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Sample records for central province cameroon

  1. Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The US profile of Cameroon indicates brief statistics on the population, geography, government, and economy and brief descriptions of the population, the history, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, defense, and relations with the US. Principal government and US officials are furnished. The 1991 estimated population of Cameroon was 11.7 million of which 60% is rural. There are 200 different tribes who speak many African languages and dialects. The French and English languages both have official status. Muslims live in the north and Christians in the south. 80% live in the formerly French east. The growth rate is 3%. There is 65% literacy. Infant mortality is 20%. 70% are agricultural workers, 13% industrial and commercial, and 17% other. The government is an independent republic with an executive and legislative branch. Independence was achieved in 1960. There is 1 ruling party. Traditional courts administer the laws. Traditional rulers are treated as administrative adjuncts. Suffrage is universal adult. The central government budget is 1.4 billion of which 8.7% is for defense. There are 10 provinces and 4 major cities. The seaport city Douala is the largest at 1.5 million. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $12.5 billion with an annual growth rate of 4.3% and an inflation rate of 2%. Growth has been variable since 1988 and reached a low of 2.4% in 1988-89. Oil, natural gas, bauxite, iron core, and timber are natural resources. 27% of the GDP is in agricultural products (cocoa, coffee, cotton, fishing, and forestry). 13% of the GDP is manufacturing and 24% is industry. Exports are valued at $2.9 billion and imports at $2.2 billion. Major markets are France, Netherlands, and the US. Imports include intermediate goods, capital goods, fuel and lubricants, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco. Early inhabitants were the Pygmies, followed later by Bantu speakers, and Muslim Fulani. Political consolidation was achieved in 1970 after a period of

  2. Neuropeltis eladii (Convolvulaceae), a new species from the South Province of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims - The paleotropical genus Neuropeltis of the Convolvulaceae was recently treated in a synopsis for the African continent (Breteler 2010), counting nine species. This number is now enlarged by a new, overlooked, species from the South Province of Cameroon. Methods - Normal practic

  3. Cassava Processing and Marketing by Rural Women in the Central Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOYA, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of rural women's commercial activities in Central Cameroon, particularly the Department of Lekié, which is adjacent to Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon. I focused on cassava processing technologies and the sale of cassavabased processed foods undertaken by women in a suburban farming village. Cassava is one of the main staple foods in central Cameroon, including in urban areas. One of its characteristics is that it keeps for a long period in the ground but ...

  4. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon, and I hereby waive this restriction....

  5. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Cameroon and I hereby waive such restriction....

  6. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cameroon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  7. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Lake Nyos (Cameroon, Central Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiodjio, Rosine E.; Sakatoku, Akihiro; Nakamura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Daisuke; Fantong, Wilson Y.; Tchakam, Kamtchueng B.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Victor J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nakamura, Shogo; Ueda, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the microbial diversity associated with Lake Nyos, a lake with an unusual chemistry in Cameroon. Water samples were collected during the dry season on March 2013. Bacterial and archaeal communities were profiled using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach of the 16S rRNA gene. The results indicate a stratification of both communities along the water column. Altogether, the physico-chemical data and microbial s...

  8. Foot and mouth disease and livestock husbandry practices in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsvoort, B M deC; Tanya, V N; Kitching, R P; Nfon, C; Hamman, S M; Morgan, K L

    2003-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of even-toed ungulates and is endemic in most of the tropics. A cross-sectional study using a stratified, two-stage random sample design was undertaken in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon. The objectives were to measure the reported herd-level prevalence of FMD and a range of husbandry practices important for its transmission. The owner-reported prevalence for the previous 12 months was 57.9% (50.4-65.4%), although there was a significant variation across the Province. During the previous dry season, 46.5% (38.6-54.4%) of herds had gone on transhumance. Herds had high numbers of contacts with other herds while on transhumance (98.6%), at pasture (95.8%) and at night (74.4%), with medians of 7-10, 4-6 and 1-3 daily contacts, respectively. The high level of endemic FMD and potential for disease spread presents a significant challenge for control and eradication. Locally sustainable methods need to be developed upon which larger regional control programmes could be built in the future. PMID:14690088

  9. Epidemiology of chicken anemia virus in Central African Republic and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoeck Chantal J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although chicken anemia virus (CAV has been detected on all continents, little is known about this virus in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to detect and characterize CAV for the first time in Central African Republic and in Cameroon. Results An overall flock seroprevalence of 36.7% was found in Central African Republic during the 2008–2010 period. Virus prevalences were 34.2% (2008, 14.3% (2009 and 10.4% (2010 in Central African Republic and 39% (2007 and 34.9% (2009 in Cameroon. CAV DNA was found in cloacal swabs of 76.9% of seropositive chickens, suggesting that these animals excreted the virus despite antibodies. On the basis of VP1 sequences, most of the strains in Central African Republic and Cameroon belonged to 9 distinct phylogenetic clusters at the nucleotide level and were not intermixed with strains from other continent. Several cases of mixed infections in flocks and individual chickens were identified. Conclusions Our results suggest multiple introductions of CAV in each country that later spread and diverged locally. Mixed genotype infections together with the observation of CAV DNA in cloacal samples despite antibodies suggest a suboptimal protection by antibodies or virus persistence.

  10. Economic opportunity survey of small scale dairy farms of the north west province of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayemi, P H; Webb, E C; Manjeli, Y; Naoussi, P

    2007-12-01

    An Economic Opportunity Survey was conducted on dairy farms in the North West Province of Cameroon. Results showed that median (range) number of cows in milk per farm was zero point six (0-4) and six (3-12) in the zero grazing and transhumance systems, respectively. Medians (range) of three (0-24) and four (3-10) litres of milk were sold per farm per day, corresponding to 30% and 60% of milk produced. 24% and 13% of total cattle per herd were milking cows in the zero grazing and transhumance systems respectively. Median milk production per cow on one day was two (0-25) and two (1-3) litres. Median calf production interval was 14.5 (12-25) and. 21.5 (14-29) months. More milk produced per day represented the best economic opportunity in both systems while reduced age at first calving and longer lactation length were the next in both. Wastage of milk through spoilage from poor hygiene and lack of cooling was a major problem. Holstein cows, which were in the zero grazing system, had unexpectedly short lactations. Constraints identified led to the setting up of interventions of training and advice for farmers and of better nutrition. PMID:18265867

  11. Pattern of non-obstetric infectious recto-vaginal fistula: a case series and literature review in Cameroon, Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Marie Tebeu; Roger Guy Michel Ekono; Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue; Gregory Ekane Halle; Joel Domgue Fokom; Charles Henry Rochat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineal infection is an uncommon cause of non-obstetrical recto-vaginal fistula (RVF) which is associated with HIV infection. Cameroon (Central Africa) is in the fistula belt but infectious RVFs have not yet been deeply studied in the country. We therefore sought to determine the pattern of non-obstetric infectious RVF in Cameroon. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional and descriptive review of non-obstetric infectious RVFs managed at the Yaound and eacute; University Teac...

  12. Wildlife Sustainability and Human Food Security in Cameroon, Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Weinbaum, Karen Zohar

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about the sustainability of wildlife hunting, particularly in Central Africa, have dominated the scientific literature on wildlife utilization. Only more recently have researchers began considering the human dependence on wildlife for both nutritional needs as well as sources of livelihoods. I begin with a systematic literature review of the wildlife harvesting literature, examining in detail the type of sustainability indicators predominating in the literature and their strengths an...

  13. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Van RANST, E.; Debaveye, J.; Mahop, F.

    1999-01-01

    The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as...

  14. Risk factors for herdsman-reported foot-and-mouth disease in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsvoort, B M de C; Nfon, C; Hamman, S M; Tanya, V N; Kitching, R P; Morgan, K L

    2004-12-15

    We analysed responses from 147 Fulani herdsmen to a questionnaire about cattle herd-level risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the previous year. The study used a cross-sectional design with a stratified, two-stage random sample of cattle herds in the Adamawa Province of Cameroon. The questionnaire was pre-tested at a local cattle market before a final version was translated into Foulfoulde (the local Fulani dialect). Variables were screened using a univariable analysis and logistic multiple-regression models were developed in a forward-selection process. Fifty-eight percent (50-65; 90% CIs) of herdsmen reported FMD in their herd in the previous 12 months. Important risk factors for FMD in the previous 12 months included going on transhumance (OR=2.6), buying cattle from markets (OR=2.2), mixing of herds at watering points (OR=2.4), feeding cotton-seed cake (OR=3.3), buffalo near the herd (OR=2.2) and administrative division. For the subset of herds that went on transhumance, coming in contact with an FMDV-diseased herd while on transhumance was the strongest factor (OR=16). PMID:15579340

  15. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF STAFFING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MICRO FINANCE ORGANIZATIONS. : Case Study: Awing Central Credit Union LTD Bamenda Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Maih, Chesah

    2015-01-01

    The research title ‘Assessing the role of staffing on the organizational performance in micro finance organizations’ was carried out in Awing central Cooperative Credit Union Limited Bamenda, North West region Cameroon. This thesis was carried out based on the observation that in most micro finance organizations in Cameroon, the technique of staffing used is the concur method; where examinations are written and successful candidates are selected for training which in most cases is a furthera...

  16. Measurement of radium isotope activities in reservoir and spring water in the Cameroon Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Lydie Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in the reservoir and spring water samples respectively during the dry and the rainy seasons; and to calculate the annual intake Ii (Bq/y for each type of water samples. Methods: Using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl and HPGe detector systems, it was possible to determine the average specific activity of those radium’s isotopes in water samples which were collected in 2010, from Reservoirs and springs in Cameroon central region including Ngoaekelle, Minboman, Etoudi and Njoungolo. Results: The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra and 228Ra in reservoir water samples were 8.76 ± 3.50 BqL-1 and 0.64 ± 0.28 BqL-1 during the dry season and, 8.24 ±3.48 BqL-1 and 0.58 ± 0.24 BqL-1 during the rainy season respectively. For spring water, the average values were 3.50 ± 0.63 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the dry season; 3.20 ± 0.60 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the rainy season respectively. Assuming that the volume of drinking water for adult is 2.5 litres per day, the average annual intakes of 226Ra and 228Ra through ingestion in these water samples were 7702 Bq/y and 575 Bq/y for reservoir water; 2993 Bq/y and < 0.25 for spring water respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that the annual intake by the population of sampling region as a result of 226Ra in these drinking waters is 7.7 × 103Bq/y more than the maximum limit fixed by ICRP which is 7 × 103 Bq/y. There is a need for regular monitoring the radiological water quality aspect in this region.

  17. Vulnerability to Climate Change of Mangroves: Assessment from Cameroon, Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Zouh; Joanna C Ellison

    2012-01-01

    Intertidal mangrove ecosystems are sensitive to climate change impacts, particularly to associated relative sea level rise. Human stressors and low tidal range add to vulnerability, both characteristics of the Doula Estuary, Cameroon. To investigate vulnerability, spatial techniques were combined with ground surveys to map distributions of mangrove zones, and compare with historical spatial records to quantify change over the last few decades. Low technology techniques were used to establish ...

  18. Women Farmers' Perceptions of the Economic Problems Influencing Their Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Meme Division of the Southwest Province, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Joyce B.

    Women farmers produce about 60% of the food in Cameroon, but face more problems and constraints than men in performing their agricultural activities. Cash crop farmers (mostly men) are the targeted beneficiaries of government and international aids, and have better access to extension services, loans, subsidized production input (herbicides,…

  19. Seismic Zonation of Central-Southern Hunan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Xu Guangyin; Chen Kun; Gao Mengtan

    2007-01-01

    Based on basic data used in compiling the Zonation Map of Earthquake Ground Motion Parameters in China, recent research on seismic safety assessment for engineering sites in central-southern Hunan Province, the new attenuation relationships of moderate earthquakes and the background seismicity data obtained by modern instrumental earthquake records since 1970, a new result of seismic zonation of central-southern Hunan Province is provided. The result shows that the area with PGA = 0.05g has obviously increased in the new map compared with the previous one and is relatively consistent with the seismic disaster characteristics of moderate earthquakes that took place in the central-southern part of Hunan in recent years.This result will benefit the research and compilation of a new-generation seismic zonation map of earthquake ground motion parameters and the seismic hazard assessment in the moderate earthquake active regions in the central and eastern part of China.

  20. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwane Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions. Methods Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt50 and kdt95 were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities. Results The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates > 98% and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control. Conclusion In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An

  1. Chikungunya virus, Cameroon, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Peyrefitte, Christophe N.; Rousset, Dominique; Pastorino, Boris A.M.; Pouillot, Regis; Bessaud, Maël; Tock, Fabienne; Mansaray, Helene; Merle, Olivier L.; Pascual, Aurelie M.; Paupy, Christophe; Vessiere, Aurelia; Imbert, Patrice; Tchendjou, Patrice; Durand, Jean-Paul; Tolou, Hugues J.

    2007-01-01

    We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a patient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cameroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

  2. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) from Gabon and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Vladimir; Droissart, Vincent; Noret, Nausicaa; Stévart, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii, two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme from which the new species is distinguished by being smaller and with a different lip-spur ratio. Here we show that these five specimens represent a new species, described here as Angraecum lanceolatum. The distinguishing traits include thin lanceolate leaves, convolute distally, with a rhombic lip shape. Dichotomous key to four Central African species of sect. Conchoglossum and a table of the diagnostic characters of the seven related Continental African Angraecum taxa are included here. A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of Angraecum lanceolatum is provided, using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. PMID:27081350

  3. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  4. Chemistry and origin of the Mayo Kila sapphires, NW region Cameroon (Central Africa): Their possible relationship with the Cameroon volcanic line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Mbih, Kemeng; Meffre, Sebastien; Yongue, Rose Fouateu; Kanouo, Nguo Sylvestre; Jay, Thomson

    2016-06-01

    Mineralogical, chemical and geochronological studies constrained the origin of sapphires from Mayo Kila, Northwest Cameroon. The sapphires are mostly blue, with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 mm. The pale blue grains are transparent, whereas, other corundums are transparent to translucent and/or opaque. The sapphires are dominantly euhedral to sub-hedral with few polished lustrous grains, acquired features during moderate to short distance transport from a proximal source rock. Solid inclusions are limited to rutile and zircon. Trace element analysis of sapphires shows significant concentration (in ppm) in some elements: Fe (2208-14,473), Ti (82-1783), Ga (77-512), Mg (0.9-264.9), Cr (b.d.l -168) and V (1.3-82). The other elements (e.g. Sn, Nb, Ta, Th, Zr, Ni, Ce) are generally below 10 ppm. The calculated ratios for some of the selected elements show an extreme variation: Fe/Mg (43-3043), Fe/Ti (2-76), Ti/Mg (1-328), and Ga/Mg (0.4-363). They are dominantly corundum crystallized in alkaline magma (s) with few from metamorphic source (s). Trace elemental features with Hf (13,354-26,238 ppm), Th (4018-45,584 ppm) and U (7825-17,175 ppm), and Th/U (0.39-2.65) found in zircon inclusions are compatible with quantified values in magmatic crystallized zircons. The Cenozoic age (mean of 30.78 ± 0.28 Ma) obtained for zircon inclusions is close to the age of some igneous rocks found within the Cameroon Volcanic Line (e.g. rocks of the Mount Oku: 31-22 Ma), showing the same period of formation. The most probable source of the zircon host sapphires is the Oku Mountain located SW of Mayo Kila.

  5. Talc indices from Boumnyebel (Central Cameroon), physico-chemical characteristics and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoumbou, C.; Njopwouo, D.; Villiéras, F.; Njoya, A.; Yonta Ngouné, C.; Ngo Ndjock, L.; Tchoua, F. M.; Yvon, J.

    2006-05-01

    Two talc schist occurrences were discovered in the Boumnyebel area, embedded in the Pan-African mica schist, at the junction between Archean, Eburnean and Neoproterozoic formations in Cameroon. They have been analysed by different techniques such as chemical analyses, XRD, DRIFTS, DTA and TG. The talc schist of the northern deposit contains talc (up to 95 wt%) with chlorite, goethite and lepidocrocite as minor minerals. The talc schist of the southern deposit has up to 88% of talc and is speckled with dark green phenoblasts of amphiboles (coexisting prismatic tremolite and magnesio-riebeckite). Due to its high talc content, the amphibole-free talc schist is economically attractive. Chemical analyses show that most of the rocks consist of SiO 2, MgO and Fe 2O 3, except the sample from the southern deposit that displays some amounts of Al 2O 3 and CaO. Among trace elements, Ni, Co and Cr are as high as in serpentinized peridotites, and suggest a protolith of ultrabasic nature. Chromium concentration in tremolite reaches 6178 ppm; most of the trace elements (Cd, Cr, Dy, Er, Eu, Ga, Gd, Ho, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Tm, Y, Yb, Zr) are compatible with a tremolite lattice. The regional metamorphism yielded garnet micaschist nappes and thus belongs to the upper greenschist facies. Based on the high talc contents of the rocks and occasional coexisting tremolite and magnesio-riebeckite, the origin of the talc deposits is assigned to a hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks. During the hydrothermal event, the fluid composition changed from silica-rich to lime-rich, but very few trace element contents were affected. Thus the low Rb, Sr, Th, Nb, K, Ta, Y, Zr, Hf, MREE and HREE and high Ni, Cr, Co contents of the rocks point to depleted peridotites (harzburgite-lherzolite) and pyroxenite as protoliths. The hydrothermal alteration is expressed in the positive cerium anomaly accompanied by little LREE enrichment of talc-rich rocks and hornblendite. The studied talc schist

  6. Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Farzinnia

    2010-12-01

    Methods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%, mainly from Afghanistan (56.5% and Pakistan (16.3%. Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, fol­lowed by P. falciparum (6.25%. More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%. Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. Conclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case, shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area.

  7. Gazing into the Mirror : Operational Internal Control in Cameroon Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Libom, Minette Li Likeng; Cantens, Thomas; Bilangna, Samson

    2009-01-01

    Cameroon is a model example of a developing country facing the challenges of trade facilitation, in light of its geographic location within Central Africa. Close to 20 percent of its customs revenues are used to finance the national budget. Cameroon's customs administration therefore plays a critical role in its economy. This paper presents the modernization process launched in Cameroon cu...

  8. Elemental weathering fluxes and saprolite production rate in a Central African lateritic terrain (Nsimi, South Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean-Jacques; Marechal, Jean-Christophe; Riotte, Jean; Boeglin, Jean-Loup; Bedimo Bedimo, Jean-Pierre; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules Remy; Nyeck, Brunot; Robain, Henri; Sekhar, M.; Audry, Stéphane; Viers, Jérôme

    2012-12-01

    The comparison between contemporary and long-term weathering has been carried out in the Small Experimental Watershed (SEW) of Nsimi, South Cameroon in order to quantify the export fluxes of major and trace elements and the residence time of the lateritic weathering cover. We focus on the hillside system composed of a thick lateritic weathering cover topped by a soil layer. This study is built on the recent improvements of the hillside hydrological functioning and on the analyses of major and trace elements. The mass balance calculation at the weathering horizon scale performed with the parent rock as reference indicates (i) strong depletion profiles for alkalis (Na, K, Rb) and alkaline earths (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), (ii) moderate depletion profiles for Si, P, Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co, (iii) depletion/enrichment profiles for Al, Ga, Ge, Sn, Pb, LREE, HREE, Y, U, Fe, V, Cr, Mn. It is noteworthy that (i) Mn and Ce are not significantly redistributed according to oxidative processes as it is the case for Fe, V and Cr, and (ii) Ge is fractionated compared to silica with enrichment in Fe-rich horizons. The calculations performed for the topsoil with iron crust as parent material reference reveal that the degradation of the iron crust is accompanied by the loss of most of the constituting elements, among which are those specifically accumulated as the redox sensitive elements (Fe, V, Cr) and iron oxide related elements like Th. The overall current elemental fluxes from the hillside system at the springs and the seepage zones are extremely low due to the inert lateritic mineralogy. Ninety-four percent of the whole Na flux generated from the hillside corrected from atmospheric deposits (77 mol/ha/yr) represents the current weathering rates of plagioclase (oligoclase) in the system, the other remaining 6% may be attributed to the dissolution of hornblende. The silica hillside flux is 300 mol/ha/yr and can be mostly attributed to the plagioclase and kaolinite dissolution. Al and Ga

  9. Biodiversity conservation, ecotourism and rural liverlihoods in protected areas. Case study : the Mount Cameroon National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Nkengfack, Susan Nkendem

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in the South West Province of Cameroon, specifically in the Mount Cameroon Region which encompasses the Mount Cameroon National park and its surrounding villages. The aim of the study was to assess how ecotourism is used as a tool to conserve the rich biodiversity of this area while improving the livelihoods of the local people and fostering development in the local communities. Focus was on the activities of the Mount Cameroon Inter-communal Ecotourism Board (Mt...

  10. Two new butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Mount Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Highlands, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Tropek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A field survey of Mount Cameroon, South-West Province, Cameroon, revealed two butterfly species new to science. Lepidochrysops liberti sp. nov. (Lycaenidae) flies in the extensive mosaic of natural clearings in sub-montane forest above 1100 m a.s.l., whereas Ceratrichia fako sp. nov. (Hesperiidae) locally inhabits the forested narrow gullies in the same vegetation zone. Observations on the habitat and behaviour of both species are also presented. PMID:27515650

  11. Evidence for Archean inheritance in the pre-Panafrican crust of Central Cameroon: Insight from zircon internal structure and LA-MC-ICP-MS Usbnd Pb ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganwa, Alembert Alexandre; Klötzli, Urs Stephan; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The main geological feature of Central Cameroon is the wide spread occurrence of granitoids emplaced in close association with transcurrent regional shear zones. The basement of this vast domain is a Paleoproterozoic ortho-and para-derivative formation, which has been intensely reworked, together with subsequent intrusions and sediments, during the Panafrican orogenesis in the Neoproterozoic. As consequence, the area underwent pervasive metamorphism and intense deformation. This makes it difficult to distinguish between Panafrican metasediments or syntectonic plutonites and their respective basement. Our study presents zircon features (CL-BSE-SE) and in-situ U-Th-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronology of a meta-sedimentary pyroxene-amphibole-bearing gneiss of the Méiganga area in Central Cameroon. Based on the Internal structures of the zircon four characteristic zonation patterns can be deciphered: 1) cores with magmatic oscillatory zonation 2) zircons with oscillatory or sector zonation, 3) zircons with sector zoning or blurred zoning, and 4) narrow bright un-zoned rims. These groups suggest that the rock experienced a number of geological events. Considering this zircon characteristic, the U-Th-Pb data allow to distinguish four ages: 2116 ± 57 Ma, consistent with ages from the Paleoproterozoic West Central African Belt; 2551 ± 33 Ma which marks a late Neoarchean magmatic event; 2721 ± 27 Ma related to a Neoarchean magmatic even in Central Cameroon, similar to one found in the Congo Craton. A zircon core gives ages around 2925 Ma which provides some evidence of the presence of the Mesoarchean basement prior to the Neoarchean magmatism. A weighted average of lower intercepts ages gives a value of 821 ± 50 Ma, representing the age of later metamorphism event. The various characteristic group and related ages reflect not only the complexity of the history of the pyroxene amphibole gneiss, but also show that the meta-sediment has at least three zircon

  12. The Language Situation in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This monograph examines the language situation in Cameroon, a Central African country where fewer than 20 million people speak close to 250 languages. Specifically, the monograph addresses the issues of language use and spread, language policy and planning, and language maintenance and prospects. The study is divided into five parts. The…

  13. Experimental waterfowl breeding population survey Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec during 1997. The primary purpose...

  14. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  15. Ground night nesting in chimpanzees: new insights from central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in South-East Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagg, Nikki; Willie, Jacob; Petre, Charles-Albert; Haggis, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Some chimpanzee populations exhibit ground night nesting, which occurs in different habitat types, is driven by a variety of interconnected factors, and may reflect cultural or social differences. This has important implications for ape conservation management, given that accurate nest builder identification is required to estimate density, crucial in monitoring, and allows inferences about environmental and social factors that may have contributed to the transition from tree to ground sleeping in early hominins. We conducted a 24-month marked nest count survey in La Belgique, Cameroon, and recorded the occurrence of chimpanzee tree and ground night nests, temperature and rainfall, predator and large mammal abundance, human activities, nesting tree species, and Uapaca spp. consumption. Ground night nesting occurred at a rate of 3.47% (n = 1,008), with more in swamps, in the dry season and with increasing human activities. We found no influence of leopard/elephant presence, but a possible influence of lack of nesting trees. We suggest chimpanzees visit swamps in the dry season (low water levels) for relief from hunting pressure and to consume Uapaca spp. fruits. Ground nesting may be enabled due to high abundance of terrestrial herbaceous vegetation, and may be favoured for inconspicuousness and safety from gun hunters. PMID:23988519

  16. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hieu Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22, Binh Phuoc (25, Dak Lak (30 and Dak Nong (20. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2 (AFB2, G1 (AFG1, G2 (AFG2, fumonisin B1 (FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2 and zearalenone (ZEA were analysed by HPLC in 97 maize kernel samples. Fumonisins were the most common toxins found in all samples (67%, followed by aflatoxins (55.7% and zearalenone (27.8%. The incidence of aflatoxin positive samples (61.7% in the Southeastern provinces was higher than in the Central Highlands (50%, while fumonisins and zearalenone incidences were higher in the Central Highlands. The mean level of fumonisin B1 in samples from the Central Highlands provinces (1757 µg/kg was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the Southeastern provinces (740 µg/kg. Importantly, the percentage of positive samples (about 70% that had over 20 µg/kg (ppb aflatoxin was very high. Moreover, many samples (53% contained more than one mycotoxin and this result highlights the difficulty of diagnosing mycotoxicoses in the field and the need for ongoing research to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in Vietnamese maize.

  17. Vegetation response to the "African Humid Period" termination in Central Cameroon (7° N – new pollen insight from Lake Mbalang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Servant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new pollen sequence from the Lake Mbalang (7°19´ N, 13°44´ E, 1110 m a.s.l. located on the eastern Adamawa plateau, in Central Cameroon, is presented in this paper to analyze the Holocene African Humid Period (AHP termination and related vegetation changes at 7° N in tropical Africa, completing an important transect for exploring shifts in the northern margin of the African Monsoon. This sequence, spanning the last 7000 cal yr BP, shows that the vegetation response to this transitional climatic period was marked by significant successional changes within the broad context of long-term aridification. Semi-deciduous/sub-montane forest retreat in this area is initially registered as early as ca. 6100 cal yr BP and modern savannah was definitely established at ca. 3000 cal yr BP and stabilized at ca. 2400 cal yr BP; but a slight forest regeneration episode is observed between ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 cal yr BP. In this area with modern high rainfall, increasing in the length of the dry season during the AHP termination linked to a contraction of the northern margin of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ from ca. 6100 cal yr BP onward, probably associated with decreasing in cloud cover and/or fog frequency, has primarily controlled vegetation dynamics and above all the disappearance of the forested environment on the Adamawa plateau. Compared to previous studies undertaken in northern tropical and Central Africa, this work clearly shows that the response of vegetation to transitional periods between climatic extremes such as the AHP termination might be different in timing, mode and amplitude according to the regional climate of the study sites, but also according to the stability of vegetation before and during these climatic transitions.

  18. Sorption Kinetics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp on Two Soil Layers Associated with a Groundwater Table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kemka

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study has been carried out on two soil layers (HX and HY located above a groundwater table in Yaounde, Cameroon (Central Africa. The main purpose of this study was to assess the retention potential or sorption kinetics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. on these soil layers. For both soil layers, bacterial sorption on soil particles occurred rapidly during the first 30 minutes of incubation of bacteria and soil particles in aqueous media, and increased gradually with incubation time up to 300 min. In some cases, adsorption rates fluctuated after 30 min of incubation, probably due to bacterial cell sorption to and de-sorption from soil particles. Using Freundlich isotherms, it was noted that adsorption coefficient related to adsorption capacity varied from 19 to 4026 E. coli.mg-1 of soil, and from 506 to 847 Salmonella sp.mg-1 of soil. For both bacterial species, the adsorption coefficient of layer HY (located in close proximity of the water table was greater than that of HX (located above layer HY and seemed to positively correlate with the pH values and N/P ratios, and to negatively correlate with the values of C/N and C/P ratios. The linearity coefficient related to adsorption intensity varied from 0.5841 to 1.0023 for E. coli, and from 0.7068 to 1.5236 for Salmonella sp. The physico-chemical characteristics of soil particles seemed to influence the sorption kinetics of bacteria on soil.

  19. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Sami Erol; Evgeny Shein; Evgeny Milanovskiy; Fariz Mikailsoy; Fatih Er; Sabit Ersahin

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district) has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay), low organic carbon content (less than 1%), but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil...

  20. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    W.Wilopo; R.Resili; D.P.E. Putra

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  2. Magnetic fabric of ignimbrites : a case study from the central Anatolian volcanic province

    OpenAIRE

    Agro, A; Zanella, A; Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Temel, A.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic fabric of the Pliocene Kızılkaya ignimbrite in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province has been investigated by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and isothermal remanent magnetization (AIRM). Seven sections were sampled at various stratigraphic heights within the devitrified portion of the ignimbrite. The magnetic mineralogy is complex: titanomagnetite occurs as magmatic grains, and as inclusions in other phenocryst and glass shards; an oxidized phase and hema...

  3. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nfotabong-Atheull Adolphe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove forest products usage, along with the local people's perceptions on environmental changes, between Littoral (Cameroon estuary and Southern (mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village regions of Cameroon. Methods The data from both locations were obtained through conducting household interviews and field observations. Results In the Cameroon estuary (Littoral region, 69.23% of respondents (mostly elders could distinguish two to four mangrove plants, whereas the informants (65.45% in the mouth of the Nyong River and Mpalla village (mostly young people interviewed from the Southern region are familiar with only one or two commonly found mangroves. Also, more respondents from the Cameroon estuary are depending on mangroves for fuelwood (Rhizophora spp. and housing (Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans (L. Stearn and Nypa fruticans (Thumb. Wurmb. purposes, in contrast to Nyong River mouth and Mpalla village. Although local people perceived wood extraction as a greater disruptive factor, there are several causes for mangrove depletion in the Cameroon estuary. Among others, over-harvesting, clear-felled corridors, sand extraction and housing were found important. Furthermore, a decline in mangrove fauna composition (in terms of fishery products was recorded in the Littoral as well as Southern regions. However, the causes of such perceived negative changes were not similar in both cases. Conclusions Findings of this study highlight the need to

  4. Evidence of heterogeneous crustal origin for the Pan-African Mbengwi granitoids and the associated mafic intrusions (northwestern Cameroon, central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbassa, Benoît Joseph; Kamgang, Pierre; Grégoire, Michel; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Benoit, Mathieu; Itiga, Zénon; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bessong, Moïse; Nguet, Pauline Wonkwenmendam; Nfomou, Ntepe

    2016-02-01

    The Mbengwi plutonics consist of intermediate to felsic granitoids forming a continuous magmatic series from monzonite to granite and mafic intrusions. Their mineralogical composition consists of quartz, plagioclases, K-feldspars, biotite, muscovite, and amphibole. The accessory phase includes opaque minerals + titanite ± apatite ± zircon, while secondary minerals are pyrite, phengite, chlorite, epidote, and rarely calcite. These plutonics are assigned high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and mostly belong to an I-type suite (A/CNK = 0.63-1.2). They are typically post-collisional, with a subduction signature probably being inherited from their protoliths emplaced during the subduction phase. The Sr and Nd isotopic data evidence that these plutonics result from melting of the lower continental crust with variable contribution of the oceanic crust. Their geochemical features are similar to those of western Cameroon granitoids related to the Pan-African D1 event in Cameroon.

  5. Assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of Cameroon, Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nfotabong-Atheull Adolphe; Din Ndongo; Essomè Koum Léopold G; Satyanarayana Behara; Koedam Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas Farid

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. Although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., Cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. With respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. This paper was primarily aimed at asse...

  6. The Language Question in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages) and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca). While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon reveali...

  7. Timing relationships between felsic magmatism and mineralisation in the central Victorian gold province, southeast Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New SHRIMP U-Pb data from major felsic intrusives and dykes confirm that initial gold emplacement in the central Victorian gold province was metamorphic-related, pre-dating the emplacement of Devonian intrusions in the western Lachlan Fold Belt by as much as 80 million years. Importantly, together with previously published geochronological constraints, these data strongly suggest that no genetic link exists between the main phase of 'metamorphism-related' orogenic gold mineralisation and magmatism in the central Victorian gold province. A subsequent 'intrusive-related' phase of gold mineralisation, often accompanied by elevated copper, tungsten, molybdenum or antimony, formed synchronously with, or post-dated, the emplacement of Devonian plutons and dykes, and thus is spatially (if not genetically) related to melt generation at depth. These timing relationships differ from those found in many other orogenic gold districts in which ore emplacement is closely associated, spatially, with felsic magmatism. The introduction of metamorphically derived fluids well before magmatism is seen to reflect variations in the timing of peak metamorphic conditions at different crustal levels. The extensive development of melt in this environment is thought to occur in response to the transfer of thermal energy from the mantle into the overlying, thickened crust in a Cordilleran-type setting, which is dominated by episodic subduction-accretion processes. The new SHRIMP U-Pb data also demonstrate that many of the major granites throughout the central Victorian gold province have a composite intrusive history and are the product of multiple tectonomagmatic events. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  8. Paleotectonic Setting of Dongyan Group of Middle and Upper Proterozoic in Central Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Da; Wu Ganguo; Ye Yujiang; Zhang Xiangxin; Peng Runmin; Wu Jianshe; Wang Qunfeng

    2004-01-01

    The central Fujian Province, situated on the juncture of paleo-uplift of Wuyishan, Yongmei Late Paleozoic depression and the eastern volcanic rift-faulting zone, is mainly composed of the outcropped metamorphic basements in the Middle-Late and Early Proterozoic, which constitute two upper and lower giant thick formations of Precambrian volcanic-sedimentary cycles, respectively. The formation of Dongyan Group is an important Middle-Upper Proterozoic component, and the Dongyan Group is directly related to massive sulfide deposit in this area. In recent years, plenty of lead, zinc, copper, silver and gold deposits have been found and explored. The Precambrian paleorift setting of the central Fujian Province served as a favorite metallogenic background for the formation of large- and superlarge-scale volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) lead and zinc polymetal deposits. The Dongyan Group consists chiefly of a set of ancient volcanic sedimentary formations that are composed mainly of greenschist. Its major lithologic types comprise greenschist, marble, quartzite and granofels class including various components. The metamorphic rocks of Dongyan Group are the main composition of Middle and Upper Proterozoic volcanic-sedimentary cycle. The original rock of Dongyan Group, a stable rock association, is volcanic sedimentation and normal marine sedimentation. But the original volcanic rocks, basic and acid, are bimodal. The volcanic rocks were formed in the extensional continental rift setting.

  9. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER VECTOR (Aedes aegypti AGAINST ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES (MALATHION AND TEMEPHOS IN SOME DISTRICTS OF YOGYAKARTA AND CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Tri Boewono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DENGUE HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER VECTOR (Aedes aegypti AGAINST ORGANOPHOSPHATE INSECTICIDES (MALATHION AND TEMEPHOS IN SOME DISTRICTS OF YOGYAKARTA AND CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCES

  10. Prevalence and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolated from sheep in Henan Province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Kaifang; Li, Junqiang; Huang, Jianying; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a gastrointestinal protozoan that infects sheep. It is a well-known zoonotic pathogen and sheep have been implicated as a source of human infection. However, there have been few studies of its potential threat to public health in China. We used a multilocus analysis of the beta-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes to examine the occurrence and genotype distribution of G. duodenalis in sheep in China. In total, 716 fresh faecal specimens, including 89 from pre-weaned lambs (3months old) from nine intensive sheep farms in Henan Province, China, were examined for Giardia cysts with microscopy. Of these specimens, 6.65% (47/716; 99% CI: 6.2%-6.92%) from five farms were positive for G. duodenalis. The infection rate was significantly higher in pre-weaned lambs than in post-weaned sheep (12.36% versus 5.74%, respectively; Pgiardiasis in human and sheep in Henan province, central China. PMID:26861620

  11. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies. PMID:26103990

  12. Bovine fasciolosis in the human fasciolosis hyperendemic Binh Dinh province in Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T G T; Le, T H; Dao, T H T; Tran, T L H; Praet, N; Speybroeck, N; Vercruysse, J; Dorny, P

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey on bovine fasciolosis was conducted in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam that was previously identified as hyperendemic for human fasciolosis. In Vietnam, both pure Fasciola gigantica and hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liverflukes bearing genetic material from both Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica infect humans and animals. In this study, 825 cattle were randomly selected from 8 of the 11 provincial districts for faecal collection; blood samples were taken from 400 of these animals. Fasciola eggs and antibodies against Fasciola were detected by a quantitative sedimentation method and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, respectively. Overall, 54.9% of the animals were shedding Fasciola eggs while 72.2% were Fasciola seropositive. Animals under two years showed lower Fasciola infection rates than older animals. There were no differences in infection rates between districts. These results indicate a very high prevalence of Fasciola infections in cattle in Binh Dinh province. It is concluded that a fasciolosis control programme should be designed in this region aiming at reducing infection in both cattle and humans. PMID:20920452

  13. Hazelnut oil consumption of families in the central town of Ordu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat SAYILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative analysis of consumption of edible oil of families in Central Town of OrduProvince. In addition, factor analysis was conducted on factors which affect the consumption of hazelnut oil. The data used in the study in January 2013 was a result of a survey conducted with 272 people. According to the survey, the most consumed oils, butter (71.32% and hazelnut oil (61.76%, which is the amount of total fatconsumption of 6.71 kg/month per family and 1.89 kg/month per person. Families with more than 5 littercontainers prefer buying oil. Hazelnut oil is thought to be healthy and of good quality too much is consumed by local people. As a result of factor analysis, three factors (image and highly attractive, odour and low weight, quality and health affecting hazelnut oil consumption has been collected under the title.

  14. Distribution characteristics of the soils in Henan province of central China based on pedodiversity methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed pedodiversity methodology was used in analyzing the distribution character of the soils in Henan province of central China. The rare soil types and representative soil types were defined after three soil parameters (soil patch numbers, total area and spatial distribution diversity in 2km×2km grid scale) were calculated respectively. Results show that there are positive correlations between soil patch numbers, total area and spatial distribution diversity, the regression equations between spatial distribution diversity and total area is y=0.086ln(x)-0.021, R2=0.992 and y=0.106ln(x)+0.161, R2=0.921 between spatial distribution diversity and patch numbers. The value constituent pattern of soil spatial distribution diversity fits the normal distribution. More attention needs to be paid to protect the endangered rare soil types. The soil type quantity per km2 is always different under different local conditions

  15. Risk of hypertension in Yozgat Province, Central Anatolia: application of Framingham Hypertension Prediction Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M; Ede, H; Kilic, A I

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the risk of hypertension in 1106 Caucasian individuals aged 20-69 years in Yozgat Province, using the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Score (FHRPS). According to FHRPS, average risk of developing hypertension over 4 years was 6.2%. The participants were classified into low- (10%) risk groups. The percentage of participants that fell into these groups was 59.4%, 19.8% and 20.8% respectively. The proportion of participants in the high-risk group was similar to the 4-year incidence of hypertension (21.3%) in the Turkish population. Regression analysis showed that high salt consumption and low educational level significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Economic level, fat consumption, life satisfaction, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were not correlated with risk of hypertension. This study shows that FHRPS can also be used for predicting risk of hypertension in Central Anatolia. PMID:27432406

  16. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman YAVUZYILMAZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000: 41-50

  17. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 41-50

  18. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  19. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  20. Isotope and geochemical survey of geothermal systems of Yozgat province in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Central Anatolia, which is subject to this project area, there are many geothermal fields. Turkish State Planning Organization (DPT) gives priority and encouragement to the investments of tourism and energy production. Our studies, in Central Anatolia are planned to focus on mainly Yozgat- Nevsehir region. But only Yozgat province results will be given in this paper. Detailed hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies have been carried out and periodic hydrogeochemical analyses made in Hacettep University International Research and Application Center for Karst Water Resources (UKAM) Laboratories. Analyses of samples (2H, 18O, 3H) which were periodically collected from thermal and cold water spots in the project area have been made in IAEA. Hydrogeologic models for important geothermal fields in Yozgat region have been realized as a result of this study. Following are the results obtained from the isotopic evaluations of the geothermal fields: According to the δ18O vs. δ2H relation of rain and snow water samples, the project area represents a climatic transition zone between the East Mediterranean and Central Anatolia Climatic - Geographic Regions by the local meteoric line equation of δ2H=8*δ18O+14; according to the tritium analyses, thermal waters have deep and long groundwater flow paths and these waters are generally older than 50 years; according to the δ18O vs. δ2H relation, there are 18O shift in Yozgat-Saraykent, Bogazliyan and Sorgun; Yozgat-Saraykent, Sorgun and Bogazliyan geothermal fields are important for geothermal applications as mainly central heating and balneological utilization possibilities. (author). 21 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Immunity to diphtheria and tetanus among blood donors in Arak, central province of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eslamifar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus and diphtheria are vaccine-preventable, infectious diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Immunization by the diphtheria and tetanus toxoid (DT has been applied in Iran for almost 50 years. However, there are very few data about the rate of immunity to these diseases in the adult population. the humoral immunity to tetanus and diphtheria among blood donors in Arak city, central provice of Iran were investigated.A total of 530 consecutive blood donor samples were collected from Blood Transfusion Organization, Central province of Iran. All samples were tested for diphteria and tetanus IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.From 530 cases, 91.9% were male and 8.1% were female. 99.6% of cases had protective levels of diphtheria antibody. Protective levels of tetanus antibody were found in 96% of subjects. There was not any significant difference between diphtheria and tetanus antibodies levels and age and sex.The obtained data showed that high proportion of the adult population in Arak have sufficient protection against diphtheria and tetanus. The high protective level of immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in Iran can be due to widespread use of booster vaccines in Iranian high schools and during the military services or for pregnant women in their 3(rd trimester.

  2. Republic of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study is to facilitate Cameroon’s strategic objective of ensuring a well-educated human resources base in support of its quest to emerge as a strong middle-income economy by 2035. This study is intended to support Cameroon in preparing a national strategy for skills development, related policies, and institutions to boost competitiveness and productivity, and j...

  3. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation trends during 1961-2010 in Hubei province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranghui; Li, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is an important climatic parameter, and its variability severely affects regional hydrological processes and water resource management. In order to explore the changing spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation-related indices, including precipitation amounts indices, extreme precipitation indices, and precipitation concentration indices, in Hubei province, central China during 1961-2010, several precipitation-related indices series were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test, and inverse distance weighted interpolation method in this paper. The results are as follows: (1) A clear south-north gradient is apparent in the spatial distribution of the majority of precipitation-related indices, while the distribution of other indices (i.e., CDD, PCD, and PCP) is just the opposite. Most part of Hubei province can experience mixed positive and negative trends in precipitation-related indices. (2) The majority of precipitation-related indices exhibit an increasing trend, but most of which are not significant. July has the largest positive trend, with a regional average of 14.76 mm/decade. As for extreme precipitation indices, there exist large variations in Hubei, especially in R95pTOT. Besides, no obvious trends are shown in precipitation concentration indices. (3) With the exception of consecutive dry days (CDD), most of extreme precipitation indices are strongly correlated with annual mean precipitation (AMP) in Hubei. And the extreme precipitation indices are well correlated with each other except CDD and consecutive wet days (CWD). For six precipitation-related indices (i.e., SDII, RX1day, RX5day, R95pTOT R99pTOT, and PCD), there are significant positive relationships with Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High (NHSH) but significant negative relationships with Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex (NHPV). Furthermore, the majority of precipitation-related indices have significant negative correlations with East Asian summer monsoon

  4. Bobbi Be Best: the development and evaluation of an audio program and discussion guide to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsma, Kathryn; Bolima, Nancy; Fonteh, Florence; Okwen, Patrick; Siapco, Gina; Yota, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-09-01

    One risk factor for infant and childhood morbidity is not exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life. Entertainment Education (EE) is a communication strategy consisting of placing educational information into television, movies, and radio programs. In developing countries this form of behavioral change communication has proven effective in addressing health-related issues; however, no research has determined if EE is effective in promoting EBF. The objective of this research was to develop an EE audio program and discussion guide and to determine if a series of four 15-minute episodes and post-listening discussion improved knowledge, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and intention and decreased misconceptions and perceived barriers toward EBF in the Kumbo West Health District, Cameroon. Pregnant women and their partners were assigned to either the control group (N = 116; 74 women, 42 partners) or intervention group (N = 148; 99 women, 49 partners) based on expected date of delivery. All control and intervention group participants completed a questionnaire prior to listening to the first and after the last episode. Pre- and post-listening questionnaires were used to determine changes in the EBF knowledge, misconceptions, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and intention variables as a result of exposure to the audio program. The Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed significant improvement in all of the variables, except perceived barriers, within the intervention group (p constitutes EBF, but addresses misconceptions and perceived barriers that may prevent women from practicing EBF for six months. PMID:25564250

  5. Vegetation establishment and evolution in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater in a portion of the Olezoa wetland complex, Yaounde, Cameroon, central Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atekwana, E.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology); Agendia, P.L. (Univ. of Yaounde (Cameroon). Dept. of Plant Biology)

    1994-04-01

    A study of the spatial and temporal changes in the pattern and distribution of tropical wetland vegetation in four ponds that received sewage and wastewater discharge, was undertaken for a small wetland ecosystem in the Olezoa drainage basin in Yaounde, Cameroon. More than 25 years of nutrient loading has led to the eutrophication and subsequent establishment of wetland vegetation in these ponds. Estimated free water surface areas of the ponds in 1964, 1976, and 1986 and 1992 determined from digitized aerial photographs and field measurements suggests a decline of 70 to 100% in the pond surface areas due to invasion and colonization by plants. The rate of pond surface decline and vegetation development is correlated with the construction of sewage plants and the discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater into the ponds. The main wetland plants that are established in the ponds consist of aquatic species Nymphae lotus, Enhydra fluctuants, Pistia stratiotes, Commelina sp., Ipomea aquatica and terrestrial species Echinochloa sp., Thalia welwitschii, Polygonum senegalense, Leersia haxandra and Cyperus papyrus. The pattern of wetland plant succession that resulted within each pond is correlated to the timing, duration and magnitude of sewage and wastewater discharge into the wetland complex.

  6. Sub-continental lithospheric mantle structure beneath the Adamawa plateau inferred from the petrology of ultramafic xenoliths from Ngaoundéré (Adamawa plateau, Cameroon, Central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouandou, Oumarou F.; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Fagny, Aminatou M.

    2015-11-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths (lherzolite, harzburgite and olivine websterite) have been discovered in basanites close to Ngaoundéré in Adamawa plateau. Xenoliths exhibit protogranular texture (lherzolite and olivine websterite) or porphyroclastic texture (harzburgite). They are composed of olivine Fo89-90, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel. According to geothermometers, lherzolites have been equilibrated at 880-1060 °C; equilibrium temperatures of harzburgite are rather higher (880-1160 °C), while those of olivine websterite are bracketed between 820 and 1010 °C. The corresponding pressures are 1.8-1.9 GPa, 0.8-1.0 GPa and 1.9-2.5 GPa, respectively, which suggests that xenoliths have been sampled respectively at depths of 59-63 km, 26-33 km and 63-83 km. Texture and chemical compositional variations of xenoliths with temperature, pressure and depth on regional scale may be ascribed to the complex history undergone by the sub-continental mantle beneath the Adamawa plateau during its evolution. This may involve a limited asthenosphere uprise, concomitantly with plastic deformation and partial melting due to adiabatic decompression processes. Chemical compositional heterogeneities are also proposed in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle under the Adamawa plateau, as previously suggested for the whole Cameroon Volcanic Line.

  7. Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sean David

    2012-01-01

    Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

  8. The Study for Optimizing of the Electricity Power Supply in Central Java Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity planning includes identification of electricity generation potential and problem where solution are being planned through the annual program. Due to correlation between electricity growth and economic growth, the sensitivity study for Central Java province has been done using three scenarios of annual electricity growth, i.e.: 6.7 %, 8 % and 10 % within the study period of 2003-2020. The tool used in this sensitivity study is WASP IV. From result the calculation gives total installed capacity in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 3960 MW, 5500 MW and 8620 MW respectively. Total produced energy in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 32301 G Wh, 39619 G Wh and 54374 G Wh. For total fuel required. Coal still predominate in all scenarios, followed by HSD and Gas. According to this study, Nuclear power plant can be introduced in 2020 for scenario of 8 % growth and 2017 for that of 10 % growth. WASP is utilized for projecting electricity supply. (author)

  9. Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soil in central Gansu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; GOU Xin; WANG Gang; ZHANG Qiang; SU Qiong; XIAO Guoju

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) were measured in arid agricultural and irrigated agricultural soils collected in Daba Village, Shajiawuan Village, Gangou Village and Sifangwu Village, located in central Gansu Province, China. Concentrations except Hg and Pb were lower than the background values in grey calcareous soil in the selected arid agricultural soils. Pb concentration exceeded the threshold of arid agricultural soils in China by 72. 46%. These results showed that there was indeed serious pollution with Pb, a slight pollution problem for other selected metals in the irrigated agricultural soils in Daba Village. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the soil data, applying varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization. The result showed that the irrigated factor, agricultural factor and anthropogenic factor all contributed to the relations between selected chemical properties. The main factor of accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As was lithological factor in arid agricultural areas. There is a striking dissimilarity of origin of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As in agricultural soil between the irrigate agriculture and arid agriculture.

  10. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  11. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment.

  12. Geological relationships and 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on gold mineralisation at Tarcoola, central Gawler gold province, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tarcoola Goldfield is one of several districts included in the recently proposed central Gawler gold province. Understanding of the genesis of the deposits in this metallogenic province is in its infancy, and dating the age of alteration, mineralisation and microdiorite dyke intrusions has been carried out at Tarcoola as a first step towards developing mineral-systems models for the province. At Tarcoola, four samples of sericite from alteration as well as one sample of hornblende from a microdiorite dyke yield 40Ar/39Ar ages of ca 1580 Ma, Geological and petrological relationships suggest that this age represents the time of fracture-controlled Au mineralisation. These data provide evidence for coeval Au mineralisation, microdiorite dyke intrusion and local deformation. This mineralisation age is indistinguishable from U-Pb ages for the regional Gawler Range - Hiltaba volcano-plutonic complex, and is more than 100 million years younger than the Paxton Granite, which is part-host to the mineralisation. Possible temporal and genetic relationships with other deposits in the central Gawler gold province remain to be tested. Copyright (2004) Geological Society of Australia

  13. Cross-Reactivity of Filariais ICT Cards in Areas of Contrasting Endemicity of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans in Cameroon: Implications for Shrinking of the Lymphatic Filariasis Map in the Central African Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic card test (ICT is a tool to map the distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti. In areas highly endemic for loaisis in DRC and Cameroon, a relationship has been envisaged between high L. loa microfilaria (Mf loads and ICT positivity. However, similar associations have not been demonstrated from other areas with contrasting levels of L. loa endemicity. This study investigated the cross-reactivity of ICT when mapping lymphatic filariasis (LF in areas with contrasting endemicity levels of loiasis and mansonellosis in Cameroon.A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and intensity of W. bancrofti, L. loa and M. perstans was carried out in 42 villages across three regions (East, North-west and South-west of the Cameroon rainforest domain. Diurnal blood was collected from participants for the detection of circulating filarial antigen (CFA by ICT and assessment of Mf using a thick blood smear. Clinical manifestations of LF were also assessed. ICT positives and patients clinically diagnosed with lymphoedema were further subjected to night blood collection for the detection of W. bancrofti Mf. Overall, 2190 individuals took part in the study. Overall, 24 individuals residing in 14 communities were tested positive by ICT, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% in the South-west to 2.1% in the North-west. Lymphoedema were diagnosed in 20 individuals with the majority of cases found in the North-west (11/20, and none of them were tested positive by ICT. No Mf of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with a positive ICT result or clinical lymphoedema. Positive ICT results were strongly associated with high L. loa Mf intensity with 21 subjects having more than 8,000 L. loa Mf ml/blood (Odds ratio = 15.4; 95%CI: 6.1-39.0; p < 0.001. Similarly, a strong positive association (Spearman's rho = 0.900; p = 0.037 was observed between the prevalence of L. loa and ICT positivity by area: a rate of 1% or more of positive

  14. Structural adjustment, women, and agriculture in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonchingong, C

    1999-11-01

    This article assesses the impact of economic structural programs on the agricultural activities of women's groups in Cameroon, and explores women's ways of coping with the reduction in individual and family income and the loss of public services. It examines the role of 25 women's groups in both rural and urban areas of Cameroon's northwest and southwest provinces in a study conducted from April to June 1999. Economic structural adjustment caused a tremendous increase in the workload of women that are farming usually in lots distant from their homes that yield poor returns. Land for food-crop cultivation has become increasingly scarce, and inputs have become substantially unaffordable. Income generated from the sale of crops is inadequate to supply the economic and social needs of the family. Moreover, the burden of their work has increased as they cope with housework, child-care, and food production, in addition to an expanded participation in paid employment. Moreover, women spend longer working hours than men, meeting both household responsibilities and their outside work. Women have devised strategies to cope with this economic crisis, but they need organizations that will support them with the important resources to be able to operate. Rural women seem to be coping better than urban women cope. In extreme cases, some women in urban areas resort to prostitution to cope with life in this crisis setting. PMID:12349481

  15. Vulnerability of settlements around Mt. Cameroon volcano, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogning, Appolinaire; Spinetti, Claudia; Ngouanet, Chretien; Tchoudam, David; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Thierry, Pierre; Bignami, Christian; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Located at the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon is exposed to a large variety of natural hazards, including volcanism. Most of the hazard are concentrated around the active volcano Mt. Cameroon which combines effusive and explosive types of activity. The threatened stakes are numerous and different exposed: people, settlements, industrial plantations, petrol refinery and many other factories and infrastructures. Until 2005, no risk management plans has been available. In 2006, the French Embassy in Cameroon, within the framework of a financial convention between Cameroon and France, put in place the GRINP (Management of Natural Risks and Civil Protection) project whose objective was to reinforce the capacity of Cameroon's civil protection department and thus, contribute to the improvement of the security of the population faced with catastrophes. The objective was to realize a Risk Prevention Plan at a local council scale, and taking into consideration the specific natural risks of each zone. The general objective of the RPP was to clearly draw land use maps for risks zones, showing the overlay of stakes with risk of different intensities. In 2008 European Commission funded the Mia-Vita project (Mitigating and Assessing Volcanic Impacts on Terrain and human Activities). The aim of the project is to improve the crisis management capabilities based on monitoring and early warning systems and secure communications; reduction of people's vulnerability and development of recovering capabilities after an event occurs for both local communities and ecological systems. Keyword: natural hazards, Mt. Cameroon, vulnerability, risk prevention plan

  16. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Karangrowo Site, Undaan District, Kudus Sub Province Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudus is one of sub province in central Java with have the fresh water availability problem Condition of insufficiency 'Standard Water has been recognized in some part of regional area, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process; due the ground water trapped character is briny or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of prospect area fur exploiting of ground water. Referring to that problem ''Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN'' means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, geohydrology and sub surface geophysical characterize, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain that target, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo electrical 2-D image measurement Base on the result of analyze, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential aquifer that happened at layer of sand sedimentary, in form of lens trapped in impermeable layer of clay sediment The layer of aquifer pattern follows of Old River in North-South and East-West direction. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement GF. A 4-14, AB 4-11 and B4. Physical characterized of aquifer, resistivity 9-19 Ωm with charge ability 13-53 milliseconds. (author)

  17. Low Prevalence of Brucella Agglutinins in Blood Donors in Central Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Sofian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and has great economic importance. Despite its control in many countries, it remains endemic in Iran. Brucellosis was investigated in many high risk occupational groups; however, few studies on the prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors are available. To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis antibodies in blood donors, a serological study was carried out in central province of Iran.Materials and Methods: A total of 897 healthy blood donors with mean age 37.23 ± 10.9 years were enrolled in the study. Laboratory tests including Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STA and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were checked in all samples. STA dilution ≥ 1:80, and in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination ≥ 20 was considered positive.Results: Out of 897 cases, 11.9% were inhabitants of rural areas. 41.5% had history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and 9.3% had history of contact with domestic animals. A very low level of Brucella agglutinins was present in 3(0.33% of the samples and only one sample (0.11% was found to be truly positive for Brucella agglutinins. 2ME was negative in all samples. None of these 4 subjects showed signs and symptoms of brucellosis in 6 months follow-up.Conclusion: On the basis of our data, brucellosis has no epidemiological and clinical importance in our blood donors; therefore, it is not recommended to perform screening tests such as, STA and 2ME to identify brucellosis antibodies in the sera of blood donors.

  18. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among the People Living in the Central Areas of Mazandaran Province( 2009 – 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi-Esboei, B. (BSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Intestinal parasites, esp. giardiasis are the mostcommon gastrointestinal infection disorders in the world, especially in north ofIran. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of parasiticinfections in the stool samples of the people living in the central areas ofMazandaran province.Material and Methods: In this descriptive study, 4223 human fecal samples wererandomly collected from different areas in different seasons in the central regionsof Mazandaran province, from Oct 2009 to Sept 2010. The Samples were assessedby direct smear and formalin-ether method. We analyzed the data by using Chisquareand T test.Results: Of 4223 stool samples, 75 (17.9% have at least one type of parasite. Therate of infection with intestinal protozoan is 15.9% including 8.1% with B.Hominis, 6.4% with G. lamblia, and 1.9% with intestinal worms (S. stercolaris andStrongyloides larvae .The prevalence rate is 6.1% in rural, 5.9% in urban and5.8% in mountainous areas. Considering the seasons, the prevalence in the urbanarea in summer (4/39%, rural area in spring (32% and mountainous area in fall(28% are reported. Statistically no significant differences between differentregions and seasons have been observed (P> 0.05.Conclusion: Based on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, especiallyin the central part of Mazandaran province in different seasons, early diagnosis andtreatment of the patients and public health promotion could be effective toprevent and control these infections in north of Iran.Keywords: Intestinal parasitic; Prevalence; Mazandaran Province

  19. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each s...

  20. A new Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Thomas; Cheek, M.

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from western Cameroon is described on teleomorphic and cultural characters.......A new species of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) from western Cameroon is described on teleomorphic and cultural characters....

  1. A new species of karst-dwelling bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khammouane Province, central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Khammouane Province, central Laos based on morphological features and molecular data. Morphologically, Cyrtodactylus bansocensis sp. nov. is differentiated from other congeners by a unique combination of the following characters: medium size, SVL reaching 74.0 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of four light transverse bands between limb insertions; supranasals in contact with each other; dorsal tubercles at midbody in 14-15 irregular rows; lateral folds present without interspersed tubercles; ventral scales between ventrolateral folds 34-35; precloacal and femoral pores in males 34, separated by four poreless scales in the male holotype and in a continuous row in the male paratype; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; postcloacal tubercles 5-7 on each side; dorsal tubercles present at tail base; and subcaudal scales transversely enlarged. Molecular analyses revealed the new species to be closely related to Cyrtodactylus rufford, which is also found in Khammouane Province. PMID:27395993

  2. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  3. Origin and paleoenvironment of Pleistocene-Holocene Travertine deposit from the Mbéré sedimentary sub-basin along the Central Cameroon shear zone: Insights from petrology and palynology and evidence for neotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchouatcha, Milan Stafford; Njoya, André; Ganno, Sylvestre; Toyama, Réné; Ngouem, Paul Aubin; Njiké Ngaha, Pierre Ricard

    2016-06-01

    The Mbéré sub-basin belongs to the Mbéré-Djerem intra-continental basin of Central North Cameroon. In this sub-basin, a travertine outcrop has been discovered and investigated palynologically and petrologically in this study. The sporopollinic content of the studied travertine is mainly composed of fungal spores (Rhyzophagites sp., Monoporisporites sp …) associated with rare fresh water algae spores such as Chomotriletes minor and angiosperm pollens (compositae, graminae, …). This sporopollinic association is indicative of hot and semi-arid to arid paleoclimate and reveals a Pleistocene-Holocene depositional age. The whole rock major element geochemistry shows relative enrichment of CaO (49.48%) and CO2 (38.49%). The origin of CO2 is probably from magmatic and/or metamorphic fluids. Compared to other travertines, SiO2 and Al2O3 contents are significant with average concentrations of 5.68% and 2.58% respectively. The mineralogical composition revealed by a microscopic study of bulk rocks is dominated by calcite (90-92%) associated to quartz (2-4%) and feldspar (2-3%), meanwhile the heavy mineral concentrate is formed by various mineral types such as zircon (most abundant), garnet, tourmaline, epidote, biotite, peridot and aegirine augite suggesting that the underground water has crossed both volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic rocks. With the mineral composition made of both chemical and detrital derived elements, the Mbéré travertine corresponds to chemico-lithoclastic/detrital limestone. In the Mbéré trough, numerous thermo-mineral springs are located along major fractures and faults. This result suggests that the Mbéré travertine deposit is related to the rising of deep water with the help of a fracturing system, similar to those of Irdi (Morocco), Italy and Turkey where there is much volcanism.

  4. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ashu Agbor; Sudeshni Naidoo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or...

  5. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as `Africa in miniature'?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huguette Gaelle Ngassa Mbenda; Gauri Awasthi; Poonam K Singh; Inocent Gouado; Aparup Das

    2014-09-01

    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ∼20 million population, is commonly regarded as ‘Africa in miniature’ due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and diverse topography. Over 90% Cameroonians are at risk of malaria infection, and ∼41% have at least one episode of malaria each year. Historically, the rate of malaria infection in Cameroon has fluctuated over the years; the number of cases was about 2 million in 2010 and 2011. The Cameroonian malaria control programme faces an uphill task due to high prevalence of multidrug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Above all, continued human migration from the rural to urban areas as well as population exchange with adjoining countries, high rate of ecological instabilities caused by deforestation, poor housing, lack of proper sanitation and drainage system might have resulted in the recent increase in incidences of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in Cameroon. The available data on eco-environmental variability and intricate malaria epidemiology in Cameroon reflect the situation in the whole of Africa, and warrant the need for in-depth study by using modern surveillance tools for meaningful basic understanding of the malaria triangle (host-parasite-vector-environment).

  6. Geochronological, geochemical and mineralogical constraints of emplacement depth of TTG suite from the Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon: Implications for tectonomagmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houketchang Bouyo, M.; Penaye, J.; Njel, U. O.; Moussango, A. P. I.; Sep, J. P. N.; Nyama, B. A.; Wassouo, W. J.; Abaté, J. M. E.; Yaya, F.; Mahamat, A.; Ye, Hao; Wu, Fei

    2016-04-01

    The Sinassi Batholith in the Central African Fold Belt (CAFB) of northern Cameroon represents the largest volume of plutonic rocks or granitoids massif of the Western Cameroonian Domain. It is made up dominantly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) suite and lesser granite which are locally more or less deformed, and composed of varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, hornblende, sphene, magnetite, apatite and zircon. Major and trace element compositions of fifteen rock samples of granitoids (Djourdé granodiorite, Sinassi quartz diorite and orthogneisses groups) indicate that investigated rocks from the Sinassi Batholith are characterized by medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous I-type signature. In addition, their chondrite- and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns are strongly fractionated ((La/Yb)N = 2.96-61.40) and show respectively enrichment in LREE relative to HREE and enrichment in LILE compared to HFSE with moderate to slight negative Nb-Ta, Ti and Eu anomalies consistent with a continental magmatic arc setting related to a subduction zone. Geothermobarometric calculations using hornblende-plagioclase thermometry and aluminum-in-hornblende barometry on eleven rock samples indicate that plutons from Sinassi Batholith were emplaced at average temperatures and pressures ranging between 698 and 720 °C and 4.06-5.82 kbar (Djourdé granitoids), 698-728 °C and 4.04-5.34 kbar (Sinassi granitoids) and 667-670 and 4.23-4.76 kbar (orthogneisses group) respectively. The average emplacement depths estimates for the investigated granitoids is constrained at ca 16-18 km, indicating that at least 16 km of crustal rocks of the Sinassi Batholith must have been eroded or uplifted at approximately exhumation rates of 0.08-0.10 mm/year. Regardless of their Th/U ratios, geochronological results highlight three main events characterizing the Neoproterozoic tectonomagmatic evolution within the Sinassi Batholith

  7. [Evaluation of the oropharyngeal tularemia cases admitted to our hospital from the provinces of Central Anatolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Melek; Cengiz, Buğra; Unlü, Murat; Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk; Eryılmaz, Adil

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic infection which has re-emerged in Turkey in recent years as water-borne endemics. Oropharyngeal form is the most frequently reported form of the disease from Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings of oropharyngeal tularemia patients admitted to ear, nose & throat outpatient clinic between January-March 2010. A total of 10 patients (age range: 16-80 years, mean age: 43.9 years; nine were male) inhabiting in the provinces in Central Anatolia, Turkey, were admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, sore throat and painful cervical lump. They have been previously diagnosed as tonsillo-pharyngitis at different medical centers and empirical antibiotic therapy has initiated, however, their complaints have not recovered. Endoscopic laryngoscopic examination revealed that oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx were normal. Physical examination of the neck yielded localized fixed masses with diameters between 2-7 cm. The lesions were localized at right submandibular (n= 4), upper jugular (n=3) and one of each at left posterior cervical, left submandibular and left jugulodigastric regions. The patients were hospitalized with the pre-diagnosis of "neck mass with unknown origin" for further investigation and treatment. The mean white blood cell count of the cases was 9730 (7500-15.100) cells/µl; the mean erythrocyte sedimantation rate was 68.7 (46-85) mm3/hours and the mean C-reactive protein level was 4.3 (1.5-7.4) µg/dl. Salmonella, Brucella, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus and viral hepatitis serology did not indicate acute infections. Serum and tissue samples were sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency in order to test for tularemia, namely culture, microagglutination test (MAT), direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All of the patients

  8. Geochemistry of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) sills from deep boreholes in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlen Heimdal, Thea; Svensen, Henrik H.; Pereira, Egberto; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the most extensive Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), and is associated with the breakup of Pangea and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. A large part of the province, including > 1 M km2 basins containing sill intrusions, is located in Brazil but has received limited attention due to the lack of outcrops. We have studied CAMP sills from seven deep boreholes (up to 3100 m deep) in the Amazonas and Solimões basins, northern Brazil. The boreholes contain up to ~ 482 m of sills (18 % of the stratigraphy), with a maximum individual sill thickness of 140 m. The sills were partly emplaced into thick Carboniferous evaporites. The main mineral phases of the sills include plagioclase and pyroxene, with accessory apatite, biotite, ilmenite and quartz. The majority of the sills are low-Ti dolerites (TiO2 rocks range from basalt to basaltic andesite and plot in the tholeiitic field defined within the total alkali versus silica (TAS) classification. C1 chondrite normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for both Ti-groups show increasing LREE compared to HREE (La/Lu = 2.2 - 4.1) with no major anomalies, and attest to a relatively evolved nature (La = 17-65 ppm). Primitive mantle normalized patterns for low-Ti rocks show negative anomalies for Nb, Ta, P and Ti and positive for K, whereas the high-Ti rocks show generally opposite anomalies. Late stage patches in the dolerites contain apatite, quartz and Cl-bearing biotite, suggesting the presence of halogens that may partly derive from the host sedimentary rocks.

  9. Evaluation of biochemical urinary stone composition and its relationship to tap water hardness in Qom province, central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslemi MK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Kazem Moslemi1, Hossein Saghafi2, Seyed Mohammad Amin Joorabchin31Department of Urology, Kamkar Hospital, 2Department of Nephrology, Kamkar Hospital, School of Medicine, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical stone composition in general population of Qom province, central Iran, and its relationship with high tap water hardness.Materials and methods: In a prospective study, from March 2008 to July 2011, biochemical analysis of urinary stones in patients living in Qom province for at least 5 years was performed. Stones were retrieved by spontaneous passage, endoscopic or open surgery, and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Demographic findings and the drinking water supply of patients were evaluated and compared with biochemical stone analysis.Results: Stone analysis was performed in 255 patients. The most dominant composition of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (73%, followed by uric acid (24%, ammonium urate (2%, and cystine (1%. The peak incidence of urinary stone was in patients in their forties. Overall male to female ratio was 4.93:1.Conclusion: The dominant stone composition in inhabitants of central Iran, where tap water hardness is high, was calcium oxalate stones. On the basis of this study, biochemical urinary stone composition of Qom does not differ from other regions of Iran with lower water hardness.Keywords: stone analysis, water hardness, urinary stones, stone composition

  10. Photosynthetic characteristics of three varieties of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids" in the central areas of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHANG; Shuyun LI; Hong HU; Yayu FAN

    2008-01-01

    To understand the ecophysiological adapta-tion of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids", which are grown for their commercial bulbs, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of the three varieties were investigated in the central areas of the Yunnan Province. Among the three varieties, light-saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax) of Tiber was the highest, while that of Siberia was the lowest. The difference in the Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the quantity of Rubisco. The three vari-eties had lower photosynthetic saturation points and pho-tosynthetic compensation points, but the photosynthetic rates were not decreased up to 2000 μmol.m-2s-1 of the light intensity. This indicates that the three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were signifi-cant differences in the photosynthetic optimum temper-ature among the three varieties. Siberia had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature (25.5℃-34.9℃), and is likely to grow well in warm areas. Sorbonne had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature (19.3℃-25.6℃), and its growth is favored in cool areas. Tiber can maintain a high photosynthetic rate within a wide range of temperature. Therefore, Tiber is the most suitable variety for the climate in the central areas of the Yunnan Province, China.

  11. Environmental Geochemistry of Fluorine in the Rock—Soil—Water System in the Karst Region of Central Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 李景阳; 等

    2000-01-01

    Systematic determination of and adsorption experiment on fluorine in the carbonate rock-soil-water system in the karst region studied in Guzhou Province,in conjunction with the mineral surface and soil chemistry data,have revealed the geochemical characteristics of F and the mechanisms of its transport and entrichment in the rock-soil-water-system of the karst region central guizhou province,Deep-seated underground waters(-100m or lower)and soil layers in the karst region of central Guizhou are characterized by high-F anomalies whereas shallow-level underground and surface waters by low contents of F(mostly lower than 05mg/L).Fluorine in soil and water in the region studied comes largely from Triassic marine strata dominated by gypsum-bearing carbonate rocks.The special adsorption and desorption of F on the surface of geothite in soil layers are the important mechanisms of its transport and enrichment in the rock-soil-water system of the karst region studied.

  12. Structural variation of proterozoic dikes in central Superior Province: A possible reflection of post-Archean shield deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary work is reported on the use of two structural parameters, dike dip and thickness, as possible depth-of-exposure indicators in the Central Superior Province. The data demonstrate systematic variations in the dip and thickness of 2.6 and 1.14 Ga. dikes across the Central Superior Province and are tentatively interpreted to result from post intrusion deformation. Combination of these results with additional structural and paleomagnetic data from dikes of all gas may permit detailed mapping both spatially and temporally of crustal deformation in this part of the Canadian Shield. Although dike dip and thickness data apparently reflect crustal exposure level as given by host rock metamorphic grade (ranging from subgreenschist to granulite), these post-orogenic dikes themselves are at most only weakly metamorphosed. This requires that regional isotherms dropped dramatically after the Kenoran orogeny (2.65 Ga.) and prior to emplacement of the earlist post-orogenic swarm (Matachewan-Hearst) at 2.6 Ga.

  13. Current status of bird pest species in agroecosystems of Buenos Aires province, central Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Codesido, M.; Bilenca, D.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out the first assessment of abundance and distribution of bird pest species (eared dove Zenaida auriculata, monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus, picazuro pigeon Patagioenas picazuro and spot-winged pigeon P. maculosa) in the pampas of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, and analyzed their association with the presence of crops and/or introduced exotic woodlots in the rural landscape. We surveyed 35 transects located along secondary roads. Bird pest abundance was significantly higher at...

  14. Ecological factors associated with dengue fever in a central highlands Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Thao TT; Doan Huong TM; Pham Hau V; Tran Minh Nguyen N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue is a leading cause of severe illness and hospitalization in Vietnam. This study sought to elucidate the linkage between climate factors, mosquito indices and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly data on dengue cases and mosquito larval indices were ascertained between 2004 and 2008 in the Dak Lak province (Vietnam). Temperature, sunshine, rainfall and humidity were also recorded as monthly averages. The association between these ecological factors and dengue was assess...

  15. The Early Triassic magmatism of the Alto Paraguay Province, Central South America: Paleomagnetic and ASM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernesto, Marcia; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso de Barros

    2015-10-01

    A paleomagnetic studystudywork was carried out on the Alto Paraguay Province (APP), a belt of alkaline complexes that parallel the Paraguay river for more than 40 km at the border of Brazil and Paraguay. The province is well dated by 40Ar/39Ar method giving ages in the range 240-250 Ma with a preferred age of 241 Ma. Intrusive rocks are predominant but the stocks may be topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic work on stocks, dikes and flows of the APP identified normal and reversed magnetic components which are carried mainly by titanomagnetites. The calculated paleomagnetic pole located at 319ºE 78ºS (α95 = 6º; k = 23) is in agreement with other South American poles of Permo-Triassic age. Most of the sampling sites showed large variations in rock magnetization, but similar patterns in the variation of the within-site magnetizations, mainly in dikes, suggest geomagnetic polarity transition records. The magnetization data along with the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility determinations suggested that the South and North areas of the province have different evolution characteristics.

  16. Zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Joshua; Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Herve; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Schaltegger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are anomalously large volumes of dominantly mafic magma that erupted and intruded into the upper crust over short time scales. The origin of these volcanic provinces is very likely specific for each case, partly explained by plate tectonic processes or mantle plumes. Despite an ambivalent plate tectonic connection, there is a striking temporal correlation between the timing of LIPs and periods of mass extinction on Earth. However, establishing the relationship between these two is quite complicated since mass extinctions are typically recognised in the marine record, and LIPs are usually terrestrially emplaced. High precision geochronology of LIPs is essential to (i) establish the synchrony and infer the causal relationship with mass extinctions, and (ii) to understand how LIPs form. In this study, we apply high-precision zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb geochronology to rocks from the ~200 Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), in an attempt to reconstruct the overall timing of the event, its spatial distribution in time, and determine its relationship with the end-Triassic mass extinction. We also present Hf isotope data from the separated zircon and baddeleyite to both elucidate the origin of the LIP and also to determine if the magmas all originate from the same source. Our data suggest that the majority of the CAMP magmas were emplaced over a 0.5 Ma period from ~201.5 Ma to ~201.0 Ma with a possible small secondary event occurring much later at ~199 Ma. Spatially, it appears that CAMP magmatism occurred roughly simultaneously over the entire province (i.e. ~8000 Km North to South). However, the Hf isotopic composition varies over this length with the highest values (~5.5 ɛHf) occurring in a small area to the south of the province in Brazil and Sierra Leone. Towards the north, the ɛHf values become negative, indicating the presence of an older or more enriched component in the magmas. Our geochronology also indicates that CAMP

  17. Early Mortality during Initial Treatment of Tuberculosis in Patients Co-Infected with HIV at the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon: An 8-Year Retrospective Cohort Study (2006-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Joel R Bigna

    Full Text Available Understanding contributors to mortality during the initial phase of tuberculosis (TB treatment in patients co-infected with HIV would guide targeted interventions to improve survival. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence of death during the initial 2 months (new cases and 3 months (retreatment cases of TB treatment and to assess correlates of mortality in HIV co-infected patients.We conducted a hospital-based retrospective cohort study from January 2006 to December 2013 at Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We reviewed medical records to identify co-infected TB/HIV inpatients aged 15 years and older who died during TB treatment. Death was defined as any death occurring during TB treatment, as per World Health Organization recommendations. We collected socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data. We conducted multivariable logistic binary regression analysis to identify factors associated with death during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Magnitudes of associations were expressed by adjusted odds ratio (aOR with 95% confidence interval. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The 99 patients enrolled had a mean age of 39.5 (standard deviation 10.9 years and 53% were male. Patients were followed for 276.3 person-months of observation (PMO. Forty nine patients were died during intensive phase of TB treatment. Death incidence during the intensive phase of TB treatment was 32.2 per 100 PMO. Having a non-AIDS comorbidity (aOR 2.47, 95%CI 1.22-5.02, p = 0.012, having extra-pulmonary TB (aOR 1.89, 95%CI 1.05-3.43, p = 0.035, and one year increase in duration of known HIV infection (aOR 1.23, 95%CI 1.004-1.49 were independently associated with death during the intensive phase of TB treatment.Mortality incidence during intensive phase of TB treatment was high among TB/HIV co-infected patients during TB treatment; and strongly associated with extra pulmonary TB suggesting advanced stage of immunosuppression and

  18. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection. PMID:26872984

  19. The French Guyana doleritic dykes: geochemical evidence of three populations and new data for the Jurassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, S.; Pouclet, A.; Chen, Y.

    2002-12-01

    A petrographic and geochemical study of 15 Early Jurassic and 7 Proterozoic dolerites of French Guyana, and of one Jurassic dolerite from Ivory-Coast were carried out. The Early Jurassic SSW-NNE trending dykes have doleritic aphyric or gabbroic phyric texture. Their chemical compositions, slightly under-saturated to over-saturated, show moderate to low Mg-ratios (63-36), high TiO 2 contents (1.85-3.56 wt.%), weak rare earth element fractionation [1.8isotopic data of Bertrand et al. [Bertrand, H., Liegeois, J.P., Deckart, K., Féraud, G., 1999. High-Ti tholeiites in Guinea and Their Connection with the Central Atlantic CFB Province: Elemental and Nd-Sr-Pb Isotopic Evidence for Preferential Zone of Mantle Upwelling in Cause of Rifting. AGU spring meeting (Abst. p 317)] suggest that their magmatic source is different from that of the other basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Such signatures are restricted to a central zone coinciding with the Panafrican Rokelides suture. We propose a model of sub-lithospheric preferential channelling of an asthenospheric ascent in this zone. Two other groups of dykes were identified in French Guyana. Compared to the Jurassic ones the Proterozoic dykes have NNW-SSE and E-W trending direction, more important LILE enrichment, low TiO 2 contents (<2 wt%) and Nb-Ta negative anomalies. Their calc-alkaline signature could be the result of a previous subduction and may be related to the 1800 Ma Venturi-Tapajós event, which contaminated the mantle source.

  20. Thanking Responders in Cameroon English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouafeu, Yves Talla Sando

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of authentic or genuine interactions among Cameroon English speakers reveals that conversational routines in this variety of English differ a good deal from those obtained in other varieties of English, non-native varieties of English inclusive, and more specifically in native varieties of English. This paper looks at "thanking…

  1. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  2. Promotion and Development of Tourism in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Frida-Tolonen, Frida

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis is aimed to achieve a main goal which is at Promoting and developing tourism in Cameroon. This work will give a broad overview of issues in tourism in Africa and Cameroon, suggesting guidelines to assist countries such as Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria, to develop a more coherent structure for tourism. Tourism can only develop sustainably if it is united into the country’s overall economic, social and physical planning policies and enhancing regional promotion and effective...

  3. Decentralized Rural Electrification Project in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Cameroon is a rural country. More than 70 percent of its people live in rural areas. In 1995, of 13,000 villages in Cameroon, only about 1,500 were connected to the national electricity grid. Most of Cameroon's 12.2 million inhabitants lack access to electricity. Only about 5 percent of all households have electricity. About 35 percent of urban households have electricity, but in rural are...

  4. Spatial Provinces and Domains of the Central Valley for Textural Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital dataset contains the 9 major areas used to subdivide the Central Valley for the interpolation of the percentage of coarse-grained deposits into the...

  5. Zircon U-Pb geochronology links the end-Triassic extinction with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Terrence J; Olsen, Paul E; Bowring, Samuel A; McLean, Noah M; Kent, Dennis V; Puffer, John; McHone, Greg; Rasbury, E Troy; Et-Touhami, Mohammed

    2013-05-24

    The end-Triassic extinction is characterized by major losses in both terrestrial and marine diversity, setting the stage for dinosaurs to dominate Earth for the next 136 million years. Despite the approximate coincidence between this extinction and flood basalt volcanism, existing geochronologic dates have insufficient resolution to confirm eruptive rates required to induce major climate perturbations. Here, we present new zircon uranium-lead (U-Pb) geochronologic constraints on the age and duration of flood basalt volcanism within the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. This chronology demonstrates synchroneity between the earliest volcanism and extinction, tests and corroborates the existing astrochronologic time scale, and shows that the release of magma and associated atmospheric flux occurred in four pulses over about 600,000 years, indicating expansive volcanism even as the biologic recovery was under way. PMID:23519213

  6. Absence of Ornithodoros moubata, the vector of African swine fever virus, from the main pig producing area of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekue, N F; Wilkinson, P J

    1990-05-01

    No evidence for the presence of soft ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex was found during a survey of African swine fever carried out between 1985 and 1988 in the West Province and southern parts of the North West and South West Provinces of Cameroon. The survey consisted of interviews of veterinary assistants and farmers, distribution of a questionnaire and tick searches both manually and with carbon dioxide traps. The absence of warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) from these areas was also recorded. PMID:2371751

  7. Effect of an Educational Intervention Related to Health and Nutrition on Pregnant Women in the Villages of Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya-Erhardt, Maria; Muslimatun, Siti; Erhardt, Juergen G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a health and nutrition educational intervention on maternal knowledge, attitudes and practices. Design: Pre- and post-test design using structured interviews of pregnant women. Setting: Thirty-nine villages in Central Java Province, Indonesia. Method: Pregnant women (N = 252) at 12-20 weeks of gestation were…

  8. Soil cover characterization at large scale: the example of Perugia Province in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Giulia; Salciarini, Diana; Tamagnini, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    In the last years, physically-based models aimed at predicting the occurrence of landslides have had a large diffusion because the opportunity of having landslide susceptibility maps can be essential to reduce damages and human losses. On one hand physically-based models rationally analyse problems, because mathematically describe the physical processes that actually happen, on the other hand their diffusion is limited by the difficulty of having and managing accurate data over large areas. For this reason, and also because in the Perugia province geotechnical data are partial and not regularly distributed, a data collection campaign has been started in order to have a wide physical-mechanical data set that can be used to apply any physically-based model. The collected data have been derived from mechanical tests and investigations performed to characterize the soil. The data set includes about 3000 points and each record is characterized by the following quantitative information: coordinates, geological description, cohesion, friction angle. Besides, the records contain the results of seismic tests that allow knowing the shear waves velocity in the first 30 meters of soil. The database covers the whole Perugia province territory and it can be used to evaluate the effects of both rainfall-induced and earthquake-induced landslides. The database has been analysed in order to exclude possible outliers; starting from the all data set, 16 lithological units have been isolated, each one with homogeneous geological features and the same mechanical behaviour. It is important to investigate the quality of the data and know how much they are reliable; therefore statistical analyses have been performed to quantify the dispersion of the data - i.e. relative and cumulative frequency - and also geostatistical analyses to know the spatial correlation - i.e. the variogram. The empirical variogram is a common and useful tool in geostatistics because it quantifies the spatial

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ekowati; D.H. Darwanto; S. Nurtini; A. Suryantini

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattle farming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri) were purposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ). The study was conducted using quota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results showed that each subsystem agribusiness ha...

  10. Immunity to diphtheria and tetanus among blood donors in Arak, central province of Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eslamifar; Amitis Ramezani; Mohammad Banifazl; Masoomeh Sofian; Fatemeh-Alsadat Mahdaviani; Farhad Yaghmaie; Arezoo Aghakhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Tetanus and diphtheria are vaccine-preventable, infectious diseases with significant morbidity and mortality. Immunization by the diphtheria and tetanus toxoid (DT) has been applied in Iran for almost 50 years. However, there are very few data about the rate of immunity to these diseases in the adult population. the humoral immunity to tetanus and diphtheria among blood donors in Arak city, central provice of Iran were investigated. Patients & Methods A total of 530 ...

  11. Carbonatite diversity in the Central Andes: the Ayopaya alkaline province, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Frank; Lehmann, Bernd; Tawackoli, Sohrab; Rössling, Reinhard; Belyatsky, Boris; Dulski, Peter

    2004-12-01

    The Ayopaya province in the eastern Andes of Bolivia, 100 km NW of Cochabamba, hosts a Cretaceous alkaline rock series within a Palaeozoic sedimentary sequence. The alkaline rock association comprises nepheline-syenitic/foyaitic to ijolitic intrusions, carbonatite, kimberlite, melilititic, nephelinitic to basanitic dykes and diatremes, and a variety of alkaline dykes. The carbonatites display a wide petrographic and geochemical spectrum. The Cerro Sapo area hosts a small calciocarbonatite intrusion and a multitude of ferrocarbonatitic dykes and lenses in association with a nepheline-syenitic stock. The stock is crosscut by a spectacular REE-Sr-Th-rich sodalite-ankerite-baryte dyke system. The nearby Chiaracke complex represents a magnesiocarbonatite intrusion with no evidence for a relationship to igneous silicate rocks. The magnesiocarbonatite (Σ REE up to 1.3 wt%) shows strong HREE depletion, i.e. unusually high La/Yb ratios (520 1,500). Calciocarbonatites (Σ REE up to 0.5 wt%) have a flatter REE distribution pattern (La/Yb 95 160) and higher Nb and Zr contents. The sodalite-ankerite-baryte dyke system shows geochemical enrichment features, particularly in Na, Ba, Cl, Sr, REE, which are similar to the unusual natrocarbonatitic lavas of the recent volcano of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. The Cerro Sapo complex may be regarded as an intrusive equivalent of natrocarbonatitic volcanism, and provides an example for carbonatite genesis by late-stage crystal fractionation and liquid immiscibility. The magnesiocarbonatite intrusion of Chiaracke, on the other hand, appears to result from a primary carbonatitic mantle melt. Deep seated mantle magmatism/metasomatism is also expressed by the occurrence of a kimberlite dyke. Neodymium and strontium isotope data (ɛNd 1.4 5.4, 87Sr/86 Sr

  12. Ecological factors associated with dengue fever in a central highlands Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thao TT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a leading cause of severe illness and hospitalization in Vietnam. This study sought to elucidate the linkage between climate factors, mosquito indices and dengue incidence. Methods Monthly data on dengue cases and mosquito larval indices were ascertained between 2004 and 2008 in the Dak Lak province (Vietnam. Temperature, sunshine, rainfall and humidity were also recorded as monthly averages. The association between these ecological factors and dengue was assessed by the Poisson regression model with adjustment for seasonality. Results During the study period, 3,502 cases of dengue fever were reported. Approximately 72% of cases were reported from July to October. After adjusting for seasonality, the incidence of dengue fever was significantly associated with the following factors: higher household index (risk ratio [RR]: 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62-1.70 per 5% increase, higher container index (RR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.73-1.83 per 5% increase, and higher Breteau index (RR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.53-1.60 per 5 unit increase. The risk of dengue was also associated with elevated temperature (RR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.25-1.55 per 2°C increase, higher humidity (RR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.51-1.67 per 5% increase, and higher rainfall (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.21-1.74 per 50 mm increase. The risk of dengue was inversely associated with duration of sunshine, the number of dengue cases being lower as the sunshine increases (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.73-0.79 per 50 hours increase. Conclusions These data suggest that indices of mosquito and climate factors are main determinants of dengue fever in Vietnam. This finding suggests that the global climate change will likely increase the burden of dengue fever infection in Vietnam, and that intensified surveillance and control of mosquito during high temperature and rainfall seasons may be an important strategy for containing the burden of dengue fever.

  13. Water and gas geochemistry of the Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) hydrothermal system (Ciudad Real, central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Tassi, Franco; Giannini, Luciano; Grandia, Fidel; Darrah, Tom; Capecchiacci, Francesco; del Villar, Pèrez

    2013-04-01

    An extensive geochemical and isotopic investigation was carried out in the water and gas discharges of the Late Miocene-Quaternary Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) (Ciudad Real, Spain) with the aim reconstruct the fluid circulation in the area. CVP consists of a series of scattered (monogenetic) vents from where alkaline lava flows and pyroclastic deposits formed in two different periods. The first stage (8.7-6.4 Ma) mainly included ultra-potassic mafic extrusives, whilst the second stage (4.7-1.75 Ma) prevalently originated alkaline and ultra-alkaline volcanics. Both stages were followed by a volcanic activity that extended up to 1.3 and 0.7 Ma, respectively. This area can likely be regarded as one of the most important emitting zones of CO2 in the whole Peninsular Spain along with that of Selva-Emporda in northeastern Spain (Cataluña) and it can be assumed as one of the best examples of natural analogues of CO2 leakages in Spain. This latter aspect is further evidenced by the relatively common water-gas blast events that characterize the CCVF. In the last few years the presence of a CO2-pressurized reservoir at a relatively shallow level as indeed caused several small-sized explosion particularly during the drilling of domestic wells. The fluid discharging sites are apparently aligned along well-defined directions: NW-SE and NNW-SSE and subordinately, ENE-WSW, indicating a clear relationship between the thermal discharges and the volcanic centers that also distribute along these lineaments. The CVP waters are mostly hypothermal (up to 33 °C) and are generally Mg(Ca)-HCO3 in composition and occasionally show relatively high concentrations of Fe and Mn, with pH and electrical conductivity down to 5.5 and up to 6.5 mS/cm, respectively. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest a meteoric origin for these waters. The mantle source of these volcanic products is apparently preserved in the many CO2-rich (up to 990,000 mmol/mol) gas discharges that characterize CVP

  14. "A Child has Many Mothers": Views of Child Fostering in Northwestern Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    This article examines 20 fostering arrangements in a growing urban community in northwestern Cameroon from the perspectives of those involved. Analysis of interviews with caregivers and birth mothers suggests that the nature of adult relationships is central to children's living arrangements. Three caregiver-mother relationship profiles are…

  15. Distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater from Central-West Part of Santa Fe Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Study on inorganic arsenic species in groundwater for drinking in Santa Fe Argentina. • This information is currently scarce or absent in the region. • An analytical methodology based on SPE-FI-HGAAS coupling was used for speciation. • Information is given for a more accurate interpretation of the toxicological impact. - Abstract: The distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater used as drinking water supply by the peri-urban and rural population from central-western area of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, was studied. An analytical methodology based on an online system of atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation and flow injection (FI-HGAAS) was used for total inorganic arsenic determination. For speciation purposes, the distinction between As(V) and As(III) was performed through the on line coupling of FI-HGAAS to a solid phase system based on an anionic exchanger able to retain As(V) as oxyanion, allowing As(III) to be selectively determined. The concentration of As(V) was calculated as the difference between total arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Effects of matrix interference due to the nonselective behavior of the exchange resins were carefully laid. Results for 59 samples collected from 27 localities showed an almost exclusive predominance of pentavalent forms

  16. Historical lead pollution in the central region of Guizhou province, China: A record of lead stable isotopes of lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic reform in China since 1978 has accelerated economic development nationwide hugely, but has also brought about some environmental pollution. In order to identify the primary Pb source to the atmosphere in the central Guizhou region, Pb isotopic ratios in the acid soluble fraction of sediment from Hongfeng Lake were investigated. Lead isotopes in the lake sediments record the history of regional atmospheric Pb pollution. Before the economic reform in 1978, the 208Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the leachates of lake sediments were constant, with a range of 2.0060 to 2.0117 and of 1.2314 to 1.2355, respectively. In the early period of economic reform (1978 to 1988), with the rapid industrial growth in Guizhou province, the acid soluble Pb isotope ratios in the lake sediments changed sharply: the 208Pb/206Pb ratios increased from 2.0212 to about 2.05, while the 206Pb/207Pb ratios decreased from 1.2251 to 1.2060. Emissions from Pb-ore-related industries are suggested to be the major pollution source of Pb in this period. Due to output from a local power plant since 1988, the isotope ratios of the acid soluble Pb in sediments in 1990s are characterized by a little higher radiogenic Pb (208Pb/206Pb = 2.0340-2.0400; 206Pb/207Pb = 1.2122-1.2158) than for the 1980s.

  17. "Epidemic Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Ghanavat Rural District, Qom Province, Central Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Akhavan

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major was identified in Ghanavat rural district, Qom province, central Iran, during 1999-2001. Among 1069 inhabitants examined in Dec. 1999, 5.14% showed evidence of active lesions and 12.44% had scar indicative of past infection. The most highly infected age group was 5-9 years old for ulcers with a rate of 6.56%. The incidence of the disease was calculated as 2.7% and 1.4% in 2000 and 2001 respectively. Meriones libycus (66.7%, Nesokia indica (27.3% and Hemechinus aurithis (6% were present around the district. No leishmanial infection was seen in the slides. Meriones libycus is the probable reservoir host of the disease in the area. Sixteen dogs appeared to be uninfected because examination showed no active lesion or scar. Most probably Phlebotomus papatasi is the vector because 81.53% of indoor sand flies were of this species. The active season of P.papatasi was from late April to early October in indoors. The occurrence of this outbreak of ZCL in the district seems to be the result of construction of buildings near colonies of rodents and also traveling to other infected foci of Iran.

  18. Landscape Effects of Land Consolidation Projects in Central China——A Case Study of Tianmen City, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaokun; DAI Bing; CHEN Baiming

    2008-01-01

    The goal of land consolidation in China is still to develop agricultural production. The study of landscapeeffects of land consolidation projects (LCPs) faces many difficulties because of the lack of government's interest anddata. This paper, taking Tianmen City of Hubei Province in Central China as an example, presents a methodology foranalyzing landscape effects of LCPs by GIS and Fragstats3.3. It describes landscape effects with indexes of PatchDensity (PD), Largest Patch Index (LPI), Landscape Shape Index (LSI), Interspersion and Juxtaposition Index (IJI),Aggregation Index (AI), and Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI), showing more regular shape, simpler structure andless habitat diversity after LCPs. It computes ten landscape indexes of four categories of patches including CultivatedLand, Road, Water Channel, and River and Pond. The indexes show that 1) cultivated land becomes more fragmentalin patch area, less irregular in patch shape and more concentrated in block; 2) the transport capacity of roads and irri-gation and drainage capacity of water channels have been improved; 3) the landscape change of river and pond can besummarized as decreasing scale, more regular shape, reducing connectivity and diversity of the class. LCPs can facili-tate agricultural production as well as protect cultivated land and food security. However, it is doubted that the increaseof cultivated land from LCPs results from the reducing in landscape diversity of water area.

  19. The Central Metasedimentary Belt (Grenville Province) as a failed back-arc rift zone: Nd isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, A. P.; McNutt, R. H.

    2007-07-01

    Nd isotope data are presented for granitoid orthogneisses from the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) of the Grenville Province in order to map the extent of juvenile Grenvillian-age crust within this orogenic belt that is composed mostly of older crustal terranes. The data reveal a 150 km-wide belt of juvenile crust in Ontario, but this belt contains a block of pre-Grenvillian crust (containing the Elzevir pluton) which yields an estimated crustal formation age of 1.5 Ga. The recognition of an older block within the CMB has profound implications for its structure and tectonic evolution, because it implies that juvenile Grenvillian crust, apparently forming a wide NE-SW belt, is in fact distributed in two narrower segments with approximately N-S strike. We suggest that the CMB comprises an en echelon series of ensimatic rift segments, created by back-arc spreading behind a continental margin arc. These rift segments extend southwards (in the subsurface) into the northeastern Unites States. The rift segments contain abundant marble outcrops, consistent with marine incursion into the rift zone, and these deposits also continue northwards into a 'Marble domain' of the CMB in Quebec. However, crustal formation ages in the latter domain are largely pre-Grenvillian, implying that the Quebec rift segment was ensialic. Hence, we interpret the CMB in Ontario and Quebec as the northern termination of a failed back-arc rift zone.

  20. Roles of Neighborhood Group to Promote Participatory Development in Indonesia: Case of Three Villages in Purbalingga District, Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiyo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood Group (Rukun Tetangga/RT, an association of fifties households living in the same areas, is expected to promote participatory development in Indonesian decentralization. This study aims to analyze whether it could promote participatory development. To do so, a case study was conducted in three villages, namely Kedarpan, Serang and Sumilir, in Purbalingga district of Central Java province. Totally 240 household heads in 24RTs were randomly selected to be the respondents. Data were analyzed through qualitative and quantitative techniques. Three main findings emerge from this study. Firstly, community involvement was pseudo participation emphasizing more on resource mobilization but less in generating idea and controlling the government. Secondly, capacity of RTheads was good enough in term of informativeness, encouragement, fairness, creativity, responsiveness and submission to consensus, but slightly poor in term of accountability. Thirdly, RT was not able to empower community, so community understanding to decentralization terms, development programs and village governance was generally poor. Although some potentialities were found,it can be generally concluded thatRT is not completely successful in promoting participatory development.Complexities of institutional problems, whichinclude weak capacity, trouble in technical regulations and lack of support from government, are among the factors hampering RT to play its role. Thus, hand in hand with capacity development ofRThead, the government is supposed to establish regulations supporting the empowerment of RT, and involving other rural institutions to help performing the roles that still cannot be played by RT.

  1. Addressing the concerns of rural communities about access to plants and knowledge in a sui generis legislation in Cameroon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marcelin Tonye Mahop

    2004-12-01

    This article assesses the traditional systems of accessing and using plant genetic resources as well as the benefit sharing and systems of sanctioning infringement in the context of biodiversity related activities in specific areas in the Northwest province of Cameroon. The article also addresses the type research and development activities using plant genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in the context of Cameroon, the current laws regulating such activities and the extent to which these activities and laws affect and/or protect the customary biodiversity rights of rural communities. The article uses these assessments to suggest the context under which a sui generis legislation for the protection of the biodiversity rights of rural communities can be established in Cameroon.

  2. Ethnopharmacobotanical remarks on the province of Chieti town (Abruzzo, central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporatti, M L; Corradi, L

    2001-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the year 1997-1998, in the neighbourhood of the town of Chieti in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy). The information recorded in this paper has been collected by interviewing people born in the area, or who have lived there for many years, and whose knowledge of the medicinal or domestic use of plants represents a personal patrimony uninfluenced by other sources. About 80 species claimed as medicinal (not only in human therapy but also, for example, in veterinary use) and belonging to 43 families are recorded; only the use of the plants identified with certainty is reported. The study pointed out that the heritage of medicinal popular use of such plants, in spite of pharmaceutical technology, is still alive, not only in the memory of the elders and farmers, and that nowadays home-made remedies for simple diseases are still often used: Moreover, the uses of these plants are not only limited to therapeutic purposes, but also extend to domestic and surviving craft activities. PMID:11137345

  3. Geothermal prospecting by geochemical methods in the Quaternary volcanic province of Dhamar (central Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minissale, Angelo; Vaselli, Orlando; Mattash, Mohamed; Montegrossi, Giordano; Tassi, Franco; Ad-Dukhain, Abdulsalam; Kalberkamp, Ulrich; Al-Sabri, Ali; Al-Kohlani, Taha

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with geothermal prospecting carried out in the Quaternary volcanic field of Dhamar, which is located almost in the centre of the main Oligo-Miocene basaltic trap plateau of Yemen. By applying geochemical and thermometric techniques in domestic wells producing water from the shallow unconfined aquifer in the area, which is prevalently hosted inside the Quaternary volcano-clastic material, a closed thermal anomaly associated with the Quaternary volcanic activity was well delineated. Although the aquifer(s) has a Ca-Na-HCO3 composition, that is typical of shallow groundwater, there are several chemical anomalies in the hotter central area compared to typical aquifers: i) the pH is lower and, consequently, the calculated partial pressure of CO2 in solution is higher, ii) the electrical conductivity is higher, iii) the total salinity is higher and iv) the fluoride ion concentration is higher. Such chemical anomalies in the hotter part of the aquifer do not seem to be generated by the rising and/or mixing of deep hydrothermal components rising into the shallow aquifer, but rather produced by enhanced water-rock interaction processes resulting from the higher temperature of the aquifer and its greater acidity. By applying some speculative calculations, based on the likely temperature of rainfall in the area and the depth and temperature of individual wells, the local thermal gradients in the area have been calculated. The thermal gradient varies from less than the average Earth gradient at the periphery of the delimitated thermal anomaly, to more than 250 °C/km, within an extensive area (exceeding 200 km2) where the gradient is greater than 100/120 °C/km.

  4. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools.

  5. Geometries of doleritic intrusions in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard: an integrated study of an onshore-offshore magmatic province with implications for CO2 sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Senger, Kim; Roy, Srikumar; Braathen, Alvar; Buckley, Simon John; Bælum, Karoline; Gernigon, Laurent; Mjelde, Rolf; Noormets, Riko; Ogata, Kei; Olaussen, Snorre; Planke, Sverre; Ruud, Bent Ole; Tveranger, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Igneous intrusions emplaced during the Early Cretaceous are well exposed in central Spitsbergen within the Permian–Jurassic sedimentary succession. The doleritic intrusions are collectively classified as the Diabasodden Suite, and form part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. Though relatively easily accessible and very well exposed in places, the Diabasodden Suite dolerites remain underexplored and their prevalent geometry is particularly poorly understood. In this contribution ...

  6. A survey study on hantavirus, cowpox virus, and Leptospira infections in Microtus hartingi in Kırşehir Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AZKUR, Ahmet Kürşat; Kaygusuz, Sedat; ASLAN, Muhammet Eren

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether hantaviruses, cowpox viruses, or Leptospira infections were prevalent in Microtus hartingi trapped in Kırşehir Province, located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Leptospira spp. was detected in 20 of the 43 (46.5%) Microtus hartingi kidney samples and confirmed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Five of the 20 Leptospira spp. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced, analyzed, and confirmed as Leptospira spp. This...

  7. Regional geologic characteristics of uranium ores and assessment of metallogenetic potentials in the central part of Eastern Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional geologic characteristics, metallogenetic conditions and prospects of uranium ores in the central part of the Eastern Liaoning Province of North China is studied systematically. It demonstrates that the Archaean basement of the study area consists of a special type of granite-greenstone belts in China. It is called the granite-greenstone belts of the Liaoning-model, in which the granitic rocks are mainly migmatitic granite and granite-gneiss of migmatitic genesis. The greenstone belts in this area have undergone strong metamorphism. Large amounts of Precambrian geochronological studies have been made with U-Pb isotopic method on zircon; and a new Precambrian geologic time scale has been established. It is also proved that multistage activation of the Early Precambrian basement and the proto-platform took place in Early Proterozoic. Emphases are laid on uranium and thorium abundances and their variations as well as primary uranium contents of rocks in the granite-greenstone terrain and those of the Lower Proterozoic. At the same time, uraninite as accessory mineral in granitic rocks is found to exist more or less. Early Precambrian strata and many kinds of mineral deposits occurring in the strata are in origin chiefly of syngenetic hot brine sedimentation and of submarine extrusive gas-hydrothermal sedimentation superimposed by metamorphism. Metallogenetic features and models of various types of uranium deposits are studied emphatically and compared with similar large deposits abroad. In addition, overall synthetical appraisals are made for this area; and on this basis, prospecting directions and favourable sections of uranium metallization are suggested. (4 refs., 4 tabs.)

  8. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  9. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Asan Vernyuy Wirba

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational lea...

  10. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  11. Prediction of groundwater flowing well zone at An-Najif Province, central Iraq using evidential belief functions model and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater flowing well zone potential in An-Najif Province of Iraq in a data-driven evidential belief function model developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. An inventory map of 68 groundwater flowing wells was prepared through field survey. Seventy percent or 43 wells were used for training the evidential belief functions model and the reset 30 % or 19 wells were used for validation of the model. Seven groundwater conditioning factors mostly derived from RS were used, namely elevation, slope angle, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, lithological units, and distance to the Euphrates River in this study. The relationship between training flowing well locations and the conditioning factors were investigated using evidential belief functions technique in a GIS environment. The integrated belief values were classified into five categories using natural break classification scheme to predict spatial zoning of groundwater flowing well, namely very low (0.17-0.34), low (0.34-0.46), moderate (0.46-0.58), high (0.58-0.80), and very high (0.80-0.99). The results show that very low and low zones cover 72 % (19,282 km(2)) of the study area mostly clustered in the central part, the moderate zone concentrated in the west part covers 13 % (3481 km(2)), and the high and very high zones extended over the northern part cover 15 % (3977 km(2)) of the study area. The vast spatial extension of very low and low zones indicates that groundwater flowing wells potential in the study area is low. The performance of the evidential belief functions spatial model was validated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A success rate of 0.95 and a prediction rate of 0.94 were estimated from the area under relative operating characteristics curves, which indicate that the developed model has excellent capability to predict groundwater flowing well zones. The produced map of groundwater

  12. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  13. Geochemical Features of Shale Hydrocarbons of the Central Part of Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Fidania F.; Pronin, Nikita V.; Plotnikova, Irina N.; Nosova, Julia G.

    2014-05-01

    This report contains the results of the studies of shale hydrocarbons from carbonate-siliceous rocks on the territory of South-Tatar arch of Volga-Ural oil and gas province of the East European Platform. The assessment of the prospects of shale hydrocarbon in Tatarstan primarily involves finding of low permeable, poor-porous shale strata that would be rich in organic matter. Basing on the analysis of the geological structure of the sedimentary cover, we can distinguish three main objects that can be considered as promising targets for the study from the point of the possible presence of shale hydrocarbons: sedimentary deposits Riphean- Vendian; Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time; sedimentary strata in central and side areas of Kama-Kinel deflection system. The main object of this study is Domanicoid high-carbon rocks of Devonian time. They are mainly represented by dark gray, almost black bituminous limestones that are interbedded with calcareous siliceous shales and cherts. Complex studies include the following: extraction of bitumen from the rock, determination of organic carbon content, determination of the group and elemental composition of the bitumen, gas chromatographic studies of the alkanoic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, gas chromato-mass spectrometry of the naphthenic lube fractions of bitumoid and oil, pyrolysis studies of the rock using the Rock -Eval method (before and after extraction), study of trace-element composition of the rocks and petrologen, comparison in terms of adsorbed gas and studying of the composition of adsorbed gases. Group and elemental analyses showed that hydrocarbons scattered in the samples contain mainly resinous- and asphaltene components, the share lube fraction is smaller. The terms sediment genesis changed from weakly to strongly reducing. According to the results of gas chromatography, no biodegradation processes were observed. According to biomarker indicators in the samples studied there is some certain

  14. 福建省旅游中心城市体系建设%A Study on the System of Tourism Central Place in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林爱平

    2011-01-01

    旅游中心城市作为区域旅游的目的地、管理中心、旅游交通中心、旅游服务中心,对区域旅游发展有着重要作用。研究福建省旅游的空间结构,构建福建省旅游中心城市体系,是推动福建省旅游业进一步发展的要求。福建省旅游中心地体系的构建建立在旅游中心地理论的基础上,强化一级旅游中心城市的中心职能,完善旅游区内的交通联系等都可作为旅游中心地体系的优化措施。%Tourism central place plays an important role in the development of regional tourism as the main tourism destination,management centre,tourism traffic center and tourism service center.It is necessary for the further development of Fujian Province's tourism to study the spatial structure and build the system of tourism central place in Fujian Province.On the base of tourism central place theory,the system of tourism central place is built in Fujian Province.Strengthen the central function of Tier one tourist center city,improving transport links in tourism region,and so on,can be the optimized measures of the system of tourism central place.

  15. Late Palaeozoic magmatism in the northern New England Orogen - evidence from U-Pb SHRIMP dating in the Yarrol and Connors provinces, central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The northern part of the New England Orogen in central Queensland has been divided into three provinces, which are from east to west, the Wandilla, Yarrol and Connors Provinces. Previous workers suggested that the provinces are elements in an Early Carboniferous west-dipping subduction system with the Wandilla Province representing the accretionary wedge, the Yarrol Province a forearc basin and the Connors Province the volcanic arc. Farther west, a fourth province, the Drummond Basin, is interpreted as a back-arc basin. The Connors Province crops out in two areas, the Auburn Arch in the south and Connors Arch in the north. Prior to the present study, some workers recognised two superimposed volcanic arcs, one in the Late Devonian and a second in the Early Permian. Other workers have challenged this model suggesting that the rocks in the Connors Province were mainly Late Carboniferous to Early Permian and that they recorded a period of continental extension. U-Pb SHRIMP dating in the Connors Province has confirmed the existence of at least episodic Early Carboniferous magmatism from the Tournaisian to Namurian in both the Auburn and Connors Arches. We suggest that the Tournaisian rocks are vestiges of the Early Carboniferous volcanic arc suggested by earlier workers. Ages of ∼350Ma and ∼349Ma in the Connors Province are similar to ages for volcanics in Cycle 1 in the Drummond Basin and to volcanics in the lower part of the Rockhampton Group in the Yarrol Province. Magmatism in the Drummond Basin and Yarrol Province continued into the Visean although no early Visean rocks have yet been recognised in the Connors Province. The mid-Carboniferous (late Visean) may represent an important change in the evolution of the region. East of the Auburn Arch, in the Yarrol Province, this time corresponds to the boundary between the Rockhampton Group and Lorray Formation, and is marked by a sudden increase in regional radiometric response. It represents the start of

  16. A study on the effective factors of mortalities with unknown causes among one month old infants of Tehran and Central provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Moshkani Z

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the net effect of birth type (one or more children), the number of previous dead children, the mother tongue, mother's age at infant birth, number of deliveries, consanguineous marriages, and the father's education on the mortality of one-month-old infants in families of residents of Tehran and the Central Province is studied. The data referred to in this study was taken from a survey conducted by the Department of Vital Statistics in 1991. Applying multiple logistic r...

  17. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  18. Country programme review Republic of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-disciplinary country programme review and programming mission was undertaken to the Republic of Cameroon, from 21 to 25 June 1993. This report reflects the findings and recommendations of the mission and falls into four sections. The first section describes the country profile and includes information about its economy and its development plans and policies. The second reviews the Agency's past and present technical co-operation programmes in Cameroon. The third section deals with a sectoral programme and institutional review, and the fourth section presents possible future technical co-operation activities

  19. Ethnomédecine vétérinaire et pharmacopée traditionnelle dans le plateau central du Burkina Faso : cas de la province du Passoré

    OpenAIRE

    Yaméogo SM.; Kaboré H.; Tamboura H.

    1998-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary medicine and indigenous pharmacopeia in central region of Burkina Faso: case of Passoré province.In Passoré province of Burkina Faso, a study on traditional animal health care practices has been carried out with 62traditional practitioners. 114 questionnaires were completed and the results analysed and synthesized. Analysis of collecteddata led to the characterization of 24 diseases, together with their local names, causes of their appearance, and theepizootiological evolution...

  20. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  1. The Reception of American Literature in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djockoua, Manyaka Toko

    2014-01-01

    In Cameroon, popular belief associates American literature with its country's economic and political greatness. Yet, if millions of Cameroonians show a growing enthusiasm for a visit to the US, just a few are interested in learning its literature. Using theories on the reading and teaching of literature, statistical data based on a questionnaire,…

  2. Tectonic evolution of the Tombel graben basement, southwestern Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Njome; C.E.Suh

    2005-01-01

    Planar structures (foliations and fractures) around the Tombel graben (southwestern end of the Central African Shear zone system) have been investigated and analyzed with the aim of unraveling the tectonic evolution of the basement. The foliations show two major trends, an older N-S-trending gneissose layering of uncertain agereworked by a later Pan-African (600 + 50 Ma) NE-SW ductile trend that is contemporaneous with sinistral shearing and mylonitization. The brittle phase characterized by NW-SE-trending open and partially filled fractures is younger than the mylonitization event and although it has not been dated, it is suggested that the origin of these fractures is linked to the onset of volcanism along the Cameroon volcanic line-31 m.y. ago.The mylonitic foliation is recognized for the first time and supports a tectonic evolution model for the Tombel graben in which ductile non-coaxial deformation was succeeded by brittle failure.

  3. Factors associated with four or more antenatal care services among pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey in eight South Central Coast provinces of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha BTT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bui TT Ha,1 Pham V Tac,2 Duong M Duc,1,3 Doan TT Duong,1 Le M Thi1 1Department of Reproductive Health, Hanoi School of Public Health, 2Department of Personnel and Organization, Ministry of Health, Ba Dinh, Ha Noi, Vietnam; 3International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: In Vietnam, four or more antenatal care (ANC4+ visits/services among pregnant women have not been officially reported in the health system. Moreover, the factors associated with the use of ANC4+ services have not been studied in previous studies. In this study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to identify the rate of utilization of ANC4+ services and factors associated with use of ANC4+ services among pregnant women in rural areas of Vietnam.Methods: The study was conducted in eight provinces in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam between August 2013 and May 2014. A total of 907 women, who delivered in the past 1 year, participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association between all potential factors and utilization of ANC4+ services.Results: The rate of utilization of ANC4+ services by women in eight South Central Coast provinces was 53.9%. Factors negatively associated with using ANC4+ services were belonging to ethnic minority groups having lower education, doing informal works, having lower income, having lower knowledge on ANC4+ services, and receiving no financial support from the husband. In particular, financial support from the husband was considered important in improving the use of ANC4+ services by women in rural areas.Conclusion: The study asserted an inadequacy for ANC4+ utilization and can contribute to missed opportunities to achieve better maternal outcomes for women in rural areas of Vietnam. The necessity of introducing ANC4+ services in the national guidelines on maternal health care should be disseminated

  4. Controls on mineralisation in the Sierra Foothills gold province, central California, USA: A GIS-based reconnaissance prospectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlein, F.P.; Northover, H.J.; Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of spatial relationships between the location, abundance and size of orogenic-gold deposits in the highly endowed Sierra Foothills gold province in California, via the combination of field studies and a GIS-based analysis, illustrates the power of such an approach to the characterisation of important parameters of mineral systems, and the prediction of districts likely to host economic mineralisation. Regional- to deposit-scale reconnaissance mapping suggests that deposition of gold-bearing quartz veins occurred in second- and third-order, east-over-west thrusts during regional east - west compression and right-lateral transpression. At the district-scale, significant zones of mineralisation correspond with such transpressional reactivation zones and dilational jogs that developed during the Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous along the misaligned segments of first-order faults throughout the Sierra Nevada Foothills Metamorphic Belt. Field-based observations and interpretation of GIS data (including solid geology, structural elements, deposit locations, magnetics, gravity) also highlight the importance of structural permeability contrasts, rheological gradients, and variations in fault orientation for localising mineralisation. Although this approach confirms empirical findings and produces promising results at the province scale, enhanced geological, structural, geophysical and geochronological data density is required to generate regionally consistent, high-quality input layers that improve predictive targeting at the goldfield to deposit-scale.

  5. Utilization of research reactor to the environmental application in Thailand. Air quality study in Saraburi Province, central Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraburi Province is facing difficulties due to high dust generating Industries which is the major economy of the area. Thus, the elemental composition of SPMs in Tumbon Na Phra Lan, Saraburi Province is being monitored. The samples were collected in each quarter from May 2005 to March 2006. Soil as well as fine particles from stacks of some selected manufacturers were also analyzed. The average weight of SPM was found lowest in wet season and highest in the middle of dry season. The average weight of SPM is also high in dry season and low in wet season. The elements found in the samples are Na, Mg, Al, As, Sr, Br, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn. Calcium is selected as the key elements since most postulated source of pollution is due industrial utilization of the limestone deposit. It is observed that the fine partials form stack are quite low which mean an effective emission control of fine particles form the selected manufacturers. The data is being utilized by the Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the environmental authority in Thailand. The authority will use this data to find possible solution for air quality improvement of the area. Future collaboration with environmental authority will be on the study of Thalenoi conservation area in the southern part of Thailand. (author)

  6. Marketing of Accommodation services : Case-Hotel Azam Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Youkam, Germaine

    2012-01-01

    Cameroon is Africa in miniature with a lot of tourist attractions owing to its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. Accommodation services have been a grand phenomenon within the tourism industry in Cameroon. The accommodation sector has developed tremendously within the past decades. The objective of this research work was to find about out the marketing of accommodation services in Cameroon with Hotel Azam as...

  7. Ambient noise tomography of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and Northern Congo craton: new constraints on the structure of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidarelli, M.; Aoudia, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the lithospheric structure of Cameroon inverting Rayleigh waves obtained from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise. We correlate seismic records between 32 broad-band stations and we obtain good quality Rayleigh waves for 310 interstation paths. We measure group velocity dispersion curves from the reconstructed Rayleigh waves in the period range 10-35 s and we invert the group velocities for tomographic images. After the tomography the group velocities are then inverted, together with longer period group velocity measurements from existing literature, to compute a 3-D S-wave velocity model of the Cameroon lithosphere down to 100 km depth. Our results provide an unprecedented mapping of the physical properties of the different crustal units and their correlations with surface geology, as well as with mantle lithospheric variations. The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) appears as a segmented feature exhibiting different physical properties along strike. The active Mt Cameroon volcano is underlain by very low velocities, unlike the other segments of the CVL. The along-strike variations in crustal structure suggest that lateral heterogeneities in lithospheric thickness and physical properties have influenced the location and distribution of magmatism. The crust beneath the Central African Shear Zone exhibits a sizeable low velocity anomaly. The lithosphere beneath Cameroon is characterised by a heterogeneous crust with a relatively constant thickness and a low velocity uppermost mantle at the edge of the Congo Craton. Our results favour processes combining small-scale upwelling at the edge of a thick lithosphere and reactivation of Precambrian basement structures to explain the distribution of Holocene-Recent magmatism and plateau uplift. Our results also indicate that Mt Cameroon and surroundings areas are the most at risk zones for magmatic activity during this stage of CVL development.

  8. Earthquake event deposits in Mesoproterozoic Kunyang Group in central Yunnan Province and its geological impli-cations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Yuansheng

    2001-01-01

    [1]Liu, T. S., Loess and the Environment, Beijing: China Ocean Press, 1985, 1-251.[2]Chen, L. X., Zhu, Q. G., Luo, H. B. et al., East Asian Monsoon, Beijing: China Meteorology Press, 1991, 28-61.[3]An, Z. S., Liu, T. S., Lu, Y. C. et al., The long-term palaeomonsoon variation recorded by the loess-palaeosol sequence in central China, Quaternary International, 1990, (7/8): 91-95.[4]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., Fedoroff, N. et al., Shift of the monsoon intensity on the Loess Plateau at ca. 0.85 MaBP, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1993, 38(2): 586-591.[5]Chen, J., An, Z. S., Wang, Y. J. et al., Distributions of Rb and Sr in the Luochuan loess-paleosol sequence of China during the last 800 ka: Implications for paleomonsoon variations, Science in China, Ser. D, 1999, 42(3): 225-232.[6]Chen, J., Wang, Y. J., Ji, J. F. et al., Rb/Sr variations and its climatic stratigraphical significance of a loess-paleosol profile from Luochuan, Shaanxi Province, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 19(4): 350-356.[7]Guo, Z. T.,Liu, T. S., Fedoroff, N. et al., Climate extremes in loess of China coupled with the strength of deep-water for-mation in the North Atlantic, Global and Planetary Change, 1998, 18: 113-128.[8]Guo, Z. T., Liu, T. S., An, Z. S., Paleosols of the last 0.15 Ma in the Weinan loess section and their paleoclimate signifi-cance, Quaternary Sciences (in Chinese), 1994, 14(3): 256-269.[9]Guo, Z, T,, Fedoroff, N., Liu, T. S., Micromorphology of the loess-paleosol sequence of the last 130 ka in China and pa-leoclimatic event, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. D, 1996, 26(3): 392-398.[10]Guo, Z., Liu, T., Guiot, J., et al., High frequency pulses of East Asian monsoon climate in the last two glaciations: Link with the North Atlantic, Climate Dynamics, 1996, 12: 701-709.[11]Guo, Z. T., Peng, S. Z., Wei, L. Y. et al., Weathering signals of Millennial-Scale oscillations of the East Asian Summer monsoon over the last 220 ka, Chinese Science

  9. 3D seismic interpretation of subsurface eruptive centers in a Permian large igneous province, Tazhong Uplift, central Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiangfeng; Zhu, Wenbin; Guan, Da; Zhu, Beibei; Yuan, Liansheng; Xiang, Xuemei; Su, Jinbao; He, Jingwen; Wu, Xinhui

    2015-12-01

    A 1445-km2 high-resolution 3D seismic reflection dataset is used to analyze the Permian large igneous province in the subsurface of the Tazhong area in the central Tarim Basin in northwestern China. Constrained by the synthetic seismograms of four wells, the top and base of the igneous rocks were identified in the seismic data. Seven large volcanic craters, each >10 km2 in area, have been discovered via the application of coherency and amplitude attributes. The thickness and volume of the igneous rocks were obtained by time-depth transformation. In the study area, all of the igneous rocks, with thicknesses from 120 to 1133 m, were formed by eruptions in the Early Permian. These events produced huge erupted volumes (178 km3) and multiple closely spaced volcanic edifices (eruptive center of the Permian igneous rocks in the Tarim Basin.

  10. K-Ar and Rb-Sr minerals ages of skarns and associated metabasites and leptites in the Hjulsjoe area of the Bergslagen ore province, central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, A.C.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Boelrijk, N.A.I.M.; Hebeda, E.H.; Priem, H.N.A.; Verdurmen, E.A.T.; Verschure, R.H. (Z.W.O. Laboratorium voor Isotopen-Geologie, De Boelaan (Netherlands)); Oen, I.S. (Universiteit van Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Wiklander, U. (Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1982-10-25

    K-Ar analyses of 20 hornblendes from skarns and associated metabasites in the Hjulsjoe area of the Bergslagen ore province, central Sweden, define an age of 1.83+-0.05 Ga. This age is interpreted in terms of the geological relationships as signalling a period of skarn-formation and metamorphism along with episodes of shearing and basic dike intrusion. Following the hypothesis that the skarn ores were formed by sea-floor hydrothermal metamorphism, this age should also be attributed to the deposition of the enclosing volcano-sedimentary leptite-haelleflinta sequence and the injection and extrusion of basic magma. Analyses of 13 biotites from the skarns and enclosing metavolcanic leptites produce K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of 1.69+-0.05 Ga and 1.65+-0.04 Ga, respectively; these are related to an episode of mild crustal heating associated with nearby post-orogenic granite intrusion dated at 1.70 Ga.

  11. 57 Factors Affecting Farmers` Higher Gain from Paddy Marketing: A Case Study on Paddy Farmers in North Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RH Kuruppuge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focused to identify the likelihood factors affectingon farmers’ higher gain from paddy marketing in the NorthCentral Province of Sri Lanka, where the main paddy cultivationarea of the country. The required data was drawn from the fieldsurvey carried out in three irrigation systems covering 257farmers during July to August 2010. The empirical logit modelwas used to assess factors. The study found that imperfectionsof existing paddy marketing system in the area due to concentratedmarket power among few oligopolistic buyers. Furthermore,land size, land ownership, poor accessibility in formal sectorcredit market and farmers involvement in informal sectorcredit sources are critical to farmers’ decisions to gain higherreturns from paddy marketing. The results further showed theneed of reviewing the roles and functions of governmentextension services and farmer organizations with regard to thepaddy marketing.

  12. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of the April to September mean temperature since 1826 AD for north-central Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI QiuFang; LIU Yu; SONG HuiMing; SUN JunYan

    2008-01-01

    Long-time series of high-resolution temperature record from Chinese Loess Plateau is rare. An April-September mean temperature reconstruction (1826-2004) has been developed for the north-central Shaanxi Province, China, based on tree-ring width analysis. The reconstruction captures 39.3% (p<0.001) of the variance in the instrumental data over the calibration period from 1951 to 2002.The reconstruction shows a high temperature period of 1928-1933, which coincides with the timing of the extreme drought event in 1920s in the entire northern China. The two low temperature periods in reconstruction are 1883-1888 and 1938-1942. With the global warming, the April-September mean temperature in study area has also increased since the 1970s, but has not exceeded the temperature in 1928-1933. Besides the statistical analysis, the reconstruction is also verified by the local dryness/wetness index and other dendroclimatological results.

  13. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of the April to September mean temperature since 1826 AD for north-central Shaanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Long-time series of high-resolution temperature record from Chinese Loess Plateau is rare. An April-September mean temperature reconstruction (1826-2004) has been developed for the north-central Shaanxi Province, China, based on tree-ring width analysis. The reconstruction captures 39.3% (p<0.001) of the variance in the instrumental data over the calibration period from 1951 to 2002. The reconstruction shows a high temperature period of 1928-1933, which coincides with the timing of the extreme drought event in 1920s in the entire northern China. The two low temperature periods in reconstruction are 1883-1888 and 1938-1942. With the global warming, the April-September mean temperature in study area has also increased since the 1970s, but has not exceeded the temperature in 1928-1933. Besides the statistical analysis, the reconstruction is also verified by the local dryness/wetness index and other dendroclimatological results.

  14. IMPACT OF EXPORT HORTICULTURE FARMING ON PER CAPITA CALORIE INTAKE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL PROVINCES IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Wambui Chege

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In attempting to achieve household food security for smallholder farmers, synergies and tradeoffs exist between cash cropping, food cropping and food security. Available evidence on the impact of cash cropping on food security shows mixed results. The objective of this paper was to assess the impact of export horticulture farming on food security of smallholder farmers in Kenya in two provinces in different agro-ecological zones with different resource and infrastructural endowments, crop growing and marketing conditions. This was done using propensity score matching. The results indicate a positive impact on food security in high potential area and a negative impact in the arid area that is already food deficit. Encouraging export horticulture or cash cropping, aiming at achieving household food security, may not be a one size fit all. Regional differences and particular growing and marketing conditions as well as intra household income distribution patterns play a role and should be considered.

  15. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  16. Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zac Tchoundjeu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest], in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%. Eighty nine and 85% did so in periods of scarcity for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Seventeen and twenty-nine kernel preservation practices were recorded for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Most were based on continuous heating of the kernels or kernel by-products (cakes. The most commonly involved keeping the sun-dried kernels in a plastic bag on a bamboo rack hung above the fireplace in the kitchen. A 78% of interviews households reported preserving I. wombolu kernels for less than one year while 22% preserved it for more than one year with 1.9% for two years, the normal length of the off-season period for trees in the wild. Cakes wrapped with leaves and kept on a bamboo rack hung over the fireplace were reported by households in the East and South provinces to store Irvingia gabonensis longer (more than one year. Further studies on the utilization of heat for preserving and canning bush mango kernels are recommended.

  17. The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Molua, Ernest L.; Lambi, Cornelius M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of climate change on crop farming in Cameroon. The country's economy is predominantly agrarian and agriculture and the exploitation of natural resources remain the driving force for the country's economic development. Fluctuations in national income are due not merely to the decline in world demand for Cameroon's traditional agricultural exports or to mistake...

  18. State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, K.; African Studies Centre, Leiden

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this analytical bibliography is to provide an overview of the recently published social science literature on State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon. The 800 entries have been arranged under the following subject headings: The Cameroon State (nation building, political

  19. Distribution and heterogeneity of hepatitis C genotypes in hepatitis patients in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Christophe; Njouom, Richard; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Dubois, Martine; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Vessière, Aurelia; Timba, Isabelle; Thonnon, Jocelyn; Izopet, Jacques; Nerrienet, Eric

    2005-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus infects humans world-wide. The virus genome varies greatly and it has several genotypes. HCV infection is highly prevalent in Central Africa and Cameroon. Initial studies on the genetic variability of HCV showed infection with HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 4. We have now sequenced the NS5b and E2 regions of 156 HCV isolates collected from patients presenting for diagnosis in Yaounde and used the data to describe the distribution of HCV genotypes and subtypes in patients with hepatitis in Cameroon. Genotype 1 was more frequent than Genotypes 4 and 2. Genotypes 1 and 4 were highly heterogeneous, containing many subtypes described previously (1b, 1c, 1e, 1h, 1l, 4f, 4t, 4p, 4k) and unsubtyped groups. There was a systematic phylogenetic concordance between NS5b and E2 sequence clustering. The Genotype 2 sequences did not vary. Neither subject age nor gender influenced HCV distribution. HCV Genotypes 1 and 4 are very heterogeneous in Cameroon, perhaps due to ancient infections. The homogeneity of HCV Genotype 2 indicates its more recent introduction from western Africa. PMID:16173014

  20. Analysis of 24 Y chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Chinese Han population sample from Henan Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meisen; Liu, Yaju; Zhang, Juntao; Bai, Rufeng; Lv, Xiaojiao; Ma, Shuhua

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed haplotypes for 24 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 17 Yfiler loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DY438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4) and 7 additional STRs (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS449, DYS522 and DYS527a/b) in 1100 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Henan Province using AGCU Y24 STR kit systems. The calculated average gene diversity (GD) values ranged from 0.4105 to 0.9647 for the DYS388 and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity (DC) was 72.91% with 802 observed haplotypes using 17 Yfiler loci, by the addition of 7 Y-STRs to the Yfiler system, the DC was increased to 79.09% while showing 870 observed haplotypes. Among the additional 7 Y-STRs, DYS449, DYS527a/b, DYS444 and DYS522 were major contributors to enhancing discrimination. In the analysis of molecular variance, the Henan Han population clustered with Han origin populations and showed significant differences from other Non-Han populations. In the present study, we report 24 Y-STR population data in Henan Han population, and we emphasize the need for adding additional markers to the commonly used 17 Yfiler loci to achieve more improved discriminatory capacity in a population with low genetic diversity. PMID:25864156

  1. Modeling the consequences on late Triassic environment of intense pulse-like degassing during the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province using the GEOCLIM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB is associated with one of the five largest mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic. A deep carbon cycle perturbation and a carbonate production crisis are observed during the late Triassic. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP, one of the most important large igneous provinces of the Phanerozoic, emplaced at the TJB. To understand the carbon cycle perturbations observed at the TJB, we investigate the consequences of CO2 degassing associated to the CAMP emplacement on atmospheric and oceanic carbon cycle. The CO2 input within the atmosphere due to volcanism has been modeled using a global biogeochemical cycle box model (COMBINE coupled with a climate model (FOAM. Weathering fluxes and CO2 equilibrium are constrained by the Rhaetian paleogeography and different scenarios of the CAMP emplacement are modeled. The study focuses (1 on the geological record and the carbonate productions crisis and (2 on the sedimentary carbon isotope record. For point (1, comparison of different modeling scenarios shows that a Gaussian CO2 emission distribution over the duration of the main activity phase of the CAMP fails in reproducing any of the geological observations, mainly the carbonate production crisis observed in the late Rhaetian sediments. Contrastingly, intense degassing peaks lead to successive decrease in carbonate production as observed in the geological record. For point (2, the perturbations of carbon cycle due to the degassing of CO2 with a mantellic carbon isotopic composition of −5‰ do not reproduce the intensity of the observed carbon isotope excursions. This was achieved in our model by assuming a mantellic carbon isotopic composition of −20‰. Even if this hypothesis requires further investigations, such low values may be associated to degassing of carbon from pools of light isotopic carbon located at the transition zone (Cartigny, 2010

  2. Study on the prevalence and the age at initial colonization of campylobacter in broiler flocks in central province of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campylobacter is considered one of the main causes of bacterial enteritis worldwide and poultry meat appears to act as a common source of infection (Vandeplas et al., 2008). In Sri Lanka, the available data to show the importance of campylobacter as a cause of diarrhoeal diseases is sparse and the involvement of poultry in relation to Campylobacter has not been identified. Therefore this study was carried out to investigate the association of campylobacter with broiler chicken. The Campylobacter isolation and identification procedure based on ISO standard was established and poultry meat samples collected from retail markets were tested. A considerable number of meat samples were contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter. As Campylobacter is a commensal in the chicken gut, though it is a pathogen to human, the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks was studied. Cloacal swabs collected at farms and caeca collected at slaughter in processing plants were analysed. Out of 59 samples collected from the Central Province 42 became positive for Campylobacter. The prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is 71%. High prevalence indicated the importance of controlling the pathogen but there was no data available on the ecology of the pathogen in Sri Lanka. Previous studies elsewhere have shown that factors like geographical location, seasonality, farming system, bio-security measures as the key factors influencing the host pathogen relationship. However, most data have been generated in nontropical countries with clear summer and winter seasons (Newell and Fearnley, 2003). The relative importance of these factors in Sri Lanka was questionable as it is a tropical country with no clear seasonality. To investigate the colonization of Campylobacter in broiler flocks twenty broiler flocks reared in two farms where different management practices in use, in the Central Province were monitored during one year. From each flock, cloacae swabs were collected from

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus typing from foot-and-mouth outbreaks in the central provinces of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 167 tissue samples were collected from Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infected animals from 57 FMD outbreaks to detect the sero-type of the FMD virus by the ELISA technique. The ELISA kit has been prepared and standardised by the World Reference Laboratory (WRL), UK and supplied under a Research Contract as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project. Eight tissue samples from cattle and one tissue sample from pig were sent to WRL for further study on the sero-type and to characterize the FMD viruses present in Viet Nam. The study was carried out from March 1996 to May 1998 in the central region of Viet Nam and the FMD type O virus was detected in these outbreaks only. The FMD type O virus from cattle and the FMD type O virus from pig are two distinct FMD type O viruses in Viet Nam. (author)

  4. Treatment failure in a typhoid patient infected with nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi with reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: a case report from Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asonganyi Etienne DN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins are the drugs of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. Treatment failure with fluoroquinolones has been reported in Asia and Europe. We report a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure in typhoid fever in Cameroon. Case presentation A 29-year-old female patient with suspected typhoid fever from Kumba, Cameroon, yielded growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood culture. The isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid but sensitive to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion test. However, the patient did not respond to treatment with ciprofloxacin, although the isolate was apparently susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion Treatment failure with ciprofloxacin in our case indicates the presence of nalidixic acid resistant S. enterica serovar Typhi (NARST with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cameroon (Central Africa.

  5. The Demarcation of Straddling Villages in Accordance with the International Court of Justice Jurisprudence: The Cameroon-Nigeria Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Oduntan, Gbenga

    2006-01-01

    The existence of straddling settlements between Cameroon and Nigeria is one of the features of their geographical location as neighbouring West African States. Although the existence of these settlements did not constitute a central part of the boundary dispute between both States, implementation of the recent World Court judgment presents crucial dilemmas as to the treatment of straddling communities in particular and, to some extent, boundary villages as well. This article explores the alte...

  6. Impacts of Type of Fallow and Invasion by Chromolaena odorata on Weed Communities in Crop Fields in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Morag McDonald; Martine Ngobo; Stephan Weise

    2004-01-01

    In the humid forest regions of southern Cameroon in central Africa, sectoral and macroeconomic policy reforms introduced in the late 1980s have led to intensified land use, which in turn has resulted in, among other environmental consequences, shortened fallow systems dominated by the Asteraceae shrub, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, rather than by secondary forest species. A trial was established to determine the effect of shortened fallow duration and invasion by C. odorata on t...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in Gentile di maiale, a smoked meat product typical of some mountain areas in Latina province (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carrabs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy. It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

  8. A study on the effective factors of mortalities with unknown causes among one month old infants of Tehran and Central provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkani Z

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the net effect of birth type (one or more children, the number of previous dead children, the mother tongue, mother's age at infant birth, number of deliveries, consanguineous marriages, and the father's education on the mortality of one-month-old infants in families of residents of Tehran and the Central Province is studied. The data referred to in this study was taken from a survey conducted by the Department of Vital Statistics in 1991. Applying multiple logistic regreession to analyze the data I removed the effect of a number of variables to conclude that the consanguineous marriage is significantly effective by itself and in interaction with the number of previous dead children. The odds ratio among consanguine parents for those who had one previous dead child to those without a previous dead child is 5.45. This ratio for non-consanguineous parents is 4.96. Thus the significant effect of consanguinity is proven.

  9. Carbon of Woody Debris in Plateau-type Karst Evergreen and Deciduous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest of Central Guizhou Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ni, J.; Liu, L.; Guo, C.

    2014-12-01

    Woody debris (WD) is an essential structural and functional component of forest ecosystems, and plays very significant roles for the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. Coarse woody debris (CWD) is considered to be the major part in forest WD and it is primarily composed of logs, snags, stumps and large branches, while fine woody debris (FWD) mainly consists of small twigs. Composition, spatial distribution and carbon storage of WD have been studied in plateau-type karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Tianlong Mountain of central Guizhou Province. Results showed that the carbon storage of WD in karst forests was less than non-karst forests. The major components of WD were fallen trees and snags with 10-20 cm in diameter. Fallen trees and snags with diameter greater than 20 cm were the smallest part of WD. The situation of WD in this region reflects the structural characteristics of WD in mid-late stage of plateau-type karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest succession. The potential contribution of WD to the regional carbon cycle, and its relationship with climate change were finally discussed. The WD (especially CWD) plays an important role in the carbon cycle of karst forest. Forest WD production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of CWD and FWD carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. Key words: woody debris, karst forests, carbon storage, spatial distribution, CWD, FWD.

  10. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods. PMID:25916575

  11. K-Ar and Rb-Sr minerals ages of skarns and associated metabasites and leptites in the Hjulsjoe area of the Bergslagen ore province, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K-Ar analyses of 20 hornblendes from skarns and associated metabasites in the Hjulsjoe area of the Bergslagen ore province, central Sweden, define an age of 1.83+-0.05 Ga. This age is interpreted in terms of the geological relationships as signalling a period of skarn-formation and metamorphism along with episodes of shearing and basic dike intrusion. Following the hypothesis that the skarn ores were formed by sea-floor hydrothermal metamorphism, this age should also be attributed to the deposition of the enclosing volcano-sedimentary leptite-haelleflinta sequence and the injection and extrusion of basic magma. Analyses of 13 biotites from the skarns and enclosing metavolcanic leptites produce K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages of 1.69+-0.05 Ga and 1.65+-0.04 Ga, respectively; these are related to an episode of mild crustal heating associated with nearby post-orogenic granite intrusion dated at 1.70 Ga. (Authors)

  12. Origin of acid orthoderived and paraderived geologic formations of the central part of the province of Limousin (France). A possible source for uraniferous leucogranite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important metamorphic formations of the central part of the province of Limousin are studied by chemical investigations for characterization of their primary signature. Four large orthoderived formations are compared: Dronne, Meuzac, and Thaurion arcs and leptynite formations. The typology of the parent magmatism of orthogneiss and leptynite allows to find leack most of plutonic associations known in the Variscan chain (subalkaline, calcoalkaline, aluminous). Interpretation of primary geochemical fractionation in rocks from the Dronne are suggests cogenetism of the whole facies following a fractionated crystallization process. Moreover rocks from the Dronne arc have a peraluminous character with high U and Th content related to subalkaline magmatism which make of them a potential source of uraniferous peraluminous leucogranites. Paraderived formations are represented by 3 mica schist formations and 2 gneiss formations. Each unit is individualized by geochemical study of mica schist. Gneiss formation are chemically distinct. These differences confirm that they belong to distinct lithologic units. Trace elements are used to precise the paleogeotectonic context of original sediment deposition

  13. Paleoproterozoic felsic volcanism of Iricoumé group, Erepecuru-Trombetas domain, Amazonian central province: Field and petrographic characterization and Pb-Pb zircon geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Travassos da Rosa Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iricoumé group consists of very well preserved pyroclastic and effusive volcanic rocks as a part of an extensive volcano-plutonic event, which marked the central part of the Amazonian craton during the Orosirian. Such rocks occur in the southern part of the southwestern of Erepecuru-Trombetas Domain (NW of the Pará state, south of the Guyana Shield. Petrographic study allows distinction of two volcanic types. A dominant explosive volcanism is characterized by pyroclastic rocks (ignimbrites, rheoignimbrites, lapilli-tuff related to surge deposit, and co-ignimbrite fall tuff while a subordinated effusive volcanism is represented by coherent lavas flows and hypabissal rocks (andesites, lamprophyres and latites. Most of the pyroclastic rocks exhibit features of deposition under high temperature suggesting formation in a caldera-related environment. Pb-Pb zircon ages of 1888 +-2.5 and 1889 +-2 Ma have been obtained for the formation of trachydacitic ignimbrites and confirm that the dominant volcanism is part of the Iricoumé group. The Pb-Pb zircon age of 1992 +-3 Ma yielded by an andesite points to the occurrence in the area of an older Orosirian magmatic episode, which has been previously recognized locally southward in the Tapajós domain. These new results constitute a further evidence of the wide extent of the Iricoum group and correlated volcanic rocks in the central part of the Amazonian craton, and reinforce the assumption that this volcanic episode and correlated magmatism may be considered as a silicic large igneous province (SLIP, as previously proposed by some authors.

  14. Unravelling carbonatite-silicate magma interaction dynamics: A case study from the Velay province (Massif Central, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Moore, Kathryn Ruth; Chazot, Gilles

    2010-04-01

    Mechanisms of interaction between a carbonatite magma and a silicate magma are inferred on the basis of the textural and geochemical features of a carbonate-bearing tuff from the Massif Central, characterized by the presence of carbonatite globules within a silicate glass matrix. A two-fluid dynamical model is proposed in order to constrain the formation of the carbonatite globules that underwent no geochemical re-equilibration with the trachyte magma due to rapid thermal re-equilibration and crystallization of dolomite. It is suggested that a viscous fingering instability occurred simultaneously with the injection of a carbonatite magma into a chamber filled with a more viscous trachytic magma. Instantaneous fragmentation of the fingers, induced by the action of gradient stresses, resulted in the formation of a magmatic emulsion. The replenishment event triggered immediate evacuation of the magma chamber such that interaction between the two magmas occurred over a short time scale and large-scale mixing was prevented. The exsolution of volatiles, perhaps as a consequence of the recharge event shortly before the eruption, drove a metasomatic event that produced the subtle chemical variations observed at the interface between carbonatite globules and silicate matrix.

  15. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

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    Michael Ashu Agbor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4±14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0% practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0% were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6% treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases.

  16. The Attitudes of Anglophone and Francophone Cameroonians towards Cameroon English as a Model of English Language Teaching and Learning in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…

  17. Seroepidemiology of Human Hydatidosis Using AgB-ELISA Test in Isfahan City and Suburb Areas, Isfahan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa ILBEIGI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to conduct a sero-epidemiological survey in Isfahan City and suburb areas, central Iran to detect the rate of human hydatidosis using ELISA test.Methods: Overall, 635 serum samples were collected from subjects referred to different health centers in urban and rural regions of the city. Sera were analyzed using Ag-B ELISA test. Ten μg/ml antigens, serum dilutions of 1:500 and conjugate anti-human coombs with 1:10000 dilutions were utilized to perform the test. All subjects filled out a questionnaire and an informed consent. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 18 software. Cut-off was calculated as X+3 SD.Results: Cut-off value was calculated 0.19. Seven cases (1.1% were seropositive for hydatidosis by ELISA test. The sero-prevalence of hydatidosis was 0.27% among females and 2.24% among males (P=0.019. Age group of 60-69 years old, with 2.59% as prevalence had the highest rate of positivity. There was no significant difference as regards age groups, job, residency, contact by dog and literacy. According to job, self-employed people had the highest rate of infection as 3.05%. The sero-prevalence of infection was 1.14% in diploma and 1.13% in illiterates. As regards residency, urban life (1.49% showed no significant difference with rural life.Conclusion: The rate of prevalence in this region showed that necessary cautions should be taken into account to monitor the spread of human hydatidosis in this region. In comparison with other studies, the rate of infection was roughly less than other regions. 

  18. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  19. Determining the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMPS)'s Role in the Increased Flux of CO2 in the end-Triassic Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P. S.; Bachan, A.; Stanford School of Earth Sciences Department of Paleobiology

    2011-12-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the largest flood basalt provinces known. Its empacement coincided with a period of major plant and animal extinctions-the end-Triassic mass extinction. It is postulated that the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from the volcanics was one of the causes of this mass extinction. However,the magnitude of impact on ocean chemistry, and timescales involved remain unclear. To determine CAMP's role in this increased flux of CO2, we studied the geochemistry of samples of rock from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in northern Italy. Specifically, by observing the ratios of carbon isotopes 12 and 13 in the organic carbon found in these limestone sedimentary rocks, we could determine the ratio of carbonate to organic burial fluxes globally. We drilled limestone rocks from two different sections in the Southern Alps-- Pozzo Glaciale and Val Adrara. Once they were drilled to a fine powder-like form, we acidified the CaCO3 with HCl to isolate the organic carbon. Then, the organic matter was cleaned to rid the acid, and eventually was placed into tin foil to be placed into the Elemental Analyzer, which determined the percent Carbon in each sample. We tested about 200 samples, and placed them into the Mass Spectrometer machine to determine the isotopic ratios of C12 and C13. According to the data, there was a positive excursion for both sample sets, which means that there was an increase in the amount of C13 in the organic matter. The duration of this excursion was at least a few hundred thousand years. This suggests a protracted increase in the burial flux of organic carbon globally, which is consistent with the hypothesized volcanically driven increase in CO2. This further bolsters the contention that CAMP was responsible, in part, for this mass extinction. By studying the earth's recovery from increased carbon fluxes in the past, we can predict the recovery path that our anthropogenically

  20. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  1. The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of grade 10 pupils in the Taung Central Circuit of Vryburg District in the North West Province of South Africa / Sibusiwe Ngoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoma, Sibusisiwe

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. The subjects were 10th grade male and female pupils in the Taung Central Education circuit in the Northwest Province of South Africa. All the eight secondary schools in the circuit participated in this study. The researcher administered a self-designed 5-point Likert type self-concept scale to a sample of 296 respondents, to measure of both general and academic self-conc...

  2. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  3. The Upper Miocene magmatism of the Island of Elba (Central Italy): compositional characteristics, petrogenesis and implications for the origin of the Tuscany Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Giampiero; Peccerillo, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Late Miocene intrusive magmatism of the Island of Elba, Tuscany (central Italy), consists of stocks, laccoliths, sills, and dikes showing dominant monzogranite and granodiorite compositions, with minor leucogranitic dike-sill complexes, aplites and pegmatites. A few mafic rocks occur as dikes, and as microgranular enclaves hosted inside the main intrusions. The Elba magmatism belongs to the Tuscan Magmatic Province, an 8.5 to 0.3 Ma old association of mafic to felsic rocks, of mantle and crustal origin, cropping out in Tuscany and northern Latium. Major and trace element abundances of Elba rocks are extremely variable, testifying to complex origin and evolutionary history for magmas. 87Sr/86Sr (~ 0.708-0.723) and 143Nd/144Nd (~0.5121-0.5124) are close or within the field of upper continental crust, with mafic dikes showing the lowest Sr- and the highest Nd-isotope ratios. Petrological, geochemical and textural data of Elba igneous rocks are better explained by invoking a leading role for multiple mixing processes between crust-derived felsic magmas and mafic-intermediate melts of ultimate mantle origin, accompanied by fractional crystallisation. Proxies of crustal anatectic melts are represented by some highly radiogenic-Sr rocks from northern Monte Capanne pluton. Crustal magmas were formed by melting of sedimentary rocks, likely metagreywakes, at pressures exceeding 0.3 GPa. Mafic-intermediate magmas have calcalkaline to shoshonitic compositions and originated in an anomalous mantle, moderately contaminated by siliceous sediments. Selective enrichments in Sr, Ba and LREE are shown by some intermediate rocks (Orano dikes), revealing the occurrence of a distinct magma type at Elba. Similar compositions are also observed at Capraia island, San Vincenzo and Campiglia (southern Tuscany), suggesting a regional relevance for this magma type. Sr-Ba-LREE-rich rocks do not show obvious genetic relationships with other Tuscany magmas and may represent a distinct end

  4. Provenance of metasedimentary rocks from the Ceará Central Domain of Borborema Province, NE Brazil: implications for the significance of associated retrograded eclogites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancelmi, Matheus Fernando; Santos, Ticiano José Saraiva dos; Amaral, Wagner da Silva; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Zincone, Stefano Albino

    2015-03-01

    In the Forquilha area (NE Brazil), in NW Borborema Province, high to ultra-high pressure rocks are an important geological key to understanding West Gondwana amalgamation. U-Pb geochronological data for a retrograded eclogite sample yielded an upper intercept age of ca. 1520 Ma and a lower intercept age of ca. 620 Ma. These ages most likely represent the crystallization age of the basaltic protolith and the regional metamorphism, respectively. The retrograded eclogites are enclosed in migmatized quartz-feldspathic gneiss and sillimanite (after kyanite)-garnet-biotite gneiss. Detrital U-Pb zircon data for these paragneisses show only Paleoproterozoic zircon grains with ages clustering from ca. 1800 Ma (the maximum depositional age) to ca. 2480 Ma, and frequency peaks at 2.2-2.0 Ga. Combined with Nd isotopic data from the Forquilha paragneisses, one can assume a single Paleoproterozoic source. Basement rocks of the Ceará Central and the Rio Grande do Norte domains are the most likely candidates. The absence of Meso- and Neoproterozoic zircon grains suggest that the retrograded eclogite bodies possibly do not represent slivers of oceanic rocks captured in active margin sequences during subduction. It was identified that the high-pressure rocks of the Forquilha area are in tectonic contact with high-pressure granulite facies rocks of the Ceará Complex (Independência unit) that present detrital zircon records of an active margin setting, with ages ranging from ca. 660 Ma to 2200 Ma. Metamorphism of this sequence occurred at ca. 650 Ma. Considering previous studies, field relationships, and metamorphic paragenesis, a tectonic scenario is inferred, in which the Forquilha retrograded eclogites represent Mesoproterozoic basaltic rocks of an extensional event that were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions during Late Neoproterozoic continental subduction/collision, and juxtaposed to an active margin sequence during the exhumation process.

  5. Recovery of Carbonate Ecosystems Following the End-Triassic Mass Extinction: Insights from Mercury Anomalies and Their Relationship to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, F. A.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Ritterbush, K. A.; West, A. J.; Yager, J. A.; Ibarra, Y.; Bottjer, D. J.; Berelson, W.; Bergquist, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent high-resolution age dating demonstrates that the end-Triassic mass extinction overlapped with the eruption of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), and the release of CO2 and other volatiles to the atmosphere has been implicated in the extinction. Given the potentially massive release of CO2, ocean acidification is commonly considered a factor in the extinction and the collapse of shallow marine carbonate ecosystems. However, the timing of global marine biotic recovery versus the CAMP eruptions is more uncertain. Here, we use Hg concentrations and Hg/TOC ratios as indicators of CAMP volcanism in continental shelf sediments, the primary archive of faunal data. In Triassic-Jurassic strata, Muller Canyon, Nevada, Hg and Hg/TOC levels are low prior to the extinction, rise sharply in the extinction interval, peak just prior to the appearance of the first Jurassic ammonite, and remain above background in association with a depauperate (low diversity) earliest Jurassic fauna. The return of Hg to pre-extinction levels is associated with a significant pelagic and benthic faunal recovery. We conclude that significant biotic recovery did not begin until CAMP eruptions ceased. Furthermore, the initial benthic recovery in the Muller Canyon section involves the expansion of a siliceous sponge-dominated ecosystem across shallow marine environments, a feature now known from other sections around the world (e.g., Peru, Morocco, Austria, etc.). Carbonate dominated benthic ecosystems (heralded by the return of abundant corals and other skeletal carbonates) did not recover for ~1 million years following the last eruption of CAMP, longer than the typical duration considered for ocean acidification events, implying other factors may have played a role in carbonate ecosystem dynamics after the extinction.

  6. Occurrence, distribution, and potential affecting factors of organophosphate flame retardants in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in Henan Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long; Yuan, Yiting; He, Han; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Hongzhong; Zhao, Jihong

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants. In this study, the occurrence and distribution of six OPEs were investigated in sewage sludge from 24 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 18 cities of Henan province, Central China. The results indicated that all target OPEs were detected in the sludge samples with the detection rate of 95.8%, except tris(dichloropropyl)phosphate (TDCP). The total concentration of the six OPEs ranged from 38.6 to 508 μg kg(-1). Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), and tris(2-chloroiso-propyl)phosphate (TCPP) were found to be predominant, with concentrations ranging from 2.50 to 203, 1.60 to 383, and 6.70-161 μg kg(-1), respectively. The potential factors affecting OPE levels in sewage sludge, such as wastewater source, sludge characteristics, operational conditions, treatment techniques, and total organic carbon (TOC) of sludge in WWTPs were investigated. The results indicated that the total concentration of OPEs in sewage sludge has no significant relationship with the individual parameters (p > 0.05). However, significant correlations were found between triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) level and treatment capacity (R = 0.484, p < 0.05), processing volume (R = 0.495, p < 0.05), and serving population (R = 0.591, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the relationship between treatment techniques and the total concentration of OPEs in sewage sludge was also investigated in this study, and the results illustrated that the levels of OPEs in sludge were independent of the solid retention time (SRT). PMID:26974479

  7. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues C.; Tchatchueng-Mbougua, Jules B.; Bopda, Jean; Mbickmen-Tchana, Steve; Elong-Kana, Nathalie; Nnomzo’o, Etienne; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Njiokou, Flobert; Kamgno, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administr...

  8. Marketing communication plan for the Cameroon Ministry of Tourism (MINTOUR)

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankou Doublex, Moumbeh

    2012-01-01

    Cameroon has much potential as a tourist destination, but lack of prioritization of the industry by the government has hampered growth and development of the sector. The government has decided to invest in the sector, and ordered the Ministry of Tourism (MINTOUR) to create a Cameroon Tourism Board in 2010. The purpose of this thesis is to assess the present situation to identify problems facing the industry and the current market situation. The proposed solutions focus on branding and cre...

  9. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study.......Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  10. Local governance in disaster risk reduction in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston, Buh-Wung; Tongwa, Aka F; Burnley, Clementine

    2012-01-01

    At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework f...

  11. Bars to Jars: Bamboo Value Chains in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, V; Tieguhong, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and sav...

  12. Economic Impact of Ecotourism in Mount Cameroon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Njumba, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Ecotourism activities are growing in popularity around the world and generating considerable financial effects to the local population. The definitions of this phenomenon are still evolving, but generally include references to travel to natural areas and local conservation benefits. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impact of this business to the youths and the local communities in the Mount Cameroon region under a Non Governmental Organization (NGO) called Mount Cameroon...

  13. Study of an aplite dyke from the Beira uraniferous province in Fornos de Algodres area (Central Portugal): Trace elements distribution and evaluation of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Distribution of natural radionuclides in an U-rich aplite from Central Portugal. • INAA, XRD and gamma spectrometry were applied to various types of samples. • Higher U values for clay/sand fractions, and core of spheroidal weathered aplite. • Large difference between pre-Rn and post-Rn values suggests high loss of radon. • Weathering of aplite is a potential source of radiological hazards. - Abstract: A uranium-rich aplite dyke with spheroidal alteration sited in the Beira uraniferous province, in Fornos de Algodres area (Northern Central Portugal) was studied, focusing on trace element distributions, especially U, in the aplite. A vertical profile, different size fractions, and various concentrically weathered layers of rock, were examined. The main goal of the work is to better understand the geochemical behavior and distribution of natural radionuclides in fine-grained granitic rocks, and changes that occur during weathering. The rock samples obtained from this site were examined using chemical and mineralogical methods: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Field gamma spectrometry (FGS) and high resolution gamma spectrometry (HRGS) in the laboratory were also performed in order to determine concentrations of the natural radionuclides (K, Th and U) responsible for terrestrial gamma radiation, and for comparison of results with INAA measurements, enabling some information concerning radon losses. The U concentration in the studied samples vary between 4.5 and 83 ppm (always higher than upper continental crust value), with the higher values detected in the clay and sand fractions of weathered aplite (residual clay) and in the rounded boulders of aplite with spheroidal weathering, especially in the core. Strong variations in natural radionuclide contents, especially observed between residual clay and soil, relate to differences in source material. The large difference between pre-Rn and post

  14. Incorporating surface indicators of reservoir permeability into reservoir volume calculations: Application to the Colli Albani caldera and the Central Italy Geothermal Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Guido; De Benedetti, Arnaldo Angelo; Bonamico, Andrea; Ramazzotti, Paolo; Mattei, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The Quaternary Roman Volcanic Province extends for over 200 km along the Tyrrhenian margin of the Italian peninsula and is composed of several caldera complexes with significant associated geothermal potential. In spite of the massive programs of explorations conducted by the then state-owned ENEL and AGIP companies between the 1970s and 1990s, and the identification of several high enthalpy fields, this resource remains so far unexploited, although it occurs right below the densely populated metropolitan area of Roma capital city. The main reason for this failure is that deep geothermal reservoirs are associated with fractured rocks, the secondary permeability of which has been difficult to predict making the identification of the most productive volumes of the reservoirs and the localisation of productive wells uncertain. As a consequence, almost half of the many exploration deep bore-holes drilled in the area reached a dry target. This work reviews available data and re-assesses the geothermal potential of caldera-related systems in Central Italy, by analysing in detail the case of the Colli Albani caldera system, the closest to Roma capital city. A GIS based approach identifies the most promising reservoir volumes for geothermal exploitation and uses an improved volume method approach for the evaluation of geothermal potential. The approach is based on a three dimensional matrix of georeferenced spatial data; the A axis accounts for the modelling of the depth of the top of the reservoirs based on geophysical and direct data; the B axis accounts for the thermal modelling of the crust (i.e. T with depth) based on measured thermal gradients. Both A and B data are necessary but not sufficient to identify rock volumes actually permeated by geothermal fluids in fractured reservoirs. We discuss the implementation of a C axis that evaluates all surface data indicating permeability in the reservoir and actual geothermal fluid circulation. We consider datasets on: i

  15. New data on the recent history of the littoral forests of southern Cameroon: an insight into the role of historical human disturbances on the current forest composition

    OpenAIRE

    Biwolé, Achille; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Fayolle, Adeline; Bitondo, Dieudonné; Dedry, Laurent; Daïnou, Kasso; Hardy, Olivier J.; Doucet, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims – Prior to European colonisation of Central Africa, human populations were dispersed through the forests, where they practiced slash-and-burn cultivation. From the 19th century they were progressively concentrated in villages along roads, leaving large areas of forest derelict. In south-western Cameroon, and elsewhere in Central Africa, forest canopy is dominated by long-lived lightdemanding tree species, suggesting a possible role of human disturbance. The aim of this stu...

  16. 76 FR 1660 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Art in Cameroon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural... ``Art in Cameroon: Sculptural Dialogues,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  17. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  18. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  19. Cameroon: A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Jasmin

    This report on the educational system of Cameroon contains information for university admissions officers and registrars in the United States on the credentials and other documentation that would be minimally required for student entry from Cameroon to specified levels of study in the United States. In Cameroon French and English languages share…

  20. Language Practices and Religious Rites in the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouega, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with language practices in one Pentecostal church in Cameroon, i.e. the Full Gospel Mission Cameroon (FGMC). The data are produced by some 80 pastors, church officials, choir leaders and congregants, and the settings are some 20 churches located in two anglophone regions and two francophone regions of Cameroon. The instruments…

  1. Ethnomédecine vétérinaire et pharmacopée traditionnelle dans le plateau central du Burkina Faso : cas de la province du Passoré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaméogo SM.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnoveterinary medicine and indigenous pharmacopeia in central region of Burkina Faso: case of Passoré province.In Passoré province of Burkina Faso, a study on traditional animal health care practices has been carried out with 62traditional practitioners. 114 questionnaires were completed and the results analysed and synthesized. Analysis of collecteddata led to the characterization of 24 diseases, together with their local names, causes of their appearance, and theepizootiological evolution. The medicinal recipes were documented; about 95% were on a vegetable basis. Analysis of therecipes centered on their therapeutic itinerary for treating diseases, i.e. composition, preparation and different mixtures,process of administration, dosage. Finally, a socio-economic perspective of traditional animal health care structure led to abetter understanding of this system.

  2. Experimental Study on Purification of Kaolin from Central Guizhou Province%黔中某地高岭土提纯试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓强; 陈丽荣

    2013-01-01

    Based on experimental research of kaolin ore from central Guizhou province, we obtained the process of purification kaolin. Taking the technology of mashing and screening, the purification research is conducted in lab. In this process, the oversize product is for grinding and strong magnetic separation, the throughs is for strong magnetic separation and bleaching. The research shows that using the 0.045 mm sieve to screen the mashed pulp, the yield of the oversize product and throughs are 54.69%and 45.31%respectively. Under the condition of-0.045 mm content is 45.17%and the magnetic induction is 1.4 T for strong magnetic separation of the oversize product which is grinded again, the high quality of TC-0 kaolin ore concentrate can be obtained for ceramic industria. Under the condition of sodium hydrosulfite 1.5%, oxalic acid 1.5%and the bleaching time 2 h, bleaching the rough kaolin concentrate of the throughs after the strong magnetic separation, the TC-2 kaolin ore concentrate can be obtained for ceramic industrial.%  以某高岭土矿为研究对象,采用捣浆-筛分-筛上物再磨强磁选-筛下物强磁选漂白工艺,进行提纯试验研究。结果表明,用0.045 mm筛子对捣浆所得矿浆进行筛分,分别获得产率为54.69%、45.31%的筛上物和筛下物;筛上物经再磨,在-0.045 mm粒级含量为45.17%、磁感应强度为1.4 T的条件下进行强磁选,获得TC-0优级陶瓷工业用高岭土精矿;筛下物经强磁选,强磁选高岭土粗精矿在保险粉用量1.5%、草酸用量1.5%、漂白时间2 h的条件下漂白,获得TC-2二级陶瓷工业用高岭土精矿。

  3. Study on Reclamation of the Deserted Quarries in Central Area of Zhejiang Province%浙中地区废弃矿山复绿技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉丽; 朱宝琦; 李绍龙; 徐明

    2011-01-01

    The central city of Zhejiang province-Jinhua has rich mineral resources, the development and utilization satisfied the needs of economic construction and social development. But many quarries have serious environmental problems and hidden dangers because of many years mining. It is urgent in the work of ecological management and reclamation of the deserted quarries. A representative selection of Wangxi quarry at the town of lingxia as research object, we determined the reclamation by environment survey, including planting material spraying, revegetation bags, substrate container seedling, vertical greening, slope toe wall backfill greening, soil dressing reclamation and landscape re-building seven technologies. Also planning for the different types of reclamation on steep slope, even steep slope, gentle slope and slope toe land. The neclamation effect was reached, the ecological environment was improved, the reference and guidance were provided for reclamation of the similar quarries.%浙中城市——金华拥有丰富的矿产资源,其开发利用保障了社会发展和经济建设的需求。然而多年的开采,许多矿山存在严重的环境问题与隐患,废弃矿山生态治理与复绿工作迫在眉睫。选择具有代表性的岭下镇王溪采石场作为研究对象,通过矿山环境现状调查,确定了PMS技术、植生袋围堰造坑植树技术、基质型容器苗种植技术、石壁藤本垂直绿化技术、坡脚挡墙回填土绿化技术、客土复垦技术和艺术景观再造技术7项复绿技术,并进行陡峻边坡、缓陡边坡、缓边坡和坡脚迹地分类复绿设计,达到了复绿效果,改善了生态环境,为同类矿山复绿工作提供借鉴和指导。

  4. Dating of the late Quaternary volcanic events using Uranium-series technique on travertine deposit: A case study in Ihlara, Central Anatolia Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, İ.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi

    2016-04-01

    Dating of late Quaternary volcanism is crucial to understanding of the recent mechanism of crustal deformation and future volcanic explosivity risk of the region. However, radiometric dating of volcanic products has been a major challenge because of high methodological error rate. In most cases, there are difficulties on discrimination of the volcanic lava flow relations in the field. Furthermore, there would be unrecorded and unpreserved volcanoclastic layers by depositional and erosional processes. We present a new method that allows precise dating of late Quaternary volcanic events (in the time range of 0-500,000 years before present) using the Uranium-series technique on travertine mass, which is thought to be controlled by the young volcanism. Since the high pressure CO2 in the spring waters are mobilized during crustal strain cycles and the carbonates are precipitated in the fissures act as conduit for hot springs, thus, travertine deposits provide important information about crustal deformation. In this study we studied Ihlara fissure ridge travertines in the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province. This region is surrounded by many eruption centers (i.e. Hasandaǧı, Acıgöl and Göllüdaǧı) known as the late Quaternary and their widespread volcanoclastic products. Recent studies have suggested at least 11 events at around Acıgöl Caldera for the last 180 ka and 2 events at Hasandaǧı Stratovolcano for the last 30 ka. Active travertine masses around Ihlara deposited from hotwaters, which rise up through deep-penetrated fissures in volcanoclastic products of surrounding volcanoes. Analyses of the joint systems indicate that these vein structures are controlled by the crustal deformation due to young volcanism in the vicinity. Thus, the geological history of Ihlara travertine mass is regarded as a record of surrounding young volcanism. We dated 9 samples from 5 ridge-type travertine masses around Ihlara region. The age distribution indicates that the crustal

  5. The Univariate and Bivariate Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Quality of Life:A Cross Sectional Study in the Hubei Province-Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ommari Baaliy MKANGARA; Chongjian WANG; Hao XIANG; Yihua XU; Shaofa NIE; Li LIU; Saumu Tobbi MWERI; Mustaafa BAPUMIIA; Theresia M KOBELO; Felicia Williams JACKSON

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) for individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Hubei province-central China by using WHOQOL-BREF instrument (Chinese version).One hundred and thirty six respondents (HIV/AIDS individuals) attending out-patient department of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese CDC) were administered a structured questionnaire developed by investigators.QOL was evaluated by using WHOQOL-BREF instrument (Chinese version).The resuits showed that the mean score of overall QOL on a scale of 0-100 was 25.8.The mean scores in 4 domains of QOL on a scale of 0-100 were 82.9 (social domain),27.5 (psychological domain),17.7 (physical domain) and 11.65 (environmental domain).The significant difference of QOL was noted in the score of physical domain between asymptomatic (14.6) and early symptomatic individuals (12) (P=0.014),and between patients with early symptoms (12) and those with AIDS (10.43) (P<0.001).QOL in psychological domain was significantly lower in early symptomatic (12.1) (P<0.05) and AIDS patients (12.4) (P<0.006) than in asymptomatic individuals (14.2).The difference in QOL scores in the psychological domain was significant with respect to the income of patients (P<0.048) and educational status (P<0.037).Significantly better QOL scores in the physical domain (P<0.040) and environmental domain (P<0.017) were noted with respect to the occupation of the patients.Patients with family support had better QOL scores in environmental domain.In our research,QOL for HIV/AIDS individuals was associated with education,occupation,income,family support and clinical categories of the patients.It was concluded that WHOQOL-BREF Chinese version was successfully used in the evaluation of QOL of HIV/AIDS individuals in Chinese population and proved to be a reliable and useful tool.

  6. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina Province, Northern Territory, Australia: Implications for the Neoproterozoic to Devonian evolution of central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Madeline L.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Saleem, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Petrological and geochemical data for magmatic mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina and Aileron provinces of the Eastern Arunta region, Northern Territory, Australia constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of magmatic events covering ~ 500 million years. Six geochemically distinct magmatic suites, here named A-F, have been identified and provide evidence of the tectonic history of this region and also are linked to two mineralisation-related magmatic events: the Lloyd Gabbro (Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation) and the Riddoch Amphibolite (Cyprus-style Cu-Co volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation). The whole-rock geochemistry of Suites A and F is indicative of melts derived from a range of mantle depths (garnet to spinel lherzolite) and source enrichment. Suite D is likely related to the ~ 1070 Ma Warakurna/Giles event of central Australia, including the Alcurra (Musgrave) and Stuart (Arunta) dyke swarms, and likely formed through either: a) melting of subduction modified, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by an upwelling mantle plume; or b) a combination of intra-plate tectonic processes involving a long-lived thermal anomaly, lithospheric-scale architecture that focussed magmatism, and large-scale tectonism. Suite F represents more alkaline magmas, derived from a deeper source, but most likely formed during the same Warakurna LIP event (possibly contemporaneously) as Suite D. Suite E (the Riddoch Amphibolite) was most likely emplaced in a back-arc basin (BAB) setting at ~ 600 Ma, coincident with Delamerian subduction and BAB formation along the eastern Proterozoic margin of Australia from Queensland to the eastern Arunta and possibly further south. Subsequent destabilisation of the SCLM underneath the North Australian Craton generated the ~ 510 Ma Kalkarindji LIP in the form of Suite B intrusions that assimilated some of the older Suite E (Riddoch) material. This event is locally known as the ~ 506 Ma Stanovos Igneous Suite and represents the most

  7. Caracterización de la zona de alteración Central II, Bloque San Rafael, provincia de Mendoza Characteristics of Central II alteration zone, San Rafael Massif, province of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Gargiulo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio petrográfico de las muestras de superficie correspondientes a la zona de alteración Central II, localizada en el Bloque San Rafael, provincia de Mendoza (34°54'56" S; 68°37'02" O. La misma está relacionada a la intrusión de un cuerpo hipabisal de composición riolítica alojado en una sucesión de rocas volcánicas y volcaniclásticas de la sección superior del Grupo Choiyoi. La zona de alteración está representada por sericitización generalizada a la que se sobreimponen brechas y venas silíceas, ocasionalmente con textura drusiforme y con bandas tapizadas por agregados diseminados de pirita y calcopirita subordinada, a las que acompaña escasa arsenopirita. Las brechas y venas silíceas conforman una faja de dirección ONO (azimut 290° - 300° e inclinación vertical, en las que se han reconocido texturas de cuarzo hidrotermal de crecimiento primario, de recristalización y de reemplazo. Entre estas texturas se destacan las crustificaciones complejas, el bandeamiento coloforme y los pseudomorfos de cuarzo según calcita en enrejado, a las que se asocia la presencia de adularia con morfologías sub-rómbica, rómbica y pseudo-acicular. Este conjunto de texturas y morfologías permite establecer que se trata de un sistema epitermal de baja sulfuración con paleozonas de ebullición ascendente.The goal of this paper is to present the petrographic study from outcrop samples of the Central II alteration zone. This area is located in the San Rafael Massif, province of Mendoza (34°54'56" S; 68°37'02" O and is related to hypoabyssal rhyolitic bodies that intrude a volcanic-volcaniclastic sequence corresponding to the upper section of Choiyoi Group. The alteration zone is represented by pervasive sericitization overprinted by silicic breccias and veins with WNW trend (Az 290° - 300° and vertical dip. Hydrothermal veins are mainly composed by quartz with primary growth, recrystalization and replacement textures with

  8. Volatile Compounds in Honey Produced in the Central Valley of Ñuble Province, Chile Compuestos Volatiles en Miel Producida en el Valle Central de la Provincia de Ñuble, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Gianelli Barra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME with an 85 µm Carboxen polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber was used to extract volatile compounds, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectometry detector (GC-MS was used to identify the volatile compounds in honeys. Thirty-four different volatile compounds from the headspace of honey produced in the central valley of Ñuble Province, Chile, were extracted with fiber coating CAR/PDMS. The identified compounds were: 10 alcohols, 9 acids, 6 ketones, 3 aldehydes, 2 furans, 2 terpenes and 2 lactones. Only four of the volatile compounds had never been reported before as honey compounds; these being: 1,3-propanodiol, 2-methyl butanoic acid, 3,4-dimethyl-3-hexen-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-octen-2-one. These four compounds were found in three of the 10 analyzed samples. The compounds found in the highest percentage of area were ethanol, acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propane, 3-hydroxy-2-butane, and furfural. However, the analyzed samples did not present a distinctive profile.La extracción de compuestos volátiles desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles se realiza mediante microextracción en fase sólida (SPME, utilizando una fibra de 85 µm de Carboxen polidimetilsiloxano (CAR/PDMS, el análisis de los compuestos volátiles se realiza mediante cromatografía de gases con detector de masa (GC-MS. Un total de 34 diferentes compuestos volátiles fueron extraídos desde el espacio de cabeza de mieles provenientes del valle central de la provincia de Ñuble con la fibra de CAR/PDMS. Los compuestos identificados fueron 10 alcoholes, 9 ácidos, 6 cetonas, 3 aldehídos, 2 furanos, 2 terpenos y 2 lactonas. De los compuestos volátiles sólo tres no han sido reportados con anterioridad en mieles, estos compuestos fueron: 1,3-propanodiol, ácido 2-metil butanoico, 3,4-dimetil-3-hexen-2-ona, 6-metil-5-octen-2-ona. Estos cuatro compuestos se encontraron en sólo tres de las 10 muestras analizadas. Los compuestos que se

  9. 中原经济区建设背景下的河南高校人才培养策略%TALENT STRATEGY OF UNIVERSITIES IN HENAN PROVINCE UNDER THE BACKGROUND OF CENTRAL PLAINS ECONOMIC ZONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪冰

    2014-01-01

    In constructing Central Plains Economic Zone,universities in Henan Province are faced with un-precedented opportunities and challenges.Colleges and universities there must play a part in accumulating, innovating and educating people and be actively integrated into the construction of Central Plains Economic Zone so as to provide strong personnel and intelligence support for constructing Central Plains Economic Zone.%在中原经济区建设中,河南高校面临着前所未有的机遇和挑战。河南高校必须发挥集聚高地、创新高地、育人高地、服务高地的功能,积极主动地融入中原经济区建设之中,为中原经济区建设提供有力的人才保障和智力支撑。

  10. 基于旅游中心地的山东省旅游空间结构研究%Tourism Spatial Structure of Shandong Province Based on the Tourism Central Place Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔振宇; 王铁

    2014-01-01

    本文以中心地理论为基础,建立了山东省城市旅游中心性的评价指标体系。使用因子分析法与加权求和法,确定了山东省三级旅游中心地体系,即青岛、济南为一级旅游中心地,烟台、威海、日照、泰安、济宁、临沂、潍坊为二级旅游中心地,淄博、莱芜、东营、滨州、德州、聊城、菏泽、枣庄为三级旅游中心地。在此基础上,结合空间位置、交通连接等要素,本研究将山东省划分为以两个一级旅游中心地为辐射源的旅游区,又在以济南为辐射源的旅游区内划分出三个次级旅游区,并提出了山东省旅游空间结构的优化和提升建议。%Based on the central place theory, an index system used to evaluate central tourism ability of Shan-dong Province was constructed. Using factor analysis and the weighted summation method, three grades of Shandong Province tourism central places were established as follow:Qingdao and Jinan are Grade A toursim central places;Yantai,Weihai,Rizhao,Taian,Jining,Linyi and Weifang are Grade B tourism central places;Zi-bo,Binzhou,Dongying, Dezhou, Liaocheng, Heze, Laiwu and Zaozhuang are Grade C tourism central places. Based on the above research combined with spatial location, tourism resources,transportation links and other factors,this paper divided Shandong Province into two tourism areas which were radiated by the two Grade A tourism central places. And three secondary toursim areas were divided from the tourism area radiated by Jinan. And then some suggestions were put forward.

  11. Deficiencies in pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham K. Akih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon celebrated fifty years of independence from colonial rule on 20 May 2010. Major problems facing the nation are economic, social and political crises and the appalling condition of its prisons. This article focuses on pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon. Most churches in Cameroon have no pastoral care programme for prisoners. The churches in general are not yet committed to this kind of work. The article argues that changes and reform of the penitential system will be difficult if not impossible without collaboration with other institutions and resources, which include the different faith communities and faith based organisations. The focus should be on the care and well-being of those within its walls if successful rehabilitation is to take place. Spiritual care will contribute to the general well-being of prisoners. The article gives a broad overview of the situation of prisons and prisoners in Cameroon and presents a pastoral care approach that could contribute to the overall improvement of the lives of people in Cameroon prisons.

  12. Serotype Diversity of Foot-and-Mouth-Disease Virus in Livestock without History of Vaccination in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludi, A; Ahmed, Z; Pomeroy, L W; Pauszek, S J; Smoliga, G R; Moritz, M; Dickmu, S; Abdoulkadiri, S; Arzt, J; Garabed, R; Rodriguez, L L

    2016-02-01

    Little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. Cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because FMD vaccination is not practiced. We carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of FMD virus (FMDV) infections among different livestock production systems in the Far North of Cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. We found serological evidence of FMDV infection in over 75% of the animals sampled with no significant differences of prevalence observed among the sampled groups (i.e. market, sedentary, transboundary trade and mobile). We also found antibodies reactive to five of the seven FMDV serotypes (A, O, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) among the animals sampled. Finally, we were able to genetically characterize viruses obtained from clinical and subclinical FMD infections in Cameroon. Serotype O viruses grouped into two topotypes (West and East Africa). SAT2 viruses grouped with viruses from Central and Northern Africa, notably within the sublineage causing the large epidemic in Northern Africa in 2012, suggesting a common origin for these viruses. This research will guide future interventions for the control of FMD such as improved diagnostics, guidance for vaccine formulation and epidemiological understanding in support of the progressive control of FMD in Cameroon. PMID:24735162

  13. Gendered Identity and Anti-Female Genital Cutting (FGC Activism among the Ejaghams, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalis Pemunta Ngambouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a critical appraisal of NGO activism against female genital cutting (FGC practices among Ejagham communities in SouthwestCameroon. The paper argues that by framing female circumcision as a ‘‘harmful traditional practice’’, local anti-female circumcision activists(NGOs and their external allies, using educational, health, legal awareness and human rights-based approaches, have produced mixed results,thereby re-inforcing resistance among cultural hardliners. Their demonization of culture and failure to address the local context of thesepractices tends rather, to reify and re-inscribe the practice as central to Ejagham cultural identity, personhood and femininity. Although tensionis absolutely central not only to any attempt to stop the practice but probably to the processes involved in the practices themselves, I maintainthat a community-led, ‘Positive Deviance Approach’ could be a way forward towards the eventual eradication of FGC.

  14. [Primary health care in a prison environment, the Cameroon experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoures, B; Nkodo-Nkodo, E; Mbam-Mbam, L

    1998-01-01

    People isolated from their families, such as prisoners, are the most vulnerable to the consequences of the economic crisis in Africa. Some non-governmental organizations are taking action to improve health care conditions in prisons. We describe herein such a project, conducted in the town of Ngaoundéré, Adamaoua Province, Cameroon. The prison houses 400 prisoners, mostly men. Catholic missionaries have been involved in improving conditions since 1988, at the request of a magistrate from the local tribunal. They have introduced a community store, handicrafts and the teaching of reading and writing, carried out by the prisoners themselves. The Catholic Health Service was asked to join the project in October 1992. Its participation was part of the provincial policy of collaboration between private and public organizations for the improvement of health institutions. Meetings between health workers and prisoners first created an opportunity for the prisoners to talk about their concerns and what they wanted. A health committee, consisting of about 10 prisoners took several initiatives related to hygiene. Access to curative care was then improved by increasing the stock of medicines to include 37 drugs, standardizing the therapeutic recommendations (including those of the national program against tuberculosis) and increasing the prisoners' access to health care by making the pharmacy self-sufficient. The pharmacy's prices are low and the wardens and their families are encouraged to use it. Any profit made goes towards a "solidarity fund" managed by the prisoners, which enables them to buy their own drugs (3 to 5 patients are seen each day by the nurse). The link between money entering the system and the supply of drugs was studied. Most of the diseases reported between July 1994 and July 1995 were infectious, including scabies infections and acute respiratory infections (mean of 5 cases per month). Fifteen cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated. AIDS was not

  15. The Cameroon line, West Africa, and its bearing on the origin of oceanic and continental alkali basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cameroon line is a unique within-plate volcanic province which straddles a continental margin. It consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. It provides, therefore, an ideal area in which to compare the sub-oceanic and sub-continental mantle sources for alkali basalt. Basaltic rocks in the oceanic and continental sectors are geochemically and isotopically indistinguishable which suggests that they have identical mantle sources. This conclusion rules out substantial lithosphere involvement in the generation of alkali basalts and therefore weakens the case for mantle metasomatism as a necessary precursor to alkaline magmatism. The convecting upper mantle is a much more likely source as it will be well-stirred and unlikely to show any ocean-continent differences. The long history of Cameroon line magmatism (65 Ma) and lack of evidence for migration of volcanism with time makes a deeper mantle source unlikely. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) also originate within the convecting upper mantle and so must share a common source with the Cameroon line alkali basalts (and, by implication, ocean island and continental rift basalts). A grossly homogeneous mantle with a bulk composition depleted in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), but containing streaks of old, LILE-enriched material, provides a plausible common source. Large degree, near-surface melting of such a source would produce MORB. Smaller degree melts produced at deeper levels would percolate upwards along grain boundaries and become enriched in LILE by leaching LILE-rich grain boundary films. The mixing of these liquids with melts from the LILE-rich streaks will produce magmas with the geochemical and isotopic features of ocean island basalts. (orig.)

  16. Structure and physical properties of the Earth's crust in the Central Metasedimentary Belt, Grenville Province, Ontario from near vertical seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Baishali

    The Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB), located in the Southwestern Grenville Province, has undergone large scale tectonic movements during the Grenville orogeny. These large scale deformations have resulted in crustal scale faults and mylonite zones in these terranes. This work focuses on studying the structure and physical properties of the earth's crust from near vertical seismic reflection data from Lithoprobe reflection Lines 32 and 33 located in the southwestern CMB. These lines trend in a NW-SE manner roughly perpendicular to the major lineaments. The data was initially processed by Seismic Data Processors Ltd. (Calgary). Their processed sections from Line 32 and 33 do not give a clear subsurface picture, even though reflections were present in the raw data. Examination of the data revealed that the signal to noise ratio was not improved by CDP (common depth point) stacking, as they should, due to misalignment of signals even after static, NMO (normal move-out) and residual static corrections. This improper alignment is almost certainly due to lateral heterogeneity. The first part of the study is aimed at developing a Pattern Recognition method to improve the CDP stacking in spite of the misalignment. The signal to noise ratio was greatly improved by reduction of incoherent noise. The signals were then energy stacked in a moving time window, adding positive and negative peaks separately and thereby eliminating destructive addition. Results using this method show substantial improvements in the subsurface image. Reprocessing has helped in the interpretation of Lines 32 and 33. South east dipping reflectors are observed throughout Line 32. This supports the earlier geological and seismological studies which suggest northward directed thrusting. Reprocessed results suggest the gradual soling of the south east dipping reflectors into the lower crust, contrary to a mid-crustal decollement presented in earlier interpretations. In contrast the lower crust is

  17. Research of Provincial Differences in Technical Innovation Influencing Economic Growth--- 3Based on an Empirical Analysis of the Six Central Provinces and the Five Eastern Provinces and Cities%省域技术创新发展差异对经济增长的影响研究--基于中部六省和东部五省市的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯茂章; 曾路

    2015-01-01

    技术创新是经济增长的核心动力,技术创新对经济增长的贡献率的大小是区域经济发展差异的原因之一。文章以中部六省和东部五省市为研究对象,研究了1993~2013年中部六省和东部五省市地区GDP、三大产业增加值、专利申请授权量变化情况。文章基于1993~2012年中部六省和东部五省市专利申请授权量、固定资产投资总额与人均GDP数据,运用OLS回归模型、JJ多变量协整检验等计量检验方法,实证研究了不同区域技术创新与经济增长的关系。通过分析发现,东部5省市技术创新程度明显高于中部六省,东部五省市技术创新对经济增长的贡献率更大。%Technical innovation is the core driving force to economic growth , and the size of the technical innovation's contribution on economic growth is one of reasons for differences in regional economic development . Based on the six central provinces and the five east-ern provinces and cities as the research object , this paper studied changes of regional GDP , three industrial added value , patent applica-tions granted in six central provinces and the five eastern provinces and cities during 1993-2013 . Based on patent applications granted , total fixed asset investment and GDP per capita data of six central provinces and the five eastern provinces during 1993-2012 , using OLS regression model , JJ multivariate cointegration and other measurement test methods , empirical study of the different regions of technical in-novation relationship with economic growth is done . The analysis revealed that the five eastern provinces have significantly higher technical innovation than the six central provinces , technical innovation of the five eastern provinces contributed more to economic growth .

  18. Internet adoption and usage patterns in Africa: Evidence from Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Penard, Thierry; Poussing, Nicolas; MUKOKO Blaise; TAMOKWE Georges Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand what factors stimulate or hinder the adoption and usage of the Internet in Africa. We adopt a micro-econometric approach and use household survey data from Cameroon. Our results show that Internet users in Cameroon tend to be young, educated and in employment. The probability of using the Internet is also higher for male, as well as for English-speaking and computer savvy individuals. Moreover, Internet users are more likely to have family abroad. ...

  19. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. PMID:25087065

  20. Adoption Potential of two Agroforestry Technologies: Improved Fallows and Domestication of Indigenous Fruit Trees in the Humid Forest and Savannah Zones of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Degrande, A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract English: Strategies to combat poverty in the humid tropics of West and Central Africa should not only tackle problems of shortening fallows and declining soil fertility, but also reduce farmers’ vulnerability and dependence on a few cash crops. The main objective of the present study was to assess adoption potential of agroforestry technologies by farmers in the humid forest and savannah zones of Cameroon and to suggest means to ameliorate and accelerate adoption. The following aspec...

  1. Genetic polymorphism of the beta-tubulin gene of Onchocerca volvulus in ivermectin naive patients from Cameroon, and its relationship with fertility of the worms

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguinat, C.; Pion, Sébastien; Kamgno, J.; Gardon, Jacques; Gardon Wendel, N.; Duke, B.O.L.; Prichard, R. K.; Boussinesq, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Observations of low response of patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus to ivermectin suggest that the parasite may be tinder a selection process toward potential resistance. To limit the extension of this phenomenon, it is crucial to characterize the genes of O. volvulus that are involved. For this, O. volvulus adult worms collected before the introduction of ivermectin in an onchocerciasis endemic area of central Cameroon were genotyped for beta-tubulin. To derive a baseline to investiga...

  2. Characterization of HIV-1 gag and nef in Cameroon: further evidence of extreme diversity at the origin of the HIV-1 group M epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Tongo Marcel; Martin Darren P; Zembe Lycias; Mpoudi-Ngole Eitel; Williamson Carolyn; Burgers Wendy A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cameroon, in west central Africa, has an extraordinary degree of HIV diversity, presenting a major challenge for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Given the continuing need to closely monitor the emergence of new HIV variants in the country, we analyzed HIV-1 genetic diversity in 59 plasma samples from HIV-infected Cameroonian blood donors. Full length HIV gag and nef sequences were generated and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Findings All gag and nef seq...

  3. Uncovering high rates of unsafe injection equipment reuse in rural Cameroon: validation of a survey instrument that probes for specific misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Savanna R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment protocols used in the 2003 national injection safety assessment in Cameroon are problematic because health workers often behave differently under the observation of visitors. The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. This can be done by probing for misconceptions about injection safety that explain reuse without sterilization. These misconceptions concern useless precautions against cross-contamination, i.e. "indirect reuse" of injection equipment. To investigate whether a shortage of supply explains unsafe reuse, we compared our survey data against records of purchases. Methods All health workers at public hospitals in two health districts in the Northwest Province of Cameroon were interviewed about their own injection practices. Injection equipment supply purchase records documented for January to December 2009 were compared with self-reported rates of syringe reuse. The number of HIV, HBV and HCV infections that result from unsafe medical injections in these health districts is estimated from the frequency of unsafe reuse, the number of injections performed, the probability that reused injection equipment had just been used on an infected patient, the size of the susceptible population, and the transmission efficiency of each virus in an injection. Results Injection equipment reuse occurs commonly in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, practiced by 44% of health workers at public hospitals. Self-reported rates of syringe reuse only partly explained by records on injection equipment supplied to these hospitals, showing a shortage of syringes where syringes are reused. Injection safety interventions could

  4. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  5. Local vegetables in Cameroon: Corchorus species used as a vegetable.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westphal-Stevels, J.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    An agro-botanical study of local vegetables in Cameroon is in preparation, including the taxonomy, identity, morphology, agronomy and nutritional value of about 70 species. Corchorus olitorius L. and other edible species of the genus Corchorus L. (Tiliaceae) are part of this study. The wide variatio

  6. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439

  7. Distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes in Southern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Françoise Ngo; Waeyenberge, Lieven; Hauser, Stefan; Moens, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    A first survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was conducted in three agro-ecological zones of Southern Cameroon in 2007 and 2008. Entomopathogenic nematodes were recovered from 26 of 251 soil samples (10.4%). Three species, Heterorhabditis baujardi, Steinernema sp. A and Steinernema sp. B were found. The two steinernematids were considered unidentified species. Among the positive samples, 23 samples contained only H. baujardi (88.5%), two contained Steinernema sp. A co-occurring with H. baujardi (7.7%), and one sample contained Steinernema sp. B (3.9%). H. baujardi was frequent in forest and fruit crop (cocoa and oil palm plantations). Steinernema sp. A was found in a tree plantation of teak, Steinernema sp. B in a forest habitat. Nematodes were mostly present in acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.7 to 7.0. The highest EPN presence was recorded in sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay and clay soils. EPNs were not recovered in sand, loamy sand and clay loam soils. Using principal component analysis for elucidating the major variation patterns among sampling sites, four factors explaining for 73.64% of the overall variance were extracted. Factors were a combination of geographical (latitude, longitude, altitude), soil (pH, contents of sand, silt and clay, organic carbon, texture), and moisture (wilting point, field capacity) parameters as well as climatic parameters (mean annual rainfall, mean air temperature). Logistic regression and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed that soil pH, longitude, available water and altitude were associated with presence and absence of EPN. Both logistic regression and RDA indicated that, increasing soil pH and longitude, associated with decreasing altitude, led to higher percentages of samples containing entomopathogenic nematodes. PMID:21983478

  8. Ethnomycological studies of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the Mount Cameroon region (Cameroon, Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Tonjock R; Tabi, Ebai M; Mih, Afui M; Enow, Egbe A; Njouonkou, L; Nji, T M

    2011-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Mount Cameroon region depend on the forest resources of the region for their livelihood, including the diverse use of macrofungi. With the increasing loss of forest due to exploitation and urbanization, they are liable to rapidly lose their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources, especially of mushrooms. An ethnomycological survey was conducted with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge of mushrooms as a prelude to conservation efforts. We also sought to assess the mycophilic and mycophobic tendencies of the inhabitants. It was revealed that traditionally, mushrooms were used as food, medicine, for mythological purposes, for aesthetics, and some poisonous species were also recorded. At least 15 different species were identified to be edible among the Bakweri people. Species used for ethnomedicine among the Bakweris belonged to several genera, including Termitomyces, Auricularia, Agaricus, Daldinia, Dictyophora, Pleurotus, Russula, Trametes, Chlorophyllum, and Ganoderma. Mushrooms were used as love charms, for dispelling evil spirits, and as part of cultural festivals. PMID:22135882

  9. Transpressional granite-emplacement model: Structural and magnetic study of the Pan-African Bandja granitic pluton (West Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjo, A. F. Yakeu; Njanko, T.; Njonfang, E.; Errami, E.; Rochette, P.; Fozing, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Pan-African NE-SW elongated Bandja granitic pluton, located at the western part of the Pan-African belt in Cameroon, is a K-feldspar megacryst granite. It is emplaced in banded gneiss and its NW border underwent mylonitization. The magmatic foliation shows NE-SW and NNE-SSW strike directions with moderate to strong dip respectively in its northern and central parts. This mostly, ferromagnetic granite displays magnetic fabrics carried by magnetite and characterized by (i) magnetic foliation with best poles at 295/34, 283/33 and 35/59 respectively in its northern, central and southern parts and (ii) a subhorizontal magnetic lineation with best line at 37/8, 191/9 and 267/22 respectively in the northern, central and southern parts. Magnetic lineation shows an `S' shape trend that allows to (1) consider the complete emplacement and deformation of the pluton during the Pan-African D 2 and D 3 events which occurred in the Pan-African belt in Cameroon and (2) reorganize Pan-African ages from Nguiessi Tchakam et al. (1997) compared with those of the other granitic plutons in the belt as: 686 ±17 Ma (Rb/Sr) for D 1 age of metamorphism recorded in gneiss; and the period between 604-557 Ma for D 2-D 3 emplacement and deformation age of the granitic pluton in a dextral ENE-WSW shear movement.

  10. Small ads as first steps to Internet business: A preliminary survey of Cameroon's commercial Internet usage

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitlyn, David; Barone, Francine

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed current commercial use of the Internet in Cameroon. This paper provides some data on Cameroon's presence on the Internet as an initial means of assessing the impact information technologies and the Internet have had on local business practices in Cameroon. We have found some NGOs promoting entrepreneurs and artisan producers to sell their wares. Alongside tourism and import/export listings, the use of small ads is predominant. Connectivity via fixed lines remains a bottleneck...

  11. Entrepreneurship Development in a Local Context: Evidence from Entrepreneurs in the Eastern Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In Cameroon, entrepreneurial activities are developed from two main cities namely; Douala and Yaound¨¦. Therefore researches on entrepreneurship development in Cameroon are based on entrepreneurs from these main cities, while other regions entrepreneurial activities are not considered as a target for entrepreneurship analysis. This paper analyses entrepreneurial activities in Eastern Cameroon that has a lowest level of enterprise creation that is in contrast to the abundant natural resources ...

  12. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty-Bone, T.M.; Gonwouo, N.L.; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T.; C. Weldon

    2013-01-01

    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n...

  13. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Mandelli; Emanuela Colombo; Jerome Mungwe

    2016-01-01

    Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper ...

  14. Why Are Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) Free of SIVcpz Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Harrigan, Ryan J; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; McKean, Kurt A; Smith, Thomas B; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) naturally infects two subspecies of chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes troglodytes from Central Africa (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurtii from East Africa (SIVcpzPts), but is absent in P. t. verus from West Africa and appears to be absent in P. t. ellioti inhabiting Nigeria and western Cameroon. One explanation for this pattern is that P. t. troglodytes and P. t schweinfurthii may have acquired SIVcpz after their divergence from P. t. verus and P. t. ellioti. However, all of the subspecies, except P. t. verus, still occasionally exchange migrants making the absence of SIVcpz in P. t. ellioti puzzling. Sampling of P. t. ellioti has been minimal to date, particularly along the banks of the Sanaga River, where its range abuts that of P. t. troglodytes. This study had three objectives. First, we extended the sampling of SIVcpz across the range of chimpanzees north of the Sanaga River to address whether under-sampling might account for the absence of evidence for SIVcpz infection in P. t. ellioti. Second, we investigated how environmental variation is associated with the spread and prevalence of SIVcpz in the two chimpanzee subspecies inhabiting Cameroon since environmental variation has been shown to contribute to their divergence from one another. Finally, we compared the prevalence and distribution of SIVcpz with that of Simian Foamy Virus (SFV) to examine the role of ecology and behavior in shaping the distribution of diseases in wild host populations. The dataset includes previously published results on SIVcpz infection and SFVcpz as well as newly collected data, and represents over 1000 chimpanzee fecal samples from 41 locations across Cameroon. Results revealed that none of the 181 P. t. ellioti fecal samples collected across the range of P. t. ellioti tested positive for SIVcpz. In addition, species distribution models suggest that environmental variation contributes to differences in the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz and

  15. PAN-AFRICAN CENTRAL AFRICAN FOLD BELT, WITH EMPHASIS ON BEDROCKS AND HEAVY MINERAL ANALYSIS OF RIVER ALLUVIUM IN THE NORTHERN CAMEROON%中非造山带:喀麦隆北部地质构造与河流沉积物重矿物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶浩; Merlain Houketchang Bouyo; 赵越; 刘健

    2014-01-01

    简要叙述冈瓦纳超大陆聚合过程和中非造山带泛非期地质构造过程,剖析了西冈瓦纳喀麦隆北部和乍得西南地区岩石构造单元及其形成的构造背景并对喀麦隆北部河流冲积物进行了重矿物分析.分析结果表明重矿物可能来自近源基岩,为西喀麦隆地体(Western Cameroon Domain)内的雷博巴(Rey Bouba)绿岩带和马约科比(Mayo Kebbi)弧岩浆岩带;重矿物中的自然金可能主要来自雷博巴绿岩带.分析结果为该地区砂金矿开采提供了一定的指示.

  16. Teachers’ approaches to language classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achu Charles Tante

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessment has a huge impact on ESL primary pupils, in part, because on the curriculum English is both a subject and also a language of learning all the other subjects. For children still acquiring L1 it is daunting sometimes to be expected to understand concepts in L2. It may be difficult then to gather information to make an impartial judgement with regards to a pupil’s language level. This study is a preliminary inquiry that attempts to find out teachers’ approaches to classroom assessment in Cameroon primary schools. Using a qualitative open-ended question the researcher finds out three main categories of assessment approaches used by teachers. From the categories extrapolations on possible assumptions that guide teachers’ choices of assessment procedures are described and suggested for future study. Keywords Classroom assessment approach, Cameroon, scheme of work, ESL/EFL, Young Learners 

  17. Bars to jars: bamboo value chains in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Verina; Tieguhong, Julius Chupezi

    2013-04-01

    Bamboo is a well know and versatile material, which is a common sight across Cameroon's diverse ecosystems, from dry to humid tropical and Afromontane forests. Its numerous uses range from storage jars to decorating restaurant-bars, beehives to knives, fences, fodder, and fuel. Responding to the paucity of data on species and uses, the value chain for bamboo in Cameroon was analyzed. Based on 171 interviews and field observations, two African indigenous species (alpine Yushania alpina and savannah Oxytenanthera abyssinica) and exotic (Bambusa vulgaris spp.) bamboos were identified as most utilized. They were tracked from major production zones to final consumers. The ecological, socio-economic, institutional, and governance contexts and impacts are described and analyzed. Issues for research, conservation, and development are highlighted. These include the ambiguous regulatory status, the relationship between tenure and management, threats and conservation of African species and options to increase the sustainable livelihoods for stakeholders dependent upon bamboo. PMID:23015325

  18. Evaluation of health policies : an economic analysis applied to Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nkwenkeu, Sylvain F.

    2014-01-01

    In Cameroon, the sequence of reforms in the health sector has reinforced an ideological wavering between two opposing currents: a socio-universal that promotes equity, and a neoliberal, which militates for greater economic efficiency of existing systems. Articulating two concerns which are, the worsening of health inequalities as consequence of policy choices made on the efficacy of services without taking into account factors that support the demand, and the form of organization of the healt...

  19. Anglophone university students and anglophone nationalist struggles in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of student politics in Africa during economic and political liberalization cannot be underestimated. However, this study of anglophone students in Cameroon cautions against treating students as a homogeneous group. It shows that although anglophone students today feel even more marginalized than their francophone counterparts, they have actually displayed a rather ambivalent attitude towards the francophone-dominated State. The author first describes the development of anglopho...

  20. Marketing Cameroon as a Cultural Tourism Destination to Finnish Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Akuri, Lucien; Landa Celestin, Ndingi

    2013-01-01

    Cultural tourism is already a global phenomenon and has been increasingly promoted in the forms such as heritage, arts, creative, rural and urban cultural tourism, amongst others, and their sub-sections. The marketing of these cultural tourism forms and their attractions by various tourism destinations to target markets is still complex and thus, a major challenge. The study investigates the ways in which Cameroon with very rich and diverse cultural products and attractions can be markete...

  1. Impact of agribusiness labour on the child education in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwang N Gildas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the involvement of child labour in agribusinesses as well as the schooling pattern of children involved in these agribusinesses in Cameroon. For this study, some descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were computed using SPSS.20 and stata 13 software packages. The population of this study was made up of 51,190 individuals of both sexes that were concerned by the third Cameroon National Household Survey. The sample drawn from this population was constituted of individuals of age 5-17 years old, making a total of 17,550 children. The main results of this study revealed that agribusiness child labour was present everywhere in Cameroon and by both boys and girls. Children of all ages of the sample were concerned by the phenomenon and their level of education was essentially the primary. The impact of agribusiness child labour on education was positive because it helped the working and schooling children to provide means to finance their education and other needs. On the other hand, it has a negative impact on education because some children went for these jobs and finally stayed there and did not return back to school.

  2. Dentofacial injuries in contact sports in Yaounde, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Agbor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentofacial injuries constitute serious problems among competitive and recreational athletes, worldwide. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dentofacial injuries and related factors among individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study among individuals participating in karate, judo, basketball, handball, football and wrestling in Yaoundé, Cameroon was conducted between January and April, 2012. Results: Of the 240 athletes interviewed, 115 and 89 of them reported bodily and dentofacial injuries giving 47.9% and 37.1% prevalence, respectively. The bodily injuries were limbs-(60.0%, chest-(23.5%, abdomen-(11.3% and neck- (5.2%. Mouth and face accounted for 52.8% and 37.1% of the dentofacial injuries, respectively. Other dentofacial injuries were teeth-(6.7% and mandible-(3.4%. Older athletes and years of participation were more likely to experience dentofacial injuries. Karate was the most common cause of dentofacial injuries followed by wrestling. The prevalence of the dentofacial injuries was similar among both genders and was equally prevalent during training and competition. The personal protective equipment use reduced the likelihood of dentofacial injuries among the athletes. Conclusion: The prevalence of dentofacial injuries were high while the personal protective equipment use was low among the individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

  3. Typology of Natural Hazards and Assessment of Associated Risks in the Mount Bambouto Caldera (Cameroon Line, West Cameroon)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghislain T. ZANGMO; Armand D. KAGOU; David G. NKOUATHIO; Pierre WANDJI

    2009-01-01

    Mount Bambouto is a polygenic stratovoicano of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, built between 21 Ma and 4.5 Ma. It is situated approximately 200 km NE of Mount Cameroon, between 09°55' and 10°15' longitude east and, 05°25' and 05°50' latitude north. The volcano covers an area of (13×8 km). Mount Bambouto is characterized by several natural hazards of different origins: meteorological, such as landslides and rock falls; anthropogenic, such as bushfires, tribal wars and deforestation; and volcanological, such as volcanic eruption. The thematic map shows that 55-60% of the caldera has high probability of occurrence of mass movement. The caldera has a high population density (3000 inhabitants), which increases the level of risk, evaluated at approximately $US3.8 million for patrimony, 3000 civilian deaths and destruction of biodiversity.

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Special Education Needs in Cameroon Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrah, Rosemary Oneke; Swain, Kristine D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of including students with special education needs in Cameroon secondary schools. Teachers (N = 130) from five secondary government, denominational or lay private schools in Buea subdivision of Cameroon, Africa, completed a 26-item survey. The survey was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests,…

  5. Economic management in neo-colonial states : a case study of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jua, N.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the economic management strategies adopted by the Government of Cameroon. Economic planning in Cameroon has been anchored to the principles of planned liberalism, self-reliant development, balanced development and social justice. These concepts are elaborated and it is shown that

  6. Adaptation of Regional Representative Soil Project and Soil Judging for Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Celestine Akuma

    2013-01-01

    Representative regional soils have agricultural, cultural, economic, environmental, and historical importance to Cameroon. Twenty seven regional representative soils have been identified in Cameroon. A set of laboratory exercises, assignments and exam questions have been developed utilizing the Regional Representative Soil Project (RRSP) that…

  7. High prevalence and predominance of hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 infection in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foupouapouognigni, Yacouba; Noah, Dominique Noah; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Njouom, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) were found in 17.6% of 233 hepatitis B virus surface antigen-positive subjects in Cameroon. Phylogenetic analyses showed the presence of HDV-1, HDV-5, HDV-6, and HDV-7 genotypes. These results enrich the limited data on HDV prevalence and molecular diversity in Cameroon. PMID:21209162

  8. Use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to obtain termites (Macrotermes) in the periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve, southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Isra; Guislain, Patrick; Dupain, Jef; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-12-01

    At the northern periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve (southeastern Cameroon) we recorded a new use of a tool-set by Pan troglodytes troglodytes to prey on Macrotermes muelleri, M. renouxi, M. lilljeborgi, and M. nobilis. We recovered 79 puncturing sticks and 47 fishing probes at 17 termite nests between 2002 and 2005. The mean length of the puncturing sticks (n = 77) and fishing probes (n = 45) was 52 cm and 56 cm, respectively, and the mean diameter was 9 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. Sixty-eight percent of 138 chimpanzee fecal samples contained major soldiers of four Macrotermes species. The chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon appeared to be selective in their choice of plant material to make their tools. The tools found at our study site resemble those from other sites in this region. However, in southeastern Cameroon only one tool-set type was found, whereas two tool-set types have been reported in Congo. Our study suggests that, along with the different vegetation types and the availability of plant material around termite nests, the nest and gallery structure and foraging behavior of the different Macrotermes spp. at all Central African sites must be investigated before we can attribute differences in tool-use behavior to culture. PMID:17096418

  9. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin--A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Huai-liang; Zhu Bo; Chen Guo-jie; Gao Mei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biomass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biomass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  10. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin——A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoHuai-liang; ZhuBo; ChenGuo-jie; GaoMei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biornass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biornass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  11. Paleoproterozoic felsic volcanism of Iricoumé group, Erepecuru-Trombetas domain, Amazonian central province: Field and petrographic characterization and Pb-Pb zircon geochronology

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Travassos da Rosa Costa; Evandro Fernandes de Lima; Jean Michel Lafon; Carla Joana Santos Barreto

    2013-01-01

    The Iricoumé group consists of very well preserved pyroclastic and effusive volcanic rocks as a part of an extensive volcano-plutonic event, which marked the central part of the Amazonian craton during the Orosirian. Such rocks occur in the southern part of the southwestern of Erepecuru-Trombetas Domain (NW of the Pará state), south of the Guyana Shield. Petrographic study allows distinction of two volcanic types. A dominant explosive volcanism is characterized by pyroclastic rocks (ignimbrit...

  12. Characterization of Enteroviruses from non-human primates in cameroon revealed virus types widespread in humans along with candidate new types and species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs infecting African Non-Human Primates (NHP are still poorly documented. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of EVs among captive and wild NHP in Cameroon and to compare this diversity with that found in humans. Stool specimens were collected in April 2008 in NHP housed in sanctuaries in Yaounde and neighborhoods. Moreover, stool specimens collected from wild NHP from June 2006 to October 2008 in the southern rain forest of Cameroon were considered. RNAs purified directly from stool samples were screened for EVs using a sensitive RT-nested PCR targeting the VP1 capsid coding gene whose nucleotide sequence was used for molecular typing. Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla were primarily infected by EV types already reported in humans in Cameroon and elsewhere: Coxsackievirus A13 and A24, Echovirus 15 and 29, and EV-B82. Moreover EV-A119, a novel virus type recently described in humans in central and west Africa, was also found in a captive Chimpanzee. EV-A76, which is a widespread virus in humans, was identified in wild chimpanzees, thus suggesting its adaptation and parallel circulation in human and NHP populations in Cameroon. Interestingly, some EVs harbored by wild NHP were genetically distinct from all existing types and were thus assigned as new types. One chimpanzee-derived virus was tentatively assigned as EV-J121 in the EV-J species. In addition, two EVs from wild monkeys provisionally registered as EV-122 and EV-123 were found to belong to a candidate new species. Overall, this study indicates that the genetic diversity of EVs among NHP is more important than previously known and could be the source of future new emerging human viral diseases.

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Cameroon. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Cameroon estimates the Speculative Resources of that country to be in the order of 10 000 tonnes uranium for syenite-associated U-deposits in southern Cameroon, and in the order of 5 000 tonnes uranium for uranium deposits associated with albitized and desilicified late tectonic Panafrican granites (episyenite) and Paleozoic volcanics in northern Cameroon. No specific tonnage is given for Francevillian equivalents (DJA-Series) and for Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, which are thought to hold limited potential for sandstone hosted uranium. However the Douala basin, consisting of mixed marine and continental sequences merits some attention. No specific budget and programme for uranium exploration are proposed for Cameroon. Instead specific recommendations concerning specific potential environments and general recommendation concerning the methodology of exploration are made. (author)

  14. Plantation labour and economic crisis in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The few existing studies on the response of labour to the economic crisis and structural adjustment in African countries tend to focus on the (oppositional) relations between the State and central labour organizations. They largely ignore the response of workers and unions at the workplace. This art

  15. Correlating the end-Triassic mass extinction and basalt volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province at the 100,000-year level by high-precision U-Pb age determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, Blair; Guex, Jean; Bartolini, Annachiara; Schaltegger, Urs; Blackburn, Terrence J.

    2010-05-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction is one of the five largest extinctions in Earth history, though considerable uncertainty remains in terms of its duration, causes and effects. Many workers suggest that the extinction was related directly or indirectly to adverse climate following the onset of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), which erupted > 2.5x106 km3 of basalt in less than 1 Ma. However, there remains a need for precise and accurate geochronology to correlate the onset of CAMP volcanism, recorded uniquely in terrestrial sections, with the well-documented marine extinction event. We provide new chemical abrasion ID-TIMS U-Pb age determinations on ash bed and basaltic zircons using the well-calibrated EARTHTIME 202Pb-205Pb-233U-235U tracer solution, yielding data that are up to 70% more precise compared to single-Pb/single-U tracers. We show that the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB) and end-Triassic biological crisis from two independent marine stratigraphic sections in northern Peru and in Nevada (USA) correlate with the onset of terrestrial flood volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) to <150 ka. Ash bed samples reveal complicated U-Pb systematics, showing ranges in 206Pb/238U zircon dates of up to 2 Ma, representing a range of growth histories prior to eruption. Therefore, we use the youngest single closed-system zircon to approximate the eruption date. Three volcanic ash beds from the Pucara basin, northern Peru, bracket the TJB to a 206Pb/238U age of 201.31 ± 0.18/0.31/0.43 Ma (internal uncertainties/ with tracer calibration uncertainty/ with decay constant uncertainties). The first discovered ash bed from the New York canyon, Nevada, 1.5 m above TJB requires a boundary age of less than 201.33 ± 0.13 Ma. We also provide data from two laboratories which yield a new 206Pb/238U zircon age of 201.28 ± 0.02/0.22/0.31 Ma for the North Mtn. basalt, the lowest CAMP basalt from the Fundy basin, Nova Scotia. This narrows the

  16. Ignimbrite Flare-up in the North-Central Sierra Madre del Sur, Southern Mexico: a Continuation of the Sierra Madre Occidental Ignimbrite Province?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Zenteno, D. J.; Alba-Aldave, L.; Gonzalez-Torres, E. A.; Martiny, B.; Bravo-Diaz, B. A.; Sohn, E.

    2007-05-01

    The north-central Sierra Madre del Sur, immediately south of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, is made up of a series of Eocene silicic volcanic centers distributed along a WNW trending 300 km long belt from Valle de Bravo to Huautla (98°50'-100°30'W longitude). This belt constitutes an inland arc near parallel to, and coeval with, the coastal batholitic belt of southern Mexico. It includes at least 9 exhumed volcanic edifices that display diverse caldera styles controlled by regional fracture zones and rheological contrasts in the host rocks. Initiation of the volcanism ranges from 37 Ma in the west to 32 Ma in the east, and extinction of magmatism was nearly simultaneous in the eastern half of the belt. Southwest of the silicic volcanic belt, andesitic volcanism is slightly younger (33-29 Ma) and the combined effect of post-Eocene uplift and erosion removed most of the extracaldera facies. The remnants of the silicic volcanic cover extend over an area of ~3000 km2. Reactivated fracture zones related to the volcanic activity include NW to W- trending faults that reveal a transition from left lateral to right lateral slip as result of a change in the stress field during the last stages of silicic volcanism. These and other groups of N-S to NNW trending faults accommodated the collapse structures and were the sites of emplacement of massive pyroclastic dikes. Immediately north of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt, ignimbrites and related rocks of the Mesa Central and southern Sierra Madre Occidental are slightly younger and display a westward 30 to ~15 Ma migration pattern accompanied by E-W regional extension. These patterns have been attributed to the roll back of the subducted slab, which caused the ascent of asthenospheric mantle and probably triggered ignimbrite flare-up. The distinct tectonic and geochronologic patterns of the arc volcanic rocks in the northern Sierra Madre del Sur and the southern Sierra Madre Occidental-Mesa Central suggests two slab segments

  17. Paleo- and rock magnetism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) from Portugal: global-scale correlations and implications for the paleogeography of Iberia at 200 Ma

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Susana de Lurdes Alves

    2013-01-01

    A Província Magmática do Atlântico Central (CAMP) é considerada uma das maiores províncias ígneas do Fanerozóico e é contemporânea da crise biológica que marca a transição Triássico-Jurássico (Tr-J) (~200 Ma). Vestígios desta província são encontrados em quatro continentes com uma área que excede os 100 milhões de km2, o que leva muitos cientistas a acreditar que a crise biológica que marca este período é provocada pela erupção desta província magmática. Neste sentido, as lavas da CAMP têm si...

  18. Notes on the blood-feeding behavior of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamgang Basile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus is often considered a poor vector of human pathogens, owing to its catholic feeding behavior. However, it was recently incriminated as a major vector in several Chikungunya epidemics, outside of its native range. Here we assessed two key elements of feeding behavior by Ae. albopictus females in Yaoundé, Cameroon, Central Africa. Host preference was explored and the human-biting activity of females was monitored over 24 h to determine periods of maximum bite exposure. Findings Analysis of ingested blood in outdoor-resting females showed that Ae. albopictus preferentially fed on humans rather than on available domestic animals (95% of the blood meals contained human blood. Our results further showed that Ae. albopictus is a day-biting species in Yaoundé, with a main peak of activity in the late afternoon. Conclusion This is the first report on the feeding behavior of Ae. albopictus in Central Africa. The species is highly aggressive to humans and might therefore be involved in human-human virus transmission in this setting.

  19. High Risk Behaviours and Schistosomiasis Infection in Kumba, South-West Province, Cameroon

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    R. C. Ratard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Kumba, a town with a population of mixed background and socio-economic status, is a new and intense focus of schistosomiasis. Although fountains provide clean water, the population still uses the river and streams which cross the town for most of its bathing, laundry and swimming activities. A multivariate analysis indicated that a local subject’s age, ethnic group, knowledge about schistomiasis and the intensity of his or her contact with the river and/or stream were all significantly associated with schistosome infection. Surprisingly, a high level of knowledge about schistosomiasis was positively associated with the infection. The potential risk of schistosome infection from water contact shows that; the younger age groups are at relatively high risk and male are at more risk than females. In terms of knowledge about schistosomiasis those aged 15-19 years had the highest means score and those aged >44 years the lowest, with males having a significantly higher knowledge than females. Age, as expected and as observed in most schistosomiasis surveys, was a major determinant of schistosomiasis infection. At similar level of exposure children are more susceptible to schistosomiasis probably because they lack the immunity built up in the adults as a result of previous infections. Most surface-water contact by the children, the group most affected by schistosomiasis, occurs during playing and swimming. It is unlikely that health education will have a significant impact on this recreational high-risk behaviour.

  20. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

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    Jan kornaś

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  1. Compatibility of Schistosoma mansoni Cameroon and Biomphalaria pfeifferi Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, V. R.; Tchuem Tchuenté, L. A.; Théron, A.; JOURDANE, J; Ly, A.; Moncrieff, C. B.; B. Gryseels

    2000-01-01

    The vectorial capacity of Biomphalaria pfeifferi from Ndiangue, Senegal, was investigated with an allopatric isolate of Schistosoma mansoni from Nkolbisson, Cameroon. The snail infection rate after exposure to a single miracidium per snail (MD1) was 56. 3 %, and 91.6%, for snails exposed to 5 miracidia per snail (MD5). The minimum pre-patent period was 21 days. The mean total cercarial production for the MDI group was 18,511 cercariae per snail, and 9757 cercariae for the MD5 group. The maxim...

  2. Informal chain-saw timber from Cameroon : the northern trail

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah Alexis Koffi

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a synthesis of the unformal trade of timber in Cameroon. It focuses on the informal trade which occurs from tropical forests towards various countries of Africa. This trade, largely ignored by the litterature so far, is surprisingly important, and its geographical extension is very large. The data and figures are extracted from the master thesis of the author : Sciage artisanal, Transformation et commerce du bois d'oeuvre du Cameroun à destination de l'arc Soudano-Sahél...

  3. Application of energy conservation policies and strategies: their effects on environment protection. Cameroon example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geographical situation of Cameroon, at the intersection of the semi-desert sahelian and tropical forest ecosystems, an energy consumption balance dominated by wood fuel utilization (68.5 pc.), a transportation sector responsible for 71.5 pc. of the oil consumption and of the CO/CO2 emissions, all confer to the Cameroon a particularity that put the country at the heart of the energy-environment debate: ecological threats from oil extraction and hydroelectricity production activities, desertification and global warming in Cameroon; several limited programs are taken: reforestation, enhanced wood cookers, substitution of liquid propane to wood fuel. A global strategy is under way

  4. Distribution of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (Nav) Alleles among the Aedes aegypti Populations In Central Java Province and Its Association with Resistance to Pyrethroid Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayono, Sayono; Hidayati, Anggie Puspa Nur; Fahri, Sukmal; Sumanto, Didik; Dharmana, Edi; Hadisaputro, Suharyo; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Syafruddin, Din

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of insecticide resistant Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has hampered dengue control efforts. WHO susceptibility tests, using several pyrethroid compounds, were conducted on Ae. aegypti larvae that were collected and raised to adulthood from Semarang, Surakarta, Kudus and Jepara in Java. The AaNaV gene fragment encompassing kdr polymorphic sites from both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes was amplified, and polymorphisms were associated with the resistant phenotype. The insecticide susceptibility tests demonstrated Ae, aegypti resistance to the pyrethroids, with mortality rates ranging from 1.6%–15.2%. Three non-synonymous polymorphisms (S989P, V1016G and F1534C) and one synonymous polymorphism (codon 982) were detected in the AaNaV gene. Eight AaNaV alleles were observed in specimens from Central Java. Allele 3 (SGF) and allele 7 (PGF) represent the most common alleles found and demonstrated strong associations with resistance to pyrethroids (OR = 2.75, CI: 0.97–7.8 and OR = 7.37, CI: 2.4–22.5, respectively). This is the first report of 8 Ae. aegypti AaNaV alleles, and it indicates the development of resistance in Ae. aegypti in response to pyrethroid insecticide-based selective pressure. These findings strongly suggest the need for an appropriate integrated use of insecticides in the region. The 989P, 1016G and 1534C polymorphisms in the AaNaV gene are potentially valuable molecular markers for pyrethroid insecticide resistance monitoring. PMID:26939002

  5. The behaviour of consumer prices across provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Measures of core inflation enable a central bank to distinguish price movements that are transitory and generated by non-monetary events from those that are more permanent and related to prior monetary policy decisions. The author uses standard statistical measures to assess the behaviour of consumer prices across provinces and identify price components with more divergent price patterns. The results indicate that energy, shelter and tobacco prices are the most volatile across provinces. Very...

  6. Palaeoclimate reconstructions from lacustrine terraces and lake-balance modeling in the southern central Andes: New insights from Salar de Pocitos (Salta Province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Benjamin; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Freymark, Jessica; Eckelmann, Felix; Alonso, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    The arid Puna Plateau in the southern central Andes of NW-Argentina constitutes the southern part of Earth's second largest orogenic plateau. Numerous internally drained basins are restricted by ranges that peak 5-6 km above sea level, creating a compressional basin and range morphology. The conspiring effects of this structurally controlled topography and the high degree of aridity have resulted in low stream power of the fluvial network and internally drained basins. A steep rainfall gradient exists across this area ranging from a humid Andean foreland (>1m/yr annual rainfall) to progressively drier areas westwards. At the present-day, the interior of the plateau is widely characterized by Salar de Pocitos (24.5°S, 67°W, 3650 m asl) records repeated former lake highstands. This intermontane basin has existed since the late Tertiary, constituting a 435 km² salt flat in the region of Salta, NW Argentina. Comparison with palaeoclimate records from the neighboring Salar de Atacama suggests that the terrace systems at Salar de Pocitos were formed during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene. Here we report on our preliminary results of the extent of several terrace generations in this region. We mapped terraces in the field and on satellite images and determined their elevations during a high-resolution DGPS field survey. Our analysis reveals 3-4 distinct terrace levels associated with individual lake-level highstands. However, basin-wide correlation is difficult due to ongoing tectonism and differential tilting of the basin. The highest lake terrace, ca. 25 m above modern base level, locally comprises a calcrete horizon, which provided a 14C age of 40.180 (+1420/-1200) yr BP, which may coincide with a protracted highstand in other basins in the Puna and the Bolivian Altiplano. If the extent of this pronounced terrace is used for volumetric calculations, the corresponding former water body involved 8 km³. To reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions and the

  7. [Evaluation of the use of diagnostic/treatment algorithms in the health centers of North Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegeman, F; Ledecq, J L; Wyffels, A; Dama, K

    1994-09-01

    In February 1993, four years after their introduction, an assessment was made of the use of clinical flow charts (algorithms) by 16 nurses in charge of primary medical health centers in Northern Cameroon (Diamare Division, Far North Province). A study of the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the nurses shows the flow charts to be appreciated as a tool for diagnostic aid and for professional training. 11 nurses report an initial systematic use of the flow charts. This associates with the observation of good skills in using the charts, observed among 10 of the nurses, and also with treatment standardisation. Problems in reading the flow charts correctly hinder their systematic use in diagnostic decision making. A retrospective analysis of 800 treatment prescriptions noted in the consultation registers, shows an average rate of treatment standardisation of 75%, varying from 52 to 98% among the different health centers. Three quarters of non standardised treatment is ineffective or inefficient. Specific training is using the flow charts, given in the form of a 4 day seminar to 7 of the nurses concerned, showed no better results, after 4 years, than those obtained during a practical training session of a global nature, taking place in a functional health centre. Basic professional training, as well as previous professional experience influences the performances of the nurses. This study confirms the need to introduce rationalisation in the prescription of treatment, and shows the importance of verifying practical user skills at the end of specific training sessions. It would be advisable to include the principles of clinical algorithms in the teaching programs of medical schools. PMID:7840690

  8. Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to study the nature of the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Cameroon through a three-step approach: (i) Study the stationarity of the chronic, (ii) test of causality between variables and (iii) estimate the appropriate model. The study concludes in a non-stationarity of the series. Using the data in first difference, the Granger causality test yields a strong evidence for unidirectional causality running from OIL to GDP. Cointegration tests also show that these two series are co-integrated and the Error Correction Model (ECM) reveals that every percentage increase in Oil products consumption increases economic growth by around 1.1%. This result confirms the intuition that an economic policy aimed at improving energy supply will necessarily have a positive impact on economic growth. On the other side, a lack of energy is a major bottleneck for further economic development in Cameroon. - Highlights: • The series of GDP, ELECTRICITY, OIL and BIOFUELS are integrated of order 1. • The Granger causality test yields a unidirectional causality running from OIL to GDP. • No causal link between GDP and ELECTRICITY, and no more between GDP and BIOFUELS. • Cointegration tests also show that only OIL and GDP are co-integrated. • Every percentage increase in OIL increases GDP by around 1.1%

  9. The Weight of Health Expenditures on Household Income in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Parfait OWOUNDI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  African leaders pledged at the Abuja conference in 2001, to mobilize more financial resources to allocate at least 15% of their national budgets to the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, seem to have difficulty meeting this commitment because of weakness and fragmentation of health systems. These commitments were renewed in Gaborone, Botswana in 2005 and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2006. Indeed, donor funding is still a large part of public health spending on the continent. In some countries, 50% or more of their budgets come from foreign or private assistance. In about half the countries, the private health financing is equal to or exceeds largely public funding, up to 70% in some states like Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia and Uganda. Only five countries (Rwanda, Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso, and Togo have so far respected the promise made to the Abuja conference. In Cameroon, where 51% of the population lives on less than two dollars per day, the average propensity of the total medical consumption is very high. Indeed, 32% of households spend less than half of income on health, while 16% of households spend more than half of the income and 52% spend more than the total income. This corresponds to a weight of 68% in health care spending.  

  10. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

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    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  11. Poverty and Share Revenue in the Cameroon Cocoa Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folefack, DP.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the revenue level and unequal poverty revenue in the Cameroonian cocoa zone. The results show a great variability on the revenues generating activities to producers of cocoa in Cameroon. These activities generate an average revenue of 1 215 622 FCFA per year, with an annual average revenue of 145 933 FCFA per person. We realize through the indice of Gini 0.61 that the concentration of these revenues is most strong in Cameroon and the poverty rate is still affecting 69% of the population. We observe as well that the average revenue of 228 263 FCFA per year and per person for the producers of South West. They are thus the richest, inspite of the high degree of concentration. In the Centre, the population have a high average annual revenue of 87 257 FCFA per person and the concentration seems to be in a lower degree. Finally, in the South we find the poorest with a revenue of 53 504 FCFA per year and per person and the concentration is more important. An analysis based on unequal indicators shows in general that the revenue per person is relatively low and the degree of concentration of revenue is stronger in the Cameroonian cocoa zone.

  12. Local governance in disaster risk reduction in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buh-Wung Gaston

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework from the civil society perspective, particularly the role of local governance in disaster risk reduction (DRR. Seven regions of the country were identified for evaluation, where people have suffered losses from disasters during the last three decades. Three approaches were used: administration of questionnaires; consultations with local communities; and four case studies. It was found that there was significant scope for improvement on individual local governance indicators, and that effective progress depends on:1. level of achievement in the decentralisation process currently under way.2. adoption of a participatory approach to DRR.3. clear distribution of roles in the DRR process.4. adequate allocation of necessary financial and human resources.5. enhancement of capacity of local communities to prepare for and respond to all types of disasters.Creation of an independent body to carry out fundamental research, forecast new and emerging hazards and manage all disasters in the country will contribute greatly to moving things forward.

  13. Caracterización de la zona de alteración Central II, Bloque San Rafael, provincia de Mendoza Characteristics of Central II alteration zone, San Rafael Massif, province of Mendoza

    OpenAIRE

    M.F. Gargiulo; N. Rubinstein; F. Carpio; J. Salvarredi

    2007-01-01

    Se presenta el estudio petrográfico de las muestras de superficie correspondientes a la zona de alteración Central II, localizada en el Bloque San Rafael, provincia de Mendoza (34°54'56" S; 68°37'02" O). La misma está relacionada a la intrusión de un cuerpo hipabisal de composición riolítica alojado en una sucesión de rocas volcánicas y volcaniclásticas de la sección superior del Grupo Choiyoi. La zona de alteración está representada por sericitización generalizada a la que se sobreimponen br...

  14. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefie-Arrey Charles

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis have previously been reported in two zones of the Southwest Province of Cameroon including the Kupe mountain and Mundani foci. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and epidemiology of paragonimiasis in the peri-urban zone of Kumba, Meme Division, located about 50 km away from the Kupe mountain focus. Methods Pupils of several government primary schools in 5 villages around Kumba underwent both parasitologic and clinical investigations in search of signs and symptoms of paragonimiasis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also searched for in the differential diagnosis.Freshwater crabs from neighbouring streams in the five villages were dissected in search of paragonimus metacercariae. Results Out of a total of 1482 pupils examined in all five villages, 309 individuals (147 males and 162 females were recruited for this study based on the presence of one or more signs or symptoms of paragonimiasis. Eggs of Paragonimus africanus were found in stools and/or sputum of pupils from all five villages, giving an overall paragonimus prevalence of 2.56%. There was no significant difference in the disease prevalence between the villages (X2 = 8.36, P = 0.08. The prevalence of Paragonimus africanus eggs amongst pupils with symptoms of paragonimiasis was 12.3% (38 of 309. Males were infected more than females (17.0% versus 8.0%, but the difference was not significant (X2 = 5.76, P = 0.16. All the 38 paragonimus egg positive subjects presented with cough, 23 (60.53% complained of chest pain while 16 (42.11% had haemoptysis. Stool examinations also detected some intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides (29.45%, Trichuris trichiura (6.47%, Necator americanus (2.27%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.62%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.65%, and Entamoeba histolytica (4.53%. No case of M. tuberculosis was noted. Out of a total of 85 dissected crabs (Sudanonautes africanus, 6.02 % were infected with paragonimus

  15. Zircon dating and mineralogy of the Mokong Pan-African magmatic epidote-bearing granite (North Cameroon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchameni, R.; Sun, F.; Dawaï, D.; Danra, G.; Tékoum, L.; Nomo Negue, E.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Nzolang, C.; Dagwaï, Nguihdama

    2015-12-01

    We present the mineralogy and age of the magmatic epidote-bearing granite composing most of the Mokong pluton, in the Central Africa orogenic belt (North Cameroon). This pluton intrudes Neoproterozoic (~830 to 700 Ma) low- to high-grade schists and gneisses (Poli-Maroua group), and is crosscut or interleaved with bodies of biotite granite of various sizes. The pluton is weakly deformed in its interior, but solid-state deformation increases toward its margins marked by narrow mylonitic bands trending NNE-SSW. The magmatic epidote granitic rocks are classified as quartz monzodiorite, granodiorite, monzogranite, and syenogranite. They are medium- to coarse-grained and composed of K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + amphibole + epidote + magnetite + titanite + zircon + apatite. In these granites, the pistacite component [atomic Fe+3/(Fe3+ + Al)] in epidote ranges from 16 to 29 %. High oxygen fugacity (log ƒO2 - 14 to -11) and the preservation of epidote suggest that the magma was oxidized. Al-in hornblende barometry and hornblende-plagioclase thermometry indicate hornblende crystallization between 0.53 and 0.78 GPa at a temperature ranging from 633 to 779 °C. Zircon saturation thermometry gives temperature estimates ranging from 504 to 916 °C, the latter being obtained on samples containing inherited zircons. U/Pb geochronology by LA-ICP-MS on zircon grains characterized by magmatic zoning yields a concordia age of 668 ± 11 Ma (2σ). The Mokong granite is the only known occurrence magmatic epidote in Cameroon, and is an important milestone for the comparison of the Central Africa orogenic belt with the Brasiliano Fold Belt, where such granites are much more abundant.

  16. Food habits of two sciaenid fish species (Pseudotolithus typus and Pseudotolithus senegalensis) off Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Tientcheu, J.Y.; Djama, T.

    1994-01-01

    Pseudotolithus typus and P. senegalensis (Sciaenidae) sampled off Cameroon Coast, West Africa, have been found to feed mainly on shrimps (Nematoplaemon hastatus and Parapenaeopsis atlantica) and juvenile fish (mostly clupeids). The diet composition is presented and discussed.

  17. Ecological niche partitioning between Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in Cameroon: the ecological side of speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotsing Jean-Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speciation among members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is thought to be promoted by disruptive selection and ecological divergence acting on sets of adaptation genes protected from recombination by polymorphic paracentric chromosomal inversions. However, shared chromosomal polymorphisms between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae and insufficient information about their relationship with ecological divergence challenge this view. We used Geographic Information Systems, Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, and Bayesian multilocus genetic clustering to explore the nature and extent of ecological and chromosomal differentiation of M and S across all the biogeographic domains of Cameroon in Central Africa, in order to understand the role of chromosomal arrangements in ecological specialisation within and among molecular forms. Results Species distribution modelling with presence-only data revealed differences in the ecological niche of both molecular forms and the sibling species, An. arabiensis. The fundamental environmental envelope of the two molecular forms, however, overlapped to a large extent in the rainforest, where they occurred in sympatry. The S form had the greatest niche breadth of all three taxa, whereas An. arabiensis and the M form had the smallest niche overlap. Correspondence analysis of M and S karyotypes confirmed that molecular forms shared similar combinations of chromosomal inversion arrangements in response to the eco-climatic gradient defining the main biogeographic domains occurring across Cameroon. Savanna karyotypes of M and S, however, segregated along the smaller-scale environmental gradient defined by the second ordination axis. Population structure analysis identified three chromosomal clusters, each containing a mixture of M and S specimens. In both M and S, alternative karyotypes were segregating in contrasted environments, in agreement with a strong ecological adaptive value of

  18. PROSTATIC ILLNESSES: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT WITH MEDICINAL PLANTS AT MAROUA (CAMEROON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noumi E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three fieldworks were done at Maroua area in the Northern Cameroon to evaluate the epidemiology and the prophylaxis of prostatic illnesses, in 2008-2010. Data from the central Hospital of Maroua permitted us to appreciate the epidemiology. Interviews on 22 patients showed the risk factors for the apparition of prostatic illnesses and discussion with 27 phytotherapists indicated the treatments as done in the study area.Surgical intervention of Urogenital tumors related to prostatic illnesses occupy a preponderant place (51% in the surgery Service of the regional Hospital of Maroua. The patients prefer to go to traditional Doctors for treatment although there, the diagnoses by symptoms are approximate. Four plants are the more used by the traditional healers in the treatment of the prostatic illnesses: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera, Sanseviera senegambica and Tamarindus indica; and 5 are new in the Cameroonian ethnobotany literature: Hyparrhenia nyassae, Hyphaene thebaica, Prosopis africana, Marsdenia sylvestri and Thelepogon elegans. The rate of monospecific recipe is lower (2/18 with respect to bispecific (12/18 or trispecific ones. The population of Maroua, both patients and phytotherapists, need some information on the feeding, the type of foods and the temperament of the prostate.

  19. Sustaining mother tongue medium education: An inter-community self-help framework in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatoh, Blasius A.

    2011-12-01

    Advocating mother tongue education implies recognising the centrality of linguistic and cultural diversity in quality and accessible education planning and delivery. In minority linguistic settings, this need becomes particularly urgent. Decades of exclusive promotion of foreign languages have rendered the educational system incapable of guaranteeing maximum quality, accessibility and equity. Also, due to long periods of marginalisation and disempowerment, most indigenous communities are unable to undertake viable self-reliant educational initiatives. As a result, planning and management of education is not adapted to the needs and realities of target populations. What such an educational approach has succeeded in achieving is to cultivate a culture of near-total dependence and consumerism. In minority language situations where mother tongue education is still primarily in the hands of private institutions and individuals, successful planning also means influencing the perceptions and attitudes of indigenous people and systematically integrating them into the educational process. This paper discusses grass-roots mother tongue education in Cameroon. It focuses on the inter-community self-help initiative as a local response framework and argues that this initiative is a strong indication of the desire of communities to learn and promote learning in their own languages.

  20. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Sodjinou, Roger; Lezama, Ines; Asse, Marie-Louise; Okala, Georges; William K. Bosu; Fanou, Nadia; Mbala, Ludvine; Zagre, Noel Marie; Tchibindat, Félicité; Delisle, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon.Design: Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administe...

  1. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Sodjinou; Ines Lezama; Marie-Louise Asse; Georges Okala; William K. Bosu; Nadia Fanou; Ludvine Mbala; Noel Marie Zagre; Félicité Tchibindat

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon. Design: Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administ...

  2. A crispy dedicacy : Augosoma beetle as alternative source of protein in East Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Muafor; Levang, Patrice; Le Gall, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that the exoskeleton of the Augosoma centaurus (Dynastinae) is hard and difficult to chew, this insect is often gathered in Eastern Cameroon for food in periods of availability. Nine ethnic groups in Eastern Cameroon were surveyed to understand the role of this insect in assuring food security, using quantitative and qualitative social science approaches. Both the larvae and adult stages of this beetle are habitually consumed in the areas studied. In total, about 65%...

  3. A Crispy Delicacy: Augosoma Beetle as Alternative Source of Protein in East Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Muafor; Levang, P.; Le Gall, P

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that the exoskeleton of the Augosoma centaurus (Dynastinae) is hard and difficult to chew, this insect is often gathered in Eastern Cameroon for food in periods of availability. Nine ethnic groups in Eastern Cameroon were surveyed to understand the role of this insect in assuring food security, using quantitative and qualitative social science approaches. Both the larvae and adult stages of this beetle are habitually consumed in the areas studied. In total, about 65% of consu...

  4. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were alr...

  5. THE IMPACTS OF SURFACE TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT TO TOURISM GROWTH : A case study of roads in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoye, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon is often referred to as Africa in miniature. Endowed with abundant touristic potential but not a popular tourist’s destination. In this nation can be found almost every touristic attraction that can be seen in all parts of Africa and others that can be found here and not elsewhere. It has three climate zones to feed the tourist tastes which is scarcely to be anywhere in Africa This splendid destination Cameroon has attractions like waterfalls, lakes, mountains, natural beaches, game ...

  6. Increased Carotid Thickness in Subjects with Recently-Diagnosed Diabetes from Rural Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Napoli; Enrico Zardi; Rocky Strollo; Michele Arigliani; Andrea Daverio; Flaminia Olearo; Daniele Tosi; Giordano Dicuonzo; Filomena Scarpa; Claudio Pedone; Hervé Hilaire Tegue Simo; Giovanni Mottini; Paolo Pozzilli

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study, carotid i...

  7. Gingival health and oral hygiene practices of schoolchildren in the North West Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Agbor, Ashu Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Optimal oral hygiene practices are instrumental to achieving good dental and gingival health. The purpose of this study was to determine the gingival health and oral hygiene practices of schoolchildren in the North West region of Cameroon. Methods This cross-sectional survey among 12–13 years old rural and urban schoolchildren in the North West region of Cameroon was conducted between March and November, 2010. Results A total of 2295 schoolchildren were interviewed but only 2287 of...

  8. Strengthening human resources for health through multisectoral approaches and leadership: the case of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kingue, S.; E Rosskam; AC Bela; A Adjidja; Codjia, L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Cameroon has a severe shortage of human resources for health (HRH) and those that are available are concentrated in urban areas. Approach As the result of a national emergency plan for the years 2006–2008, innovative strategies and a multisectoral partnership – led by the Ministry of Public Health and supported by diverse national and international organizations – were developed to address the shortages and maldistribution of HRH in Cameroon. Local setting At the time that the eme...

  9. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Henry N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon w...

  10. Proposing a Theoretical GIS Model for Landslides Analysis : The Case of Mount Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe-Ebot, Mathias Ashu Tako

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a theoretical GIS model to investigate the relative impacts of geomorphic and environmental factors that govern the occurrence of landslides on the slopes of Mount Cameroon and its surrounding areas. The study area is located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), a major structural feature that originates from the south Atlantic and continues into the continental landmass. The quite frequent seismic activity, geologic character, humid tropical climate and high human pres...

  11. Human Resource Management Issues at a Rising Entrepreneurial Company in Cameroon: Employees' Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    DeLancey, Rebecca Mbuh

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the human resources practices in Universal-Cameroon Link, a promising small business in Cameroon. In-depth interviews were conducted with current and past employees to gain insight into their perspectives on management implementation of human resource management strategies and their (non-)effectiveness. Management treatment of employees not as significant contributors to the growth and success of the business, but mere as "tools" has resulted in distrust from both par...

  12. Program on immunization and cold chain monitoring: the status in eight health districts in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ateudjieu, Jérôme; Kenfack, Bruno; Nkontchou, Blaise Wakam; Demanou, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Background Cold chain monitoring is a precondition to ensure immunization quality, efficacy and safety. In Cameroon, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has National Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) that describes the vaccines, the cold chain system and equipment, its use and recommended procedures to control and monitor the temperatures and the cold chain. This study was conducted to assess the status of cold chain in eight health districts in Cameroon. Findings The study was carrie...

  13. Hospital Workers' Awareness of Health and Environmental Impacts of Poor Clinical Waste Disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter I. K.; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection...... management. Methods of collecting, segregating, transporting and disposing clinical waste at the three hospitals was poor. The development of a comprehensive policy on efficient clinicalwaste management in Cameroon is imperative....

  14. Hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in the Northwest Region of Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter I K; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2010-01-01

    a survey to evaluate hospital workers' awareness of health and environmental impacts of poor clinical waste disposal in Cameroon. We randomly distributed 500 questionnaires to hospital workers in three hospitals in the Northwest Region of Cameroon in April 2008. In addition, we observed collection...... management. Methods of collecting, segregating, transporting and disposing clinical waste at the three hospitals was poor. The development of a comprehensive policy on efficient clinical waste management in Cameroon is imperative....

  15. Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Cameroon: Prospects for Elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues C Nana-Djeunga

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is one of the most debilitating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. It still presents as an important public health problem in many countries in the tropics. In Cameroon, where many NTDs are endemic, only scant data describing the situation regarding LF epidemiology was available. The aim of this study was to describe the current situation regarding LF infection in Cameroon, and to map this infection and accurately delineate areas where mass drug administration (MDA was required.The endemicity status and distribution of LF was assessed in eight of the ten Regions of Cameroon by a rapid-format card test for detection of W. bancrofti antigen (immunochromatographic test, ICT. The baseline data required to monitor the effectiveness of MDA was collected by assessing microfilariaemia in nocturnal calibrated thick blood smears in sentinel sites selected in the health districts where ICT positivity rate was ≥ 1%.Among the 120 health districts visited in the eight Regions during ICT survey, 106 (88.3% were found to be endemic for LF (i.e. had ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%, with infection rate from 1.0% (95% CI: 0.2-5.5 to 20.0% (95% CI: 10-30. The overall infection rate during the night blood survey was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.08-0.16 in 11 health districts out of the 106 surveyed; the arithmetic mean for microfilaria density was 1.19 mf/ml (95% CI: 0.13-2.26 for the total population examined.ICT card test results showed that LF was endemic in all the Regions and in about 90% of the health districts surveyed. All of these health districts qualified for MDA (i.e. ICT positivity rate ≥ 1%. Microfilariaemia data collected as part of this study provided the national program with baseline data (sentinel sites necessary to measure the impact of MDA on the endemicity level and transmission of LF important for the 2020 deadline for global elimination.

  16. Tungiasis: A Neglected Health Problem in Rural Cameroon

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    George Collins

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The jigger flea (Tunga penetrans is a parasitic insect that causes debility in resource-poor communities of the developing world. The flea originates from South America, but it has spread across the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia. Virulence, known as tungiasis, results from infestation by the fertilised female flea, which embeds into the epidermis (usually of the feet, feeds on lymph and swells as the eggs grow. The mature eggs are extruded onto the ground, where the larvae feed, pupate and metamorphose into the adult flea. Aim & Objectives: To ascertain the prevalence and impact of Tunga penetrans in a rural population of North-west Cameroon, in relation to a series of associated risk factors. Method/Study Design: In July and August 2008, a survey was carried out across a representative sample of compounds within nine villages in the Ndu sub-division of North-west Cameroon. The residents were questioned in relation to suggested risk factors, as well as local treatments and folklore. Their hands and feet were examined for the presence of tungiasis, and the number and locality of lesions were recorded. Results/Findings: 1,151 individuals were examined, including 567 males (49% and 584 females (51%. Of these, 53% were children (0-14 years, and 10% were elderly (60+ years. In total, 610 individuals (53% were infested with Tunga penetrans. Prevalence was higher in males (59% than in females (47% (p=0.004. Prevalence was highest in children, decreased in adults and increased again in the elderly. Illiterate people were more likely to suffer (59% than those who were literate (50% (p=0.05. The mean parasite intensity was 5.1, and the median parasite intensity was 2 (interquartile range, 2-5. Of those surveyed, 769 (67% had experienced the flea within the previous month, and 21% of the study sample did not consider jigger flea infestation to be a disease. Conclusion: The prevalence and impact of tungiasis in rural

  17. Recovery of conservation values in Central African rain forest after logging and shifting cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Shu, G.N.; Olff, H.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary forests in Central Africa are increasing in importance for biodiversity conservation as old growth forests outside the few protected areas are disappearing rapidly. We examined vegetation recovery in a lowland rain forest area in Cameroon based on a detailed botanical survey of old growth

  18. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadsby Elizabeth L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this country is a key transportation waypoint for international wildlife crime syndicates. Furthermore, Cameroon is home to two chimpanzee subspecies, which makes ascertaining the origins of these chimpanzees important for reintroduction planning and for scientific investigations involving these chimpanzees. Results We estimated geographic origins of 46 chimpanzees from the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC in Cameroon. Using Bayesian approximation methods, we determined their origins using mtDNA sequences and microsatellite (STRP genotypes compared to a spatial map of georeferenced chimpanzee samples from 10 locations spanning Cameroon and Nigeria. The LWC chimpanzees come from multiple regions of Cameroon or forested areas straddling the Cameroon-Nigeria border. The LWC chimpanzees were partitioned further as originating from one of three biogeographically important zones occurring in Cameroon, but we were unable to refine these origin estimates to more specific areas within these three zones. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chimpanzee hunting is widespread across Cameroon. Live animal smuggling appears to occur locally within Cameroon, despite the existence of local wildlife cartels that operate internationally. This pattern varies from the illegal wildlife trade patterns observed in other commercially valuable species, such as elephants, where specific populations are targeted for exploitation. A broader sample of rescued chimpanzees compared against a more

  19. Paths to Attaining Food Security: The Case of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis T. Yengoh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to develop a framework for characterizing agricultural growth orientations. We identify four main components in the global food system (technology, institutions, people, and natural resources. Based on the extent to which any two of these components are important in driving the growth of agriculture, we distinguish four main orientations of agricultural growth: local food, high resource-technology driven, guided technology driven, and right-to-food growth orientations. Given the social and environmental challenges that agricultural growth has to meet in Cameroon, we argue that the local food orientation and guided technology-driven orientation offer better opportunities for meeting the problem of food security in this country.

  20. Mechanisms for Quality Assurance of Universities in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a perspective look at the evolution of universities in Cameroon and the recent orientation of deregulation as it affects quality assurance in Cameroonian universities. The paper having identified these flaws attempted to elucidate the meaning of mechanism for Quality assurance in the face of deregulation. The regulatory mechanisms identified by this paper include inter- alia, appropriate scrutiny of new programmes, relying on impartial advise of examiners. Using the state law NO.98/004 of 1998 to compliment the efforts of internal school administration and above all opening linkages between universities and relating universities education in the World of science and technology. This paper does not only enhance quality assurance but also builds the idea of economic growth and development.

  1. Alcohol use and extramarital sex among men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiysonge Charles

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is believed to be driven by unsafe sex, and identification of modifiable risk factors of the latter is needed for comprehensive HIV prevention programming in the region. Some previous studies suggest an association between alcohol abuse and unsafe sexual behaviour, such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships and inconsistent condom use in sex with non-spousal non-cohabiting partners. However, most of these studies were conducted in developed countries and the few studies in Africa were conducted among well-defined social groups such as men attending beer halls or sexually transmitted infection clinics. We therefore examined the association between alcohol and extramarital sex (a sign of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among men in a population-based survey in Cameroon; a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa with a high rate of alcohol abuse and a generalised HIV epidemic. Methods We analyzed data from 2678 formally married or cohabiting men aged 15 to 59 years, who participated in the 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey, using a multivariate regression model. Results A quarter of the men (25.8% declared having taken alcohol before their last sexual intercourse and 21% indicated that the last sex was with a woman other than their wife or cohabiting partner. After controlling for possible confounding by other socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use was significantly associated with having extramarital sex: adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.70, 95% confidence intervals (CI 1.40 to 2.05. Older age (30–44 years: OR 3.06, 95%CI 2.16–4.27 and 45–59 years: OR 4.10, 95%CI 2.16–4.27, higher education (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.10–1.45, and wealth (OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.50–1.98 were also significantly associated with higher odds of having extramarital sex. The men were more likely to have used a condom in their last sex if it was extramarital (OR 10.50, 95%CI 8.10–13

  2. Wealth and sexual behaviour among men in Cameroon

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    Nana Philip

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2004 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS in Cameroon revealed a higher prevalence of HIV in richest and most educated people than their poorest and least educated compatriots. It is not certain whether the higher prevalence results partly or wholly from wealthier people adopting more unsafe sexual behaviours, surviving longer due to greater access to treatment and care, or being exposed to unsafe injections or other HIV risk factors. As unsafe sex is currently believed to be the main driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we designed this study to examine the association between wealth and sexual behaviour in Cameroon. Methods We analysed data from 4409 sexually active men aged 15–59 years who participated in the Cameroon DHS using logistic regression models, and have reported odds ratios (OR with confidence intervals (CI. Results When we controlled for the potential confounding effects of marital status, place of residence, religion and age, men in the richest third of the population were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.32–0.56 and more likely to have had at least two concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12–1.19 and more than five lifetime sex partners (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.60–2.43. However, there was no difference between the richest and poorest men in the purchase of sexual services. Regarding education, men with secondary or higher education were less likely to have used a condom in the last sex with a non-spousal non-cohabiting partner (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.16–0.38 and more likely to have started sexual activity at age 17 years or less (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.10–3.56 and had more than five lifetime sexual partners (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.02–3.31. There was no significant association between education and multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in the last 12 months or purchase of sexual services

  3. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  4. Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

    2011-01-01

    Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ΔT° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066

  5. Exploring the pre-eruptive history of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and the link with the end Triassic extinction using high precision U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Joshua; Marzoli, Andrea; Bertrand, Hervé; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Schaltegger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is a massive outpouring of basaltic lava, dykes and sills that was predominantly emplaced into the Triassic-Jurassic basins of North and South America, Europe and Africa. These basins were, at the time, in the center of the paleo-supercontinent Pangea, and the CAMP flood basalts are associated with Pangea's break-up and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The global climatic and environmental impact of the basalt eruption has been temporally linked with the end-Triassic mass extinction, although the extinction horizon, defined by a carbon isotope excursion, is stratigraphically below the first basaltic flows in all of the currently identified basins. Therefore, if the extinction is related to the CAMP, it must be related to a process that occurred before the eruption of the first basalt flow, or is co-incident with a currently unidentified older basalt flow. Here we present high precision TIMS zircon U-Pb geochronology on zircons from the North Mountain basalt (NMB) in the Fundy basin, Canada, and also baddeleyite from the Foum Zuid dyke (FZD) in the Anti-Atlas, Morocco. The NMB zircons have been separated from the lowermost accessible basalt flow of the NMB sequence in a coarse-grained section, rather than from a felsic residual melt pod, which is the usual target for zircon geochronology in basalts. The baddeleyites from the FZD were also separated from a coarse-grained section of the dyke. The zircons and baddeleyites from the NMB and FZD samples contain an antecrystic population with ages more than 1 Ma older than the emplacement of the basalts. The U-Pb ages presented here suggest that there was magmatic activity relating to the CAMP before the eruption of the first basalts. There are a number of possible explanations for the old zircons 1) recycling of zircon from earlier phases of magmatism, which then would have to have been re-molten and entrained into the NMB and FZD magmas. 2) Recycling of crystal mush from

  6. Crust-mantle interaction in the central North China Craton during the Mesozoic: Evidence from zircon U-Pb chronology, Hf isotope and geochemistry of syenitic-monzonitic intrusions from Shanxi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Ji-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Tang, Yan-Jie

    2011-07-01

    In-situ zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotopic compositions and whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions are presented for three Mesozoic syenitic-monzonitic intrusions from Shanxi province, central North China Craton. Zircons from these intrusions all show core-rim structures in that the oscillatory rims recorded their intrusive ages, whereas the cores are interpreted as xenocrysts. The U-Pb age data reveal that the northernmost Dishuiyan monzonite was emplaced at 241 Ma, while the Huyanshan and Erfengshan syenitic-monzonitic complexes were emplaced at 130 Ma and 128-134 Ma, respectively. The Dishuiyan monzonite is petrologically and geochemically uniform, it shows LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion and exhibits enriched Sr and Nd isotopic compositions with (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7065 and εNd(t) = - 8.3--7.9. The zircon rims in the Dishuiyan monzonite show highly varied Hf isotopic compositions with εHf(t) = - 27.8--6.4. The varied Hf isotopic compositions and enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, together with the ubiquitous xenocrystic zircon cores, suggest the Dishuiyan monzonite was produced by the mixing of melts from enriched lithospheric mantle and lower crust. The monzonite and syenite from the Huyanshan complexes exhibit different geochemical features. The εNd(t) values of syenite, which are higher than those of monzonite resemble the enriched lithospheric mantle, and together with the absence of zircon in the syenite, we propose that it was originated by partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Monzonites from Huyanshan and Erfengshan share similar petrological and geochemical characteristics, being enriched in LREE and depleted in HFSE, and they show low εNd(t) values between - 18.2 and - 13.9. Similar to zircon rims in the Dishuiyan monzonite, those in the Huyanshan and Erfengshan monzonites also exhibit highly varied Hf isotopic compositions. The consistent ages between the xenocrystic zircons in monzonites and the lower crustal basement

  7. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  8. China's Most Populous Province to Ban Fetus Sex Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Henan, the most populous province in central China,is plagued by an excessively high sex ratio imbalance at birth in certain parts of the province. To ameliorate the situation, the province will enact regulations to ban non-medically necessary fetus gender identification and sex-selective abortions.

  9. Relationship between magmatic carbonatite and copper mineralization in the Ruina copper ore field, central province of Zambia%赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区碳酸岩及其与成矿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙希文; 边千韬; 王作琦

    2013-01-01

    通过对赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区钻孔岩芯的系统研究,作者认为该区的含矿围岩为典型的火成碳酸岩,详细的岩矿相学研究也揭示瑞娜铜矿为碳酸岩岩浆型铜矿床.岩浆发生液态不混溶作用,溶离出碱性硅酸盐熔体、金属硫化物熔体和挥发份(CO2、H2O、F、Cl、B、P等)等流体,岩浆所携带的碱质使接触带地层交代蚀变成霓长岩,挥发份以络合物的形式携带部分Cu、Au、Ag、Ga、Co、REE、Ni等金属元素在外接触带地层碎裂岩和内接触带处成矿.%Through the systematic observation of drill core samples collected from Ruina copper ore field in central province of Zambia,the authors conclude that the copper-bearing country rock is a typical carbonatite with magnetic origin.The detailed study of mineral assemblages and petrographical characteristics also indicate that the Ruina copper deposit is a magmatic carbonatite-type cooper mineralization.When the magma evolved into the immiscible stage,the alkali-containing silicate melt,sulfides melt and volatile components (including CO2,H2O,F,Cl,B,P)are dissolved.The alkali compositions accompanying the magma reacted with the contact host rock,then the fenite was formed; and the volatile components which contain mineralization elements such as Cu,Au,Ag,Ga,Co,REE and Ni in the form of chemical complex deposited in the fractures of host rocks within the outlier contact zone as well as inner contact zone.The result of this study will be useful and meaningful for mineral prospecting in this region.

  10. Petrogenesis of Early-Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks in northern Liaoning and central Jilin provinces, northeast China: Implications for the extent of spatial-temporal overprinting of the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Hong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Cao, Hua-Hua; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Mesozoic tectonic evolution of NE China was controlled mainly by the Mongol-Okhotsk and Paleo-Pacific tectonic regimes. However, the extent of the spatial and temporal overprinting of these two regimes is poorly understood. Here, we report new zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and geochemical analyses of Jurassic intrusive rocks in northern Liaoning and central Jilin provinces, northeast China, to discuss their petrogenesis and outline the extent of spatial and temporal overprinting of these two tectonic regimes. Dating results indicate that Jurassic magmatism occurred in two stages during the Early (ca. 175 Ma) and Middle Jurassic (170-163 Ma). These rocks represent two-stage typical bimodal igneous rock associations composed mainly of olivine gabbro, gabbro, and gneissic granitoids. The Early and Middle Jurassic gabbros have low rare earth element (REE) abundances, positive Eu anomalies, depletion in high field strength elements (HFSEs), and positive εHf(t) values (+ 4.0 to + 10.3, except for one value of - 17.8), suggesting that the primary magma was derived from partial melting of depleted lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted-slab-derived fluids. The Early Jurassic monzogranite exhibit high REE abundances (195-201 ppm), weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.63-0.64), and negative εHf(t) values (- 11.9 to - 8.2), suggesting a primary magma that was derived from partial melting of lower continental crust of the NCC. The Middle Jurassic granodiorites are enriched in light REEs (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and are depleted in heavy REEs (HREEs) and HFSEs, as well as high Sr/Y (29-132) and (La/Yb)N (15-44) ratios. In addition, the Middle Jurassic granitoids near or within the NCC exhibit negative εHf(t) values (- 18.9 to + 0.2), whereas those within the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB) have generally positive εHf(t) values (- 0.6 to + 6.4), suggesting their origin from partial melting of thickened ancient NCC and newly accreted

  11. Development of the Oil Industry in Cameroon and Its Implications for Education and Training. IIEP Research Report No. 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bikas C.; And Others

    A study analyzed how the oil industry in Cameroon developed and influenced the expansion, structure, and content of Cameroon's formal and nonformal education and training system. A survey of 213 employees and 8 enterprises was supplemented by a review of government reports and official published and unpublished documents. The economy of Cameroon…

  12. Community pico and micro hydropower for rural electrification: experiences from the mountain regions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mandelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Less than 15% of rural areas of Cameroon have access to grid electricity. Only 53% of the population has access to grid electricity. Notwithstanding, Cameroon has a huge hydropower potential which could be harnessed. Mini grids, powered by pico and micro hydropower plants, are a relatively new rural electrification strategy in Cameroon. Several of such mini grids have been realized in the mountain regions of the country. Some of these systems have been more successful than others. This paper aims to share the experiences of community-based pico and micro hydropower schemes for rural electrification in Cameroon. The paper provides insight to the challenges that three of such mini grid systems powered by pico and micro hydropower plants had encountered and it attempts to identify issues related to their performances. The study was based on personal experience, field visits, participant observations, interviews and focus group discussions with key members of the beneficiary communities and documentations from the local NGO which implemented the schemes. Key findings of this study relate to the description of the main aspects about: planning of a robust system design, organizational aspects, like social cohesion at all levels of scheme management, community leadership and ownership of the system and involvement of the beneficiaries at all stages of the project cycle. These aspects were particularly addressed within the context of rural communities in Cameroon.

  13. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Industries in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole Simon Oginni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Present technological innovations and social organizations continue to impose risks and limitations on the efficient performance of the biosphere. Human activities have increasingly short-lived sustainable natural endowments, to the extent that, the multiplier effects have ripples beyond the traditional benefits of economic production and consumption. Therefore, this study addressed practical concerns on how industries in Sub-Saharan Africa promote sustainable development in their corporate social responsibility models, using industries in Cameroon as a case study; it examined economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR. Our sample consists of 335 business enterprises from the last Censure Survey of Enterprises in Cameroon. The study adopted a systematic analysis through the Adjusted Residual Test, and the Phi and Cramer’s V tests. Findings revealed that industries in Cameroon prioritize environmental and social dimensions over economic dimensions. However, a few large enterprises implement a broad CSR that promotes sustainable business practices, whereas smaller ones do not; industries in Cameroon implement environmental dimensions of CSR as a safe buffer and a social dimension as philanthropy. Hence, there is no concrete evidence that industries promote sustainable development via CSR in Cameroon. The implementation of a sustainable business model is a precondition for promoting sustainable development via CSR. Industries should realize the concrete value in implementing a sustainable business model that helps to adjust to the complex and increasingly changing business environment.

  14. Tectonic provinces of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2009-05-01

    The tectonic structure of the floor of the Atlantic Ocean beyond the continental margins is insufficiently studied. This is also true of its tectonic demarcation. The segmentation of the floor into regional-scale tectonic provinces of several orders proposed in this paper is primarily based on structural and historical geological features. It is shown that deep oceanic basins and fault tectonics are of particular importance in this respect. Tectonic provinces of two orders are distinguished by a set of attributes. The first-order provinces are the North, Central, South, and Antarctic domains of the Atlantic Ocean. They are separated by wide demarcation fracture zones into Transatlantic (transverse) second-order tectonic provinces. Ten such provinces are recognized (from the north southward): Greenland-Lofoten, Greenland-Scandinavia, Greenland-Ireland, Newfoundland-European, North American-African, Antilles-African, Angola-Brazil, Cape-Argentine, North Antarctic, and South Antarctic. This subdivision demonstrates significant differentiation in the geodynamic state of the oceanic lithosphere that determines nonuniform ocean formation and the tectonic features of the ocean floor. The latitudinal orientation of the second-order provinces inherits the past tectonic pattern, though newly formed structural units cannot be ruled out. The Earth rotation exerts a crucial effect on the crust and the mantle.

  15. Pollution Across Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Yap Co; Fanying Kong; Shuanglin Lin

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using 1987-1995 data for Chinese provinces. A comparison of off-sample (1996-2004) predictions to actual emissions indicates that more stringent rules are still needed to fight industrial (waste water and dust) pollution. Auxiliary regressions show that conditional on income, northern provinces have lower industrial waste water pollution; non-coastal and provinces with smaller secondary industry shares have lower industrial (waste wa...

  16. Beyond the decade of policy and community euphoria: The state of livelihoods under new local rights to forest in rural Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil René Oyono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the state of livelihoods under the exercise of new community rights to forest in rural Cameroon. The assessment makes use of a set of livelihoods indicators. The granting and exercise of new community rights, namely, management rights and market rights, are not synonymous with improved livelihoods, despite initial predictions and expectations. The resource base has not changed; it is more and more threatened by poor local level institutional arrangements and social and bio-physical management strategies, in addition to the weak central level regulation and monitoring actions. Similarly, the rights-based reform and community forestry are not improving basic assets and means at the household level. Nevertheless, this paper suggests that this experiment should not be judged hastily, since fifteen years are not enough to judge social and institutional processes like those in progress in Cameroon. The authors draw policy options likely to improve the livelihoods dimension of the reform and launch a debate on the real contribution of community income derived from community forests towards poverty alleviation at the household level.

  17. The disease burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Praet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis is an important zoonosis in many developing countries. Human neurocysticercosis is recognised as an important cause of epilepsy in regions where the parasite occurs. However, it is largely underreported and there is a lack of data about the disease burden. Because a body of information on human and porcine cysticercosis in Cameroon is becoming available, the present study was undertaken to calculate the impact of this neglected zoonosis. METHODS: Both the cost and Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY estimations were applied. All necessary parameters were collected and imported in R software. Different distributions were used according to the type of information available for each of the parameters. FINDINGS: Based on a prevalence of epilepsy of 3.6%, the number of people with neurocysticercosis-associated epilepsy was estimated at 50,326 (95% CR 37,299-65,924, representing 1.0% of the local population, whereas the number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis was estimated at 15,961 (95% CR 12,320-20,044, which corresponds to 5.6% of the local pig population. The total annual costs due to T. solium cysticercosis in West Cameroon were estimated at 10,255,202 Euro (95% CR 6,889,048-14,754,044, of which 4.7% were due to losses in pig husbandry and 95.3% to direct and indirect losses caused by human cysticercosis. The monetary burden per case of cysticercosis amounts to 194 Euro (95% CR 147-253. The average number of DALYs lost was 9.0 per thousand persons per year (95% CR 2.8-20.4. INTERPRETATION: This study provides an estimation of the costs due to T. solium cysticercosis using country-specific parameters and including the human as well as the animal burden of the zoonotic disease. A comparison with a study in South Africa indicates that the cost of inactivity, influenced by salaries, plays a predominant role in the monetary burden of T. solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowing the salary levels and the

  18. 中部崛起的力量在于扩大开放%The Driver for the Rise of Central China Lies in Enlarging Opening up——Special Interview of He Tongxin, Vice Governor of the People's Government of Hunan Province, by Special Edition of China's Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺同新

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hunan Province refined four advantages in practice, got to know that the driver for the rise of Central China lies in enlarging opening up, and summarized the following points: to open to both domestic and overseas investors, attract both domestic and foreign capital, seek cooperation with both domestic and foreign partners,open up both domestic and international market, face reality, promote and absorb outside investment and encourage private capital is an important motive force, strategic measure and realistic choice for Hunan in quickening the development. This article clearly points out the five important fields that Hunan seeks for domestic and foreign cooperation in.

  19. Survey of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Southwestern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A study on the distribution and population density of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and the central chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) was undertaken between December 1997 and August 2000 in the Campo and Ma'an Forests in southwestern Cameroon. The aim of this survey was to estimate the densities of the apes in different parts of the area, to assess the importance of the region for the conservation of these endangered species and to determine the influence of human activities such as logging and hunting. The survey was based on night nest counts on a total of 665.5 km of line transects. The overall density in the Campo Forest was estimated at 0.2 gorillas/km(2) and at 0.63-0.78 chimpanzees/km(2). The overall density of chimpanzees in the Ma'an Forest was estimated at 0.8-1 individuals/km(2). Gorilla density in this area was too low to allow an estimation. The highest gorilla nest density was found in secondary forest. The gorilla density in unlogged forest was significantly lower. Chimpanzees showed a clear preference for less disturbed areas. In unlogged forest, old secondary forests (logging more than 23 years ago) and areas of recent logging with large remaining patches of primary forest, significantly higher densities were calculated than inside the more heavily exploited logging concession. In areas with both logging and high hunting pressure both species were rare or even absent. The Campo Ma'an area is considered a very important area for the conservation of gorillas and chimpanzees. Conservation measures are urgently required to reduce the impact of logging and hunting. The creation of the Campo Ma'an National Park in January 2000 is an important measure to preserve the unique biodiversity in this so far hardly protected area. PMID:14586801

  20. Analysis of the energy system of cameroon in a sustainable growth perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a decade of recession, Cameroon's economy returned to positive growth after 1995. Six years later, the country ran into an energy crisis featuring frequent power load shedding, liquefied gas shortages, declining oil production and fuel price increases. This crisis contributed to stagnation of the economy and to social disruption. Though the causes are primarily economic, in the case of power load shedding and gas shortages there are also structural and organisational problems. Who has control over the power operating systems is as a result a major issue for all players in the power area. This article analyses Cameroon's power system by reviewing the interacting socio-economic, environmental, technological and political actors and distinguishes structural from other influences. We show that Cameroon's current energy system is neither compatible with equitable economic and social growth objectives in time and space, nor with long term environmental objectives. The imbalance between energy supply and demand, currently in deficit, is critically assessed. (authors)

  1. HIV type 1 group M subtype G in Cameroon: five genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Julie; Ndembi, Nicaise; Ngansop, Charlotte; Mbanya, Dora; Kaptué, Lazare; Gürtler, Lutz G; Devare, Sushil G; Brennan, Catherine A

    2009-04-01

    Near full-length viral genome sequences were obtained for five putative subtype G candidates identified in HIV-infected Cameroonian blood donors, based on partial genome sequences for the gag, pol, and env regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome sequences shows that all five strains are pure subtype G with no indication of intersubtype recombination. The Cameroon subtype G sequences did not form a geographically based subcluster and were intermixed within the subtype G branch with isolates from several different countries. HIV-1 group M subtype G accounts for only 4.5% of HIV infections in Cameroon. However, genome segments of subtype G are present in 67% of all infections and 80% of infections due to intersubtype recombinant strains in Cameroon. The addition of five subtype G genome sequences to the HIV database may contribute to a better understanding of the origins and classification of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs. PMID:19361281

  2. Review and combination of recent remote sensing based products for forest cover change assessments in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    VERHEGGHEN ASTRID; EVA Hugh; DESCLÉE BAUDOUIN; ACHARD Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Two recent remote sensing derived products providing assessment of forest cover change in the Congo Basin for the last two decades were compared and combined to obtain estimates of forest cover change in Cameroon for the period 1990-2012. The intensity of deforestation in the whole region decreased from the 1990s to the 2000s. Forest loss is observed everywhere in Cameroon but present higher intensity nearby the Atlantic coast. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the forest loss in Ca...

  3. Natural Radioactivity in Some Commercial Bottled Waters in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to check and determine the activity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra in some commercial bottled water used as drinking water in Cameroon by means of using High-Purity Germanium based gamma spectrometry techniques. The water samples were firstly chemically treated by adding nitric acid and then pre-concentrated further by evaporating them up to a certain level. The water residues were transferred to small cylindrical containers and were kept sealed in order to ensure secular equilibrium between U-238, Th-232 and their daughter products. The calculated activity concentration for 226Ra (U-series) and 228Ra (Th-series) were used to estimate the annual effective doses for different age groups infants (age 1-2 years), children (age 7-12 years) and adults (age ≥17years) by taking into account the ingested dose conversion factors obtained from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as their yearly average bottled water consumption. The evaluated annual effective dose due to life-long consumption of water for different group ages where below the recommended values by WHO, IAEA and UNSCEAR. The paper presents the overview of the technique used and the summary of findings from this survey. (author)

  4. Access to Arable Land by Rural Women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fon, DE.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines rural women access to and control of agricultural production resources in arable small-scale sustainable agricultural production in a developing country setting. Specifically, the study addresses the women's level of accessibility and control of arable land in agricultural production in the North West Region of Cameroon. The objectives of the study were: (a to determine the extent to which rural women in the study area gain access to and control small-scale arable land; and (b to assess the degree of association between access to small-scale arable land by rural women and their level of control of the arable land. The study relied on a one-shot case study design. The method of data collection consisted surveying a randomly selected sample of 1,120 rural women involved in small-scale agricultural production in the study area. The data obtained from the survey were analyzed using the following statistical procedures: (1 frequency distribution, (2 correlation analysis, and (3 one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results revealed that rural women farmers do have access to arable land through their families, but do not control arable land, and there is no association between access to and control of arable land. The study recommends that developing countries involved in arable small-scale agricultural production, should consider adopting agricultural policies that include rural women in decision-making, implementation, and evaluation of agricultural production inputs and outcomes.

  5. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  7. [Descriptive study of cerebrovascular accidents in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasseu, Mbeumi M T; Mbahe, S

    2011-10-01

    A cerebrovascular accident or stroke is a sudden-onset cerebral deficit of vascular origin lasting more than 24 hours. These events represent the second leading cause of death in the world and take a particularly heavy toll in third world countries. The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular lesions (type, location, size) as well as patient age and gender in Cameroon. Brain CT-scan and MRI findings from 50 stroke patients admitted to two health centers in Douala were reviewed. Data showed that 74% of patients were over 50 years of age, the 51-60 year group being the most affected. Patients were male in 64% of cases. Ischemic stroke accounted for 60% of cases versus 40% for hemorrhagic stroke. The most affected sites were the sylvian territory site in ischemic stroke and the temporal lobe in hemorrhagic stroke, acconting for 43.3% and 35% of cases respectively. The median size of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions were 2.81 cm3, and 26.98 cm3 respectively. Hemorrhagic stroke and lacunar infarcts were more common in this sample. Discrepancies between results at the two hospitals may be due to the use of different imaging techniques. Indeed, MRI is known to be more sensitive than CT-scan for acute detection of stroke lesions. PMID:22235625

  8. Origin and age of the Lake Nyos maar, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.

    1989-01-01

    Lake Nyos occupies a young maar crater in the Precambrian granitic terrane of northwest Cameroon. The lake is partly surrounded by poorly consolidated, ultramafic nodule-bearing pyroclastic surge deposits that were explosively ejected from the Nyos crater at the time of its formation. Radiocarbon dates show that the maar probably formed about 400 years ago. Field evidence suggests that carbon dioxide could have been the principal volatile involved in the formation of the Nyos maar, and that the role of water may have been minor. The formation of the Nyos maar was preceded by a brief period of effusive basaltic volcanism, but the maar itself may have largely formed by cold, 'dry' explosive processes. Carbon dioxide may still be trapped interstitially in a diatreme inferred to underlie Lake Nyos; its gradual release into the waters of Lake Nyos may have set the stage for the tragic gas-release event of August 21, 1986. Only young maar lakes such as Nyos may pose a danger of future lethal gas releases. ?? 1989.

  9. 水口山水稻土与菜地土中砷的有效性%Availability of arsenic in paddy and vegetable soils in Shuikoushan mining area of Hunan Province, South-central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雁鸣; 冯人伟; 韦朝阳

    2012-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from the surrounding areas of Shuikoushan mining area in Hunan Province of South-central China to determine the soil total and available arsenic contents and the soil physical and chemical properties (pH value, organic matter content, and clay content ) , with the differences of the test parameters in two agricultural soils ( vegetable soil and paddy soil) and the relationships between the soil available arsenic content and the soil physical and chemical properties analyzed. The average content of the arsenic in paddy soil and vegetable soil was 72. 01 and 30.71 mg · kg-1, respectively, being close to or exceeding the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard II. There existed significant differences in the soil physical and chemical properties between the two agricultural soils, with the higher contents of clay and organic matter but lower pH value in paddy soil than those in vegetable soil, and the paddy soil being obviously acidified. The total arsenic content in vegetable soil was far higher than that in paddy soil, but the available arsenic content of the two soils had less difference. Except for total arsenic , the available arsenic content in paddy soil was significantly positively correlated with organic matter content, and that in vegetable soil was significantly positively correlated with pH value. In the Shuikoushan mining area, vegetable soil had a higher risk of arsenic pollution than paddy. soil, and thus, necessary remediation strategies or adjustment of land use pattern should be adopted to reduce the health risk of soil arsenic contamination.%对湖南省水口山矿冶周边土壤进行采样分析,以土壤砷总量与有效态砷含量以及土壤基本理化性质(pH、有机质含量、土壤粘粒含量)为参数,研究各参数在两种土地利用类型(菜地土和水稻土)间的差异以及有效态砷与土壤理化性质之间的关系.结果表明,水口山水稻土与菜地土平均砷含量分别达72

  10. Riesgos de trabajo en veterinarios del centro-oeste de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina Occupational risks in veterinarans from the central-west area of Santa Fe province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D Tarabla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron las frecuencias de accidentes ocupacionales y zoonosis, incapacidad laboral y uso de elementos de protección mediante encuestas telefónicas con cuestionario estructurado en 94 Veterinarios del centro-oeste santafesino. El 75,5% sufrió accidentes laborales en el año previo, y sólo el 7,4% no había tenido al menos uno a lo largo de su trayectoria profesional. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron punzaduras, contusiones, hematomas, escoriaciones y heridas cortantes causadas por animales, agujas y tránsito vehicular. El 39,4% tuvo accidentes in itinere, la mayoría por tránsito vehicular. El 55,3% requirió atención médica y un tercio sufrió pérdidas de días de trabajo, con un promedio de 25,2±29,6 días por profesional accidentado. En los 12 meses previos a la encuesta se produjeron dos casos de brucelosis (2,9%, mientras que el 28,7% manifestó padecer o haber padecido alguna zoonosis en algún momento de su trayectoria profesional, siendo la brucelosis la más frecuente. El uso de elementos de protección fue claramente insuficiente. Aunque el 53,2% padecía alguna patología atribuible al ejercicio profesional, el 74,5 % manifestó no haber recibido capacitación alguna sobre peligros ocupacionales. La necesidad de capacitación específica en este área aparece como primordial para minimizar los riesgos.The frequency of occupational accidents, zoonosis, lost of work days, and protective practices were estimated by means of telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire on 94 Veterinarians from Central-West Santa Fe Province. Seventy six percent suffered occupational accidents on the previous year, while only 7,4% did not have a single accident throughout their careers. Most frequent lesions were punctures, concussions, haematomas, abrasions, and cutting injuries caused by animals, needles and traffic. Thirty nine percent suffered accidents in itinere, mostly due to traffic. Fifty five percent required medical

  11. HIV-1 recombinants with multiple parental strains in low-prevalence, remote regions of Cameroon: Evolutionary relics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyzaguirre Lindsay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV pandemic disseminated globally from Central West Africa, beginning in the second half of the twentieth century. To elucidate the virologic origins of the pandemic, a cross-sectional study was conducted of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains in villagers in 14 remote locations in Cameroon and in hospitalized and STI patients. DNA extracted from PBMC was PCR amplified from HIV(+ subjects. Partial pol amplicons (N = 164 and nearly full virus genomes (N = 78 were sequenced. Among the 3956 rural villagers studied, the prevalence of HIV infection was 4.9%; among the hospitalized and clinic patients, it was 8.6%. Results Virus genotypes fell into two distinctive groups. A majority of the genotyped strains (109/164 were the circulating recombinant form (CRF known to be endemic in West Africa and Central West Africa, CRF02_AG. The second most common genetic form (9/164 was the recently described CRF22_01A1, and the rest were a collection of 4 different subtypes (A2, D, F2, G and 6 different CRFs (-01, -11, -13, -18, -25, -37. Remarkably, 10.4% of HIV-1 genomes detected (17/164 were heretofore undescribed unique recombinant forms (URF present in only a single person. Nearly full genome sequencing was completed for 78 of the viruses of interest. HIV genetic diversity was commonplace in rural villages: 12 villages each had at least one newly detected URF, and 9 villages had two or more. Conclusions These results show that while CRF02_AG dominated the HIV strains in the rural villages, the remainder of the viruses had tremendous genetic diversity. Between the trans-species transmission of SIVcpz and the dispersal of pandemic HIV-1, there was a time when we hypothesize that nascent HIV-1 was spreading, but only to a limited extent, recombining with other local HIV-1, creating a large variety of recombinants. When one of those recombinants began to spread widely (i.e. became epidemic, it was recognized as a subtype. We

  12. Vulnerability, forest-related sectors and climate change adaptation : the case of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonwa, D.J.; Somorin, O.A.; Jum, C.; Bele, M.Y.; Nkem, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    In Cameroon and elsewhere in the Congo Basin, the majority of rural households and a large proportion of urban households depend on plant and animal products from the forests to meet their nutritional, energy, cultural and medicinal needs. This paper explores the likely impacts of climate-induced ch

  13. The emotional world of kinship: Children's experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through shar

  14. Fish Pond Aquaculture in Cameroon: A Field Survey of Determinants for Farmers' Adoption Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Knierim, Andrea; Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah

    2011-01-01

    Although fish farming in Cameroon started in the late 1940s, currently the country meets only half of its domestic demand for fish. This article examines the complex issue of farmers' adoption decisions and attempts to answer why there is a lag in the diffusion process. The theory of behaviour modification and key variables of adoption form the…

  15. The post-colonial State and economic and political reforms in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.; Fernández Jilberto, A.E.; Mommen, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study shows that the neoliberal project propagated in the 1990s by the Western donors and the international financial institutions has not yet made much progress in Cameroon. It argues that this is not surprising, given the class character of the Cameroonian postcolonial State. The limited poli

  16. Fungi from the Dja Biosphere Reserve (Cameroon). Notes on some Gasteromycetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Calonge, F.D.; Daniëls, P.P

    1998-01-01

    [EN] Four species of Gasteromycetes collected in the Biosphere Reserve of Dja (Cameroon), are briefly described and commented. Two of them: Cyathus striatus and Sphaerobolus stellatus are well-known in Europe, being cosmopolitan, and the other two: Geastrum schweinitzii var. stipitatum and Phallus indusiatus show a typical pantropical distribution.

  17. Bridging the gap: how traditional healers interact with their patients. A comparative study in Cameroon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labhardt, N.D.; Aboa, S.M.; Manga, E.; Bensing, J.M.; Langewitz, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare traditional healers (TH) and Cameroonian representatives of Western medicine (Western providers (WP)) in terms of patient characteristics and communication patterns during the consultation in rural Cameroon. Methods: A facility-based comparative study was conducted. Seven TH we

  18. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cameroon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3889, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-57. ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ptyctimous mites * new species * taxonomy * morphology * Cameroon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  19. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  20. Instructors' Perceptions of the Bologna Model of Higher Education Reform in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mngo, Zachary Y.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement. The literature on education in Cameroon suggests that there is a deep-rooted history of resistance to educational reform and harmonization both at the K12 and higher education levels. Attempts by political and educational leaders to reform and harmonize the two very distinct systems of education, inherited from former colonizers…

  1. Meckel's diverticulum: a case report from the University Hospital Center Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Essomba

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge there is no reported case of Meckel's diverticulum (MD in Cameroon. The prevalence of MD in the general population is 2-3 %. The aim of this paper is to recapitulate the role of this pathology in acute abdomens and abdominal pain of uncertain aetiology in young patients and to review the medical literature.

  2. Language Ideology and the Colonial Legacy in Cameroon Schools: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Genevoix

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon prior to colonization had many languages, with none having precedence over the other. With the development of trade and the installation of missionaries along its coast, a number of local and European languages gained prominence. English became the most widely used western language. It established itself as the language of trade and of…

  3. Learner Orientation through Professional Development of Teachers? Empirical Results from Cascade Training in Anglophone Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of a professional development programme on the attitudes towards the teaching and learning of teachers in the Anglophone part of Cameroon. The development programme combines a multiplier system with school-based in-service training. The research compares the effects that the training had on the attitudes of three…

  4. Implications of Local Literacy Practices for Literacy Programmes in a Multilingual Community in Northern Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheffy, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Research in a rural area of northern Cameroon where most adults describe themselves as illiterate reveals a complex picture in which three languages are used in different ways and in different domains of life. The profile of the literacy practices associated with these languages is correspondingly complex. This paper argues that it is important…

  5. Teaching Practice in Cameroon: The Effectiveness of the University of Buea Model and Implications for Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeley, Margaret Nalova

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the teaching practice model in the University of Buea, which is different from that of other teacher education institutions in Cameroon. Teaching Practice is an important component of a teacher education programme and the quality of supervision and duration are key in achieving effectiveness which…

  6. The Emotional World of Kinship: Children's Experiences of Fosterage in East Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notermans, Catrien

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on children's narrated experiences of fosterage in East Cameroon. It seeks to complement the predominantly adult approaches to fosterage with children's views of the intimate, emotional and competitive aspects of kinship in everyday life. As kinship evolves in homes through sharing food and intimacy, children directly…

  7. Dieback due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a new phytosanitary constraint to cocoa culture in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the introduction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon in 1886, the only serious disease has been Phytophthora pod rot. Recently, cocoa orchards have been subjected to an increasingly important decline due to an uncommon dieback disease. Irrespective of age, affected cocoa trees manifest ...

  8. Buruli Ulcer in Cameroon: The Development and Impact of the National Control Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest Njih Tabah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU and organised institutional BU control began in 2002. The objective was to describe the evolution, achievements and challenges of the national BU control programme (NBUCP and to make suggestions for scaling up the programme.We analysed collated data on BU from 2001 to 2014 and reviewed activity reports NBUCP in Cameroon. Case-detection rates and key BU control indicators were calculated and plotted on a time scale to determine trends in performance. A linear regression analysis of BU detection rate from 2005-2014 was done. The regression coefficient was tested statistically for the significance in variation of BU detection rate.In 14 years of BU control, 3700 cases were notified. The BU detection rate dropped significantly from 3.89 to 1.45 per 100 000 inhabitants. The number of BU endemic health districts rose from two to 64. Five BU diagnostic and treatment centres are functional and two more are planned for 2015. The health system has been strengthened and BU research and education has gained more interest in Cameroon.Although institutional BU control Cameroon only began 30 years after the first cases were reported in 1969, a number of milestones have been attained. These would serve as stepping stones for charting the way forward and improving upon control activities in the country if the major challenge of resource allocation is dealt with.

  9. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studies are still closely related to the traditinal Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46....

  10. Strengthening human resources for health through multisectoral approaches and leadership: the case of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kingue

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem Cameroon has a severe shortage of human resources for health (HRH and those that are available are concentrated in urban areas. Approach As the result of a national emergency plan for the years 2006–2008, innovative strategies and a multisectoral partnership – led by the Ministry of Public Health and supported by diverse national and international organizations – were developed to address the shortages and maldistribution of HRH in Cameroon. Local setting At the time that the emergency plan was developed, Cameroon had health services of poor quality, an imbalance between HRH training and employment, a maldistribution of HRH between urban and rural areas and a poor allocation of financial resources for HRH. It also lacked an accreditation system for use in the training of health workers. Relevant changes Between 2007 and 2009, the number of active health workers in Cameroon increased by 36%, several new institutions for higher education in health care and training schools for paramedical staff and midwives were opened, and a national strategy for universal health coverage was developed. Lessons learnt In the improvement of HRH, strong leadership is needed to ensure effective coordination and communication between the many different stakeholders. A national process of coordination and facilitation can produce a consensus-based view of the main HRH challenges. Once these challenges have been identified, the stakeholders can plan appropriate interventions that are coordinated, evidence-based and coherent.

  11. The Position of English Globally and Nationally: A Comparison of Cameroon and Vanuatu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongdia, Jane-Francis A.; Willans, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates language ideologies relevant to medium of instruction policy within two postcolonial countries: Cameroon and Vanuatu. Each country experienced British and French rule, and has retained both English and French as official languages and media of instruction. However, since Independence, there has been a difference in the way…

  12. How to win a football match in Cameroon : an anthropological study of Africa's most popular sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannenborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Footballers Essomba and Ashu, team manager Kalla and spiritual adviser Zé are the key characters in this anthropological study of football in Cameroon, which is based on research carried out in 2003. It might seem that a well-organized club with professional executives, a team of talented players an

  13. Gender and plantation labour in Africa : the story of tea pluckers' struggles in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the relationship between plantation labour and gender in Africa, particularly Cameroon. It demonstrates that the introduction of plantation labour during colonial rule has had significant consequences for gender roles and relations within and beyond the capitalist labour process.

  14. Forest eternal? Endemic butterflies of the Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon, avoid close-canopy forest

    OpenAIRE

    Tropek, Robert

    2008-01-01

    I studied habitat preferences of three common endemic butterflies in the Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon. Assuming that the life history traits of taxa with limited geographic distribution reflect past habitat conditions within their ranges, the history and conservation of West African mountain landscape is discussed.

  15. Adelonema camerunense gen. et sp. n. (Araeolaimida: Diplopeltidae) from rain forest in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Sturhan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Adelonema camerunense gen. et sp. n. (Araeolaimida: Diplopeltidae) from rain forest in Cameroon is described on the basis of light microscopy. The new genus is tentatively placed in the Diptopeltidae and distinguished from all other genera in the family by the following characters: cuticle with ten

  16. Tracing the origins of rescued chimpanzees reveals widespread chimpanzee hunting in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gadsby Elizabeth L; Fotso Roger; de Vries Simone; Akih Akih E; Kiyang John A; Lankester Felix; Ghobrial Lora; Jenkins Peter D; Gonder Mary K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While wild chimpanzees are experiencing drastic population declines, their numbers at African rescue and rehabilitation projects are growing rapidly. Chimpanzees follow complex routes to these refuges; and their geographic origins are often unclear. Identifying areas where hunting occurs can help law enforcement authorities focus scarce resources for wildlife protection planning. Efficiently focusing these resources is particularly important in Cameroon because this countr...

  17. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  18. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  19. Metallurgical Characterisation of Recovered Aluminium Alloys in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tchotang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study of metallurgical characteristics of the different aluminium alloys gotten through recycling of recovered aluminium in Cameroon. A simple experimental device for the foundry of secondary aluminium blend, of very good quality built around a movable charcoal furnace is presented. It enables better energy efficiency, a better distribution of the heat around the crucible and indirectly assures good quality of the products obtained, while respecting the economic constraints and users' safety. Six refining methods are proposed by the addition of polyvinyl chloride (method A, coke rich in carbon CHS (method C, ammonium chloride NH4Cl (method E, manganese dioxide MnO (method T, acrylic nitrite (C2H3Cln (method P and sodium chloride NaCl (method S. A critical analysis of the different recycling techniques is presented as well as a proposed process of melting and refining that enables the obtaining products with high degrees of purity. The results are then compared to the results obtained from the industrial methods of aluminium refining such as fractional crystallization (FC, granular filtration (GF and dissolution in a metal solvent (DS. The later (DS gives the rate of 6.540% of accumulated alloy elements and enables the best purification (93.460%, while the NaCl gives the lowest global rate of additive elements (9.478%, with the best purity index (90.522% amount the proposed methods. Results obtained show that this method of refining improves the metallurgical properties of secondary aluminium alloy blends and guarantees better safety, as well as reducing the risks of environmental pollution.

  20. Use of circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with microscopic examination of salivary glands for calculation of malaria infectivity rates in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenille, D; Meunier, J Y; Nkondjio, C A; Tchuinkam, T

    2001-05-01

    A survey in Cameroon compared the usefulness of the circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CSP ELISA) to dissection and microscopic examination of anopheline salivary glands for measuring infectivity rates in anopheline mosquitoes. The salivary glands of 375 females, belonging to four species were examined for sporozoites. After microscopic examination, the glands as well as all the remaining heads and thoraces were tested by ELISA. The sensitivity of ELISA was 100% (18/18), confidence interval (CI) (78.1-100) and the specificity was 99.7% (357/358), CI (98.2 100). The Kappa value, agreement between examination of the glands and salivary gland ELISA, was 0.97. The head thorax CSP ELISA overestimated the true salivary gland infection rate by 12.0%. The results obtained in Central Africa in a village with perennial transmission highly justified the use of the ELISA for measuring the entomological inoculation rate. PMID:11372973

  1. New tools suggest local variation in tool use by a montane community of the rare Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Paul; Chapman, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Regional variations in tool use among chimpanzee subspecies and between populations within the same subspecies can often be explained by ecological constraints, although cultural variation also occurs. In this study we provide data on tool use by a small, recently isolated population of the endangered Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti, thus demonstrating regional variation in tool use in this rarely studied subspecies. We found that the Ngel Nyaki chimpanzee community has its own unique tool kit consisting of five different tool types. We describe a tool type that has rarely been observed (ant-digging stick) and a tool type that has never been recorded for this chimpanzee subspecies or in West Central Africa (food pound/grate stone). Our results suggest that there is fine- scale variation in tool use among geographically close communities of P. t. ellioti, and that these variations likely reflect both ecological constraints and cultural variation. PMID:25312510

  2. Environmental radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic region in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A part of the survey programme on the evaluation of environmental radioactivity in Cameroon has just been initiated. The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. 30 soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11 - 17 Bq kg-1, 22 - 36 Bq kg-1 and 43 - 201 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radioisotope 137Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor were estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value (UNSCEAR, 1988, 2000). A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7 - 10.8 kBq m-3 and 5.5 - 8.7 kBq m-3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal natural background radiation in normal living conditions. (author)

  3. A Critical Appraisal of the Juvenile Justice System under Cameroon's 2005 Criminal Procedure Code: Emerging Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tabe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of

  4. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  5. The Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (GSIM) Approach: Technical Annex

    OpenAIRE

    Leudjou, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    This document is the technical annex to the full paper “The Doha Round and Food Security in the Dairy Sector in Cameroon: A Global Simulation Model (GSIM) Approach†which is available separately.

  6. Ornithological observations on Karadag, Konya province, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KIRWAN, Guy M.

    1998-01-01

    Few ornithological observations are available from the isolated massifs of the Central Plateau; and for Karadag, Konya province there exists only the records of Ramsay (1914) in the summer of 1907. Observations from a visit in June 1996 are pre-sented and compared with those of Ramsay and data from other sources, principally Roselaar (1995). The total number of bird species recorded on the mountain is 53, of which 18 have been proven to breed; it seems probable that the globally threatened...

  7. Mass balance of nitrogen and potassium in urban groundwater in Central Africa, Yaounde/Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, R; Rechenburg, A; Kuitcha, D; Fouépé, A; Bellenberg, S; Kengne, I M; Fomo, M A

    2016-03-15

    Mass flow of nutrients from innumerous latrines and septic tanks was assessed to best describe the groundwater quality situation in the urban environment of Yaounde. 37 groundwater samples were taken at the end of dry season 2012 and analysed for nutrient related (NO3(-), NH4(+), NO2(-), K(+), Cl(-), HPO4(2-) and TOC) and physico-chemical ambient parameters. A survey on waste water discharge close to water points constrained point sources from sanitation. The results showed that the median of nitrate concentration exceeds the WHO limit. We realized that EC increases from the geogenic background to very high levels in the urban area within short distance, suggesting anthropogenic input. Dug wells showed nitrate and ammonium in equivalent concentrations, indicating incomplete nitrification and mandating their inclusion into water type classification. The mass turnover of nutrients in urban groundwater scales high in comparison to national statistical figures on fertilizer import for 2012. A mass N,K balance for infiltration water overestimates observed concentrations by a factor of 4.5. The marked balance gap is attributed to dynamic non-equilibrium between input and output. Unresolved questions like a) urban sanitation, b) hygiene & health and c) environmental protection urgently call for closing the nutrient cycle. In the light of Cameroonian strategies on rural development, tackling the groundwater nutrient, urban agriculture, food--NEXUS might partially restore urban and periurban ecosystem services under economical constraints and thus improve living conditions. PMID:26789374

  8. Phanerozoic geological evolution of Northern and Central Africa: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, R.; Bosworth, W.; Thierry, J.; Delplanque, A.

    2005-10-01

    Cretaceous, the Burdigalian, the Tortonian and Early Quaternary. Recent tectonic activity is mainly concentrated along the Maghrebian Alpine Belt, the offshore Nile Delta, the Red Sea-East African Rifts Province, the Aqaba-Dead Sea-Bekaa sinistral strike-slip fault zone, and some major intra-plate fault zones including the Guinean-Nubian, Aswa, and central Sinai lineaments. Large, long-lived magmatic provinces developed in the Egypt-Sudan confines (Nubia), in the Hoggar-Air massifs, along the Cameroon Line and Nigerian Jos Plateau, and along the Levant margin, resulting in uplifts that influenced the paleogeography. Extensive tholeiitic basaltic magmatism at ˜200 Ma preceded continental break-up in the Central Atlantic domain, while extensive alkaline to transitional basaltic magmatism accompanied the Oligocene to Recent rifting along the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden-East African rift province.

  9. Trace element differentiation in ferruginous accumulation soil patterns under tropical rainforest of southern Cameroon, the role of climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temgoua, Emile; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Bitom, Dieudonné

    2003-03-01

    Regions under tropical rainforest cover, such as central Africa and Brazil are characterised by degradation and dismantling of old ferricrete structures. In southern Cameroon, these processes are relayed by present-day ferruginous accumulation soil facies, situated on the middle and the lower part of hill slopes. These facies become progressively harder towards the surface, containing from bottom to top, mainly kaolinite, kaolinite-goethite and Al-rich goethite-hematite, and are discontinuous to the relictic hematite-dominated ferricrete that exist in the upper part of the hill slope. These features were investigated in terms of geochemical differentiation of trace elements. It appears that, in contrast to the old ferricrete facies, the current ferruginous accumulations are enriched in transitional trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Y, Sc) and Pb, while alkali-earth elements are less differentiated. This recent chemical accumulation is controlled both by intense weathering of the granodiorite bedrock and by mobilisation of elements previously accumulated in the old ferricrete. The observed processes are clearly linked to the present-day humid climate with rising groundwater tables. They slowly replace the old ferricretes formed during Cretaceous time under more seasonal climatic conditions, representing an instructive case of continuos global change. PMID:12606160

  10. Farmers knowledge and perception on maize stem borers and their indigenous control methods in south western region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Oben, Esther Obi; Ntonifor, Nelson Neba; Kekeunou, Sevilor; Abbeytakor, Martin Nkwa

    2015-01-01

    Background Agriculture is a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Cameroon, The South West region of Cameroon is known for its potential in the production of major agricultural commodities, but farmers’ yields from various speculations are low, dwindling over time due to some major constraints. Maize production is hampered by adverse socio-economic factors, several pests and diseases as well as high rainfall with low solar radiation. Lepidopterous maize stem borers are a ma...

  11. Spatial and Inter-temporal Sources of Poverty, Inequality and Gender Disparities in Cameroon: a Regression-Based Decomposition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface Ngah Epo; Francis Menjo Baye; Nadine Teme Angele Manga

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the regression-based inequality decomposition technique to explain poverty and inequality trends in Cameroon. We also identify gender related factors which explain income disparities and discrimination based on the 2001 and 2007 Cameroon household consumption surveys. The results show that education, health, employment in the formal sector, age cohorts, household size, gender, ownership of farmland and urban versus rural residence explain household economic wellbeing; dispa...

  12. AN EVALUATION OF TOURISTIC FACILITIES AND ATTRACTIONS WITHIN THE SOUTHWEST REGION OF CAMEROON : Case Study: Hotel Chariot in Buea

    OpenAIRE

    Nkengeh, Emesong

    2012-01-01

    Cameroon is blessed with many touristic features and is called 'Africa in miniature' with lots of tourist attractions, such as, natural features like deserts, beaches, mountains, savannas, green vegetation and rainforests. Accommodation and touristic attractions are the measure phenomenaa within the tourism industry in the Republic of Cameroon. The accommodation sector has developed and kept improving tremendously within the past decades and up till present. The objective of this research ...

  13. Curriculum development at the Regional African Wildlife Colleges, with special reference to the Ecole de Faune (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Scholte, P.

    2003-01-01

    Regional colleges in Tanzania, Cameroon and, recently, South Africa have trained some 4000 wildlife managers. Training need assessments called for major curriculum reforms, which were developed and implemented in the late 1990s. This is an analysis of the factors that influenced this curriculum reform in the colleges' endeavour to respond to new developments in African wildlife management. Since 1979, the curriculum of Garoua Wildlife College, Cameroon, has changed only gradually, whereas wor...

  14. Stress and Time Management Settings in University of Maroua, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine stress and time in educational management in Maroua University. These two phenomena are profound in educational issues in Cameroon due to the complex administration or management. Education comprised of diversity of activities ranging from administration, discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning. Each of these activities requires time schedule to avoid stress in the face of pressure. Administration requires planning, organizing, controlling, commanding, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Each of these managing variables requires time, just as discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning should need. The situation may be affected by higher authority interference and cause a rush thus affecting every schedule in the system on this note, it is necessary that every administrator on management cadre should develop a list of activities such as admissions, examinations, sports, vacations and other ceremonies which requires his attention on daily, weekly, or monthly bases and there after allocate in a tentative fashion the most appropriate times for dealing with such activities. Some profile recommendations are: strict adhering to schedules to avoid overlapping or prolongation to other programs; the schedules should be pasted or placed at a convenient point in the office for reference to avoid forgetfulness: as an administrator, time should be allocated for meeting or consulting with visitors and subordinates; he should delegate functions to his accredited subordinates to crave chance or time for essential duty; he should review the school or organization programs on daily, weekly or monthly bases the degree to which his administration goals have been attained and he (i.e. administrator should crave time for rest i.e. holidays, relaxation and various forms of physical exercises to revitalizes the body for subsequent activities. The paper recommends planning which is vital in management to avoid time waste

  15. Evidence of dengue virus transmission and factors associated with the presence of anti-dengue virus antibodies in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Demanou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is not well documented in Africa. In Cameroon, data are scarce, but dengue infection has been confirmed in humans. We conducted a study to document risk factors associated with anti-dengue virus Immunoglobulin G seropositivity in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.A cross sectional survey was conducted in Douala, Garoua and Yaounde, using a random cluster sampling design. Participants underwent a standardized interview and were blood sampled. Environmental and housing characteristics were recorded. Randomized houses were prospected to record all water containers, and immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes were collected. Sera were screened for anti-dengue virus IgG and IgM antibodies. Risk factors of seropositivity were tested using logistic regression methods with random effects. Anti-dengue IgG were found from 61.4% of sera in Douala (n = 699, 24.2% in Garoua (n = 728 and 9.8% in Yaounde (n = 603. IgM were found from 0.3% of Douala samples, 0.1% of Garoua samples and 0.0% of Yaounde samples. Seroneutralization on randomly selected IgG positive sera showed that 72% (n = 100 in Douala, 80% (n = 94 in Garoua and 77% (n = 66 in Yaounde had antibodies specific for dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2. Age, temporary house walls materials, having water-storage containers, old tires or toilets in the yard, having no TV, having no air conditioning and having travelled at least once outside the city were independently associated with anti-dengue IgG positivity in Douala. Age, having uncovered water containers, having no TV, not being born in Garoua and not breeding pigs were significant risk factors in Garoua. Recent history of malaria, having banana trees and stagnant water in the yard were independent risk factors in Yaounde.In this survey, most identified risk factors of dengue were related to housing conditions. Poverty and underdevelopment are central to the dengue epidemiology in Cameroon.

  16. Trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from urban and agro-industrial settings in southern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerah-Hinzoumbé Clément

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for insect pest control in Cameroon. In certain insect species, particularly the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, resistance to this class of insecticides is a source of great concern and needs to be monitored in order to sustain the efficacy of vector control operations in the fields. This study highlights trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in wild An. gambiae populations from South Cameroon. Methods Mosquitoes were collected between 2001 and 2007 in four sites in South Cameroon, where insecticides are used for agricultural or personal protection purposes. Insecticide use was documented in each site by interviewing residents. Batches of 2-4 days old adult female mosquitoes reared from larval collections were tested for susceptibility to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin using standard WHO procedures. Control, dead and survivors mosquitoes from bioassays were identified by PCR-RFLP and characterized for the kdr mutations using either the AS-PCR or the HOLA method. Results Four chemical insecticide groups were cited in the study sites: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. These chemicals were used for personal, crop or wood protection. In the four An. gambiae populations tested, significant variation in resistance levels, molecular forms composition and kdr frequencies were recorded in the time span of the study. Increases in DDT and pyrethroid resistance, as observed in most areas, were generally associated with an increase in the relative frequency of the S molecular form carrying the kdr mutations at higher frequencies. In Mangoum, however, where only the S form was present, a significant increase in the frequency of kdr alleles between 2003 to 2007 diverged with a decrease of the level of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Analyses of the kdr frequencies in dead and surviving mosquitoes showed partial correlation between the kdr genotypes and resistance

  17. Considerations in using text messages to improve adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative study among clients in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuagbaw L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mbuagbaw1,2, Renée Cécile Bonono-Momnougui1, Lehana Thabane2,31Centre for the Development of Best Practices in Health (CDBPH, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Biostatistics Unit, Father Sean O'Sullivan Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is a major hindrance to the reduction of mortality and morbidity due to HIV. This qualitative study used focus groups to explore the views and experiences of HIV patients on HAART with adherence reminders, especially the text message (SMS [short message service]. The ethnographic data obtained were used to design a clinical trial to assess the effect of motivational text messages versus usual care to enhance adherence to HAART among HIV patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Participants appreciated the idea of a timely SMS reminder, and cited the physician as a role model. They expressed concerns about privacy. Long-term life goals were a motivating factor to adhere. Overall, text messaging was viewed positively as a tool with a dual function of reminder and motivator. Messages coming from the attending physician may have a stronger impact. Trials investigating the use of text messages to improve adherence to HAART need to consider the content and timing of SMS, taking into account technical challenges and privacy.Keywords: focus groups, adherence, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, text message, short message service (SMS, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  18. Biological Constraints in Tomato Production in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum production is handicapped by damage due to pests and pathogens. Farmers' fields in the western highlands of Cameroon were surveyed during 1993 to 1996 to identify biological constraints in production. Diseases and insect pests are the most important biological limitations in tomato production. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans and early blight caused by Alternaria solani are the most severe diseases, while the melon fruitfly (Dacus cucurbitae is the most prevalent insect pest. Yield losses due to pest damage are high and reach 100 % when the crop is not treated in the wet season. Pest-resistant varieties are not available to farmers. Consequently, growers practise intensive pesticidal spray programmes to limit losses caused by pests and diseases. Results indicate the necessity for the adoption of integrated pest management strategies in tomato production in Cameroon.

  19. The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjemaï, Hamadou N M; Patchoké, Salomon; Atangana, Jean; Etang, Josiane; Simard, Fréderic; Bilong, Charles F Bilong; Reimer, Lisa; Cornel, Anthony; Lanzaro, Gregory C; Fondjo, Etienne

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides are a key component of vector-based malaria control programmes in Cameroon. As part of ongoing resistance surveillance efforts, Anopheles gambiae s.l. female mosquitoes were exposed to organochlorine (DDT), a carbamate (bendiocarb), an organophosphate (malathion), and three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin) in WHO bioassay test kits. Results indicated a higher level of resistance (reduced mortality and knockdown effect) to DDT and pyrethroids in populations of A. gambiae s.s. than in A. arabiensis. The West and East African knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations were found in both species but at much higher frequencies in A. gambiae s.s. The West Africa kdr mutant was also more frequent in the A. gambiae S form than in the M form. No resistance to bendiocarb and malathion was found. Carbamate and organophosphorous compounds could thus be used as alternatives in locations in Cameroon where pyrethroid-resistant populations are found. PMID:19155034

  20. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P

    1997-07-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  1. Nurses and challenges faced as clinical educators: a survey of a group of nurses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian E A Eta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical teaching is an important component of clinical education. In nursing, clinical teaching is ensured by clinical nurse educators (CNEs. This study aimed at describing the major challenges faced by CNEs in Cameroon. METHODS: In a qualitative study, supplemented with quantitative methods, CNEs were enrolled from three health districts to represent their frequency in Cameroon’s health delivery system. RESULTS: A total of 56 CNEs participated in the study, of whom, as many as 58.9% acknowledged always facing challenges in clinical teaching and supervision. The major challenges identified were the lack of opportunities to update knowledge and skills, students’ lack of preparedness and the CNEs not being prepared for clinical teaching. CNEs attributed these challenges in major part to the lack of incentives and poor health policies. CONCLUSION: CNEs in Cameroon do indeed face major challenges which are of diverse origins and could adversely affect teaching in clinical settings

  2. Tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve, southeastern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventure Sonké

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dja Faunal Reserve located in southeastern Cameroon represents the largest and best protected rainforest patch in Cameroon. Here we make available a dataset on the inventory of tree species collected across the Dja. For this study nine 5 km long and 5 m wide transects were installed. All species with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm were recorded, identified and measured. A total of 11546 individuals were recorded, corresponding to a total of 312 species identified with 60 genera containing unidentified taxa. Of the 54 identified families Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Malvaceae were the most species rich, whereas Fabaceae, Phyllantaceae and Olacaceae were the most abundant. Finally, Tabernaemontana crassa was the most abundant species across the Reserve. This dataset provides a unique insight into the tree diversity of the Dja Faunal Reserve and is now publically available and usable.

  3. Marine pollution in Cameroon (Gulf of Guinea): State and remedies for successful control and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the various research results obtained over several years in Cameroon on coastal and marine pollution, especially pollution by solid wastes, industrial and domestic effluents, hydrocarbons (tar balls), heavy metals and pesticides. Values in the order of 175,531 and 194,685 tons have been estimated for annual pollution loads in terms of BOD and suspended matter respectively. With respect to BOD, the most polluting industries are petroleum refineries, food processing and chemical industries which respectively represent 38, 36 and 10% of the total annual BOD. Measurement of tar balls on various Cameroonian beaches shows values as high as 42.40 g/m2 of beach, while the concentration of heavy metals encountered in shrimps and fish consumed in Cameroon shows a very wide range of values. Most of these values are similar to those obtained within the region, and some are alarming in their magnitude

  4. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Ackom, Nana B.;

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data...... and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion.......76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon’s current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional...

  5. Manyu youths, belonging and the antinomies of patrimonial elite politics in contemporary Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the social and political connections between youths and political elites from Manyu Division in South-Western Cameroon. Unlike several recent studies on youths in Africa, it focuses on educated youths from Manyu, exploring their strategies to secure greater political inclusion...... and better chances for upward social mobility. With a critical attention to their discourses and practices, the article examines the disjuncture between the promise of Cameroon’s patrimonial state as an inclusive structure of political action and the sense of exclusion, anxiety, and uncertainty felt by many...... actors. It argues that this tension generates relations of mutuality and interdependence between elite and nonelite actors. Yet, the article finds that while the logics of political intimacy between Manyu students and their political elites in Cameroon are mediated by kinship, ethnicity, and patronage...

  6. Survey of Minerai Status of Cattle in the Adamaoua Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njwe, RM.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum and liver samples were collected from Zebu Gudali and Zebu Banyo cattle freshly slaughtered in abattoirs at eight different locations in each of the five administrative divisions of the Adamaoua region of Cameroon during the wet season (September to October, 1983 and the dry season (February to March, 1984. Liver samples were analysed for iron, copper and manganese while serum samples were analysed for calcium, magnesium and copper. Most of the animals were adequate in calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. Copper was deficient in liver and sera of most of the animals. There is a need to intensif/research on the mineral status of cattle in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. Copper sulphate is recommended in sait licks for cattle in this region.

  7. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon. Assessing costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new momentum is underway to account for emissions from 'avoided deforestation and degradation' at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper assesses the feasibility of one of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanisms currently discussed, namely that of 'Compensated Reduction', in the case of Cameroon. Here we assess the differential revenues that a farmer could get from 1 ha of land out of two alternative land-uses: shifting cultivation, the traditional land-use pattern in southern Cameroon, or carbon credits as compensation for the conservation of primary forest. It is found that a break-even price of USD 2.85/t of carbon dioxide equivalent would level shifting cultivation with 'Compensated Reduction'. This result suggests that at current carbon prices, and independently form variations in the discount rate, it could already be more profitable to preserve the primary forest rather than to log it in order to grow crops. (author)

  8. Analysis of fox beating data in the provinces of Pesaro-Urbino and of Ancona (Central Italy / Analisi dei dati ottenuti dai verbali di abbattimento di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes nelle province di Pesaro-Urbino ed Ancona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Santolini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contro1 of fox population by beating method was examined in two Provinces of the Marches region from 1984 to 1988. The efficiency of beating was evaluated as number of killed foxes per beating per 100; in addition the following relative abundance index (I.R.A. was calculated: number of killed foxes in a season divided by the ratio between the number of beatings in the same season and the minimum number of beatings recorded in a season of the study period. The index, recorded in winter, spring and autumn of each study year, agreed generally with the biologica1 cycle of the fox. The low values of the index occurred in spring in relation to the potential breeding fox population, the hight values in autumn when the population included also the young fox. The control of fox population by beating method was inefficient. Riassunto Vengono esaminati i verbali di abbattimento di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in due province delle Marche, relativi al periodo 1984-88. I dati raccolti hanno permesso di valutare il rendimento di battuta (numero di volpi uccise/battute effettuate x 100 e di definire il seguente indice relativo di abbondanza (I.R.A.: numero di volpi abbattute in una determinata stagione diviso il rapporto tra il numero di battute nella stagione ed il numero minimo di battute registrate in una delle stagioni del periodo di indagine. I valori dell'indice, rilevati per primavera, autunno ed inverno di ogni anno di studio, si accordano in linea generale con il ciclo biologico della specie. Essi sono più bassi in primavera, periodo in cui sono espressione della popolazione potenzialmente riproduttiva, e sono più elevati in autunno in coincidenza con l'incremento della popolazione dovuta alla presenza dei giovani dell'anno. Lo studio evidenzia inoltre che le battute di caccia sono inefficaci per il controllo della popolazione.

  9. Contribution of Augosoma centaurus beetle to rural livelihoods in the East region of Cameroon : study report

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Muafor; Le Gall, Philippe; Levang, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the level to which forest dependent people in the East region of Cameroon rely on the consumption of Augosoma centaurus beetle (Dynastidae) for food security and rural livelihood. In total, 14 villages and 2 small towns, comprising of 9 ethnic groups in 10 sub-divisions were surveyed using quantitative and qualitative socioeconomic approaches. From the results of this study, both the larvae and adult individuals of the Augosoma beetle are traditional delic...

  10. Conditions for the sustainable development of the smallholder oil palm sector in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nkongho, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The collapse of the FONADER sponsored partnership between oil palm smallholders and major agro-industries in Cameroon together with the structural adjustment program, the devaluation of the Franc CFA, the economic crises, as well as the fall in the international market price for cocoa and coffee, led to the emergence of independent oil palm producers in the country. These oil palm planters have been grappling with the management of their plantation and the processing of their FFB with the use...

  11. The distribution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Ndjemai, H. N. M.; Patchoke, S.; Atangana, J.; Etang, J.; Simard, Frédéric; Bilong, C. F. B.; Reimer, L.; Cornel, A.; Lanzaro, G.C.; Fondjo, E

    2009-01-01

    Insecticides are a key component of vector-based malaria control programmes in Cameroon. As part of ongoing resistance surveillance efforts, Anopheles gambiae s.l. female mosquitoes were exposed to organochlorine (DDT), a carbamate (bendiocarb), an organophosphate (malathion), and three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin) in WHO bioassay test kits. Results indicated a higher level of resistance (reduced mortality and knockdown effect) to DDT and pyrethroids in popula...

  12. Forest eternal? Endemic butterflies of the Bamenda highlands, Cameroon, avoid close-canopy forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Konvička, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2010), s. 428-437. ISSN 0141-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Republic of Cameroon(CM) 014125; AV ČR(CZ) IAA601410709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : afromontane landscape * conservation * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2010

  13. Impacts of anthropogenic factors on fish community structure in Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ettagbor, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Two sites of the Cross River within the Lebialem-Mone forest landscape of Cameroon were chosen, one of the sites faced with human activities (test site) and the other with no human pressure (control site). The lengths and weights of fish obtained from both sites were analyzed in SPSS. Fish communities living within these 2 sites were compared after collecting fish from them using gill nets within 2 months of sampling (September-October 2009). Questionnaires were distributed to the fishers to ...

  14. Habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forests of South Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Onguene, N.A.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Information is lacking on habitat and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi of African humid forests. For three years, mushroom excursions were carried out in four sites with contrasted soil and altitude characteristics of South Cameroon, during wet seasons. Collected fungi were described in fresh state and dried exsiccates examined for microscopic description before morpho-anatomical identification. ECM fungi abundantly fruited exclusively in mixed caesalp, monodominant Gilbertiodendron a...

  15. Cameroon: UN group finds detention of gay men a violation of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearshouse, Richard; Klein, Alana

    2006-12-01

    In an opinion issued on 11 October 2006, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention declared that the detention of 11 men in Cameroon on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation constituted an arbitrary deprivation of liberty and a violation of the principle of equal protection of the law. The Working Group called on the Cameroonian government to "examine the possibility of amending the legislation" criminalizing homosexual sex. PMID:17373068

  16. Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boynton Petra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of

  17. Traditional Knowledge on Medicinal Plants Use by Ethnic Communities in Douala, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Mpondo Mpondo; Didier Dibong Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is common and important among the tribal people but much of the information is empirical at best lacking logical validation. A number of ethnic communities residing in the study area are partially or fully dependent on the forest resources to meet their requirements. Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Cameroon since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work...

  18. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-François Guégan; Philippe Legall; Jordi Landier; Laurent Marsollier; Estelle Marion; Sara Eyangoh; Solange Meyin A Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and do...

  19. Contract farming and capital accumulation in Cameroon: the case of the CDC smallholder schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Geschiere, P.L.; Konings, P.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Contract farming schemes associated with agro-industrial enterprises have been of a more limited scope in Cameroon than in several other Third World countries, and largely unsuccessful. The Cameroonian experience with contract farming therefore poses an interesting challenge to modernization theorists who have tried to impress upon Third World governments that an expansion of contract farming schemes might boost peasant productivity and living standards. In this case study the experience of t...

  20. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Thinness in Cameroon Urban Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce Cedric Fouejeu Wamba; Julius Enyong Oben; Katherine Cianflone

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the prevalence of thinness, overweight, and obesity in Cameroon children ranging from 8 to 15 years old using several published references as evaluation tools. Methods. A stratified sample was used with eleven schools randomly selected, and data from 2689 children (52.2% girls) ranging from 8 to 15 years were analyzed. Weight and height were recorded and BMI was calculated. BMI cutoffs used to define nutritional status grades included two international and three...

  1. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic...

  2. Yellow fever control in Cameroon: Where are we now and where are we going?

    OpenAIRE

    Mimbouga Julienne; Ofal James; Mawo Jeanne; Nomo Emmanuel; Wiysonge Charles; Ticha Johnson; Ndumbe Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Cameroon is one of 12 African countries that bear most of the global burden of yellow fever. In 2002 the country developed a five-year strategic plan for yellow fever control, which included strategies for prevention as well as rapid detection and response to outbreaks when they occur. We have used data collected by the national Expanded Programme on Immunisation to assess the progress made and challenges faced during the first four years of implementing the plan. Methods ...

  3. The Multiple Lives of Objects: Museum, Memory, and Modernity in the Cameroon Grassfields

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Erica Perlmutter

    2014-01-01

    The Grassfields region of Cameroon is home to many museums. In a region that is known for its prolific, well studied, vibrant arts and cultures, museums have been a part of the cultural landscape for nearly one hundred years. This dissertation seeks to address questions about constructing heritage and how that heritage transforms objects, is understood by different communities, and is used by people in power through the lens of four recently constructed museums in the region: the Mankon Mus...

  4. Geophysical and Geotechnical Investigations of a Landslide in Kekem Area, Western Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Pouyon Dieudonné Epada; Ganno Sylvestre; Tabod Charles Tabod

    2012-01-01

    Geophysical and geotechnical surveys were conducted in the Western Cameroon (Kekem area) following a landslide on argillaceous material in order to understand the triggering processes and mechanisms of this landslide and to assess the stability of the slope. The geophysical soundings consisting of vertical electrical soundings with the Schlumberger electrode array configuration were carried out to monitor the behaviour of electrical resistivity in the landslide. Geoelectrical data showed a zo...

  5. Awareness, attitudes and prevention of malaria in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Menze-Djantio Benjamin; Ndo Cyrille; Antonio-Nkondjio Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is little information on the social perception of malaria and the use of prevention methods in Cameroon. This study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and management of malaria in households living in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé. Results Over 82% of people interviewed associated malaria transmission to mosquito bites. Methods used for malaria prevention were: environmental sanitation 1645 (76.1%), use of bed nets 1491 (69%), insecticide spray/coils 265 (...

  6. The management of wild yam tubers by the Baka pygmies in Southern Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Dounias, Edmond

    2001-01-01

    Wild yams (#Dioscorea$ spp.) are primordial sources of carbohydrates for many hunter-gatherers of African forests. Yams play a key role in the symbolic perception of the forest by the Baka Pygmies of Southern Cameroon. The Baka have elaborated an original form of wild yam exploitation that I have termed "paracultivation". Paracultivation defines a set of technical, social and cultural practices aiming at managing wild resources while keeping them in their natural environment. In 1994, I under...

  7. NUCLEAR DNA CONTENT ANALYSIS OF FOUR CULTIVATED SPECIES OF YAMS (DIOSCOREA SPP.) FROM CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    Marie F. Sandrine; Simon Joly; Mickaël Bourge; Spencer Brown; Denis N. Omokolo

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important food source in Africa, but diseases and storage pests hinder the African farmers to achieve high yields during the harvest. One important limitation to the genetic breeding of yam is the relatively unknown ploidy level variation within and among species.  The objective of this study was to determine the nuclear DNA content of 59 accessions representing four cultivated Dioscorea species collected from three regions of Cameroon (Adamawa, Centre and Southwest...

  8. Eolian contribution to soils on Mount Cameroon : isotopic and trace element records

    OpenAIRE

    Dia, A.; C. Chauvel; Bulourde, M.; Gérard, Martine

    2006-01-01

    We determined Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions and major- and trace-element compositions of soil samples recovered from three soil profiles developed on relatively young pyroclastic deposits, less than 10,000 years old, of the Mount Cameroon volcano. The time elapsed since then is short compared with the half-lives of Rb, Sm, U and Th, suggesting that radioactive decay can be neglected. We therefore assumed that (i) these polyphase soils developed on isotopically homogenous substrates and ...

  9. Conservation concern for the deteriorating geographical range of the Grey Parrot in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Simon A. Tamungang; Cheke, Robert A.; Mofor, Gilbert Z.; Tamungang, Richard N.; Fritz T. Oben

    2014-01-01

    The need for information on Grey Parrot distribution and vegetation associations for informed management and policy decisions was the basis for this study. A nationwide survey of the Grey Parrot population and habitat status was carried out, using questionnaire and point count methods. From the results, the extent of the contemporary range of the parrots was restricted to Southern Cameroon, which harbours the rainforest. Regional parrot population means ranged from 3,487 parrots in the Litto...

  10. EFL/ESL and Environmental Education: Towards an Eco-Applied Linguistic Awareness in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Carlous Muluh Nkwetisama

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to examine the perception of the EFL/ESL teachers on environmental education and the integration of environmental education in language teaching. The hope of the article is that it will enable Cameroon EFL/ESL teachers to discover or rediscover the aims and extended reach of their profession. That is, that EFL/ESL teaching should not only be limited to the improvement of learners’ language proficiency but also to enable them develop critical thinking strategies that c...

  11. Socioeconomic and sex differences in adolescents’ dietary intake, anthropometry and physical activity in Cameroon, Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dapi N., Léonie

    2010-01-01

    Background: People in Cameroon are experiencing a dietary transition characterized by changing from traditional food habits to increased intake of highly processed sweet and fatty food. The rapid change in food pattern combined with an increased sedentary lifestyle has resulted in a rather high prevalence of obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Nutritional intake is important during adolescence for growth spurt, health, cognitive development and performance in s...

  12. Wild fauna as a probable animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Njiokou, F.; Laveissière, Claude; Simo, G.; Nkinin, S.; Grébaut, Pascal; Cuny, Gérard; Herder, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    In order to Study the existence of a wild animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in South Cameroon, blood was collected from wild animals in three human African trypanosomiasis foci and from a nonendemic control area. The 1142 wild animals sampled belonged to 36 different species pertaining to eight orders (407 primates, 347 artiodactyls, 265 rodents, 54 pangolins, 53 carnivores, 11 Saurians and crocodilians, and five hyraxes). QBC (R) and KIVI tests detected trypanosomes on 1.7% (...

  13. Local rulers in North Cameroon: the interplay of politics and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schilder

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the conversion to Islam of indigenous chiefs in North Cameroon. The chiefs studied belong to the Mundang ethnic group. Their islamisation is interpreted as the outcome of the ambivalence brought about by their intermediary role between local society and the wider society. This approach offers insights in (a the connection between conversion and political careers; (b the relation between Islam and ethnic identities; and (c the popular legitimacy of conversion.

  14. Environmental implications of slope deposits in humid tropical africa : evidence from southern cameroon and western kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kadomura, Hiroshi; Hori, Nobuyuki

    1990-01-01

    Radiocarbon-dated stratigraphic sequence of slope deposits in the humid, now and formerly forested areas of Southern Cameroon and similar stratigraphy in Western Kenya suggest following environmental history: 1) widespread savannization or steppization of closed forests during the Last Glacial Maximum arid phase in the low latitudes; 2) return of humid climates followed by forest reestablishment in the early to middle Holocene (>8,500-3,000 yr B.P.), and 3) anthropogenic transformation of upp...

  15. Sustainable community-based management and conservation of mangrove ecosystems in Cameroon.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems on the coast of Cameroon are valuable both for their contributions to local livelihoods and the globally important biodiversity that they contain. However, these areas are threatened by a number of development pressures as well as unsustainable management and harvesting practices of the local communities living there. This project aims to strengthen protection and reduce degradation in these areas by supporting inter-sectoral co-ordination and collaboration (within an a...

  16. Slash and burn agriculture in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kanmegne, J.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: crop yields, earthworm cast, Inga edulis , land use, nutrient flows, nutrient stocks, nutrient management, slash and burnA field study was conducted on acid soils in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, to characterize the traditional slash-and-burn land uses, assess the major effects of land use change on soil nutrient stocks, flows, and soil biological quality, and to explore alternatives for sustainable land management. The typical land use chronosequence in the area after...

  17. From grass to grace: How SLMTA revolutionised the Bamenda Regional Hospital Laboratory in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Siyem C. Nkwawir; Nakeli N. Batumani; Talkmore Maruta; Charles N. Awasom

    2014-01-01

    Background: Public health laboratories form the foundation on which today’s clinical laboratory practice in Cameroon is built. The advent of the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme in 2009 empowered the Bamenda Regional Hospital Laboratory (BRHL) to improve its working culture, practices and management.Objectives: To evaluate the results of SLMTA implementation at BRHL and discuss lessons learned.Method: In 2010, the SLMTA programme was rolled out in Cam...

  18. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion liters of ethanol annually to displace 18–48% of the national consumption of gasoline. Alternatively, the residues could provide 0.08–0.22 billion liters of biomass to Fischer Tropsch diesel annually to offset 17–45% of diesel fuel use. For the generation of bioelectricity, the residues could supply 0.76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon's current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional biomass (woodfuel and charcoal). Policy recommendations that promote the wider uptake of modern bioenergy applications from residues are provided. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11×106 bone dry tonnes per annum. • 0.12–0.32 billion litres of bio ethanol annually to displace 18–48% national gasoline use. • 0.08–0.22 billion litres of biomass to BTL diesel per year to offset 17–45% of diesel use. • 0.76–2.02 TW h of electricity, representing 15–38% of Cameroon's consumption. • Residues could offset only 3% of national consumption of traditional biomass

  19. Conceptions of literacy in context:situated understandings in a rural area of Northern Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Cheffy, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Taking a view of literacy as a communicative practice, in which a learned skill is applied by individual people in their particular social contexts, this thesis examines the understandings of literacy of people in a village in northern Cameroon and explores how these are influenced by the circumstances of their lives. Many developments have taken place in local life in the last fifty years as the village has become progressively integrated into a wider world. Most people are small farmers; po...

  20. Hymenostegia viridiflora (Detarieae, Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae), a new tree species from Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinder, B.A.; Wieringa, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Hymenostegia (Detarieae, Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) is described from Cameroon. Hymenostegia viridiflora has previously been confused with the type species of the genus, H. floribunda, but differs from it in having pale green to greenish yellow instead of lemon yellow petals, a broader upper part of the stipule, more numerous reddish veins on the white bracteoles and generally more numerous and narrower leaflets. As a consequence, the geographic range of true H. floribund...

  1. A data support infrastructure for Clean Development Mechanism forestry implementation: an inventory perspective from Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Minang, Peter A.; McCall, Michael K.; Skutsch, Margaret M.; Verplanke, Jeroen J.

    2007-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) forestry project development requires highly multi-disciplinary and multiple-source information that can be complex, cumbersome and costly to acquire. Yet developing countries in which CDM projects are created and implemented are often data poor environments and unable to meet such complex information requirements. Using Cameroon as an example, the present paper explores the structure of an enabling host country data support infrastructure for CDM forestry im...

  2. The Ecology and Conservation of the Critically Endangered Cross River Gorilla in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli; hereafter: CRG) is one of the world's most endangered and least studied primates. CRG exist only in a patchy distribution in the southern portion of the Cameroon-Nigeria border region and may have as few as 300 individuals remaining, divided into 14 fragmented subpopulations. Though Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla spp) probably once inhabited much greater ranges throughout West Africa, today CRG represent the most northern and western distri...

  3. Antecedents of Service Recovery Performance in 3 and 4 Star Hotels in Douala, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Doh, Winifred Lema

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In addition to the external environment challenges, the aspect of unjust practices in hiring, promotion and rewarding at the organizational level has recently received a great deal of attention for influencing the performance of frontline employees in service recovery (Yavas et al., 2003) by causing dissatisfaction (Babakus et al., 2003) and reducing their level of affective commitment. The tourism industry in Cameroon and in the Sub-Sahara Africa is infested by all sort external ch...

  4. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-01-01

    Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. ...

  5. The Management and Challenges of Protected Areas and the Sustenance of Local Livelihoods in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius Mbifung Lambi; Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi; Cordelia Givencheh Kometa; Emmanuel Sunjo Tata

    2012-01-01

    The popular word en vogue today as far as the management of protected areas is concerned is the call to include local participation' and `community development' as part of a comprehensive strategy for biodiversity protection. While much paper work has been done in the form of laid downs laws and policies, decrees have been signed on the issue of creating and managing protected areas in Cameroon for posterity, it is a hard truth that little implementation and enabling environments have been cr...

  6. Higher insertion in marketing and vulnerability of cattle farms in North Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Djamen, Patrice; Lossouarn, Jean; Havard, Michel; Hassana,; Bouba, Raymond; Tiékwa, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Does higher commercial insertion constitutes for livestock keepers an opportunity in fostering the transformation of their farms, or a risk likely to further weaken their farms? This issue is arising in Northern Cameroon where traditional livestock farming systems are hampered by high pressure on land while high population growth and rapid urbanization stimulate the development of dairy products and beef markets. A research was carried out to identify the effects of commercial insertion on th...

  7. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  8. Archangelsk Province Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste accumulating in the north of the Russian Federation is generated by naval activity, nuclear ice-breakers of the Murmansk Shipping Company, and shipbuilding and ship repairing companies. This report analyses the situation in the town of Severodvinsk in Archangelsk Province and the proposed plans to prevent radioactive pollution of the territory

  9. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  10. Conservation Concern for the Deteriorating Geographical Range of the Grey Parrot in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Tamungang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for information on Grey Parrot distribution and vegetation associations for informed management and policy decisions was the basis for this study. A nationwide survey of the Grey Parrot population and habitat status was carried out, using questionnaire and point count methods. From the results, the extent of the contemporary range of the parrots was restricted to Southern Cameroon, which harbours the rainforest. Regional parrot population means ranged from 3,487 parrots in the Littoral to 1,351,275 parrots in the East Regions. The extent of the contemporary range as a percentage of the whole country was 25.4% and as a percentage of the regions with rainforest was 44.5%. The historic range of the bird has been reduced by over 55.5%. Estimated percentage of forest lost per region ranged from 20.4% in the Centre to 57.1% in the East and South Regions. At a global level, Cameroon contributed 9% to the total extent of the range of the Grey Parrot in Africa. The range is increasingly fragmented, contracted, and lost through land-based socioeconomic activities. These degradation pressures on the range called for urgent conservation considerations for long-term survival of the parrot species and its associated biodiversity in Cameroon.

  11. Increased carotid thickness in subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Napoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently shown a high prevalence of diabetes and obesity in rural Cameroon, despite an improved lifestyle. Diabetes in rural Africa remains underdiagnosed and its role in increasing risk of atherosclerosis in these populations is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of subjects with recently-diagnosed diabetes from rural Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT was measured in 74 subjects with diabetes (diagnosed 0.9 mm was found in 4%, 45.9% and 20% of diabetic subjects at the common, bulb or internal carotid, respectively. Only 25% of patients had an HbA1c9%. The prevalence of diabetic subjects with abnormal levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol or blood pressure was 45%, 16.6%, 15% and 65.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid thickness is increased in subjects with diabetes from a rural area of Cameroon, despite the relatively recent diagnosis. These findings and the high rate of uncontrolled diabetes in this population support the increasing concern of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in African countries and indicate the need for multifaceted health interventions in urban and rural settings.

  12. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon. PMID:27055484

  13. Oil depletion and development in Cameroon: A critical appraisal of the permanent income hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djiofack, Calvin Z., E-mail: cdjiofack@worldbank.org [World Bank, Latin America and Caribbean, 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Omgba, Luc Desire, E-mail: Desire.OMGBA@supco-amiens.fr [Amiens School of Management, 18, Place Saint Michel-80038 Amiens Cedex 1 (France)

    2011-11-15

    This paper focuses on medium term policy options in the economic context of natural resource depletion. In particular, a novel approach for analyzing the impact of the permanent income hypothesis (PIH) with a dynamic recursive computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is employed. The model is benchmarked in an oil producing country with declining production, namely Cameroon. The results show that the PIH renders public finances less vulnerable during the post-oil transition. However, adopting the PIH is not associated with substantial improvements in growth and household welfare in Cameroon. Therefore, the PIH cannot be the only basis for better management of oil revenues in the country. - Highlights: > We assess for the first time, the adoption of permanent income hypothesis (PIH) in a dynamic CGE model. > The model is benchmarked in an oil country with declining production, namely Cameroon. > PIH renders public finances less vulnerable during the post-oil transition. > However, adopting the PIH is not associated with significant improvement of the growth and households' welfare.

  14. Oil depletion and development in Cameroon: A critical appraisal of the permanent income hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on medium term policy options in the economic context of natural resource depletion. In particular, a novel approach for analyzing the impact of the permanent income hypothesis (PIH) with a dynamic recursive computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is employed. The model is benchmarked in an oil producing country with declining production, namely Cameroon. The results show that the PIH renders public finances less vulnerable during the post-oil transition. However, adopting the PIH is not associated with substantial improvements in growth and household welfare in Cameroon. Therefore, the PIH cannot be the only basis for better management of oil revenues in the country. - Highlights: → We assess for the first time, the adoption of permanent income hypothesis (PIH) in a dynamic CGE model. → The model is benchmarked in an oil country with declining production, namely Cameroon. → PIH renders public finances less vulnerable during the post-oil transition. → However, adopting the PIH is not associated with significant improvement of the growth and households' welfare.

  15. Unilateral childhood blindness: a hospital-based study in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André; Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emilienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Lucienne Bella2, Côme Ebana Mvogo21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CameroonIntroduction: We performed an analytic and prospective study over a period of 12 months from January 2nd to December 31st, 2008, at the Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and causes of unilateral blindness in school children aged 6 to 15 years.Results: Among the 1,266 children aged 6 to 15 years who were recruited, 60 presented with unilateral blindness (4.7%: 42 boys (6.96% and 18 girls (2.71%. The mean age was 10.15 ± 3.4 years. In patients with unilateral blindness, 65% was due to ocular trauma.Discussion: The hospital-based prevalence of unilateral blindness in children is relatively high and ocular trauma is the leading etiology.Conclusion: Unilateral blindness in school children is avoidable and its incidence could be markedly reduced by emphasizing an information strategy and education based on prevention of ocular trauma. Early management of nontraumatic diseases such as infantile glaucoma and some tumors could improve outcome and avoid blindness.Keywords: unilateral blindness, ocular trauma, prevalence, education

  16. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  17. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  18. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for granitoids of the Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex, Ceara Central Domain: implication for neoproterozoic syncollisional magmatism in north Borborema Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Felipe Grandjean da; Araujo, Carlos Eduardo Ganade de; Vasconcelos, Antonio Maurilio, E-mail: felipe.costa@cprm.gov.br, E-mail: caegeo@gmail.com, E-mail: maurilio.vasconcelos@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Amaral, Wagner da Silva, E-mail: wamaral@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante, E-mail: joseneusa.rodrigues@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    The Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex (TSQC) is one of the largest Neoproterozoic plutonic manifestations in the north Borborema Province (NE Brazil). It represents an anatectic/igneous association characterized by a number of magmatic pulses that occurred in the 650-610 Ma interval. In this paper, we present U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for quartz monzonite and quartz diorites of the southern part of TSQC. The quartz monzonite belong to a hybrid granitoid association, including monzonite, syenites and quartz syenites, all with abundant mafic magmatic enclaves. A quartz monzonite sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 634 {+-} 10 Ma and a TDM age of 2.69 Ga. The quartz diorites are much more homogeneous in composition and yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 618 {+-} 23 Ma and a TDM age of 2.19 Ga. The presence of coeval mantle-derived magmatism and diatexites (crustal anatexis) post-dating high-pressure metamorphism (ca. 650 Ma), and together with high-temperature metamorphism (ca. 630-610 Ma), suggests that this large magmatic manifestation evolved in a collisional setting, probably related to slab break off during the Western Gondwana amalgamation. (author)

  19. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS zircon ages and Nd isotopes for granitoids of the Tamboril-Santa Quitéria Complex, Ceará Central Domain: implication for neoproterozoic syncollisional magmatism in north Borborema Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Grandjean da Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tamboril-Santa Quitéria Complex (TSQC is one of the largest Neoproterozoic plutonic manifestations in the northBorborema Province (NE Brazil. It represents an anatectic/igneous association characterized by a number of magmaticpulses that occurred in the 650-610 Ma interval. In this paper, we present U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon ages and Ndisotopes for quartz monzonites and quartz diorites of the southern part of TSQC. The quartz monzonites belong to a hybridgranitoid association, including monzonites, syenites and quartz syenites, all with abundant mafic magmatic enclaves.A quartz monzonite sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 634 ± 10 Ma and a TDM age of 2.69 Ga. The quartz diorites aremuch more homogeneous in composition and yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 618 ± 23 Ma and a TDM age of 2.19 Ga. Thepresence of coeval mantle-derived magmatism and diatexites (crustal anatexis post-dating high-pressure metamorphism(ca. 650 Ma, and together with high-temperature metamorphism (ca. 630-610 Ma, suggests that this large magmatic manifestationevolved in a collisional setting, probably related to slab breakoff during the Western Gondwana amalgamation.

  20. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for granitoids of the Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex, Ceara Central Domain: implication for neoproterozoic syncollisional magmatism in north Borborema Province, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex (TSQC) is one of the largest Neoproterozoic plutonic manifestations in the north Borborema Province (NE Brazil). It represents an anatectic/igneous association characterized by a number of magmatic pulses that occurred in the 650-610 Ma interval. In this paper, we present U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for quartz monzonite and quartz diorites of the southern part of TSQC. The quartz monzonite belong to a hybrid granitoid association, including monzonite, syenites and quartz syenites, all with abundant mafic magmatic enclaves. A quartz monzonite sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 634 ± 10 Ma and a TDM age of 2.69 Ga. The quartz diorites are much more homogeneous in composition and yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 618 ± 23 Ma and a TDM age of 2.19 Ga. The presence of coeval mantle-derived magmatism and diatexites (crustal anatexis) post-dating high-pressure metamorphism (ca. 650 Ma), and together with high-temperature metamorphism (ca. 630-610 Ma), suggests that this large magmatic manifestation evolved in a collisional setting, probably related to slab break off during the Western Gondwana amalgamation. (author)

  1. 关于对二代支付系统集中代收付业务定位与发展的思考--以陕西省为例%The Reflection on the Orientation and Development of the Centralized Payment Business of the Second Generation Payment System---A Case of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷蕾

    2015-01-01

    本文通过分析当前陕西省集中代收付业务发展过程中所存在的问题,结合人民银行二代支付系统的业务功能特点,对在新的系统运行环境下,如何进一步促进集中代收付业务发展进行了深入思考,并提出了几点建议。%Through analyzing the current problems existing in the development process of centralized payment business in Shaanxi province, combined with the business function characteristics of the second generation payment system of the People’s Bank of Chi-na, the paper makes a deep reflection on how to further promote the development of the centralized payment business in the situation of the new system, and puts forward several suggestions.

  2. Traditional medicine: past, present and future research and development prospects and integration in the National Health System of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokunang, C N; Ndikum, V; Tabi, O Y; Jiofack, R B; Ngameni, B; Guedje, N M; Tembe-Fokunang, E A; Tomkins, P; Barkwan, S; Kechia, F; Asongalem, E; Ngoupayou, J; Torimiro, N J; Gonsu, K H; Sielinou, V; Ngadjui, B T; Angwafor, F; Nkongmeneck, A; Abena, O M; Ngogang, J; Asonganyi, T; Colizzi, V; Lohoue, J; Kamsu-Kom

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicine refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. In the last decade traditional medicine has become very popular in Cameroon, partly due to the long unsustainable economic situation in the country. The high cost of drugs and increase in drug resistance to common diseases like malaria, bacteria infections and other sexually transmitted diseases has caused the therapeutic approach to alternative traditional medicine as an option for concerted search for new chemical entities (NCE). The World Health Organisation (WHO) in collaboration with the Cameroon Government has put in place a strategic platform for the practice and development of TM in Cameroon. This platform aims at harmonizing the traditional medicine practice in the country, create a synergy between TM and modern medicine and to institutionalize a more harmonized integrated TM practices by the year 2012 in Cameroon. An overview of the practice of TM past, present and future perspectives that underpins the role in sustainable poverty alleviation has been discussed. This study gives an insight into the strategic plan and road map set up by the Government of Cameroon for the organisational framework and research platform for the practice and development of TM, and the global partnership involving the management of TM in the country. PMID:22468007

  3. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  4. Impacts of Type of Fallow and Invasion by Chromolaena odorata on Weed Communities in Crop Fields in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag McDonald

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the humid forest regions of southern Cameroon in central Africa, sectoral and macroeconomic policy reforms introduced in the late 1980s have led to intensified land use, which in turn has resulted in, among other environmental consequences, shortened fallow systems dominated by the Asteraceae shrub, Chromolaena odorata (L. King and Robinson, rather than by secondary forest species. A trial was established to determine the effect of shortened fallow duration and invasion by C. odorata on the weed flora in subsequent mixed food cropping systems. Plots were established in cleared 5- to 7-year-old fallow fields in which the vegetation was either dominated by C. odorata or not, and in which the dominant fallow vegetation in the previous crop–fallow rotation had been either C. odorata, forest, or herbaceous (not dominated by C. odorata. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, maize (Zea mays L., and groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L. were intercropped and weed species were assessed 6, 14, and 30 weeks after crop planting. Soil analyses were conducted to assess the influence of edaphic traits on the distribution and abundance of dominant weed species. The results clearly indicated an enrichment of the weed flora with time after planting, but little difference between fallow histories. Two groups of weed species corresponded with soil characteristics: C. odorata, Cyathula prostrata, Mariscus alternifolius, Mikania cordata, Musanga cecropioides, and Trema orientalis were preponderant on soils with high clay, N, and C contents, and Ageratum conyzoides, Cyperus sp., Haumania danckelmaniana, Paspalum conjugatum, Pouzolzia guineensis, Richardia brasiliensis, Sida rhombifolia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis, Talinum triangulare, and Triumfetta cordifolia were preponderant on sandier soils with high pH, P, and Mg contents.

  5. Prevalence of central obesity among normal body weight adults from Guangxi Province in 2010%2010年广西正常体重成年人中心型肥胖流行状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗水英; 杨虹; 蒙晓宇; 黄佟; 许晶晶; 黄颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解广西正常体重人群中心型肥胖流行状况及分布特点。方法利用中国慢性病及其危险因素监测项目问卷调查及身体测量获得的数据,分析广西6个监测点18岁以上体重正常人群2244人中心型肥胖的流行情况,以及体重正常人群中心型肥胖与心血管疾病危险因素聚集的关系。结果体重正常成人中,按照腰围、腰围身高比划分的中心型肥胖率分别为7.3%和16.6%,均为女性高于男性(P值均<0.01)并随着年龄的增加而上升;按照腰围划分,城市地区中心型肥胖率(10.5%)高于农村(6.1%),而按照腰围身高比划分则两者差别不大,城市、农村地区分别为17.9%和16.1%。在调整了年龄、性别、受教育程度、城乡等因素后,正常体重人群中心型肥胖者心脑血管疾病危险因素聚集的比例是非中心型肥胖者的2.272倍。结论体重正常人群中约有17%为中心型肥胖,并伴有心脑血管疾病危险因素聚集的风险升高。建议在开展肥胖干预时,不仅要强调维持健康体重和腰围,更要结合腰围身高比指标,倡导通过控制饮食和增加身体活动来控制肥胖。%Objective To understand the prevalence of central obesity among normal body weight adults in Guangxi. Methods The prevalence of central obesity was assessed based on the data obtained from the Chinese Chronic Disease Surveillance project, in which a questionnaire survey was conducted and the waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio(WHtR) were measured among 2 244 adults over 18 years old with normal body weight. The correlation of central obesity with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed as well. Result The prevalence of central obesity among normal body weight adults assessed by WC and WHtR were 7.3% and 16.6% respectively. The prevalence of central obesity in female was higher than that of male(p<0.01), and it increased with

  6. An investigative report on information literacy training of individual farmers in central China and on issues related to remedial measures:A case study of farmers information literacy in a few districts of Hubei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Jiaoping; XU; Yangkui; DUAN; Yaoqing; Charles; C.Yan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduced first a conceptual framework of"information literacy training of farmers"based on the widely recognized understanding of the term"information literacy(IL)."It then followed with a discussion based on these three authors’field investigation regarding to Hubei peasants’current information literacy training in such perspectives as information consciousness,information ability and ways and means of information access.It concluded by pointing out some of the more apparent factors that had adverse impacts on the farmers’information literacy training in central China and suggested a few possible remedial measures to guide the course for those who are involved in such undertakings.

  7. Suelos, factores de formación y procesos pedogenéticos en el centro oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz Soils, soil forming factors and pedogenetic processes of a sectorin the central-western Santa Cruz province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Villegas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los suelos, los factores y los procesos pedogenéticos más influyentes en su génesis, en el centro-oeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz (49°00' y 49°36'S - 73°30' y 72°00'O. La localidad de El Chaltén se halla incluida en el ámbito de estudio. Esta región presenta una amplia diversidad de las propiedades del medio físico, principalmente relieve, material originario, clima (precipitaciones, biota (vegetación y suelos. En virtud de la variabilidad del manto pedológico la región puede ser dividida en tres sectores: Occidental, Central y Oriental. El primero está caracterizado por la presencia de Inceptisoles, Espodosoles y Andisoles, el sector Central está dominado por Molisoles y Entisoles mientras que en el Oriental predominan los Aridisoles y Entisoles arídicos. En relación con las propiedades de los suelos, se verifica con sentido oeste-este, un incremento en el pH, CIC, bases de cambio y % de CaCO3. En sentido opuesto, aumenta el contenido de materia orgánica, el pHNaF (para suelos de régimen údico y el cociente cationes bivalentes/cationes monovalentes.The study area is located in centralwestern Santa Cruz including El Chaltén town between 49°00' and 49°36'S - 73°30' and 72°00'W. Environmental variability, relief, parent material, altitude, climate, vegetation and soils were recognized. According to characteristics of the soils, it is possible to differentiate three sectors: western, central and eastern. Inceptisols, Spodosols and Andisols dominate in the first, meanwhile in Central area the main soils are Molisolls and Entisols. Aridisols and aridic Entisols dominate in the Eastern sector. A west-east variation trend, in relation to soil features could be established: an increase in pH, CEC, exchangeable bases and % of CaCO3. Inversely there is an increase % C, pHNaF (in udic regime soils and divalent/monovalent cations relationship.

  8. Structure of the Crust Beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions was carried out to investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structures beneath Cameroon. This was achieved using data from 32 broadband seismic stations installed for 2 years across Cameroon. The Moho depth estimates reveal that the Precambrian crust is variable across the country and shows some significant differences compared to other similar geologic units in East and South Africa. These differences suggest that the setting of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the eastward extension of the Benue Trough have modified the crust of the Panafrican mobile belt in Cameroon by thinning beneath the Rift area and CVL. The velocity models obtained from the joint inversion show at most stations, a layer with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s, indicating the presence of a mafic component in the lower crust, predominant beneath the Congo Craton. The lack of this layer at stations within the Panafrican mobile belt may partly explain the crustal thinning observed beneath the CVL and rift area. The significant presence of this layer beneath the Craton, results from the 2100 Ma magmatic events at the origin of the emplacement of swarms of mafic dykes in the region. The CVL stations are underlain by a crust of 35 km on average except near Mt-Cameroon where it is about 25 km. The crustal thinning observed beneath Mt. Cameroon supported by the observed positive gravity anomalies here, suggests the presence of dense astenospheric material within the lithosphere. Shear wave velocities are found to be slower in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the CVL than the nearby tectonic terrains, suggesting that the origin of the line may be an entirely mantle process through the edge-flow convection process. (author)

  9. Hope for Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The cities surrounding Changsha and Wuhan in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River will ally to form a new pilot zone to boost regional economic development China’s fourth pilot zone for compre- hensive and coordinated economic reform will soon debut in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River,open- ing a new area to attract foreign investment. The application has been submitted to the State Council for approval. The pilot zone will include two clusters of cities in central China:One consists of Wuhan,capital of Hubei Province,and eight surrounding cities in Hubei,and the other is composed of Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan,three major cities in Hunan Province.

  10. Ranging patterns of a large western Gorilla group at Dipikar Island in the Campo—Ma’an National Park, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Wangue, Nadege; Cipollettta, Chloé; Masi, Shelly; Greer, David

    2016-01-01

    The study site, Dipikar Island (2° 10’-2°18’N, 2° 17’-2°14’E), is located in the Campo Ma’an National Park (CMNP), in South Region, Cameroon. In late 2010, after assessing the feasibility for gorilla habituation, the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF) Kudu—Zombo Program, in collaboration with the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife of Cameroon (MINFOF), selected this site in order to develop a controlled ecotourism program for gorilla viewing. We began the preliminary phase of fieldwork in May ...

  11. Diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in central Africa, by the polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Penchenier, Laurent; Simo, G.; Grébaut, Pascal; Nkinin, S.; Laveissière, Claude; Herder, Stéphane

    2000-01-01

    During a mass screening of sleeping sickness conducted in 1998 and 1999, and involving 27,932 persons in Cameroon and the Central African Republic, we tested the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on whole blood for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis due to #Trypanosoma brucei gambiense$. The 1858 samples obtained were from 4 groups : 155 infected patients, 1432 serological suspects detected by the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT), 222 negative controls living in th...

  12. Cure or control: complying with biomedical regime of diabetes in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unwin Nigel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to explore the cultural aspect of compliance, its underlying principles and how these cultural aspects can be used to improve patient centred care for diabetes in Cameroon. Methods We used participant observation to collect data from a rural and an urban health district of Cameroon from June 2001 to June 2003. Patients were studied in their natural settings through daily interactions with them. The analysis was inductive and a continuous process from the early stages of fieldwork. Results The ethnography revealed a lack of basic knowledge about diabetes and diabetes risk factors amongst people with diabetes. The issue of compliance was identified as one of the main themes in the process of treating diabetes. Compliance emerged as part of the discourse of healthcare providers in clinics and filtered into the daily discourses of people with diabetes. The clinical encounters offered treatment packages that were socially inappropriate therefore rejected or modified for most of the time by people with diabetes. Compliance to biomedical therapy suffered a setback for four main reasons: dealing with competing regimes of treatment; coming to terms with biomedical treatment of diabetes; the cost of biomedical therapy; and the impact of AIDS on accepting weight loss as a lifestyle measure in prescription packages. People with diabetes had fears about and negative opinions of accepting certain prescriptions that they thought could interfere with their accustomed social image especially that which had to do with bridging their relationship with ancestors and losing weight in the era of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The cultural pressures on patients are responsible for patients' partial acceptance of and adherence to prescriptions. Understanding the self-image of patients and their background cultures are vital ingredients to improve diabetes care in low-income countries of Sub-Sahara Africa like Cameroon.

  13. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  14. Early Infant Male Circumcision in Cameroon and Senegal: Demand, Service Provision, and Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenu, Ernest; Sint, Tin Tin; Kamenga, Claude; Ekpini, Rene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Male circumcision is almost universal in North and West Africa, and practiced for various reasons. Yet there is little documentation on service delivery, clinical procedures, policies, and programmatic strategies. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) commissioned country program reviews in 2014 to shed light on the delivery of male circumcision services for infants in Cameroon and Senegal. Methods: We conducted a policy desk review, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions at health centers and in communities. Between December 2014 and January 2015, we conducted 21 key informant interviews (13 with regional and district officers, 5 with national officers, and 3 with UNICEF officials) and 36 focus group discussions (6 with men, 6 with women, 12 with adolescent boys, and 12 with service providers). Some of the men and women were parents of the adolescents who participated in the focus group discussions. In the French-speaking areas, the focus group discussions were conducted in French through an accredited translator, audio recorded, and transcribed into English. Results: All of the facilities we visited in Cameroon and Senegal offer medical male circumcision, with 10 out of 12 performing early infant male circumcision (EIMC) routinely. Neither country has policies, guidelines, or strategies for EIMC. The procedure is done mainly by untrained service providers, with some providers using modern circumcision devices. There are no key messages on EIMC for families; the increasing demand for EIMC is led by the community. Conclusion: Despite the absence of national policies and strategies, EIMC is routinely offered at all levels of the health care system in Cameroon and Senegal, mainly by untrained service providers. Improving circumcision services will require guidelines for EIMC and improvements in training, equipment, supply chains, recordkeeping, and demand creation. PMID:27413080

  15. HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Nyeong Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite men who have sex with men (MSM being a key population for HIV programming globally, HIV epidemiologic data on MSM in Central Africa are sparse. We measured HIV and syphilis prevalence and the factors associated with HIV infection among MSM in Cameroon. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-two and 239 MSM aged ≥18 from Douala and Yaoundé, respectively, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS for this cross-sectional surveillance study in 2011. Participants completed a structured questionnaire and HIV and syphilis testing. Statistical analyses, including RDS-weighted proportions, bootstrapped confidence intervals and logistic regressions, were used. Results: Crude and RDS-weighted HIV prevalence were 28.6% (73/255 and 25.5% (95% CI 19.1–31.9 in Douala, and 47.3% (98/207 and 44.4% (95% CI 35.7–53.2 in Yaoundé. Active syphilis prevalence in total was 0.4% (2/511. Overall, median age was 24 years, 62% (317/511 of MSM identified as bisexual and 28.6% (144/511 identified as gay. Inconsistent condom use with regular male partners (64.1%; 273/426 and casual male and female partners (48.5%; 195/402 was common, as was the inconsistent use of condom-compatible lubricants (CCLs (26.3%; 124/472. In Douala, preferring a receptive sexual role was associated with prevalent HIV infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.02–5.32]. Compared to MSM without HIV infection, MSM living with HIV were more likely to have ever accessed a health service targeting MSM in Douala (aOR 4.88, 95% CI 1.63–14.63. In Yaoundé, MSM living with HIV were more likely to use CCLs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 1.19–4.97. Conclusions: High HIV prevalence were observed and condoms and CCLs were used inconsistently indicating that MSM are a priority population for HIV prevention, treatment and care services in Douala and Yaoundé. Building the capacity of MSM community organizations and improving the delivery and scale-up of multimodal interventions

  16. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Chiabi, Andreas; Nguefack, Seraphin; MAH, Evelyne; NODEM, Sostenne; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Mbonda, Elie; TCHOKOTEU, Pierre-Fernand; Anderson DOH

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Chiabi A, Nguefack S, Mah E, Nodem S, Mbuagbaw L, Mbonda E, Tchokoteu PF, Doh A. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3):46-54.ObjectiveThe World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 4 million children are born with asphyxia every year, of which 1 million die and an equal number survive with severe neurologic sequelae. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of birth asphyx...

  17. [Hygiene and microbiologic quality of ice creams produced in Cameroon. A public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouafo, M N; Njine, T; Tailliez, R

    1996-01-01

    Three hundred samples of ice cream produced in two main towns in Cameroon (Douala and Yaoundé) are evaluated for their hygienic quality. The microbiologic examinations show that many of them are contaminated with bacteria of faecal origin, pathogenic Staphylococcus and Salmonella respectively in 71.3, 49.6 and 5% of the products examinations in the study. The use of non potable water and the disrespect of the hygienic rules during the production are the main causes of contamination. Recommendations are made to preserve the public health in the developing country. PMID:9264738

  18. The small-scale pelagic and demersal fisheries off Kribi, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Gabche, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the small-scale fisheries of the coastal pelagic and demersal resources off Kribi, Cameroon, is presented. The major fishing grounds are within the estuarine zone, an area of high productivity. Catch estimates of 19.5 t year super(-1) and 6.5 t year super(-1) were obtained for the pelagic motorized and nonmotorized canoes, respectively, while estimates of 11 t year super(-1) were obtained for the demersal motorized canoes. The social benefits from these fisheries are also dis...

  19. Pig-farming systems and porcine cysticercosis in the north of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Assana, E.; Amadou, F; Thys, E.; Lightowlers, M.W.; Zoli, A P; DORNY, P; Geerts, S

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 150 households owning 1756 pigs in the rural areas of Mayo-Danay division in the north of Cameroon. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information on the pig-farming system and to identify potential risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis infection in pigs. Blood samples were collected from 398 pigs with the aim of estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis. The results showed that 90.7% of the pigs are free roaming during the dry se...

  20. Cameroon National Report on Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggered by the expansion of national economic and social sectors, the demand for nuclear science and technology applications in Cameroon is marking an ever growing trend in scale and scope. Consequently, there is an increasing use of radioactive sources in various socio-economic developmental activities and the above development calls for organized and coherent measures to regulate and control the applications of radioactive sources from a safety and security perspective without impeding on the beneficial application thereof. As of April 2013, 156 radioactive sources have been identified to be extensively in used for beneficial purposes in Cameroon in medical, industrial, agricultural, research and educational applications. Ensuring their safety and security has been done for the past three years by National Radiation Protection Agency (NRPA) and significant improvements have been made in this respect. However, proper legislative framework and adequate resources remain major concerns. Many efforts are being put in place to review the current situation and to identify the means of maintaining the highest possible level of safety and security of radioactive sources throughout their lifecycle and everywhere in Cameroon. The primary foundations through which valuable regulatory exercise could be ensured is by developing and sustaining sound national regulatory infrastructures which is equipped to effectively and efficiently implement regulatory control over the application of nuclear technology and practices involving the use of radiation sources at a national level and by promoting regional cooperation among Regulatory Bodies. In the context of the above development, NRPA has been part of the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA) since 2009 and the AFRA Projects on Self-Assessment of Regulatory Infrastructure for Safety and Networking of Regulatory Bodies (RAF 9038) and Sustaining the Regulatory Infrastructure for the Control of Radiation Sources (RAF

  1. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achembong Leo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB, which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low

  2. A practical approach to low protein diets for patients with chronic kidney disease in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuntantang, Gloria Enow; Fouda, Hermine; Kaze, Francois Folefack; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Tabi-Arrey, Crista; Biwole-Sida, Magloire

    2016-01-01

    Cameroon is a low-middle income country with a rich diversity of culture and cuisine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in Cameroon and over 80 % of patients present late for care, precluding the use of therapies such as low protein diets (LPDs) that slow its progression. Moreover, the prescription of LPDs is challenging in Cameroon because dieticians are scarce, there are no renal dieticians, and people often have to fund their own healthcare. The few nephrologists that provide care for CKD patients have limited expertise in LPD design. Therefore, only moderate LPDs of 0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight per day, or relatively mild LPDs of 0.7-0.8 g protein per kg bodyweight per day are prescribed. The moderate LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with non-nephrotic proteinuria, no evidence of malnutrition and no interrcurrent acute illnesses. The mild LPD is prescribed to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD with nephrotic proteinuria, non-symptomatic stage 5 CKD patients or stage 5 CKD patients on non-dialysis treatment. In the absence of local sources of amino and keto acid supplements, traditional mixed LPDs are used. For patients with limited and sporadic access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs do not restrict vegetable proteins, but limit intake of animal proteins (when available) to 70 % of total daily protein intake. For those with better access to animal proteins, the prescribed LPDs limit intake of animal proteins to 50-70 % of total daily protein intake, depending on their meal plan. Images of 100 g portions of meat, fish and readily available composite meals serve as visual guides of quantities for patients. Nutritional status is assessed before LPD prescription and during follow up using a subjective global assessment and serum albumin. In conclusion, LPDs are underutilised and challenging to prescribe in Cameroon because of weakness in the health system, the rarity of dieticians, a wide diversity of dietary habits, the limited

  3. Still on the Tracks of the Congo Clawless Otter (Aonyx congicus: First Mission in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alary F.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 day first-step mission was undertaken in Cameroon during February 2002. The purpose of this prospective trip was, first of all, to raise interest amongst wildlife institutions (Governmental and NGOs concerning the 3 species of otters supposed to inhabit this country. The same kind of work has been initiated in Western African countries such as Togo, Burkina-Faso, Benin and Niger. This will allow the institution of a network around the French speaking part of Africa, in order to collect information on distribution, status and threats as regards otters.

  4. Neotectonic earth movements related to the 1999 eruption of Cameroon Mountain, West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. E. Suh; S. N. Ayonghe; E. S. Njumbe

    2001-01-01

    @@ The 1999 eruption of Cameroon Mountain was restricted to two sites and controlled by fissures subparallel to one another. Brittle failure, vertical displacement, horizontal displacement and ground deflation are the main types of ground deformation around these sites. The eruptive vents at both sites have a NE-SW trend parallel to the principal eruptive fissures and brittle discontinuities in rock bodies in this vicinity. SH (greatest horizontal stress) is inferred to have a SW-NE trend parallel to the direction of vent migration and fracture propagation.

  5. Burns in pregnancy: a case report from Buea Regional Hospital, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimié Thierry Bitang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge similar cases of severe burns in pregnancy have not been published in Cameroon; indicating the rarity of this devastating condition and therefore the dilemma that practitioners may be confronted with in its management. This report is to help the Physician understand the factors that should determine his/her management decisions by reviewing the limited literature of burns in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary approach by a team of Obstetricians, Anesthetist/Intensive care Physicians, Pediatricians and Surgeons is indispensible. Adequate resuscitation, fight against sepsis, the gestational age and the severity of the burn will determine the outcome or prognosis.

  6. [Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

    2009-02-01

    To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national

  7. Simulation of off-grid generation options for remote villages in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Off-grid generation options have been simulated for remote villages in Cameroon using a load of 110 kWh/day and 12 kWp. The energy costs of proposed options were simulated using HOMER, a typical village load profile, the solar resource of Garoua and the flow of river Mungo. For a 40% increase in the cost of imported power system components, the cost of energy was found to be 0.296 EUR/kWh for a micro-hydro hybrid system comprising a 14 kW micro-hydro generator, a 15 kW LPG generator and 36 kWh of battery storage. The cost of energy for photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems made up of an 18 kWp PV generator, a 15 kW LPG generator and 72 kWh of battery storage was also found to be 0.576 EUR/kWh for remote petrol price of 1 EUR/l and LPG price of 0.70 EUR/m3. The micro-hydro hybrid system proved to be the cheapest option for villages located in the southern parts of Cameroon with a flow rate of at least 200l/s, while the PV hybrid system was the cheapest option for villages in the northern parts of Cameroon with an insolation level of at least 5.55 kWh/m2/day. For a single-wire grid extension cost of 5000 EUR/km, operation and maintenance costs of 125 EUR/yr/km and a local grid power price of 0.1 EUR/kWh, the breakeven grid extension distances were found to be 15.4 km for micro-hydro/LPG generator systems and 37.4 km for PV/LPG generator systems respectively. These results could be used in Cameroon's National Energy Action Plan for the provision of energy services in the key sectors involved in the fight against poverty. (author)

  8. Plant resources investigation and hyperaccumulator screening in Xiangtan manganese mine area of Hunan Province, central-south China%湘潭锰矿区植物资源调查及超富集植物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有志; 罗佳; 张灿明; 刘庆; 郭丹丹

    2012-01-01

    A sampling plot investigation was conducted on the plant resources in the Xiangtan manganese mine area of Hunan Province. In the study area, the plant resources were abundant, with 53 species belonging to 28 families. Most of the plant species were wild, and a few were cultivated. The majority of the plants were perennial, and the fewer were annual. Most plants were shrub and grass, and a few were tree. These results indicated that the current local communities were dominated by perennial shrub and grass, which were at the primary stage of succession towards subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest after the original plants were completely damaged by digging exploitation. The analysis on the Mn enrichment by the plant species showed that there was a significant difference in the Mn concentration between roots and stems or leaves. Most plant species had higher Mn concentration in their underground parts than in their aboveground parts, and only a few was in adverse. Moreover, different plant species had significant differences in their capability of enriching Mn. The Mn concentrations in Cyperus rotundus aboveground and underground parts were higher than 10000 mg ? Kg-1 (the critical concentration for hyperaccumulators) , and the biological concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were larger than 1 (the assessment criteria of hyperaccumulators) , indicating that C. Ro tundus had a super capability in enriching Mn. It was also found that the biomass of C. Rotundus in medium and high Mn mine areas was 507. 06 g ? M-2, which met the requirement of hyperac-cumulators, I. E. , hyperaccumulator should have high biomass, and suggested that C. Rotundus could be the first selection of hyperaccumulator for the ecological restoration of moderately and highly Mn-polluted areas.%通过设置样地,对湘潭锰矿区的植物资源进行了全面调查.结果表明:锰矿区植物丰富,共有28科,53种,植物以自然定居种为主,少见人工栽培种;生

  9. Common challenges in gum arabic production and commercialization in West Africa: a comparative study of Cameroon, Niger and Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Madi, O.P.; Zoubeirou, A.M.; Sene, A.; Maisharou, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2013-01-01

    As gum arabic is widely used in food and non-food industries, demand is high all over the world. Still, smaller production countries in West Africa such as Cameroon, Niger and Senegal seem to have so many difficulties producing and commercializing gum arabic that their market shares have declined si

  10. From Chicken Breath to the Killer Lakes of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Recommends integrating different applications to serve the need for students to know the relevancy of the course of their future. Uses different and unrelated phenomena to teach equilibria. Introduces six phenomena; (1) Killer Lakes of Cameroon, (2) Chicken Breath, (3) The Permian Ocean, (4) Snow Line, (5) Hard-Water Boiler Scale, and (6)…

  11. Diversity patterns in the flora of the Campo-Ma'an rain forest, Cameroon: do tree species tell it all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchouto, M.G.P.; Boer, de W.F.; Wilde, de J.J.F.E.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes diversity patterns in the flora of the Campo-Ma¿an rain forest, in south Cameroon. In this area, the structure and composition of the forests change progressively from the coastal forest on sandy shorelines through the lowland evergreen forest rich in Caesalpinioideae with Calpo

  12. An approach for the evaluation of rural governance in Cameroon: are community forests really forests for the communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaire NKENGFACK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the traditionalexploitation of timber, in a community framework, to the respect of governanceprinciples in actions for the fight against poverty in some rural communities inCameroon. In 1990, the government of Cameroon adopted laws on the freedomof association that authorised teaming up for the search of possibilities for abetter economic welfare of populations. It is in line with this that in 1994, a newforest law which authorises willing communities to organise themselves andrequest the government to grant them a portion of the national forest of thepublic domain to be managed by them and for their personal interest. Also, andwith the help of the international community, Cameroon elaborated in 1998 itsfirst poverty reduction strategy paper that encouraged amongst others,community actions in the search of solutions to the economic crisis that strokethe country. Through the application of a logit model to the responses collectedthrough a survey carried out on a sample of 200 individuals of the East regionof Cameroon, it was noticed that timber exploitation in a community frameworkdoes not necessarily lead to the strengthening of the links of belonging to acommon community, and to the equitable redistribution of revenues from theexploitation of the community forest.

  13. ''I Eat to Be Happy, to Be Strong, and to Live.'' Perceptions of Rural and Urban Adolescents in Cameroon, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapi, Leonie N.; Omoloko, Cecile; Janlert, Urban; Dahlgren, Lars; Haglin, Lena

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate factors influencing rural and urban adolescents' food perceptions during a time of nutritional transition in Cameroon, Africa. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Settings: Yaounde urban and Bandja rural areas. Participants: Fifteen adolescents 12 to 15 years old purposely selected from schools in urban and rural…

  14. English-Medium Instruction in an English-French Bilingual Setting: Issues of Quality and Equity in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchah, Kuchah

    2016-01-01

    Despite its multilingual nature Cameroon's educational system provides for full immersion into either French-medium or English-medium education from the first year schooling. Following political tensions in the early 1990s the country decided to reaffirm its commitment to promote bilingualism in the educational system with the outcome being the…

  15. Participatory vulnerability assessment in the context of conservation and development projects: A case study of local communities in Southwest Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    ” developed for climate change research and applied it to changes occurring in a conservation and development context. As a case study, we focused on a biodiversity hotspot in Southwest Cameroon that was recently designated a national park. We have shown that local communities believe their livelihood options...

  16. An Exploration of the Relationship between Language Attitudes and Ideologies in a Study of Francophone Students of English in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyers, Charlyn; Abongdia, Jane-Francis

    2010-01-01

    What are the similarities and differences between the concepts "language attitudes" (LAs) and "language ideologies" (LIs)? The need to answer this question arose from a study done by Abongdia in Cameroon with Francophone high school students of English to determine their attitudes towards English as well as their motivation for learning the…

  17. 地方财政支出减贫效应的省际差异比较--基于中部五省经验数据的分析%A Comparison of Provisional Differences on Local Financial Expenditure and Poverty Alleviation Effect-An Analysis Based on the Empirical Data from Five Provinces in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶爱萍; 班涛; 张淑安

    2015-01-01

    It is one of the major challenges for governments around the world to reduce and even to eradicate poverty. Some lo⁃cal financial expenditure projects will be able to reduce or eradicate poverty effectively. The paper builds a theoretical frame⁃work to analyze the relationship between local financial expenditure and poverty alleviation,which consists of four financial expenditure components:agricultural, forestry and water affairs, education, medical and health care and social security as well as employment,employs the data from five provinces in central China from 1994 and 2013 to make an empirical test on poverty alleviation effect of total amount and each component of local finance expenditure of every province respectively by using a total regression model and a component regression model,and contrasts provincial differences of local financial expen⁃diture and poverty alleviation effect in order to provide some guidelines for local governments to optimize the structure of finan⁃cial expenditure,improve the utilization efficiency of financial resources and reduce poverty.%降低乃至消除贫困是世界各国政府面临的重大难题之一,部分地方财政支出项目能够有效地降低或消除贫困问题的发生。文章构建了一个分析由农林水事务、教育、医疗卫生与社会保障和就业支出四项财政支出分量构成的财政支出总量及各财政支出分量与贫困减缓之间关系的理论框架,在此基础上采用中部5省1994-2013年的省级数据,通过总量回归模型与分量回归模型分别对各省财政支出总量与支出分量的减贫效应进行实证检验,并对地方财政支出减贫效应的省际差异进行了比较,以期对地方政府优化财政支出结构,提高财政资源利用效率,利用财政支出减少贫困具有一定的指导意义。

  18. Independent origins and incipient speciation among host-associated populations of Thielaviopsis ethacetica in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbenoun, Michael; Wingfield, Michael J; Letsoalo, Teboho; Bihon, Wubetu; Wingfield, Brenda D; Roux, Jolanda

    2015-11-01

    Thielaviopsis ethacetica was recently reinstated as a distinct taxon using DNA phylogenies. It is widespread affecting several crop plants of global economic importance. In this study, microsatellite markers were developed and used in conjunction with sequence data to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of Th. ethacetica in Cameroon. A collection of 71 isolates from cacao, oil palm, and pineapple, supplemented with nine isolates from other countries were analysed. Four genetic groups were identified. Two of these were associated with oil palm in Cameroon and showed high genetic diversity, suggesting that they might represent an indigenous population of the pathogen. In contrast, the remaining two groups, associated with cacao and pineapple, had low genetic diversity and, most likely, represent introduced populations. There was no evidence of gene flow between these groups. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the tef1-α as well as the combined flanking regions of six microsatellite loci were consistent with population genetic analyses and suggested that Th. ethacetica is comprised of two divergent genetic lineages. PMID:26466872

  19. A Crispy Delicacy: Augosoma Beetle as Alternative Source of Protein in East Cameroon

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    F. J. Muafor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the exoskeleton of the Augosoma centaurus (Dynastinae is hard and difficult to chew, this insect is often gathered in Eastern Cameroon for food in periods of availability. Nine ethnic groups in Eastern Cameroon were surveyed to understand the role of this insect in assuring food security, using quantitative and qualitative social science approaches. Both the larvae and adult stages of this beetle are habitually consumed in the areas studied. In total, about 65% of consumers prefer consuming the adults, while 35% prefer consuming the larvae. About 24% of consumers derive the same satisfaction from the consumption of Augosoma or other edible insects. Close to 39% of consumers prefer other edible insects to Augosoma, while 37% prefer the consumption of Augosoma to other edible insects. This beetle usually occurs at a period when other edible insects are not available, therefore constituting a good source of alternative protein in this region where poverty, poaching, and biodiversity erosion are still a major problem. Furthermore, the gathering of this beetle for food is equally a means of biological pest control of raffia plants and a tool to enhance community-based conservation of the areas global biodiversity.

  20. Farmer's Perception and Adoption of New Aquaculture Technologies in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

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    Njankoua Wandji, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other African countries, Cameroon is struggling to meet the food needs of its population. There are several possible solutions to this problem, such as the import of agricultural produce and increasing national production. In terms of fishery products (fish, shrimps, etc., it would not be easy to increase national production, due to the various constraints inherent in the sector and national industry, as well as low availability of farming areas. Fish farming is one of the solutions recommended as a sustainable method of producing an adequate supply of fish (farming fish in ponds. The main objective of this study is to highlight and analyse the socio-economic obstacles that are holding back the development of fish farming in the West Cameroon. Using the univariate dichotomous LOGIT model, this study has made it possible to identify the key determinants affecting the adoption of fish farming. The results indicate that its strong commercial orientation, coupled with the positive perception of its profitability, frequent contact, extension and level of education are the main determinants for the adoption of fish farming.

  1. An Examination of Forest Certification Status among Logging Companies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukpezah, Daniel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Duguma, Lalisa; Minang, Peter; Mbosso, Charlie; Tchoundjeu, Zac

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the level of interest, awareness, and adoption of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification schemes among logging companies in Cameroon. Eleven logging companies located in Douala in the Littoral Region of Cameroon were assessed through a structured interview using an administered questionnaire which was mostly analyzed qualitatively thereafter. The findings indicated that none of the companies was certified for ISO 14001; however 63.64% of them were already FSC-certified. Four companies (36.36%) were neither FSC- nor ISO 14001 EMS-certified. Among the factors found to influence the adoption rate was the level of awareness about ISO 14001 and FSC certification schemes. The main drivers for pursuing FSC certification were easy penetration into international markets, tax holiday benefits, and enhancement of corporate image of the logging companies through corporate social responsibility fulfillments. Poor domestic market for certified products was found to be the major impediment to get certified. To make logging activities more environmentally friendly and socially acceptable, logging companies should be encouraged to get certified through the ISO 14001 EMS scheme which is almost nonexistent so far. This requires awareness creation about the scheme, encouraging domestic markets for certified products and creating policy incentives. PMID:27355041

  2. Producers’ motivation for collective action for kola production and marketing in Cameroon

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    Steven Franzel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective action has been used as a strategy to improve the benefits of smallholder producers of kola nuts in Cameroon. Despite demonstrated benefits, not all producers are involved in the collective action. The presented study used a modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM namely the Collective Action Behaviour model (CAB model to analyse kola producers’ motivation for collective action activities. Five hypotheses are formulated and tested using data obtained from 185 farmers who are involved in kola production and marketing in theWestern highlands of Cameroon. Results which were generated using Partial Least Squares (PLS approach for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM showed that farmers’ intrinsic motivators and ease of use influenced their behavioural intent to join a group marketing activities. The perceived usefulness that was mainly related to the economic benefits of group activities did not influence farmers’ behavioural intent. It is therefore concluded that extension messages and promotional activities targeting collective action need to emphasise the perceived ease of use of involvement and social benefits associated with group activities in order to increase farmers’ participation.

  3. Best practice guidelines for stroke in Cameroon: An innovative and participatory knowledge translation project

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    Lynn Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the adherence to stroke guidelines in high-income countries has been shown to be associated with improved patient outcomes, the research, development and implementation of rehabilitation related guidelines in African countries is lacking.Objectives: The purpose of this article is to describe how a group of front-line practitioners collaborated with academics and students to develop best practice guidelines (BPG for the management and rehabilitation of stroke in adult patients in Cameroon.Method: A working group was established and adapted internationally recognised processes for the development of best practice guidelines. The group determined the scope of the guidelines, documented current practices, and critically appraised evidence to develop guidelines relevant to the Cameroon context.Results: The primary result of this project is best practice guidelines which provided an overview of the provision of stroke rehabilitation services in the region, and made 83 practice recommendations to improve these services. We also report on the successes and challenges encountered during the process, and the working group’s recommendations aimed at encouraging others to consider similar projects.Conclusion: This project demonstrated that there is interest and capacity for improving stroke rehabilitation practices and for stroke guideline development in Africa.

  4. NUCLEAR DNA CONTENT ANALYSIS OF FOUR CULTIVATED SPECIES OF YAMS (DIOSCOREA SPP. FROM CAMEROON

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    Marie F. Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea spp. is an important food source in Africa, but diseases and storage pests hinder the African farmers to achieve high yields during the harvest. One important limitation to the genetic breeding of yam is the relatively unknown ploidy level variation within and among species.  The objective of this study was to determine the nuclear DNA content of 59 accessions representing four cultivated Dioscorea species collected from three regions of Cameroon (Adamawa, Centre and Southwest using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Our findings suggested the variation of the genome size both within and among the yams species. Nuclear DNA content (mean 2C-value in studied yam collection ranging from 0.72 ± 0.013 pg in D. dumetorum to 2.801 ± 0.068 pg in D. cayenensis. The accessions could be divided into four different categories according to their, nuclear DNA content suggestive of four different ploidy levels. Ploidy variation was observed within all species with the exception of D. dumetorum that is likely diploid. This study contributes to a better understanding of the genome characteristics of yam species from Cameroon and may help to the genetic improvement of this important crop in the future.

  5. Access To Land And The System Of Land Ownership In Northern Cameroon

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    Paul AHIDJO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern Cameroon is a vast geographical region made up of a population with diverse customs, religion and migration process. The entire population is made up of paleo-nigritics, neo-Sudanese and pastoral nomads who practice activities such as agriculture, livestock and fisheries. This ethnic heterogeneity, complex historical events and cultural diversity has made the customary systemof land tenure to vary both in their ancient aspects as well as contemporary manifestations. Therefore, based on verbal assertion and written data, this article examines the methods of land access as well as the traditional and modern land tenure system. For the population of Northern Cameroon and elsewhere, land represents a natural resource of prime importance. Access to land and its control constitutes a major economic challenge and it is equally a source ofdiverse conflicts. The system of land ownership has been influenced by external unforeseen events. From the pre-colonial period to the so called post colonial period, access to land and land ownership vary between the conservation of a traditional system which land owners are trying to preserve and the weight of modernity which has economic implications.

  6. Adoption of the Tenera Hybrid of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin. among Smallholder Farmers in Cameroon

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    Assoumou Mezui, MR.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. type was studied by focusing on 208 family farmers in Cameroon. The "Average Treatment Effect" (ATE method was used. This method enables to estimate, by use of a Probit model, the effects created when a farmer is exposed to treatment (or intervention, which represents a source of improved oil palm planting material. According to the results, the estimated adoption rate for Tenera is highly significant (P< 0.05 for all the categories of producers, regardless of the supply source, which may be formal or informal. In addition, the main factors that significantly determine this adoption are: availability of arable land in forested areas and whether growers intend to increase the size of their plantations. However, the supply of pure planting material remains an important constraint because the other two types of oil palm (Dura and Pisifera which produce poor palm oil yields are still mistakenly planted on many family farms in Cameroon. Further studies will address this issue in the aim of identifying appropriate solutions.

  7. Community capacity for implementing clean development mechanism projects within community forests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minang, Peter A; McCall, Michael K; Bressers, Hans Th A

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing assumption that payments for environmental services including carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction provide an opportunity for poverty reduction and the enhancement of sustainable development within integrated natural resource management approaches. Yet in experiential terms, community-based natural resource management implementation falls short of expectations in many cases. In this paper, we investigate the asymmetry between community capacity and the Land Use Land Use Change Forestry (LULUCF) provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism within community forests in Cameroon. We use relevant aspects of the Clean Development Mechanism criteria and notions of "community capacity" to elucidate determinants of community capacity needed for CDM implementation within community forests. The main requirements are for community capacity to handle issues of additionality, acceptability, externalities, certification, and community organisation. These community capacity requirements are further used to interpret empirically derived insights on two community forestry cases in Cameroon. While local variations were observed for capacity requirements in each case, community capacity was generally found to be insufficient for meaningful uptake and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects. Implications for understanding factors that could inhibit or enhance community capacity for project development are discussed. We also include recommendations for the wider Clean Development Mechanism/Kyoto capacity building framework. PMID:17377732

  8. Kyoto Mechanisms and the Sustainable Development of the African Energy Sector. The Case of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the African countries have been attending the Conference of Parties where the Kyoto mechanisms were being discussed and adopted, especially parties agreed in Marrakech on the principles of implementing the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that is of interest for developing countries. The Kyoto protocol requires Annex I parties to reduce their GHG emissions below their 1990 emissions level by an average of 5,2% in the period 2008 - 20012. Satisfying this ultimate objective of the UNFCC will require collective efforts by all nations. African countries are willing to take part to actions combating climate change if they also satisfy their development goals. One of these goals is the sustainable development of their energy sector. The aim of this paper is to analyze the Cameroon's case and to enlighten the possible influence of the CDM on adopting cleaner development of the African energy sector, compared to past practices. Three renewable energy routes are examined in the Cameroon context : biomass gasification, anaerobic digestion of industrial, agricultural and urban waste, small hydro plants. For each energy route regarding the production of electricity, the resource potential is evaluated and the Cost benefit analysis (CBA) and Life cycle analysis (LCA) are performed. The yearly potential of GHG emissions reduction is hence quantified and its influence on different electricity system planning scenarios estimated

  9. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

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    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  10. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

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    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07Cameroon.

  11. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

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    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  12. Quantitative Effects of Early and Late Blights on Tomato Yields in Cameroon

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    Fontem, DA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans are the major diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum in Cameroon. The effect of both diseases on fruit yield was evaluated during the 1995 growing season in Dschang, Cameroon.Ten varieties were planted in the first trial (March-July and nine in the second (July- November. In both trials, plots were sprayed weekly with Ridomil Plus (2.0 kg/ha before flowering and with maneb (1.6 kg/ha after flowering. Early blight was more severe in the early part of the first trial, while late blight caused most damage during the second. Marketable yields varied according to variety. High yields in sprayed plots were obtained in Dona F1 (61.63 t/ha and Heinz 1370 (68.24 t/ha during the first trial, and in Fline (58.35 t/ha, Mecline (64.25 t/ha, and Moboline (55.16 t/ha during the second trial. Percent fruit infection in sprayed plots caused by both diseases varied according to variety from 12 to 65% in the first season and from 14 to 52% in the second, while losses in marketable yields for both blights were as high as 100% in unsprayed plots.

  13. Wild Food, Prices, Diets and Development: Sustainability and Food Security in Urban Cameroon

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    Lauren Q. Sneyd

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses wild food consumption in urban areas of Cameroon. Building upon findings from Cameroon’s Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA this case study presents empirical data collected from 371 household and market surveys in Cameroonian cities. It employs the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food’s framework for understanding challenges related to the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of food. The survey data suggest that many wild/traditional foods are physically available in Cameroonian cities most of the time, including fruits, vegetables, spices, and insects. Cameroonians spend considerable sums of their food budget on wild foods. However, low wages and the high cost of city living constrain the social and economic access most people have to these foods. The data also suggest that imports of non-traditional staple foods, such as low cost rice, have increasingly priced potentially more nutritious or safe traditional local foods out of markets after the 2008 food price crisis. As a result, diets are changing in Cameroon as the resource-constrained population continues to resort to the coping strategy of eating cheaper imported foods such as refined rice or to eating less frequently. Cameroon’s nutrition transition continues to be driven by need and not necessarily by the preferences of Cameroonian consumers. The implications of this reality for sustainability are troubling.

  14. Analysis and Application of Intelligent Transportation Systems to Taxi System in Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nzegge Chantale Ebude; Wang Mingyan

    2007-01-01

    Most traffic control systems available in major cities in Cameroon are still out dated,make use of theories and models which are very slow to implement,waste resources and their efficiency is very low.Thus the number of road accidents encountered on our major highways and inter urban traffic networks has been increasing despite the various efforts made by government and certain NGO to synthesize road users on certain aspects of traffic control and safety road use.Taxis are not left out in the whole show and most of the blame always falls on them.The need to use available Information and Communication Technology ICT to improve on the control of traffic in inter urban cities and major highways is imperative.ITS optimizes the use of resources,reduce pollution,contribute to environmental protection and increases the national economy.This paper starts by giving a brief situation of the transportation system in Cameroon,its drawbacks and proposes an optimized ITS based system.

  15. Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

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    Touko Adonis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This quantitative cross-sectional study examines sexual behaviour of a target group of hearing-impaired persons in Yaounde, the capital city of the Republic of Cameroon. It measures their HIV prevalence to enable assessment of their sexual vulnerability and to help reduce the gap in existing HIV serology data among people with disabilities in general and the deaf in particular. Methods The snowball sampling procedure was adopted as an adequate approach to meet this hard-to-reach group. A total of 118 deaf participants were interviewed for the behavioural component, using sign language as a means of data collection, while 101 participants underwent HIV serology testing. Descriptive analyses were done for behavioural data with Epi info software, while sera were tested by health personnel, using rapid and confirmation test reagents. Results From the results, it was clear that the hearing impaired were highly involved in risky sexual practices, as observed through major sexual indicators, such as: age at first sexual intercourse; condom use; and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and AIDS. Furthermore, it was noted that the HIV prevalence rate of the hearing impaired in the capital of Cameroon was 4%, close to the prevalence in the city's general population (4.7%. Conclusions Such results suggest that there is a need for in-depth behavioural research and serological studies in this domain to better understand the determinants of risky sexual behaviour among the hearing impaired, and to propose operational prevention approaches for this group.

  16. The integrated risk assessment and zoning of meteorological disaster in Heilongjiang Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes studies on the integrated risk assessment and zoning of meteorological disaster in Heilongjiang Province,in northeastern China,by using information-diffusion theory and cluster method with 35 years of summer temperature and precipitation data from 74 meteorological stations from 1971 through 2005.The information-diffusion theory has been used extensively in risk assessment,yet almost no one has done research about risk assessment by information-diffusion theory based on meteorological disaster standards.Some research results are as follows:the risk probability of low temperature and cold damage in the northern region is higher than that in the southern region;the risk probability of general low temperature and cold damage in the southwestern region is the highest;the risk probability of serious low temperature and cold damage in the northern region is the highest,followed by the central and southeast region;the high-risk region of arid disaster in Heilongjiang Province was primarily located in the southwestern,central,and southern parts of the province;the high-intensity arid disaster was located in the south-eastern region;the high-risk region of flood in Heilongjiang Province was primarily located from the southwest and then across the central part to the western part of Heilongjiang Province;the high-intensity flood disasters were located in almost every part of Heilongjiang Province.We can conclude from the integrated meteorological disaster risk zoning that the high-risk region of mete-orological disaster is primarily located in the southern and northern part of the province,the moderate-risk region is distributed in the central southern region and western region,the low-risk region is located in the eastern part,and the light-risk region is located in the central western part of Heilongjiang Province.

  17. Increased burden and severity of metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness in treatment naïve HIV+ patients from Cameroon

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    Ngatchou W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available William Ngatchou,1 Daniel Lemogoum,1 Pierre Ndobo,2,† Euloge Yagnigni,2 Emiline Tiogou,2 Elisabeth Nga,2 Charles Kouanfack,2 Philippe van de Borne,1 Michel P Hermans3 1Hypertension Clinic, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium; 2Department of Cardiology, Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels, Belgium †Professor Pierre Ndobo passed away on January 21, 2013 Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and its therapy are associated with increased aortic stiffness and metabolic syndrome (MetS phenotype in Caucasian patients. We hypothesized that, independently of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection in native black African patients is associated with increased burden of cardiometabolic risk factors that may accelerate arterial structural damage and translate into increased aortic stiffness. Patients and methods: Ninety-six apparently healthy Cameroonian subjects (controls were compared to 108 untreated Cameroonian HIV+ patients (HIV-UT of similar age. In each participant, pulse wave velocity (Complior, aortic augmentation index (SphygmoCor, brachial blood pressure (Omron 705 IT, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and lipids were recorded, as well as the prevalence and severity of MetS, based on the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute score ≥3/5. Results: Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG 100–125 mg · dL-1 and of diabetes (FPG > 125 mg · dL-1 was higher in HIV-UT than in controls (47% versus 27%, and 26% versus 1%, respectively; both P < 0.01. Fasting triglycerides and the atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio were significantly higher in HIV-UT than in controls. Hypertension prevalence was high and comparable in both groups (41% versus 44%, respectively; not significant. HIV-UT patients exhibited a twice-higher prevalence of MetS than controls (47% versus 21%; P = 0.02. Age- and sex-adjusted pulse wave velocity was

  18. Characteristics of antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients lost-to-care in HIV clinics in Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, and Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolka, Kristen; Iriondo-Perez, Jeniffer; Kiumbu, Modeste; Atibu, Joseph; Azinyue, Innocent; Akam, Wilfred; Balimba, Ashue; Mfangam Molu, Brigitte; Mukumbi, Henri; Niyongabo, Theodore; Twizere, Christelle; Newman, Jamie; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients are vulnerable to becoming lost-to-care (LTC) because they are not monitored as often as patients on treatment. We examined data from 19,461 HIV positive adults at 10 HIV clinics in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Cameroon, and Burundi participating in the Phase 1 International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Central Africa (IeDEA-CA) study. Patients were LTC if they were ART-naïve and did not return within 7 months of the end of data collection. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk factors associated with LTC. Of 5353 ART-naïve patients, 4420 (83%) were LTC and 933 (17%) were in-care. The odds of being LTC were greatest among patients from DRC (OR = 2.16, CI: 1.64-2.84, p ART-naïve patients may increase earlier initiation of ART. PMID:26855169

  19. LATE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AMONG WOMEN WHO ATTENDED AND WOMEN WHO DID NOT ATTEND FIRST TRIMESTER ANTENATAL CARE VISITS IN A SUBURBAN REGIONAL HOSPITAL IN CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    Tsi N. Njim, MD

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite relatively high number of women who attend antenatal care (ANC) in Cameroon, there is an ever-increasing maternal mortality ratio, and pregnancy outcomes remain inadequate. A new suggested Optimal ANC Package includes attending ANC in the first trimester. This study assesses the overall ANC coverage, the percentage, and pregnancy outcomes among women who attended and did not attend ANC in the first trimester in the Buea Regional Hospital (BRH) in Cameroon. Methods: A c...

  20. Evidence of dengue virus transmission and factors associated with the presence of anti-dengue virus antibodies in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Demanou; Régis Pouillot; Marc Grandadam; Pascal Boisier; Basile Kamgang; Jean Pierre Hervé; Christophe Rogier; Dominique Rousset; Christophe Paupy

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is not well documented in Africa. In Cameroon, data are scarce, but dengue infection has been confirmed in humans. We conducted a study to document risk factors associated with anti-dengue virus Immunoglobulin G seropositivity in humans in three major towns in Cameroon.A cross sectional survey was conducted in Douala, Garoua and Yaounde, using a random cluster sampling design. Participants underwent a standardized interview and were blood sampled. Environmental and housing characterist...