length of the dry season during the AHP termination linked to a contraction of the northern margin of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ from ca. 6100 cal yr BP onward, probably associated with decreasing in cloud cover and/or fog frequency, has primarily controlled vegetation dynamics and above all the disappearance of the forested environment on the Adamawa plateau. Compared to previous studies undertaken in northern tropical and Central Africa, this work clearly shows that the response of vegetation to transitional periods between climatic extremes such as the AHP termination might be different in timing, mode and amplitude according to the regional climate of the study sites, but also according to the stability of vegetation before and during these climatic transitions.

  3. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam

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    Nguyen Hieu Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22, Binh Phuoc (25, Dak Lak (30 and Dak Nong (20. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2 (AFB2, G1 (AFG1, G2 (AFG2, fumonisin B1 (FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2 and zearalenone (ZEA were analysed by HPLC in 97 maize kernel samples. Fumonisins were the most common toxins found in all samples (67%, followed by aflatoxins (55.7% and zearalenone (27.8%. The incidence of aflatoxin positive samples (61.7% in the Southeastern provinces was higher than in the Central Highlands (50%, while fumonisins and zearalenone incidences were higher in the Central Highlands. The mean level of fumonisin B1 in samples from the Central Highlands provinces (1757 µg/kg was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the Southeastern provinces (740 µg/kg. Importantly, the percentage of positive samples (about 70% that had over 20 µg/kg (ppb aflatoxin was very high. Moreover, many samples (53% contained more than one mycotoxin and this result highlights the difficulty of diagnosing mycotoxicoses in the field and the need for ongoing research to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in Vietnamese maize.

  4. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

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    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el papel y la contribución del turismo al desarrollo económico local y en persecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio uno y siete referentes a la mitigación de la probreza extrama y la sostenibilidad ambiental en la biodiversa región de Africa Central. Los conceptos de desarrollo sostenible del turismo y desarrollo económico local (en le África subsahariana son exami-nados. A través de observaciones de campo y entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 21 partes interesadas de la industria turística de Camerún, se lleva a cabo un análisis del papel y del futuro del turismo en el desarrollo económico local y del logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio 1 y 7. Los actuales desafíos que inhiben el desarrollo turístico limitando su contribución al desarrollo económico y local son identificados y un marco dentro del cual el turismo puede contribuir es propuesto.

  5. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

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    Nfotabong-Atheull Adolphe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region, 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45% in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp. and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb. Wurmb. purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to

  6. Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yaounde, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Bedenic, B.; Koulla-Shiro, S.; Randegger, C.; Adiogo, D.; Ngassam, P.; Ndumbe, P; Hachler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Cameroon. A total of 259 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated between 1995 and 1998 from patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk (DD)...

  7. Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yaounde, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Bedenic, Branka; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Randegger, Corinne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Ngassam, Pierre; Ndumbe, Peter; Hächler, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Cameroon. A total of 259 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated between 1995 and 1998 from patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk (DD) sy...

  8. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite.

  9. Faunistic study of the aquatic beetles (Coleoptera: Polyphaga of Markazi Province (Central Iran with new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaei R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish the presence of 24 aquatic beetle (Coleoptera: Polyphaga species belonging to 13 genera and five families in Markazi Province of Central Iran. Specimens were collected between 2001 and 2005. Eleven species and four genera are recorded from Iran for the first time. The ecological significance of the new records is briefly discussed. .

  10. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian. The

  11. The impact of nutrition education at three health centres in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains an account of a study of the effects of nutrition education as given at three health centres in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers in similar social and economic situations were selected for interviewing: frequent and infrequent visitors

  12. GIVETIAN–FRASNIAN BOUNDARY CONODONTS FROM KERMAN PROVINCE, CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSEIN GHOLAMALIAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Middle - Late Devonian boundary is investigated based on twenty-two conodont species and subspecies from three sections in the north and west of Kerman, southeastern central Iran. Upper Givetian - lower Frasnian carbonates of the basal part of the Bahram Formation transgressively overlie the sandstone beds of the top of (? Early - Middle Devonian Padeha Formation. These massive skeletal limestones encompass the G-F boundary. The base of Frasnian is identified by the appearance of early forms of Ancyrodella rotundiloba . It helps to compare our biozones to those of global stratotype in southern France. A new species, Polygnathus hojedki n. sp. is described here. New range is suggested for P. praepolitus .

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors. PMID:27882868

  14. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Henan province, central China

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    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects humans. However, there has been no study on dirofilariasis in dogs in central China. From March 2015 to February 2016, sera from 1176 randomly selected household dogs from Henan province, central China were examined for D. immitis antigen using the Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Henan province was 13% (155/1176. The prevalence was significantly higher in older dogs and dogs kept outdoors, compared to the younger ones and those sheltered indoors. No significant difference of prevalence was observed between sexes. The results suggest that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Henan, and prophylaxis against the parasite is advisable to decrease the incidence of canine dirofilariosis in this region.

  15. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    W.Wilopo; R.Resili; D.P.E. Putra

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  16. Isotopic dating of the Chengjiang Fauna-bearing horizon in Central Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Twenty black shale samples, which are free from the influence of weathering, were collected from the Chengjiang Fauna-bearing horizon, central Yunnan Province, yielding a Pb-Pb isochron age of 534±60 Ma. Although this age is younger than both the Rb-Sr isochron age and 40Ar-39Ar age, it should represent the lower isotopic age limit of the Chengjiang Fauna.

  17. Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otshudiema, John O; Ndakala, Nestor G; Mawanda, Elande-Taty K; Tshapenda, Gaston P; Kimfuta, Jacques M; Nsibu, Loupy-Régence N; Gueye, Abdou S; Dee, Jacob; Philen, Rossanne M; Giese, Coralie; Murrill, Christopher S; Arthur, Ray R; Kebela, Benoit I

    2017-03-31

    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak. As of August 18, 2016, a total of 410 suspected yellow fever cases and 42 deaths were reported in Kongo Central Province. Thirty seven of the 393 specimens tested in the laboratory were confirmed as positive for yellow fever virus (local outbreak threshold is one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever). Although not well-documented for this outbreak, malaria, viral hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common differential diagnoses among suspected yellow fever cases in this region. Other possible diagnoses include Zika, West Nile, or dengue viruses; however, no laboratory-confirmed cases of these viruses were reported. Thirty five of the 37 cases of yellow fever were imported from Angola. Two-thirds of confirmed cases occurred in persons who crossed the DRC-Angola border at one market city on the DRC side, where ≤40,000 travelers cross the border each week on market day. Strategies to improve coordination between health surveillance and cross-border trade activities at land borders and to enhance laboratory and case-based surveillance and health border screening capacity are needed to prevent and control future yellow fever outbreaks.

  18. Volcanostratigraphic Sequences of Kebo-Butak Formation at Bayat Geological Field Complex, Central Java Province and Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyaningsih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bayat Complex is usually used as a work field for students of geology and other geosciences. The study area is located in the southern part of the Bayat Complex. Administratively, it belongs to Central Java Province and Yogyakarta Special Province. The lithology of Bayat is very complex, composed of various kinds of igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks. Most of previous researchers interpreted Bayat as a melange complex constructed within a subduction zone. Kebo-Butak is one of formations that forms the Bayat field complex. The formation is composed of basalt, layers of pumice, tuff, shale, and carbonaceous tuff. Most of them are known as volcanic rocks. These imply that volcanic activities are more probable to construct the geology of Bayat rather than the subducted melange complex. The geological mapping, supported by geomorphology, petrology, stratigraphy, and geological structures, had been conducted in a comprehensive manner using the deduction-induction method. The research encounters basalt, black pumice, tuff with basaltic glasses fragments, zeolite, argilic clay, as well as feldspathic- and pumice tuff. Petrographically, the basalt is composed of labradorite, olivine, clinopyroxene, and volcanic glass. Black pumice and tuff contain prismatic clinopyroxene, granular olivine, and volcanic glasses. Feldspathic tuff and pumice tuff are crystal vitric tuff due to more abundant feldspar, quartz, and amphibole than volcanic glass. Zeolite comprises chlorite and altered glasses as deep sea altered volcanic rocks. The geologic structure is very complex, the major structures are normal faults with pyrite in it. There were two deep submarine paleovolcanoes namely Tegalrejo and Baturagung. The first paleovolcano erupted effusively producing basaltic sequence, while the second one erupted explosively ejecting feldspathic-rich pyroclastic material. The two paleovolcanoes erupted simultaneously and repeatedly.

  19. Comment on "Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R; Caldeira, Ken

    2011-11-04

    Schaller et al. (Research Article, 18 March 2011, p. 1404) proposed that carbon dioxide (CO(2)) released by the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province eruptions over periods of about 20,000 years led to substantial increases of up to 2000 parts per million (ppm) in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (PCO(2)) near the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Use of an atmosphere-ocean model coupled to a carbon-cycle model predicts PCO(2) increases of less than 400 ppm from magmatic volatiles, with only a small climatic impact.

  20. Linguistic Interference in a Multilingual Setting: The Case of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Nashipu

    2006-01-01

    Cameroon, a central African state is one of the few countries in the world where, in addition to a very rich linguistically diverse landscape (a little below 300 identified indigenous languages) there is English and French (all vestiges of colonial legacy) used as official languages. Coupled with this, there is pidgin English which plays the role…

  1. Paleotectonic Setting of Dongyan Group of Middle and Upper Proterozoic in Central Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Da; Wu Ganguo; Ye Yujiang; Zhang Xiangxin; Peng Runmin; Wu Jianshe; Wang Qunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The central Fujian Province, situated on the juncture of paleo-uplift of Wuyishan, Yongmei Late Paleozoic depression and the eastern volcanic rift-faulting zone, is mainly composed of the outcropped metamorphic basements in the Middle-Late and Early Proterozoic, which constitute two upper and lower giant thick formations of Precambrian volcanic-sedimentary cycles, respectively. The formation of Dongyan Group is an important Middle-Upper Proterozoic component, and the Dongyan Group is directly related to massive sulfide deposit in this area. In recent years, plenty of lead, zinc, copper, silver and gold deposits have been found and explored. The Precambrian paleorift setting of the central Fujian Province served as a favorite metallogenic background for the formation of large- and superlarge-scale volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) lead and zinc polymetal deposits. The Dongyan Group consists chiefly of a set of ancient volcanic sedimentary formations that are composed mainly of greenschist. Its major lithologic types comprise greenschist, marble, quartzite and granofels class including various components. The metamorphic rocks of Dongyan Group are the main composition of Middle and Upper Proterozoic volcanic-sedimentary cycle. The original rock of Dongyan Group, a stable rock association, is volcanic sedimentation and normal marine sedimentation. But the original volcanic rocks, basic and acid, are bimodal. The volcanic rocks were formed in the extensional continental rift setting.

  2. CULTURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijitapure Wimalaratana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has recorded a tremendous growth in the past and this trend will continue further uninterruptedly. Sri Lanka has been one of the major tourist attractions since antiquity. The end of a protracted civil war has been a blessing for the tourist industry and the consequent rapid expansion of tourist infrastructure in the island. Although the island is a small one, it is rich in religious and cultural diversity. Buddhism is the main religion of the majority of people, while Hinduism, Christianity and Islam are also practiced by portions of the population. The resultant rich cultural heritage of the island has been constructed around religious practices, historical monuments and ancient cities, meditation, yoga, folk music and dances, festivities, ceremonies and rituals. Special sites with multi religious attractions reflect the diversity and uniqueness of a rich culture. The North Central Province of Sri Lanka is especially rich in cultural resources owing largely to it housing two cities that served as the island’s capital for more than 1000 years in ancient times. Only a small fraction of this vast amount of resources has been utilized by the tourism industry so far. The paper argues that the promotion of religious and cultural tourism products in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka will open up new avenues of engagement for tourists and income generation for the island. Ancient monuments and religious sites, segments of culture tourism, would be magnates to overseas archeologists and Buddhist communities.

  3. Reconstructing C3 and C4 vegetation cover using n-alkane carbon isotope ratios in recent lake sediments from Cameroon, Western Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Yannick; Schefuß, Enno; Schwab, Valérie F.; Garreta, Vincent; Gleixner, Gerd; Vincens, Annie; Todou, Gilbert; Séné, Olivier; Onana, Jean-Michel; Achoundong, Gaston; Sachse, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Trees and shrubs in tropical Africa use the C3 cycle as a carbon fixation pathway during photosynthesis, while grasses and sedges mostly use the C4 cycle. Leaf-wax lipids from sedimentary archives such as the long-chain n-alkanes (e.g., n-C27 to n-C33) inherit carbon isotope ratios that are representative of the carbon fixation pathway. Therefore, n-alkane δ13C values are often used to reconstruct past C3/C4 composition of vegetation, assuming that the relative proportions of C3 and C4 leaf waxes reflect the relative proportions of C3 and C4 plants. We have compared the δ13C values of n-alkanes from modern C3 and C4 plants with previously published values from recent lake sediments and provide a framework for estimating the fractional contribution (areal-based) of C3 vegetation cover (fC3) represented by these sedimentary archives. Samples were collected in Cameroon, across a latitudinal transect that accommodates a wide range of climate zones and vegetation types, as reflected in the progressive northward replacement of C3-dominated rain forest by C4-dominated savanna. The C3 plants analysed were characterised by substantially higher abundances of n-C29 alkanes and by substantially lower abundances of n-C33 alkanes than the C4 plants. Furthermore, the sedimentary δ13C values of n-C29 and n-C31 alkanes from recent lake sediments in Cameroon (-37.4‰ to -26.5‰) were generally within the range of δ13C values for C3 plants, even when from sites where C4 plants dominated the catchment vegetation. In such cases simple linear mixing models fail to accurately reconstruct the relative proportions of C3 and C4 vegetation cover when using the δ13C values of sedimentary n-alkanes, overestimating the proportion of C3 vegetation, likely as a consequence of the differences in plant wax production, preservation, transport, and/or deposition between C3 and C4 plants. We therefore tested a set of non-linear binary mixing models using δ13C values from both C3 and C4

  4. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic card test (ICT is a tool to map the distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti. In areas highly endemic for loaisis in DRC and Cameroon, a relationship has been envisaged between high L. loa microfilaria (Mf loads and ICT positivity. However, similar associations have not been demonstrated from other areas with contrasting levels of L. loa endemicity. This study investigated the cross-reactivity of ICT when mapping lymphatic filariasis (LF in areas with contrasting endemicity levels of loiasis and mansonellosis in Cameroon.A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and intensity of W. bancrofti, L. loa and M. perstans was carried out in 42 villages across three regions (East, North-west and South-west of the Cameroon rainforest domain. Diurnal blood was collected from participants for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA by ICT and assessment of Mf using a thick blood smear. Clinical manifestations of LF were also assessed. ICT positives and patients clinically diagnosed with lymphoedema were further subjected to night blood collection for the detection of W. bancrofti Mf. Overall, 2190 individuals took part in the study. Overall, 24 individuals residing in 14 communities were tested positive by ICT, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% in the South-west to 2.1% in the North-west. Lymphoedema were diagnosed in 20 individuals with the majority of cases found in the North-west (11/20, and none of them were tested positive by ICT. No Mf of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with a positive ICT result or clinical lymphoedema. Positive ICT results were strongly associated with high L. loa Mf intensity with 21 subjects having more than 8,000 L. loa Mf ml/blood (Odds ratio = 15.4; 95%CI: 6.1-39.0; p < 0.001. Similarly, a strong positive association (Spearman's rho = 0.900; p = 0.037 was observed between the prevalence of L. loa and ICT positivity by area: a rate of 1% or more of positive

  5. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER VECTOR (Aedes aegypti AGAINST ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES (MALATHION AND TEMEPHOS IN SOME DISTRICTS OF YOGYAKARTA AND CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Tri Boewono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER VECTOR (Aedes aegypti AGAINST ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES (MALATHION AND TEMEPHOS IN SOME DISTRICTS OF YOGYAKARTA AND CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCES

  6. Petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic Ngondo Plutonic complex (Cameroon, west central Africa): a case of late-collisional ferro-potassic magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagne-Kamga, Gabriel

    2003-04-01

    The Ngondo complex is a late-collisional pluton, which was emplaced around 600 Ma along a N030° E strike-slip shear zone in the southwestern part of the Neoproterozoic Fold Belt of Cameroon. It comprises three successively emplaced plutonic groups of rocks: (i) mafic to felsic intrusive rocks (MFR), (ii) fine-grained granites (FGG) and (iii) coarse-grained granites (CGG). Late aplitic and pegmatite dykes were emplaced along brittle fractures in these plutons. The complex is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K, calc-alkaline to " trans-alkaline" ferro-potassic, with mineralogical and geochemical characteristic of I-type granites. The plutonic rocks are characterised by high Ba, Sr, Rb and ∑REE concentrations and low Ni and Cr contents in the mafic members. They also display chondrite-normalised REE patterns characterised by variable LREE enrichment, moderate to minor HREE fractionation with moderate to pronounced negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗: 0.6-0.9 (MFR), 0.2-0.5 (FGG), 0.3-0.7 (CGG)). Trace element distribution patterns for the three plutonic groups are similar with a distinctive depletion in Nb, Sr and Ti relative to other trace elements and a greater enrichment in LILE compared to HFSE. These plutonic groups present distinct evolutionary trends precluding their origin from differentiation of a single parental magma. The geochemical and isotopic data indicate that they derived from partial melting of heterogeneous (meta)-igneous mafic lower crustal materials, having possibly the composition of amphibolitised high-K calc-alkaline basaltic andesites and andesitic metagreywackes. Petrographic evidences such as the presence of quartz-ocelli, xenocrysts of feldspar, fragments of country rocks (migmatitic gneisses) strongly indicate that crustal contamination may have played an important role in the genesis of the plutonic rocks. This contamination process is further supported by the variation of major and trace elements together with Sr-Nd isotopic data

  7. Mapping of Marine Area Boundary of Central Java Province using Differential GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Khakhim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of GPS (Global Positioning System technology which is measuring position by satellite, has taken a great metodology aspect of position on surface of earth. The standard GPS measurement takes an absolute positioning. To develop the accurate abd precision, it is used the differential method. Differential GPS measurement can be much more accurate than standard GPs measurement, wherever the method uses one receiver as base station/ reference and the other receiver as field station in a same time. That could reduce and eliminate drifts and errors. The aim of research is use the differential method of GPS survey to map the ocean boundary of Central Java Province. Physical data which neede are base line and base point. Base line were taken from obsrvation of longtime Landsat TM image band 5th based o opinion that shore line are clear seems and easy to interpreted at 10.00 am according to Landsat satellite reording time and the lowest tide time as base line. Location of lowest tide were selected at conspicuous place, such as cape, dry shore, etc and measured base on the BPN (Badan Pertahanan Nasional base/ reference point (orde 2 and 3 on the district, with GPS differential metod. Twelve miles distance from base line of ocean bounddary is belong to province and 1/3 of is belong to district. Characteristic of marine landform as cape, bay, estuaria, attended to international rules. Final report of the research were 1 oean boundary map of Center Java Province, 2 the location and base/ reference points (orde 2 and 3 that could be reference as a base point differential method.

  8. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  9. A new Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Thomas; Cheek, M.

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from western Cameroon is described on teleomorphic and cultural characters.......A new species of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from western Cameroon is described on teleomorphic and cultural characters....

  10. Hazelnut oil consumption of families in the central town of Ordu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat SAYILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative analysis of consumption of edible oil of families in Central Town of OrduProvince. In addition, factor analysis was conducted on factors which affect the consumption of hazelnut oil. The data used in the study in January 2013 was a result of a survey conducted with 272 people. According to the survey, the most consumed oils, butter (71.32% and hazelnut oil (61.76%, which is the amount of total fatconsumption of 6.71 kg/month per family and 1.89 kg/month per person. Families with more than 5 littercontainers prefer buying oil. Hazelnut oil is thought to be healthy and of good quality too much is consumed by local people. As a result of factor analysis, three factors (image and highly attractive, odour and low weight, quality and health affecting hazelnut oil consumption has been collected under the title.

  11. Development Plan for Under- forest Economy of Henan Province Based on Central Plains Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong ZHAO; Yimin ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Firstly,this paper analyzed current situations,major practice and existing problems of under-forest economy in Henan Province.Then,it made an in-depth discussion of guiding thought,principle and objectives,construction task and safeguarding measures of the underforest economic development plan. Besides,it analyzed benefits of the under-forest economic development plan. By 2017,the area of underforest economic land will reach 1. 60 million hm2,create output value of 155. 2 billion yuan( accounting for more than 20% of forest output value),provide 3. 27 million jobs,and will greatly increase ecological carrying capacity of construction and development of the Central Plains Economic Region( CPER).

  12. Risk of hypertension in Yozgat Province, Central Anatolia: application of Framingham Hypertension Prediction Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M; Ede, H; Kilic, A I

    2016-07-10

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the risk of hypertension in 1106 Caucasian individuals aged 20-69 years in Yozgat Province, using the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Score (FHRPS). According to FHRPS, average risk of developing hypertension over 4 years was 6.2%. The participants were classified into low- (10%) risk groups. The percentage of participants that fell into these groups was 59.4%, 19.8% and 20.8% respectively. The proportion of participants in the high-risk group was similar to the 4-year incidence of hypertension (21.3%) in the Turkish population. Regression analysis showed that high salt consumption and low educational level significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Economic level, fat consumption, life satisfaction, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were not correlated with risk of hypertension. This study shows that FHRPS can also be used for predicting risk of hypertension in Central Anatolia.

  13. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan - Qom province (central of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, F.; Mansouri, E.

    2014-07-01

    The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran). The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM) techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  15. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan – Qom province (central of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Feizi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran. The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Least Square Fit (LS-Fit and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  16. Alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes in Saudi Arabia: A study in the central province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsy, A S; El-Hazmi, M A; Sedrani, S H; Kinhal, M

    1991-03-01

    This study was conducted on 204 plasma samples obtained from Saudis living in the central province of Saudi Arabia, to determine the prevalence of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) phenotypes. The alpha1AT phenotypes were separated by isoelectric focusing on ampholine gels (pH 4-5). The prevalences of PiMM, MS, MZ, SZ, and ZZ were 0.8676, 0.0931, 0.0245, 0.0098, and 0.0049, respectively. The gene frequencies of the alpha1AT variants, i.e.., PiM, PiS, and PiZ, were 0.9265, 0.0515, 0.022, respectively. We describe and compare our results in a Saudi population with those reported for other populations.

  17. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman YAVUZYILMAZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000: 41-50

  18. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 41-50

  19. Striga infestation in northern Cameroon: Magnitude, dynamics and implications for managament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayongwa, G.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Hoevers, R.; Ngoumou, T.N.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Surveys of Striga (S. hermonthica (Del.) Benth.) infestation in northern Cameroon over the period 1987–2005 assessed Striga dynamics and evaluated its control strategies. In that period the percentage of Striga-infested fields increased in North and Far-North Provinces. Striga incidence increased mo

  20. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  1. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus.

  2. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  3. The nutritional impact of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Abr. sum.: Contains an account of a study of the effects of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers were selected for interviewing: recent entrants and longtime participants. The study concentrates on the follow

  4. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  5. Origin and paleoenvironment of Pleistocene-Holocene Travertine deposit from the Mbéré sedimentary sub-basin along the Central Cameroon shear zone: Insights from petrology and palynology and evidence for neotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouatcha, Milan Stafford; Njoya, André; Ganno, Sylvestre; Toyama, Réné; Ngouem, Paul Aubin; Njiké Ngaha, Pierre Ricard

    2016-06-01

    The Mbéré sub-basin belongs to the Mbéré-Djerem intra-continental basin of Central North Cameroon. In this sub-basin, a travertine outcrop has been discovered and investigated palynologically and petrologically in this study. The sporopollinic content of the studied travertine is mainly composed of fungal spores (Rhyzophagites sp., Monoporisporites sp …) associated with rare fresh water algae spores such as Chomotriletes minor and angiosperm pollens (compositae, graminae, …). This sporopollinic association is indicative of hot and semi-arid to arid paleoclimate and reveals a Pleistocene-Holocene depositional age. The whole rock major element geochemistry shows relative enrichment of CaO (49.48%) and CO2 (38.49%). The origin of CO2 is probably from magmatic and/or metamorphic fluids. Compared to other travertines, SiO2 and Al2O3 contents are significant with average concentrations of 5.68% and 2.58% respectively. The mineralogical composition revealed by a microscopic study of bulk rocks is dominated by calcite (90-92%) associated to quartz (2-4%) and feldspar (2-3%), meanwhile the heavy mineral concentrate is formed by various mineral types such as zircon (most abundant), garnet, tourmaline, epidote, biotite, peridot and aegirine augite suggesting that the underground water has crossed both volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic rocks. With the mineral composition made of both chemical and detrital derived elements, the Mbéré travertine corresponds to chemico-lithoclastic/detrital limestone. In the Mbéré trough, numerous thermo-mineral springs are located along major fractures and faults. This result suggests that the Mbéré travertine deposit is related to the rising of deep water with the help of a fracturing system, similar to those of Irdi (Morocco), Italy and Turkey where there is much volcanism.

  6. Henneguya mbakaouensis sp. nov., Myxobolus nounensis sp. nov. and M. hydrocyni Kostoingue & Toguebaye, 1994, Myxosporea (Myxozoa parasites of centropomidae, Cichlidae and Characidae (Teleosts of the Sanaga basin in Cameroon (Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomena A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of 102 teleost freshwater fishes of Sanaga basin in Cameroon revealed the presence of three myxosporean species, among which two were new. Host fishes were of three families: Centropomidae, Cichlidae and Characidae. New species were identified as Henneguya mbakaouensis sp. nov., a gill parasite of Lates niloticus and Myxobolus nounensis sp. nov. found in the kidney and spleen of Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia mariae. Myxobolus hydrocyni Kostoïngue & Toguebaye, 1994, previously described in Chad, was also found in Cameroon; complementary informations were given on that parasite which seemed to be specific to its host.

  7. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as `Africa in miniature'?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huguette Gaelle Ngassa Mbenda; Gauri Awasthi; Poonam K Singh; Inocent Gouado; Aparup Das

    2014-09-01

    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ∼20 million population, is commonly regarded as ‘Africa in miniature’ due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and diverse topography. Over 90% Cameroonians are at risk of malaria infection, and ∼41% have at least one episode of malaria each year. Historically, the rate of malaria infection in Cameroon has fluctuated over the years; the number of cases was about 2 million in 2010 and 2011. The Cameroonian malaria control programme faces an uphill task due to high prevalence of multidrug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Above all, continued human migration from the rural to urban areas as well as population exchange with adjoining countries, high rate of ecological instabilities caused by deforestation, poor housing, lack of proper sanitation and drainage system might have resulted in the recent increase in incidences of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in Cameroon. The available data on eco-environmental variability and intricate malaria epidemiology in Cameroon reflect the situation in the whole of Africa, and warrant the need for in-depth study by using modern surveillance tools for meaningful basic understanding of the malaria triangle (host-parasite-vector-environment).

  8. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation trends during 1961-2010 in Hubei province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranghui; Li, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is an important climatic parameter, and its variability severely affects regional hydrological processes and water resource management. In order to explore the changing spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation-related indices, including precipitation amounts indices, extreme precipitation indices, and precipitation concentration indices, in Hubei province, central China during 1961-2010, several precipitation-related indices series were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test, and inverse distance weighted interpolation method in this paper. The results are as follows: (1) A clear south-north gradient is apparent in the spatial distribution of the majority of precipitation-related indices, while the distribution of other indices (i.e., CDD, PCD, and PCP) is just the opposite. Most part of Hubei province can experience mixed positive and negative trends in precipitation-related indices. (2) The majority of precipitation-related indices exhibit an increasing trend, but most of which are not significant. July has the largest positive trend, with a regional average of 14.76 mm/decade. As for extreme precipitation indices, there exist large variations in Hubei, especially in R95pTOT. Besides, no obvious trends are shown in precipitation concentration indices. (3) With the exception of consecutive dry days (CDD), most of extreme precipitation indices are strongly correlated with annual mean precipitation (AMP) in Hubei. And the extreme precipitation indices are well correlated with each other except CDD and consecutive wet days (CWD). For six precipitation-related indices (i.e., SDII, RX1day, RX5day, R95pTOT R99pTOT, and PCD), there are significant positive relationships with Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High (NHSH) but significant negative relationships with Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex (NHPV). Furthermore, the majority of precipitation-related indices have significant negative correlations with East Asian summer monsoon

  9. Geochronological, geochemical and mineralogical constraints of emplacement depth of TTG suite from the Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon: Implications for tectonomagmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houketchang Bouyo, M.; Penaye, J.; Njel, U. O.; Moussango, A. P. I.; Sep, J. P. N.; Nyama, B. A.; Wassouo, W. J.; Abaté, J. M. E.; Yaya, F.; Mahamat, A.; Ye, Hao; Wu, Fei

    2016-04-01

    The Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon represents the largest volume of plutonic rocks or granitoids massif of the Western Cameroonian Domain. It is made up dominantly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite and lesser granite which are locally more or less deformed, and composed of varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, hornblende, sphene, magnetite, apatite and zircon. Major and trace element compositions of fifteen rock samples of granitoids (Djourdé granodiorite, Sinassi quartz diorite and orthogneisses groups) indicate that investigated rocks from the Sinassi Batholith are characterized by medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous I-type signature. In addition, their chondrite- and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns are strongly fractionated ((La/Yb)N = 2.96-61.40) and show respectively enrichment in LREE relative to HREE and enrichment in LILE compared to HFSE with moderate to slight negative Nb-Ta, Ti and Eu anomalies consistent with a continental magmatic arc setting related to a subduction zone. Geothermobarometric calculations using hornblende-plagioclase thermometry and aluminum-in-hornblende barometry on eleven rock samples indicate that plutons from Sinassi Batholith were emplaced at average temperatures and pressures ranging between 698 and 720 °C and 4.06-5.82 kbar (Djourdé granitoids), 698-728 °C and 4.04-5.34 kbar (Sinassi granitoids) and 667-670 and 4.23-4.76 kbar (orthogneisses group) respectively. The average emplacement depths estimates for the investigated granitoids is constrained at ca 16-18 km, indicating that at least 16 km of crustal rocks of the Sinassi Batholith must have been eroded or uplifted at approximately exhumation rates of 0.08-0.10 mm/year. Regardless of their Th/U ratios, geochronological results highlight three main events characterizing the Neoproterozoic tectonomagmatic evolution within the Sinassi Batholith

  10. Disposal of household burned garbage and risk of low birth weight in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pembakaran sampah di dalam rumah tanggadapat mempengaruhi berat badan bayi lahir rendah (BBLR. Pada tulisan ini disajikan pembakaran sampah di rumah tangga terhadap risiko BBLR.Metode: Analisis data menggunakan sebagian data studi potong lintang Riskesdas 2013 di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Data yang dianalisis ialah data bayi berusia 0-11 bulan. Berat badan bayi waktu lahir berdasarkan catatan berat bayi saat lahir yang tercatat dalam kuesioner Riskesdas. Bayi dikategorikan BBLR jika berat badan waktu lahir kurang dari 2500 gram. Hasil: Di antara 281 bayi yang mempunyai catatan berat badan lahir terdapat 10,6% (23 bayi yang BBLR. Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan perilaku pengelolaan sampah dengan cara dibakar dibandingkan dengan selain dibakar mempunyai risiko 2,3 kali lipat mengalami BBLR (RRa=2,28; 95% CI=1,18-8,61. Kesimpulan: Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan sampah dibakar dibandingkan dengan tanpa sampah dibakar mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi BBLR di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:89-93Kata kunci: berat badan lahir rendah, pembakaran sampahAbstractBackground: The management of household waste by burning can affect the incidence of low birth weight (LBW. This paper aims to identify the burning of garbage at home and risk of low birth weight. Methods: This analysis used a part of Riskesdas 2013 data in the Central Sulawesi Province. Subjects analyzed were infants aged 0-11 months. Baby’s weight was based on the baby’s birth weightwhich was recorded in the questionnaire of Riskesdas. The infants were categorized as LBW, if the recorded birth weight was less than 2500 grams. Results: Out of 392 babies,  281 babies had recorded birth weightswhich could be proved by documentary evidence. The majority of babies were boys (50.9% and lived in rural areas (58.7%. The proportion of babies who had LBW was 10.6% (23 infants. The babies who were living in households with

  11. Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soil in central Gansu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; GOU Xin; WANG Gang; ZHANG Qiang; SU Qiong; XIAO Guoju

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) were measured in arid agricultural and irrigated agricultural soils collected in Daba Village, Shajiawuan Village, Gangou Village and Sifangwu Village, located in central Gansu Province, China. Concentrations except Hg and Pb were lower than the background values in grey calcareous soil in the selected arid agricultural soils. Pb concentration exceeded the threshold of arid agricultural soils in China by 72. 46%. These results showed that there was indeed serious pollution with Pb, a slight pollution problem for other selected metals in the irrigated agricultural soils in Daba Village. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the soil data, applying varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization. The result showed that the irrigated factor, agricultural factor and anthropogenic factor all contributed to the relations between selected chemical properties. The main factor of accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As was lithological factor in arid agricultural areas. There is a striking dissimilarity of origin of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As in agricultural soil between the irrigate agriculture and arid agriculture.

  12. Supracrustal suite of the Precambrian crystalline crust in the Ghor Province of Central Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Motuza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Proterozoic pre-Ediacaran metamorphic basement of the southern Tajik (North Afghanistan continental block and the adjacent Band-e-Bayan zone is exposed in the Ghor Province of Central Afghanistan. It is predominantly composed of the EW-striking supracrustal succession consisting of interbedded felsic schists and gneisses (metapsammites, amphibolites (metabasalts, calcite and dolomite marbles. The metamorphic facies changes from greenschist in the Band-e-Bayan zone to amphibolite facies in the Tajik block. The supracrustal rocks of the Band-e-Bayan zone and Tajik block possess common features suggesting that the former represents a tectonized part of the latter. The geochemical characteristics of metapsammites indicate derivation of the clastic material from a continental arc and, partly from a passive continental margin, whereas the composition of metabasalts suggests their possible formation in a continental rift basin. The tectonic setting of supracrustal unit could be interpreted as a back-arc type basin. We presume that the Tajik microcontinent split off the Gondwana supercontinent along an ancient rift zone during the late Paleozoic.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafipour, Abedin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000. All analyses were undertaken with rural- and urban-level precision, i.e., rural and urban levels were our basic units of analysis. After identifying the sand flies, high-risk foci were determined. For spatial analysis of vector species population, the entomological sampling sites were geo-referenced using GPS. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used to determine the foci with leishmaniasis vector species. Following the analyses, two genera (Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia) and 14 species were identified. Based on the mapping and sand fly dispersion analysis, the rural districts were categorized into three groups-infection reported, without infection, and no report. Based on Geographical Information System analyses, Kahak and Markazi districts were identified as high-risk foci with leishmaniasis vector species. These findings can act as a help guide to direct active control measures to the identified high-risk foci and, eventually, lead to reduction in incidence of the disease.

  14. Water Budget Analysis of Red Soils in Central Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-Zhou; HE Yuan-Qiu; CHEN Ming-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The daily soil water budgets in the red soil areas of central Jiangxi Province,southern China,were investigated with a large-scale weighing lysimeter and runoff plots. From 1998 to 2000,peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) were planted in the lysimeter and in 1999,peanuts were planted in the runoff plots. The soil water budget components including rainfall,runoff,percolation and evapotranspiration were measured directly or calculated by Richards' equation and water balance equation. The results showed that most rainfall,including rainstorms,occurred from March to July,and induced the greatest soil water percolation during the year. The evapotranspiration was still large from July to September when rainfall was minimal. Thus,the lack of synchronization in soil water inputs and losses was disadvantageous to crops growing in this region. Among the soil water losses,percolation was the largest,followed by evapotranspiration,and then soil runoff. Runoff was very small on farmland with crops. It was significantly different from the uncultivated uplands where large-scale runoff was usually reported. The soil water storage fluctuated sinusoidally,with a large amplitude in the rainy season and a small amplitude in the dry season.

  15. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  16. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment.

  17. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  18. Petrology of the most recent ultrapotassic magmas from the Roman Province (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, M.; Freda, C.; Marra, F.; Di Rocco, T.; Gozzi, F.; Arienzo, I.; Giaccio, B.; Scarlato, P.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the newly discovered lava flow that erupted in the Colli Albani Volcanic District, which is the most recent and, geochemically the most peculiar effusive event recognised in the entire ultrapotassic Roman Province (Central Italy). This lava flow is associated with the Monte Due Torri scoria cone, located approximately 5 km south of the Albano hydromagmatic centre (69-36 ka). The Monte Due Torri scoria cone displays well-preserved morphological characteristics and the 40 ± 7 ka age determined for the associated lava flow indicates that its activity was nearly contemporaneous to the most recent, explosive activity that occurred at the Albano centre from 41 to 36 ka. By comparing chemical and petrological features of the Monte Due Torri lava flow, Albano products, and older products (> 69 ka), we show that the youngest Colli Albani eruptions were fed by two new batches of parental magmas that originated in a phlogopite-bearing metasomatised mantle, each one feeding one of the two youngest eruptive cycles (at 69 ka and 41-36 ka). The trace element signature, e.g., very low Pb content, of primitive (MgO > 3 wt.%) magmas feeding the initiation of the hydromagmatic activity at Albano (69 ka) and the subsequent effusive activity at Monte Due Torri (40 ka) indicates that a magma chamber located in the deep anhydrite-bearing dolomite formation was tapped. However, the polygenic activity, the changes in magma composition, and the variable thermometamorphic clasts occurring in the hydromagmatic deposits (recording variable substrata) suggest, particularly for the Albano eruptive centre, a more complex plumbing system consisting of at least two more magma chambers at a shallower depth, i.e., in the Mesozoic limestone and Pliocene pelite formations. The large amount of stratigraphic, volcanological, and geochemical data collected for the Colli Albani Volcanic District, one of the main districts in the ultrapotassic Roman Province, enable us to contribute insights

  19. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  20. Environmental implication of subaqueous lava flows from a continental Large Igneous Province: Examples from the Moroccan Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghilani, S.; Youbi, N.; Madeira, J.; Chellai, E. H.; López-Galindo, A.; Martins, L.; Mata, J.

    2017-03-01

    The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic volcanic sequence of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) of Morocco is classically subdivided into four stratigraphic units: the Lower, Middle, Upper and Recurrent Formations separated by intercalated sediments deposited during short hiatuses in volcanic activity. Although corresponding to a Large Igneous Province formed in continental environment, it contains subaqueous lava flows, including dominant pillowed flows but also occasional sheet flows. We present a study of the morphology, structure and morphometry of subaqueous lava flows from three sections located at the Marrakech High-Atlas (regions of Aït-Ourir, Jbel Imzar and Oued Lhar-Herissane), as well as an analysis of the sediments, in order to characterize them and to understand their environmental meaning. The analysis of clays by the diffraction method X-ray revealed the presence of illite, mica, phengite, céladonite, talc and small amounts of quartz, hematite, calcite and feldspar, as well as two pairs of interbedded irregular (chlorite Smectite/chlorite-Mica). Fibrous minerals such as sepiolite and palygorskite were not detected. The peperite of Herissane region (Central High Atlas) provided an excellent overview on the factors favoring the magma-sediment interaction. These are the products of a mixture of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated sediments, low permeability with a low viscosity magma. The attempt of dating palynology proved unfortunately without results.

  1. Low Prevalence of Brucella Agglutinins in Blood Donors in Central Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Sofian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and has great economic importance. Despite its control in many countries, it remains endemic in Iran. Brucellosis was investigated in many high risk occupational groups; however, few studies on the prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors are available. To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis antibodies in blood donors, a serological study was carried out in central province of Iran.Materials and Methods: A total of 897 healthy blood donors with mean age 37.23 ± 10.9 years were enrolled in the study. Laboratory tests including Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STA and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were checked in all samples. STA dilution ≥ 1:80, and in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination ≥ 20 was considered positive.Results: Out of 897 cases, 11.9% were inhabitants of rural areas. 41.5% had history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and 9.3% had history of contact with domestic animals. A very low level of Brucella agglutinins was present in 3(0.33% of the samples and only one sample (0.11% was found to be truly positive for Brucella agglutinins. 2ME was negative in all samples. None of these 4 subjects showed signs and symptoms of brucellosis in 6 months follow-up.Conclusion: On the basis of our data, brucellosis has no epidemiological and clinical importance in our blood donors; therefore, it is not recommended to perform screening tests such as, STA and 2ME to identify brucellosis antibodies in the sera of blood donors.

  2. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BRACKISHWATER POND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS IN PEKALONGAN CITY CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Indrajaya Asaad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of brackishwater pond soil has a vital role in the system of bioenvironment including brackishwater pond environment. This research was aimed to determine the spatial distribution of brackishwater pond soil characteristics in Pekalongan City, Central Java Province. A total of 59 sampling points each with two different soil depth samplings were determined by simple random method. A total of 21 soil characteristics were measured in the field and analyzed further in the laboratory. Geostatistic with Kriging Interpolation method in the ArcGIS 9.3 software were used to depict the distribution of the data across the landscape. Furthermore, the spatial distribution was presented by using ALOS AVNIR-2 image. Research result indicates that in general, pond soil in Pekalongan City can be classified as soil with high variability or relatively heterogenic with the value of variation coefficient more than 36%. Soil characteristics which have similar pattern of spatial distribution are acid sulfate soil and soil nutrient content. High value of pH, organic matter, and total-N of soil, and on the other hand, low value of PO4 were generally found in the pond area of Krapyak Lor Village, while in Pekalongan City, it was found high clayish soil content but relatively homogenous. It is recommended that pond management must be based on soil characteristics which are different from one area to another. The soil characteristics itself can be drawn and assessed through spatial distribution.

  3. The Precambrian Structure of the Estancia Basin, Central New Mexico: New Seismic Images of the Mazatzal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elebiju, O. O.; Miller, K. C.; Andronicos, C. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Estancia Basin, located between the Manzano Mountains and Pedernal Hills, in central New Mexico, provides an excellent location for studying the effects of Proterozoic structural grain on subsequent Phanerozoic tectonic events. The Estancia Basin lies within the Proterozoic Mazatzal province. In recent years, the National Science Foundation Continental Dynamics Program within the Rocky Mountains Project, (CD-ROM) group has been examining the boundary between the two broad northeast-trending tectonically-mixed Paleoproterozoic terranes in New Mexico: the Yavapai province to the north and the Mazatzal province to the south. Reflection data collected as part of the CD-ROM effort image a portion of the Mazatzal province at a location 100 km east of the Estancia Basin. In an effort to contribute to a deeper understanding of the CD-ROM seismic image and regional Precambrian geology, we are analyzing ten seismic reflection profiles, well-logs, magnetic and gravity data from the Estancia basin area. The seismic data show numerous dipping reflections within the Precambrian basement that may represent prominent Precambrian ductile shear zones similar to those exposed in the adjacent Manzano Mountains and Pedernal Hills. An earlier study that focused on the Paleozoic evolution of the Estancia Basin, by Barrow and Keller (1994) also noted these same reflectors and that a prominent gravity low observed in the vicinity of the basin could not be fully explained by the Paleozoic geology. We present a new interpretation of these data.

  4. Public health implications of contamination of Franc CFA (XAF) circulating in Buea (Cameroon) with drug resistant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Gaelle, Nana; Dilonga, Henry Meriki; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa K

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in different parts of the world have implicated money as a vehicle for transmission of pathogens. Such information which is necessary to facilitate infection control strategies is lacking in many sub-Saharan countries including Cameroon. This study analyzed the Franc de la Communauté Financiere d’Afrique (Franc CFA), the currency used in Cameroon and other countries in the Central African sub-region, as a potential vehicle for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, ...

  5. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  6. Biostratigraphy and geochronology of the late Cenozoic of Córdoba Province (central Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Laura Edith

    2013-03-01

    In the last twenty years, several geological and stratigraphical studies have been undertaken in Córdoba Province, and they have provided useful bases for biostratigraphic work in the late Cenozoic. However, paleontological contributions have been limited to preliminary analyses of mammal assemblages, or specific discoveries. The aim of this work is to contribute to biostratigraphic knowledge of Argentina through the study of late Cenozoic mammals from Córdoba Province. Five localities have been analyzed: San Francisco, Miramar, Río Cuarto, Isla Verde, and Valle de Traslasierra. Through biostratigraphic analysis the first records of several taxa were established, and mammal assemblages with the description and correlation of the sedimentary strata were confirmed. Finally, three Assemblage Zones (Biozonas de Asociación) were proposed: 1) Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis-Equus (Amerhippus) assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene), and comparable to the Equus (Amerhippus) neogeus Biozone of Buenos Aires Province; 2) Neosclerocalyptus ornatus-Catonyx tarijensis assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the San Francisco locality, referred to the Ensenadan (early Pleistocene) and comparable to the Mesotherium cristatum Biozone of Buenos Aires Province, and 3) Nonotherium hennigi-Propanochthus bullifer assemblage zone with type area and profile based on the Los Sauces river, Valle de Traslasierra, referred to the Montehermosan-Chapadmalalan interval (Pliocene), and comparable to the Trigodon gaudryi, Neocavia depressidens and/or Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis Biozones of Buenos Aires Province.

  7. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, W.J. (Mobil Oil Corp., Midland, TX (USA)); Ting, S.C. (Mobil, Farmers Branch, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  8. Quality control of climatological time series in the province of macerata (adriatic side of central italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Matteo; Bisci, Carlo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tognetti, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis is focused on more than 100 meteorological recording stations located in the Province of Macerata (Marche region, Adriatic side of Central Italy) and in its neighbours; it aims to check the time series of their climatological data (temperatures and precipitations), covering about one century of observations, in order to remove or rectify any errors. This small area (about 2.800Km2) features many different climate types, because of its varied topography ranging, moving westward, from the Adriatic coast to the Appennines (over 2.100m of altitude). In this irregular context, it is difficult to establish a common procedure for each sector; therefore, it has been followed the general guidelines of the WMO, with some important difference (mostly in the method). Data are classified on the basis of validation codes (VC): missing datum (VC=-1), correct or verified datum (VC=0), datum under investigation (VC=1), datum removed after the analysis (VC=2), datum reconstructed through interpolation or by estimating the errors of digitization (VC=3). The first step was the "Logical Control", consisting in the investigation of gross errors of digitization: the data found in this phase of the analysis has been removed without any other control (VC=2). The second step, represented by the "Internal Consistency Check", leads to the elimination (VC=2) of all the data out of range, estimated on the basis of the climate zone for each investigated variable. The third one is the "Tolerance Test", carried out comparing each datum with the historical record it belongs to, in order to apply this test, the normal distribution of data has been evaluated. The "Tolerance Test" usually defines only suspect data (VC=1) to be verified with further tests, such as the "Temporal Consistency" and the "Spatial Consistency". The "Temporal Consistency" allows an evaluation of the time sequence of data, setting a specified range for each station basing upon its historical records. Data out of

  9. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  10. Photosynthetic characteristics of three varieties of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids" in the central areas of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHANG; Shuyun LI; Hong HU; Yayu FAN

    2008-01-01

    To understand the ecophysiological adapta-tion of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids", which are grown for their commercial bulbs, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of the three varieties were investigated in the central areas of the Yunnan Province. Among the three varieties, light-saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax) of Tiber was the highest, while that of Siberia was the lowest. The difference in the Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the quantity of Rubisco. The three vari-eties had lower photosynthetic saturation points and pho-tosynthetic compensation points, but the photosynthetic rates were not decreased up to 2000 μmol.m-2s-1 of the light intensity. This indicates that the three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were signifi-cant differences in the photosynthetic optimum temper-ature among the three varieties. Siberia had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature (25.5℃-34.9℃), and is likely to grow well in warm areas. Sorbonne had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature (19.3℃-25.6℃), and its growth is favored in cool areas. Tiber can maintain a high photosynthetic rate within a wide range of temperature. Therefore, Tiber is the most suitable variety for the climate in the central areas of the Yunnan Province, China.

  11. Environmental Geochemistry of Fluorine in the Rock—Soil—Water System in the Karst Region of Central Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 李景阳; 等

    2000-01-01

    Systematic determination of and adsorption experiment on fluorine in the carbonate rock-soil-water system in the karst region studied in Guzhou Province,in conjunction with the mineral surface and soil chemistry data,have revealed the geochemical characteristics of F and the mechanisms of its transport and entrichment in the rock-soil-water-system of the karst region central guizhou province,Deep-seated underground waters(-100m or lower)and soil layers in the karst region of central Guizhou are characterized by high-F anomalies whereas shallow-level underground and surface waters by low contents of F(mostly lower than 05mg/L).Fluorine in soil and water in the region studied comes largely from Triassic marine strata dominated by gypsum-bearing carbonate rocks.The special adsorption and desorption of F on the surface of geothite in soil layers are the important mechanisms of its transport and enrichment in the rock-soil-water system of the karst region studied.

  12. Evaluation of biochemical urinary stone composition and its relationship to tap water hardness in Qom province, central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi MK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Kazem Moslemi1, Hossein Saghafi2, Seyed Mohammad Amin Joorabchin31Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, 2Department of Nephrology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical stone composition in general population of Qom province, central Iran, and its relationship with high tap water hardness.Materials and methods: In a prospective study, from March 2008 to July 2011, biochemical analysis of urinary stones in patients living in Qom province for at least 5 years was performed. Stones were retrieved by spontaneous passage, endoscopic or open surgery, and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Demographic findings and the drinking water supply of patients were evaluated and compared with biochemical stone analysis.Results: Stone analysis was performed in 255 patients. The most dominant composition of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (73%, followed by uric acid (24%, ammonium urate (2%, and cystine (1%. The peak incidence of urinary stone was in patients in their forties. Overall male to female ratio was 4.93:1.Conclusion: The dominant stone composition in inhabitants of central Iran, where tap water hardness is high, was calcium oxalate stones. On the basis of this study, biochemical urinary stone composition of Qom does not differ from other regions of Iran with lower water hardness.Keywords: stone analysis, water hardness, urinary stones, stone composition

  13. The Early Triassic magmatism of the Alto Paraguay Province, Central South America: Paleomagnetic and ASM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto, Marcia; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso de Barros

    2015-10-01

    A paleomagnetic studystudywork was carried out on the Alto Paraguay Province (APP), a belt of alkaline complexes that parallel the Paraguay river for more than 40 km at the border of Brazil and Paraguay. The province is well dated by 40Ar/39Ar method giving ages in the range 240-250 Ma with a preferred age of 241 Ma. Intrusive rocks are predominant but the stocks may be topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic work on stocks, dikes and flows of the APP identified normal and reversed magnetic components which are carried mainly by titanomagnetites. The calculated paleomagnetic pole located at 319ºE 78ºS (α95 = 6º; k = 23) is in agreement with other South American poles of Permo-Triassic age. Most of the sampling sites showed large variations in rock magnetization, but similar patterns in the variation of the within-site magnetizations, mainly in dikes, suggest geomagnetic polarity transition records. The magnetization data along with the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility determinations suggested that the South and North areas of the province have different evolution characteristics.

  14. The Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Central South America: Los Monos - Machareti(!) Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Monos - Machareti(!) total petroleum system is in the Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Province history is that of a Paleozoic, intracratonic, siliciclastic rift basin that evolved into a Miocene (Andean) foreland fold and thrust belt. Existing fields are typified by alternating reservoir and seal rocks in post-Ordovician sandstones and shales on anticlines. Thick Devonian and Silurian shale source rocks, depositionally and erosionally confined to this province, at a minimum have generated 4.1 BBOE known ultimate recoverable reserves (as of 1995, 77% gas, 15% condensate, 8% oil) into dominantly Carboniferous reservoirs with average 20% porosity and 156 md permeability. Major detachment surfaces within the source rocks contributed to the thin-skinned and laterally continuous nature of the deformation. Tertiary foreland burial adequate for significant source maturation coincided with the formation of compressional traps. Further hydrocarbon discovery in the fold and thrust belt is expected. In the foreland basin, higher thermal gradients and variable burial history - combined with the presence of unconformity and onlap wedges - create potential there for stratigraphic traps and pre-Andean, block-fault and forced-fold traps.

  15. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.

  16. Addressing the concerns of rural communities about access to plants and knowledge in a sui generis legislation in Cameroon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marcelin Tonye Mahop

    2004-12-01

    This article assesses the traditional systems of accessing and using plant genetic resources as well as the benefit sharing and systems of sanctioning infringement in the context of biodiversity related activities in specific areas in the Northwest province of Cameroon. The article also addresses the type research and development activities using plant genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in the context of Cameroon, the current laws regulating such activities and the extent to which these activities and laws affect and/or protect the customary biodiversity rights of rural communities. The article uses these assessments to suggest the context under which a sui generis legislation for the protection of the biodiversity rights of rural communities can be established in Cameroon.

  17. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection.

  18. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Sierra Leone and Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Sierra Leone-China Friendship Association (SLCFA) and the Ministry of Territorial Administration and Decentralization of Cameroon, a 14-member CPAFFC delegation headed by Wang Daoyu, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Shandong Provincial People’s Congress, paid a goodwill visit to Sierra Leone and Cameroon in early December 2005. In Sierra Leone Vice President Solomon Ekuma Berewa, President of the Parliament Edmond Cowan, and Vice Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamara, and in

  19. Geographical centers: Geographical centers of the Republic of Serbia, Central Serbia, the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Jovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical center of one territorial unit is the location point which in theoretical sense is nearest to other points of that territorial unit. There are several methods for determining the geographical center. Those are 1 method of geographical coordinates of extreme border pont, 2 the method of brunt determinate 3 the method of isofrontiers, 4 the isofrontier-translations method (composite, 5 the method of grid, 6 the integral method of brunt determinate. The integral method of brunt determinate by computer program ArcView a method which provides very precise results was applied. The geographical center is an interesting and important place, which should be marked in an adequate manner. It would be, for example, useful to put the basic geographic orientation sign at a location. It is an object where the name of destination, its latitude (numerical value in degrees, minutes and seconds, longitude and altitude (in meters and the data about straight liner distance to the destination in the Republic of Serbia (cities, mountains, monasteries, etc and the other parts of the world (cities, mountains, and points of the main elements of the Earth - the Equator, the North Pole, the zero meridian and data zone border line (in kilometers/miles would be indicated. Geographical centers in Serbia are as follows: The geographical center of the Republic of Serbia is situated in Drača settlement, Kragujevac municipality. The center is located to the west of Kragujevac, about 8 km from the center of the city (rectilinear. The geographical center of Central Serbia is situated in Kaludra settlement Rekovac municipality. The center is located about 10 km to the south of Rekovac. The geographical center of the Autonomus Province of Voivodina is situated in Žabalj settlement, Žabalj municipality. The center is located about 12 km to the northeast of Novi Sad. The geographical center of the Autonomus Province of Kosovo and Metohia is situated in Komorane

  20. Supercontinental inheritance and its influence on supercontinental breakup: The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province and the breakup of Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Lisa; Gazel, Esteban; Vidito, Christopher; Puffer, John; Bizimis, Michael; Henika, William; Caddick, Mark J.

    2015-10-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the large igneous province (LIP) that coincides with the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea. Major and trace element data, Sr-Nd-Pb radiogenic isotopes, and high-precision olivine chemistry were collected on primitive CAMP dikes from Virginia (VA). These new samples were used in conjunction with a global CAMP data set to elucidate different mechanisms for supercontinent breakup and LIP formation. On the Eastern North American Margin, CAMP flows are found primarily in rift basins that can be divided into northern or southern groups based on differences in tectonic evolution, rifting history, and supercontinental inheritance. Geochemical signatures of CAMP suggest an upper mantle source modified by subduction processes. We propose that the greater number of accretionary events, or metasomatism by sediment melts as opposed to fluids on the northern versus the southern Laurentian margin during the formation of Pangea led to different subduction-related signatures in the mantle source of the northern versus southern CAMP lavas. CAMP samples have elevated Ni and low Ca in olivine phenocrysts indicating a significant pyroxenite component in the source, interpreted here as a result of subduction metasomatism. Different collisional styles during the Alleghanian orogeny in the North and South may have led to the diachroneity of the rifting of Pangea. Furthermore, due to a low angle of subduction, the Rheic Plate may have underplated the lithosphere then delaminated, triggering both the breakup of Pangea and the formation of CAMP.

  1. Spatial Provinces and Domains of the Central Valley for Textural Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the 9 major areas used to subdivide the Central Valley for the interpolation of the percentage of coarse-grained deposits into the...

  2. Tuberculosis case--finding and treatment in the central prison of Qazvin province, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefzadeh, M; Barghi, R Gh; Shahidi, Sh S

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a comprehensive programme of tuberculosis (TB) control in the central prison in Qazvin, Islamic Republic of Iran, a programme of active case-finding was carried out from February 2004 to July 2005. From the 768 prisoners examined, 41 (5.3%) were suspected of TB and gave sputum samples. A total of 7 smear-positive TB cases were found, giving a TB prevalence in the prison of 910 per 100,000, 113 times the total TB prevalence in Qazvin province in the same year. From 7 diagnosed and treated patients, 4 were cured with the category 1 standard regimen, 1 completed treatment and 2 failed to complete treatment. Improvements are needed in TB case recognition of prisoners, especially newcomers.

  3. Effect of an Educational Intervention Related to Health and Nutrition on Pregnant Women in the Villages of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya-Erhardt, Maria; Muslimatun, Siti; Erhardt, Juergen G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a health and nutrition educational intervention on maternal knowledge, attitudes and practices. Design: Pre- and post-test design using structured interviews of pregnant women. Setting: Thirty-nine villages in Central Java Province, Indonesia. Method: Pregnant women (N = 252) at 12-20 weeks of gestation were…

  4. Study on Regional Difference of Tourism Economy in Six Provinces in Central China%中部六省旅游经济差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁龙; 周正一

    2012-01-01

    In this article,through the six provinces in central China tourism data from 2001to 2010,to analysis the central tourism development situation.The conclude that the central tourism development to benefit more than bandits,the rise of the central region strategy promote the middle six province tourism's development,but each province level of development is different,Present absolute difference is wedening and relatively difference is slow decline;six province of domestic tourism development momentum is very good,and international tourism market needs to be strengthened.%通过2001-2010年中部六省旅游数据分析中部旅游业的发展状况,认为中部旅游业在中部崛起战略中获益匪多。中部崛起战略的提出促进了中部六省旅游业的发展,但各个省的发展程度有所不同,呈现出绝对差异在拉大,相对差异缓慢下降的趋势;中部六省国内旅游发展势头良好,而国际旅游市场需求有待加强。

  5. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  6. Leishmaniasis in Central Morocco: Seasonal Fluctuations of Phlebotomine Sand Fly in Aichoun Locality, from Sefrou Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Talbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniases (CL are endemic in Morocco. They are common in the human population in different localities such as Aichoun in Sefrou province, Morocco. This study was carried out in Aichoun locality from April to October 2012 in order to study the spatiotemporal trends of the main Leishmania phlebotomine vectors in this focus. Overall, 1171 sand flies, belonging to four species, were collected by sticky traps. Phlebotomus sergenti was the predominant species (78.4% followed by Ph. perniciosus (10.5%, Ph. papatasi (7.94%, and Ph. longicuspis (3.16%. Sandflies were active during 6 months (May–October. Ph. sergenti, Ph. perniciosus, and Ph. papatasi displayed a bimodal distribution with a first peak in July and a second peak in September, while Ph. longicuspis showed a monophasic trend with a peak in August. The high abundance and the lengthy period of activity of Ph. sergenti and Ph. perniciosus, vectors of L. tropica and L. infantum, respectively, are a cause for concern as they indicate the high potential risk of Leishmania transmission in the studied areas.

  7. Volcano-tectonics of the Al Haruj Volcanic Province, Central Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaafi, Abdelsalam; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-10-01

    The Al Haruj intra-continental Volcanic Province (AHVP), located at the south-western margin of the Sirt Basin, hosts the most extensive and recent volcanic activity in Libya - which is considered typical for plate interiors. From north to south the AHVP is divided into two subprovinces, namely Al Haruj al Aswad and Al Haruj al Abiyad. The total area of the AHVP is around 42,000 km2. Despite the great size of the AHVP, its volcano-tectonic evolution and activity have received very little attention and are poorly documented and understood. Here we present new field data, and analytical and numerical results, on the volcano-tectonics of the AHVP. The length/thickness ratio of 47 dykes and volcanic fissures were measured to estimate magmatic overpressure at the time of eruption. The average dyke (length/thickness) ratio of 421 indicates magmatic overpressures during the associate fissure eruptions of 8-19 MPa (depending on host-rock elastic properties). Spatial distributions of 432 monogenetic eruptions sites/points (lava shields, pyroclastic cones) in the AHVP reveal two main clusters, one in the south and another in the north. Aligned eruptive vents show the dominating strike of volcanic fissures/feeder-dykes as WNW-ESE to NW-SE, coinciding with the orientation of one of main fracture/fault zones. Numerical modelling and field observations suggest that some feeder-dykes may have used steeply dipping normal-fault zones as part of their paths to the surface.

  8. Immunity to diphtheria and tetanus among blood donors in Arak, central province of Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eslamifar; Amitis Ramezani; Mohammad Banifazl; Masoomeh Sofian; Fatemeh-Alsadat Mahdaviani; Farhad Yaghmaie; Arezoo Aghakhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Tetanus and diphtheria are vaccine-preventable, infectious diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Immunization by the diphtheria and tetanus toxoid (DT) has been applied in Iran for almost 50 years. However, there are very few data about the rate of immunity to these diseases in the adult population. the humoral immunity to tetanus and diphtheria among blood donors in Arak city, central provice of Iran were investigated. Patients & Methods A total of 530 ...

  9. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  10. Ecological factors associated with dengue fever in a central highlands Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thao TT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a leading cause of severe illness and hospitalization in Vietnam. This study sought to elucidate the linkage between climate factors, mosquito indices and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly data on dengue cases and mosquito larval indices were ascertained between 2004 and 2008 in the Dak Lak province (Vietnam. Temperature, sunshine, rainfall and humidity were also recorded as monthly averages. The association between these ecological factors and dengue was assessed by the Poisson regression model with adjustment for seasonality. Results During the study period, 3,502 cases of dengue fever were reported. Approximately 72% of cases were reported from July to October. After adjusting for seasonality, the incidence of dengue fever was significantly associated with the following factors: higher household index (risk ratio [RR]: 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62-1.70 per 5% increase, higher container index (RR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.73-1.83 per 5% increase, and higher Breteau index (RR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.53-1.60 per 5 unit increase. The risk of dengue was also associated with elevated temperature (RR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.25-1.55 per 2°C increase, higher humidity (RR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.51-1.67 per 5% increase, and higher rainfall (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.21-1.74 per 50 mm increase. The risk of dengue was inversely associated with duration of sunshine, the number of dengue cases being lower as the sunshine increases (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.73-0.79 per 50 hours increase. Conclusions These data suggest that indices of mosquito and climate factors are main determinants of dengue fever in Vietnam. This finding suggests that the global climate change will likely increase the burden of dengue fever infection in Vietnam, and that intensified surveillance and control of mosquito during high temperature and rainfall seasons may be an important strategy for containing the burden of dengue fever.

  11. The Burden of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsagha, Dickson S; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zk; Nsagha, Sarah M; Assob, Jules-Clement N; Kamga, Henri-Lucien F; Njamnshi, Dora M; Njunda, Anna L; Obama, Marie-Thérèse O; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Cameroon and Africa, and the challenges of orphans and vulnerable children are a threat to child survival, growth and development. The HIV prevalence in Cameroon was estimated at 5.1% in 2010. The objective of this study was to assess the burden of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. A structured search to identify publications on orphans and other children made vulnerable by AIDS was carried out. A traditional literature search on google, PubMed and Medline using the keywords: orphans, vulnerable children, HIV/AIDS and Cameroon was conducted to identify potential AIDS orphans publications, we included papers on HIV prevalence in Cameroon, institutional versus integrated care of orphans, burden of children orphaned by AIDS and projections, impact of AIDS orphans on Cameroon, AIDS orphans assisted through the integrated care approach, and comparism of the policies of orphans care in the central African sub-region. We also used our participatory approach working experience with traditional rulers, administrative authorities and health stakeholders in Yaounde I and Yaounde VI Councils, Nanga Eboko Health District, Isangelle and Ekondo Titi Health Areas, Bafaka-Balue, PLAN Cameroon, the Pan African Institute for Development-West Africa, Save the orphans Foundation, Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Ministry of Public Health. Results show that only 9% of all OVC in Cameroon are given any form of support. AIDS death continue to rise in Cameroon. In 1995, 7,900 people died from AIDS in the country; and the annual number rose to 25,000 in 2000. Out of 1,200,000 orphans and vulnerable children in Cameroon in 2010, 300,000(25%) were AIDS orphans. Orphans and the number of children orphaned by AIDS has increased dramatically from 13,000 in 1995 to 304,000 in 2010. By 2020, this number is projected to rise to 350,000. These deaths profoundly affect families, which often are split up and left without any

  12. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  13. Water and gas geochemistry of the Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) hydrothermal system (Ciudad Real, central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Tassi, Franco; Giannini, Luciano; Grandia, Fidel; Darrah, Tom; Capecchiacci, Francesco; del Villar, Pèrez

    2013-04-01

    An extensive geochemical and isotopic investigation was carried out in the water and gas discharges of the Late Miocene-Quaternary Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) (Ciudad Real, Spain) with the aim reconstruct the fluid circulation in the area. CVP consists of a series of scattered (monogenetic) vents from where alkaline lava flows and pyroclastic deposits formed in two different periods. The first stage (8.7-6.4 Ma) mainly included ultra-potassic mafic extrusives, whilst the second stage (4.7-1.75 Ma) prevalently originated alkaline and ultra-alkaline volcanics. Both stages were followed by a volcanic activity that extended up to 1.3 and 0.7 Ma, respectively. This area can likely be regarded as one of the most important emitting zones of CO2 in the whole Peninsular Spain along with that of Selva-Emporda in northeastern Spain (Cataluña) and it can be assumed as one of the best examples of natural analogues of CO2 leakages in Spain. This latter aspect is further evidenced by the relatively common water-gas blast events that characterize the CCVF. In the last few years the presence of a CO2-pressurized reservoir at a relatively shallow level as indeed caused several small-sized explosion particularly during the drilling of domestic wells. The fluid discharging sites are apparently aligned along well-defined directions: NW-SE and NNW-SSE and subordinately, ENE-WSW, indicating a clear relationship between the thermal discharges and the volcanic centers that also distribute along these lineaments. The CVP waters are mostly hypothermal (up to 33 °C) and are generally Mg(Ca)-HCO3 in composition and occasionally show relatively high concentrations of Fe and Mn, with pH and electrical conductivity down to 5.5 and up to 6.5 mS/cm, respectively. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest a meteoric origin for these waters. The mantle source of these volcanic products is apparently preserved in the many CO2-rich (up to 990,000 mmol/mol) gas discharges that characterize CVP

  14. Breeding Biology and Diet of the African Swallow-Tailed Kite (Chelictinia riocourii) in Senegal and Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Cavaillés, S.; Mullié, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of the African Swallow-tailed Kite (Chelictinia riocourii) in two study areas located 3400 km apart in the central (Cameroon) and western (Senegal) portions of the species' breeding range. With 110 nests in 2.8 km2 of suitable breeding habitat, Kousmar islet (23 km2)

  15. BREEDING BIOLOGY AND DIET OF THE AFRICAN SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (CHELICTINIA RIOCOURII) IN SENEGAL AND CAMEROON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Cavailles, Simon; Mullie, Wim C.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of the African Swallow-tailed Kite (Chelictinia riocourii) in two study areas located 3400 km apart in the central (Cameroon) and western (Senegal) portions of the species' breeding range. With 110 nests in 2.8 km(2) of suitable breeding habitat, Kousmar islet (23 km(

  16. Identification of Malassezia Species Isolated from Patients with Pityriasis Versicolor Using PCR-RFLP Method in Markazi Province, Central Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Didehdar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lipophilic yeasts of Malassezia species are members of the normal skin microbial that are cause of pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection with world-wide distribution. The phenotypic methods for identification of Malassezia species usually are time consuming and unreliable to differentiate newly identified species. But DNA-based techniques rapidly and accurately identified Malassezia species. The purpose of this study was isolation and identification of Malassezia Species from patients with pityriasis versicolor by molecular methods in Markazi Province, Central Iran in 2012.Mycologic examinations including direct microscopy and culture were performed on clinical samples. DNA extraction was performed from colonies. The ITS1 region of rDNA from isolates of Malassezia species were amplified by PCR reaction. The PCR were digested by Cfo I enzyme.From 70 skin samples, were microscopically positive for Malassezia elements, 60 samples were grown on culture medium (85.7%. Using PCR-RFLP method, that was performed on 60 isolates, 37(61.6% M. globosa, 14(23.3% M. furfur, 5(8.4% M. sympodialis and 4(6.7% M. restrictawere identified. In one case was isolated M. globosa along with M. restricta.The PCR-RFLP method is a useful and reliable technique for identification of differentiation of Malas-sezia species.

  17. THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gayatri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village,Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine therelationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results ofthe Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated withsharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationshipwas found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, therewere significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, andparticipation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health asperformance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the onlysignificant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significantrelationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge andinformation, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly relatedfactors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to accessservices, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. Thisstudy also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraginggreater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education forempowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.

  18. Wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of intimate partner violence by husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of age and examined the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse. Then, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the authors examined the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and IPV. Of the 624 wives, 36% had experienced at least one episode of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse by their husbands during their life time (ever abuse), and 19% had experienced such abuse during the past 12 months (current abuse). The wives were less likely to experience current abuse by husbands if they believed that "outsiders should not intervene to protect abused wives." They were more likely to experience ever and current isolated psychological abuse by husbands if they did not believe that "a good wife always obeys her husband." This study suggests that the prevalence of IPV is high in Sri Lanka. Although several published studies on IPV suggest that traditional gender role attitudes tend to increase women's vulnerability to IPV, this study suggests that in Sri Lanka, the wives who respect cultural norms tend to experience less IPV by husbands.

  19. Landscape Effects of Land Consolidation Projects in Central China——A Case Study of Tianmen City, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaokun; DAI Bing; CHEN Baiming

    2008-01-01

    The goal of land consolidation in China is still to develop agricultural production. The study of landscapeeffects of land consolidation projects (LCPs) faces many difficulties because of the lack of government's interest anddata. This paper, taking Tianmen City of Hubei Province in Central China as an example, presents a methodology foranalyzing landscape effects of LCPs by GIS and Fragstats3.3. It describes landscape effects with indexes of PatchDensity (PD), Largest Patch Index (LPI), Landscape Shape Index (LSI), Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI),Aggregation Index (AI), and Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI), showing more regular shape, simpler structure andless habitat diversity after LCPs. It computes ten landscape indexes of four categories of patches including CultivatedLand, Road, Water Channel, and River and Pond. The indexes show that 1) cultivated land becomes more fragmentalin patch area, less irregular in patch shape and more concentrated in block; 2) the transport capacity of roads and irri-gation and drainage capacity of water channels have been improved; 3) the landscape change of river and pond can besummarized as decreasing scale, more regular shape, reducing connectivity and diversity of the class. LCPs can facili-tate agricultural production as well as protect cultivated land and food security. However, it is doubted that the increaseof cultivated land from LCPs results from the reducing in landscape diversity of water area.

  20. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattle farming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri were purposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted using quota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystem agribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were given for up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution, respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952; RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were: up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness; down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness and Supporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion of research indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index and give positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattlefarming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri werepurposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted usingquota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling.Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystemagribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were givenfor up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution,respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952;RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were:up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness;down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness andSupporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion ofresearch indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index andgive positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.

  2. Geothermal prospecting by geochemical methods in the Quaternary volcanic province of Dhamar (central Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minissale, Angelo; Vaselli, Orlando; Mattash, Mohamed; Montegrossi, Giordano; Tassi, Franco; Ad-Dukhain, Abdulsalam; Kalberkamp, Ulrich; Al-Sabri, Ali; Al-Kohlani, Taha

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with geothermal prospecting carried out in the Quaternary volcanic field of Dhamar, which is located almost in the centre of the main Oligo-Miocene basaltic trap plateau of Yemen. By applying geochemical and thermometric techniques in domestic wells producing water from the shallow unconfined aquifer in the area, which is prevalently hosted inside the Quaternary volcano-clastic material, a closed thermal anomaly associated with the Quaternary volcanic activity was well delineated. Although the aquifer(s) has a Ca-Na-HCO3 composition, that is typical of shallow groundwater, there are several chemical anomalies in the hotter central area compared to typical aquifers: i) the pH is lower and, consequently, the calculated partial pressure of CO2 in solution is higher, ii) the electrical conductivity is higher, iii) the total salinity is higher and iv) the fluoride ion concentration is higher. Such chemical anomalies in the hotter part of the aquifer do not seem to be generated by the rising and/or mixing of deep hydrothermal components rising into the shallow aquifer, but rather produced by enhanced water-rock interaction processes resulting from the higher temperature of the aquifer and its greater acidity. By applying some speculative calculations, based on the likely temperature of rainfall in the area and the depth and temperature of individual wells, the local thermal gradients in the area have been calculated. The thermal gradient varies from less than the average Earth gradient at the periphery of the delimitated thermal anomaly, to more than 250 °C/km, within an extensive area (exceeding 200 km2) where the gradient is greater than 100/120 °C/km.

  3. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  4. 57 Factors Affecting Farmers` Higher Gain from Paddy Marketing: A Case Study on Paddy Farmers in North Central Province, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    RH Kuruppuge; SWGK Bulankulama; RPIR Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    This study focused to identify the likelihood factors affectingon farmers’ higher gain from paddy marketing in the NorthCentral Province of Sri Lanka, where the main paddy cultivationarea of the country. The required data was drawn from the fieldsurvey carried out in three irrigation systems covering 257farmers during July to August 2010. The empirical logit modelwas used to assess factors. The study found that imperfectionsof existing paddy marketing system in the area due to concentratedmar...

  5. Homosexuality in Cameroon: identity and persecution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.; Dubel, I.; Hielkema, A.

    2010-01-01

    What does it mean to come out of the closet in Cameroon? It is clear that it takes courage, particularly lately, as the law has always expressly prohibited homosexuality. (1) The police, generally feared because of their brutal extortion of money from people, are eager to react to accusations of 'im

  6. The Reception of American Literature in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djockoua, Manyaka Toko

    2014-01-01

    In Cameroon, popular belief associates American literature with its country's economic and political greatness. Yet, if millions of Cameroonians show a growing enthusiasm for a visit to the US, just a few are interested in learning its literature. Using theories on the reading and teaching of literature, statistical data based on a questionnaire,…

  7. Grey Relational Analysis on the Effects of Rainfall Factors on Runoff and Sediment in the Sloping Farmland with Different Plants in the Central South of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the main rainfall factors influencing runoff and sediment in the sloping farmland with different plants in the central south of Shandong Province.[Method] Through grey relational analysis,the effects of different rainfall factors on runoff and sediment with different plants in the central south of Shandong were studied.[Result] In the sloping farmland with different plants,the effects of rainfall factors on runoff and sediment weren't consistent.Rainfall was the dominant inf...

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and its genotype among 1336 invasive cervical cancer patients in Hunan province, central south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linqian; Wu, Baiping; Li, Junjun; Chen, Liyu

    2015-03-01

    Existing data on the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited in Hunan province, central south China. To evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection and its genotype among women with invasive cervical cancer in Hunan, a total of 1,336 patients were included in this study between July 2012 and June 2013. Eighteen high-risk and eight low-risk genotypes of HPV were detected by Luminex xMAP technology. The results show that HPV prevalence in invasive cervical cancer in Hunan was 75.7%. A single HPV infection was found in 82.3% of the HPV-positive samples, and 91.8% of the cases had high-risk HPV infection. The most common HPV type was HPV 16 (50.6%), followed by HPV 58 (12.4%), HPV 52 (10.9%), HPV 18 (7.3%), HPV 33 (5.5%), HPV 59 (4.2%), HPV 39 (4.0%), HPV 61 (3.4%), HPV 31 (3.3%), and HPV 56 (3.2%). A single infection with HPV 16 was detected in 42.5% of the samples, which was significantly more frequent than any other HPV type in this population. Dual-infection with HPV 16 and HPV 52 were relatively common. The available vaccines for HPV 16 and 18 are therefore expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the burden of cervical cancer in China, even though HPV 18 showed a lower frequency. In addition to HPV 16 and 18, other HPV types including 58, 52, and 33, should be targeted in the next generation HPV vaccines.

  9. Geochemical Features of Shale Hydrocarbons of the Central Part of Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Julia G.

    2014-05-01

    This report contains the results of the studies of shale hydrocarbons from carbonate-siliceous rocks on the territory of South-Tatar arch of Volga-Ural oil and gas province of the East European Platform. The assessment of the prospects of shale hydrocarbon in Tatarstan primarily involves finding of low permeable, poor-porous shale strata that would be rich in organic matter. Basing on the analysis of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover, we can distinguish three main objects that can be considered as promising targets for the study from the point of the possible presence of shale hydrocarbons: sedimentary deposits Riphean- Vendian; Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time; sedimentary strata in central and side areas of Kama-Kinel deflection system. The main object of this study is Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time. They are mainly represented by dark gray, almost black bituminous limestones that are interbedded with calcareous siliceous shales and cherts. Complex studies include the following: extraction of bitumen from the rock, determination of organic carbon content, determination of the group and elemental composition of the bitumen, gas chromatographic studies of the alkanoic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, gas chromato-mass spectrometry of the naphthenic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, pyrolysis studies of the rock using the Rock -Eval method (before and after extraction), study of trace-element composition of the rocks and petrologen, comparison in terms of adsorbed gas and studying of the composition of adsorbed gases. Group and elemental analyses showed that hydrocarbons scattered in the samples contain mainly resinous- and asphaltene components, the share lube fraction is smaller. The terms sediment genesis changed from weakly to strongly reducing. According to the results of gas chromatography, no biodegradation processes were observed. According to biomarker indicators in the samples studied there is some certain

  10. Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zac Tchoundjeu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest], in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%. Eighty nine and 85% did so in periods of scarcity for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Seventeen and twenty-nine kernel preservation practices were recorded for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Most were based on continuous heating of the kernels or kernel by-products (cakes. The most commonly involved keeping the sun-dried kernels in a plastic bag on a bamboo rack hung above the fireplace in the kitchen. A 78% of interviews households reported preserving I. wombolu kernels for less than one year while 22% preserved it for more than one year with 1.9% for two years, the normal length of the off-season period for trees in the wild. Cakes wrapped with leaves and kept on a bamboo rack hung over the fireplace were reported by households in the East and South provinces to store Irvingia gabonensis longer (more than one year. Further studies on the utilization of heat for preserving and canning bush mango kernels are recommended.

  11. State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, K.; African Studies Centre, Leiden

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this analytical bibliography is to provide an overview of the recently published social science literature on State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon. The 800 entries have been arranged under the following subject headings: The Cameroon State (nation building, political

  12. Pedagogic Implications of Regionally-Determined Varieties of Cameroon English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubanako, Valentine Njende

    2011-01-01

    With much regional variation in Cameroon English, language learning and teaching becomes very much affected in Cameroon. As the same users make use of the various forms of English as the changing circumstances require, it becomes more and more difficult for them to make clear distinctions between the varieties, and somehow all of these varieties…

  13. Is the extension of the Mexican Mesa Central (southern Basin & Range province) related to a gravitational collapse toward the Gulf of Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Rangin, C.; Le Pichon, X.; Martínez-Reyes, J.; Le Roy, C.

    2009-04-01

    The middle to late Cenozoic extension that generated the Basin and Range province (western North America) is one of the most important tectonic events to affect the North American plate. The characteristics of this extension have been extensively studied, but its origin is equally extensively debated. Proposed origins can be broadly categorized into interplate mechanisms that focus on various interactions between the Pacific or Farallon and North American plates and intraplate mechanisms that interpret extension to result from the gravitational collapse of a previously overthickened crust. It is commonly admitted that the Basin and Range extension in western Mexico migrated from East to West toward the Gulf of California. Middle to late Miocene extension around the Gulf of California (Gulf Extensional Province) is commonly interpreted as resulting from partitioning of oblique Pacific-North American plate motion into strike-slip displacement along the margin and ENE extension perpendicular to the margin within the North American plate. It is generally assumed that this mechanism also applies to the kinematically similar, predominantly ENE extension that occurred at the same time throughout the southern Basin and Range province. However structural data we collected in the Mesa Central area, along the eastern part of the Mexican Basin and Range province, argue for a post-27My N130° extension toward the Gulf of Mexico that produced highly asymmetrical grabens, with a major motion along their western flanks. Our recent works, based on the interpretation of seismic profiles, also show that the late Oligocene to present deformation along the western margin of the Gulf of Mexico was generated by a crustal shortening. In spite of a low crustal thickness the Mesa Central is an uplifted plateau with a mean altitude of 1800m. This elevation of the Mesa Central is mainly due to the high thermal gradients that characterize the back arc domain. By contrast the crust of the Gulf

  14. Distribution and heterogeneity of hepatitis C genotypes in hepatitis patients in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Christophe; Njouom, Richard; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Dubois, Martine; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Vessière, Aurelia; Timba, Isabelle; Thonnon, Jocelyn; Izopet, Jacques; Nerrienet, Eric

    2005-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus infects humans world-wide. The virus genome varies greatly and it has several genotypes. HCV infection is highly prevalent in Central Africa and Cameroon. Initial studies on the genetic variability of HCV showed infection with HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 4. We have now sequenced the NS5b and E2 regions of 156 HCV isolates collected from patients presenting for diagnosis in Yaounde and used the data to describe the distribution of HCV genotypes and subtypes in patients with hepatitis in Cameroon. Genotype 1 was more frequent than Genotypes 4 and 2. Genotypes 1 and 4 were highly heterogeneous, containing many subtypes described previously (1b, 1c, 1e, 1h, 1l, 4f, 4t, 4p, 4k) and unsubtyped groups. There was a systematic phylogenetic concordance between NS5b and E2 sequence clustering. The Genotype 2 sequences did not vary. Neither subject age nor gender influenced HCV distribution. HCV Genotypes 1 and 4 are very heterogeneous in Cameroon, perhaps due to ancient infections. The homogeneity of HCV Genotype 2 indicates its more recent introduction from western Africa.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 CRF02_AG in Cameroon and African Patients Living in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véras, Nazle Mendonca Collaço; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Gray, Rebecca R.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Presti, Alessandra Lo; Olearo, Flaminia; Cappelli, Giulia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Takou, Desiré; Torimiro, Judith; Russo, Gianluca; Callegaro, Annapaola; Salpini, Romina; D'Arrigo, Roberta; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Goodenow, Maureen M.; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HIV-1 CRF02_AG accounts for >50% of infected individuals in Cameroon. CRF02_AG prevalence has been increasing both in Africa and Europe, particularly in Italy because of migrations from the sub-Saharan region. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CRF02_AG in Cameroon by employing Bayesian phylodynamics and analyzed the relationship between HIV-1 CRF02_AG isolates circulating in Italy and those prevalent in Africa to understand the link between the two epidemics. Among 291 Cameroonian reverse transcriptase sequences analyzed, about 70% clustered within three distinct clades, two of which shared a most recent common ancestor, all related to sequences from Western Africa. The major Cameroonian clades emerged during the mid-1970s and slowly spread during the next 30 years. Little or no geographic structure was detected within these clades. One of the major driving forces of the epidemic was likely the high accessibility between locations in Southern Cameroon contributing to the mobility of the population. The remaining Cameroonian sequences and the new strains isolated from Italian patients were interspersed mainly within West and Central African sequences in the tree, indicating a continuous exchange of CRF02_AG viral strains between Cameroon and other African countries, as well as multiple independent introductions in the Italian population. The evaluation of the spread of CRF02_AG may provide significant insight about the future dynamics of the Italian and European epidemic. PMID:21453131

  16. Late Permian Melt Percolation through the Crust of North-Central Africa and Its Possible Relationship to the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T. Y.; Yang, C. C.; Wu, J. C.; Wang, K. L.; Lo, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Doba gabbro was collected from an exploration well through the Cretaceous Doba Basin of Southern Chad. The gabbro is comprised mostly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxide minerals and displays cumulus mineral textures. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar step-heating geochronology yielded a Late Permian plateau age of 257 ± 1 Ma. The major and trace elemental geochemistry shows that the gabbro is mildly alkalic to tholeiitic in composition and has trace element ratios (i.e. La/YbN > 7; Sm/YbPM > 3.4; Nb/Y > 1; Zr/Y > 5) indicative of a basaltic melt derived from a garnet-bearing sublithospheric mantle source. The moderately enriched Sr-Nd isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.70495 to 0.70839; eNd(T) = -1.0 to -1.3) fall within the mantle array (i.e. OIB-like) and are similar to other Late Permian plutonic rocks of North-Central Africa (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7070). The Late Permian plutonic igneous complexes of North-Central Africa are geologically associated with tectonic lineaments suggesting they acted as conduits for sublithospheric melts to migrate to middle/upper crustal levels. The source of the magmas may be related to the spatial-temporal association of North-Central Africa with the African large low shear velocity province (LLSVP). The African LLSVP has remained stable since the Late Carboniferous and was beneath the Doba basin during the Permian. We suggest that melts derived from deep seated sources related to the African LLSVP percolated through the North-Central African crust via older tectonic lineaments and form a discontiguous magmatic province.

  17. Preliminary identification of hemoglobin q-iran in an Iranian family from central province of Iran by globin chain analysis on HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Shohreh; Najmabadi, Hossein; Rouhi, Soghra; Mirzazadeh, Roghieh; Bayat, Parastoo; Sadeghi, Sedigheh

    2013-12-01

    Many abnormal α-chain hemoglobins (Hbs) are caused by single nucleotide mutations in α1- or α2-goblin genes. One of these Hbs is Hb Q-Iran which is resulted from a point mutation at codon 75 of the α1-globin gene (Asp→His). The identification of Hb Q-Iran was observed in two members of a family from the Central Province of Iran. In this study, Globin chain analysis on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DNA sequencing were applied. An unusual Hb variant, like HbS on alkaline pH electrophoresis was identified from samples of a father and his son from Arak city in the Central Province of Iran. The variant was further characterized by globin chain analysis and DNA sequencing methods. Globin chain analysis revealed an unknown globin chain peak after α-globin chain peak with a different retention time from βs-globin chain, as the control in both samples. Genetic analysis led to the identification of an unknown Hb variant, Hb Q-Iran. Globin chain analysis showed the presence of an unknown globin chain, and likewise DNA sequencing revealed HbQ-Iran. In other words, Globin chain analysis procedure could preliminarily detect an unknown globin chain.

  18. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asonganyi Etienne DN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever in Cameroon. Case presentation A 29-year-old female patient with suspected typhoid fever from Kumba, Cameroon, yielded growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood culture. The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test. However, the patient did not respond to treatment with ciprofloxacin, although the isolate was apparently susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin in our case indicates the presence of nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi (NARST with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cameroon (Central Africa.

  19. Petroleum geology of the deltaic sequence, Rio Del Rey basin, offshore Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, R.M.; Bement, W.O.; Maloney, W.V. (Pecten International Company, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The Rio Del Rey Basin of offshore Cameroon comprises the easternmost portion of the Niger delta complex. In the delta flank setting, the overall package is thinner and stratigraphic correlation simpler than in the depocenter to the west so the distribution of reservoirs and seals is well defined. Productive reservoirs are shallow, typically less than 2000 m, and mostly hydropressured to slightly overpressured. Reservoir properties generally are excellent and seismic bright-spot technology has played a major role in exploration and development efforts. Rio Del Rey is characterized by three main structural styles from north to south: (1) detachment-based growth faults, (2) highly faulted, mobile shale cored domes and ridges, and (3) toe thrusts and folds. Virtually all individual traps are fault dependent and lack of sufficient internal seals in sand-rich wave-dominated deltaic sequences can limit the objective window. Most fields are downthrown fault traps in which hanging-wall reservoirs are effectively sealed against older prodelta and marine shales. All large oil fields are located in the dome and ridge province and are potential analogs for similar structures now being explored on the upper slope off Nigeria. The best quality source rocks identified thus far are Paleocene to Eocene marine shales. Oil vs. gas distribution in the basin is a function of variations in the kerogen type, organic richness, and maturity of these source rocks. A significant quantity of the gas found to date in Rio Del Rey is biogenic in origin. The Cameroon charge model may aid in better understanding hydrocarbon distribution on offshore Nigeria, where the Miocene deltaic section is much thicker and potential Paleocene-Eocene source rocks likely are unpenetrated. The shallow deltaic play in Cameroon is relatively mature. Future exploration likely will focus on identifying deeper, nonbright-spot-supported opportunities including potential stratigraphic traps.

  20. Detection of a new subgenotype of hepatitis B virus genotype A in Cameroon but not in neighbouring Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübschen, J M; Mbah, P O; Forbi, J C; Otegbayo, J A; Olinger, C M; Charpentier, E; Muller, C P

    2011-01-01

    To further investigate the genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype A in Africa, we analysed 263 HBV strains from Nigeria (n=163) and Cameroon (n=100). Phylogenetic analysis of S fragment sequences attributed 175 strains (66.5%) to genotype E and 88 (33.5%) to genotype A. In Cameroon, genotype A strains were the most prevalent (79/100, 79.0%), whereas, in Nigeria, genotype E was highly dominant (154/163, 94.5%). The genotype A strains grouped with reference strains of subgenotype A3 (n=8), the provisional subgenotype A5 (n=43), a recently reported new variant from Rwanda (n=35), or as outliers (n=2). Ten complete genome sequences obtained from strains that clustered with the new variant from Rwanda formed a separate group supported by a bootstrap value of 96. The between-group distance to other potential or recognized subgenotypes of genotype A was at least 3.81%. Thus, the new group of strains could be considered as a new subgenotype of HBV genotype A, tentatively named 'A7'. Interestingly, the 'A7' strains from Rwanda and Cameroon showed an interspersed clustering, but essentially no other (sub)genotypes were shared between the two countries, suggesting that 'A7' may have evolved in a yet unknown place and may have only relatively recently spread to Rwanda and Western Cameroon. Strains attributed to provisional subgenotype A5 were found for the first time in Cameroon (n=36) and Central Nigeria (n=2), indicating that A5 is more widespread than previously thought.

  1. Transient shortening strain across an active extensional fault, Basin and Range Province, north-central Nevada, USA, based on geodetic and paleoseismologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, A.; Wernicke, B.; Lee, J.; Sieh, K.

    2003-04-01

    The northern Basin and Range province is one of the largest continental extensional regions on earth. At 40 degrees N latitude, the province is 800 km wide and consists of 15 and 20 N-S striking normal faults. These faults accommodated mainly east-west directed extension of tens of kilometers since Mid-Miocene time and recent geodetic surveys show that extension is still active today at a rate of ~1.5 cm/yr across the province (e.g., Bennett et al. 2000; Thatcher et al. 1999). The distribution of this geodetically measurable strain accumulation within the province, however, contradicts geologic observations across some of the active normal faults. For example, coordinated geologic and geodetic measurements across the Crescent Valley fault (CVF), north-central Nevada, reveal a profound mismatch in deformation rates. Since 1996, the two ranges on either side of the CVF have been moving toward each other at ca. 2 mm/yr, indicating shortening. In contrast, new reconnaissance mapping and paleoseismological analyses along the CVF also indicate that this fault is one of the more active normal faults of the Basin and Range province. The 50 km long Cortez Mountains range front is characterized by relief of up to 1.3 km, steep (up to 36 degrees) triangular facets, and young (late Pleistocene to late Holocene) alluvial fans cut by normal fault scarps. Vertical displacement across the CVF is ca. 3 km; since 15 Ma the average long-term vertical displacement rate is ca. 0.2 mm/yr. Topographic profiling shows that fault scarps, 2-7 m high, are the result of a single rupture event and cut late Holocene alluvial fans. A trench across a faulted alluvial fan at Fourmile Canyon reveals a vertical displacement of 4.5 m distributed across two normal faults. 14C analyses on charcoal from a buried offset surface in the hanging wall of the trench and from the base of the overlying colluvial wedge tightly bracket the age of the most recent earthquake to between 2.8 +- 0.1 and 2.7 +- 0.1 ka

  2. The Attitudes of Anglophone and Francophone Cameroonians towards Cameroon English as a Model of English Language Teaching and Learning in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…

  3. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  4. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ashu Agbor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4±14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0% practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0% were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6% treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases.

  5. Levels of sparganum infections and phylogenetic analysis of the tapeworm Spirometra erinaceieuropaei sparganum in wild frogs from Henan Province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T; Zhang, X; Cui, J; Liu, L N; Jiang, P; Wang, Z Q

    2015-07-01

    Sparganosis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with Spirometra spargana. The prevalence of sparganum infection in wild frogs (Rana nigromaculata, R. limmochari, R. temporaria and Bufo gargarizans) was investigated in Henan Province of central China during 2008-2012. Of 3482 caught wild frogs, 565 (16.23%) were found to be infected with plerocercoids (spargana) of the genus Spirometra. Spargana were found in 14.85% (320/2155) of R. nigromaculata, 20.82% (233/1119) of R. limmochari and 10.91% (12/110) of R. temporaria frogs. However, no sparganum was found in B. gargarizans. To investigate the phylogenetic position of collected spargana, three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and 3 (cox1 and cox3), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4), were amplified, sequenced and analysed. Sequences of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were 417, 390 and 578 bp in length, respectively. The base composition of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were generally AT rich with a mean of 63.5%, 68.3% and 67% AT, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the sparganum isolates in Henan Province represented Spirometra erinaceieuropaei and were a well-supported clade. These findings demonstrated clearly the usefulness of the three mtDNA sequences for molecular identification and population genetics studies of S. erinaceieuropaei spargana of human and animal health significance.

  6. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.

    2017-01-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links. PMID:28266589

  7. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. Dec.

    2017-03-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links.

  8. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  9. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  10. Earthquake event deposits in Mesoproterozoic Kunyang Group in central Yunnan Province and its geological impli-cations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Yuansheng

    2001-01-01

    [1]Liu, T. S., Loess and the Environment, Beijing: China Ocean Press, 1985, 1-251.[2]Chen, L. X., Zhu, Q. G., Luo, H. B. et al., East Asian Monsoon, Beijing: China Meteorology Press, 1991, 28-61.[3]An, Z. S., Liu, T. S., Lu, Y. C. et al., The long-term palaeomonsoon variation recorded by the loess-palaeosol sequence in central China, Quaternary International, 1990, (7/8): 91-95.[4]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., Fedoroff, N. et al., Shift of the monsoon intensity on the Loess Plateau at ca. 0.85 MaBP, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1993, 38(2): 586-591.[5]Chen, J., An, Z. S., Wang, Y. J. et al., Distributions of Rb and Sr in the Luochuan loess-paleosol sequence of China during the last 800 ka: Implications for paleomonsoon variations, Science in China, Ser. D, 1999, 42(3): 225-232.[6]Chen, J., Wang, Y. J., Ji, J. F. et al., Rb/Sr variations and its climatic stratigraphical significance of a loess-paleosol profile from Luochuan, Shaanxi Province, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 19(4): 350-356.[7]Guo, Z. T.,Liu, T. S., Fedoroff, N. et al., Climate extremes in loess of China coupled with the strength of deep-water for-mation in the North Atlantic, Global and Planetary Change, 1998, 18: 113-128.[8]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., An, Z. S., Paleosols of the last 0.15 Ma in the Weinan loess section and their paleoclimate signifi-cance, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1994, 14(3): 256-269.[9]Guo, Z, T,, Fedoroff, N., Liu, T. S., Micromorphology of the loess-paleosol sequence of the last 130 ka in China and pa-leoclimatic event, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1996, 26(3): 392-398.[10]Guo, Z., Liu, T., Guiot, J., et al., High frequency pulses of East Asian monsoon climate in the last two glaciations: Link with the North Atlantic, Climate Dynamics, 1996, 12: 701-709.[11]Guo, Z. T., Peng, S. Z., Wei, L. Y. et al., Weathering signals of Millennial-Scale oscillations of the East Asian Summer monsoon over the last 220 ka, Chinese Science

  11. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of the April to September mean temperature since 1826 AD for north-central Shaanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Long-time series of high-resolution temperature record from Chinese Loess Plateau is rare. An April-September mean temperature reconstruction (1826-2004) has been developed for the north-central Shaanxi Province, China, based on tree-ring width analysis. The reconstruction captures 39.3% (p<0.001) of the variance in the instrumental data over the calibration period from 1951 to 2002. The reconstruction shows a high temperature period of 1928-1933, which coincides with the timing of the extreme drought event in 1920s in the entire northern China. The two low temperature periods in reconstruction are 1883-1888 and 1938-1942. With the global warming, the April-September mean temperature in study area has also increased since the 1970s, but has not exceeded the temperature in 1928-1933. Besides the statistical analysis, the reconstruction is also verified by the local dryness/wetness index and other dendroclimatological results.

  12. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of the April to September mean temperature since 1826 AD for north-central Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI QiuFang; LIU Yu; SONG HuiMing; SUN JunYan

    2008-01-01

    Long-time series of high-resolution temperature record from Chinese Loess Plateau is rare. An April-September mean temperature reconstruction (1826-2004) has been developed for the north-central Shaanxi Province, China, based on tree-ring width analysis. The reconstruction captures 39.3% (p<0.001) of the variance in the instrumental data over the calibration period from 1951 to 2002.The reconstruction shows a high temperature period of 1928-1933, which coincides with the timing of the extreme drought event in 1920s in the entire northern China. The two low temperature periods in reconstruction are 1883-1888 and 1938-1942. With the global warming, the April-September mean temperature in study area has also increased since the 1970s, but has not exceeded the temperature in 1928-1933. Besides the statistical analysis, the reconstruction is also verified by the local dryness/wetness index and other dendroclimatological results.

  13. 57 Factors Affecting Farmers` Higher Gain from Paddy Marketing: A Case Study on Paddy Farmers in North Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Kuruppuge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focused to identify the likelihood factors affectingon farmers’ higher gain from paddy marketing in the NorthCentral Province of Sri Lanka, where the main paddy cultivationarea of the country. The required data was drawn from the fieldsurvey carried out in three irrigation systems covering 257farmers during July to August 2010. The empirical logit modelwas used to assess factors. The study found that imperfectionsof existing paddy marketing system in the area due to concentratedmarket power among few oligopolistic buyers. Furthermore,land size, land ownership, poor accessibility in formal sectorcredit market and farmers involvement in informal sectorcredit sources are critical to farmers’ decisions to gain higherreturns from paddy marketing. The results further showed theneed of reviewing the roles and functions of governmentextension services and farmer organizations with regard to thepaddy marketing.

  14. Isolation and characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi from rodents captured following a scrub typhus outbreak at a military training base, Bothong district, Chonburi province, central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Ruang-Areerate, Toon; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Richards, Allen L; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Dharadhida; Sangjun, Noppadon; Prasartvit, Anchana; Jatisatienr, Araya; Jatisatienr, Chaiwat

    2011-04-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a vector-borne disease transmitted by infected chiggers (trombiculid mite larvae). In 2002, an outbreak of scrub typhus occurred among Royal Thai Army troops during the annual field training at a military base in Bothong district, Chonburi province, central Thailand. This report describes the outbreak investigation including its transmission cycle. Results showed that 33.9% of 174 trained troops had scrub typhus-like signs and symptoms and 9.8% of those were positive for O. tsutsugamushi-specific antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody assay. One hundred thirty-five rodents were captured from this training area, 43% of them had antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Six new O. tsutsugamushi isolates were obtained from captured rodent tissues and successfully established in cell culture. Phylogenetic studies showed that these six isolates were either unique or related to a native genotype of previously described isolates from Thailand.

  15. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  16. Integrated application of gravity and seismic methods for determining the dip angle of a fault plane: Case of Mahjouba fault (Central Tunisian Atlas Province, North Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabtni, H.; Hajji, O.; Jallouli, C.

    2016-07-01

    A procedure for a dip angle determination of a fault plane from gravity field data is presented to constrain a seismic profile interpretation. This procedure is applied on Mahjouba normal fault at the western border of Kalaa Khesba graben (Central Tunisian Atlas Province, North Africa). Seismic and detailed gravity data, in this region, were analyzed to provide more constraints on the geometry of the fault dip angle. The Mahjouba fault is mapped as three major parallel lineaments extended for 2 km with a NW-SE to N-S trend. The dip of the Mahjouba fault is estimated from the gravity modeling data to be 45°E. This study reveals that integrating gravity and seismic data provides accurate mapping of faults geometry and such result provides useful information and constraints on the exploration of natural resources.

  17. Comparison the prevalence of isolated Hepatitis B core antibody among injection drug users with blood donors in central province in IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Soufian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In healthy blood donors, 2%–5% have isolated anti-HBc. Prevalence of hepatitis B, C and co- infection (HBV +HCV among injection drug user is high. Hepatitis C suppress of HB SAg and may be hepatitis B presented only with isolated anti HBC. This study determined of prevalence of isolated anti HBC among injection drug users and compare with blood donors in Arak city. Methods: A total 684 subjects (531voluntary blood donors and 153 injection drug users in Arak, Iran were included in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV were tested in all subjects. Results: A total of 531 voluntary blood donors living in the city of Arak, in the Central Province of Iran, with a mean age of 36 ± 10.18 years (range 16–60 years were enrolled in the study. Ninety-three percent of patients were male and 7% were female. Of the 531 cases, 11 subjects (2.1% had isolated anti-HBc. A total of 153 injection drug users of Arak, in the Central Province of Iran, with a mean age of 30.66 ± 5.92 years (range 20-50 years were enrolled in the study. All of them were male. Of the 153 cases, 12 subjects (7.84% had isolated anti-HBc. All of 12 cases were HCV positive. Conclusion: Prevalence of isolated anti-HBc among injection drug users was 3. 73 fold in comparison with blood donors. For diagnosis of hepatitis B in this group test for anti-HBc will be done. Evaluation of occult hepatitis B in subject with isolated anti-HBc by exact method such as real time PCR is necessary.

  18. Geophysical modeling of the impact of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province emplacement on sea-level changes at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Bachan, Aviv; Eyster, Athena

    2015-04-01

    Mass extinctions have been linked to the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). While increasing precision in the dating of LIPs indicates that extinctions are often synchronous with LIP eruptions, the complete causal chain of events - including impacts on climate, ocean chemistry, and sea level - remains incompletely understood. Here we utilize a numerical modeling approach to examine one possible link in this chain: the capacity of LIP emplacement to drive sea-level changes. We focus on the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic, an interval encompassing the end-Triassic mass extinction and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Excursions in sea level are also well documented at this time and in many places indicate a rapid fall followed by a sea-level rise coincident with the extinction. To explore the impact of CAMP on sea-level changes we use a geophysical model of solid-Earth deformation together with a reconstructed paleotopography during the end-Triassic. We perturb the model in two steps, corresponding to two phases of LIP emplacement: (1) Uplift associated with the ascending plume that leads to the CAMP eruption; and (2) loading and flexure of the lithosphere associated with the emplaced magma. We model the former process with a mantle convection code to assess the tempo-spatial behavior of dynamic uplift for varying plume sizes. The latter process is modeled as a viscoelastic loading problem that allows us to isolate contributions from the initial elastic and subsequent viscous response. Both mechanisms are combined in a gravitationally self-consistent sea-level theory that accounts for loading effects associated with displaced water, as well as shoreline migration and perturbations in Earth rotation. We compare model outputs to geological data from a set of sites in which the direction, magnitude, and age of sea level changes have been estimated for the end-Triassic period. Our calculations place bounds on the magnitude and

  19. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Yao, Zhijun; Hou, Yichen; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Haizhu; Ma, Jingbo; Zhang, Luwen; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510) in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734) in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis. PMID:27460881

  20. Trends and periodicity of daily temperature and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from daily temperature and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, temperature extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 temperature indices, and the nighttime temperature increases faster than the daytime temperature at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme temperature indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all temperature indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme temperature indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 temperature indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide

  1. ON SOME KEY GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE LINGLONG-JIAOJIA ORE-CENTRALIZED DISTRICT IN SHANDONG PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jincao; XIA Bin; TANG Jingru

    2003-01-01

    The Lingtong-Jiaojia ore-centralized district is controlled by the tectonic stress field characterized bY the combination of extension and strike-slip, and the dip, dip angle, pitch and pitch angle of the ore bodies are all constrained by the dynamic conditions of the tectonics. The metallotectonic series for the ore-centralized district belong to the type of a combination of extension and strike-slip and can be subdivided into four sub-series. The ore-forming process in the brittle regime can be disintegrated into two stages, i.e., the embryonic fracture stage and the megascopic fracture stage, and ore-forming process is rather common in the ore-centralized district at the former stage. Moreover, several key structural patterns and their features were discussed and a preliminary assessment about the ore-forming prospect in this district was made in the paper.

  2. [2 cases of sarcoidosis in Yaounde (Cameroon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle, P; Vauterin, G; Mouden, J C; Darie, H

    1984-01-01

    Two new cases of sarcoidosis are reported from Cameroon. The first one concerned a man, 53 years old, who presented multiple dermal nodules of the face, polyadenopathy , splenomegaly, exertional dyspnea, reticular and micronodular aspect of lungs X-ray. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology of skin, ganglions and bronchus biopsies. Patient was treated by corticotherapy. The other one concerned a woman, 28 years old, who presented successively mediastinal adenopathies, then, 9 months later, reticular and micronodular aspect of lungs X-ray. During this period, a treatment against tuberculosis had been established. Bronchus biopsies confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was also treated by corticosteroids. The authors wonder whether sarcoidosis is actually or apparently rare in Negro-Africans, owing to the fact of frequent failure to recognize this affection, or confusion with tuberculosis. Correct incidence of sarcoidosis in Negro-Africans should be defined.

  3. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  4. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in 2003 and 2013 in Xinxiang city, Henan province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to assess the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children in Xinxiang city, Henan province, China and the changes in the egg positive rate for E. vermicularis over a 10 year period. A total of 510 preschool children in 17 kindergartens were examined using the cellophane-tape perianal swab method in 2003, while 1734 preschool children in 10 kindergartens were examined in 2013 using the same method. The overall egg positive rate for E. vermicularis was 12.75% (65 out of 510 in 2003 and 5.13% (89 out of 1734 in 2013; the former was significantly higher than the latter (p < 0.05. In both 2003 and 2013, the egg positive rate for 5 to 6-year-old children was significantly higher than that of 2 to 4-year-old children (p < 0.05. However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on gender or area. Among selected personal hygiene factors, no hand washing before eating, sucking fingers or toys, and scratching around the anus were all associated with enterobiasis. The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection among preschool children decreased significantly over the 10 year period in Xinxiang city, but infection was still prevalent. Improving sanitation and personal hygiene practices, especially hand washing, could help prevent the transmission of E. vermicularis.

  5. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  6. A preserved early Ediacaran magmatic arc at the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone central subprovince of the Borborema Province, Northeastern South America

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    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.

  7. Modeling the consequences on late Triassic environment of intense pulse-like degassing during the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province using the GEOCLIM model

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    G. Paris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB is associated with one of the five largest mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic. A deep carbon cycle perturbation and a carbonate production crisis are observed during the late Triassic. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP, one of the most important large igneous provinces of the Phanerozoic, emplaced at the TJB. To understand the carbon cycle perturbations observed at the TJB, we investigate the consequences of CO2 degassing associated to the CAMP emplacement on atmospheric and oceanic carbon cycle. The CO2 input within the atmosphere due to volcanism has been modeled using a global biogeochemical cycle box model (COMBINE coupled with a climate model (FOAM. Weathering fluxes and CO2 equilibrium are constrained by the Rhaetian paleogeography and different scenarios of the CAMP emplacement are modeled. The study focuses (1 on the geological record and the carbonate productions crisis and (2 on the sedimentary carbon isotope record. For point (1, comparison of different modeling scenarios shows that a Gaussian CO2 emission distribution over the duration of the main activity phase of the CAMP fails in reproducing any of the geological observations, mainly the carbonate production crisis observed in the late Rhaetian sediments. Contrastingly, intense degassing peaks lead to successive decrease in carbonate production as observed in the geological record. For point (2, the perturbations of carbon cycle due to the degassing of CO2 with a mantellic carbon isotopic composition of −5‰ do not reproduce the intensity of the observed carbon isotope excursions. This was achieved in our model by assuming a mantellic carbon isotopic composition of −20‰. Even if this hypothesis requires further investigations, such low values may be associated to degassing of carbon from pools of light isotopic carbon located at the transition zone (Cartigny, 2010

  8. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the children with aminoacidopathy in Isfahan Province, Central Iran in 2007–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Reza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Yaghini, Omid; Najafi, Fatemeh; Rashidianfar, Amirsalar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Aminoacidopathies refer to defects in protein synthesis pathways which result in a range of biochemical disorders and clinical presentations. The enzyme defects in intermediate metabolic pathways lead to accumulation of one or more amino acids or metabolites. Despite higher prevalence rates, screening infants for inherited metabolic disorders is not run in many Middle East countries. Aim: This research is part of a larger study of inherited metabolic disorders to characterize and measure the prevalence of aminoacidopathies. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the population aged 0–17 years old in Isfahan province of Iran, 2007–2015. Subjects and Methods: Demographic characteristics, history of disease, development of clinical condition and socioeconomic status were obtained from interviews as well as patient records of pediatric tertiary referral hospitals and metabolic disorders centers. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: The incidence rate of aminoacidopathies was derived to be 9/100,000 live births. The frequency of consanguineous marriages in this group of the patients was 89.2%. Of the patients with aminoacidopathies, 76.6% required hospitalization with tyrosinemia having the highest rate overall (>10 times). The most prevalent symptoms in this group of patients were developmental disorders and convulsions while half presented with growth disorders during follow-up. Of the 35.5% patients, who died at various ages, one-third was in the maple syrup urine disease subgroup. Conclusion: Although metabolic disorders are identified as rare diseases, they are more prevalent in the studied population of Isfahan.

  9. Pollen assemblages of cultivated vegetation in central and southern Hebei Province%河北省中南部农田孢粉组合特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞瑞洺; 许清海; 丁伟; 张生瑞

    2011-01-01

    The study on 82 surface soil pollen samples from different types of cultivated vegetations in central and southern parts of Hebei Province indicates that the pollen assemblages from farmlands in the plain have not only their own plant types, but also the pollen components from the nearby mountains. Arboreal pollen percentages and concentrations (dominated by Pinus) from farmlands in mountain area are higher than those in the plain, and it reduces gradually with the increasing distance away from the mountains. Taking Pinus pollen in Taihang Mountains as an example, its content is 20%-30%, 10%-20%, 20%-30% and below 16% respectively for the samples from the area of 0-50, 50-100, 100-150 and more than 150 km away from the east Taihang Mountains. The increase of Pinus pollen proportion in the central plain is probably related to the fohn effect. The spatial variation of AP from mountains to the plain in Hebei Province may be similar to the forests clearance by human activities in the early historical period. Shrubby pollen proportion is small both in mountains and in the plain, but their major components are different. Elaeagnaceae, Corylus,Ostryopsis and Oleaceae are common in mountain areas, while there are relatively high contents of Rosaceae and Vitaceae in the plain. Herbs content in the plain (about 60%) is 15% higher than that in mountains, among which the Cereals and Cruciferae pollen percentages are 5% and 2% higher respectively. Artemisia pollen percentage in the plain is lower than that in mountains. Since the human activities are weaker in mountains compared with that in the plain, the general trend is that Chenopodiaceae pollen increases from mountains to the plain gradually, reflecting the raising intensity of human activities. The fern spores of Selaginella sinensis in mountains are higher than that in the plain, but it still reaches to about 7% in the plain. The fern spores of Selaginella sinensis are not prone to be spread by

  10. Petrology,Chronology and Isotope Geochemistry of the Proterozoic Amphibolites from Xiangshan,Central Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡恭任; 章邦桐; 等

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of a comprehensive study on the petrology,trace elements and isotopic geochemistry of the Xiangshan amphibolites,we suggest that the protoliths of the amphibolites were basalts formed in an island-arc tectonic setting.The basaltic magma was derived from a slightly depleted mantle source with a small amount of crustal contamination.Assemblage of the rock-froming minerals indicates that these amphibolites underwent a low-grade metamorphism of amphibolite facies.According to the formation age(1113Ma) and subsequent metamophic age(726.6Ma) of the basalts aw well as the geological and gochemical features of these amphibolites,a tectonic model of Proterozoic oceanic island-arc setting is proposed for central Jiangxi.

  11. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

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    Wentai Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in the inland arid area of Central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang has recently received heightened concerns over soil water erosion, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Data from the national soil erosion survey of China (1985–2011 and Xinjiang statistical yearbook (2000–2010 was used to analyze the trend, intensity, and serious soil water erosion regions. Results showed that the water erosion area in Xinjiang was 87.6×103 km2 in 2011, mainly distributed in the Ili river valley and the northern and southern Tian Mountain. Soil erosion gradient was generally slight and the average erosion modulus was 2184 t/(km2 a. During the last 26 years, the water erosion area in Xinjiang decreased by 23.2%, whereas the intensity was still increasing. The driving factors from large to small impact included: population boom and human activities>vegetation degradation>rainfall and climate change>topography and soil erodibility>tectonics movement. Soil water erosion resulted in eco-environmental and socioeconomic losses, such as destroying farmland and grassland, triggering floods, sedimentation of reservoirs, damaging transportation and irrigation facilities, and aggravating poverty. A landscape ecological design approach is suggested for integrated control of soil erosion. Currently, an average of 2.07×103 km2 of formerly eroded area is conserved each year. This study highlighted the importance and longevity of soil and water conservation efforts in Xinjiang, and offered some suggestions on ecological restoration and combating desertification in arid regions of Central Asia.

  12. Sexual violence among host and refugee population in Djohong District, Eastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen; Agrawal, Pooja; Greenough, P Gregg; Goyal, Ravi; Kayden, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The following is a population-based survey of the Central African Republic (CAR) female refugee population displaced to rural Djohong District of Eastern Cameroon and associated female Cameroonian host population to characterise the prevalence and circumstances of sexual violence. A population-based, multistage, random cluster survey of 600 female heads of household was conducted during March 2010. Women heads of household were asked about demographics, household economy and assets, level of education and sexual violence experienced by the respondent only. The respondents were asked to describe the circumstances of their recent assault. The lifetime prevalence of sexual violence among Djohong district female heads of household is 35.2% (95% CI 28.7-42.2). Among heads of household who reported a lifetime incident of sexual violence, 64.0% (95% CI 54.3-72.5) suffered sexual violence perpetrated by their husband or partner. Among the host population, 3.9% (95% CI 1.4-10.5) reported sexual violence by armed groups compared to 39.0% (95% CI 25.6-54.2) of female refugee heads of household. Women who knew how to add and subtract were less likely to report sexual violence during their lifetime (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34). Sexual violence is common among refugees and host population in Eastern Cameroon. Most often, perpetrators are partners/husbands or armed groups.

  13. Campano-Maastrichtian foraminifera from onshore sediments in the Rio del Rey Basin, Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoh, Oliver Anoh; Victor, Obiosio; Christopher, Agyingi

    2013-03-01

    Campanian-Maastrichtian marine sediments outcrop in five genetically linked sedimentary basins along the West African coast in the Gulf of Guinea, from the Douala Basin in Cameroon to the Anambra Basin in Nigeria. These sediments in the more centrally located Rio del Rey Basin have been the least studied. Therefore, the geologic history of this region has merely been speculative. The Rio del Rey Basin like the adjacent Niger Delta is producing hydrocarbon from the offshore Tertiary sedimentary interval in which all studies have been focused, neglecting the onshore Cretaceous sediments. Outcrops in the basin are rare, small and highly weathered. Samples from some of these sediments have yielded a few Planktonic and dominantly benthonic foraminiferal assemblages. The long-ranging heterohelix and hedbergellids characterized the planktics while the species Afrobolivina afra which is a well known diagnostic taxon for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments in West African basins clearly dominate the benthic assemblage. Its occurrence in association with other Upper Cretaceous forms such as Bolivina explicata, Praebulimina exiqua, Gabonita lata, Ammobaculites coprolithiformis amongst others, formed the basis on which this age was assigned to the sediments sampled from the Rio del Rey Basin. Hence, this work has undoubtedly established the much needed link in this regional geologic history and correlates these sediments with the Logbaba and Nkporo Formations in the Douala Basin in Cameroon and the southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary Basins. Thus, these units were all deposited during this same geologic period and probably controlled by the same geologic event.

  14. Energy, water and climate nexus: A case study of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Cameroon is a country that is well endowed with natural resources including fertile arable lands, freshwater bodies, crude oil and other energy sources. The country's oil exploitation however results in significant pollution of Cameroon's land, water and air. Modern bioenergy is seen as having good...... potential to offset the reliance on crude oil. This study investigated the biomass resource availability from agricultural residues for liquid biofuel (as transportation fuel) and bioelectricity. Our findings indicate that sustainably extracted agricultural re sidues could yield 1.11 million bone dry tons......-38% of Cameroon's current electricity consumption. The potential water savings and avoided greenhouse gas missions from the use of agricultural residues for liquid biofuels and bioelectricity relative to crude oil have also been estimated. Modern bioenergy from agricultural residues does not pose concern to food...

  15. General overview of the disaster management framework in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Henry Ngenyam

    2014-07-01

    Efficient and effective disaster management will prevent many hazardous events from becoming disasters. This paper constitutes the most comprehensive document on the natural disaster management framework of Cameroon. It reviews critically disaster management in Cameroon, examining the various legislative, institutional, and administrative frameworks that help to facilitate the process. Furthermore, it illuminates the vital role that disaster managers at the national, regional, and local level play to ease the process. Using empirical data, the study analyses the efficiency and effectiveness of the actions of disaster managers. Its findings reveal inadequate disaster management policies, poor coordination between disaster management institutions at the national level, the lack of trained disaster managers, a skewed disaster management system, and a top-down hierarchical structure within Cameroon's disaster management framework. By scrutinising the disaster management framework of the country, policy recommendations based on the research findings are made on the institutional and administrative frameworks.

  16. Condition of Health Problems in The District Health Offi ce Parigi Moutong Central Sulawesi Province, Efforts in Response of Health Problem

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    Ahmad Erlan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: District Parigi Moutong, Central Sulawesi Province is one of the Regional District Health Problems. Ranking Public Health Development Index Parigi Moutong to the level of Central Sulawesi was ranked 6 out of 9 districts/cities, while at the national level comes out to 320 of 440 districts/cities in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to provide a picture of the health problems in Parigi Moutong. In more detail the objectives are observed after the implementation of such interventions and Booster Kalakarya prevention efforts in the area of health problems. Methods: The study is qualitative observational study of participatory design. Samples were taken by using purposive sampling to conduct in-depth interviews and document searches. Results: The results of in-depth interviews obtained information of some constraints inthe implementation of health programs, ie no actions/movements that were signifi cant in the response to the problem. Infant mortality in 2012, registered 7 cases. Substitution head of the health center too fast. This happens because the head of the health center has held PTT doctor working period of one year, which resulted in problems in sustainability programs in health centers. Internal monthly meeting at the Department of Health and the District Health Offi ce with the entire health center no. Effort or movement to address the problems associated Regional Health Problems has not be percieved. Conclusions: Implementation of Regional Booster Kalakarya and Health Troubled make changes to the head of health policy by forming groups Conscious Movement IHC and revitalization partnership TBA and midwives who are increasing numbers toddlersweighing scope and aid delivery by health personnel.

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Residues in Gentile Di Maiale, a Smoked Meat Product Typical of Some Mountain Areas in Latina Province (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrabs, Giuseppe; Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Carosielli, Leonardo; Vollano, Lucia; Anastasio, Aniello

    2014-01-01

    Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy). It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum) and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

  18. Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    P.J. Masika

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of redwater (babesiosis and gallsickness (anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province were investigated by means of participatory methods, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. Most livestock owners relate the causes of these diseases to excessive grazing of lush green grass, which is thought to bring about an accumulation of bile in the body. The majority of livestock owners diagnose gallsickness and redwater on the basis of presenting signs and post mortem findings. Eighty nine percent of a total of 343 livestock owners participating in the study claimed to administer herbal remedies to treat the 2 tick-borne diseases; 75 % of these combine herbal remedies with conventional medicines and 25 % use herbal remedies only. Application of herbal remedies was reportedly aimed mainly at the removal of excess bile. However, some plant species used to prepare herbal remedies are reported to possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and purgative, and may be effective in the treatment of gallsickness and redwater. A lack of understanding of the causes and transmission of gallsickness and redwater, leading to ill-directed treatment, and widespread deviation from the directions of use when administering conventional medicines, were identified as problems that could be addressed by farmer training and the supply of appropriate information.

  19. 苏中沿海地区尾波Qc值特征研究%Characteristics of Coda Wave Qc Value in the Coastal Area of Central Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云; 霍祝青

    2011-01-01

    Based on the scatter model (Sato) .using earthquake wave form data with M, .^ 2. 0 from 2000 to 2008 recorded by Sheyang and Hai'an seismic stations in the coastal areas of central Jiang-su province,the Qc values of coda with different lapse time in this region is calculated. The result indicates that this region has low Qc value, and the Qc values increase with lapse time increasing. Before Dongtai M,.4. 1 earthquake swarm in November, 2006 and Xiangshui ML4. 0 earthquake on May 6, 2007,the Qc values of coda increased apparently.%利用2000年至2008年苏中沿海地区射阳地震台和海安地震台记录到的100 km范围内ML2.0以上地震波形资料,基于Sato模型,采用不同的固定流逝时间,计算了该区域的尾波Qc值.结果表明:该区为尾波Qc值低值区域,随着流逝时间的增大尾波Qc值也变大;在2006年11月份东台ML4.1震群和2007年5月6日响水ML4.0地震前尾波Q0值有明显增大现象.

  20. Hf isotope study of Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La pampa province and implications for the occurrence of juvenile early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, C. J.; Zappettini, E. O.; Santos, J. O. S.; Belousova, E.; McNaughton, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    On a global scale, juvenile Tonian (Early Neoproterozoic) magmatic rocks are associated with the extensional events that lead to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. In Argentina, no geological record is available for this time interval, lasting from 1000 to 850 Ma. We present indirect evidence for the existence of Tonian extension in Argentina, as supported by Hf and Nd isotope determinations on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We mainly focus on our own Hf isotope determinations carried out on U-Pb SHRIMP dated zircons from Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La Pampa province, south-central Argentina, i.e. metagabbros of Valle Daza, dioritic orthogneiss of Estancia Lote 8, and metadiorite of Estancia El Carancho, having found that these rocks were derived from sources of ca. 920 to ca 880 Ma, with ɛHf values between +6.83 and + 9.59. Inherited zircons of this age and character identified in these rocks also point to the same source. We also compile additional Hf and Nd studies from previous work on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We preliminarily compare the age of the juvenile Tonian sources referred to in our work with that of two extensional events identified in the São Francisco craton, Brazil.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in Gentile di maiale, a smoked meat product typical of some mountain areas in Latina province (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carrabs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy. It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

  2. 云南滇中地区地质灾害防治区划%Geological hazards preventing zoning in central area of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁星妤; 戴塔根; 包从法; 普志坤

    2011-01-01

    滇中地区是云南省地质灾害的多发区之一。区内主要地质灾害类型有滑坡、泥石流、崩塌、地面塌陷及地裂缝五种。其中以滑坡和泥石流为主,灾害点分布较广且个体规模小,稳定性较差。此次通过对区内地质灾害诱因及分布现状的分析,阐述了地质灾害防治分区划分原则,将滇中地区划分为地质灾害重点防治区、次重点防治区及一般防治区三个大区,并提出了相应的防治措施。%The district of central area in Yunnan Province, is located in geological hazards easily occurring areas. There are six geological hazards, including landslide, debris flows, collapse, unstable slopes, land collapse and land fractures. Among them, landsli

  3. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  4. Extrathoracic heart in northern Cameroon: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Frigiola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tantchou et al report a case of ectopia cordis with successful surgical correction on a 7 months old child from northern Cameroon. Sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy continue to be very rare congenital anomalies in pediatric surgery. The prenatal diagnosis is easily made with ultrasound by visualizing the heart outside the thoracic cavity. Ectopia cordis is frequently associated with other congenital defects involving multiple organ systems. We report a case of ectopia cordis with successful surgical correction on a 7 months old child from northern Cameroon.

  5. Geological Control on Stability of Excavated Rock Slope at Jeruklegi Claystone Quarry, Cilacap Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Dok, Atitkagna; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Faisal Fathani, Teuku

    2010-05-01

    PT. Holcim Indonesia Tbk is a well-known company for cement production in Cilacap, Central Java, Indonesia. In cement manufacturing, certain raw materials such as limestone, claystone and other supplementary materials are required. In a mean time, the company is conducting claystone mining to support the cement industry. Currently, the exploitation has covered the area of approximately 103 ha. Due to the increment need of more claystone to achieve the expecting amount of cement production, the company plans to extend existing mining site up to 250 ha with maximum depth of +10m above the sea level. However, such development may eventually lead to major slope failures which essentially affect the sustainability and the safety of the mine. Understanding that various negative impacts may appear during the mining operation, which possibly result in personal injury, potential life loss, property damage and other socio-economic consequences, it is crucial to assess slope stability conditions of the mining pit to ensure safety of the mine. The study is mainly focused on analysis of the rock mass behaviours under specific geological control and earthquake trigger through the application of finite element method. Based on the assessment result, the zone where covered by discontinuous rock mass, absorbent lithology and steep slope geometry in combination with presence of groundwater, is estimated to be potential to slope movement in form of rock falls and/or rock slides which could be possibly predicted to occur as a consequence of heavy rainfall intensity, un-controlled slope excavation and ground vibration. And, the stable slope inclination is suggested not to be steeper than 60˚, with the maximum width of 3m and maximum height of 6m.

  6. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  7. The time-space distribution of Eocene to Miocene magmatism in the central Peruvian polymetallic province and its metallogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Thomas; Ullrich, Thomas D.; Tosdal, Richard M.; Friedman, Richard; Ebert, Shane

    2008-07-01

    Eocene to late Miocene magmatism in the central Peruvian high-plain (approx. between Cerro de Pasco and Huancayo; Lats. ˜10.2-12°S) and east of the Cordillera Occidental is represented by scattered shallow-level intrusions as well as subaerial domes and volcanic deposits. These igneous rocks are calc-alkalic and range from basalt to rhyolite in composition, and many of them are spatially, temporally and, by inference, genetically associated with varied styles of major polymetallic mineralization. Forty-four new 40Ar- 39Ar and three U/Pb zircon dates are presented, many for previously undated intrusions. Our new time constraints together with data from the literature now cover most of the Cenozoic igneous rocks of this Andean segment and provide foundation for geodynamic and metallogenetic research. The oldest Cenozoic bodies are of Eocene age and include dacitic domes to the west of Cerro de Pasco with ages ranging from 38.5 to 33.5 Ma. South of the Domo de Yauli structural dome, Eocene igneous rocks occur some 15 km east of the Cordillera Occidental and include a 39.34 ± 0.28 Ma granodioritic intrusion and a 40.14 ± 0.61 Ma rhyolite sill, whereas several diorite stocks were emplaced between 36 and 33 Ma. Eocene mineralization is restricted to the Quicay high-sulfidation epithermal deposit some 10 km to the west of Cerro de Pasco. Igneous activity in the earliest Oligocene was concentrated up to 70 km east of the Cordillera Occidental and is represented by a number of granodioritic intrusions in the Milpo-Atacocha area. Relatively voluminous early Oligocene dacitic to andesitic volcanism gave rise to the Astabamba Formation to the southeast of Domo de Yauli. Some stocks at Milpo and Atacocha generated important Zn-Pb (-Ag) skarn mineralization. After about 29.3 Ma, magmatism ceased throughout the study region. Late Oligocene igneous activity was restricted to andesitic and dacitic volcanic deposits and intrusions around Uchucchacua (approx. 25 Ma) and felsic

  8. The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of grade 10 pupils in the Taung Central Circuit of Vryburg District in the North West Province of South Africa / Sibusiwe Ngoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoma, Sibusisiwe

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. The subjects were 10th grade male and female pupils in the Taung Central Education circuit in the Northwest Province of South Africa. All the eight secondary schools in the circuit participated in this study. The researcher administered a self-designed 5-point Likert type self-concept scale to a sample of 296 respondents, to measure of both general and academic self-conc...

  9. RESEARCH ON INDIGENOUS BUILDING TECHNOLOGY OF COTU MINORITIES IN CENTRAL VIETNAM - Case study of traditional community houses in Thuong Quang and Thuong Lo commune, Thua Thien-Hue province -

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The traditional community house named "Guol" is a unique architecture of Cotu minorities living upland area of central Vietnam. Two community houses in Nam Dong district, Thua Thien Hue province show the typical "Guol" and are surveyed for case studies of indigenous building technology. The building technology can be understood as their conventional design methodology and construction technique. The field research was conducted by interview and measurement to obtain the information relating t...

  10. The Upper Miocene magmatism of the Island of Elba (Central Italy): compositional characteristics, petrogenesis and implications for the origin of the Tuscany Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Giampiero; Peccerillo, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Late Miocene intrusive magmatism of the Island of Elba, Tuscany (central Italy), consists of stocks, laccoliths, sills, and dikes showing dominant monzogranite and granodiorite compositions, with minor leucogranitic dike-sill complexes, aplites and pegmatites. A few mafic rocks occur as dikes, and as microgranular enclaves hosted inside the main intrusions. The Elba magmatism belongs to the Tuscan Magmatic Province, an 8.5 to 0.3 Ma old association of mafic to felsic rocks, of mantle and crustal origin, cropping out in Tuscany and northern Latium. Major and trace element abundances of Elba rocks are extremely variable, testifying to complex origin and evolutionary history for magmas. 87Sr/86Sr (~ 0.708-0.723) and 143Nd/144Nd (~0.5121-0.5124) are close or within the field of upper continental crust, with mafic dikes showing the lowest Sr- and the highest Nd-isotope ratios. Petrological, geochemical and textural data of Elba igneous rocks are better explained by invoking a leading role for multiple mixing processes between crust-derived felsic magmas and mafic-intermediate melts of ultimate mantle origin, accompanied by fractional crystallisation. Proxies of crustal anatectic melts are represented by some highly radiogenic-Sr rocks from northern Monte Capanne pluton. Crustal magmas were formed by melting of sedimentary rocks, likely metagreywakes, at pressures exceeding 0.3 GPa. Mafic-intermediate magmas have calcalkaline to shoshonitic compositions and originated in an anomalous mantle, moderately contaminated by siliceous sediments. Selective enrichments in Sr, Ba and LREE are shown by some intermediate rocks (Orano dikes), revealing the occurrence of a distinct magma type at Elba. Similar compositions are also observed at Capraia island, San Vincenzo and Campiglia (southern Tuscany), suggesting a regional relevance for this magma type. Sr-Ba-LREE-rich rocks do not show obvious genetic relationships with other Tuscany magmas and may represent a distinct end

  11. Henan Strongly Implement the Open-up and Economic Driver to Realize the Goal of the Rise of Central China——Special Interview of Shi Jichun, Vice Governor of the People's Government of Henan Province, by Special Edition of China's Foreign Trade%河南强力实施开放带动,实现中原崛起奋斗目标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Henan Province innovates the development view, which is based on the scale and strength of the city group in Central China, attaches importance to carrying on "two Transfers", to participating in domestic and foreign competition, hence, promotes the rise of Central China, radiates and brings along the development in Central and Western China.

  12. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  13. Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van L.; Vaate, bij de M.D.; Boer, de W.F.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2007-01-01

    Interviews were carried out in six villages south-west of Waza National Park, Cameroon, to investigate the impact of factors related to the occurrence of livestock raiding by lions. Data were analysed at the village and individual level. Livestock losses (cattle, sheep and/or goats) caused by lions

  14. The unfortunate sufferer: discursive dynamics around pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Sijpt

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy losses are ambiguous affairs in East Cameroon. Childbearing is not always people's primary aim within their fragile sexual and marital relationships, and it is often unclear to outsiders whether a pregnancy interruption is intended or unintended. Drawing on 15 months of fieldwork, I explor

  15. Catholic mission, colonial government and indigenous response in Kom (Cameroon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis illuminates the way in which a complex configuration of factors interacted in the first half of the 20th century to fundamentally transform the Kingdom of Kom in the Bamenda Grassfields of Cameroon. It examines the impact of colonial and missionary penetration, as well as the responses o

  16. Cameroon's main marketing board : history and scope of the ONCPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The creation of the ONCPB (Office national de commercialisation des produits de base) in 1976 was a turning point in the history of government regulation of agricultural marketing in Cameroon. It went a long way in unifying and harmonizing the marketing arrangements in francophone and anglophone Cam

  17. Applications of seismic pattern recognition and gravity inversion techniques to obtain enhanced subsurface images of the Earth's crust under the Central Metasedimentary Belt, Grenville Province, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Baishali; Mereu, R. F.

    2000-12-01

    Project Lithoprobe's Abitibi-Grenville transect seismic reflection lines 32 and 33 traverse the exposed Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) located in the Grenville province of the Precambrian Shield of Canada in southern Ontario. These seismic lines image a zone with a protracted deformational history spanning more than 300Myr. Detailed examination of the commercially processed stacked sections reveals a number of significant deficiencies in some important areas. The image quality in these zones of reduced coherency needs to be enhanced to examine specific features and their relation to the surface geology. Examination of near-vertical seismic data from Lines 32 and 33 revealed that the signal-to-noise ratio was not improved by stacking, due to misalignment of signals even after static, normal moveout corrections and residual static corrections. The presumed reason is that reflected seismic energy following long ray paths in heterogeneous media suffers from relative advances and delays in its propagation, and hence arrives at slightly different times at the receivers, tending to be poorly aligned relative to its theoretical traveltime curves. A pattern recognition (PR) method for signal enhancement followed by energy stacking in moving time windows was used in this study to improve the images in spite of misalignments. Reprocessing has refined the geometry of the reflection profiles. The objective of this paper is to use enhanced images of the seismic reflection data obtained by using a PR approach together with gravity data, using 2.5-D forward and 3-D inversion routines, to give an improved model of subsurface structure in the vicinity of lines 32 and 33. Line 32 is dominated by southeast-dipping reflectors soling into the lower crust. The listric geometry of the strong reflection packages of the CMB boundary thrust zone is interpreted to represent a crustal-scale ramp-flat geometry that accommodated northwest-directed tectonic transport of the CMB. This

  18. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia.

  19. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Methods Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Results Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and

  20. Volatile Compounds in Honey Produced in the Central Valley of Ñuble Province, Chile Compuestos Volatiles en Miel Producida en el Valle Central de la Provincia de Ñuble, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Gianelli Barra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME with an 85 µm Carboxen polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber was used to extract volatile compounds, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectometry detector (GC-MS was used to identify the volatile compounds in honeys. Thirty-four different volatile compounds from the headspace of honey produced in the central valley of Ñuble Province, Chile, were extracted with fiber coating CAR/PDMS. The identified compounds were: 10 alcohols, 9 acids, 6 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 furans, 2 terpenes and 2 lactones. Only four of the volatile compounds had never been reported before as honey compounds; these being: 1,3-propanodiol, 2-methyl butanoic acid, 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexen-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-octen-2-one. These four compounds were found in three of the 10 analyzed samples. The compounds found in the highest percentage of area were ethanol, acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propane, 3-hydroxy-2-butane, and furfural. However, the analyzed samples did not present a distinctive profile.La extracción de compuestos volátiles desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles se realiza mediante microextracción en fase sólida (SPME, utilizando una fibra de 85 µm de Carboxen polidimetilsiloxano (CAR/PDMS, el análisis de los compuestos volátiles se realiza mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de masa (GC-MS. Un total de 34 diferentes compuestos volátiles fueron extraídos desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles provenientes del valle central de la provincia de Ñuble con la fibra de CAR/PDMS. Los compuestos identificados fueron 10 alcoholes, 9 ácidos, 6 cetonas, 3 aldehídos, 2 furanos, 2 terpenos y 2 lactonas. De los compuestos volátiles sólo tres no han sido reportados con anterioridad en mieles, estos compuestos fueron: 1,3-propanodiol, ácido 2-metil butanoico, 3,4-dimetil-3-hexen-2-ona, 6-metil-5-octen-2-ona. Estos cuatro compuestos se encontraron en sólo tres de las 10 muestras analizadas. Los compuestos que se

  1. Study on Reclamation of the Deserted Quarries in Central Area of Zhejiang Province%浙中地区废弃矿山复绿技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉丽; 朱宝琦; 李绍龙; 徐明

    2011-01-01

    The central city of Zhejiang province-Jinhua has rich mineral resources, the development and utilization satisfied the needs of economic construction and social development. But many quarries have serious environmental problems and hidden dangers because of many years mining. It is urgent in the work of ecological management and reclamation of the deserted quarries. A representative selection of Wangxi quarry at the town of lingxia as research object, we determined the reclamation by environment survey, including planting material spraying, revegetation bags, substrate container seedling, vertical greening, slope toe wall backfill greening, soil dressing reclamation and landscape re-building seven technologies. Also planning for the different types of reclamation on steep slope, even steep slope, gentle slope and slope toe land. The neclamation effect was reached, the ecological environment was improved, the reference and guidance were provided for reclamation of the similar quarries.%浙中城市——金华拥有丰富的矿产资源,其开发利用保障了社会发展和经济建设的需求。然而多年的开采,许多矿山存在严重的环境问题与隐患,废弃矿山生态治理与复绿工作迫在眉睫。选择具有代表性的岭下镇王溪采石场作为研究对象,通过矿山环境现状调查,确定了PMS技术、植生袋围堰造坑植树技术、基质型容器苗种植技术、石壁藤本垂直绿化技术、坡脚挡墙回填土绿化技术、客土复垦技术和艺术景观再造技术7项复绿技术,并进行陡峻边坡、缓陡边坡、缓边坡和坡脚迹地分类复绿设计,达到了复绿效果,改善了生态环境,为同类矿山复绿工作提供借鉴和指导。

  2. Dating of the late Quaternary volcanic events using Uranium-series technique on travertine deposit: A case study in Ihlara, Central Anatolia Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, İ.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi

    2016-04-01

    Dating of late Quaternary volcanism is crucial to understanding of the recent mechanism of crustal deformation and future volcanic explosivity risk of the region. However, radiometric dating of volcanic products has been a major challenge because of high methodological error rate. In most cases, there are difficulties on discrimination of the volcanic lava flow relations in the field. Furthermore, there would be unrecorded and unpreserved volcanoclastic layers by depositional and erosional processes. We present a new method that allows precise dating of late Quaternary volcanic events (in the time range of 0-500,000 years before present) using the Uranium-series technique on travertine mass, which is thought to be controlled by the young volcanism. Since the high pressure CO2 in the spring waters are mobilized during crustal strain cycles and the carbonates are precipitated in the fissures act as conduit for hot springs, thus, travertine deposits provide important information about crustal deformation. In this study we studied Ihlara fissure ridge travertines in the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province. This region is surrounded by many eruption centers (i.e. Hasandaǧı, Acıgöl and Göllüdaǧı) known as the late Quaternary and their widespread volcanoclastic products. Recent studies have suggested at least 11 events at around Acıgöl Caldera for the last 180 ka and 2 events at Hasandaǧı Stratovolcano for the last 30 ka. Active travertine masses around Ihlara deposited from hotwaters, which rise up through deep-penetrated fissures in volcanoclastic products of surrounding volcanoes. Analyses of the joint systems indicate that these vein structures are controlled by the crustal deformation due to young volcanism in the vicinity. Thus, the geological history of Ihlara travertine mass is regarded as a record of surrounding young volcanism. We dated 9 samples from 5 ridge-type travertine masses around Ihlara region. The age distribution indicates that the crustal

  3. The Univariate and Bivariate Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Quality of Life:A Cross Sectional Study in the Hubei Province-Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ommari Baaliy MKANGARA; Chongjian WANG; Hao XIANG; Yihua XU; Shaofa NIE; Li LIU; Saumu Tobbi MWERI; Mustaafa BAPUMIIA; Theresia M KOBELO; Felicia Williams JACKSON

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) for individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Hubei province-central China by using WHOQOL-BREF instrument (Chinese version).One hundred and thirty six respondents (HIV/AIDS individuals) attending out-patient department of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese CDC) were administered a structured questionnaire developed by investigators.QOL was evaluated by using WHOQOL-BREF instrument (Chinese version).The resuits showed that the mean score of overall QOL on a scale of 0-100 was 25.8.The mean scores in 4 domains of QOL on a scale of 0-100 were 82.9 (social domain),27.5 (psychological domain),17.7 (physical domain) and 11.65 (environmental domain).The significant difference of QOL was noted in the score of physical domain between asymptomatic (14.6) and early symptomatic individuals (12) (P=0.014),and between patients with early symptoms (12) and those with AIDS (10.43) (P<0.001).QOL in psychological domain was significantly lower in early symptomatic (12.1) (P<0.05) and AIDS patients (12.4) (P<0.006) than in asymptomatic individuals (14.2).The difference in QOL scores in the psychological domain was significant with respect to the income of patients (P<0.048) and educational status (P<0.037).Significantly better QOL scores in the physical domain (P<0.040) and environmental domain (P<0.017) were noted with respect to the occupation of the patients.Patients with family support had better QOL scores in environmental domain.In our research,QOL for HIV/AIDS individuals was associated with education,occupation,income,family support and clinical categories of the patients.It was concluded that WHOQOL-BREF Chinese version was successfully used in the evaluation of QOL of HIV/AIDS individuals in Chinese population and proved to be a reliable and useful tool.

  4. Effect of plat diversity on a set of soil characteristics relevant to soil erosion processes: an example from a biancana badland site (Siena Province, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaro, Giovanni; Santi, Elisa; Vergari, Francesca; Maccherini, Simona; Rossi, Mauro; Del Monte, Maurizio; Torri, Dino

    2015-04-01

    A study on the influence of vegetation (grassland) on the evolution of a set of soil characteristics was carried out in a protected area (Site of Community Importance, Natura 2000 Network) where there are some residual areas of biancana badlands. This site, named "Crete di Camposodo e Leonina" is located in the Province of Siena, Tuscany, central Italy. Following geomorphological zonation in the badlands, the areas where firstly classified in a series of different classes where erosion is or was active and where sedimentation is or was active. Secondly, for each "erosion class" as determined before, another classification criterion based on the type of vegetation cover was given. Random plots were than sampled on the basis of these classifications until 22 plots where chosen for analyses. In each plot, vegetation was described in a squared sampling unit (40*40cm), and, after description, it was cut, dried and weighted. A functional matrix, based on plant functional traits, was created and Functional Diversity indices, as well as other classic biodiversity metrics (such as Shannon, Simpson, etc) were obtained. On the same sampling area, 4 randomly selected soil carrots (each with a depth of 20cm) were extracted and used for laboratory analysis while undrained soil shear strength at saturation (U4S) was measured using a pocket torvane. Electrical conductivity, pH, and U4S where then compared with several of the vegetation features, including epi- and ipo-gean biomass, vegetation cover and biodiversity indices. Our results clearly identify the relationships which attribute to vegetation (as representative of the ecosystem they shelter) the main role in modifying the soil from bare rock to a well developed surface horizon: while vegetation changes soil attributes, the changed soil attributes make the niche suitable to other plants, with a modification of the composition of the grassland. Finally, we also demonstrated that plant functional dissimilarity represents one

  5. [Experiences of Cameroon in population planning and economic and social development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossivi Ayassou, M V

    1987-12-01

    Because it already has over 30 years of experience in preparing and executing 5-year plans, Cameroon was chosen as the case study for a workshop on training of African planners in population, human resources, and development planning. This communication, based on analysis of the 1st 5 plans and preparatory documents for the 6th, is divided into 4 chapters. The 1st chapter studies the methodology and structures for plan development and the models used in projections and forecasts. The 2nd chapter discusses sectorial programs while the 3rd examines the place of population in the different plans. The final chapter proposes a practical approach to planning of population, human resources, and development in Africa. Cameroon's experience in planning is instructive because it shows the growing consciousness of the importance of population factors and the progressive integration of demographic variables in the plans. The 20-year process began with construction of planning structures at the central, regional, and provincial levels, followed by constitution of series of demographic data and finally the establishment of a population commission that defined the major outlines of Cameroon's population policy and its translation into national, regional, and sectorial development plans. The results obtained were evidence of the political will of high authorities and of the technical competence of planning staffs. The framework for planning of population, human resources, and development in Africa is intended to guide planners while being adaptable to the conditions, structures, and needs of each particular country. The 9-step framework begins with an inventory and evaluation of statistical data available for planning, followed by definitions of the overall orientation of national development and of sectorial, regional, and national objectives of the plan. The 4th step is a study of the interdependence between population and social and economic factors, followed by development of

  6. Large Igneous Provinces of the Central Asia: data on geochronology, geochemistry and petrology of the Tien Shan and Junggar basaltic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, V.; Mikolaichuk, A.

    2012-04-01

    During last years Large Igneous Provinces of the Central Asia were an object of steadfast attention of researchers. It was established that on a formation and development of continental earth crust a great influence was rendered by deep magmatic systems of mantle plumes of various age. Undoubtedly that these global processes of basaltic magmatism had in many respects crucial importance for ecology, climate and life development. Our researches of magmatic associations of the Tien Shan and Junggar have allowed to accumulate a considerable volume of new data on geochronology, geochemistry and physico-chemical parameters of petrogenesis of within-plate basaltic complexes of the Central Asia, which area of distribution covers territory over than 285000 km2. Analysis with the help of 40Ar/39Ar method has shown that the basaltic complexes of the Tien Shan have Cretaceous-Paleogene age (61-76 Ma). Basalts of the Southeast Kazakhstan (North Tien Shan) corresponds to Paleozoic age: 305-312 Ma. Rather close values of 40Ar/39Ar data are received for basalts of the Altynemel Ridge (South Junggar) - 282 Ma. Isotope 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalts of the Alakol site (Junggar) has shown Mesozoic age (186-198 Ma). As a whole, the carried out researches testify to formation of Tien Shan and Junggar within-plate basalt complexes as a result of influence of three plumes, operating in various time: Tarim (282-312 Ma), Junggar (186-198 Ma) and Tien Shan (61-76 Ma). Data on petrochemistry, geochemistry of trace and rare-earth elements and mineralogy shows an enriched plume characteristics (close to OIB) of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basalts and presence of group of Paleozoic rocks close to continental and oceanic plateau basalts. As a whole, successive evolution in time of geodynamics of within-plate basalt magmatism of Tien Shan and Junggar is established. Paleozoic - plateau basaltic magmatism like Siberian traps or oceanic plateau basalts of Ontong Java. Mesozoic - development of more local hot

  7. Challenges and conservation implications of the parrot trade in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Simon A. Tamungang; Ofeh, Moses A.; Tchamba, Martin N.; Cheke, Robert A.; Kougoum, Ghislane P.

    2016-01-01

    Humans in every culture exploit wildlife resources around them to satisfy their immediate needs using many different methods. Similarly, parrots are exploited in Cameroon in various ways, for both consumptive and non-consumptive uses, by many cultures there. Trading in parrots is the biggest form of wild bird exploitation, and it is carried out by both the public and the private sectors, to satisfy both local and international demands. This paper therefore examined the challenges and conserva...

  8. Impact of agribusiness labour on the child education in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwang N Gildas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the involvement of child labour in agribusinesses as well as the schooling pattern of children involved in these agribusinesses in Cameroon. For this study, some descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were computed using SPSS.20 and stata 13 software packages. The population of this study was made up of 51,190 individuals of both sexes that were concerned by the third Cameroon National Household Survey. The sample drawn from this population was constituted of individuals of age 5-17 years old, making a total of 17,550 children. The main results of this study revealed that agribusiness child labour was present everywhere in Cameroon and by both boys and girls. Children of all ages of the sample were concerned by the phenomenon and their level of education was essentially the primary. The impact of agribusiness child labour on education was positive because it helped the working and schooling children to provide means to finance their education and other needs. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on education because some children went for these jobs and finally stayed there and did not return back to school.

  9. Particle Choices and Collocation in Cameroon English Phrasal Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Epoge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of some phrasal verbs can be guessed from the meanings of the parts (to sit down = sit + down, run after = run + after and the meaning of some others have to be learned (to put up (a visitor = accommodate, to hold up = cause delay or try to rob someone due to their syntactic and semantic complexities. In this regard, the syntactic and semantic properties are expected to be the same in every English speaking context. Thus, this paper aims to explore the input-oriented syntactic and semantic properties of phrasal verbs in Cameroon English. Findings reveal that the syntactic property of some phrasal verbs undergoes innovative processes such as particle substitution (to round up a point, omission (to bite more than you can chew, and redundancy (to meet up with the requirements; while the semantic property undergoes the process of semantic extension (to came out with a pathetic story to justify ones absence from office; to come out with a wonderful strategy to curb corruption, and semantic shift (to put up with someone for one semester. This reveals that, in the New English context such as Cameroon, users resort to the domestication of the alien language as a functional and dominant paradigm to combat cultural imperialism and express new identity.Keywords: Cameroon English, collocation, particle, phrasal verb, semantics, syntax

  10. Dentofacial injuries in contact sports in Yaounde, Cameroon

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    M A Agbor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentofacial injuries constitute serious problems among competitive and recreational athletes, worldwide. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dentofacial injuries and related factors among individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study among individuals participating in karate, judo, basketball, handball, football and wrestling in Yaoundé, Cameroon was conducted between January and April, 2012. Results: Of the 240 athletes interviewed, 115 and 89 of them reported bodily and dentofacial injuries giving 47.9% and 37.1% prevalence, respectively. The bodily injuries were limbs-(60.0%, chest-(23.5%, abdomen-(11.3% and neck- (5.2%. Mouth and face accounted for 52.8% and 37.1% of the dentofacial injuries, respectively. Other dentofacial injuries were teeth-(6.7% and mandible-(3.4%. Older athletes and years of participation were more likely to experience dentofacial injuries. Karate was the most common cause of dentofacial injuries followed by wrestling. The prevalence of the dentofacial injuries was similar among both genders and was equally prevalent during training and competition. The personal protective equipment use reduced the likelihood of dentofacial injuries among the athletes. Conclusion: The prevalence of dentofacial injuries were high while the personal protective equipment use was low among the individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

  11. Typology of Natural Hazards and Assessment of Associated Risks in the Mount Bambouto Caldera (Cameroon Line, West Cameroon)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghislain T. ZANGMO; Armand D. KAGOU; David G. NKOUATHIO; Pierre WANDJI

    2009-01-01

    Mount Bambouto is a polygenic stratovoicano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, built between 21 Ma and 4.5 Ma. It is situated approximately 200 km NE of Mount Cameroon, between 09°55' and 10°15' longitude east and, 05°25' and 05°50' latitude north. The volcano covers an area of (13×8 km). Mount Bambouto is characterized by several natural hazards of different origins: meteorological, such as landslides and rock falls; anthropogenic, such as bushfires, tribal wars and deforestation; and volcanological, such as volcanic eruption. The thematic map shows that 55-60% of the caldera has high probability of occurrence of mass movement. The caldera has a high population density (3000 inhabitants), which increases the level of risk, evaluated at approximately $US3.8 million for patrimony, 3000 civilian deaths and destruction of biodiversity.

  12. Economic management in neo-colonial states : a case study of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jua, N.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the economic management strategies adopted by the Government of Cameroon. Economic planning in Cameroon has been anchored to the principles of planned liberalism, self-reliant development, balanced development and social justice. These concepts are elaborated and it is shown that

  13. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and…

  14. High prevalence and predominance of hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 infection in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  16. Use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to obtain termites (Macrotermes) in the periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve, southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Isra; Guislain, Patrick; Dupain, Jef; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-12-01

    At the northern periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve (southeastern Cameroon) we recorded a new use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to prey on Macrotermes muelleri, M. renouxi, M. lilljeborgi, and M. nobilis. We recovered 79 puncturing sticks and 47 fishing probes at 17 termite nests between 2002 and 2005. The mean length of the puncturing sticks (n = 77) and fishing probes (n = 45) was 52 cm and 56 cm, respectively, and the mean diameter was 9 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. Sixty-eight percent of 138 chimpanzee fecal samples contained major soldiers of four Macrotermes species. The chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon appeared to be selective in their choice of plant material to make their tools. The tools found at our study site resemble those from other sites in this region. However, in southeastern Cameroon only one tool-set type was found, whereas two tool-set types have been reported in Congo. Our study suggests that, along with the different vegetation types and the availability of plant material around termite nests, the nest and gallery structure and foraging behavior of the different Macrotermes spp. at all Central African sites must be investigated before we can attribute differences in tool-use behavior to culture.

  17. Origin of Miocene andesite and dacite in the Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province, central Arizona: Hybrids of mafic and silicic magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, R. V.; Johnson, Kelly G.

    2016-07-01

    The Miocene Goldfield-Superstition volcanic province (G-SVP), ∼8000 km2 in central Arizona, is composed largely of silicic pyroclastic rocks and lavas, and smaller volumes of alkalic basalt and intermediate-composition lavas. Volcanism began ∼20.5 Ma as sparse rhyolitic and mainly basaltic lavas followed by intermediate lavas, lasting until ∼19 Ma. At that time, ∼1 m.y. of silicic eruptions began, creating most of the G-SVP. Petrologic studies are available for basalts and some for silicic rocks, but petrologic/geochemical information is sparse for intermediate-composition lavas. These latter, andesites and dacites, are the focus of this study, in which we present the processes and sources responsible for their origins. Goldfield-Superstition andesites and dacites have SiO2 ∼56-70 wt.% and Na2O + K2O that qualifies some as trachy-andesite and -dacite. A prominent petrographic feature is plagioclase-phyric texture (∼11-30 vol% plagioclase), where oligoclase-andesine phenocrysts have cores surrounded by corroded, or reacted, zones, mantled by higher An% plagioclase. Where corroded zones are absent, margins are etched, curved, or embayed. Groundmass plagioclase is labradorite, also more calcic than the phenocrysts. Other minerals are quartz (subrounded; embayed), clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, and rare titanite and zircon. A salient compositional characteristic that provides insight to andesite-dacite origins with respect to other G-SVP rocks is revealed when using SiO2 as an index. Namely, abundances of many incompatible elements, mainly HFSE and REE, decrease over the low to high SiO2 range (i.e., abundances are lower in dacites than in co-eruptive andesites and underlying alkalic basalts). As examples: G-SVP basalts have ∼50-70 ppm La, and andesites-dacites have ∼59-22 ppm La; for Zr, basalts have ∼225-170 ppm, but most andesites-dacites have ∼180-50; for Y, basalts >20 ppm, andesites-dacites ∼18-9 ppm. To understand these trends of lower

  18. Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases.

  19. Serological and molecular detection of Prune dwarf virus infecting stone fruits of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province, a central region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourolah Soltani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prune dwarf virus (PDV is one of the major positive RNA viruses which cause economical damages in stone fruit trees. The symptoms of PDV vary between different stone fruits namely sour and sweet cherry, almond, peach, apricot and plum including leaf narrowing, leaf chlorosis, vein clearing, mosaic, leaf whitening, leathery leaf, bushy branches and stunt trees. During the years 2011 and 2012, 251 leaf samples were collected for detection of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province. DAS-ELISA test proved PDV presence serologically. Then, total RNA were extracted and tested by two-step RT-PCR which replicated partial and full coat protein sequence of PDV. One hundred and eighty one out of total samples (251 samples showed PDV infection using serological and two-step RT-PCR assays, hence, incidence of PDV in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province was confirmed. This is the first report of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province and in Iran.

  20. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

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    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  1. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  2. The Numba ductile deformation zone (northwest Cameroon): A geometric analysis of folds based on the Fold Profiler method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Janko; C Njiki Chatu´e; M Kw´ekam; B E Bella Nk´e; A F Yakeu Sandjo; E M Fozing

    2017-03-01

    The Numba ductile deformation zone (NDDZ) is characterised by folds recorded during the three deformation phases that affected the banded amphibole gneiss. Fold-shape analyses using the program Fold Profiler with the aim to show the importance of folding events in the structural analysis of the NDDZ and its contribution to the Pan-African orogeny in central Africa have been made. Classical field method, conic sections method and Ramsay’s fold classification method were applied to (i) have the general orientation of folds, (ii) analyze the fold shapes and (iii) classify the geometry of the folded bands. Fold axes in banded amphibole gneiss plunge moderately (<15◦) towards the NNE or SSW. The morphology of F₁, F₂ and F₃ folds in the study area clearly points to (i) Z-shape folds with SE vergence and (ii) a dextral sense of shear motion. Conic section method reveals two dominant families: F₁ and F₃ folds belong to parabolic shape folds, while F₂ folds belong to parabolic shape and hyperbolic shape folds. Ramsay’s scheme emphasizes class 1C (for F₁, F₂ and F₃ folds) and class 3 (for F₂ folds) as main fold classes. The co-existence of the various fold shapes can be explained by (i) the structuration of the banded gneiss, (ii) the folding mechanisms that associate shear with a non-least compressive or flattening component in a ductile shear zone and (iii) the change in rheological properties of the band during the period of fold formation. These data allow us to conclude that the Numba region underwent ductile dextral shear and can be integrated (i) in a correlation model with the Central Cameroon Shear Zone(CCSZ) and associated syn-kinematic intrusions and (ii) into the tectonic model of Pan-African belt of central Africa in Cameroon.

  3. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  4. LA-ICPMS Zircon U-Pb Dating for Three Indosinian Granitic Plutons from Central Hunan and Western Guangdong Provinces and Its Petrogenetic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Bingxia; WANG Yuejun; FAN Weiming; PENG Touping; LIANG Xinquan

    2006-01-01

    The LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb geochronology of three typically Indosinian granitic plutons yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 214.1±5.9 Ma and 210.3±4.7 Ma for the biotite monzonitic granites from the Xiema and Xiangzikou plutons in Hunan Province, and 205.3±1.6 Ma for biotite granite from the Napeng pluton, western Guandong Province, respectively, showing a similar late Indosinian age of crystallization. In combination with other geochronological data from Indosinian granites within the South China Block (SCB), it is proposed that those late Indosinian granites with an age of ~210 Ma and the early Indosinian granites (230-245 Ma) have the similar petrogenesis in identical tectonic setting. The Indosinian granites within the SCB might be the products of anatexis of the thickening crust in a compressive regime. These data provide a further understanding for the temporal and spatial distribution of the Indosinian granites and the dynamic evolution of the SCB.

  5. Geochemistry and 207Pb/ 206Pb zircon ages of granitoids from the southern portion of the Tamboril-Santa Quitéria granitic-migmatitic complex, Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province (NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Carlos E. G.; Costa, Felipe G.; Pinéo, Tercyo R. G.; Cavalcante, José C.; Moura, Candido A. V.

    2012-02-01

    The Tamboril-Santa Quitéria Complex is an important Neoproterozoic granitic-migmatitic unit from the Ceará Central Domain that developed from ca. 650 to 610 Ma. In general the granitoids range in composition from diorite to granite with predominance (up to 85%) of granitic to monzogranitic composition with biotite as the main mafic AFM phase. Geochemical and 207Pb/ 206Pb evaporation zircon geochronology studies were applied in a group of these abundant monzogranitic rocks from the region of Novo Oriente in the southern portion of the Ceará Central Domain. In this area the granitoids are weakly peraluminous biotite granitoids and deformed biotite granitoids of high-K calc-alkaline and ferroan composition, which we interpreted as primary magmas (segregated diatexites) derived from the partial melting of crustal material. The close temporal relation of this magmatism with local eclogitic and regional high temperature metamorphism in Ceará Central Domain point out to an orogenic setting, arguably emplaced during the collisional stage. Subordinate coeval juvenile mantle incursions are also present. This crustally derived magmatism is the primary product of the continental thickening that resulted from the collision between the rocks represented by the Amazonian-West African craton (São Luiz cratonic fragment) to the northwest and the Paleoproterozoic-Archean basement of the Borborema Province to the southeast along the Transbrasiliano tectonic corridor.

  6. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

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    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  7. Poverty and Share Revenue in the Cameroon Cocoa Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folefack, DP.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the revenue level and unequal poverty revenue in the Cameroonian cocoa zone. The results show a great variability on the revenues generating activities to producers of cocoa in Cameroon. These activities generate an average revenue of 1 215 622 FCFA per year, with an annual average revenue of 145 933 FCFA per person. We realize through the indice of Gini 0.61 that the concentration of these revenues is most strong in Cameroon and the poverty rate is still affecting 69% of the population. We observe as well that the average revenue of 228 263 FCFA per year and per person for the producers of South West. They are thus the richest, inspite of the high degree of concentration. In the Centre, the population have a high average annual revenue of 87 257 FCFA per person and the concentration seems to be in a lower degree. Finally, in the South we find the poorest with a revenue of 53 504 FCFA per year and per person and the concentration is more important. An analysis based on unequal indicators shows in general that the revenue per person is relatively low and the degree of concentration of revenue is stronger in the Cameroonian cocoa zone.

  8. The Weight of Health Expenditures on Household Income in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Parfait OWOUNDI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  African leaders pledged at the Abuja conference in 2001, to mobilize more financial resources to allocate at least 15% of their national budgets to the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, seem to have difficulty meeting this commitment because of weakness and fragmentation of health systems. These commitments were renewed in Gaborone, Botswana in 2005 and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2006. Indeed, donor funding is still a large part of public health spending on the continent. In some countries, 50% or more of their budgets come from foreign or private assistance. In about half the countries, the private health financing is equal to or exceeds largely public funding, up to 70% in some states like Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia and Uganda. Only five countries (Rwanda, Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso, and Togo have so far respected the promise made to the Abuja conference. In Cameroon, where 51% of the population lives on less than two dollars per day, the average propensity of the total medical consumption is very high. Indeed, 32% of households spend less than half of income on health, while 16% of households spend more than half of the income and 52% spend more than the total income. This corresponds to a weight of 68% in health care spending.  

  9. Local governance in disaster risk reduction in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buh-Wung Gaston

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework from the civil society perspective, particularly the role of local governance in disaster risk reduction (DRR. Seven regions of the country were identified for evaluation, where people have suffered losses from disasters during the last three decades. Three approaches were used: administration of questionnaires; consultations with local communities; and four case studies. It was found that there was significant scope for improvement on individual local governance indicators, and that effective progress depends on:1. level of achievement in the decentralisation process currently under way.2. adoption of a participatory approach to DRR.3. clear distribution of roles in the DRR process.4. adequate allocation of necessary financial and human resources.5. enhancement of capacity of local communities to prepare for and respond to all types of disasters.Creation of an independent body to carry out fundamental research, forecast new and emerging hazards and manage all disasters in the country will contribute greatly to moving things forward.

  10. 省区层面中央与地方财政科技投入结构分析%Province-Level Analysis of the Structure of Central and Local Financial Investment in S&T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤朝; 马艳艳; 孙玉涛

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses two indicators to analyze the structure of province-level central and local financial investment in S&T.One of the indicators is the proportion of central financial investment in S&T to government funds.The other indicator is the proportion of local financial investment in S&T to local financial revenue.Panel data wag used to analyze the relationship of the central and local financial investment in S&T.The results showed that the central financial investment in S&T could not obviously drive the local financial investment in S&T.The two-way mechanism should be built to optimize the allocation of central and local financial investment in S&T.%运用中央财政科技投入占政府资金的比重、地方财政科技投入占地方财政的比重两个指标,分析了省区层面的中央与地方财政科技投入的结构模式,并运用面板数据对中央与地方财政科技投入的关系进行了实证分析,结果表明,中央财政科技投入对地方科技投入的带动作用不明显,据此提出构建国家科技资源与地方科技资源双向优化配置机制的建议.

  11. Is the Mesa Central of Mexico a biogeographical province? Descriptive analysis based on freshwater biotic components ¿La mesa central de México es una provincia biogeográfica? Análisis descriptivo basado en componentes bióticos dulceacuícolas

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    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents an analysis of the concept of Mesa Central of México as a potential biogeographical province. This region of México has been used as a reference for describing species richness and distribution patterns of the freshwater fish fauna. However, it has not been recognized as a biogeographical province in the available schemes which are mostly based on the composition of terrestrial biota. Here, we provide a historical sketch of the way the concept of Mesa Central arose in the literature as a physiographic province, and we provide a comparison with respect to the regionalization schemes of the Mexican territory, which are based on attributes such physiography, elevation, hydrology, geology and biogeography. We conclude that the Mesa Central, even though it represents a practical concept for establishing the distribution pattern of the fish fauna, in the way it was described originally cannot be circumscribed to any of the regions or provinces in which Mexico has been divided. We also argue that this geographical region cannot be considered as a synonym of the Transmexican Volcanic Axis biogeographical province, and also that it is possible that the fact that this area is not circumscribed to any regionalization scheme is due to the fact that freshwater elements have not been considered in the establishment of such biogeographical regions. We end by pointing out the need for a biogeographical analysis that integrates most of the freshwater elements in order to determine whether both the aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna are driven by the same geobiotic processes.En este ensayo se presenta un análisis del concepto de Mesa Central de México como una posible provincia biogeográfica. Esta región del país ha sido utilizada como referencia para describir la riqueza y distribución de una parte importante de la fauna ictiológica dulceacuícola, sin embargo, no es reconocida como provincia biogeográfica en ninguno de los

  12. Zircon dating and mineralogy of the Mokong Pan-African magmatic epidote-bearing granite (North Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchameni, R.; Sun, F.; Dawaï, D.; Danra, G.; Tékoum, L.; Nomo Negue, E.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Nzolang, C.; Dagwaï, Nguihdama

    2016-09-01

    We present the mineralogy and age of the magmatic epidote-bearing granite composing most of the Mokong pluton, in the Central Africa orogenic belt (North Cameroon). This pluton intrudes Neoproterozoic (~830 to 700 Ma) low- to high-grade schists and gneisses (Poli-Maroua group), and is crosscut or interleaved with bodies of biotite granite of various sizes. The pluton is weakly deformed in its interior, but solid-state deformation increases toward its margins marked by narrow mylonitic bands trending NNE-SSW. The magmatic epidote granitic rocks are classified as quartz monzodiorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, and syenogranite. They are medium- to coarse-grained and composed of K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + amphibole + epidote + magnetite + titanite + zircon + apatite. In these granites, the pistacite component [atomic Fe+3/(Fe3+ + Al)] in epidote ranges from 16 to 29 %. High oxygen fugacity (log ƒO2 - 14 to -11) and the preservation of epidote suggest that the magma was oxidized. Al-in hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase thermometry indicate hornblende crystallization between 0.53 and 0.78 GPa at a temperature ranging from 633 to 779 °C. Zircon saturation thermometry gives temperature estimates ranging from 504 to 916 °C, the latter being obtained on samples containing inherited zircons. U/Pb geochronology by LA-ICP-MS on zircon grains characterized by magmatic zoning yields a concordia age of 668 ± 11 Ma (2 σ). The Mokong granite is the only known occurrence magmatic epidote in Cameroon, and is an important milestone for the comparison of the Central Africa orogenic belt with the Brasiliano Fold Belt, where such granites are much more abundant.

  13. Addressing urban sprawl in Douala, Cameroon: Lessons from Xiamen integrated coastal management

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    Suinyuy Derrick Ngoran

    2015-06-01

    The conclusions of this effort portray that sprawl in Cameroon is caused by inadequate policy implementation, outdated master plan, insufficient information, disparity in resources distribution among the different regions of the State and the gaps expounded by the traditional management. Grounded in the knowledge drawn from Xiamen ICM, the paper recommends the creation of an autonomous coastal interagency in Douala to address the gaps disrupted by sectoral management, and thus, improve coastal management in Cameroon.

  14. Retention in an antiretroviral therapy programme during an era of decreasing drug cost in Limbe, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mosoko Jembia J; Akam Wilfred; Weidle Paul J; Brooks John T; Aweh Asabi J; Kinge Thompson N; Pals Sherri; Raghunathan Pratima L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2002, Cameroon initiated scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART); on 1 October 2004, a substantial reduction in ART cost occurred. We assessed the impact of this event and other factors on enrolment and retention in care among HIV-infected patients initiating ART from February 2002 to December 2005 at the single ART clinic serving the Southwest Region in Limbe, Cameroon. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical and pharmacy payment records of HIV-infected patients ...

  15. [Epidemiologic study of dracunculosis in the Podokwos of the Mandara mountains (northern Cameroon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issoufa, H; Monekosso, G; Ripert, C

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is the study of the epidemiological aspects of dracontiasis in an endemic area in Cameroon. The study was undertaken in the central Podokwo settlement in Mora subdivision. It is a mountainous area with a climate characterized by a long dry season, from October to mid-May, and a short rainy season. Two seasonal, streams run across the settlement. The water supply of the community is ensured throughout the year by two well built wells. During the rainy season, shallow unprotected wells are the water sources of about 80% of the inhabitants. Among the 944 subjects studied in our sample, 251 had the disease, corresponding to a prevalence of 26 6%. There is no significant difference between both sexes in the prevalence of the disease in our study. The age group 13-26 years is most affected. The worm load varies from 1 to 5, averagely 1.5. As to the localization of the worms in the body, in 92.7% of cases the worms is located in the lower limbs, the feet alone representing up to 46.8%. Less common sites of localization are the head, the breast, the external genitalia. The maximum rate of infestation is observed between August and September. Desinfection of wells with chemicals would be recommended during this period of time.

  16. Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from Southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR

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    Herder S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in Central Africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. In this study, PCR was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of Cameroon (Bipindi. Trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (Quantitative buffy coat : QBC. Parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (Kit for in vitro isolation : KIVI. Specific primers of T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type, T. congolense savannah type, T. vivax, T. simiae and T. b. gambiense group 1 were used to identify parasites in the blood of 164 animals belonging to 24 different species including ungulates, rodents, pangolins, carnivores, reptiles and primates. Of the 24 studied species, eight were carrying T. b. gambiense group 1. Those parasites pathogenic to man were found in monkeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercopithecus nictitans, in ungulates (Cephalophus dorsalis and C. monticola, in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus. 13 species (54 % were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1.

  17. Sustaining mother tongue medium education: An inter-community self-help framework in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatoh, Blasius A.

    2011-12-01

    Advocating mother tongue education implies recognising the centrality of linguistic and cultural diversity in quality and accessible education planning and delivery. In minority linguistic settings, this need becomes particularly urgent. Decades of exclusive promotion of foreign languages have rendered the educational system incapable of guaranteeing maximum quality, accessibility and equity. Also, due to long periods of marginalisation and disempowerment, most indigenous communities are unable to undertake viable self-reliant educational initiatives. As a result, planning and management of education is not adapted to the needs and realities of target populations. What such an educational approach has succeeded in achieving is to cultivate a culture of near-total dependence and consumerism. In minority language situations where mother tongue education is still primarily in the hands of private institutions and individuals, successful planning also means influencing the perceptions and attitudes of indigenous people and systematically integrating them into the educational process. This paper discusses grass-roots mother tongue education in Cameroon. It focuses on the inter-community self-help initiative as a local response framework and argues that this initiative is a strong indication of the desire of communities to learn and promote learning in their own languages.

  18. PROSTATIC ILLNESSES: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT WITH MEDICINAL PLANTS AT MAROUA (CAMEROON

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    Noumi E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three fieldworks were done at Maroua area in the Northern Cameroon to evaluate the epidemiology and the prophylaxis of prostatic illnesses, in 2008-2010. Data from the central Hospital of Maroua permitted us to appreciate the epidemiology. Interviews on 22 patients showed the risk factors for the apparition of prostatic illnesses and discussion with 27 phytotherapists indicated the treatments as done in the study area.Surgical intervention of Urogenital tumors related to prostatic illnesses occupy a preponderant place (51% in the surgery Service of the regional Hospital of Maroua. The patients prefer to go to traditional Doctors for treatment although there, the diagnoses by symptoms are approximate. Four plants are the more used by the traditional healers in the treatment of the prostatic illnesses: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera, Sanseviera senegambica and Tamarindus indica; and 5 are new in the Cameroonian ethnobotany literature: Hyparrhenia nyassae, Hyphaene thebaica, Prosopis africana, Marsdenia sylvestri and Thelepogon elegans. The rate of monospecific recipe is lower (2/18 with respect to bispecific (12/18 or trispecific ones. The population of Maroua, both patients and phytotherapists, need some information on the feeding, the type of foods and the temperament of the prostate.

  19. Human physique and sexual attractiveness: sexual preferences of men and women in Bakossiland, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J; Dixson, Alan F; Morgan, Bethan; Anderson, Matthew J

    2007-06-01

    Men and women living in a rural community in Bakossiland, Cameroon were asked to rate the attractiveness of images of male or female figures manipulated to vary in somatotype, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), secondary sexual traits, and other features. In Study 1, women rated mesomorphic (muscular) and average male somatotypes as most attractive, followed by ectomorphic (slim) and endomorphic (heavily built) figures. In Study 2, amount and distribution of masculine trunk (chest and abdominal) hair was altered progressively in a series of front-posed male figures. A significant preference for one of these images was found, but the most hirsute figure was not judged as most attractive. Study 3 assessed attractiveness of front-posed male figures which varied only in length of the non-erect penis. Extremes of penile size (smallest and largest of five images) were rated as significantly less attractive than three intermediate sizes. In Study 4, Bakossi men rated the attractiveness of back-posed female images varying in WHR (from 0.5-1.0). The 0.8 WHR figure was rated markedly more attractive than others. Study 5 rated the attractiveness of female skin color. Men expressed no consistent preference for either lighter or darker female figures. These results are the first of their kind reported for a Central African community and provide a useful cross-cultural perspective to published accounts on sexual selection, human morphology and attractiveness in the U.S., Europe, and elsewhere.

  20. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon

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    Kefie-Arrey Charles

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis have previously been reported in two zones of the Southwest Province of Cameroon including the Kupe mountain and Mundani foci. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and epidemiology of paragonimiasis in the peri-urban zone of Kumba, Meme Division, located about 50 km away from the Kupe mountain focus. Methods Pupils of several government primary schools in 5 villages around Kumba underwent both parasitologic and clinical investigations in search of signs and symptoms of paragonimiasis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also searched for in the differential diagnosis.Freshwater crabs from neighbouring streams in the five villages were dissected in search of paragonimus metacercariae. Results Out of a total of 1482 pupils examined in all five villages, 309 individuals (147 males and 162 females were recruited for this study based on the presence of one or more signs or symptoms of paragonimiasis. Eggs of Paragonimus africanus were found in stools and/or sputum of pupils from all five villages, giving an overall paragonimus prevalence of 2.56%. There was no significant difference in the disease prevalence between the villages (X2 = 8.36, P = 0.08. The prevalence of Paragonimus africanus eggs amongst pupils with symptoms of paragonimiasis was 12.3% (38 of 309. Males were infected more than females (17.0% versus 8.0%, but the difference was not significant (X2 = 5.76, P = 0.16. All the 38 paragonimus egg positive subjects presented with cough, 23 (60.53% complained of chest pain while 16 (42.11% had haemoptysis. Stool examinations also detected some intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides (29.45%, Trichuris trichiura (6.47%, Necator americanus (2.27%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.62%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.65%, and Entamoeba histolytica (4.53%. No case of M. tuberculosis was noted. Out of a total of 85 dissected crabs (Sudanonautes africanus, 6.02 % were infected with paragonimus

  1. A single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) approach for investigating genetic interactions of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma guineensis in Loum, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, B L; Tchuem Tchuenté, L A; Southgate, V R

    2007-03-01

    Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA provides a molecular tool for the identification of Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma guineensis and the hybrids of these two species. This molecular tool was utilized to provide a detailed analysis of the interactions between S. haematobium and S. guineensis in hybrid zones of Loum, Littoral Province, Cameroon. Individual hybrid schistosomes were identified within the natural populations collected from Loum in 1990, 1999 and 2000, which would have been misidentified as S. haematobium using solely morphological and sequence criteria. This study indicates the complexities of the hybridization between S. haematobium and S. guineensis and emphasizes the importance of assessing morphological, biological and molecular data to gain insights into the interaction of these two species over time.

  2. Analysis on Dynamic Evolution of Tourist Market of Inbound Tourism of Six Provinces in Central Region%中部六省区入境旅游客源市场动态演化结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玎玎; 马耀峰

    2013-01-01

    Based on the international tourist market of six provinces in central region,we do quantitative calculation and analysis of spatial structure of international tourist market in northwest,temporal and spatial evolving feature of the preference scale and the competition state,including dynamic evolution pattern of competition state of destinations in northwest as well as“the preference scale and the marketing competition state matrix model” during the 11 years(from 1999 to 2009) by EXCEL and documentary analysis. The number of inbound tourists and the income of foreign exchange of central region are on the increase obviously,but the problem is that the temporal structure of the inbound tourism are not that reasonable and fluctuate a lot. It is advised that international tourist market should be reasonably located to provide fundamental materials,improve the tourist market structure,to promote inbound tourism development of six provinces in central region.%  针对中部六省区入境旅游客源市场,运用 EXCEL 软件统计分析、文献分析等方法,定量计算分析了2000—2010年中部六省区入境旅游客源市场地理空间结构、亲景度和竞争态的时空演替特征、目的地竞争态动态演化模式,“亲景度-市场竞争态矩阵模型”,得出中部地区入境旅游人数和外汇收入增长趋势明显,但入境旅游时间和空间结构不太合理,波动较大的结论。建议通过合理定位国际客源市场,改善客源市场结构,推动中部六省区的入境旅游发展。

  3. Alcohol use and extramarital sex among men in Cameroon

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    Wiysonge Charles

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be driven by unsafe sex, and identification of modifiable risk factors of the latter is needed for comprehensive HIV prevention programming in the region. Some previous studies suggest an association between alcohol abuse and unsafe sexual behaviour, such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships and inconsistent condom use in sex with non-spousal non-cohabiting partners. However, most of these studies were conducted in developed countries and the few studies in Africa were conducted among well-defined social groups such as men attending beer halls or sexually transmitted infection clinics. We therefore examined the association between alcohol and extramarital sex (a sign of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among men in a population-based survey in Cameroon; a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa with a high rate of alcohol abuse and a generalised HIV epidemic. Methods We analyzed data from 2678 formally married or cohabiting men aged 15 to 59 years, who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey, using a multivariate regression model. Results A quarter of the men (25.8% declared having taken alcohol before their last sexual intercourse and 21% indicated that the last sex was with a woman other than their wife or cohabiting partner. After controlling for possible confounding by other socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use was significantly associated with having extramarital sex: adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.70, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.40 to 2.05. Older age (30–44 years: OR 3.06, 95%CI 2.16–4.27 and 45–59 years: OR 4.10, 95%CI 2.16–4.27, higher education (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.10–1.45, and wealth (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.50–1.98 were also significantly associated with higher odds of having extramarital sex. The men were more likely to have used a condom in their last sex if it was extramarital (OR 10.50, 95%CI 8.10–13

  4. Wealth and sexual behaviour among men in Cameroon

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    Nana Philip

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS in Cameroon revealed a higher prevalence of HIV in richest and most educated people than their poorest and least educated compatriots. It is not certain whether the higher prevalence results partly or wholly from wealthier people adopting more unsafe sexual behaviours, surviving longer due to greater access to treatment and care, or being exposed to unsafe injections or other HIV risk factors. As unsafe sex is currently believed to be the main driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we designed this study to examine the association between wealth and sexual behaviour in Cameroon. Methods We analysed data from 4409 sexually active men aged 15–59 years who participated in the Cameroon DHS using logistic regression models, and have reported odds ratios (OR with confidence intervals (CI. Results When we controlled for the potential confounding effects of marital status, place of residence, religion and age, men in the richest third of the population were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.56 and more likely to have had at least two concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12–1.19 and more than five lifetime sex partners (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60–2.43. However, there was no difference between the richest and poorest men in the purchase of sexual services. Regarding education, men with secondary or higher education were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.16–0.38 and more likely to have started sexual activity at age 17 years or less (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.10–3.56 and had more than five lifetime sexual partners (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.02–3.31. There was no significant association between education and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in the last 12 months or purchase of sexual services

  5. Electricity Self-Generation Costs for Industrial Companies in Cameroon

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    Diboma Benjamin Salomon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production in developing countries (DC is frequently perturbed by electric energy supply difficulties. To overcome this problem, generators are used in self-generation of energy, but this leads to an increase of electricity-related expenses. This article assesses the impact of electricity self-generation on Cameroonian industrial companies. The model described in this article is based on data collected through a survey of a representative sample of industrial companies and from numerous previous thematic and statistical studies. The results of our analyses show that expenses related to electricity in industrial companies in Cameroon have increased five times due to electricity rationing and untimely power cuts. The article also suggests some solutions to improve the electricity self-generation capacity of industrial companies.

  6. Timing of Premarital Intercourse in Bandjoun (West Cameroon

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    Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the effects of family environment on the risks of premarital intercourse for male and female youth. Previous research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA on the linkages between family structures and sexual debut mainly utilized cross-sectional data. In a sample drawn from Cameroon Family and Health Survey (N = 2,166, descriptive and multivariate results showed that youth who resided in nuclear two-parent families, those who reported higher levels of parental monitoring and higher quality of parent–child relationships during childhood and/or adolescence, had significantly lower rates of premarital intercourse. Polygynous families, parent–child communication, orphanhood, and change in family structure were significantly associated with higher rates of premarital intercourse. Programmatic implications for reproductive health interventions in SSA are discussed.

  7. Mechanisms for Quality Assurance of Universities in Cameroon

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    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a perspective look at the evolution of universities in Cameroon and the recent orientation of deregulation as it affects quality assurance in Cameroonian universities. The paper having identified these flaws attempted to elucidate the meaning of mechanism for Quality assurance in the face of deregulation. The regulatory mechanisms identified by this paper include inter- alia, appropriate scrutiny of new programmes, relying on impartial advise of examiners. Using the state law NO.98/004 of 1998 to compliment the efforts of internal school administration and above all opening linkages between universities and relating universities education in the World of science and technology. This paper does not only enhance quality assurance but also builds the idea of economic growth and development.

  8. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

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    Gadsby Elizabeth L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more

  9. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin--A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Huai-liang; Zhu Bo; Chen Guo-jie; Gao Mei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biomass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biomass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  10. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin——A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoHuai-liang; ZhuBo; ChenGuo-jie; GaoMei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biornass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biornass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  11. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon.

  12. Crustal radial anisotropy beneath Cameroon from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Adebayo Oluwaseun; Ni, Sidao; Li, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    To increase the understanding of crustal deformation and crustal flow patterns due to tectonic processes in Cameroon, we study the lateral variability of the crustal isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy estimated using Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT). Rayleigh and Love wave Noise Correlation Functions (NCFs) were retrieved from the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise data recorded in Cameroon, and phase velocities at periods of 8 to 30 s were measured to perform surface wave tomography. Joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave data for isotropic velocity models could not fit the observed dispersions simultaneously. We attribute the Love-Rayleigh discrepancy to the presence of radial anisotropy in the crust and estimated its magnitude. Our 3-D radial anisotropic model reveals the spatial variation of strong to weak positive (Vsh > Vsv) and negative (Vsv > Vsh) radial anisotropy in the crust. We observe negative radial anisotropy in the upper crust that is associated mainly with the location of a previously reported mantle plume. The anisotropy could be attributed to the vertical alignment of fossil microcracks or metamorphic foliations due to the upwelling of plume material. A strong positive radial anisotropy is centered at the location of an inferred boundary between the Congo Craton and the Oubanguides Belt that might be related to the preferred orientation of crustal anisotropic minerals associated with shearing in this fault zone. The middle crust is characterized by a widespread negative radial anisotropy that is likely caused by the flow-induced alignment of anisotropic minerals that crystallized during magma intrusion. The magnitude of the radial anisotropy varies systematically from predominantly negative in the middle crust to positive in the lower crust. The imaged patterns of the isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy are consistent with previous studies and agree with regional tectonics.

  13. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Bone, T M; Gonwouo, N L; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T; Weldon, C; Perkins, M; Kouete, M T; Browne, R K; Loader, S P; Gower, D J; Wilkinson, M W; Rödel, M O; Penner, J; Barej, M F; Schmitz, A; Plötner, J; Cunningham, A A

    2013-02-28

    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n = 1052) and caecilians (n = 85) of ca. 108 species. Bd was detected in 124 amphibian hosts at 7 localities, including Mt. Oku, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Manengouba and lowland localities in the centre and west of the country. None of the hosts were observed dead or dying. Infected amphibian hosts were not detected in other localities in the south and eastern rainforest belt. Infection occurred in both anurans and caecilians, making this the first reported case of infection in the latter order (Gymnophiona) of amphibians. There was no significant difference between prevalence and infection intensity in frogs and caecilians. We highlight the importance of taking into account the inhibition of diagnostic qPCR in studies on Bd, based on all Bd-positive hosts being undetected when screened without bovine serum albumin in the qPCR mix. The status of Bd as an indigenous, cosmopolitan amphibian parasite in Africa, including Cameroon, is supported by this work. Isolating and sequencing strains of Bd from Cameroon should now be a priority. Longitudinal host population monitoring will be required to determine the effects, if any, of the infection on amphibians in Cameroon.

  14. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

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    Stefano Mandelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  15. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Industries in Cameroon

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    Oyewole Simon Oginni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Present technological innovations and social organizations continue to impose risks and limitations on the efficient performance of the biosphere. Human activities have increasingly short-lived sustainable natural endowments, to the extent that, the multiplier effects have ripples beyond the traditional benefits of economic production and consumption. Therefore, this study addressed practical concerns on how industries in Sub-Saharan Africa promote sustainable development in their corporate social responsibility models, using industries in Cameroon as a case study; it examined economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR. Our sample consists of 335 business enterprises from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted a systematic analysis through the Adjusted Residual Test, and the Phi and Cramer’s V tests. Findings revealed that industries in Cameroon prioritize environmental and social dimensions over economic dimensions. However, a few large enterprises implement a broad CSR that promotes sustainable business practices, whereas smaller ones do not; industries in Cameroon implement environmental dimensions of CSR as a safe buffer and a social dimension as philanthropy. Hence, there is no concrete evidence that industries promote sustainable development via CSR in Cameroon. The implementation of a sustainable business model is a precondition for promoting sustainable development via CSR. Industries should realize the concrete value in implementing a sustainable business model that helps to adjust to the complex and increasingly changing business environment.

  16. Prevalencia, decomisos de hígado y pérdidas económicas por Fasciola hepatica en mataderos bovinos de tres provincias de la región central de Cuba .Prevalence, liver confiscation and economic losses by Fasciola hepatica in bovine slaughterhouses of three provinces of the central region of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Barreto, Miguel A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio retrospectivo basado en los registros existentes sobre los hallazgos de fasciolosis en los mataderos bovinos de tres provincias de la región central de Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara y Sancti Spíritus durante 5 años (2000-2004. Se sacrificaron 273 460 animales, de los cuales el 35,5% estaba parasitado por F. hepatica. Se decomisaron 49 173 hígados (18,0% delos animales sacrificados, siendo la provincia de Sancti Spíritus la de peores resultados. Las afectaciones por año fueron variables sobre todo en Cienfuegos y Villa Clara. Las pérdidas económicas fueron cuantiosas, calculándose, sólo por concepto de hígados decomisados en $ 436 656 (USD durante el período estudiado.SummaryA retrospective study was carried out based on the existent registrations of fasciolosis discoveries in the bovine slaughterhouses of three provinces of the central region of Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara and Sancti Spíritus during 5 years (2000-2004. 273 460 animals were sacrificed and the 35.5% of themwas infested with F. hepatica. 49 173 livers were confiscated (18.0% of the sacrificed animals, being the province of Sancti Spíritus the one with worse results. The affectations per year were variable mainly in Cienfuegos and Villa Clara. The economic losses were considerable, being calculated, only by concept of confiscated livers in $ 436 656 (USD during the studied period.

  17. Current cancer incidence and trends in Yaounde, Cameroon

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    Enow Orock GE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Except for some information on relative frequencies of different cancers in selected areas, the epidemiology of cancer in Cameroon is relatively unknown. Though there is no reliable data on its incidence and pattern, with an estimated 15,000 new cases diagnosed annually and a prevalence of about 25.000 cases throughout the country, cancer is being increasingly recognized as a public health problem in Cameroon. The Yaounde Cancer Registry is a population registry physically located at the General Hospital Yaounde that has been operating since 2004. It collects data from about 20 sources that cover the entire population of Yaounde estimated in 2010 at about 1,299,369. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the incidence and trends of cancer in the Yaounde population in the period 2004 – 2006/2010 – 2011. It is hoped that this will enable policy makers, health providers and other stake holders plan appropriate health management policy in this population. Materials and Methods: This report presents the cancer incidence for 5 years, 2004 – 2006/2010 – 2011 in the Yaounde population estimated at 1,299,369. Data of the Yaounde Cancer Registry was reviewed for the period under study using Canreg5 software. Only malignant cases registered during the period under study were used in the analysis while benign and other uncertain tumours were excluded. The 2010 census estimates by the National Institute of Statistics was employed to calculate the incidence, age-standardized and crude rates. Other software like excel, epi info were also used for analysis. Survival studies were not carried out in this study. Results: A total of 4,689 new malignant cases were reported, of which 2,901 (68% were females and 1,788 (32% were males. The incidence showed an average of 358 for men and 580 for women. The average age of cancer patients in Yaounde is 44.8 years. Morphologically confirmed cases accounted for 89% .The annual number of

  18. Distribution of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (Nav) Alleles among the Aedes aegypti Populations In Central Java Province and Its Association with Resistance to Pyrethroid Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayono, Sayono; Hidayati, Anggie Puspa Nur; Fahri, Sukmal; Sumanto, Didik; Dharmana, Edi; Hadisaputro, Suharyo; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Syafruddin, Din

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistant Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has hampered dengue control efforts. WHO susceptibility tests, using several pyrethroid compounds, were conducted on Ae. aegypti larvae that were collected and raised to adulthood from Semarang, Surakarta, Kudus and Jepara in Java. The AaNaV gene fragment encompassing kdr polymorphic sites from both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes was amplified, and polymorphisms were associated with the resistant phenotype. The insecticide susceptibility tests demonstrated Ae, aegypti resistance to the pyrethroids, with mortality rates ranging from 1.6%-15.2%. Three non-synonymous polymorphisms (S989P, V1016G and F1534C) and one synonymous polymorphism (codon 982) were detected in the AaNaV gene. Eight AaNaV alleles were observed in specimens from Central Java. Allele 3 (SGF) and allele 7 (PGF) represent the most common alleles found and demonstrated strong associations with resistance to pyrethroids (OR = 2.75, CI: 0.97-7.8 and OR = 7.37, CI: 2.4-22.5, respectively). This is the first report of 8 Ae. aegypti AaNaV alleles, and it indicates the development of resistance in Ae. aegypti in response to pyrethroid insecticide-based selective pressure. These findings strongly suggest the need for an appropriate integrated use of insecticides in the region. The 989P, 1016G and 1534C polymorphisms in the AaNaV gene are potentially valuable molecular markers for pyrethroid insecticide resistance monitoring.

  19. Metal Exposure and Associated Health Risk to Human Beings by Street Dust in a Heavily Industrialized City of Hunan Province, Central China

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    Guangyi Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five urban street dust samples were collected from Zhuzhou, an industrial city in central China and analyzed for a range of toxic elements. Potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects on children and adults due to exposure to street dust were assessed. Concerning the two subgroups, the child cohort is confronted with considerably greater health risks than adults. According to the Hazard Quotient (HQ method, ingestion of dust particles poses primary risk to children and adults, followed by dermal contact and inhalation for all of the metals investigated except Hg, for which inhalation of its elemental vapor constitute a slightly higher risk than ingestion. For children, Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Sb exposure were deemed as the highest contributors to non-cancer health risks, while As and Cr represent an enhanced cancer risk for children. For adults, risk indicator values for both cancer and non-cancer effects obtained were within the safety threshold. In a comparison with other locations within and outside mainland China, exposure to arsenic is prominent for the population of Zhuzhou, indicating more attention and preventive actions should been taken.

  20. Distribution of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (Nav Alleles among the Aedes aegypti Populations In Central Java Province and Its Association with Resistance to Pyrethroid Insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayono Sayono

    Full Text Available The emergence of insecticide resistant Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has hampered dengue control efforts. WHO susceptibility tests, using several pyrethroid compounds, were conducted on Ae. aegypti larvae that were collected and raised to adulthood from Semarang, Surakarta, Kudus and Jepara in Java. The AaNaV gene fragment encompassing kdr polymorphic sites from both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes was amplified, and polymorphisms were associated with the resistant phenotype. The insecticide susceptibility tests demonstrated Ae, aegypti resistance to the pyrethroids, with mortality rates ranging from 1.6%-15.2%. Three non-synonymous polymorphisms (S989P, V1016G and F1534C and one synonymous polymorphism (codon 982 were detected in the AaNaV gene. Eight AaNaV alleles were observed in specimens from Central Java. Allele 3 (SGF and allele 7 (PGF represent the most common alleles found and demonstrated strong associations with resistance to pyrethroids (OR = 2.75, CI: 0.97-7.8 and OR = 7.37, CI: 2.4-22.5, respectively. This is the first report of 8 Ae. aegypti AaNaV alleles, and it indicates the development of resistance in Ae. aegypti in response to pyrethroid insecticide-based selective pressure. These findings strongly suggest the need for an appropriate integrated use of insecticides in the region. The 989P, 1016G and 1534C polymorphisms in the AaNaV gene are potentially valuable molecular markers for pyrethroid insecticide resistance monitoring.

  1. Digital geologic map and Landsat image map of parts of Loralai, Sibi, Quetta, and Khuzar Divisions, Balochistan Province, west-central Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Menga, Jan Mohammad; Khan, Shabid Hasan; Thomas, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    This generalized digital geologic map of west-central Pakistan is a product of the Balochistan Coal-Basin Synthesis Study, which was part of a cooperative program of the Geological Survey of Pakistan and the United States Geological Survey. The original nondigital map was published by Maldonado and others (1998). Funding was provided by the Government of Pakistan and the United States Agency for International Development. The sources of geologic map data are primarily 1:253,440-scale geologic maps obtained from Hunting Survey Corporation (1961) and the geologic map of the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite Complex and Bagh Complex area. The geology was modified based on reconnaissance field work and photo interpretation of 1:250,000-scale Landsat Thematic Mapper photo image. The descriptions and thicknesses of map units were based on published and unpublished reports and converted to U.S. Geological Survey format. In the nomenclature of the Geological Survey of Pakistan, there is both an Urak Group and an Urak Formation.

  2. Accumulation and Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factor of Lead and Manganese in some Plant Species in Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    Mohamad Sakizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have detrimental effects on the health of human being. The values of manganese (Mn and lead (Pb in some plant species and soil samples in an arid area of Iran were evaluated in this study. Methods: The values of Pb and Mn in 94 plant samples from 8 plant species and the related soil samples in 2010 were considered in Shahroud and Damghan, central Iran. Moreover, the soil-to-plant transfer factors of these two elements were investigated. Results: Except for barley, the values of Pb in all of the considered plants were higher than the standard level of 0.3 mg/kg. The amounts of Mn in all of the plant species other than pistachio were higher than the standard level of 25 mg/kg. As a whole, the bio-concentration factor of Mn was higher than that of Pb in the study area. Conclusion: None of the soil-to-plant transfer factors exceeded one. Grape recorded the highest amounts of Pb and Mn compared with that of other investigated plant species. However, since its respective bio concentration factor (BCF was lower than one, it cannot be considered as a hyper accumulator of lead and manganese.

  3. New U sbnd Pb zircon ages from Tonga (Cameroon): coexisting Eburnean-Transamazonian (2.1 Ga) and Pan-African (0.6 Ga) imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko Njiosseu, Evine Laure; Nzenti, Jean-Paul; Njanko, Théophile; Kapajika, Badibanga; Nédélec, Anne

    2005-04-01

    The central domain of the Pan-African Belt in Cameroon is characterized by abundant porphyritic granitoids, which were emplaced synkinematically and variably orthogneissified in relation with ENE-striking steeply dipping transcurrent shear zones. These plutonic rocks have intermediate to felsic compositions and constitute a high-K calk-alkaline series. Conventional U sbnd Pb zircon dating yields an age of 618 Ma for this syntectonic Pan-African magmatism in the Tonga area. The country rocks are made of metabasites (garnet amphibolites) and tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses, which suffered two distinct orogenic cycles: the first one is the Palaeoproterozoic Eburnean-Transamazonian cycle at 2.1 Ga and the second one is the Pan-African orogenesis. These new ages confirm the existence of an extensive Palaeoproterozoic crust in Cameroon and question the areal extent of the Congo-São Francisco craton towards the north. To cite this article: E.L. Tanko Njiosseu et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  4. Beyond the decade of policy and community euphoria: The state of livelihoods under new local rights to forest in rural Cameroon

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    Phil René Oyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the state of livelihoods under the exercise of new community rights to forest in rural Cameroon. The assessment makes use of a set of livelihoods indicators. The granting and exercise of new community rights, namely, management rights and market rights, are not synonymous with improved livelihoods, despite initial predictions and expectations. The resource base has not changed; it is more and more threatened by poor local level institutional arrangements and social and bio-physical management strategies, in addition to the weak central level regulation and monitoring actions. Similarly, the rights-based reform and community forestry are not improving basic assets and means at the household level. Nevertheless, this paper suggests that this experiment should not be judged hastily, since fifteen years are not enough to judge social and institutional processes like those in progress in Cameroon. The authors draw policy options likely to improve the livelihoods dimension of the reform and launch a debate on the real contribution of community income derived from community forests towards poverty alleviation at the household level.

  5. Distribution of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (Nav) Alleles among the Aedes aegypti Populations In Central Java Province and Its Association with Resistance to Pyrethroid Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayono, Sayono; Hidayati, Anggie Puspa Nur; Fahri, Sukmal; Sumanto, Didik; Dharmana, Edi; Hadisaputro, Suharyo; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Syafruddin, Din

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistant Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has hampered dengue control efforts. WHO susceptibility tests, using several pyrethroid compounds, were conducted on Ae. aegypti larvae that were collected and raised to adulthood from Semarang, Surakarta, Kudus and Jepara in Java. The AaNaV gene fragment encompassing kdr polymorphic sites from both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes was amplified, and polymorphisms were associated with the resistant phenotype. The insecticide susceptibility tests demonstrated Ae, aegypti resistance to the pyrethroids, with mortality rates ranging from 1.6%–15.2%. Three non-synonymous polymorphisms (S989P, V1016G and F1534C) and one synonymous polymorphism (codon 982) were detected in the AaNaV gene. Eight AaNaV alleles were observed in specimens from Central Java. Allele 3 (SGF) and allele 7 (PGF) represent the most common alleles found and demonstrated strong associations with resistance to pyrethroids (OR = 2.75, CI: 0.97–7.8 and OR = 7.37, CI: 2.4–22.5, respectively). This is the first report of 8 Ae. aegypti AaNaV alleles, and it indicates the development of resistance in Ae. aegypti in response to pyrethroid insecticide-based selective pressure. These findings strongly suggest the need for an appropriate integrated use of insecticides in the region. The 989P, 1016G and 1534C polymorphisms in the AaNaV gene are potentially valuable molecular markers for pyrethroid insecticide resistance monitoring. PMID:26939002

  6. Domestic animals as potential reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon

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    Njiokou F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An explanation of the endemic nature and/or the resurgence of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT in the historic foci in West and Central Africa may be the existence of an animal reservoir. In some HAT foci, pigs were found infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the implication of the other domestic animals was not quite evaluated. This study aims to determine the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in domestic animal species (goat, sheep, pig and dog commonly found in the four active HAT foci in Cameroon (Bipindi, Fontem, Campo and Doumé. Blood samples were collected from 307 pigs, 264 goats, 267 sheep and 37 dogs and used for parasitological (QBC, immunological (LiTat 1.3 CATT and molecular (PCR analyses. QBC detected trypanosomes in 3.88 % domestic animals while 22.7 % were sero-positive with LiTat 1.3 CATT tests. Of the 875 animals analysed, 174 (19.88 % harboured T. brucei s.l. DNA, found in each of the four types of animal and in the four localities. The infection rate significantly differed among the animal species (p < 0.0001 and localities (p < 0.0001. The PCR also revealed T. b. gambiense group 1 DNA in 27 (3.08 % domestic animals. The specific infection rates were as follows: sheep (6.74 %, goats (3.08 %, pigs (0.32 % and dogs (0 %. T. b. gambiense was found in 8 (3.92 % animals from Bipindi, 15 (4.83 % from Campo, 4 (2.59 % from Fontem-Center and none from Doumé. The infection rates significantly differed between the localities, and correlated with the intensity of HAT transmission in the foci.

  7. 基于EOF方法的华中五省近47年总云量变化分析%Analysis on Total Cloud Cover Change of Five Provinces in Central China Last 47 Years Based on EOF Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琼芳; 高庆九; 石燕; 潘洪祥

    2011-01-01

    选用华中五省(河南、湖北、湖南、安徽、江西)20个全球交换站1959 - 2005年逐月云量观测资料,用EOF方法分析了近47a来华中五省总云量的年、季节变化规律及其地域分布特征,以期对气候模式开发和模拟研究提供参考,并为华中五省气候变化和农业生产区划提供数据支持.结果表明:近47a来,华中五省平均年、季总云量总体呈减少趋势.总云量变化地区差异较大,主要有2种典型时空分布.第一典型场中,年、季均为正值,且均由南向北呈现出低-高的差异,中心位于华中五省中偏北部地区.对应时间系数中,年、春、秋季1959 -2005年总体呈明显波动下降趋势,可得出年、春、秋季总云量近47a呈减少趋势,夏季无明显变化,冬季变化趋势也不明显.第二典型场中,年、四季均大体以长江为界呈反向变化,对应时间系数以年际变化为主.%Based on monthly cloud cover observation data from 20 global exchange stations of five provinces ( Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Anhui and Jiangxi province) in central China during 1959 -2005, the seasonal/annual variation and regional distribution of total cloud cover in last 47 years were analyzed. The results showed that both of average annual and seasonal total cloud cover in central China decreased in last 47 years. Variation of total cloud cover changed among different regions, and there were two kinds of typical space - time distribution. One was positive variation for both annual and seasonal, and increasing from south to north. Its center located in the northern-middle part of central China. The cloud cover of spring and autumn declined and there was no obvious change in summer and winter from 1959 to 2005. The other was reverse variation on the two sides of the Yangtze river, obvious in annual variation.

  8. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, V R; Tchuenté, L A; Théron, A; Jourdane, J; Ly, A; Moncrieff, C B; Gryseels, B

    2000-11-01

    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maximum production of cercariae for 1 day was 4892 observed in a snail from the MDI group at day 43 post-infection. The mean longevity of snails was higher in group MD1 (88 days p.i.) than in group MD5 (65 days p.i.). The chronobiological emergence pattern revealed a circadian rhythm with one shedding peak at mid-day. Comparisons are made with the vectorial capacity of the sympatric combination of B. pfeifferi Senegal/S. mansoni Senegal.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

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    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  10. Seasonal pattern of hospitalization from acute respiratory infections in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchidjou, Hyppolite Kuekou; Vescio, Fenicia; Boros, Stefano; Guemkam, Georgette; Minka, Esthelle; Lobe, Monny; Cappelli, Giulia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Tietche, Felix; Rezza, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are among the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in Africa. The effects of climatic factors on occurrence of ARIs in the tropics are not clear. During the years 2006-07, we reviewed the clinical registers of the Chantal Biya Foundation (CBF), Yaoundé, Cameroon, paediatric hospital to investigate the association between climatic factors and ARIs in children. Our findings show that rain, high relative humidity and low temperatures are directly associated with an increase in the frequency of hospitalization from ARIs. Given the high frequency of hospitalization from ARIs we suggest that influenza vaccination campaigns should be implemented taking into account the seasonality in Cameroon.

  11. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: Where are we now and where are we going?

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    Mimbouga Julienne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. Methods In January 2003, case-based surveillance of suspected yellow fever cases was instituted in the whole country. A year later, yellow fever immunisation at nine months of age (the same age as routine measles immunisation was introduced. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs, both preventive and in response to outbreaks, also formed an integral part of the yellow fever control plan. Each level of the national health system makes a synthesis of its activities and sends this to the next higher level at defined regular intervals; monthly for routine data and daily for SIAs. Results From 2004 to 2006 the national routine yellow fever vaccination coverage rose from 58.7% to 72.2%. In addition, the country achieved parity between yellow fever and measles vaccination coverage in 2005 and has since maintained this performance level. The number of suspected yellow fever cases in the country increased from 156 in 2003 to 859 in 2006, and the proportion of districts that reported at least one suspected yellow fever case per year increased from 31.4% to 68.2%, respectively. Blood specimens were collected from all suspected cases (within 14 days of onset of symptoms and tested at a central laboratory for yellow fever IgM antibodies; leading to confirmation of yellow fever outbreaks in the health districts of Bafia, Méri and Ntui in 2003, Ngaoundéré Rural in 2004, Yoko in 2005 and Messamena in 2006. Owing to constraints in rapidly mobilising the necessary resources

  12. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  13. Effect of sampling methods, effective population size and migration rate estimation in Glossina palpalis palpalis from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélachio, Tanekou Tito Trésor; Njiokou, Flobert; Ravel, Sophie; Simo, Gustave; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Human and animal trypanosomiases are two major constraints to development in Africa. These diseases are mainly transmitted by tsetse flies in particular by Glossina palpalis palpalis in Western and Central Africa. To set up an effective vector control campaign, prior population genetics studies have proved useful. Previous studies on population genetics of G. p. palpalis using microsatellite loci showed high heterozygote deficits, as compared to Hardy-Weinberg expectations, mainly explained by the presence of null alleles and/or the mixing of individuals belonging to several reproductive units (Wahlund effect). In this study we implemented a system of trapping, consisting of a central trap and two to four satellite traps around the central one to evaluate a possible role of the Wahlund effect in tsetse flies from three Cameroon human and animal African trypanosomiases foci (Campo, Bipindi and Fontem). We also estimated effective population sizes and dispersal. No difference was observed between the values of allelic richness, genetic diversity and Wright's FIS, in the samples from central and from satellite traps, suggesting an absence of Wahlund effect. Partitioning of the samples with Bayesian methods showed numerous clusters of 2-3 individuals as expected from a population at demographic equilibrium with two expected offspring per reproducing female. As previously shown, null alleles appeared as the most probable factor inducing these heterozygote deficits in these populations. Effective population sizes varied from 80 to 450 individuals while immigration rates were between 0.05 and 0.43, showing substantial genetic exchanges between different villages within a focus. These results suggest that the "suppression" with establishment of physical barriers may be the best strategy for a vector control campaign in this forest context.

  14. Changes in lion (Panthera leo) home range size in Waza National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumenta, P.N.; Van't Zelfde, M.; Croes, B.M.; Buij, R.; Funston, P.J.; Haes, de H.A.U.; longh, De H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial ecology of Africa lions (Panthera leo) was studied from 2007 to 2009 in Waza National Park, Cameroon, by equipping individual lions with GPS/VHF radio-collars. Mean home range estimates using 100% minimum convex polygons (MCP) and 95% kernel-density estimation (KDE) were respectively 101

  15. Technical and Vocational Education in Cameroon and Critical Avenues for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, S. Megan

    2007-01-01

    Technical and vocational education (TVE) can influence development and economic progress for post-colonial societies. Some newly independent sub-Saharan African countries attempted curricular transformation that might produce a skilled workforce through widespread access to versions of TVE. In Cameroon, no such post-colonial curricular revolution…

  16. Habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forests of South Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onguene, N.A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Information is lacking on habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi of African humid forests. For three years, mushroom excursions were carried out in four sites with contrasted soil and altitude characteristics of South Cameroon, during wet seasons. Collected fungi were described in fres

  17. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  18. Distribution, incidence and abundance of the cassava brown root scale insect, Stictococcus vayssierei, in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchuanyo, M.; Huis, van A.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    A new scale insect, Stictococcus vayssierei, has been found attacking all the underground parts of cassava. From surveys in all the cassava-growing areas of Cameroon, the insect seems to be limited to the southern part of the country, where it is a major pest of cassava. This is the semi-humid zone

  19. Improving the benefits of wildlife harvesting in Northern Cameroon: a co-management perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayaka, T.; Hendricks, T.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    We examined ways of improving the incentive structure of a safari company, the state, and the local communities within a wildlife co-management framework in Northern Cameroon. To this end, we built an integer linear programming model with state-allocated quotas and a profit maximisation objective fu

  20. How to win a football match in Cameroon : an anthropological study of Africa's most popular sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Footballers Essomba and Ashu, team manager Kalla and spiritual adviser Zé are the key characters in this anthropological study of football in Cameroon, which is based on research carried out in 2003. It might seem that a well-organized club with professional executives, a team of talented players an

  1. Vulnerability, forest-related sectors and climate change adaptation : the case of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonwa, D.J.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Bele, M.Y.; Nkem, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    In Cameroon and elsewhere in the Congo Basin, the majority of rural households and a large proportion of urban households depend on plant and animal products from the forests to meet their nutritional, energy, cultural and medicinal needs. This paper explores the likely impacts of climate-induced ch

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Malaria in Mbonge and Kumba Sub-divisions in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie; Maat, Harro; Edward, Ndzi; Emery, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding transmission, prevention and treatment of malaria in four rural settings and one urban neighborhood. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive survey carried out in Cameroon. Place and Duration of Study: This study took place in rural Mbon

  3. Privatisation of agro-industrial parastatals and anglophone opposition in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the regional anglophone opposition in Cameroon which arose after 15 July 1994, when the government was forced by international donors to announce the privatization of 15 public enterprises, notably in the transport and agroindustrial sectors. The most prominent among them was

  4. Stress Management and Teachers' Productivity in Cameroon: Lessons from Momo Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyi Einstein Moses E.

    2016-01-01

    A teacher who is stressed out, stresses out his student who in turn, behave differently (usually worse) and consequently produce more stress for the teacher. This study on Stress management and teachers' productivity was carried out in Momo Division North West Region of Cameroon. The aim was to find out the extent to which the teachers' acceptance…

  5. The Position of English Globally and Nationally: A Comparison of Cameroon and Vanuatu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongdia, Jane-Francis A.; Willans, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates language ideologies relevant to medium of instruction policy within two postcolonial countries: Cameroon and Vanuatu. Each country experienced British and French rule, and has retained both English and French as official languages and media of instruction. However, since Independence, there has been a difference in the way…

  6. Savannah Forest Beekeepers in Cameroon: Actions to Reduce Vulnerability. Chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2016-01-01

    The savannah forests in Adamaoua, Cameroon, are home to traditional, forest-based beekeepers, subsistence farmers and pastoralists. This sparsely populated region is economically marginal and little developed, with lower than national average incomes. Forest apiculture is important here: honey, bees

  7. Nutrient flows in smallholder production systems in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanmegne, J.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Brussaard, L.; Gansop-Kouomegne, A.; Boukung, A.

    2006-01-01

    The flows and balances of N, P and K were studied in 20 farms in the Campo Ma'an area in Cameroon between March and August 2002 to assess the nutrient dynamics in smallholder farms. Data were collected through farmer interviews, field measurements and estimates from transfer functions. Nutrient inpu

  8. Bridging the gap: how traditional healers interact with their patients. A comparative study in Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labhardt, N.D.; Aboa, S.M.; Manga, E.; Bensing, J.M.; Langewitz, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare traditional healers (TH) and Cameroonian representatives of Western medicine (Western providers (WP)) in terms of patient characteristics and communication patterns during the consultation in rural Cameroon. Methods: A facility-based comparative study was conducted. Seven TH we

  9. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachroni, D.; Graikou, K.; Kosalec, I.; Damianakos, H.; Ingram, V.J.; Chinou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their st

  10. Plasmodium falciparum transmission blocking immunity under conditions of low and high endemicity in Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudin, C.; Kolk, M. van der; Tchuinkam, T.; Gouagna, C.; Bonnet, S.; Safeukui, I.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Meunier, J.Y.; Verhave, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Transmission blocking immunity (TBI) was studied in relation to age, gametocyte density and transmission intensity. subjects with high gametocytaemias were selected in a hypo-endemic urban district and a hyper-endemic rural area in South Cameroon. TBI was determined in blood from gametocyte carriers

  11. Lolodorfus, a new genus of net-winged beetles (Coleoptera: Lycidae: Dexorinae) from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocakova, Milada

    2014-06-04

    A new genus Lolodorfus is proposed within the subfamily Dexorinae and Lolodorfus flavus sp. nov. from Cameroon is described. Illustrations of diagnostic characters are given. The genus Mimolibnetis Pic, 1936 is transferred to the Dexorinae Bocak et Bocakova, 1989, and consequently the subfamily Mimolibnetinae Kazantsev, 2013 is considered to be a younger synonym of Dexorinae Bocak et Bocakova, 1989.

  12. The politics of neoliberal reforms in Africa : State and civil society in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Neoliberalism has become the dominant development agenda in Africa, but neoliberal experiments have displayed a remarkable diversity in different countries. This book focuses on Cameroon, where the neoliberal project has been influenced by the nation's complex economic and political history. Current

  13. Determinants and Impacts Of Human Mobility Dynamics In The Western Highlands Of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tankou, C.M.; Iongh, de H.H.; Persoon, G.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses human mobility among inhabitants of Cameroon‘s most populous region, the Western Highlands of Cameroon. In other to capture the impact of various determinants on human mobility, a comparative study was conducted through household and field surveys in three villages in the region

  14. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  15. The emotional world of kinship: Children's experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through shar

  16. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest Njih Tabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme.We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005-2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate.In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon.Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with.

  17. Occurrence and Distribution of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Central-south Shaanxi Province%陕西省中南部地区小麦禾谷孢囊线虫的发生与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 钮绪燕; 张管曲; 彭德良; 康振生

    2011-01-01

    2010年4-5月,于小麦抽穗至灌浆期,采用5点取样法,取根际5~20 cm土壤,运用漂浮法分离孢囊,统计100 g土孢囊数量,用生物形态学方法鉴定,结果表明,小麦禾谷孢囊线虫调查的39个县市中20个县市均有分布,南部县市尚未发现小麦孢囊线虫,关中地区发生普遍且较重.其中,周至县、岐山县、西安市临潼区、扶风县、眉县、杨凌、三原县、高陵县、泾阳县、华县的小麦禾谷孢囊线虫密度较大,每100g土壤的平均孢囊含量达9.8~63.0个.小麦孢囊线虫在陕西省分布广、危害严重,呈快速传播态势.这是首次报道陕西中南部地区小麦禾谷孢囊线虫的发生状况与分布,为陕西省全面防治小麦孢囊线虫提供依据.%Investigation on occurrence and distribution of Heterodera avenae in central-south Shaanxi province were carried out during wheat heading to milking stage in April to May 2010. Soil sampling were taken in five to twenty centimeters underground around the infected wheat plants in filed based on random sampling method of five-point. Cysts were isolated from one hundred grams of the mixed soil in terms of Fenwick's method. Identification of nematode was performed based on morphology characters of H. avenae. Of thirty nine counties in central-south Shaanxi were investigated on occurrence of H. avenae, twenty counties were found infection of H. avenae on wheat. In south parts of Shaanxi, there were no distribution of H. avenae, but severe infection in counties in the central Shaanxi. A higher density of cysts were focused in the following counties including Zhouzhi, Qishan,Lintong in Xi'an, Fufeng, Meixian, Yangling, Sanyuan, Gaoling, Jingyang, and Huaxian. The average number of cyst per 100 grams was ranged from 8. 9 to 63.0. The occurrence of H. avenae in Shaanxi has a trend of rapid spread with a large scale distribution and severe damage. This survey was helpful to understand status of distribution of H. avenae

  18. Prevalence and causes of blindness at a tertiary hospital in Douala, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eballé AO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballé1,4, Côme Ebana Mvogo1,3, Godefroy Koki2, Nyouma Mounè3, Cyrille Teutu5, Augustin Ellong2,3, Assumpta Lucienne Bella2,41Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3General Hospital of Douala, Ophthalmology Unit, Douala, Cameroon; 4Cameroon National Blindness Control Programme, Ministry of Public Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 5Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Mountain University, Banganté, CameroonPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral blindness in the town of Douala and its environs based on data from the ophthalmic unit of a tertiary hospital in Douala.Methods: We conducted a retrospective epidemiological survey of consultations at the eye unit of the Douala General Hospital over the last 20 years (from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2009.Results: Out of the 1927 cases of blindness, 1000 were unilateral, corresponding to a hospital prevalence of 1.84% and 927 cases were bilateral, corresponding to a hospital prevalence of 1.71%. No statistically significant difference was noted between the two (P = 0.14. The leading causes of bilateral blindness were cataract (50.1%, glaucoma (19.7%, and diabetic retinopathy (7.8% while the leading causes of unilateral blindness were cataract (40.4%, glaucoma (14.1%, and retinal detachment (9.1%. Cataract (51.2%, cortical blindness (16.3%, and congenital glaucoma (10% were the leading causes of bilateral blindness in children aged less than 10 years.Conclusion: Blindness remains a public health problem in the Douala region with a hospital prevalence which is relatively higher than the national estimate given by the National Blindness Control Program.Keywords: bilateral blindness, unilateral blindness, prevalence, Douala, Cameroon

  19. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  20. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  1. Current Status of HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: How Effective are Control Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Mbanya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly three decades after its discovery, HIV infection remains the number one killer disease in Sub-Saharan Africa where up to 67% of the world’s 33 million infected people live. In Cameroon, based on a Demographic Health Survey carried out in 2004, the national HIV prevalence is estimated at 5.5% with women and youths being predominantly infected. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC from the HIV and AIDS pandemic have increased steadily over the years; hospital occupancy is estimated at about 30%, hence stretching the health system; co-infections like HIV/tuberculosis have been reported to reach 40-50% of infected cases and 95% of teachers are said not to be productive on several counts. Thus, the impact is multi-sectorial. Furthermore, the HIV epidemic in Cameroon is peculiar because of the wide HIV-1 genetic diversity of HIV-1 Group M observed with several subtypes reported (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, predominantly subtype A. There are also circulating recombinant forms, mainly CRF02_AG. In addition, HIV-1 Groups O and N have all been noted in Cameroon. These findings have great implications not only for HIV diagnosis, but also for responsiveness to therapy as well as for vaccine development. In 1986, the initial response of the Cameroon government to the increasing trends in the HIV/AIDS infection was to create a National AIDS Control Committee to coordinate a national AIDS programme. By 2000, the first National Strategic Plan was drawn for 2000-2005. The second National Strategic Plan for 2006-2010 is currently being implemented and covers various axes. Some results obtained show that there has been significantly positive outcomes noted in the various arms of intervention by the Cameroon government.

  2. Current status of HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: how effective are control strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanya, Dora; Sama, Martyn; Tchounwou, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Nearly three decades after its discovery, HIV infection remains the number one killer disease in Sub- Saharan Africa where up to 67% of the world's 33 million infected people live. In Cameroon, based on a Demographic Health Survey carried out in 2004, the national HIV prevalence is estimated at 5.5% with women and youths being predominantly infected. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) from the HIV and AIDS pandemic have increased steadily over the years; hospital occupancy is estimated at about 30%, hence stretching the health system; co-infections like HIV/tuberculosis have been reported to reach 40-50% of infected cases and 95% of teachers are said not to be productive on several counts. Thus, the impact is multi-sectorial. Furthermore, the HIV epidemic in Cameroon is peculiar because of the wide HIV-1 genetic diversity of HIV-1 Group M observed with several subtypes reported (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K), predominantly subtype A. There are also circulating recombinant forms, mainly CRF02_AG. In addition, HIV-1 Groups O and N have all been noted in Cameroon. These findings have great implications not only for HIV diagnosis, but also for responsiveness to therapy as well as for vaccine development. In 1986, the initial response of the Cameroon government to the increasing trends in the HIV/AIDS infection was to create a National AIDS Control Committee to coordinate a national AIDS programme. By 2000, the first National Strategic Plan was drawn for 2000-2005. The second National Strategic Plan for 2006-2010 is currently being implemented and covers various axes. Some results obtained show that there has been significantly positive outcomes noted in the various arms of intervention by the Cameroon government.

  3. Review: Meredith Terretta, Nation of Outlaws, State of Violence: Nationalism, Grassfields Tradition, and State Building in Cameroon (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Elischer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Meredith Terretta, Nation of Outlaws, State of Violence: Nationalism, Grassfields Tradition, and State Building in Cameroon, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2013, ISBN 978-0-8214-2069-0, 368 pp.

  4. Aquaculture in Cameroon and potential of lactic acid bacteria to be used as diseases controlling agents. A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kaktchan, Pierre Marie; Zambou Ngoufack, Francois; Fonteh Anyangwe, Florence; Perez-Chabela, M. Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food production sector and can be a great solution to the massive demand for protein of animal due to increase in the Cameroonian population. This review summarizes the past and present status of fish aquaculture in Cameroon, the new challenges for intensifying fish production and evaluates the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria as disease control agents in order to overcome these challenges. Fish farming started in Cameroon in the late 1940s,...

  5. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control gro...

  6. The puzzle of Buruli ulcer transmission, ethno-ecological history and the end of "love" in the Akonolinga district, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Owona-Ntsama, Joseph; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara

    2015-03-01

    The "One World One Health Initiative" has attended little to the priorities, concepts and practices of resource-poor communities confronting disease and the implications of these concerns for its biomedical, ecological and institutional approach to disease surveillance and control. Using the example of Buruli ulcer (BU) and its bacterial etiology, Mycobacterium ulcerans, in south-central Cameroon, we build on debates about the contributions of "local knowledge" and "alternative models" to biomedical knowledge of disease transmission. BU's mode of transmission remains poorly understood. Our approach employs ethno-ecological histories - local understandings of the putative emergence and expansion of a locally important, neglected disease. We develop these histories from 52 individual and small group interviews, group discussions, and participant-observation of daily and seasonal activities, conducted in 2013-2013. These histories offer important clues about past environmental and social change that should guide further ecological, epidemiological research. They highlight a key historical moment (the late 1980s and 1990s); specific ecological transformations; new cultivation practices in unexploited zones that potentially increased exposure to M. ulcerans; and ecological degradation that may have lowered nutritional standards and heightened susceptibility to BU. They also recast transmission, broadening insight into BU and its local analog, atom, by emphasizing the role of social change and economic crisis in its emergence and expansion.

  7. Magnetic fabrics of the Miocene ignimbrites from West-Cameroon: Implications for pyroclastic flow source and sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gountié Dedzo, M.; Nédélec, A.; Nono, A.; Njanko, T.; Font, E.; Kamgang, P.; Njonfang, E.; Launeau, P.

    2011-06-01

    The Miocene ignimbrites of Mounts Bambouto and Bamenda located in the central part of Cameroon Volcanic Line are generally made of welded and non-welded massive lapilli tuff and lithic breccias. These discontinuous deposits cover a total area of 180 km 2 with thickness ranging from 25 to 200 m. The different facies contain several lithic fragments of mainly trachytic nature. The devitrified matrix of the welded ignimbrites is constituted by sanidine, anorthoclase, quartz, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, biotite, Fe-Ti oxides and devitrified fiammes. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is used to characterize magnetic fabrics and to provide an estimate of flow direction of each ignimbrite sheet. Magnetic mineralogy results from different flow units show that titanomagnetite, titanohematite, maghemite and goethite with grain size ranging from coarse MD to very fine SP are the main magnetic carriers of these ignimbrites. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data and field indicators show that Bambouto caldera is the source of main pyroclastic deposits of Mount Bambouto. In southwestern Mount Bamenda, Santa-Mbu caldera or Bambouto caldera constituted the probable emission center of Mbengwi, Bamenda and Mbu ignimbrite sheets, whereas magnetic fabrics of Bambili, Sabga and Big Babanki ignimbrites demonstrate that these deposits were emitted from a northeastern source, namely Oku vent in Mount Oku. A small number of subvertical AMS fabrics correspond to rocks possibly modified by an elutriation process.

  8. Trace element differentiation in ferruginous accumulation soil patterns under tropical rainforest of southern Cameroon, the role of climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temgoua, Emile; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Bitom, Dieudonné

    2003-03-01

    Regions under tropical rainforest cover, such as central Africa and Brazil are characterised by degradation and dismantling of old ferricrete structures. In southern Cameroon, these processes are relayed by present-day ferruginous accumulation soil facies, situated on the middle and the lower part of hill slopes. These facies become progressively harder towards the surface, containing from bottom to top, mainly kaolinite, kaolinite-goethite and Al-rich goethite-hematite, and are discontinuous to the relictic hematite-dominated ferricrete that exist in the upper part of the hill slope. These features were investigated in terms of geochemical differentiation of trace elements. It appears that, in contrast to the old ferricrete facies, the current ferruginous accumulations are enriched in transitional trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Y, Sc) and Pb, while alkali-earth elements are less differentiated. This recent chemical accumulation is controlled both by intense weathering of the granodiorite bedrock and by mobilisation of elements previously accumulated in the old ferricrete. The observed processes are clearly linked to the present-day humid climate with rising groundwater tables. They slowly replace the old ferricretes formed during Cretaceous time under more seasonal climatic conditions, representing an instructive case of continuos global change.

  9. Mass balance of nitrogen and potassium in urban groundwater in Central Africa, Yaounde/Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, R; Rechenburg, A; Kuitcha, D; Fouépé, A; Bellenberg, S; Kengne, I M; Fomo, M A

    2016-03-15

    Mass flow of nutrients from innumerous latrines and septic tanks was assessed to best describe the groundwater quality situation in the urban environment of Yaounde. 37 groundwater samples were taken at the end of dry season 2012 and analysed for nutrient related (NO3(-), NH4(+), NO2(-), K(+), Cl(-), HPO4(2-) and TOC) and physico-chemical ambient parameters. A survey on waste water discharge close to water points constrained point sources from sanitation. The results showed that the median of nitrate concentration exceeds the WHO limit. We realized that EC increases from the geogenic background to very high levels in the urban area within short distance, suggesting anthropogenic input. Dug wells showed nitrate and ammonium in equivalent concentrations, indicating incomplete nitrification and mandating their inclusion into water type classification. The mass turnover of nutrients in urban groundwater scales high in comparison to national statistical figures on fertilizer import for 2012. A mass N,K balance for infiltration water overestimates observed concentrations by a factor of 4.5. The marked balance gap is attributed to dynamic non-equilibrium between input and output. Unresolved questions like a) urban sanitation, b) hygiene & health and c) environmental protection urgently call for closing the nutrient cycle. In the light of Cameroonian strategies on rural development, tackling the groundwater nutrient, urban agriculture, food--NEXUS might partially restore urban and periurban ecosystem services under economical constraints and thus improve living conditions.

  10. Stress and Time Management Settings in University of Maroua, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine stress and time in educational management in Maroua University. These two phenomena are profound in educational issues in Cameroon due to the complex administration or management. Education comprised of diversity of activities ranging from administration, discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning. Each of these activities requires time schedule to avoid stress in the face of pressure. Administration requires planning, organizing, controlling, commanding, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Each of these managing variables requires time, just as discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning should need. The situation may be affected by higher authority interference and cause a rush thus affecting every schedule in the system on this note, it is necessary that every administrator on management cadre should develop a list of activities such as admissions, examinations, sports, vacations and other ceremonies which requires his attention on daily, weekly, or monthly bases and there after allocate in a tentative fashion the most appropriate times for dealing with such activities. Some profile recommendations are: strict adhering to schedules to avoid overlapping or prolongation to other programs; the schedules should be pasted or placed at a convenient point in the office for reference to avoid forgetfulness: as an administrator, time should be allocated for meeting or consulting with visitors and subordinates; he should delegate functions to his accredited subordinates to crave chance or time for essential duty; he should review the school or organization programs on daily, weekly or monthly bases the degree to which his administration goals have been attained and he (i.e. administrator should crave time for rest i.e. holidays, relaxation and various forms of physical exercises to revitalizes the body for subsequent activities. The paper recommends planning which is vital in management to avoid time waste

  11. Analysis on Spatial Structure of Keteleeria evelyniana Mixed Forest in Central Area of Yunnan Province%滇中地区滇油杉混交林空间结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦红; 李小英; 左政; 师静

    2011-01-01

    The stand spatial structure of Keteleeria evelyniana mixed forests in central part of Yunnan Province was studied by means of three parameters including the aggregation index, tree species diversity mingling degree and the tree neighborhood comparison ratio. The results showed that the stand spatial distribution pattern for more than three nearest neighbor trees was uniform. The average species diversity mingling degree of the stands was 0. 232 2, indicating the low mixing degree. The mingling degree of deciduous tree species was higher than the coniferous tree species, while zero mixing was obvious to the Keteleeria evelyniana tree species. The average tree neighborhood comparison ratio was 0. 52, indicating less variation and the stands were comparatively steady, and there was medium level competition among the trees. The distribution of the neighborhood comparison ratio of Keteleeria evelyniana was even, while there was strong differentiation among the associated tree species, The study showed that Pinus armandii and Alnus cremastogyne were the predominant tree species in the stands.%利用聚集指数、树种多样性混交度、大小比数等3个林分空间结构参数对滇中地区滇油杉混交林空间结构进行分析,结果表明:林木空间分布格局表现出以最近邻木3株及以上为均匀分布;林分树种多样性混交度为0.232 2,混交程度较低,以弱度混交为主,阔叶树种混交程度高于针叶树,滇油杉零度混交明显;林木大小比数平均为0.52,变动小较为稳定,竞争处于中庸状态,滇油杉大小比数分布较均匀,其他组成树种分化程度差异较大,华山松和旱冬瓜处于竞争优势.

  12. Petrogenesis of Early-Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks in northern Liaoning and central Jilin provinces, northeast China: Implications for the extent of spatial-temporal overprinting of the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Hong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Cao, Hua-Hua; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Mesozoic tectonic evolution of NE China was controlled mainly by the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes. However, the extent of the spatial and temporal overprinting of these two regimes is poorly understood. Here, we report new zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses of Jurassic intrusive rocks in northern Liaoning and central Jilin provinces, northeast China, to discuss their petrogenesis and outline the extent of spatial and temporal overprinting of these two tectonic regimes. Dating results indicate that Jurassic magmatism occurred in two stages during the Early (ca. 175 Ma) and Middle Jurassic (170-163 Ma). These rocks represent two-stage typical bimodal igneous rock associations composed mainly of olivine gabbro, gabbro, and gneissic granitoids. The Early and Middle Jurassic gabbros have low rare earth element (REE) abundances, positive Eu anomalies, depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs), and positive εHf(t) values (+ 4.0 to + 10.3, except for one value of - 17.8), suggesting that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of depleted lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted-slab-derived fluids. The Early Jurassic monzogranite exhibit high REE abundances (195-201 ppm), weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.63-0.64), and negative εHf(t) values (- 11.9 to - 8.2), suggesting a primary magma that was derived from partial melting of lower continental crust of the NCC. The Middle Jurassic granodiorites are enriched in light REEs (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and are depleted in heavy REEs (HREEs) and HFSEs, as well as high Sr/Y (29-132) and (La/Yb)N (15-44) ratios. In addition, the Middle Jurassic granitoids near or within the NCC exhibit negative εHf(t) values (- 18.9 to + 0.2), whereas those within the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB) have generally positive εHf(t) values (- 0.6 to + 6.4), suggesting their origin from partial melting of thickened ancient NCC and newly accreted

  13. Relationship between magmatic carbonatite and copper mineralization in the Ruina copper ore field, central province of Zambia%赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区碳酸岩及其与成矿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙希文; 边千韬; 王作琦

    2013-01-01

    通过对赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区钻孔岩芯的系统研究,作者认为该区的含矿围岩为典型的火成碳酸岩,详细的岩矿相学研究也揭示瑞娜铜矿为碳酸岩岩浆型铜矿床.岩浆发生液态不混溶作用,溶离出碱性硅酸盐熔体、金属硫化物熔体和挥发份(CO2、H2O、F、Cl、B、P等)等流体,岩浆所携带的碱质使接触带地层交代蚀变成霓长岩,挥发份以络合物的形式携带部分Cu、Au、Ag、Ga、Co、REE、Ni等金属元素在外接触带地层碎裂岩和内接触带处成矿.%Through the systematic observation of drill core samples collected from Ruina copper ore field in central province of Zambia,the authors conclude that the copper-bearing country rock is a typical carbonatite with magnetic origin.The detailed study of mineral assemblages and petrographical characteristics also indicate that the Ruina copper deposit is a magmatic carbonatite-type cooper mineralization.When the magma evolved into the immiscible stage,the alkali-containing silicate melt,sulfides melt and volatile components (including CO2,H2O,F,Cl,B,P)are dissolved.The alkali compositions accompanying the magma reacted with the contact host rock,then the fenite was formed; and the volatile components which contain mineralization elements such as Cu,Au,Ag,Ga,Co,REE and Ni in the form of chemical complex deposited in the fractures of host rocks within the outlier contact zone as well as inner contact zone.The result of this study will be useful and meaningful for mineral prospecting in this region.

  14. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  15. China's Most Populous Province to Ban Fetus Sex Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Henan, the most populous province in central China,is plagued by an excessively high sex ratio imbalance at birth in certain parts of the province. To ameliorate the situation, the province will enact regulations to ban non-medically necessary fetus gender identification and sex-selective abortions.

  16. Evidence of dengue virus transmission and factors associated with the presence of anti-dengue virus antibodies in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Demanou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is not well documented in Africa. In Cameroon, data are scarce, but dengue infection has been confirmed in humans. We conducted a study to document risk factors associated with anti-dengue virus Immunoglobulin G seropositivity in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.A cross sectional survey was conducted in Douala, Garoua and Yaounde, using a random cluster sampling design. Participants underwent a standardized interview and were blood sampled. Environmental and housing characteristics were recorded. Randomized houses were prospected to record all water containers, and immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes were collected. Sera were screened for anti-dengue virus IgG and IgM antibodies. Risk factors of seropositivity were tested using logistic regression methods with random effects. Anti-dengue IgG were found from 61.4% of sera in Douala (n = 699, 24.2% in Garoua (n = 728 and 9.8% in Yaounde (n = 603. IgM were found from 0.3% of Douala samples, 0.1% of Garoua samples and 0.0% of Yaounde samples. Seroneutralization on randomly selected IgG positive sera showed that 72% (n = 100 in Douala, 80% (n = 94 in Garoua and 77% (n = 66 in Yaounde had antibodies specific for dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2. Age, temporary house walls materials, having water-storage containers, old tires or toilets in the yard, having no TV, having no air conditioning and having travelled at least once outside the city were independently associated with anti-dengue IgG positivity in Douala. Age, having uncovered water containers, having no TV, not being born in Garoua and not breeding pigs were significant risk factors in Garoua. Recent history of malaria, having banana trees and stagnant water in the yard were independent risk factors in Yaounde.In this survey, most identified risk factors of dengue were related to housing conditions. Poverty and underdevelopment are central to the dengue epidemiology in Cameroon.

  17. Trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from urban and agro-industrial settings in southern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerah-Hinzoumbé Clément

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for insect pest control in Cameroon. In certain insect species, particularly the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, resistance to this class of insecticides is a source of great concern and needs to be monitored in order to sustain the efficacy of vector control operations in the fields. This study highlights trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in wild An. gambiae populations from South Cameroon. Methods Mosquitoes were collected between 2001 and 2007 in four sites in South Cameroon, where insecticides are used for agricultural or personal protection purposes. Insecticide use was documented in each site by interviewing residents. Batches of 2-4 days old adult female mosquitoes reared from larval collections were tested for susceptibility to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin using standard WHO procedures. Control, dead and survivors mosquitoes from bioassays were identified by PCR-RFLP and characterized for the kdr mutations using either the AS-PCR or the HOLA method. Results Four chemical insecticide groups were cited in the study sites: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. These chemicals were used for personal, crop or wood protection. In the four An. gambiae populations tested, significant variation in resistance levels, molecular forms composition and kdr frequencies were recorded in the time span of the study. Increases in DDT and pyrethroid resistance, as observed in most areas, were generally associated with an increase in the relative frequency of the S molecular form carrying the kdr mutations at higher frequencies. In Mangoum, however, where only the S form was present, a significant increase in the frequency of kdr alleles between 2003 to 2007 diverged with a decrease of the level of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Analyses of the kdr frequencies in dead and surviving mosquitoes showed partial correlation between the kdr genotypes and resistance

  18. 黔中喀斯特山区植物功能性状的变异与关联%Variation and correlation of plant functional traits in karst area of central Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习新强; 赵玉杰; 刘玉国; 王欣; 高贤明

    2011-01-01

    认识植物功能性状随演替进展的变化规律和不同性状之间的关系,有助于从功能生态学的角度来理解群落演替.该文调查了位于贵州省中部的普定县喀斯特山区26个样方的物种组成,这些样方分别处于灌丛、落叶阔叶林、落叶常绿混交林3个演替阶段;测量了分布于该区域的82种木本植物的3个功能性状值(叶面积、比叶面积、最大高度);根据物种在样方中的多度加权计算得到26个样方的性状平均值,在此基础上分析了随演替进展植物功能性状在群落水平上的变异格局和不同性状之间的相关性;采用性状梯度分析法分析了各阶段优势物种的功能性状在群落间(β组分)和群落内(α组分)的变异格局及相关性.结果表明:1)沿灌丛→落叶阔叶林→落叶常绿混交林这一演替顺序,群落平均叶面积和平均高度逐渐增加,而群落平均比叶面积则逐渐变小;2)就群落平均性状值而言,叶面积与最大高度呈较强的正相关关系,最大高度与比叶面积、叶面积与比叶面积均呈较强的负相关关系;3)物种功能性状的α组分之间没有显著的相关关系,而β组分之间相关性显著.这说明:随演替的进展,群落优势物种对环境的适应策略由高速生长转向提高资源利用效率,而同一群落内共存的物种采取不同的性状组合来适应共同的群落环境.%Aims The trait-based community ecology approach has recently attracted considerable interest from plant ecolo-gists. Our objective is to explore variations and correlations of plant functional traits at the species and community levels along a successional gradient in Karst area of central Guizhou Province in order to improve our understanding about community succession from the perspective of functional ecology.Methods We investigated species composition of 26 plots in three successional stages (bush, deciduous broad-leaved forests, deciduous

  19. 中部崛起的力量在于扩大开放%The Driver for the Rise of Central China Lies in Enlarging Opening up——Special Interview of He Tongxin, Vice Governor of the People's Government of Hunan Province, by Special Edition of China's Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺同新

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hunan Province refined four advantages in practice, got to know that the driver for the rise of Central China lies in enlarging opening up, and summarized the following points: to open to both domestic and overseas investors, attract both domestic and foreign capital, seek cooperation with both domestic and foreign partners,open up both domestic and international market, face reality, promote and absorb outside investment and encourage private capital is an important motive force, strategic measure and realistic choice for Hunan in quickening the development. This article clearly points out the five important fields that Hunan seeks for domestic and foreign cooperation in.

  20. Biological Constraints in Tomato Production in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum production is handicapped by damage due to pests and pathogens. Farmers' fields in the western highlands of Cameroon were surveyed during 1993 to 1996 to identify biological constraints in production. Diseases and insect pests are the most important biological limitations in tomato production. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans and early blight caused by Alternaria solani are the most severe diseases, while the melon fruitfly (Dacus cucurbitae is the most prevalent insect pest. Yield losses due to pest damage are high and reach 100 % when the crop is not treated in the wet season. Pest-resistant varieties are not available to farmers. Consequently, growers practise intensive pesticidal spray programmes to limit losses caused by pests and diseases. Results indicate the necessity for the adoption of integrated pest management strategies in tomato production in Cameroon.

  1. Health Impact Assessment and Evaluation of a Clinical Waste Management Policy for Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulis, Gabriel; Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh

    2013-06-25

    Health impact assessment (HIA) was carried out to evaluate development of a clinical waste management policy for Cameroon. Fifteen stakeholders of different portfolios within the health sector were selected during a HIA initiating study trip to the Northwest region of Cameroon. Questionnaires were then developed and emailed to the stakeholders. The stakeholders identified cross-contamination, environmental pollution, physical injuries and poor waste management sites as potential risk factors that can be associated with poor clinical waste management. They recommended strong economic and political capital as a prerequisite for the development and implementation of a successful clinical waste policy. Local impacts on health, according to the stakeholders, should be prioritized in deciding any treatment and disposal option. The whole HIA process run through 2008-2010.

  2. Health impact assessment and evaluation of a clinical waste management policy for Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA was carried out to evaluate development of a clinical waste management policy for Cameroon. Fifteen stakeholders of different portfolios within the health sector were selected during a HIA initiating study trip to the Northwest region of Cameroon. Questionnaires were then developed and emailed to the stakeholders. The stakeholders identified cross-contamination, environmental pollution, physical injuries and poor waste management sites as potential risk factors that can be associated with poor clinical waste management. They recommended strong economic and political capital as a prerequisite for the development and implementation of a successful clinical waste policy. Local impacts on health, according to the stakeholders, should be prioritized in deciding any treatment and disposal option. The whole HIA process run through 2008-2010.

  3. [Human African trypanosomiasis: description of two pediatric cases in Yaoundé, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkela, M N; Chelo, D; Boula, A; Ebo'O Eyenga, V; Kohagne Tongue, L; Akazong, C A; Kyebyene, A; Tietche, F

    2010-02-01

    During the first decades of the 20th century, about 45% of deaths in Cameroon were believed to be due to human African trypanosomiasis. Thanks to the screening and treatment campaigns implemented between 1926-1932, a considerable regression of the disease was achieved and, by the 1950s, only a few well-known and delimited foci remained. Today, human African trypanosomiasis is an extremely rare diagnosis, especially in children. The purpose of this report is to describe two cases of neuromeningeal human African trypanosomiasis that were discovered coincidentally in two children, ages 12 and 2 years. The children were from two villages in the center of Cameroon that is not considered as a known endemic focus. These two cases raise difficult questions about the possibility of latent endemic foci of human African trypanosomiasis and of animal-to-human transmission. The outcome was favorable in the first case and fatal in the second.

  4. Survey of Minerai Status of Cattle in the Adamaoua Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njwe, RM.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and liver samples were collected from Zebu Gudali and Zebu Banyo cattle freshly slaughtered in abattoirs at eight different locations in each of the five administrative divisions of the Adamaoua region of Cameroon during the wet season (September to October, 1983 and the dry season (February to March, 1984. Liver samples were analysed for iron, copper and manganese while serum samples were analysed for calcium, magnesium and copper. Most of the animals were adequate in calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. Copper was deficient in liver and sera of most of the animals. There is a need to intensif/research on the mineral status of cattle in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. Copper sulphate is recommended in sait licks for cattle in this region.

  5. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachroni, Danai; Graikou, Konstantia; Kosalec, Ivan; Damianakos, Harilaos; Ingram, Verina; Chinou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Three triterpenes and two diprenyl-flavonoids were identified from Congo propolis, which has been investigated for the first time, while thirteen triterpenes, three diprenyl-flavonoids, two monoterpenic alcohols and one fatty acid ester have been identified from Cameroon propolis samples. To our knowledge, the identified diprenyl-flavonoids, as well as five of the isolated and determined triterpenes, are reported for the first time in propolis. Moreover, the total polyphenol content was estimated in all extracts and the antimicrobial activities of all four extracts were studied against six Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi, showing an interesting antibacterial profile.

  6. Manyu youths, belonging and the antinomies of patrimonial elite politics in contemporary Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2013-01-01

    actors. It argues that this tension generates relations of mutuality and interdependence between elite and nonelite actors. Yet, the article finds that while the logics of political intimacy between Manyu students and their political elites in Cameroon are mediated by kinship, ethnicity, and patronage......This article explores the social and political connections between youths and political elites from Manyu Division in South-Western Cameroon. Unlike several recent studies on youths in Africa, it focuses on educated youths from Manyu, exploring their strategies to secure greater political inclusion...... and better chances for upward social mobility. With a critical attention to their discourses and practices, the article examines the disjuncture between the promise of Cameroon’s patrimonial state as an inclusive structure of political action and the sense of exclusion, anxiety, and uncertainty felt by many...

  7. Nurses and challenges faced as clinical educators: a survey of a group of nurses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian E A Eta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs. This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings

  8. Multiple Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus from Northern Cameroon Is Mediated by Metabolic Resistance Alongside Potential Target Site Insensitivity Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menze, Benjamin D.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Irving, Helen; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H.; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the recent progress in establishing the patterns of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, Central African populations of this species remain largely uncharacterised. To bridge this important gap and facilitate the implementation of suitable control strategies against this vector, we characterised the resistance patterns of An. funestus population from northern Cameroon. Methods and Findings Collection of indoor-resting female mosquitoes in Gounougou (northern Cameroon) in 2012 and 2015 revealed a predominance of An. funestus during dry season. WHO bioassays performed using F1 An. funestus revealed that the population was multiple resistant to several insecticide classes including pyrethroids (permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox), carbamates (bendiocarb) and organochlorines (DDT and dieldrin). However, a full susceptibility was observed against the organophosphate malathion. Bioassays performed with 2015 collection revealed that resistance against pyrethroids and DDT is increasing. PBO synergist assays revealed a significant recovery of susceptibility for all pyrethroids but less for DDT. Analysis of the polymorphism of a portion of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) revealed the absence of the L1014F/S kdr mutation but identified 3 novel amino acid changes I877L, V881L and A1007S. However, no association was established between VGSC polymorphism and pyrethroid/DDT resistance. The DDT resistant 119F-GSTe2 allele (52%) and the dieldrin resistant 296S-RDL allele (45%) were detected in Gounougou. Temporal analysis between 2006, 2012 and 2015 collections revealed that the 119F-GSTe2 allele was relatively stable whereas a significant decrease is observed for 296S-RDL allele. Conclusion This multiple resistance coupled with the temporal increased in resistance intensity highlights the need to take urgent measures to prolong the efficacy of current insecticide-based interventions against

  9. CNA Small Group Discussion: Aiding Cameroon’s Effort to Counter Boko Haram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    important to understand that the modern (“ colonial ”) borders dividing the Lake Chad Basin region mean little to Boko Haram (and indeed to many...Cameroon is an important partner to the U.S. in Africa , and the two have cooperated on issues including economic development, public health, and...work with its neighbors to counter the threat and prevent its spread within Africa . One participant noted that, like the government of Nigeria, the

  10. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: the need to empower local government

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Henry N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risk...

  11. The Burden of Leprosy in Cameroon: Fifteen Years into the Post-elimination Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabah, Earnest Njih; Nsagha, Dickson Shey; Bissek, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kanyi; Bratschi, Martin W.; Njamnshi, Theophilus Ngeh; Plushke, Gerd; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cameroon achieved the elimination target of leprosy in 2000, and has maintained this status ever since. However, a number of health districts in the country continue to report significant numbers of leprosy cases. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of leprosy in Cameroon from 2000 to 2014. Methods We obtained and analysed using the new leprosy burden concept of analysis, leprosy surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2014 from the National Leprosy Control Programme. Principal findings Cameroon achieved leprosy elimination in 2000, registering a prevalence rate of 0.94/10,000 population. The prevalence rate dropped further to reach 0.20/10,000 population (78% reduction) in 2014. Similarly, the new case detection rate dropped from 4.88/100,000 population in 2000 to 1.46/100,000 population (85.3% reduction) in 2014. All 10 regions of the country achieved leprosy elimination between 2000 and 2014; however, 10 health districts were still to do so by 2014. The number of high-leprosy-burden regions decreased from 8 in 2000 to 1 in 2014. Seven and two regions were respectively medium and low-burdened at the end of 2014. At the health districts level, 18 remained at the high-leprosy-burdened level in 2014. Conclusion The leprosy prevalence and detection rates as well as the overall leprosy burden in Cameroon have dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. However, a good number of health districts remain high-leprosy-burdened. The National Leprosy Control Programme should focus efforts on these health districts in the next coming years in order to further reduce the burden of leprosy in the country. PMID:27732603

  12. Fallow practices in West Africa: A comparative importance of phenomenon in Cameroon and Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nkamleu, Guy Blaise

    1999-01-01

    There is a clear need to understand the characteristics of fallow in order to seek appropriate alternatives. From a simultaneous study done in Cameroon and Nigeria, we assessed the specificity of fallow techniques in both countries and discovered that fallow practices remain important in traditional farming systems. Fallow is specifically applied in food crops and forest fields. There are less common in perennial fields and homegardens. Fallow practices remain the major land use technologies ...

  13. Cameroon: UN group finds detention of gay men a violation of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana

    2006-12-01

    In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex.

  14. Knowledge and practice of condom use as well as perceived barriers among street adolescents in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nambile Cumber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Street children in Cameroon are adolescents, vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV and/or AIDS. The level of knowledge and practice of condom use among this population is unknown.Objective of the study: To assess the knowledge, practice and barriers to condom use in Cameroon.Materials and methods: The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Questionnaires were administered to street children in a quiet location. Recruitment was made using the snowball technique with the help of peers.Results: More than 90% of participants knew of condoms, but only about 6% reported to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Most of the participants did not know that condoms could prevent HIV; only a few (15.5% knew about this.Conclusion: Street adolescents in Cameroon seem to know about condoms, but have insufficient information on the importance of their regular use. The main barriers for the low practice of condom use reported by this population were the following: condoms hinder sexual pleasure; are costly; and it is embarrassing to buy, use or propose to use a condom.

  15. [Vesicular contact dermatitis due to Paederus in Cameroon and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhecke, C; Le Gall, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2015-12-01

    This irritant blister dermatitis is caused by the genus Paederus whose geographical distribution is worldwide, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. It is induced by direct skin contact with pederin, a blistering and caustic substance found in the abdomen (coelome) of Paederus insects (insect order Coleoptera: family Staphylinidae). The diagnosis is based on the presence of typical clinical features combined with compatible epidemiological features. Our goal is to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of this irritant contact dermatitis in Cameroon through a retrospective study conducted at the end of the rainy season at the Oku Hospital in Northwest Cameroon and to also include cases reported at the medical center of the French Embassy in Yaounde during this same timeframe. In addition, we conducted a literature review of paederus dermatitis. Nineteen patients were included in this study. More than half of the patients presented with more than two lesions predominantly localized to the face or the neck; less than half had complications manifesting as either localized or respiratory reactions and three patients presented periorbital involvement. This study confirms the presence of paederus dermatitis in Cameroon. It is mainly localized in the unusual geoclimatic region of the western high mountains within the country, as well as the usual warm, moist areas of Yaounde. The clinical evolution of this dermatitis is usually one of spontaneous and uneventful resolution with complications being rare. Curative treatment is one of localized topical therapies while oral antibiotic therapy should be reserved for more complicated cases.

  16. Increased Carotid Thickness in Subjects with Recently-Diagnosed Diabetes from Rural Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Nicola; Zardi, Enrico; Strollo, Rocky; Arigliani, Michele; Daverio, Andrea; Olearo, Flaminia; Tosi, Daniele; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Scarpa, Filomena; Pedone, Claudio; Tegue Simo, Hervé Hilaire; Mottini, Giovanni; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed 0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c9%). The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively. Conclusions Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate the need for multifaceted health interventions in urban and rural settings. PMID:22916106

  17. Conservation Concern for the Deteriorating Geographical Range of the Grey Parrot in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Tamungang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for information on Grey Parrot distribution and vegetation associations for informed management and policy decisions was the basis for this study. A nationwide survey of the Grey Parrot population and habitat status was carried out, using questionnaire and point count methods. From the results, the extent of the contemporary range of the parrots was restricted to Southern Cameroon, which harbours the rainforest. Regional parrot population means ranged from 3,487 parrots in the Littoral to 1,351,275 parrots in the East Regions. The extent of the contemporary range as a percentage of the whole country was 25.4% and as a percentage of the regions with rainforest was 44.5%. The historic range of the bird has been reduced by over 55.5%. Estimated percentage of forest lost per region ranged from 20.4% in the Centre to 57.1% in the East and South Regions. At a global level, Cameroon contributed 9% to the total extent of the range of the Grey Parrot in Africa. The range is increasingly fragmented, contracted, and lost through land-based socioeconomic activities. These degradation pressures on the range called for urgent conservation considerations for long-term survival of the parrot species and its associated biodiversity in Cameroon.

  18. Increased carotid thickness in subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Napoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed 0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c9%. The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate the need for multifaceted health interventions in urban and rural settings.

  19. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon.

  20. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  1. The Amphibians of Mount Oku, Cameroon: an updated species inventory and conservation review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Bone, Thomas M.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Amphibians are a disproportionately threatened group of vertebrates, the status of which in Sub-Saharan Africa is still uncertain, with heterogeneous fauna punctuated by mountains. Mount Oku, Cameroon is one such mountain, which holds many endemic and restricted-range species. The history of amphibian research on Mt Oku, current knowledge on biogeography and conservation biology is reviewed, including recent findings. This updated inventory adds 25 further species, with 50 species of amphibian so far recorded to the Oku Massif (c. 900 to 3,011 m). This includes 5 endemic to Mt Oku, 7 endemic to the Bamenda Highlands, 18 restricted to the highlands of Cameroon and Nigeria, and 20 with broader ranges across Africa. This includes a new mountain locality for the Critically Endangered Leptodactylodon axillaris. Among others, the first record of Phrynobatrachus schioetzi and Ptychadena taenioscelis from Cameroon are presented. The uncertainty of habitat affinities and elevational ranges are discussed. The proportion of threatened species on Mt Oku is 44.2%, but projected to increase to 47.9% due to new species descriptions and recent dramatic declines. The natural habitats of Mt Oku are irreplaceable refuges for its endemic and restricted-range amphibian populations under severe pressure elsewhere in their range. Threats to this important amphibian fauna are increasing, including agricultural encroachment, expanding aquaculture, livestock grazing, pollution, invasive species, forest loss and degradation. Past, present and desired conservation interventions to address these threats are discussed. PMID:28144180

  2. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K; Troll, Valentin R

    2016-10-07

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano's underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon's magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano's two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs.

  3. Unilateral childhood blindness: a hospital-based study in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André; Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emilienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Lucienne Bella2, Côme Ebana Mvogo21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CameroonIntroduction: We performed an analytic and prospective study over a period of 12 months from January 2nd to December 31st, 2008, at the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and causes of unilateral blindness in school children aged 6 to 15 years.Results: Among the 1,266 children aged 6 to 15 years who were recruited, 60 presented with unilateral blindness (4.7%: 42 boys (6.96% and 18 girls (2.71%. The mean age was 10.15 ± 3.4 years. In patients with unilateral blindness, 65% was due to ocular trauma.Discussion: The hospital-based prevalence of unilateral blindness in children is relatively high and ocular trauma is the leading etiology.Conclusion: Unilateral blindness in school children is avoidable and its incidence could be markedly reduced by emphasizing an information strategy and education based on prevention of ocular trauma. Early management of nontraumatic diseases such as infantile glaucoma and some tumors could improve outcome and avoid blindness.Keywords: unilateral blindness, ocular trauma, prevalence, education

  4. Oil depletion and development in Cameroon: A critical appraisal of the permanent income hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djiofack, Calvin Z., E-mail: cdjiofack@worldbank.org [World Bank, Latin America and Caribbean, 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Omgba, Luc Desire, E-mail: Desire.OMGBA@supco-amiens.fr [Amiens School of Management, 18, Place Saint Michel-80038 Amiens Cedex 1 (France)

    2011-11-15

    This paper focuses on medium term policy options in the economic context of natural resource depletion. In particular, a novel approach for analyzing the impact of the permanent income hypothesis (PIH) with a dynamic recursive computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is employed. The model is benchmarked in an oil producing country with declining production, namely Cameroon. The results show that the PIH renders public finances less vulnerable during the post-oil transition. However, adopting the PIH is not associated with substantial improvements in growth and household welfare in Cameroon. Therefore, the PIH cannot be the only basis for better management of oil revenues in the country. - Highlights: > We assess for the first time, the adoption of permanent income hypothesis (PIH) in a dynamic CGE model. > The model is benchmarked in an oil country with declining production, namely Cameroon. > PIH renders public finances less vulnerable during the post-oil transition. > However, adopting the PIH is not associated with significant improvement of the growth and households' welfare.

  5. Riesgos de trabajo en veterinarios del centro-oeste de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina Occupational risks in veterinarans from the central-west area of Santa Fe province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D Tarabla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron las frecuencias de accidentes ocupacionales y zoonosis, incapacidad laboral y uso de elementos de protección mediante encuestas telefónicas con cuestionario estructurado en 94 Veterinarios del centro-oeste santafesino. El 75,5% sufrió accidentes laborales en el año previo, y sólo el 7,4% no había tenido al menos uno a lo largo de su trayectoria profesional. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron punzaduras, contusiones, hematomas, escoriaciones y heridas cortantes causadas por animales, agujas y tránsito vehicular. El 39,4% tuvo accidentes in itinere, la mayoría por tránsito vehicular. El 55,3% requirió atención médica y un tercio sufrió pérdidas de días de trabajo, con un promedio de 25,2±29,6 días por profesional accidentado. En los 12 meses previos a la encuesta se produjeron dos casos de brucelosis (2,9%, mientras que el 28,7% manifestó padecer o haber padecido alguna zoonosis en algún momento de su trayectoria profesional, siendo la brucelosis la más frecuente. El uso de elementos de protección fue claramente insuficiente. Aunque el 53,2% padecía alguna patología atribuible al ejercicio profesional, el 74,5 % manifestó no haber recibido capacitación alguna sobre peligros ocupacionales. La necesidad de capacitación específica en este área aparece como primordial para minimizar los riesgos.The frequency of occupational accidents, zoonosis, lost of work days, and protective practices were estimated by means of telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire on 94 Veterinarians from Central-West Santa Fe Province. Seventy six percent suffered occupational accidents on the previous year, while only 7,4% did not have a single accident throughout their careers. Most frequent lesions were punctures, concussions, haematomas, abrasions, and cutting injuries caused by animals, needles and traffic. Thirty nine percent suffered accidents in itinere, mostly due to traffic. Fifty five percent required medical

  6. Effects of Acid Rain in the Central Area of Hunan Province on the Durability of Concrete%湖南省中部地区酸雨对混凝土耐久性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小林; 王劲松; 薛文韬; 商旭升; 张金勇

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,acid rain caused by air pollution in China is worsening,and the impact caused by it can not be ignored for our living environment. The project based on the concrete corrosion mechanism studies the degree of acid rain harm to concrete durability in central region of Hunan Province and presents effective protective measures by analyzing trends of acidity,composition,rainfall and simulating the acid rain corrosion of concrete. The studies show that the impact of acid rain on the concrete can not be ignored. Concrete acid corrosion occurs mainly in general under the influence of acid rain,sulfate attack,car_bonation of soft water corrosion and concrete,etc. ,so that the film is formed on the surface of concrete,damage occurs,the deterioration of mechanical properties and neutral,largely influences durability of concrete and makes the concrete compressive reduce significantly. In order to reduce and avoid adverse impacts of acid rain,erosion prevention and treatment of concrete are very significant.%近年来我国大气污染造成的酸雨危害日益严重,对环境造成了不可忽视的影响。本项目分析湖南省中部地区酸雨酸度、成分、降雨量的变化趋势,基于酸雨对混凝土的腐蚀机理,通过模拟酸雨腐蚀的实验方法,研究酸雨对湖南省中部地区混凝土耐久性的危害程度并提出有效的防护措施。试验研究表明:酸雨对混凝土的影响是不容忽视的。混凝土在酸雨的影响下主要发生一般的酸类腐蚀、硫酸盐腐蚀、软水腐蚀和混凝土的碳化作用等,使得混凝土表面生成薄膜,出现损伤,力学性能劣化和中性化,很大程度上影响了混凝土的耐久性。经过试验得出混凝土的抗压性能明显降低。为了减轻和避免工程实际中由于酸雨的危害产生的不良影响,防治混凝土受酸雨侵蚀显得尤为重要。

  7. 水口山水稻土与菜地土中砷的有效性%Availability of arsenic in paddy and vegetable soils in Shuikoushan mining area of Hunan Province, South-central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雁鸣; 冯人伟; 韦朝阳

    2012-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from the surrounding areas of Shuikoushan mining area in Hunan Province of South-central China to determine the soil total and available arsenic contents and the soil physical and chemical properties (pH value, organic matter content, and clay content ) , with the differences of the test parameters in two agricultural soils ( vegetable soil and paddy soil) and the relationships between the soil available arsenic content and the soil physical and chemical properties analyzed. The average content of the arsenic in paddy soil and vegetable soil was 72. 01 and 30.71 mg · kg-1, respectively, being close to or exceeding the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard II. There existed significant differences in the soil physical and chemical properties between the two agricultural soils, with the higher contents of clay and organic matter but lower pH value in paddy soil than those in vegetable soil, and the paddy soil being obviously acidified. The total arsenic content in vegetable soil was far higher than that in paddy soil, but the available arsenic content of the two soils had less difference. Except for total arsenic , the available arsenic content in paddy soil was significantly positively correlated with organic matter content, and that in vegetable soil was significantly positively correlated with pH value. In the Shuikoushan mining area, vegetable soil had a higher risk of arsenic pollution than paddy. soil, and thus, necessary remediation strategies or adjustment of land use pattern should be adopted to reduce the health risk of soil arsenic contamination.%对湖南省水口山矿冶周边土壤进行采样分析,以土壤砷总量与有效态砷含量以及土壤基本理化性质(pH、有机质含量、土壤粘粒含量)为参数,研究各参数在两种土地利用类型(菜地土和水稻土)间的差异以及有效态砷与土壤理化性质之间的关系.结果表明,水口山水稻土与菜地土平均砷含量分别达72

  8. Feasibility of pico-hydro and photovoltaic hybrid power systems for remote villages in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nfah, E.M. [Laboratoire d' Automatique et d' Informatique Appliquee, I.U.T. Fotso Victor, P.O. Box 134, Bandjoun, University of Dschang (Cameroon); Ngundam, J.M. [Automation and Control Laboratory, School of Engineering, P.O. Box 8390, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon)

    2009-06-15

    Pico-hydro (pH) and photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems incorporating a biogas generator have been simulated for remote villages in Cameroon using a load of 73 kWh/day and 8.3 kWp. Renewable energy systems were simulated using HOMER, the load profile of a hostel in Cameroon, the solar insolation of Garoua and the flow of river Mungo. For a 40% increase in the cost of imported power system components, the cost of energy was found to be either 0.352 EUR/kWh for a 5 kW pico-hydro generator with 72 kWh storage or 0.396 EUR/kWh for a 3 kWp photovoltaic generator with 36 kWh storage. These energy costs were obtained with a biomass resource cost of 25 EUR/tonne. The pH and PV hybrid systems both required the parallel operation of a 3.3 kW battery inverter with a 10 kW biogas generator. The pH/biogas/battery systems simulated for villages located in the south of Cameroon with a flow rate of at least 92 l/s produced lower energy costs than PV/biogas/battery systems simulated for villages in the north of Cameroon with an insolation level of at least 5.55 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. For a single-wire grid extension cost of 5000 EUR/km, operation and maintenance costs of 125 EUR/yr/km and a grid power price of 0.1 EUR/kWh, the breakeven grid extension distances were found to be 12.9 km for pH/biogas/battery systems and 15.2 km for PV/biogas/battery systems respectively. Investments in biogas based renewable energy systems could thus be considered in the National Energy Action Plan of Cameroon for the supply of energy to key sectors involved in poverty alleviation. (author)

  9. African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Borna; Hilty, Markus; Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Dale, James; Boschiroli, M Laura; Cadmus, Simeon; Ngandolo, Bongo Naré Richard; Godreuil, Sylvain; Diguimbaye-Djaibé, Colette; Kazwala, Rudovick; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Betty M; Sahraoui, Naima; Guetarni, Djamel; Aseffa, Abraham; Mekonnen, Meseret H; Razanamparany, Voahangy Rasolofo; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Djønne, Berit; Oloya, James; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Skjerve, Eystein; Portaels, Francoise; Rigouts, Leen; Michel, Anita; Müller, Annélle; Källenius, Gunilla; van Helden, Paul D; Hewinson, R Glyn; Zinsstag, Jakob; Gordon, Stephen V; Smith, Noel H

    2009-03-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub-Saharan west-central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex and have defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex as being the same as the M. bovis BCG vaccine strain but with the deletion of spacer 30. Strains of the Af1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in population samples of M. bovis from cattle in Mali, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Chad, and using a combination of variable-number tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping, we show that the population of M. bovis in each of these countries is distinct, suggesting that the recent mixing of strains between countries is not common in this area of Africa. Strains with the Af1-specific deletion (RDAf1) were not identified in M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Burundi, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. Furthermore, the spoligotype signature of the Af1 clonal complex has not been identified in population samples of bovine tuberculosis from Europe, Iran, and South America. These observations suggest that the Af1 clonal complex is geographically localized, albeit to several African countries, and we suggest that the dominance of the clonal complex in this region is the result of an original introduction into cows naïve to bovine tuberculosis.

  10. African 1, an Epidemiologically Important Clonal Complex of Mycobacterium bovis Dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Borna; Hilty, Markus; Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M. Carmen; Dale, James; Boschiroli, M. Laura; Cadmus, Simeon; Ngandolo, Bongo Naré Richard; Godreuil, Sylvain; Diguimbaye-Djaibé, Colette; Kazwala, Rudovick; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Betty M.; Sahraoui, Naima; Guetarni, Djamel; Aseffa, Abraham; Mekonnen, Meseret H.; Razanamparany, Voahangy Rasolofo; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Djønne, Berit; Oloya, James; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Skjerve, Eystein; Portaels, Francoise; Rigouts, Leen; Michel, Anita; Müller, Annélle; Källenius, Gunilla; van Helden, Paul D.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Zinsstag, Jakob; Gordon, Stephen V.; Smith, Noel H.

    2009-01-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub-Saharan west-central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex and have defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex as being the same as the M. bovis BCG vaccine strain but with the deletion of spacer 30. Strains of the Af1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in population samples of M. bovis from cattle in Mali, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Chad, and using a combination of variable-number tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping, we show that the population of M. bovis in each of these countries is distinct, suggesting that the recent mixing of strains between countries is not common in this area of Africa. Strains with the Af1-specific deletion (RDAf1) were not identified in M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Burundi, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. Furthermore, the spoligotype signature of the Af1 clonal complex has not been identified in population samples of bovine tuberculosis from Europe, Iran, and South America. These observations suggest that the Af1 clonal complex is geographically localized, albeit to several African countries, and we suggest that the dominance of the clonal complex in this region is the result of an original introduction into cows naïve to bovine tuberculosis. PMID:19136597

  11. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanic rocks from the Lake Chad region: An extension of the Cameroon volcanic line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Torng, P.-K.; Yang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, near Lake Chad, are considered to be an extension of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL) but their petrogenetic association is uncertain. The silicic rocks are divided into peraluminous and peralkaline groups with both rock types chemically similar to within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma indicating the magmas erupted ˜10 million years before the next oldest CVL rocks (i.e., ˜66 Ma). The Sr isotopes (i.e., ISr = 0.7021-0.7037) show a relatively wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268-0.51271) are uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Thermodynamic modeling shows that the silicic rocks likely formed by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma but that the peraluminous rocks were affected by low temperature alteration processes. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts identified within the Late Cretaceous basins (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51245-0.51285) of Chad than the uncontaminated CVL rocks (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270-0.51300). The age and isotopic compositions suggest the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad region are related to Late Cretaceous extensional volcanism in the Termit basin. It is unlikely that the silicic volcanic rocks are petrogenetically related to the CVL but it is possible that magmatism was structurally controlled by suture zones that formed during the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean and/or the Pan-African Orogeny.

  12. Hospital Workers' Awareness of Health and Environmental Impacts of Poor Clinical Waste Disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter I. K.; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection......, segregation, transportation, and disposal of clinical waste at the three hospitals. Of 475 total respondents, most lacked sufficient awareness of any environmental or public health impacts of poor clinical waste disposal and had never heard of any policy-national or international- on safe clinical waste...

  13. Hormonal contraception, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soskolne Varda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the effect of contraceptive methods, other than the condom, on HIV acquisition is not clear. The aim of this study was to describe hormonal contraceptive use, sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence among women in Cameroon in order to provide baseline information for future analytical studies. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study based a nationally representative sample of 4486 sexually active women aged 15–49 years who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey. Results The overall HIV prevalence was 7.4% (332/4486. The HIV prevalence was higher in the 25–35 year age group (10.03%, urban residents (9.39%, and formerly married (18.48%, compared to their compatriots. The prevalence was lower in women with five or more living child (3.67%, women in the low wealth index category (3.79% and women who had no formal education (3.37%. The HIV prevalence was higher among women who had two or more partners in the last 12 months (10.26% and women who reported to have had four or more partners in their lifetime (12.40%. The prevalence of HIV was higher among current hormonal contraceptive users (6.63% compared to the current non-users (3.06%, among ever users of hormonal contraception (13.27% compared to the never users (7.11%. Conclusion We conclude that the prevalence of HIV among sexually active women in Cameroon varies according to sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and hormonal contraceptive use. Our findings underscore the need to counsel women using hormonal contraception to be aware that hormonal methods do not protect against HIV infection. Given the biologic plausibility of the link between hormonal contraception and HIV infection, future research should focus on carefully designed prospective studies to establish the temporal relationship and estimate the incidence of HIV infection among women using and not using hormonal contraceptive methods.

  14. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon. Design: Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administered during in-person interviews was used to collect data on existing programs and content of training curricula. Nutrition curricula were reviewed against the following criteria: intended objectives, coverage of nutrition topics, and teaching methods. Results: In total, five nutrition degree programs (four undergraduate programs and one master's program were identified. Three additional programs were about to be launched at the time of data collection. We did not find any doctorate degree programs in nutrition. All the undergraduate programs only had little focus on public health nutrition whereas the master's program in our sample offered a good coverage of all dimensions of human nutrition including basic and applied nutrition. The predominant teaching method was didactic lecture in all the programs. We did not find any formal documentation outlining the competencies that students were expected to gain upon completion of these programs. Nutrition courses in agricultural and health schools were limited in terms of contact hours and scope. Public health nutrition was not covered in any of the health professional schools surveyed. We found no institution offering in-service nutrition training at the time of the study. Conclusions: Based on our findings, we recommend that nutrition training programs in Cameroon be redesigned to make them more responsive to the public health needs of the country.

  15. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  16. Cure or control: complying with biomedical regime of diabetes in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unwin Nigel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to explore the cultural aspect of compliance, its underlying principles and how these cultural aspects can be used to improve patient centred care for diabetes in Cameroon. Methods We used participant observation to collect data from a rural and an urban health district of Cameroon from June 2001 to June 2003. Patients were studied in their natural settings through daily interactions with them. The analysis was inductive and a continuous process from the early stages of fieldwork. Results The ethnography revealed a lack of basic knowledge about diabetes and diabetes risk factors amongst people with diabetes. The issue of compliance was identified as one of the main themes in the process of treating diabetes. Compliance emerged as part of the discourse of healthcare providers in clinics and filtered into the daily discourses of people with diabetes. The clinical encounters offered treatment packages that were socially inappropriate therefore rejected or modified for most of the time by people with diabetes. Compliance to biomedical therapy suffered a setback for four main reasons: dealing with competing regimes of treatment; coming to terms with biomedical treatment of diabetes; the cost of biomedical therapy; and the impact of AIDS on accepting weight loss as a lifestyle measure in prescription packages. People with diabetes had fears about and negative opinions of accepting certain prescriptions that they thought could interfere with their accustomed social image especially that which had to do with bridging their relationship with ancestors and losing weight in the era of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The cultural pressures on patients are responsible for patients' partial acceptance of and adherence to prescriptions. Understanding the self-image of patients and their background cultures are vital ingredients to improve diabetes care in low-income countries of Sub-Sahara Africa like Cameroon.

  17. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Chiabi, Andreas; Nguefack, Seraphin; Evelyne MAH; NODEM, Sostenne; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Mbonda, Elie; TCHOKOTEU, Pierre-Fernand; Anderson DOH

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Chiabi A, Nguefack S, Mah E, Nodem S, Mbuagbaw L, Mbonda E, Tchokoteu PF, Doh A. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3):46-54.ObjectiveThe World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 4 million children are born with asphyxia every year, of which 1 million die and an equal number survive with severe neurologic sequelae. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of birth asphyx...

  18. Determinants of outcome of children with type 1 diabetes in the North West Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Niba, Loveline Lum

    2016-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa the prognosis of children with type 1 diabetes is poor. Many are not diagnosed and those that are diagnosed have a reduced life expectancy (less than one year). This study set out to identify the factors that predict glucose control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the North West Region of Cameroon. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study involving 76 children/adolescents (41 girls and 35 boys, mean age of 15.1 ± 3.1 years) suf...

  19. Neotectonic earth movements related to the 1999 eruption of Cameroon Mountain, West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. E. Suh; S. N. Ayonghe; E. S. Njumbe

    2001-01-01

    @@ The 1999 eruption of Cameroon Mountain was restricted to two sites and controlled by fissures subparallel to one another. Brittle failure, vertical displacement, horizontal displacement and ground deflation are the main types of ground deformation around these sites. The eruptive vents at both sites have a NE-SW trend parallel to the principal eruptive fissures and brittle discontinuities in rock bodies in this vicinity. SH (greatest horizontal stress) is inferred to have a SW-NE trend parallel to the direction of vent migration and fracture propagation.

  20. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achembong Leo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB, which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low

  1. [Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

    2009-02-01

    To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national

  2. HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Nyeong Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite men who have sex with men (MSM being a key population for HIV programming globally, HIV epidemiologic data on MSM in Central Africa are sparse. We measured HIV and syphilis prevalence and the factors associated with HIV infection among MSM in Cameroon. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-two and 239 MSM aged ≥18 from Douala and Yaoundé, respectively, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS for this cross-sectional surveillance study in 2011. Participants completed a structured questionnaire and HIV and syphilis testing. Statistical analyses, including RDS-weighted proportions, bootstrapped confidence intervals and logistic regressions, were used. Results: Crude and RDS-weighted HIV prevalence were 28.6% (73/255 and 25.5% (95% CI 19.1–31.9 in Douala, and 47.3% (98/207 and 44.4% (95% CI 35.7–53.2 in Yaoundé. Active syphilis prevalence in total was 0.4% (2/511. Overall, median age was 24 years, 62% (317/511 of MSM identified as bisexual and 28.6% (144/511 identified as gay. Inconsistent condom use with regular male partners (64.1%; 273/426 and casual male and female partners (48.5%; 195/402 was common, as was the inconsistent use of condom-compatible lubricants (CCLs (26.3%; 124/472. In Douala, preferring a receptive sexual role was associated with prevalent HIV infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.02–5.32]. Compared to MSM without HIV infection, MSM living with HIV were more likely to have ever accessed a health service targeting MSM in Douala (aOR 4.88, 95% CI 1.63–14.63. In Yaoundé, MSM living with HIV were more likely to use CCLs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.19–4.97. Conclusions: High HIV prevalence were observed and condoms and CCLs were used inconsistently indicating that MSM are a priority population for HIV prevention, treatment and care services in Douala and Yaoundé. Building the capacity of MSM community organizations and improving the delivery and scale-up of multimodal interventions

  3. An Empirical Analysis of the Export Competitiveness of Agricultural Products in Hubei Province Based on Inter-provincial Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling WANG

    2016-01-01

    With the six provinces of Central China and China’s six major provinces of exporting agricultural products as the reference objects,this paper uses revealed comparative advantage index and export growth advantage index to perform the empirical analysis and comparison on the export competitiveness of agricultural products in Hubei Province,and finally makes the corresponding policy recommendations in order to enhance the export competitiveness of agricultural products in Hubei Province.

  4. Common challenges in gum arabic production and commercialization in West Africa: a comparative study of Cameroon, Niger and Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Madi, O.P.; Zoubeirou, A.M.; Sene, A.; Maisharou, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2013-01-01

    As gum arabic is widely used in food and non-food industries, demand is high all over the world. Still, smaller production countries in West Africa such as Cameroon, Niger and Senegal seem to have so many difficulties producing and commercializing gum arabic that their market shares have declined si

  5. SMALL Savannah : an information system for the integrated analysis of land use change in the Far North of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fotsing, Eric

    2009-01-01

    SMALL Savannah is an Environmental Information System designed for the integrated analysis and sustainable land management in the savannas region of the Far North of Cameroon. This system combines an observation and spatial analysis module for the representation of phenomena from various geographic

  6. English-Medium Instruction in an English-French Bilingual Setting: Issues of Quality and Equity in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchah, Kuchah

    2016-01-01

    Despite its multilingual nature Cameroon's educational system provides for full immersion into either French-medium or English-medium education from the first year schooling. Following political tensions in the early 1990s the country decided to reaffirm its commitment to promote bilingualism in the educational system with the outcome being the…

  7. The determinants of the willingness-to-pay for community-based prepayment scheme in rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Makaudze, Ephias; Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Malin, Eric

    2011-09-01

    In rural Cameroon, many people have no access to quality healthcare services. This is largely attributed to lack of private out-of-pocket payment to finance healthcare services. A community-based prepayment health insurance scheme may be implemented to improve healthcare access in rural areas. This study examines the determinants of willingness-to-pay for a community-based prepayment healthcare system using a contingent valuation method conducted in rural Cameroon. To mitigate potential hypothetical bias, a consequential script is introduced in the questionnaire. The results indicate age, religion, profession, knowledge of community-based health insurance, awareness of usual practice in rural areas, involvement in association and disposable income are the key determinants of willingness to pay for a prepayment health scheme. On average, willingness to pay for the scheme by rural households is 1011 CFA francs/person/month (2.15 US dollars). The results underlie two important implications: first, there is substantial demand for a community healthcare prepayment scheme by rural poor households in Cameroon; second, rural households are averse to health shocks and hence they are willing to sacrifice monthly premium payments to protect themselves (and their households) from unforeseen health-related risks. If government could engage in social marketing strategies such as mass media campaigns and awareness, this could prove vital for encouraging participation by the rural poor in healthcare prepayment scheme in Cameroon.

  8. An approach for the evaluation of rural governance in Cameroon: are community forests really forests for the communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaire NKENGFACK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the traditionalexploitation of timber, in a community framework, to the respect of governanceprinciples in actions for the fight against poverty in some rural communities inCameroon. In 1990, the government of Cameroon adopted laws on the freedomof association that authorised teaming up for the search of possibilities for abetter economic welfare of populations. It is in line with this that in 1994, a newforest law which authorises willing communities to organise themselves andrequest the government to grant them a portion of the national forest of thepublic domain to be managed by them and for their personal interest. Also, andwith the help of the international community, Cameroon elaborated in 1998 itsfirst poverty reduction strategy paper that encouraged amongst others,community actions in the search of solutions to the economic crisis that strokethe country. Through the application of a logit model to the responses collectedthrough a survey carried out on a sample of 200 individuals of the East regionof Cameroon, it was noticed that timber exploitation in a community frameworkdoes not necessarily lead to the strengthening of the links of belonging to acommon community, and to the equitable redistribution of revenues from theexploitation of the community forest.

  9. Crisis and neoliberal reforms in Africa : civil society and agro-industry in anglophone Cameroon's plantation economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    This book discusses the consequences of the economic and financial crisis that befell the Cameroonian agro-industrial sector in the 1980s, using as a case study the plantation economy of the anglophone region of Cameroon. Two agro-industrial enterprises have dominated the plantation sector: a huge p

  10. Ternstroemia cameroonensis (Ternstroemiaceae), a new medicinally important species of montane tree, nearly extinct in the Highlands of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheek, M.; Tchiengue, B.; Tacham, W.N.

    2017-01-01

    Ternstroemia cameroonensis sp. nov. (Ternstroemiaceae) is formally described from the Highlands of Cameroon and its conservation status is assessed as Critically Endangered using the IUCN 2012 standard. This is the third species of Ternstroemia known from Africa. The species is unusual in its genus

  11. Preliminary studies of pest constraints to cotton seedlings in a direct seeding mulch-based system in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brevault, T.; Guibert, H.; Naudin, K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the pest constraints of an innovative crop management system in Cameroon involving conservation tillage and direct seeding mulch-based strategies. We hypothesized that the presence of mulch (i) would support a higher density of phytophagous arthropods particularly millipe

  12. Empowering Women and Ethnic Minority Groups to Collectively Market non Timber Forest Products from Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van Judith; Mala, William Armand; Ingram, V.J.; Belibi, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Community forestry (CF) was introduced in Cameroon in 1994 as a way to reduce poverty and enhance sustainable forest management. CF activities have primarily focused on timber exploitation rather than non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection processing or marketing. The study reports on a two yea

  13. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  14. Quantitative Effects of Early and Late Blights on Tomato Yields in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans are the major diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum in Cameroon. The effect of both diseases on fruit yield was evaluated during the 1995 growing season in Dschang, Cameroon.Ten varieties were planted in the first trial (March-July and nine in the second (July- November. In both trials, plots were sprayed weekly with Ridomil Plus (2.0 kg/ha before flowering and with maneb (1.6 kg/ha after flowering. Early blight was more severe in the early part of the first trial, while late blight caused most damage during the second. Marketable yields varied according to variety. High yields in sprayed plots were obtained in Dona F1 (61.63 t/ha and Heinz 1370 (68.24 t/ha during the first trial, and in Fline (58.35 t/ha, Mecline (64.25 t/ha, and Moboline (55.16 t/ha during the second trial. Percent fruit infection in sprayed plots caused by both diseases varied according to variety from 12 to 65% in the first season and from 14 to 52% in the second, while losses in marketable yields for both blights were as high as 100% in unsprayed plots.

  15. Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touko Adonis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This quantitative cross-sectional study examines sexual behaviour of a target group of hearing-impaired persons in Yaounde, the capital city of the Republic of Cameroon. It measures their HIV prevalence to enable assessment of their sexual vulnerability and to help reduce the gap in existing HIV serology data among people with disabilities in general and the deaf in particular. Methods The snowball sampling procedure was adopted as an adequate approach to meet this hard-to-reach group. A total of 118 deaf participants were interviewed for the behavioural component, using sign language as a means of data collection, while 101 participants underwent HIV serology testing. Descriptive analyses were done for behavioural data with Epi info software, while sera were tested by health personnel, using rapid and confirmation test reagents. Results From the results, it was clear that the hearing impaired were highly involved in risky sexual practices, as observed through major sexual indicators, such as: age at first sexual intercourse; condom use; and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and AIDS. Furthermore, it was noted that the HIV prevalence rate of the hearing impaired in the capital of Cameroon was 4%, close to the prevalence in the city's general population (4.7%. Conclusions Such results suggest that there is a need for in-depth behavioural research and serological studies in this domain to better understand the determinants of risky sexual behaviour among the hearing impaired, and to propose operational prevention approaches for this group.

  16. Producers’ motivation for collective action for kola production and marketing in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Franzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective action has been used as a strategy to improve the benefits of smallholder producers of kola nuts in Cameroon. Despite demonstrated benefits, not all producers are involved in the collective action. The presented study used a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM namely the Collective Action Behaviour model (CAB model to analyse kola producers’ motivation for collective action activities. Five hypotheses are formulated and tested using data obtained from 185 farmers who are involved in kola production and marketing in theWestern highlands of Cameroon. Results which were generated using Partial Least Squares (PLS approach for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM showed that farmers’ intrinsic motivators and ease of use influenced their behavioural intent to join a group marketing activities. The perceived usefulness that was mainly related to the economic benefits of group activities did not influence farmers’ behavioural intent. It is therefore concluded that extension messages and promotional activities targeting collective action need to emphasise the perceived ease of use of involvement and social benefits associated with group activities in order to increase farmers’ participation.

  17. Farmer's Perception and Adoption of New Aquaculture Technologies in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

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    Njankoua Wandji, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other African countries, Cameroon is struggling to meet the food needs of its population. There are several possible solutions to this problem, such as the import of agricultural produce and increasing national production. In terms of fishery products (fish, shrimps, etc., it would not be easy to increase national production, due to the various constraints inherent in the sector and national industry, as well as low availability of farming areas. Fish farming is one of the solutions recommended as a sustainable method of producing an adequate supply of fish (farming fish in ponds. The main objective of this study is to highlight and analyse the socio-economic obstacles that are holding back the development of fish farming in the West Cameroon. Using the univariate dichotomous LOGIT model, this study has made it possible to identify the key determinants affecting the adoption of fish farming. The results indicate that its strong commercial orientation, coupled with the positive perception of its profitability, frequent contact, extension and level of education are the main determinants for the adoption of fish farming.

  18. Geographic Distribution of Childbirth among Adolescents in Cameroon from 2003 to 2005

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    P. M. Tebeu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the frequency and the trend of adolescents (10–19 years in childbirth within a period of 3 years in referral maternity units in Cameroon. Method. Descriptive and retrospective study for a 3-year period (2003–2005 in referral maternity units headed by a qualified Obstetrician-Gynecologist. We analyzed the trend and geographic distribution of 8222 adolescent deliveries over 3 years. Epi Info 3.5 software was used for data analysis. Chi square test for trend was used to assess the contribution of adolescent deliveries over years. The trend was considered significant if P<.05. Results. During the period of the study, there was a total of 8387 deliveries. We excluded 165 women because of lack of information about age. We therefore included a total of 8222 adolescent deliveries. Overall, the contribution of adolescents to deliveries ranged from 6.87% to 26.51%, depending on the region with a national mean of 14.23%. Adolescents aged 16 or less contributed to 2.82% of deliveries while those aged from 17 to 19 contributed to 11.41%. The contribution of adolescents to deliveries decreased significantly over 3 years (P<.0001. Conclusion. The study underscores the importance of Public Health programs in strengthening maternity services for adolescents in Cameroon while taking into consideration geographic differences.

  19. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon. Assessing costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellassen, Valentin [Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) (France); Gitz, Vincent [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED) (France)

    2008-12-01

    A new momentum is underway to account for emissions from 'avoided deforestation and degradation' at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper assesses the feasibility of one of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanisms currently discussed, namely that of 'Compensated Reduction', in the case of Cameroon. Here we assess the differential revenues that a farmer could get from 1 ha of land out of two alternative land-uses: shifting cultivation, the traditional land-use pattern in southern Cameroon, or carbon credits as compensation for the conservation of primary forest. It is found that a break-even price of USD 2.85/t of carbon dioxide equivalent would level shifting cultivation with 'Compensated Reduction'. This result suggests that at current carbon prices, and independently form variations in the discount rate, it could already be more profitable to preserve the primary forest rather than to log it in order to grow crops. (author)

  20. Locating the depth of magma supply for volcanic eruptions, insights from Mt. Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Barker, Abigail K.; Troll, Valentin R.

    2016-01-01

    Mt. Cameroon is one of the most active volcanoes in Africa and poses a possible threat to about half a million people in the area, yet knowledge of the volcano’s underlying magma supply system is sparse. To characterize Mt. Cameroon’s magma plumbing system, we employed mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry on the products of the volcano’s two most recent eruptions of 1999 and 2000. Our results suggest pre-eruptive magma storage between 20 and 39 km beneath Mt. Cameroon, which corresponds to the Moho level and below. Additionally, the 1999 eruption products reveal several shallow magma pockets between 3 and 12 km depth, which are not detected in the 2000 lavas. This implies that small-volume magma batches actively migrate through the plumbing system during repose intervals. Evolving and migrating magma parcels potentially cause temporary unrest and short-lived explosive outbursts, and may be remobilized during major eruptions that are fed from sub-Moho magma reservoirs. PMID:27713494

  1. A novel sickle cell mutation of yet another origin in Africa: the Cameroon type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapouméroulie, C; Dunda, O; Ducrocq, R; Trabuchet, G; Mony-Lobé, M; Bodo, J M; Carnevale, P; Labie, D; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R

    1992-05-01

    The sickle cell mutation (beta s) arose as at least three independent events in Africa and once in Asia, being termed the Senegal, Benin, Bantu and Indian types respectively. An investigation in Cameroon was carried out to determine whether the atypical sickle genes observed in the neighboring countries are the result of recombination or the presence of a sickle cell mutation of a different genetic origin. It was conducted on 40 homozygous SS patients followed at the Blood Transfusion Center in the capital city of Yaoundé. On 80 beta s chromosomes, 13 exhibited a novel polymorphic pattern that was observed three times in the homozygous state. This chromosome contains an A gamma T gene. The restriction fragment length polymorphism haplotype is different from all the other beta s chromosomes in both the 5' and 3' regions, but has previously been reported in sporadic cases. The (AT)8(T)5 sequence in the -500 region of the beta gene is specific and different from that of the Senegal, Benin, Bantu or Indian beta s genes. All the carriers of this specific chromosome belong to the Eton ethnic group and originate from the Sanaga river valley. This observation strongly argues for yet another independent origin of the sickle cell mutation in Africa, here referred to as the "Cameroon type". The Benin haplotype and a Benin/Bantu recombinant haplotype have been observed in the other studied populations: Ewondo, Bamiléké, Bassa, Yambassa and Boulou.

  2. A Crispy Delicacy: Augosoma Beetle as Alternative Source of Protein in East Cameroon

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    F. J. Muafor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the exoskeleton of the Augosoma centaurus (Dynastinae is hard and difficult to chew, this insect is often gathered in Eastern Cameroon for food in periods of availability. Nine ethnic groups in Eastern Cameroon were surveyed to understand the role of this insect in assuring food security, using quantitative and qualitative social science approaches. Both the larvae and adult stages of this beetle are habitually consumed in the areas studied. In total, about 65% of consumers prefer consuming the adults, while 35% prefer consuming the larvae. About 24% of consumers derive the same satisfaction from the consumption of Augosoma or other edible insects. Close to 39% of consumers prefer other edible insects to Augosoma, while 37% prefer the consumption of Augosoma to other edible insects. This beetle usually occurs at a period when other edible insects are not available, therefore constituting a good source of alternative protein in this region where poverty, poaching, and biodiversity erosion are still a major problem. Furthermore, the gathering of this beetle for food is equally a means of biological pest control of raffia plants and a tool to enhance community-based conservation of the areas global biodiversity.

  3. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

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    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  4. Adoption of the Tenera Hybrid of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. among Smallholder Farmers in Cameroon

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    Assoumou Mezui, MR.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. type was studied by focusing on 208 family farmers in Cameroon. The "Average Treatment Effect" (ATE method was used. This method enables to estimate, by use of a Probit model, the effects created when a farmer is exposed to treatment (or intervention, which represents a source of improved oil palm planting material. According to the results, the estimated adoption rate for Tenera is highly significant (P< 0.05 for all the categories of producers, regardless of the supply source, which may be formal or informal. In addition, the main factors that significantly determine this adoption are: availability of arable land in forested areas and whether growers intend to increase the size of their plantations. However, the supply of pure planting material remains an important constraint because the other two types of oil palm (Dura and Pisifera which produce poor palm oil yields are still mistakenly planted on many family farms in Cameroon. Further studies will address this issue in the aim of identifying appropriate solutions.

  5. Rural local institutions and climate change adaptation in forest communities in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carolyn Peach Brown

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveys and interviews were used to understand community resilience in forest-dependent communities facing climate change in Cameroon. Surveys of 232 individuals showed a diversity of formal and informal institutions that relate to most aspects of rural life. Although direct activities related to climate change adaptation were limited, the activities and density of membership in rural local institutions could increase the community's adaptive capacity. Twenty-six semistructured interviews were also conducted with representatives of diverse local institutions who had some responsibility for agriculture, forests, conservation, or development. Local governmental institutions had not received any information from the national level and were limited in their knowledge of how to help communities respond to climate change. Although limited in their direct action on climate change, local nongovernmental organizations and international institutions act as bridging institutions with rural communities and could facilitate sharing of knowledge and innovation, thereby fostering resilience. Planning for climate change adaptation in Cameroon needs to build the capacity of diverse local institutions and improve the relationships between local and national-level adaptation planning.

  6. Serological and molecular tools to detect neurologic parasitic zoonoses in rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Ito, Akira

    2011-11-01

    Parasitic helminthiases, such as toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis are a public health threat, since they can affect the brain leading to neurological disorders. Epilepsy and paragonimiasis are common in southwestern Cameroon. We reviewed the literature for studies using antigens to diagnose toxocariasis, cysticercosis, and paragonimiasis. Serology revealed that 61 (36.3%), 26 (15.5%) and 2 (1.2%) of 168 persons examined [78 males (15.2 +/- 8.2 years old), 90 females (12.9 +/- 5.9 years old), 143 persons < 20 years old] had antibody responses to toxocariasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis, respectively. Of the 14 people with epilepsy, 5 were seropositive for Toxocara antigens and 1 was positive for both Toxocara and Paragonimus antigens. Two children were serologically confirmed to have cysticercosis. Serologic screening for cysticercosis may be feasible to detect asymptomatic cysticercosis in children in endemic areas leading to early treatment. The causative Paragonimus species was confirmed to be P. africanus by molecular sequencing. Education, screening and confirmation test for these diseases may be needed for control in Cameroon.

  7. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives.

  8. Best practice guidelines for stroke in Cameroon: An innovative and participatory knowledge translation project

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    Lynn Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the adherence to stroke guidelines in high-income countries has been shown to be associated with improved patient outcomes, the research, development and implementation of rehabilitation related guidelines in African countries is lacking.Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe how a group of front-line practitioners collaborated with academics and students to develop best practice guidelines (BPG for the management and rehabilitation of stroke in adult patients in Cameroon.Method: A working group was established and adapted internationally recognised processes for the development of best practice guidelines. The group determined the scope of the guidelines, documented current practices, and critically appraised evidence to develop guidelines relevant to the Cameroon context.Results: The primary result of this project is best practice guidelines which provided an overview of the provision of stroke rehabilitation services in the region, and made 83 practice recommendations to improve these services. We also report on the successes and challenges encountered during the process, and the working group’s recommendations aimed at encouraging others to consider similar projects.Conclusion: This project demonstrated that there is interest and capacity for improving stroke rehabilitation practices and for stroke guideline development in Africa.

  9. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

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    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  10. Analysis and Application of Intelligent Transportation Systems to Taxi System in Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nzegge Chantale Ebude; Wang Mingyan

    2007-01-01

    Most traffic control systems available in major cities in Cameroon are still out dated,make use of theories and models which are very slow to implement,waste resources and their efficiency is very low.Thus the number of road accidents encountered on our major highways and inter urban traffic networks has been increasing despite the various efforts made by government and certain NGO to synthesize road users on certain aspects of traffic control and safety road use.Taxis are not left out in the whole show and most of the blame always falls on them.The need to use available Information and Communication Technology ICT to improve on the control of traffic in inter urban cities and major highways is imperative.ITS optimizes the use of resources,reduce pollution,contribute to environmental protection and increases the national economy.This paper starts by giving a brief situation of the transportation system in Cameroon,its drawbacks and proposes an optimized ITS based system.

  11. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

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    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07Cameroon.

  12. 集居养老:乡村社会解构下留守老人的社会重构模式--基于山东Z村集居案例%Centralized Residence:The Reconstruction Mode of Empty Nesters Community Under the Background of Rural Social Disintegration---Based on the centralized residence case of Village Z, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    怀洋洋

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rural social forms currently are undergoing a deep change. The significant characteristics are the speeding trends of population loss, aging, and empty nest. With the population aging and loss trend’s acceleration, the rural faces the problems of social acquaintances gradual collapsing, left-behind elderly population expanding, and rural culture recession etc. leading to the gradual disintegration of the rural society. How to guarantee the life of the left-behind elderly people under the rural social deconstruction background is a question of reality in the future. Based on the situation, to explore new ways to achieve reconstruction of the rural society is of practical significance and urgency. This paper puts forward the centralized residence mode can be a path for alleviating the predicament of the rural left-behind elderly care. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis methods, the paper caries out the analysis of the elderly kibbutz willingness and its factors in village Z. The significant factor is found and analyzed, and is provided as the basis for the elderly kibbutz policy. Based on the sample survey of village Z, Shandong Province and statistical analysis using Logistic, it is found: 1) local empty nesters who are willing to live together account for 64.3%, and those who are unwilling account for 35.6%, which means the former group is the majority; 2) housing location, public services, loneliness, children's living standards, aging-related diseases can significantly affect the willingness of the empty nesters. Housing location and public services are negatively correlated with the willingness of centralized residence and loneliness, children's living standards, and aging-related diseases are positively correlated with the willingness of centralized residence.%我国农村社会形态目前正发生深度变革,显著化特征表现在人口流失、高龄化、空巢化趋势加速。随着人口流失和老龄化趋势加速,乡

  13. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  14. Report of the 7th international workshop on colposcopy, screening and prevention of cervical cancer, Douala, Cameroon, March 30 - 31 and April 1st 2016

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    Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Master's classes, free communications and discussions were fruitful and appointment was taken for March 30-31, 2017 in Yaounde, Cameroon. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 3269-3274

  15. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-Like Bacteria Isolated from Wild Great Apes from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Klee, Silke R.; Özel, Muhsin; Appel, Bernd; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jacob, Daniela; Holland, Gudrun; Fabian H Leendertz; Pauli, Georg; Grunow, Roland; Nattermann, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    We present the microbiological and molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from four chimpanzees and one gorilla thought to have died of an anthrax-like disease in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. These isolates differed significantly from classic Bacillus anthracis by the following criteria: motility, resistance to the gamma phage, and, for isolates from Cameroon, resistance to penicillin G. A capsule was expressed not only after induction by CO2 and bicarbonate but also under normal grow...

  16. Increased burden and severity of metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness in treatment naïve HIV+ patients from Cameroon

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    Ngatchou W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available William Ngatchou,1 Daniel Lemogoum,1 Pierre Ndobo,2,† Euloge Yagnigni,2 Emiline Tiogou,2 Elisabeth Nga,2 Charles Kouanfack,2 Philippe van de Borne,1 Michel P Hermans3 1Hypertension Clinic, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Cardiology, Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels, Belgium †Professor Pierre Ndobo passed away on January 21, 2013 Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and its therapy are associated with increased aortic stiffness and metabolic syndrome (MetS phenotype in Caucasian patients. We hypothesized that, independently of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection in native black African patients is associated with increased burden of cardiometabolic risk factors that may accelerate arterial structural damage and translate into increased aortic stiffness. Patients and methods: Ninety-six apparently healthy Cameroonian subjects (controls were compared to 108 untreated Cameroonian HIV+ patients (HIV-UT of similar age. In each participant, pulse wave velocity (Complior, aortic augmentation index (SphygmoCor, brachial blood pressure (Omron 705 IT, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and lipids were recorded, as well as the prevalence and severity of MetS, based on the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute score ≥3/5. Results: Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG 100–125 mg · dL-1 and of diabetes (FPG > 125 mg · dL-1 was higher in HIV-UT than in controls (47% versus 27%, and 26% versus 1%, respectively; both P < 0.01. Fasting triglycerides and the atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio were significantly higher in HIV-UT than in controls. Hypertension prevalence was high and comparable in both groups (41% versus 44%, respectively; not significant. HIV-UT patients exhibited a twice-higher prevalence of MetS than controls (47% versus 21%; P = 0.02. Age- and sex-adjusted pulse wave velocity was

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors of human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence in a highly endemic area of epilepsy in Bangoua, west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Dschanou, Armel Romeo; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the larvae of Taenia solium is a serious and emerging threat to public health in the endemic areas as well as in the non-endemic areas. Neurocysticercosis, an affection of the central nervous system is a leading cause of epilepsy in endemic areas. This study was carried out to investigate human cysticercosis, taeniasis and risk factors, and also their association with epilepsy in Bangoua, west Cameroon where epilepsy is highly prevalent. Out of 384 people investigated, 12 (3.1%) exhibited antibody response against low molecular weight antigens of T. solium by ELISA. Immunoblot revealed that six persons (1.6%) were seropositive with the same antigens. Among 61 epileptic patients, only one was seropositive by immunoblot and the study did not find any statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in seropositivity to T. solium between epileptic persons (1/61, 1.6%) and non-epileptic group (5/323, 1.5%). In addition, cysticercosis was associated with households eating pork meat from pigs slaughtered at home, but not with other factors. The risk factors including pig farming, the consumption of pork meat, vegetables, and non-drinkable water were attenuated by the relatively good hygiene and pig husbandry practices of the population. No egg of Taenia was found in stool by microscopic examination. All data obtained in this study suggested that cysticercosis might not be the principal causative agent of epilepsy in this area.

  18. Investigation and Strategy Research of Improvement on Rural Primary Physical Education in Central Region of China--Taking T Country of Hunan Province as Example%中部地区农村小学体育教育的现状及改良策略研究——以湖南省T县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆欣光; 杨林

    2012-01-01

    Primary education is the beginning of learning phase of adolescent, so it is very important to enhance primary physical education. However, the primary physical education in country of central region of China is in poor condition. Thought investigation on T country of Hunan province, this paper generalize the current status of primary physical education of central region of China and put forward the strategy which can change the current status.%小学是青少年学习阶段的开始,也是养成良好体育习惯和锻炼健康体魄的开端,所以加强小学体育教育十分必要。但当前中部地区的农村小学,体育教育现状令人堪忧。通过对湖南省T县农村小学的田野调查,归纳出中部地区农村小学体育教育的现状,并提出改良的策略。

  19. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for granitoids of the Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex, Ceara Central Domain: implication for neoproterozoic syncollisional magmatism in north Borborema Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Felipe Grandjean da; Araujo, Carlos Eduardo Ganade de; Vasconcelos, Antonio Maurilio, E-mail: felipe.costa@cprm.gov.br, E-mail: caegeo@gmail.com, E-mail: maurilio.vasconcelos@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Amaral, Wagner da Silva, E-mail: wamaral@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante, E-mail: joseneusa.rodrigues@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    The Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex (TSQC) is one of the largest Neoproterozoic plutonic manifestations in the north Borborema Province (NE Brazil). It represents an anatectic/igneous association characterized by a number of magmatic pulses that occurred in the 650-610 Ma interval. In this paper, we present U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for quartz monzonite and quartz diorites of the southern part of TSQC. The quartz monzonite belong to a hybrid granitoid association, including monzonite, syenites and quartz syenites, all with abundant mafic magmatic enclaves. A quartz monzonite sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 634 {+-} 10 Ma and a TDM age of 2.69 Ga. The quartz diorites are much more homogeneous in composition and yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 618 {+-} 23 Ma and a TDM age of 2.19 Ga. The presence of coeval mantle-derived magmatism and diatexites (crustal anatexis) post-dating high-pressure metamorphism (ca. 650 Ma), and together with high-temperature metamorphism (ca. 630-610 Ma), suggests that this large magmatic manifestation evolved in a collisional setting, probably related to slab break off during the Western Gondwana amalgamation. (author)

  20. [Terrestrial gastropods from Misiones Province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Diego Eduardo Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Vogler, Roberto Eugenio; Beltramino, Ariel Aníbal; Rumi, Alejandra

    2013-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest represents one of the global priority eco-regions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, this is represented by the Paranense Forest, which occupies much of the Misiones Province. In this paper, an updated list of land mollusks from Misiones Province is presented, and its species richness was evaluated comparing protected and unprotected areas. For this, we reviewed La Plata Museum Mollusk Collection, updated the literature review, and developed some field work between 2009 and 2010. For the areographic work, a grid (50 x 50 km) was applied to a Misiones province map. In this region, large areas of native vegetation constituting the Paranaense Forest still persist, and include protected areas such as the Iguazú National Park and Puerto Peninsula Provincial Park. These areas have been the most explored at the malacological level (both terrestrial and aquatic environments), a fact that is consistent with the greater number of records found, which may also be the explanation for the highest number of species recorded in the region. A database containing 497 records was compiled. The number of species occurring in this Province was increased from 28 to 56; 11 of which were exotic species. A total of 38 of the species occurred in protected areas and 53 in unprotected areas; and 25 species were micro-mollusks. Orthalicidae was the family with the highest species number (10) and the widest distribution, occupying 16/20 sampling units. Megalobulimus was the genus found in a greater number of sampling units (14/20). The highest values of specific richness of land gastropods were found in Northern Misiones (R=32). This richness was similar to that previously reported for the Tucumán Province, although species occurring in both provinces were mostly different. The richness in Misiones Province border areas, as the Republic of Paraguay and the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil), was about twice that found in the province. The present study showed the

  1. Early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon during the year 2010.

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    Serge C Billong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR, which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1 Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2 Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3 Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4 On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5 ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. RESULTS: THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40 for EWI(1, 20% (8/40 for EWI(2; 20% (8/40 for EWI(3; 0% (0/37 for EWI(4; and 45% (17/38 for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2, EWI(3, and EWI(4 was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. CONCLUSIONS: The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.

  2. Are students kidding with health research ethics? The case of HIV/AIDS research in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Universities in Cameroon are playing an active part in HIV/AIDS research and much of this research is carried out by students, usually for the purpose of a dissertation/thesis. Student theses/dissertations present research findings in a much more comprehensive manner and have been described as the stepping-stone of a budding scientist’s potential in becoming an independent researcher. It is therefore important to verify how students handle issues of research ethics. Method Theses/dissertations on HIV/AIDS that described research studies involving the use of human research participants were screened to verify if research ethics approval and informed consent were obtained and documented. The contents of the consent forms were also qualitatively analyzed. Results Of 174 theses/dissertations on HIV, ethics approval was documented in 17 (9.77%) and informed consent in 77 (47.83%). Research ethics approval was first mentioned at all in 2002 and highly reported in the year 2007. Evidence of ethics approval was found for the first time in 2005 and informed consent first observed and evidenced in 1997. Ethics approval was mostly reported by students studying for an MD (14.01%) and was not reported in any Bachelors’ degree dissertation. Informed consent was also highly reported in MD theses (64.58%) followed by undergraduate theses (31.58%). Voluntary participation and potential benefits of the study were some of the common aspects dealt with in most of the consent forms. The right to discontinue participation in the study and management of residual samples were scarcely ever mentioned. Conclusions Overall, and given the current state of the art of research ethics around the world, student-scientists in Cameroon would seem to be merely kidding with research ethics. It is thus essential that training in health research ethics (HRE) be incorporated in the curriculum of universities in Cameroon in order that the next generation of scientists may be better

  3. 黑龙江省城乡一体化的基础——农民集中居住,土地集约利用%The Integration of Urban and Rural Foundation in Heilongjiang Province--Centralized Residence of Farmers, Land Intensive Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德忠; 姜法竹

    2012-01-01

    为了研究如何在黑龙江省加快城乡一体化进程,实现城乡一体化建设目标,运用调查研究的方法,以黑龙江垦区的相关农场和地方试验区为样本,对黑龙江省城乡一体化建设进行了分析研究。研究结果表明:近10年来黑龙江省城镇化水平呈现出增长幅度放缓的态势,制约了城乡一体化的进程。黑龙江省要实现城乡一体化,必须以农民居住集中化、土地利用集约化为基础。其必要性表现在:有利于实现农业生产规模化和机械化;有利于提高农民组织化程度;有利于缩小城乡居民生活水平差异,实现城乡统筹发展;有利于整合和优化社会资源,集中财力物力加快城镇化建设步伐。同时又具有政治、经济与财政、技术、行政可操作性方面的可行性。%In order to research how to accelerate the process of integration of urban and rural,realizing the integration of urban and rural construction target in Heilongjiang Province.Setting the building Heilongjiang reclamation area and local regional experimental area in Heilongjiang Province as a sample,we used the method of investigation,and analyzed the integration of urban and rural construction in Heilongjiang Province.The results show that urbanization level had showed a slow growth rate,which restricted urban and rural integration process in Heilongjiang Province in recent 10 years.To realize the integration of urban and rural areas in Heilongjiang Province must be based on living concentration,land intensive utilization.The necessity lies in it was helpful for realizing agricultural scale of production and mechanization,improving the degree of organization of farmers,contracting urban and rural difference of residents’standard of living,balancing urban and rural development,conducting social integration and optimization of resources,and centralizing financial and material resources to accelerate the pace of urbanization.Moreover,the result

  4. Measuring Disability in Population Based Surveys: The Interrelationship between Clinical Impairments and Reported Functional Limitations in Cameroon and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between two distinct measures of disability: self-reported functional limitations and objectively-screened clinical impairments. Methods We undertook an all age population-based survey of disability in two areas: North-West Cameroon (August/October 2013) and Telangana State, India (Feb/April 2014). Participants were selected for inclusion via two-stage cluster randomised sampling (probability proportionate to size cluster selection and compact segment sampling within clusters). Disability was defined as the presence of self-reported functional limitations across eight domains, or presence of moderate or greater clinical impairments. Clinical impairment screening comprised of visual acuity testing for vision impairment, pure tone audiometry for hearing impairment, musculoskeletal functioning assessment for musculoskeletal impairment, reported seizure history for epilepsy and reported symptoms of clinical depression (depression adults only). Information was collected using structured questionnaires, observations and examinations. Results Self-reported disability prevalence was 5.9% (95% CI 4.7–7.4) and 7.5% (5.9–9.4) in Cameroon and India respectively. The prevalence of moderate or greater clinical impairments in the same populations were 8.4% (7.5–9.4) in Cameroon and 10.5% (9.4–11.7) in India. Overall disability prevalence (self-report and/or screened positive to a moderate or greater clinical impairment) was 10.5% in Cameroon and 12.2% in India, with limited overlap between the sub-populations identified using the two types of tools. 33% of participants in Cameroon identified to have a disability, and 45% in India, both reported functional limitations and screened positive to objectively-screened impairments, whilst the remainder were identified via one or other tool only. A large proportion of people with moderate or severe clinical impairments did not self-report functional difficulties despite reporting

  5. Empirical Analysis of Kuznets Curve on Economic Growth and Environment Pollution in Six Provinces of the Central China:Based on the Panel Data of 1998-2012%中部六省经济增长与环境污染的库兹涅茨曲线的实证分析--基于1998-2012年的面板数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣艳; 张荣霞

    2016-01-01

    Based on the environment Kuznets curve theory , using of panel data from 1998 to 2012 and the panel u-nit root methods , give an empirical analysis of Kuznets curve on economic growth and environment pollution in six provinces of the central China .The results are as follows .Firstly, EKC has five forms:straight line , U, inverted-U, N and inverted-N;secondly , the six provinces of the central China are in the stage of increasing industrial waste gases and industrial solid waste pollution with economic growth;thirdly , the six provinces of the central China are in the transition stage of industrial waste water pollution , so this illustrates that industrial waste water pollution con-trol policies are effective .%在环境库兹涅茨曲线理论的基础上,选用1998—2012年中部六省的面板数据,运用面板单位根方法,对中部六省经济增长与环境污染库兹涅茨曲线进行实证检验。结果显示:一是中部六省的环境库兹涅茨曲线呈现直线形、U形、倒U形、N形和倒N形;二是中部六省处在经济增长加大工业废气和工业固体废物污染的阶段;三是水污染处于转折期,这说明“工业废水”污染控制、治理政策取得了成效。

  6. Child labour in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Some lessons drawn from a survey on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Song Ntamack

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although child labour is a phenomenon widely studied around the world, there are few papers that tackle the problem in Cameroon. The objective of this paper is to fill the gap by questioning the subject in Yaoundé, the capital city. But child labour phenomenon is analysed here from a questionnaire that has two distinctive features: (i the questionnaire is exclusively devoted to child labour, and (ii all the participants in the survey are exclusively children themselves. No adult (parent, guardian, elder, employer, etc. was consulted and given a chance to answer on behalf of a child. This process is extremely rare in child labour, since in general individuals other than children are requested to testify and answer inslead of children. While some results obtained from a standard Logit model on the determinant of child labour are well known, the others are either not known or insignificant. We suspect that the reason is the data collection.

  7. Survey of the mineral status of pastures and small ruminants in the West Region of Cameroon

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    Njwe, RM.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Four dominant grass species (Hyparrhenia rufa, Melinis minutiflora, Pennisetum purpureum and Sporobolus africanus of natural pastures of the West Region of Cameroon were sampled at 60 sites between September and November of 1985. The grass samples were analysed for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, mangenese, copper and zinc. Serum was also collected from goats and sheep at the same locations where forages were sampled and analysed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and copper. Results showed that P, Mg, A/a, Zn and Cu in forages were generally below the critical level stipulated to satisfy the requirements of grazing livestock in the tropics. Calcium was inadequate in the sera of goats and sheep where as P, Mg, Zn and Cu were adequate. Use of salt licks to supplement intake of mineral elements from grasses by goats and sheep is necessary in the region.

  8. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon)

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2016-07-07

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p\\'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p\\'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg-1 in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Geohazards (floods and landslides in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotchoko Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually and landslides (occasionally occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered.

  10. Examination of the effects of public spending and trade policy on real exchange rate in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.

  11. Ecological status and sources of anthropogenic contaminants in mangroves of the Wouri River Estuary (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Sacchi, Angela; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Daffonchio, Daniele; Din, Ndongo; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Cannicci, Stefano

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves are critically threatened by human activities, despite the important ecosystem functions and services they provide. Mangroves in Cameroon represent no exception to the worldwide trend of mangrove destruction, especially around Douala, on the Wouri river estuary. In two sites around Douala, we assessed the presence of sterols, PAHs, PCBs, DEHP, DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE and potentially toxic metals in sediment samples. As a proxy of ecological quality, we measured the diversity and abundance of macrobenthos assemblages. We detected p,p'-DDE contamination, with concentrations higher than 3μgkg(-1) in 16 out of 26 samples which were attributed to recent widespread use of DDT. The detection of sterols revealed faecal contamination. Significant sensitivity of the macrobenthos to contaminants was revealed, with possible implications on the overall mangrove vulnerability to climate change and on the provision of ecosystem services to local populations.

  12. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félicité M. Tchouanguep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%, cow raw milk (15.9%, breast milk (4.8%, urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%, and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%; HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  13. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV).

  14. Mycorrhiza status of Gnetum spp. in Cameroon: evaluating diversity with a view to ameliorating domestication efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechem, Eneke Esoeyang Tambe; Alexander, Ian James

    2012-02-01

    A field survey was carried out to investigate the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associated with Gnetum spp. in Cameroon. The extent and variation of ectomycorrhizal colonisation as well as the degree of host specificity were evaluated. Gnetum spp. were found to be almost always ectomycorrhizal in all sites visited. There were just two ectomycorrhizal morphotypes ('yellow' and 'white') associated with this plant. Such low diversity is unusual for an ectomycorrhizal plant. The yellow morphotype was the most widespread and prevalent and was identified by morphological and molecular methods to have been formed with Scleroderma sinnamariense. Propagules of this fungus were present in soil collected from farm lands, cocoa plantations, Chromolaena and bush fallows, as well as in a relatively undisturbed forest harbouring ectomycorrhizal legumes. The fungus responsible for the white morphotype was identified as also belonging to the genus Scleroderma by ITS sequence similarity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal structures were absent in cleared and stained portions of the roots.

  15. Parameter estimation based synchronization for an epidemic model with application to tuberculosis in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowong, Samuel, E-mail: sbowong@gmail.co [Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157 Douala (Cameroon); Postdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A 31, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jurgen [Postdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A 31, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-04

    We propose a method based on synchronization to identify the parameters and to estimate the underlying variables for an epidemic model from real data. We suggest an adaptive synchronization method based on observer approach with an effective guidance parameter to update rule design only from real data. In order, to validate the identifiability and estimation results, numerical simulations of a tuberculosis (TB) model using real data of the region of Center in Cameroon are performed to estimate the parameters and variables. This study shows that some tools of synchronization of nonlinear systems can help to deal with the parameter and state estimation problem in the field of epidemiology. We exploit the close link between mathematical modelling, structural identifiability analysis, synchronization, and parameter estimation to obtain biological insights into the system modelled.

  16. Parameter estimation based synchronization for an epidemic model with application to tuberculosis in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowong, Samuel; Kurths, Jurgen

    2010-10-01

    We propose a method based on synchronization to identify the parameters and to estimate the underlying variables for an epidemic model from real data. We suggest an adaptive synchronization method based on observer approach with an effective guidance parameter to update rule design only from real data. In order, to validate the identifiability and estimation results, numerical simulations of a tuberculosis (TB) model using real data of the region of Center in Cameroon are performed to estimate the parameters and variables. This study shows that some tools of synchronization of nonlinear systems can help to deal with the parameter and state estimation problem in the field of epidemiology. We exploit the close link between mathematical modelling, structural identifiability analysis, synchronization, and parameter estimation to obtain biological insights into the system modelled.

  17. Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: Long-term Outcome in 87 Patients Who Presented With Paraplegia in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesseling, P B; Mbah, G; Kouya, F; Kimbi, C; Nfor, P; Kaah, J; Kuruvilla, R; Best, A; Wharin, P

    2015-01-01

    The reported long-term outcome of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) patients who present with paraplegia is largely unknown. Records of BL patients treated with comparable short-interval cyclophosphamide chemotherapy schedules between 2004 and 2014 at three Baptist mission hospitals in Cameroon were reviewed. Survivors were followed up and examined at home or in hospital. Eighty-seven of 948 (9.2%) patients had paraplegia at diagnosis. The survival rate in eBL patients with paraplegia at diagnosis was 33% (n = 29) after follow-up of between 2 and 96 (median 40) months. Seven patients (24%) had neurological sequelae and needed rehabilitation. There was no relationship between the duration of symptoms (4 weeks) and the survival rate or the risk to have neurological sequelae. The survival rate and risk for sequelae were similar in patients with confirmed St. Jude stage III and IV diseases.

  18. Aflatoxin contamination in food and body fluids in relation to malnutrition and cancer status in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchana, Angele N; Moundipa, Paul F; Tchouanguep, Félicité M

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%); HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  19. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (Africa had relatively low costs (Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  20. TOURISTY POLICIES AND THE HOTEL PARK DEVELOPEMENT OF CAMEROON (1950 - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta PUŞCAŞU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The hotelier component represents an important side of the touristy activity success. In countries that have an emergent economy, as Cameroon, the tourism and the hotel business have shaped activation as a lever to the whole economy, since the second half of the 20th century. The present paperwork proposes an analytic overview of the evolution of the hotelier park in two of the main cities of the country, Douala and Yaoundé. The evolutional aspects are historically staged, correlated within the political framework and emphasize the tourist phenomenon overall. The goals of our research emphasize qualitative and quantitative upheaval recorded by the urban hotelier park for the identification of the causal terms between the phenomenon type relations/context and the possible substantiation policy in the future.

  1. Current practice of epidemiology in Africa: highlights of the 3rd conference of the African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of epidemiology, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwescheu, Armand Seraphin; Fokam, Joseph; Tchendjou, Patrice; Nji, Akindeh; Ngouakam, Hermann; Andre, Bita Fouda; Joelle, Sobngwi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Akinroye, Kingsley; Mbacham, Wilfred; Colizzi, Vittorio; Leke, Rose; Victora, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    As the study of disease occurrence and health indicators in human populations, Epidemiology is a dynamic field that evolves with time and geographical context. In order to update African health workers on current epidemiological practices and to draw awareness of early career epidemiologists on concepts and opportunities in the field, the 3(rd) African Epidemiology Association and the 1st Cameroon Society of Epidemiology Conference was organized in June 2-6, 2014 at the Yaoundé Mont Febe Hotel, in Cameroon. Under the theme«Practice of Epidemiology in Africa: Stakes, Challenges and Perspectives», the conference attracted close to five hundred guest and participants from all continents. The two main programs were the pre-conference course for capacity building of African Early Career epidemiologists, and the conference itself, providing a forum for scientific exchanges on recent epidemiological concepts, encouraging the use of epidemiological methods in studying large disease burden and neglected tropical diseases; and highlighting existing opportunities.

  2. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  3. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Lolita, Yotat; Ashu Michael, Agbor; Hubert, Ntumba; Florence, Djachechi; Jacques, Bolenge

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4%) males, and 100 (54,6%) females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%); 86 (47.3%) and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4%) had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6%) had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1%) had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3%) had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6%) had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4%) have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7%) were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6%) at the mandible, 2 (1.1%) were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6%) at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%), financial difficulties 124 (67.8%), and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%). Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor. PMID:26633972

  4. Oral Health Status of the Elderly at Tonga, West Region, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotat Michele Lolita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the oral health status of elderly persons in Tonga, West Region of Cameroon. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study of persons of at least 65 years, living in Tonga village, West Region of Cameroon. Results. A total of 183 persons aged between 65 and 94 years, mean age of 73 years ±7 s.d., 83 (45,4% males, and 100 (54,6% females participated in the study. The most represented age range was 65–74 years (60.1%; 86 (47.3% and elders above 65 constituted 1.8% of the total population. More than a third 117 (41.4% had visible dental plaque, 117 (48,6% had periodontal pockets >4 mm, 153 (54,1% had teeth with total crown destruction, 70 (38.3% had not lost a tooth, 23 (12.6% had lost 1 tooth, 19 (10.4% have lost at least 2 teeth, 100 (55.7% were partially edentulous at the maxilla and 98 (53.6% at the mandible, 2 (1.1% were completely edentulous at the maxilla and 3 (1.6% at the mandible, and 3.8% had removable dentures. The mean DMF index was 6.11 and 69.4% had dental caries. Risk factors to dental caries were toothbrushing and tobacco consumption while dental plaque was associated to pocket depth of 4–6 mm. Barriers to oral health care included ignorance 47 (25.7%, financial difficulties 124 (67.8%, and distance to the nearest clinic 12 (6.5%. Conclusion. The oral status of the elderly was generally poor.

  5. Household and community socioeconomic and environmental determinants of child nutritional status in Cameroon

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    Pongou Roland

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undernutrition is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. We examine the household and community level socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with child nutritional status in Cameroon, and changes in the effects of these factors during the 1990s economic crisis. We further consider age-specific effects of household economic status on child nutrition. Methods Child nutritional status was measured by weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores. Data were from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1991 and 1998. We used analysis of variance to assess the bivariate association between the explanatory factors and nutritional status. Multivariate, multilevel analyses were undertaken to estimate the net effects of both household and community factors. Results Average WAZ and HAZ declined respectively from -0.70 standard deviations (SD, i.e. 0.70 SD below the reference median, to -0.83 SD (p = 0.006 and from -1.03 SD to -1.14 SD (p = 0.026 between 1991 and 1998. These declines occurred mostly among boys, children over 12 months of age, and those of low socioeconomic status. Maternal education and maternal health seeking behavior were associated with better child nutrition. Household economic status had an overall positive effect that increased during the crisis, but it had little effect in children under 6 months of age. Improved household (water, sanitation and cooking fuel and community environment had positive effects. Children living in the driest regions of the country were consistently worst off, and those in the largest cities were best off. Conclusion Both household and community factors have significant impact on child health in Cameroon. Understanding these relationships can facilitate design of age- and community-specific intervention programs.

  6. From grass to grace: How SLMTA revolutionised the Bamenda Regional Hospital Laboratory in Cameroon

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    Siyem C. Nkwawir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public health laboratories form the foundation on which today’s clinical laboratory practice in Cameroon is built. The advent of the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme in 2009 empowered the Bamenda Regional Hospital Laboratory (BRHL to improve its working culture, practices and management.Objectives: To evaluate the results of SLMTA implementation at BRHL and discuss lessons learned.Method: In 2010, the SLMTA programme was rolled out in Cameroon to improve laboratory quality management systems in five laboratories, including BRHL. Three workshops were conducted (the first centralised, the remaining two on-site at each laboratory and improvement projects were implemented after each workshop with the assistance of mentors. Audits were used in order to evaluate performance and to identify areas for further improvement.Results: BRHL had the lowest score (18% amongst the cohort at the baseline audit and the highest (81% at the official Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA audit conducted in August 2013 by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Improvements were observed in each of the 12 Quality System Essentials; improvement was especially noteworthy in the areas of facilities and safety, and purchasing and inventory. Staff investment and pride in the quality of laboratory services increased.Conclusion: BRHL’s remarkable improvement was achieved with a combination of SLMTA training activities, intensive on-site mentorship and the collective focus of all laboratory staff. The experience at Bamenda Hospital illustrates what can be achieved when a laboratory successfully harnesses the energy of its staff and implements changes to improve the quality of services in a transformation taking them from grass to grace.

  7. Epidemiology and genetic variability of HHV-8/KSHV in Pygmy and Bantu populations in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Betsem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8 is the causal agent of all forms of Kaposi sarcoma. Molecular epidemiology of the variable K1 region identified five major subtypes exhibiting a clear geographical clustering. The present study is designed to gain new insights into the KSHV epidemiology and genetic diversity in Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bantu and Pygmy populations from remote rural villages were studied. Antibodies directed against latent nuclear antigens (LANA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence using BC3 cells. Peripheral blood cell DNAs were subjected to a nested PCR amplifying a 737 bp K1 gene fragment. Consensus sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. We studied 2,063 persons (967 females, 1,096 males, mean age 39 years, either Bantus (1,276 or Pygmies (787. The Bantu group was older (42 versus 35 years: P<10(-4. KSHV anti-LANA seroprevalence was of 37.2% (768/2063, with a significant increase with age (P<10(-4 but no difference according to sex. Seroprevalence, as well as the anti-LANA antibodies titres, were higher in Bantus (43.2% than in Pygmies (27.6% (P<10(-4, independently of age. We generated 29 K1 sequences, comprising 24 Bantus and five Pygmies. These sequences belonged to A5 (24 cases or B (five cases subtypes. They exhibited neither geographical nor ethnic aggregation. A5 strains showed a wide genetic diversity while the B strains were more homogenous and belonged to the B1 subgroup. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate high KSHV seroprevalence in the two major populations living in Southern and Eastern Cameroon with presence of mostly genetically diverse A5 but also B K1 subtypes.

  8. Strengths and weaknesses of the smallholder oil palm sector in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongho Raymond N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an evaluation of the current strengths and weaknesses of the oil palm smallholder sector in Cameroon, or more precisely of the non-industrial sector, as some holdings owned by elites can reach hundreds of hectares. A randomized sample of oil palm producers was chosen after categorization into elites, migrants, natives and company workers (past and present in four palm oil production basins in the Southern part of the country. 176 semi-structured questionnaires were administered. The production basins included: Eseka, Dibombari, Muyuka, and Lobe. Results from the study revealed that elites owned larger average areas (41.3 ha than the other categories of oil palm producers. All categories recorded low average plantation yields, ranging from 7 to 8.4 t FFB/ha/year (with minimum yields of 3 t FFB/ha. Though the elites showed better bargaining power and higher income, all categories of producers faced similar problems such as the high cost of inputs with no governmental subsidies, the difficulty in accessing loans with low interest rates and the use of rudimentary working tools. Despite such weaknesses, the sector also demonstrates some strengths such as the ability to impose little threat to the primary forest when compared to agro-industrial plantations, the availability of a domestic and sub-regional market for red palm oil, the availability of artisanal mills with low extraction rates although able to generate more income for the producers. There is a need for governmental policies that will strengthen partnership between small and medium oil palm producers and agro-industries as it was the case during the Fonader period, in order to converge with the poverty reduction strategy intiated by the government of Cameroon.

  9. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practice of emergency contraception among university students in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouam Luc

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order to develop and refine a national health programme for reducing unwanted pregnancies and their associated morbidity and mortality. Methods A convenient sample of 700 students of the University of Buea (Cameroon was selected for the study. Data was collected by a self-administered, anonymous and pre-tested questionnaire. Results The response rate was 94.9% (664/700. General level of awareness of emergency contraceptive pills was 63.0% (418/664. However, knowledge of the general features of emergency contraceptive pills was low and misinformation was high among these students. Knowledge differed according to the source of information: informal source was associated with misinformation, while medical and informational sources were associated with better knowledge. Although the students generally had positive attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills, up to 65.0% (465/664 believed that emergency contraceptive pills were unsafe. Those with adequate knowledge generally showed favourable attitudes with regards to emergency contraceptive pills (Mann-Whitney U = 2592.5, p = 0.000. Forty-nine students (7.4% had used emergency contraceptive pills themselves or had a partner who had used them. Conclusion Awareness of emergency contraception pills by Cameroonian students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical and informational sources, which

  10. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

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    Jodie Dionne-Odom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%, HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%, and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8% with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4 and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7. Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%, HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%, syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%, malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%. Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.

  11. Retention in an antiretroviral therapy programme during an era of decreasing drug cost in Limbe, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosoko Jembia J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002, Cameroon initiated scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART; on 1 October 2004, a substantial reduction in ART cost occurred. We assessed the impact of this event and other factors on enrolment and retention in care among HIV-infected patients initiating ART from February 2002 to December 2005 at the single ART clinic serving the Southwest Region in Limbe, Cameroon. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical and pharmacy payment records of HIV-infected patients initiating ART according to national guidelines. We compared two cohorts of patients, enrolled before and after 1 October 2004, to determine if price reduction was associated with enhanced enrolment. We assessed factors associated with retention and survival by Cox proportional hazards models. Retention in care implied patients who had contact with the healthcare system as of 31 December 2005 (including those who were transferred to continue care in other ART centres, although these patients may have interrupted therapy at some time. A patient who was not retained in care may have dropped out (lost to follow up or died. Results Mean enrolment rates for 2920 patients who initiated ART before and after the price reduction were 46.5 and 95.5 persons/month, respectively (p Conclusions Reducing the cost of ART increased enrolment of clients in the programme, but did not change retention in care. In a system where most clients pay for ART, an accessible clinic location may be more important than the cost of medication for retention in care. Decentralizing ART clinics might improve retention and survival among patients on ART.

  12. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echouffo-Tcheugui Justin B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82% was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs.

  13. A comparative review of petrogenetic processes beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Geochemical constraints

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    Asobo N.E. Asaah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The origin and petrogenesis of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, composed of volcanoes that form on both the ocean floor and the continental crust, are difficult to understand because of the diversity, heterogeneity, and nature of available data. Major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks of the CVL spanning four decades have been compiled to reinterpret their origin and petrogenesis. Volcanic rocks range from nephelinite, basanite and alkali basalts to phonolite, trachyte and rhyolite with the presence of a compositional gap between SiO2 58–64 wt.%. Similarities in geochemical characteristics, modeled results for two component mixing, and the existence of mantle xenoliths in most mafic rocks argue against significant crustal contamination. Major and trace element evidences indicate that the melting of mantle rocks to generate the CVL magma occurred dominantly in the garnet lherzolite stability field. Melting models suggest small degree (<3% partial melting of mantle bearing (6–10% garnet for Mt. Etinde, the Ngaoundere Plateau and the Biu Plateau, and <5% of garnet for the oceanic sector of the CVL, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Bambouto, Mt. Manengouba and the Oku Volcanic Group. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics suggest that mixing in various proportions of Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM with enriched mantle 1 and 2 (EM1 and EM2 could account for the complex isotopic characteristics of the CVL lavas. Low Mg number (Mg# = 100 × MgO/(MgO + FeO and Ni, Cr and Co contents of the CVL mafic lavas reveal their crystallization from fractionated melts. The absence of systematic variation in Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios, and Sr-Nd isotope compositions between the mafic and felsic lavas indicates progressive evolution of magmas by fractional crystallization. Trace element ratios and their plots corroborate mantle heterogeneity and reveal distinct geochemical signatures for individual the CVL volcanoes.

  14. A comparative review of petrogenetic processes beneath the Cameroon Volcanic Line:Geochemical constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asobo N.E. Asaah; Tetsuya Yokoyama; Festus T. Aka; Tomohiro Usui; Mengnjo J. Wirmvem; Boris Chako Tchamabe; Takeshi Ohba; Gregory Tanyileke; J.V. Hell

    2015-01-01

    The origin and petrogenesis of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), composed of volcanoes that form on both the ocean floor and the continental crust, are difficult to understand because of the diversity, het-erogeneity, and nature of available data. Major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks of the CVL spanning four decades have been compiled to reinterpret their origin and petrogenesis. Volcanic rocks range from nephelinite, basanite and alkali basalts to phonolite, trachyte and rhyolite with the presence of a compositional gap between SiO2 58e64 wt.%. Similarities in geochemical characteristics, modeled results for two component mixing, and the existence of mantle xenoliths in most mafic rocks argue against significant crustal contamination. Major and trace element evidences indicate that the melting of mantle rocks to generate the CVL magma occurred dominantly in the garnet lherzolite stability field. Melting models suggest small degree (<3%) partial melting of mantle bearing (6e10%) garnet for Mt. Etinde, the Ngaoundere Plateau and the Biu Plateau, and<5%of garnet for the oceanic sector of the CVL, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Bambouto, Mt. Manengouba and the Oku Volcanic Group. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotope sys-tematics suggest that mixing in various proportions of Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM) with enriched mantle 1 and 2 (EM1 and EM2) could account for the complex isotopic characteristics of the CVL lavas. Low Mg number (Mg# ¼ 100 ? MgO/(MgO þ FeO)) and Ni, Cr and Co contents of the CVL mafic lavas reveal their crystallization from fractionated melts. The absence of systematic variation in Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios, and Sr-Nd isotope compositions between the mafic and felsic lavas indicates progressive evolution of magmas by fractional crystallization. Trace element ratios and their plots corroborate mantle het-erogeneity and reveal distinct geochemical signatures for individual the CVL volcanoes.

  15. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    applying a systemic approach. Other innovations of the project in general, and the CHOP in particular, are the strong emphases on institutional-capacity building, integration, and sustainability. In countries like Chad and Cameroon, there are serious shortages of well-qualified health personnel. The CHOP described in this article provides leverage for initiating better healthcare that will reduce the high burden of disease in the developing world. Reducing mortality rates for infants and children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa requires massive scaling-up of malaria-control interventions (eg, large-scale distribution of ITNs to protect millions of African children), thereby approaching the Abuja targets (see Armstrong Schellenberg et al). The local NGOs that took a lead within the framework of the CHOP in the distribution of ITNs and accompanying health education messages can extend these activities to communities living outside the vicinity of the project area. Serious shortcomings of the current CHOP, consistently identified by the external monitoring groups, include the lack of a regional health plan, cumulative impact assessment, and provision of clean water and sanitation outside the narrowly defined project area. This point is of central importance, particularly for Chad, where access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities is low. Another limitation of the current CHOP is the insufficient amount of significance addressed to tuberculosis and the apparent lack of concerted control efforts against HIV infection, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These criticisms, however, must be balanced against the lack of clarity in international discourse about the proper extent of responsibility of the corporate sector for dealing with the health problems of countries in which they do business. In an elegant analysis, the environmental risk factor "unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene" was shown to be one of the major contributors to loss of healthy life, particularly

  16. 河北中南部地区汉族群体15个STR基因座遗传多态性研究%A Study on Genetic Polymorphism of 15 Short Tandem Repeat Loci in the Han Nationality People in Central-South Area of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小华; 焦保权; 张洁

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究PowerplexTM 16荧光标记复合扩增系统的15个STR基因座在河北中南部地区汉族个体的多态性分布,建立河北中南部地区汉族群体的遗传学基础数据.方法 采用Chelex-100法应用PowerplexTM 16荧光标记复合扩增系统和ABI 3130遗传分析仪对25295例河北中南部地区汉族个体血样DNA进行检测,统计15个STR基因座的基因型分布、基因频率、杂合度(heterozygosity,Ho)、多态信息量(polymorphism information contents,PIC)、个体识别率(discrimination power,DP)、非父排除率(probability of paternity exclusion,PE)等群体遗传学参数,并进行Hand-y-Weinberg平衡检验.结果 15个基因座在群体中具有较高多态性,基因型分布均符合Handy-Weinberg平衡定律(P>0.05).共检测出293个等位基因,1364种基因型,基因频率在0.002%~51.58%之间,Ho在0.6206~0.9146之间,PIC在0.5610~0.8967之间;累积个人识别率为0.999999999999999996156,累积非父排除率为0.999999663.结论 PowerplexTM 16荧光标记复合扩增系统的15个STR基因座适合作为河北中南部汉族群体的遗传标记.%Objective To establish the genetic database of the Han nationality people from Central-South of He-bei Province by studying the genetic polymorphism of 15 short tandem repeat ( STR) loci of PowerplexTM 16 fluorescence labeling composite amplification system in the Han nationality individuals from Central-South area of Hebei Province. Methods DNA in the 25295 blood samples were detected by Chelex-100 method using PowerplexTM 16 fluorescence la-beling composite amplification system and ABI 3130 genetic analyser, and population genetics parameters in the 15 STR loci such as genotype distribution, gene frequency, heterozygosity ( Ho) , polymorphism information content ( PIC) , indi-vidual discrimination power (DP), probability of paternity exclusion (PE) were tested, and Handy-Weinberg balance test was performed. Results The 15 STR loci had abundant genetic

  17. An Analysis of the Developmental Difference of the Inclusive Finance in China--Taking the Six Central Provinces Rural for Example%中国农村普惠金融发展的差异分析以中部六省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡洋萍

    2015-01-01

    在对普惠金融发展指数测量方法改良的基础上,对中部六省2005~2013年的普惠金融发展水平进行测度。研究发现,2005~2013年的近十年间,中部六省的农村普惠金融发展水平都有所提高,且各省普惠金融发展指数都没有出现0值的情况。从总体上来看,2005~2013年,湖南的农村普惠金融发展水平处于中部六省当中的最高水平,其次是山西、湖北、安徽、江西、河南,但河南在中部六省的普惠金融发展水平增长速度最快。从分析中部六省农村普惠金融发展水平差异的原因看:农村人均收入、农村金融机构服务数量、农村金融基础设施、普惠金融政策、当地信用环境等是造成六省普惠金融发展水平差异的重要原因。%The paper,selecting the Six Central Provinces Rural for an example,analyzes the development situation of the inclusive finance in our country.Based on the improvement of the Index of financial inclusion model by Chakravarty,measuring the Index of financial inclusion of Six Central Provinces rural areas in China during 2005 -2013,and analyzing the reasons for the index difference.According to the study,during 2005-2013,the Index of financial inclusion of six provinces rural areas in central China have improved,with no zero value for all areas.Specif-ically,during 2005-2013,the level of the financial inclusion of HUNAN is the highest,followed by SHANXI,HEBEI,ANHUI,JIANGXI and HENAN in their respective level of inclusion. But the growth rate of HENAN is the fastest.The reasons behind their different inclusion levels and growth rates are:the per capita income of rural residents,the number of rural financial insti-tutions,the rural financial infrastructure,the support of the government policy,the credit envi-ronment and so on.

  18. Prevalence of central obesity among normal body weight adults from Guangxi Province in 2010%2010年广西正常体重成年人中心型肥胖流行状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗水英; 杨虹; 蒙晓宇; 黄佟; 许晶晶; 黄颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解广西正常体重人群中心型肥胖流行状况及分布特点。方法利用中国慢性病及其危险因素监测项目问卷调查及身体测量获得的数据,分析广西6个监测点18岁以上体重正常人群2244人中心型肥胖的流行情况,以及体重正常人群中心型肥胖与心血管疾病危险因素聚集的关系。结果体重正常成人中,按照腰围、腰围身高比划分的中心型肥胖率分别为7.3%和16.6%,均为女性高于男性(P值均<0.01)并随着年龄的增加而上升;按照腰围划分,城市地区中心型肥胖率(10.5%)高于农村(6.1%),而按照腰围身高比划分则两者差别不大,城市、农村地区分别为17.9%和16.1%。在调整了年龄、性别、受教育程度、城乡等因素后,正常体重人群中心型肥胖者心脑血管疾病危险因素聚集的比例是非中心型肥胖者的2.272倍。结论体重正常人群中约有17%为中心型肥胖,并伴有心脑血管疾病危险因素聚集的风险升高。建议在开展肥胖干预时,不仅要强调维持健康体重和腰围,更要结合腰围身高比指标,倡导通过控制饮食和增加身体活动来控制肥胖。%Objective To understand the prevalence of central obesity among normal body weight adults in Guangxi. Methods The prevalence of central obesity was assessed based on the data obtained from the Chinese Chronic Disease Surveillance project, in which a questionnaire survey was conducted and the waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio(WHtR) were measured among 2 244 adults over 18 years old with normal body weight. The correlation of central obesity with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed as well. Result The prevalence of central obesity among normal body weight adults assessed by WC and WHtR were 7.3% and 16.6% respectively. The prevalence of central obesity in female was higher than that of male(p<0.01), and it increased with

  19. An investigative report on information literacy training of individual farmers in central China and on issues related to remedial measures:A case study of farmers information literacy in a few districts of Hubei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Jiaoping; XU; Yangkui; DUAN; Yaoqing; Charles; C.Yan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduced first a conceptual framework of"information literacy training of farmers"based on the widely recognized understanding of the term"information literacy(IL)."It then followed with a discussion based on these three authors’field investigation regarding to Hubei peasants’current information literacy training in such perspectives as information consciousness,information ability and ways and means of information access.It concluded by pointing out some of the more apparent factors that had adverse impacts on the farmers’information literacy training in central China and suggested a few possible remedial measures to guide the course for those who are involved in such undertakings.

  20. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  1. Multiple insecticide resistances and kdr mutation of Culex pipiens pallens in north-central Anhui Province%安徽省中北部淡色库蚊对多种杀虫剂抗性及其kdr基因突变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏星; 杨小迪; 王小莉; 李江艳; 王媛媛; 夏惠; 常雪莲; 方强

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of resistance to multiple insecticides and the frequencies of kdr mutations in Culex pipiens pallens from north⁃central Anhui Province. Methods From July to September,2014,the C. pipiens pallens mosquito larvae were collected in Huaibei,Bengbu and Chuzhou cities of the north⁃central Anhui Province and reared to adults. The female adult mosquitoes at 3-5 days post emergence were tested for susceptibility to the four insecticides,namely 0.05%deltamethrin,5%malathion,0.1%bendiocarb and 4%DDT,by using the standard WHO resistance tube bioassay. The detec⁃tion of the point mutations of the kdr gene at codon 1014 was conducted by PCR and DNA sequencing in the deltamethrin⁃resis⁃tant and⁃susceptible mosquitoes. Results High levels of resistance to all the four insecticides were found in all the three tested populations,although mosquito mortality varied among populations and test insecticides. Among the test insecticides,DDT showed lowest mortality with no significant difference(F=1.027,P>0.05)in all test populations,whereas significantly differ⁃ent mortalities were observed among populations for the remained three insecticides tested(deltamethrin,malathion,and ben⁃diocarb)(F = 23.823,33.955,128.841;all P 0.05);但接触溴氰菊酯、马拉硫磷、噁虫威后的死亡率差异均有统计学意义(F=23.823、33.955、128.841,P均<0.01)。3地淡色库蚊种群的kdr基因1014位点均存在L1014F、L1014S这2种非同义突变;L1014F突变频率与溴氰菊酯抗性水平呈正相关(r2=0.718,P<0.01)。结论安徽省中北部地区淡色库蚊对溴氰菊酯、马拉硫磷、噁虫威、DDT均产生了较强的抗性,kdr基因L1014F突变频率与溴氰菊酯抗性水平呈正相关;各地区卫生部门需加强对媒介蚊虫抗性的动态监测。

  2. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a case series study, public health challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Feteh, Fambombi Vitalis; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Moustapha, Chandini Aliyou

    2015-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases were recorded during this period; three of them complicated by bacterial infections. Measles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any febrile rash especially among poorly vaccinated populations. Primary preventive methods implemented by clinicians could help control outbreaks; especially with delays in public health intervention. Also, gaps in health policies in Cameroon should be addressed to scale up vaccination coverage in remote communities like Misaje to reduce the incidence of measles outbreaks.

  3. Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: What the People Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbu Daniel TAMBI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is entitled “Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: what the people say”. The objectives are: (i document the determinants of child health as informed by focus group discussion, (ii analyze what the people say concerning the relationship between child health and maternal labour force participation, (iii explore the perception of the people on the effects of child health on asset accumulation and (iv suggest public policies on the basis of the findings. We used seven focus groups derived from different backgrounds in our framework. We observed that, parents make used of the extra time accrue to them due to better health for their children and family to do extra work that fetched them more money. Based on this, we recommend that decision makers should promote child health outcomes as it’s a tool to promote maternal labour and wealth accumulation in Cameroon

  4. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing ...

  5. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced in...

  6. Characteristics of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody-positive patients in a hospital setting in Douala, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Namme Luma

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: In the gastroenterology clinic of Douala General Hospital, while almost 40% of patients who were anti-HCV antibody-positive were asymptomatic and diagnosed fortuitously, some already presented complications, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is an urgent need to put in place programs to increase awareness and diagnosis of HCV infection and to develop extensive and targeted anti-HCV treatment guidelines to improve the management of these patients in Cameroon.

  7. Four new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Pariselle, Antoine; Bitja Nyom, A. R.; Bilong Bilong, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The four Cichlidogyrus species (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) found on the gills of Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon are considered new and are described herein. Cichlidogyrus mvogoi n. sp. from Sarotherodon mvogoi, characterised by a long (> 100 mu m), thin and spirally coiled penis and a short marginal hook pair I. Cichlidogyrus sigmocirrus n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a short marginal hook pair I, a slightly spirally c...

  8. Ranking and Clustering of the Economic Status of Rural Residents in 31 Provinces and Regions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to rank and cluster the economic status of rural residents in 31 provinces, cities and autonomous regions, the MATLAB software is used and the component analysis and the cluster analysis are conducted on the data reflecting the economic status of each area. The results show that the provinces or cities with high comprehensive , scores are Shanghai Municipality, Beijing Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Jiangsu Province, Tianjin Municipality, Guangdong Province, Fujian Province, Shandong Province and Liaoning Province according to priority; the provinces or autonomous regions with low comprehensive scores are Gansu Province, Guizhou Province , Tibet, Uygur autonomous region and Yunnan Province. The economic status of rural residents in the 31 provinces and autonomous regions are partly parallel with the comprehensive economic development. The improvement of the economic status of rural residents is helpful for the overall economic elevation. Therefore, the government should coordinate the economic development of urban and rural areas, industry and agricultural, developed region and undeveloped region, and coastal areas and central and western areas to maximize the social welfare of the whole nation.

  9. Aquaculture in Cameroon and potential of lactic acid bacteria to be used as diseases controlling agents. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaktchan, Pierre Marie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food production sector and can be a great solution to the massive demand for protein of animal due to increase in the Cameroonian population. This review summarizes the past and present status of fish aquaculture in Cameroon, the new challenges for intensifying fish production and evaluates the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria as disease control agents in order to overcome these challenges. Fish farming started in Cameroon in the late 1940s, and has seen little progress since the last ten years, but the production is still insufficient to meet the demand of the population estimated at 400 000 tons in 2015. In order to reduce massive fish imports, Cameroon plans to produce 100 000 tons of fish by commercial aquaculture. Achieving this task needs quality and quantity of fingerlings, and probiotic lactic acid bacteria instead of antibiotics could be used as disease control agents in young fish hatching and ponds in order to boost and ensure quality and quantity production.

  10. The substitution of mineral fertilizers by compost from household waste in Cameroon: economic analysis with a partial equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaza Folefack, Achille Jean

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of substitution between compost and mineral fertilizer in order to assess the impact on the foreign exchange savings in Cameroon of increasing the use of compost. In this regard, a partial equilibrium model was built up and used as a tool for policy simulations. The review of existing literature already suggests that, the compost commercial value i.e. value of substitution (33,740 FCFA tonne(-1)) is higher compared to the compost real price (30,000 FCFA tonne(-1)), proving that it could be profitable to substitute the mineral fertilizer by compost. Further results from the scenarios used in the modelling exercise show that, increasing the compost availability is the most favourable policy for the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost. This policy helps to save about 18.55% of the annual imported mineral fertilizer quantity and thus to avoid approximately 8.47% of the yearly total import expenditure in Cameroon. The policy of decreasing the transport rate of compost in regions that are far from the city is also favourable to the substitution. Therefore, in order to encourage the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost, programmes of popularization of compost should be highlighted and be among the top priorities in the agricultural policy of the Cameroon government.

  11. 云南文山地区封建历朝统治政策研究%Research on the Successive Central Dynasties Ruling Policies in Wenshan District of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of Wenshan District,the successive central dynasties adopt different ruling policies from mainland.The characteristics of ruling policies in Wenshan District during Qin and Han Dynasties to the Tang and Song Dynasties were more emphasis on the Jimi policy but less sufficient constraint,little rules to follow and unclear feature of the system.With the wide influence of the central government,the characteristics of ruling policy in Wenshan District in the Dynasties of Yuan,Ming and Qing,gradually developed in depth.In all,the implementation of these policies were beneficial to the social stability and push the development of the economy and cultures of Wenshan District,and its historical role should be affirmed.However,it should also be noted that these policies were still a kind of oppression and exploitation to"control foreigners by foreigners".%历代王朝根据文山地区的特点,采取了不同于内地的统治政策。秦汉至唐宋时期,对文山地区重在羁縻而约束不足,管理的随意性较大且制度性特征不明显;元明清时期,中央王朝势力日益深入文山地区,统治逐渐向纵深发展。这些统治政策的实施,总体上有利于文山地区社会的安定和经济文化的发展,其历史作用应该给予肯定;但也应看到,其本质上仍是一种"以夷制夷"的封建压迫和剥削的民族统治政策。

  12. Economic Reasonability Analysis for Per Capita Investment in Centralized Water Supply Projects in Rural Areas of Hebei Province%河北省农村集中供水工程人均投资规模的经济合理性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪英; 连少伟; 谢敬芬; 孙雪峰

    2011-01-01

    河北省农村饮水安全工程的供水模式以集中供水工程为主.集中供水工程的费用主要包括折旧费和年运行费;经济效益主要包括医疗费用的减少、副业收入的增加和其它生产性劳动收入.经济合理性分析拟采用项目经济评价指标体系,选用经济净现值、经济内部收益率、效益费用比和动态投资回收期等指标进行分析评价.分析结果表明,各项指标均满足项目合理条件要求,人均投资规模经济合理.%The centralized water supply mode is the main mode for the rural drinking water safety projects in Hebei Province. The cost for centralized water supply mode is composed of depredation charge and annual running cost. The economic benefits include the decline in medical expenses, and the earnings increase from bywork and other physical labor. Economic evaluation index system is adopted for the economic reasonability analysis and the choice of indicators includes the economic net present value, economic internal rate of return, cost-benefit ratio and dynamic investment recovery period. The analysis shows that each index fits the project requirement and the per capita investment is economically reasonable.

  13. 黔中地区玉米水分生产函数模型适应性评价%Evaluation on Suitability of Water Production Functions to Maize in Central Area of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张和喜; 迟道才; 王永涛; 刘浏

    2013-01-01

    为探寻适合黔中地区的玉米水分生产函数,基于不同灌水处理下玉米的耗水量和产量数据,比较分析了Jensen模型、Minhas模型、Blank模型、Stewart模型和Singh模型5种水分生产函数模型.结果显示,乘法模型Minhas模型的λi顺序与玉米水分生理特征不符,加法模型Blank模型的Ai值在第②阶段最高、Stewart模型中Bi值②阶段>④阶段、Singh模型中Ci值在第③和第⑤阶段出现负值,这都与玉米的水分生理特性及灌溉实践不符,而由Jensen模型推算出的作物缺水阶段敏感顺序与玉米的水分生理特性以及灌溉实践相一致,因此确定适合贵州黔中地区的玉米水分生产函数模型为Jensen模型.%To explore the corn water production function suitability in central Guizhou,we combined with the test data of water consumption and maize yield under different irrigation treatments,and 5 kinds of water production function models including Jensen model,Minhas model,Blank model,Stewart model and Singh model are compared and analyzed.The results show that sequence λi of multiplication model Minhas model and maize water physiological characteristics do not match each other,the Ai of the addition of Blank model is the highest in the second stage,for the Stewart model,the Bi is the highest at 2 stage > 4 stages,at stage 3 and stage 5,the Ci in Singh model begins to turn to negative,which conflicts with the physiological characteristics of water and irrigation practice of corn,but calculating the water phase sensitive sequence and the corn moisture physiological characteristics and practical experience to irrigation by using Jensen model are accorded,Therefore,we determine that Jensen model is the most suitable model for corn water production function in central Guizhou.

  14. 投资与中原经济区发展关系研究——基于1989-2009年河南省的时间序列数据分析%RESEARCH ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INVESTMENT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CENTRAL PLAINS ECONOMIC ZONE --Based on the time series data analysis from 1989 to 2009 in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军; 郑玉

    2011-01-01

    投资是中原经济区建设的重要着力点。以河南为例,利用河南省1989-2009年的时间序列数据,通过ADF单位根检验、Granger因果关系检验等,实证分析了投资与经济发展之间的关系。结果表明:投资增长与经济发展之间存在双向的因果关系。%Investment is an important focus for the construction of Central Plains Economic Zone. The paper makes use of the time series data from 1989 to 2009 in Henan Province and conducts an empirical analysis of the relationship between investment and economic development through the ADF unit root test, Granger causality test, etc. The results show that there is two-way causal relationship between investment growth and economic development.

  15. On the Central Plains Immigrants and the Rise of the Codification of Genealogies in Jiangxi Province%论中原移民与江西族谱编纂的兴起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施由明

    2012-01-01

    The times of Song dynasty and its following dynasties were those while the common people wrote their own genealogies. From the present prefaces of the genealogies we may know that from the late period of South Song dynasty, the people of Jiangxi region wrote many genealogies Such rise of writing genealogies had great relation with the survive and breeding of the lots of immigrants from the Central Plains since the middle term of Tang dynas- ty. The descendants of the immigrants eagerly hoped to record the sources, deeds and the good morality of their an- cestors, which played important parts for the rise of writing their genealogies.%宋代及其以后的时代是中国平民化修族谱的时代。从现存的族谱序可知,南宋后期以来,江西地域的宗族撰写了大量的族谱。这种平民化族谱修篡的兴起,与唐代中期以来大量中原移民进入江西生存繁衍有着极大的关系,移民的后裔们特别渴望记述祖辈的源流、事迹与优良品德,对于平民化族谱修撰的兴起起了重要作用。

  16. Nine Provinces Submerged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ After being plagued with severe drought earlier this year,the southern part of China has been ravaged by heavy rainfall since May. According to the China Meteorological Administration (CMA),from June 23-25 a new round of storms swept the southern part of the country including all nine provinces in the south.It was the 11th round of storms since May 5,said CMA.

  17. Field evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Rachida; Sayang, Collins; Ngane Foumane, Vincent; Soula, Georges; Moyou-Somo, Roger; Delmont, Jean; Basco, Leonardo K

    2013-02-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are affordable, alternative diagnostic tools. The present study aimed to evaluate RDTs available in Cameroon and compare their characteristics to follow the parasitological response of patients for 28 days. Malaria diagnosis was assessed in 179 febrile patients using conventional microscopy as the reference method. Parascreen detects both Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (Pf HRP-2) and Pan-specific plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in all four human Plasmodium spp. Diaspot is based on the detection of Pf HRP-2. OptiMAL-IT (pLDH specific for P. falciparum and pLDH for all four human Plasmodium spp.) was assessed for comparison. The reliability of RDTs was evaluated by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive rate, false-negative rate, and likelihood ratio. The clinical outcome of 18 children treated with atovaquone-proguanil and followed for 28 days was evaluated using microscopy and RDTs. Of 179 samples, 133 (74.3%) were pure P. falciparum-positive smears, 4 (2.2%) pure P. malariae-positive smears, and 42 (23.5%) negative smears. Parascreen and Diaspot had high sensitivity (>92%) and positive predictive values (>94%). The specificities for Parascreen and Diaspot were 81.0% and 90.5%, respectively. The false-positive rates and the false-negative rates were 19.0% and 4.5% for Parascreen and 9.5% and 8.3% for Diaspot, respectively. Most false-negatives occurred in samples with low parasitaemia (500 asexual parasites/μL). Four pure P. malariae were only detected by the pan-Plasmodium bands of Parascreen and OptiMAL-IT. In blood samples from patients treated and followed-up for 28 days, HRP2-based RDTs remained positive in most samples until Day 28. Despite negative smears, OptiMAL-IT remained positive in several patients until Day 7 but was negative in all patients from Day 14 onwards. RDTs can improve the management of febrile patients. The

  18. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  19. Bionomics of Anopheline species and malaria transmission dynamics along an altitudinal transect in Western Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toto Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highland areas of Africa are mostly malaria hypoendemic, due to climate which is not appropriate for anophelines development and their reproductive fitness. In view of designing a malaria control strategy in Western Cameroon highlands, baseline data on anopheline species bionomics were collected. Methods Longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted in three localities at different altitudinal levels. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Sampled Anopheles were tested for the presence of Plasmodium circumsporozoite proteins and their blood meal origin with ELISA. Entomological parameters of malaria epidemiology were assessed using Mac Donald's formula. Results Anopheline species diversity and density decreased globally from lowland to highland. The most aggressive species along the altitudinal transect was Anopheles gambiae s.s. of S molecular form, followed in the lowland and on the plateau by An. funestus, but uphill by An. hancocki. An. gambiae and An. ziemanni exhibited similar seasonal biting patterns at the different levels, whereas different features were observed for An. funestus. Only indoor resting species could be captured uphill; it is therefore likely that endophilic behaviour is necessary for anophelines to climb above a certain threshold. Of the ten species collected along the transect, only An. gambiae and An. funestus were responsible for malaria transmission, with entomological inoculation rates (EIR of 90.5, 62.8 and zero infective bites/human/year in the lowland, on the plateau and uphill respectively. The duration of gonotrophic cycle was consistently one day shorter for An. gambiae as compared to An. funestus at equal altitude. Altitudinal climate variations had no effect on the survivorship and the subsequent life expectancy of the adult stage of these malaria vectors, but most probably on aquatic stages. On the contrary increasing altitude

  20. Nutrients and bioactive compounds content of Baillonella toxisperma, Trichoscypha abut and Pentaclethra macrophylla from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John; Kaaya, Archileo; Okia, Clement; Tieguhong, Juius C; Baidu-Forson, Jojo J

    2015-07-01

    Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut are important foods for communities living around forests in Cameroon. Information on the nutritional value and bioactive content of these foods is required to establish their contribution to the nutrition and health of the communities. Samples of the three foods were obtained from four villages in east and three villages in south Cameroon. The foods were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals and bioactive content using standard chemical analysis methods. T. abut was found to be an excellent source of bioactive compounds; flavonoids (306 mg/100 g), polyphenols (947 mg/100 g), proanthocyanins (61.2 mg/100 g), vitamin C (80.05 mg/100 g), and total oxalates (0.6 mg/100 g). P. macrophylla was found to be a rich source of total fat (38.71%), protein (15.82%) and total fiber (17.10%) and some bioactive compounds; vitamin E (19.4 mg/100 g) and proanthocyanins (65.0 mg/100 g). B. toxisperma, was found to have high content of carbohydrates (89.6%), potassium (27.5 mg/100 g) and calcium (37.5 mg/100 g). Flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E are the main bioactive compounds in these forest foods. The daily consumption of some of these fruits may coffer protection against some ailments and oxidative stress. Approximately 200 g of either B. toxisperma or P. macrophylla, can supply 100% iron and zinc RDAs for children aged 1-3 years, while 300 g of the two forest foods can supply about 85% iron and zinc RDAs for non-pregnant non-lactating women. The three foods provide 100% daily vitamins C and E requirements for both adults and children. The results of this study show that Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut can considerably contribute towards the human nutrient requirements. These forest foods also contain substantial levels of health promoting phytochemicals notably flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E. These foods therefore have

  1. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon's coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreyndip, Nkongho Ayuketang; Joseph, Ebobenow; David, Afungchui

    2016-11-01

    For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon's coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe) are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983-2013) and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi's most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs.

  2. 地方财政支出减贫效应的省际差异比较--基于中部五省经验数据的分析%A Comparison of Provisional Differences on Local Financial Expenditure and Poverty Alleviation Effect-An Analysis Based on the Empirical Data from Five Provinces in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶爱萍; 班涛; 张淑安

    2015-01-01

    It is one of the major challenges for governments around the world to reduce and even to eradicate poverty. Some lo⁃cal financial expenditure projects will be able to reduce or eradicate poverty effectively. The paper builds a theoretical frame⁃work to analyze the relationship between local financial expenditure and poverty alleviation,which consists of four financial expenditure components:agricultural, forestry and water affairs, education, medical and health care and social security as well as employment,employs the data from five provinces in central China from 1994 and 2013 to make an empirical test on poverty alleviation effect of total amount and each component of local finance expenditure of every province respectively by using a total regression model and a component regression model,and contrasts provincial differences of local financial expen⁃diture and poverty alleviation effect in order to provide some guidelines for local governments to optimize the structure of finan⁃cial expenditure,improve the utilization efficiency of financial resources and reduce poverty.%降低乃至消除贫困是世界各国政府面临的重大难题之一,部分地方财政支出项目能够有效地降低或消除贫困问题的发生。文章构建了一个分析由农林水事务、教育、医疗卫生与社会保障和就业支出四项财政支出分量构成的财政支出总量及各财政支出分量与贫困减缓之间关系的理论框架,在此基础上采用中部5省1994-2013年的省级数据,通过总量回归模型与分量回归模型分别对各省财政支出总量与支出分量的减贫效应进行实证检验,并对地方财政支出减贫效应的省际差异进行了比较,以期对地方政府优化财政支出结构,提高财政资源利用效率,利用财政支出减少贫困具有一定的指导意义。

  3. Niche partitioning in sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: implications for life history strategies and for reconstructing the evolution of hominin life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Gabriele A; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals' hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%), relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature) until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a) more gradual and (b) earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the "risk aversion" hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the results highlight

  4. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Renz, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed. Methods and findings Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009–2012: 98, range 47–221), but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci. Conclusions/significance The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries. PMID:26926855

  5. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Eisenbarth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed.Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009-2012: 98, range 47-221, but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci.The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries.

  6. What role do traditional beliefs play in treatment seeking and delay for Buruli ulcer disease?--insights from a mixed methods study in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Victims of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD frequently report to specialized units at a late stage of the disease. This delay has been associated with local beliefs and a preference for traditional healing linked to a reportedly mystical origin of the disease. We assessed the role beliefs play in determining BUD sufferers' choice between traditional and biomedical treatments. METHODS: Anthropological fieldwork was conducted in community and clinical settings in the region of Ayos and Akonolinga in Central Cameroon. The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, triangulating a qualitative strand based on ethnographic research and quantitative data obtained through a survey presented to all patients at the Ayos and Akonolinga hospitals (N = 79 at the time of study and in four endemic communities (N = 73 belonging to the hospitals' catchment area. RESULTS: The analysis of BUD sufferers' health-seeking behaviour showed extremely complex therapeutic itineraries, including various attempts and failures both in the biomedical and traditional fields. Contrary to expectations, nearly half of all hospital patients attributed their illness to mystical causes, while traditional healers admitted patients they perceived to be infected by natural causes. Moreover, both patients in hospitals and in communities often combined elements of both types of treatments. Ultimately, perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the treatment, the option for local treatment as a cost prevention strategy and the characteristics of the doctor-patient relationship were more determinant for treatment choice than beliefs. DISCUSSION: The ascription of delay and treatment choice to beliefs constitutes an over-simplification of BUD health-seeking behaviour and places the responsibility directly on the shoulders of BUD sufferers while potentially neglecting other structural elements. While more efficacious treatment in the biomedical sector is likely to

  7. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  8. An Ethnographic Study of Diabetes: Implications for the Application of Patient Centred Care in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal Kum Awah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Participant observation was conducted to explore the understanding of diabetes and examine the implications of these understandings for providing effective patient centered care in Cameroon. Ethnographic techniques—content and thematic analysis—were used to analyze the data collected from diverse techniques. Most participants distinguished “natural,” “supernatural,” and “man-made” causes of diabetes. Such aetiologies guided the behaviour and approaches adopted for treatment and helped explain why biomedical and traditional healing frameworks could so readily be used in tandem. Clinical encounters are often only one small part of the diabetes care process, alongside recourse to traditional medicine. With rituals, agents causing diabetes are apparently more convincingly explained as powerful reinforcement and a cure promised in traditional medicine. Though it seems “irrational” and dangerous to clinics when patients alternate between therapeutic regimes or pursue both simultaneously, it seems perfectly rational and beneficial to patients and beyond. So long as biomedical practitioners fail to recognize that their patients will probably also have recourse to traditional medicine, they and their services may compound the problems they face for patients to discuss openly how they have been managing their condition.

  9. Lithostratigraphy, volcanism, paleomagnetism and palynology of Quaternary lacustrine deposits from Barombi Mbo (West Cameroon): Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, J.; Livingstone, D. A.; Giresse, P.; Thouveny, N.; Brenac, P.; Kelts, K.; Kling, G.; Stager, C.; Haag, M.; Fournier, M.; Bandet, Y.; Williamson, D.; Zogning, A.

    1990-08-01

    We present preliminary results from the study of 23.50-m core from Lake Barombi Mbo, representing the last 25,000 years. The lake is in an explosion crater formed during Quaternary time. The very laminated sediment is composed mostly of clay containing 5-10% organic carbon. Each couplet is commonly composed of a basal lamina rich in quartz, plant debris, muscovite and sponge spicules, and of a more clayey upper lamina often with siderite. A perturbed section near the base of the core, before ca. 21,000 yr B.P., could be the result of a violent release of gas, such CO 2, comparable to the recent Nyos gas eruption. The paleomagnetic studies exhibit high-frequency oscillations interpreted as paleosecular variations of the local geomagnetic field. This first record obtained on the African continent can be closely compared to the type record obtained in Western Europe. The pollen results demonstrate the presence of a forest refuge in West Cameroon during the last great arid period, ca. 18,000 yr B.P. When equatorial forest was broken up, elements of montane vegetation spread to the lowlands. These phenomena resulted from a drying and cooling climate.

  10. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  11. Characterization of Doayo and Kapsiki taurine cattle breeds of Cameroon in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebangi, A Lot; Achukwi, M D; Messine, O; Abba, D

    2011-08-01

    Data were collected on live weight (LW), heart girth (HG), height-at-withers (HW), trunk length (TL), age, sex, and coat color of 207 taurines cattle--122 of the Doayo (Namchi) breed and 85 of the Kapsiki (Kirdi) breed. The animals, aged 1 to 20 years, were selected from 60 herds randomly selected from villages of Poli of Faro and Mokolo of Tsanga, divisions of the North and Far North Regions of Cameroon. The data were analyzed using the SAS program with a linear model, applying standard tests. Results indicated no breed effect (P > 0.05) in the growth trends of LW, HG, HW, and TL. HG and TL were highly significantly (P 0.05) significantly. The breeds attained maturity as from 4 years. In the absence of breed effect (P > 0.05), a single regression equation was established for the estimation of live weight as thus LW = -244.42 (±22.57) kg + 2.49 (±0.23) HG + 1.04 (±0.25) TL, with HG contributing up to 70% of total variation and TL, 2%. This equation could be used to develop a measuring band useful in the rural environment for commercial and clinical veterinary purposes.

  12. Description of a new bat species of the tribe Scotonycterini (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) from Southwestern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    The tribe Scotonycterini is currently composed of three fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) characterized by white fur patches on the head, specifically around the nose and behind the eyes: Scotonycteris zenkeri, S. ophiodon and Casinycteris argynnis. Herein a new species is described, Casinycteris campomaanensis sp. nov., based on female specimen collected in 2007 near the village Nkoélon-Mvini close to the Campo-Ma'an National Park, southwestern Cameroon. It is readily distinguished from the three other species of Scotonycterini by its body size and craniodental characteristics. Molecular analyses based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene indicate that the new species is the sister-group to C. argynnis and that the holotype of S. ophiodon is more closely related to Casinycteris than to S. zenkeri, rendering the genus Scotonycteris paraphyletic. Based on these results, morphological characters within the tribe Scotonycterini were reassessed and a new classification is proposed, in which the new species and S. ophiodon are placed in the genus Casinycteris.

  13. [Anopheles gambiae, major malaria vector in Logbessou, a peri-urban area of Douala (Cameroon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono, P Ntonga; Tonga, C; Mbida, J A Mbida; Hondt, O E Ngo; Ambene, P Awono; Ndo, C; Magne, G Tamdem; Peka, M F; Ngaha, R; Lehman, L G

    2015-12-01

    An entomological survey was carried out from August to November 2013, in order to determine the vector system of a building site for social housing in a coastal periurban district of Douala (Cameroon). Mosquito larvae were collected and adult endophilic mosquitoes captured on volunteers, for a total sample of 4897 mosquitoes. Morpho-taxonomic techniques alongside molecular techniques enabled the identification of 4 species, all aggressive to humans: Cx. pipiens (22.3%), Ae. albopictus (0.3%), An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (77.4%). The overall average biting rate recorded was 41.73 bites/person/night (b/p/n). An. gambiae s.l. represents 90.82% of this aggressive fauna, followed by Cx. pipiens (8.58%) and Ae. albopictus (0.6%). The detection of CSP showed that An. gambiae was responsible for 100% of P. falciparum transmission. The overall mean Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR) was 3.94 ib/p/n. Female An. gambiae mortality rates were 14.47%, 82.5% and 100% respectively with DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin. The proliferation of An. gambiae in this area during raining season, at the detriment of An. coluzzii Coetze & Wilkerson and An. melas Theobald known to be major malaria vectors in island and coastal areas of Africa, may owe to the forest that still colonises this coastal peri-urban locality. Residents should therefore make use of deltamethrin based protective measures.

  14. Interhousehold variability and its effects on seed circulation networks: a case study from northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Wencélius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed ethnographic case study of sorghum seed acquisitions in a smallholder farming society in northern Cameroon. The effects of variability in household demographics and socioeconomic status on observed patterns of seed provisioning are explored alongside other variables such as age and gender. Our data set comprised 223 seed acquisition events. Independence tests (Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were carried out to test for significant dependencies between individual- or household-level characteristics and properties of seed acquisition events (categories of seed source, social relationship of exchange, and type of landrace. Results indicate that wealth is a structuring factor of the local seed circulation network in as much as it is highly correlated with household composition and size. Members from wealthy households benefit from a more diverse set of seed sources. Their greater number of coresidents and the importance of intrahousehold dynamics of seed transactions also play a role in making wealthy farmers more seed secure than others. The methodological implications of our findings indicate that when documenting seed exchange networks, the collection of data through a single informant or the undertaking of social network analyses at the household level may induce important biases.

  15. Tropical chemical weathering of a garnet rich micaschist in the rainforest zone of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désiré Tsozué

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils developed on garnet-rich micaschist in the Southern Cameroon plateau were investigated. Morphologically, two weathering materials constituted the study profile, fine earth and nodules. Each material has a singular evolution from the coarse saprolite to the upper set of clayey and loose horizons. There is Al2O3 enrichment in the fine earth concomitantly to Fe2O3, Na2O and K2O enrichment in nodules in major element–Al2O3 variation diagrams. A–CN–K and A–CNK–FM diagrams show a progressive depletion of Al in nodules concomitantly to an enrichment of this element in the fine earth. Three pedogenetic processes emerge from the evolution of weathering products. There is a ferruginization process whose importance increases from the coarse saprolite to the upper set of clayey and loose horizons, giving rise to the formation of dense nodules composed of hematite, goethite and gibbsite. This ferruginization occurs concomitantly with a desaluminization process, which causes Al2O3 depletion in nodules. These nodules are formed by the process of induration where the hydrated amorphous hydroxide and oxides are dehydrated to their crystalline oxide form, due to condensation. In addition, there is aluminization, which occurs in the fine earth, leading to the development of a red clayey material composed of kaolinite and gibbsite.

  16. Novel highly divergent reassortant bat rotaviruses in Cameroon, without evidence of zoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinda, Claude Kwe; Zeller, Mark; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Maes, Piet; Deboutte, Ward; Beller, Leen; Heylen, Elisabeth; Ghogomu, Stephen Mbigha; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for zoonotic viruses. To date, only three RVA strains have been reported in bats in Kenya and China. In the current study we investigated the genetic diversity of RVAs in fecal samples from 87 straw-colored fruit bats living in close contact with humans in Cameroon using viral metagenomics. Five (near) complete RVA genomes were obtained. A single RVA strain showed a partial relationship with the Kenyan bat RVA strain, whereas the other strains were completely novel. Only the VP7 and VP4 genes showed significant variability, indicating the occurrence of frequent reassortment events. Comparing these bat RVA strains with currently used human RVA screening primers indicated that most of the novel VP7 and VP4 segments would not be detected in routine epidemiological screening studies. Therefore, novel consensus screening primers were developed and used to screen samples from infants with gastroenteritis living in close proximity with the studied bat population. Although RVA infections were identified in 36% of the infants, there was no evidence of zoonosis. This study identified multiple novel bat RVA strains, but further epidemiological studies in humans will have to assess if these viruses have the potential to cause gastroenteritis in humans. PMID:27666390

  17. In Cameroon, a female-centred organization works to conquer the poverty of rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkem, R N

    1999-01-01

    This is a discussion of the work of the Rural Women Development Council for poor rural women in Cameroon. The concept of absolute poverty involves the measurement of the quantity and quality of necessities required to maintain the average well-being of an individual or group of individuals. The standards are considered to be relative to a particular time and place. Subjective poverty is a state of acceptance by the person who is poor that he or she is poor; it is independent of the perspective of onlookers. Income levels vary resulting, and as a result, poverty exists. Under those premises, the Rural Women Development Council (RWDC) is helping to alleviate poverty in rural women through microcredit schemes. Over 200 women have engaged in farming and small trades. Increased equity, enhanced opportunity, peace and security, participation and sustainable future, in addition to increased income, help to defeat poverty. Strategies for eradicating poverty include enhancing the ability of local communities to adapt to stress, overcome emergencies and improve long-term productivity. The RWDC have observed that loanees are today economically above other rural women.

  18. Treatment of Diabetes and/or Hypertension Using Medicinal Plants in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabang, N; Yedjou, C G; Tsambang, Lwd; Tchinda, A T; Donfagsiteli, N; Agbor, G A; Tchounwou, Pbb; Nkongmeneck, B A

    Medicinal plants have served as valuable starting materials for drug development in both developing and developed countries. Today, more than 80% of the people living in Africa were depended on medicinal plants based medicines to satisfy their healthcare needs. The main goal of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertension in Cameroon. To reach this objective, data were collected from 328 patients who have been diagnosed at least once by a physician as diabetics and/or hypertension patients. One hundred and eighty two (182) among them took for a period of 10 days different varieties of medicinal plants which were prepared in form of decoction, maceration and infusion and administered orally twice or three times daily. As result, 70% of patients who used plants were relieved at the end of the treatment. Thirty-three plants have been recorded and documented for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertension. The results of this study can stimulate a sustainable development by providing the basis for drugs discovery and by documenting biodiversity for long time exploitation.

  19. Risk factors for buruli ulcer: a case control study in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pouillot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. However, the exact mechanism of transmission of the bacillus and the development of the disease through human activities is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study to identify Buruli ulcer risk factors in Cameroon compared case-patients with community-matched controls on one hand and family-matched controls on the other hand. Risk factors identified by the community-matched study (including 163 pairs were: having a low level of education, swamp wading, wearing short, lower-body clothing while farming, living near a cocoa plantation or woods, using adhesive bandages when hurt, and using mosquito coils. Protective factors were: using bed nets, washing clothes, and using leaves as traditional treatment or rubbing alcohol when hurt. The family-matched study (including 118 pairs corroborated the significance of education level, use of bed nets, and treatment with leaves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Covering limbs during farming activities is confirmed as a protective factor guarding against Buruli ulcer disease, but newly identified factors including wound treatment and use of bed nets may provide new insight into the unknown mode of transmission of M. ulcerans or the development of the disease.

  20. Indications for Surgical Removal of the Eye in Rural Areas in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, Giles; Noche, Christelle Domngang; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Wiedemann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the main clinical indications for surgical removal of the eye in rural areas in Cameroon. DESIGN Retrospective non-comparative case series. PARTICIPANTS A total of 253 patients presenting to the Manna eye clinic Nkongsamba who underwent destructive eye surgery (DES) between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Age, gender, occupation, prior medication, visual acuity, operation indications, and type of operation. RESULTS There were 58.10% (n = 147) men and 41.90% (n = 106) women. Median age was 29 years (interquartile range: 14–69 years); age ranged from 10 to 88 years. A total of 67.19% (n = 170) of participants were farmers and lived in rural zones. In all, 79.05% (n = 200) confessed to have trying a medication before the presentation. Surgical indications included infective causes (perforated corneal ulcer 33.20% (n = 84) and endophthalmitis 18.20% (n = 46)), trauma 17.40% (n = 44), painful blind eyes 11.50% (n = 29), malignancy 10.70% (n = 27), and others 9.10% (n = 23). CONCLUSION The most common causes of DES in this series could be avoided. Therefore, preventive measures including extensive health education of the public and traditional healers on the risks linked to the use of traditional medicines in ophthalmology and the late presentation of eye disease, quality control of the campaigns that offer free cataract operations in the country. PMID:24940088

  1. History of partnership between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkongho Raymond N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores the origin and changes in partnership agreements established between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders in Cameroon. The different forms of partnership which have existed over the years in the oil palm sector until now are assessed, notably the FONADER-sponsored smallholder scheme (1978 to 1991 and more recently the Afriland First Bank sponsored villagisation project of Socapalm Eseka (2007/2008 to present. Special attention is given to the factors and conditions that have influenced the outcomes of these partnerships, specifically the failure of the FONADER-sponsored smallholder scheme. The authors conclude that with the current absence of steady support from the government to oil palm smallholders, especially after the implementation of the structural adjustment plans, private partnership schemes between agro-industries and oil palm smallholders could be highly profitable for both stakeholders. Such partnerships can foster social cohesion and limit further encroachment of agro-industries into the primary forest, provided such partnership agreements are carefully planned and adequately implemented.

  2. Nutritional Composition of Five Varieties of Pap Commonly Consumed in Maroua (Far-North, Cameroon

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    Ponka Roger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of five varieties of pap (cereal product commonly consumed in Maroua, city of the Far-North Region of Cameroon. The proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein, lipid, and crude fibre was determined by standard AOAC methods. Minerals (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Amino acid composition was determined by ion-exchange chromatography. All the pap varieties had a very high carbohydrate content (79.47-85.29 g/100 g dry matter. Appreciable levels of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in all the pap varieties (137.5-231.0 mg/100 g dry matter and 198.20-322.22 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. Consumption of each pap (100 g by children 1-2 year old would meet 9.86-17.46% and 0.08-19.51% of their daily recommended intake respectively for protein and minerals. Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids respectively in the pap. Essential amino acids in most of the pap samples met the recommended children requirement of the FAO/WHO/UNU for 1-2 year old children except methionine+cysteine and lysine.

  3. Neighborhood diversity of potentially pathogenic bacteria in drinking water from the city of Maroua, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Lee, Seungjun; Mouhaman, Arabi; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the spatial variation of potential gastrointestinal pathogens within drinking water sources and home storage containers in four neighborhoods in Maroua, Cameroon. Samples were collected from source (n = 28) and home containers (n = 60) in each study neighborhood. Pathogen contamination was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting Campylobacter spp., Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (virulence genes, stx1 and stx2), and Salmonella spp. Microbial source tracking (MST) targeted three different host-specific markers: HF183 (human), Rum2Bac (ruminant) and GFD (poultry) to identify contamination sources. Staphylococcus aureus and the tetracycline-resistance gene (tetQ) were assessed to measure human hand contact and presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Pathogen/MST levels were compared statistically and spatially, and neighborhood variation was compared with previously collected demographic information. All the test fecal markers and pathogens (except Arcobacter) were detected in home and source samples. Two neighborhoods tested positive for most pathogens/MST while the others only tested positive for one or two. Spatial variation of pathogens/MST existed between sources, storage containers, and neighborhoods. Differing population density and ethno-economic characteristics could potentially explain variation. Future research should explore the influence of demographic and ethno-economic factors on water quality during microbial risk assessments in urban Africa.

  4. Potential and limitations of risk scenario tools in volcanic areas through an example at Mount Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gehl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to conduct a scenario-based volcanic risk assessment on a variety of exposed assets, such as residential buildings, cultivated areas, network infrastructures or individual strategic buildings. The focus is put on the simulation of scenarios, based on deterministic adverse event input, which are applied to the case study of an effusive eruption on the Mount Cameroon volcano, resulting in the damage estimation of the assets located in the area. The work is based on the recent advances in the field of seismic risk. A software for systemic risk scenario analysis developed within the FP7 project SYNER-G has been adapted to address the issue of volcanic risk. Most significant improvements include the addition of vulnerability models adapted to each kind of exposed element and the possibility to quantify the successive potential damages inflicted by a sequence of adverse events (e.g. lava flows, tephra fall, etc.. The use of an object-oriented architecture gives the opportunity to model and compute the physical damage of very disparate types of infrastructures under the same framework. Finally, while the risk scenario approach is limited to the assessment of the physical impact of adverse events, a specific focus on strategic infrastructures and a dialogue with stakeholders helps in evaluating the potential wider indirect consequences of an eruption.

  5. Regulation of business activities of petroleum contractors in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frilet, M.; Newman, J.

    1982-03-01

    Foreign companies engaging in business in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast are subject to a broad range of regulations. This article deals only with those aspects of the regulations that are most important to petroleum contractors intending to engage in business in these countries. The regulator scheme actually applicable in a given case will depend on the legal structure through which a corporation operates. An American corporation may envisage engaging in business on a long-term basis through a local subsidiary or branch. On the other hand, it may wish only to perform temporary activities pursuant to one or more fixed-duration contracts with petroleum companies operating in one of countries. Each of these situations is dealt with. Common features of each area of regulation were described and the differences in regulations were presented. These topics were included: exchange control regulation, corporate forms of business association, authorization to engage in business, requirement of government or local participation in capital, investment code incentives, labor law requirements, taxation of corporations, taxation of profits, taxation of income from movable capital, taxation of amounts paid abroad as technical assistance fees, royalties and similar compensation, turnover taxes, payroll taxes, taxation of business performed without forming a local company or branch, taxation of employees and Social Security contributions. (DP)

  6. Natural enemies of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass in the forest zone of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndemah, R; Schulthess, F; Poehling, M; Borgemeister, C; Goergen, G

    2001-06-01

    The importance, geographical and temporal distributions of parasitoids of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum, were assessed during surveys in farmers' fields in six villages and two on-station trials in the forest zone of Cameroon between 1995 and 1996. The borer species encountered were Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Eldana saccharina Walker on both host plants, and Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot on maize only. Busseola fusca was the predominant host accounting for 44-57% and 96% on maize and elephant grass, respectively, followed by E. saccharina on maize with 27-39%. Fifteen hymenopterous, two dipterous and one fungal species were found on these stem and cob-borers. Among those were six pupal, six larval, four egg, one larval-pupal parasitoid and four hyperparasitoids. The scelionid parasitoids Telenomus busseolae Gahan and T. isis Polaszek were found on B. fusca eggs in all locations. During the first season, mean egg parasitism was low and ranged between 3.1% and 27% versus 54-87% during the second season. Species belonging to the Tetrastichus atriclavus Waterston complex were recovered from all four borer species. The majority and most common larval and pupal parasitoid species belonged to the ingress-and-sting guild. Larval and pupal parasitism were very erratic and on more than 50% of the sampling occasions no parasitoids were recovered. Parasitoid diversity was higher on elephant grass than maize.

  7. Muddying the Waters: A New Area of Concern for Drinking Water Contamination in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Healy Profitós

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries, leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship’s impact on drinking water quality.

  8. The integrated risk assessment and zoning of meteorological disaster in Heilongjiang Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes studies on the integrated risk assessment and zoning of meteorological disaster in Heilongjiang Province,in northeastern China,by using information-diffusion theory and cluster method with 35 years of summer temperature and precipitation data from 74 meteorological stations from 1971 through 2005.The information-diffusion theory has been used extensively in risk assessment,yet almost no one has done research about risk assessment by information-diffusion theory based on meteorological disaster standards.Some research results are as follows:the risk probability of low temperature and cold damage in the northern region is higher than that in the southern region;the risk probability of general low temperature and cold damage in the southwestern region is the highest;the risk probability of serious low temperature and cold damage in the northern region is the highest,followed by the central and southeast region;the high-risk region of arid disaster in Heilongjiang Province was primarily located in the southwestern,central,and southern parts of the province;the high-intensity arid disaster was located in the south-eastern region;the high-risk region of flood in Heilongjiang Province was primarily located from the southwest and then across the central part to the western part of Heilongjiang Province;the high-intensity flood disasters were located in almost every part of Heilongjiang Province.We can conclude from the integrated meteorological disaster risk zoning that the high-risk region of mete-orological disaster is primarily located in the southern and northern part of the province,the moderate-risk region is distributed in the central southern region and western region,the low-risk region is located in the eastern part,and the light-risk region is located in the central western part of Heilongjiang Province.

  9. Study on Eco-climate Type Regionalization of Wheat Growing Areas in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxin; LU; Limin; CAO; Zhongping; ZHANG; Hongbo; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide an objective and scientific theoretical basis for rational distribution of wheat growth in Yunnan Province,according to the relationship between Yunnan weather conditions and wheat growth adaptability,a study on eco-climate type regionalization of wheat growing areas in Yunnan was conducted using principal component analysis and GIS technology. The results show that Yunnan Province could be divided into four types,namely southern warm and humid wheat growing area,central semi-arid wheat growing area,central semi-humid wheat growing area and north-central cold wheat growing area.

  10. Breast Self-Examination and breast cancer awareness in women in developing countries: a survey of women in Buea, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Mary Atanga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Cameroon, breast cancer causes as many as 10.7 deaths per 100,000 women making it the second cause of cancer mortality. Better documenting women’s knowledge and practices on breast cancer and breast self-exam (BSE would be useful in the design of interventions aimed at preventing breast cancer. This study sought to 1. describe Cameroonian women’s knowledge of breast self-examination (BSE; 2. assess their impression on the practice of BSE and 3. describe their perceptions on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a volunteer sample of 120 consenting women in Buea, Cameroon. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire self-administered by study participants. Results The sample was fairly educated with close to three quarters (70.83% having completed high school. Nearly three quarters (74.17% of participants had previously heard about BSE, however as many as 40% had never done a BSE. Although 95% of participants believed that breast cancer could be prevented, only 36.67% recognized breast examination as a prevention method. A substantial 13.33% thought that breast cancer could be prevented with a vaccine while 45% thought that dieting or exercising would prevent breast cancer. Similarly, 70% of participants thought that breast cancer could be treated, with 35.83% thinking that it could be treated medically while 34.17% thought it could be treated traditionally or spiritually. Conclusions The practice of BSE while perceived as being important is not frequent in these women in Buea, Cameroon. Health education campaigns are imperative to elucidate the public on the causes, risk factors and prevention of breast cancer. Further studies need to explore what interventions could be best used to improve the uptake and practice of BSE.

  11. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-like bacteria isolated from wild great apes from Cote d'Ivoire and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Silke R; Ozel, Muhsin; Appel, Bernd; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jacob, Daniela; Holland, Gudrun; Leendertz, Fabian H; Pauli, Georg; Grunow, Roland; Nattermann, Herbert

    2006-08-01

    We present the microbiological and molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from four chimpanzees and one gorilla thought to have died of an anthrax-like disease in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. These isolates differed significantly from classic Bacillus anthracis by the following criteria: motility, resistance to the gamma phage, and, for isolates from Cameroon, resistance to penicillin G. A capsule was expressed not only after induction by CO(2) and bicarbonate but also under normal growth conditions. Subcultivation resulted in beta-hemolytic activity and gamma phage susceptibility in some subclones, suggesting differences in gene regulation compared to classic B. anthracis. The isolates from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon showed slight differences in their biochemical characteristics and MICs of different antibiotics but were identical in all molecular features and sequences analyzed. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of both the toxin and the capsule plasmid, with sizes corresponding to the B. anthracis virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Protective antigen was expressed and secreted into the culture supernatant. The isolates possessed variants of the Ba813 marker and the SG-749 fragment differing from that of classic B. anthracis strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a close relationship of our atypical isolates with both classic B. anthracis strains and two uncommonly virulent Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. We propose that the newly discovered atypical B. anthracis strains share a common ancestor with classic B. anthracis or that they emerged recently by transfer of the B. anthracis plasmids to a strain of the B. cereus group.

  12. A new subtype (subgenotype) Ac (A3) of hepatitis B virus and recombination between genotypes A and E in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Fuat; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Fujiwara, Kei; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Mbanya, Dora; Zekeng, Leopold; Ndembi, Nicaise; Ngansop, Charlotte; Kaptue, Lazare; Miura, Tomoyuki; Ido, Eiji; Hayami, Masanori; Ichimura, Hiroshi; Mizokami, Masashi

    2005-07-01

    Blood samples (n=544) from two different populations (Pygmies and Bantus) in Cameroon, West Africa, were analysed. Serological tests indicated that the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in Bantus (20.3 %) was higher than that in Pygmies (2.3 %, PHBV) serological markers was equally high in both populations: in total, 9.4, 17.3 and 86.8 % for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc, respectively. HBV genotype A (HBV/A) and HBV/E were predominant (43.5 % each) in both populations, and HBV/D was found in a minority (13 %). The preS/S region was sequenced in nine cases (five HBV/A and four HBV/E) and the complete genome in six cases (four HBV/A and two HBV/E). Subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that the HBV/A strains were distinct from the subtypes (subgenotypes) described previously, Ae (A2) and Aa (A1), and in the preS/S region they clustered with previously reported sequences from Cameroon. Based on the nucleotide difference from Aa (A1) and Ae (A2), more than 4 % in the complete genome, the Cameroonian strains were suggested to represent a new subtype (subgenotype), designated HBV/Ac (A3). A high (3.9 %) nucleotide divergence in HBV/Ac (A3) strains suggested that the subtype (subgenotype) has a long natural history in the population of Cameroon. One of the HBV/Ac (A3) strains was found to be a recombinant with an HBV/E-specific sequence in the polymerase reverse transcriptase domain. Further cohort studies will be required to assess detailed epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics of HBV/Ac (A3), as well as its recombinant form.

  13. An ethical approach to socio-economic information sources in ongoing vulnerability and resilience studies: the Mount Cameroon case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilaria Pannaccione Apa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the vulnerability of facing natural and man-made hazards, with the related resilient answers belong to the complex and articulate field of social sciences called ‘Disaster Anthropology’. Vulnerability is generally defined as a weak point in facing an aggressive event that is difficult to manage. Resilience is the subsequent capacity for self-repair after a sustained natural or anthropogenic stress. Consequently, the theoretical model of economic resilience is the ability to restore an economic background that can support the gradual recovery of social benefits following a disaster. Moreover, the presence in the territory of different systems of production (natural eco-systems and/or technical systems should allow multi-resilient communities. The mathematical structure of these economic theorems makes their practical application difficult inside an ethno-anthropological context, as it conflicts with cultural variables of the socio-structural fabric. An example can be given by some urban and rural family structures that are settled around the Mount Cameroon volcano (southwest Cameroon, in which the general psychological pressure increases because of both the constant exposure to natural hazards and the vulnerability arising from its social environment (e.g. castes, forced housing allocation, cultural estrangement to local chiefdom. Therefore, the rational heuristic model to be adopted in this social vulnerability study is performed by several combined analyses that have many interpretive obstacles. In 2009, within FP7-MIA-VITA, the first fieldwork mission for the study of socio-economic development of communities living around Mount Cameroon was launched. This completed 108 interviews across several social groups of different ethnicities and religions. The resulting information is being re-tested and verified from the second fieldwork mission in 2011, for completion of the study area.

  14. Cryptoccocal meningitis in Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV infected patients: Diagnosis, frequency and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates susceptibility study to fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammalac Ngouana, T; Dongtsa, J; Kouanfack, C; Tonfack, C; Fomena, S; Mallié, M; Delaporte, E; Boyom, F-Fekam; Bertout, S

    2015-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a mycosis encountered especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and is fatal in the absence of treatment. Information on epidemiology, diagnosis and susceptibility profile to antifungal drugs, are scarce in Cameroon. Authors evaluated the diagnosis possibilities of the cryptococcal meningitis in Cameroon, and studied the antifungal susceptibility of isolated strains to fluconazole, used as first line treatment of the disease in Cameroon. Between December 2009 and July 2011, 146 cerebrospinal fluids obtained from HIV patients with suspicion of meningitis were analysed. The diagnosis procedure involved macroscopic and cyto-chemical analysis, India ink test, culture on Sabouraud chloramphenicol medium and antigen latex agglutination test. Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolated strains to fluconazole was done by the E-test(®) method. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis gave 28.08% positive cases. Among these patients, 80% were at stages III and IV and 20% at stage I of the HIV infection, according to the WHO previous classification. Cyto-chemical analysis showed current findings in the case of cryptococcal meningitis. India ink test and latex agglutination test exhibited very high sensitivity and specificity (>94%). Fluconazole antifungal susceptibility testing gave MICs lower than 32μg/mL to 92.7% of isolated strains and MICs greater than this value to 7.3% of isolates. These results showed that cryptococcal meningitis remains a real problem among HIV infected patients in Yaoundé. The emergence of fluconazole reduced susceptibility strains is worrying. Nevertheless, efficacy of rapid detection tests is interesting because this will help in rapid diagnosis and treatment of patients.

  15. 基于GIS的中心地理论在新农村建设当中的应用——以云南省安宁市为例%The Application of Central Place Theory Based on GIS in New Countryside Construction: By the Case of Anning City, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯达

    2012-01-01

    In order to abide by scientific development policies and realize socialistic new countryside construction, nine signs should be established with the primary one of living intensive peasants. The intensive inhabitation will facilitate the realization of the coopera- tive production, production mechanization, medical education systemization, urban and rural service integration. In Bajie town of An- ning city, Yunnan province, geographical information system (GIS) technology, CHRISTALLER W from economic geography and central place theory are applied to the planning of the new countryside. Based on the characteristics of Yunnan countryside that is " multiple ethnic groups and small settlement", research is focused on the significance of intensive inhabitation for the countryside eco- nomic development and the improvement of space layout model. At the same time the paper intends to explore how to use "hard science" GIS technology and "soft culture" central place theory to serve for the socialistic new countryside construction.%为了贯彻落实科学发展观,实现社会主义新农村建设应确立九个标志,其中最首要的标志就是实现农民居住集约化。通过居住的集约才能陆续实现包括:生产方式合作化;生产工具机械化;农民医疗教育制度化;城乡服务一体化。在云南省安宁市八街镇新农村规划中,以实例运用地理信息系统(GIS)技术、经济地理学中CHRISTALLERW中心地理论,充分结合云南乡村“多民族、小聚居”等特点,研究集约化聚居对农村经济发展及空间布局模式改进的意义。同时,探索如何运用GIS硬科学技术与中心地理论软文化实施共同为社会主义新农村建设服务的示范。

  16. Malaria and colonialism in the German colonies New Guinea and the Cameroons. Research, control, thoughts of eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, W U

    1998-06-01

    German malaria research during the colonial period took place between medical and political interests. In the field of zoological and clinical research of malaria