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Sample records for central potential

  1. Central Nucleon-Nucleon Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robilotta, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    The outer region of the NN interactions is dominated by the one pion exchange potential (OPEP), followed by the two-pion exchange potential (TPEP). Chiral calculations of the TPEP have been performed using either heavy baryon1 (HB) or relativistic2 perturbation theories. We compare the predictions from these two approaches for the dominant central interaction and show that they fail to agree by 25% ...

  2. Ecological and Tourist Potential of Central Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Anastasijević

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban green spaces traditionally represent areas where tourists gladly pause and rest. Ecological potential of green spaces, their capacity to enhance urban life through micro-climate mitigation, and their original attractiveness, represent the source from which their tourist potential is derived. Consequently, continuous increase in plant quantity and constant expansion of their existence to green-less zones and territories, commonly defined as gray or gray-green zones, is compulsory. Green spaces of central part of old Belgrade situated on the right banks of the rivers Sava and Danube are by all criteria in the category of top tourist rank, and the same goes for this whole area with numerous attractive points within. However, this zone – the territory of three central urban municipalities (Savski Venac, Stari Grad, and Vračar – holds numerous neglected spaces, deserted corridors and backyards, river bank segments and other sites covered with weed, debris left from past and recent bombardments, parking lots and half-devastated green stripes along residential blocks. Starting with the assumption that many of these can be qualitatively renewed and professionally greenscaped, paper describes their proper development into different categories of green spaces, important structural elements of Belgrade green infrastructure.

  3. Qualitative Properties of the Dirac Equation in a Central Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, G; Esposito, Giampiero; Santorelli, Pietro

    1999-01-01

    The Dirac equation for a massive spin-1/2 field in a central potential V in three dimensions is studied without fixing a priori the functional form of V. The second-order equations for the radial parts of the spinor wave function are shown to involve a squared Dirac operator for the free case, whose essential self-adjointness is proved by using the Weyl limit point-limit circle criterion, and a perturbation resulting from the potential. One then finds that a potential of Coulomb type in the Dirac equation leads to a potential term in the above second-order equations which is not even infinitesimally form-bounded with respect to the free operator. Moreover, the conditions ensuring essential self-adjointness of the squared Dirac operators in the interacting case are changed with respect to the free case, i.e. they are expressed by a majorization involving the parameter in the Coulomb potential and the angular momentum quantum number. The underlying motivation for this qualitative analysis is given by the possib...

  4. Qualitative properties of the Dirac equation in a central potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giampiero; Santorelli, Pietro

    1999-07-01

    The Dirac equation for a massive spin-1/2 field in a central potential V in three dimensions is studied without fixing a priori the functional form of V. The second-order equations for the radial parts of the spinor wavefunction are shown to involve a squared Dirac operator for the free case, whose essential self-adjointness is proved by using the Weyl limit point-limit circle criterion, and a `perturbation' resulting from the potential. One then finds that a potential of Coulomb type in the Dirac equation leads to a potential term in the above second-order equations which is not even infinitesimally form-bounded with respect to the free operator. Moreover, the conditions ensuring essential self-adjointness of the second-order operators in the interacting case are changed with respect to the free case, i.e. they are expressed by a majorization involving the parameter in the Coulomb potential and the angular momentum quantum number. The same methods are applied to the analysis of coupled eigenvalue equations when the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron is not neglected.

  5. Scalar potential model of galaxy central mass and central velocity dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, J C

    2006-01-01

    The galaxy central mass $M_\\mathrm{c}$ and central velocity dispersion $\\sigma_\\mathrm{c}$ have been found to correlate with large scale galaxy parameters for samples of galaxies with a limited range of characteristics. A scalar potential model (SPM) that derived from considerations of galaxy clusters, of redshift, of discrete redshift, of H{\\scriptsize{I}} rotation curves (RCs) of spiral galaxies and of RC asymmetry is applied to central region parameters. The $\\sigma_\\mathrm{c}$ and $ M_\\mathrm{c}$ are found to correlate to the host galaxy's and neighboring galaxy's B band luminosity. The sample included galaxies with rising, flat and declining RCs; galaxies with a wide range of characteristics; and galaxies excluded from samples of other studies of $\\sigma_\\mathrm{c}$ relationships. The equations have the same form as the SPM equations for the parameters of the H{\\scriptsize{I}} RCs. Because the SPM is consistent with $M_\\mathrm{c}$ and $\\sigma_\\mathrm{c}$ observations of the sample galaxies, the Sources a...

  6. Many-body central force potentials for tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, G.; Terentyev, D.; Bakaev, A.; Grigorev, P.; Van Neck, D.

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten and tungsten-based alloys are the primary candidate materials for plasma facing components in fusion reactors. The exposure to high-energy radiation, however, severely degrades the performance and lifetime limits of the in-vessel components. In an effort to better understand the mechanisms driving the materials' degradation at the atomic level, large-scale atomistic simulations are performed to complement experimental investigations. At the core of such simulations lies the interatomic potential, on which all subsequent results hinge. In this work we review 19 central force many-body potentials and benchmark their performance against experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As basic features we consider the relative lattice stability, elastic constants and point-defect properties. In addition, we also investigate extended lattice defects, namely: free surfaces, symmetric tilt grain boundaries, the 1/2{1 1 0} and 1/2 {1 1 2} stacking fault energy profiles and the 1/2 screw dislocation core. We also provide the Peierls stress for the 1/2 edge and screw dislocations as well as the glide path of the latter at zero Kelvin. The presented results serve as an initial guide and reference list for both the modelling of atomically-driven phenomena in bcc tungsten, and the further development of its potentials.

  7. Nitrogen Mineralization Potentials of Upland Soils in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJIA-ZHOU; QINHUA-CHANG

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen mineralization potentials of 15 soil samples were studied by the methods of soil aerobic incubation,and the correlation between the potentials and the amounts of nitrogen taken up by rye grass(Lolium,multiflorum Lam.) in pot culture was calculated.The soils were collected from Hubei Province in Central China.Soil nitrogen mineralization potentials(No) were calculated and optimized by a quick-BASIC program,No ranged from 60 mg kg-1 to 340mg kg-1,which accounted for 9.1%to 34.6% of the total nitrogen content.Among the examined soils,yellow-brown soil collected from Wuhan had the largest No and brown-red soil from Xianning had the smallest one.The mineralization rate constants(k) ranged from 0.00556d-1 to 0.01280d-1,in average 0.00882 d-1,Chao soil from Wuhan had the greatest k while yellowcinamon soil from Zhaoyang had the smallest one.There were apparent differences between mineralization parameters(NO and k) optimized and non-optimized ones,Optimized No had a better correlation than non-optimized No with the amount of nitrogen accumulated in the aerial parts of rye grass.No,No×k and Nt(accumulated mineralized nitrogen Within time t ) could be used as indexes of soil nitrogen supply,Among them Nt was the best,which was significantly correlated with the amounts of nirogen accumulated in the aerial parts of rye grass harvested at three different times.

  8. Quantization of time-dependent singular potential systems: Non-central potential in three dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Menouar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum features of a dynamical system subjected to time-dependent non-central potentials are investigated. The entire potential of the system is composed of the inverse quadratic potential and the Coulomb potential. An invariant operator that enables us to treat the time-dependent Hamiltonian system in view of quantum mechanics is introduced in order to derive Schrödinger solutions (wave functions of the system. To simplify the problem, the invariant operator is transformed to a simple form by unitary transformation. Quantum solutions in the transformed system are easily obtained because the transformed invariant operator is a time-independent simple one. The Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used for solving eigenvalue equation of the transformed invariant operator. The double ring-shaped generalized non-central time-dependent potential is considered as a particular case for further study. From inverse transformation of quantum solutions obtained in the transformed system, the complete quantum solutions in the original system are identified. The quantum properties of the system are addressed on the basis of the wave functions.

  9. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  10. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to $0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  11. Ultrafast action potentials mediate kilohertz signaling at a central synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzau-Jost, Andreas; Delvendahl, Igor; Rings, Annika; Byczkowicz, Niklas; Harada, Harumi; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Eilers, Jens; Hallermann, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Fast synaptic transmission is important for rapid information processing. To explore the maximal rate of neuronal signaling and to analyze the presynaptic mechanisms, we focused on the input layer of the cerebellar cortex, where exceptionally high action potential (AP) frequencies have been reported in vivo. With paired recordings between presynaptic cerebellar mossy fiber boutons and postsynaptic granule cells, we demonstrate reliable neurotransmission up to ∼1 kHz. Presynaptic APs are ultrafast, with ∼100 μs half-duration. Both Kv1 and Kv3 potassium channels mediate the fast repolarization, rapidly inactivating sodium channels ensure metabolic efficiency, and little AP broadening occurs during bursts of up to 1.5 kHz. Presynaptic Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels open efficiently during ultrafast APs. Furthermore, a subset of synaptic vesicles is tightly coupled to Ca(2+) channels, and vesicles are rapidly recruited to the release site. These data reveal mechanisms of presynaptic AP generation and transmitter release underlying neuronal kHz signaling.

  12. INTRAOPERATIVE LOCALIZATION OF CORTICAL MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS IN CENTRAL SULCUS LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study direct cortical electrical stimulation technique for the recording of motor evoked potentials under general anesthesia in central sulcus lesions. Methods The largest N20-P25 response was recorded from postcentral gyrus by intraoperative monitoring of cortical motor evoked potentials in 10 patients with intracranial lesions near or in the central area. The muscles of upper extremity in all patients were activated by delivering stimulus to cortical areas continuously. Moving the cortical electrodes forward, the largest P20-N25 response, SEP phase reversal,was obtained as a motor center stimulus. In this site of cortex, a short train stimulation elicited reproducible muscle action potentials that could be observed from the oscilloscope without averaging.Results MEPs can be recorded, pre- and post-operatively, without motor deficits of upper limbs in all patients.Conclusion This technique seems to be preferable for intraoperative localization of motor evoked potentials in central sulcus lesions under total intravenous anesthesia.

  13. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael Bryld Wessel; Nielsen, Lars H.; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    2009-01-01

    and subsidence rates increased after the Middle Miocene times due to eastward tilting of Central Vietnam and the adjacent offshore area. Potential direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) in the Phu Khanh Basin include common amplitude anomalies, gas chimney-like features and seafloor gas seeps. In addition, oil...

  14. ORBITALES. A program for the calculation of wave functions with an analytical central potential; ORBITALES. Programa de calculo de Funciones de Onda para una Potencial Central Analitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunta Carretero; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1974-07-01

    In this paper is described the objective, basis, carrying out in FORTRAN language and use of the program ORBITALES. This program calculate atomic wave function in the case of ths analytical central potential (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Central-force decomposition of spline-based modified embedded atom method potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winczewski, S.; Dziedzic, J.; Rybicki, J.

    2016-10-01

    Central-force decompositions are fundamental to the calculation of stress fields in atomic systems by means of Hardy stress. We derive expressions for a central-force decomposition of the spline-based modified embedded atom method (s-MEAM) potential. The expressions are subsequently simplified to a form that can be readily used in molecular-dynamics simulations, enabling the calculation of the spatial distribution of stress in systems treated with this novel class of empirical potentials. We briefly discuss the properties of the obtained decomposition and highlight further computational techniques that can be expected to benefit from the results of this work. To demonstrate the practicability of the derived expressions, we apply them to calculate stress fields due to an edge dislocation in bcc Mo, comparing their predictions to those of linear elasticity theory.

  16. Schrödinger equation with a non-central potential: Some statistical quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Altuğ; Tezcan, Cevdet; Sever, Ramazan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the dependence of some statistical quantities such as the free energy, the mean energy, the entropy, and the specific heat for the Schrödinger equation on the temperature, particularly in the case of a non-central potential. The basic point is to find the partition function which is obtained by a method based on the Euler-Maclaurin formula. At first, we present the analytical results supporting them with some plots for the thermal functions for one- and three-dimensional cases to find out the effect of the angular momentum. We also study then the effect of the angle-dependent part of the non-central potential. We discuss the results briefly for a phase transition for the system. We also present our results for a three-dimesional harmonic oscillator.

  17. Green's Function of a General PT-Symmetric Non-Hermitian Non-central Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mourya, Brijesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We study the path integral solution of a system of particle moving in certain class of PT symmetric non-Hermitian and non-central potential. The Hamil- tonian of the system is converted to a separable Hamiltonian of Liouville type in parabolic coordinates and is further mapped into a Hamiltonian corresponding to two 2-dimensional simple harmonic oscillators (SHOs). Thus the explicit Green's functions for a general non-central PT symmetric non hermitian potential are cal- culated in terms of that of 2d SHOs. The entire spectrum for this three dimensional system is shown to be always real leading to the fact that the system remains in unbroken PT phase all the time.

  18. Agroclimatic potential across central Siberia in an altered twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Lysanova, G. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2011-10-01

    Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and are likely to be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed potential climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-90 and 1990-2010 using historic data and data taken from 2020 and 2080 HadCM3 B1 and A2 scenarios. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future Siberian climatic resources could provide the potential for a great variety of crops to grow that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km/decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops nonexistent today may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

  19. Potential effects of drought on carrying capacity for wintering waterfowl in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Mark J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Wolder, Mike A.; Isola, Craig R.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We used the bioenergetics model TRUEMET to evaluate potential effects of California's recent drought on food supplies for waterfowl wintering in the Central Valley under a range of habitat and waterfowl population scenarios. In nondrought years in the current Central Valley landscape, food supplies are projected to be adequate for waterfowl from fall through early spring (except late March) even if waterfowl populations reach North American Waterfowl Management Plan goals. However, in all drought scenarios that we evaluated, food supplies were projected to be exhausted for ducks by mid- to late winter and by late winter or early spring for geese. For ducks, these results were strongly related to projected declines in winter-flooded rice fields that provide 45% of all the food energy available to ducks in the Central Valley in nondrought water years. Delayed flooding of some managed wetlands may help alleviate food shortages by providing wetland food resources better timed with waterfowl migration and abundance patterns in the Central Valley, as well as reducing the amount of water needed to manage these habitats. However, future research is needed to evaluate the impacts of delayed flooding on waterfowl hunting, and whether California's existing water delivery system would make delayed flooding feasible. Securing adequate water supplies for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent birds is among the greatest challenges facing resource managers in coming years, especially in the increasingly arid western United States.

  20. Electroencephalogram and brainstem auditory evoked potential in 539 patients with central coordination disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijia Zhang; Hua Yan; Paoqiu Wang; Jihong Hu; Hongtao Zhou; Rong Qin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroencephalogram (EEG) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) are objective non-invasive means of measuring brain electrophysiology.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the value of EEG and BAEP in early diagnosis, treatment and prognostic evaluation of central coordination disorder.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This case analysis study was performed at the Rehabilitation Center of Hunan Children's Hospital from January 2002 to January 2006.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 593 patients with severe central coordination disorder, comprising 455 boys and 138 girls, aged 1--6 months were enrolled for this study.METHODS: EEG was monitored using electroencephalography. BAEP was recorded using a Keypoint electromyogram device. Intelligence was tested by professionals using the Gesell scale.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) The rate of abnormal EEG and BAEP, (2) correlation of abnormalities of EEG and BAEP with associated injuries, (3) correlation of abnormalities of EEG and BAEP with high risk factors.RESULTS: The rate of abnormal EEG was 68.6% (407/593 patients), and was increased in patients who also had mental retardation (P < 0.05). The rate of abnormal BAEP was 21.4% (127/593 patients). These 127 patients included 67 patients (52.8%) with peripheral auditory damage and 60 patients (47.2%) with central and mixed auditory damage. The rate of abnormal BAEP was significantly increased in patients who also had mental retardation (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that asphyxia (P < 0.05), jaundice,preterm delivery, low birth weight and the umbilical cord around the neck were closely correlated with abnormal EEG in patients with central coordination disorder. Intracranial hemorrhage, jaundice (P < 0.05),low birth weight and intrauterine infection (P < 0.05) were closely correlated with abnormal BAEP in patients with central coordination disorder.CONCLUSION: Central coordination disorder is often associated with abnormal EEG and BAEP. The rate of EEG or BAEP abnormality

  1. Connexin:a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan Xie; Yu Cui; Fang Deng; Jia-chun Feng

    2015-01-01

    Connexin subunits are proteins that form gap junction channels, and play an important role in communication between adjacent cells. This review article discusses the function of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions under physiological conditions, and summarizes the findings re-garding the role of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions in the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying central nervous system diseases such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, epilepsy, brain and spinal cord tumor, migraine, neuroautoimmune disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Peli-zaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, spastic paraplegia and maxillofacial dysplasia. Connexins are considered to be a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system.

  2. Connexin: a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Connexin subunits are proteins that form gap junction channels, and play an important role in communication between adjacent cells. This review article discusses the function of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions under physiological conditions, and summarizes the findings regarding the role of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions in the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying central nervous system diseases such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, epilepsy, brain and spinal cord tumor, migraine, neuroautoimmune disease, Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinson′s disease, X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, spastic paraplegia and maxillofacial dysplasia. Connexins are considered to be a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system.

  3. Modelling streambank erosion potential using maximum entropy in a central Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, J.; Strager, M.; Riley, A.; Lin, L.; Anderson, J.

    2015-03-01

    We used maximum entropy to model streambank erosion potential (SEP) in a central Appalachian watershed to help prioritize sites for management. Model development included measuring erosion rates, application of a quantitative approach to locate Target Eroding Areas (TEAs), and creation of maps of boundary conditions. We successfully constructed a probability distribution of TEAs using the program Maxent. All model evaluation procedures indicated that the model was an excellent predictor, and that the major environmental variables controlling these processes were streambank slope, soil characteristics, bank position, and underlying geology. A classification scheme with low, moderate, and high levels of SEP derived from logistic model output was able to differentiate sites with low erosion potential from sites with moderate and high erosion potential. A major application of this type of modelling framework is to address uncertainty in stream restoration planning, ultimately helping to bridge the gap between restoration science and practice.

  4. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Cerebral Metabolism: Potential Applications in Stroke and Disorders of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Julius Gene S; Schmidt, Elena B

    2015-09-01

    No compound has generated more attention in both the scientific and recently in the political arena as much as cannabinoids. These diverse groups of compounds referred collectively as cannabinoids have both been vilified due to its dramatic and potentially harmful psychotropic effects and glorified due to its equally dramatic and potential application in a number of acute and chronic neurological conditions. Previously illegal to possess, cannabis, the plant where natural form of cannabinoids are derived, is now accepted in a growing number of states for medicinal purpose, and some even for recreational use, increasing opportunities for more scientific experimentation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on cannabinoids and to present an overview of our current state of knowledge of the human endocannabinoid system in the hope of defining the future of cannabinoids and its potential applications in disorders of the central nervous system, focusing on stroke.

  5. Potential Central Nervous System Involvement in Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Bradley T

    2015-07-01

    Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) in infancy which includes Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the commonest diagnosed cause of death in the United States for infants 1 month to 1 year of age. Central nervous system mechanisms likely contribute to many of these deaths. We discuss some of these including seizure disorders, prolonged breath holding, arousal from sleep and its habituation, laryngeal reflex apnea potentiated by upper airway infection, and failure of brainstem-mediated autoresuscitation. In the conclusions section, we speculate how lives saved through back sleeping might result in later developmental problems in certain infants who otherwise might have died while sleeping prone.

  6. Analysis of facial motor evoked potentials for assessing a central mechanism in hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Marshall F; Chowdhury, Tumul; Mutch, W Alan; Kaufmann, Anthony M

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a cranial nerve hyperactivity disorder characterized by unique neurophysiological features, although the underlying pathophysiology remains disputed. In this study, the authors compared the effects of desflurane on facial motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the spasm and nonspasm sides of patients who were undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery to test the hypothesis that HFS is associated with a central elevation of facial motor neuron excitability. METHODS Facial MEPs were elicited in 31 patients who were undergoing MVD for HFS and were administered total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with or without additional desflurane, an inhaled anesthetic known to centrally suppress MEPs. All measurements were completed before dural opening while a consistent mean arterial blood pressure was maintained and electroencephalography was performed. The activation threshold voltage and mean amplitudes of the MEPs from both sides of the face were compared. RESULTS There was a significantly lower mean activation threshold of facial MEPs on the spasm side than on the nonspasm side (mean ± SD 162.9 ± 10.1 vs 198.3 ± 10.1 V, respectively; p = 0.01). In addition, MEPs were also elicited more readily when single-pulse transcranial electrical stimulation was used on the spasm side (74% vs 31%, respectively; p = 0.03). Although desflurane (1 minimum alveolar concentration) suppressed facial MEPs on both sides, the suppressive effects of desflurane were less on the spasm side than on the nonspasm side (59% vs 79%, respectively; p = 0.03), and M waves recorded from the mentalis muscle remained unchanged, which indicates that desflurane did not affect the peripheral facial nerve or neuromuscular junction. CONCLUSIONS Centrally acting inhaled anesthetic agents can suppress facial MEPs and therefore might interfere with intraoperative monitoring. The elevated motor neuron excitability and differential effects of desflurane between the spasm

  7. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  8. Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement electrical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

    2013-10-01

    For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement electrical potential that we named obex slow potential (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 ± 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 ± 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 ± 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators.

  9. Changes in the Regional Groundwater Aquifer and Potential Impacts on Surface Waters in Central Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul

    The regional, confined aquifer on the island of Zealand, in eastern Denmark, is the primary aquifer used for large-scale abstraction for the supplies of all larger cities, including Roskilde and the greater Copenhagen metropolitan area. Large-scale groundwater abstraction from this aquifer...... as previously they never did. This study analyzes the changes in the groundwater potential between 1936 and 2006 in two stream catchments in central Zealand (Elverdam and Langvad) to assess how groundwater abstraction has affected the regional aquifers potential for contribution to base-flow in the streams......, wetlands and lakes in the area. The results show that there was a significant impact on the regional groundwater aquifer in the Langvad river catchment, with groundwater as much as 17m lower in 1987 from 1936 (pre-abstraction). However, in the Elverdam river catchment, the levels remained virtually...

  10. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  11. Suitability of Wind Potential in Some Areas of Central Moldavian Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Apostol

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary period, the most important element in sustaining and developing the society, under all its aspects, is represented by energy. Due to the fact that in society consumption is increasing, the actual preoccupation is to reduce the energy consumption and also to find clean, alternative sources to produce energy. The theme of this article is directed towards the concepts of increased availability and energetic independency and concerns estimations over the wind potential in certain areas of Central Moldavian Plateau. For this purpose there were analyzed genetic factors of the wind in the analyzed area and those parameters of wind speed, useful to the justification of the wind potential study. The obtained results confirm the fact that in Central Moldavian Plateau, in many areas, especially those of high altitude, are favorable conditions to use wind energy. Along with the remoteness from the Eastern Carpathians and the proximity of the Black Sea, the conditions become more and more favorable. Unfortunately, the lack of meteorological stations on the top of hills (besides the Barnova station, situated in the woods. Increased wind speed in the meaning of what was stated, was approved only on high valleys and upper terraces in the main valleys, especially on the Prut.

  12. Agroclimatic potential in central Siberia in an altered 21st century climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E.; Lysanova, G.

    2012-04-01

    The largest temperature increases are currently found in Northern Hemishpere upper latitudes, and this is where temperature increases from climate change are predicted to be the greatest in the future. Alteration of boreal and Arctic landscapes is already apparent, particularly in Siberia. In this work, we will explore the current spatial and temporal patterns of agriculture potential in Siberia and then investigate potential future agriculture dynamics. Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. It is predicted that forests will move northwards in a warmer climate and be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. Climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia are analyzed based on the hypothesis that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models are used to determine crop range and regression models are constructed to determine crop yield, and these are applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-1990, 1990-2010 using historic data and for 2020 and 2080 using HadCM3 B1 and A2 projections. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future climatic resources in Siberia would provide potential growth for a variety of crops that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops, nonexistent today, may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming but would also result in different feedbacks to the atmosphere and climate systems, in terms of an altered landscape albedo, substantially modified hydrological

  13. Oxytocin reduces background anxiety in a fear-potentiated startle paradigm: peripheral vs central administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Luke W; Missig, Galen; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2011-11-01

    Oxytocin is known to have anti-anxiety and anti-stress effects. Using a fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats, we previously demonstrated that subcutaneously administered oxytocin suppressed acoustic startle following fear conditioning compared with startle before fear conditioning (termed background anxiety), but did not have an effect on cue-specific fear-potentiated startle. The findings suggest oxytocin reduces background anxiety, an anxious state not directly related to cue-specific fear, but sustained beyond the immediate threat. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of centrally and peripherally administered oxytocin on background anxiety and cue-specific fear. Male rats were given oxytocin either subcutaneously (SC) or intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into the lateral ventricles before fear-potentiated startle testing. Oxytocin doses of 0.01 and 0.1 μg/kg SC reduced background anxiety. ICV administration of oxytocin at doses from 0.002 to 20 μg oxytocin had no effect on background anxiety or cue-specific fear-potentiated startle. The 20 μg ICV dose of oxytocin did reduce acoustic startle in non-fear conditioned rats. These studies indicate that oxytocin is potent and effective in reducing background anxiety when delivered peripherally, but not when delivered into the cerebroventricular system. Oxytocin given systemically may have anti-anxiety properties that are particularly germane to the hypervigilance and exaggerated startle typically seen in many anxiety and mental health disorder patients.

  14. Potential change in forest types and stand heights in central Siberia in a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Korets, M. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Previous regional studies in Siberia have demonstrated climate warming and associated changes in distribution of vegetation and forest types, starting at the end of the 20th century. In this study we used two regional bioclimatic envelope models to simulate potential changes in forest types distribution and developed new regression models to simulate changes in stand height in tablelands and southern mountains of central Siberia under warming 21st century climate. Stand height models were based on forest inventory data (2850 plots). The forest type and stand height maps were superimposed to identify how heights would change in different forest types in future climates. Climate projections from the general circulation model Hadley HadCM3 for emission scenarios B1 and A2 for 2080s were paired with the regional bioclimatic models. Under the harsh A2 scenario, simulated changes included: a 80%-90% decrease in forest-tundra and tundra, a 30% decrease in forest area, a ˜400% increase in forest-steppe, and a 2200% increase in steppe, forest-steppe and steppe would cover 55% of central Siberia. Under sufficiently moist conditions, the southern and middle taiga were simulated to benefit from 21st century climate warming. Habitats suitable for highly-productive forests (≥30-40 m stand height) were simulated to increase at the expense of less productive forests (10-20 m). In response to the more extreme A2 climate the area of these highly-productive forests would increase 10%-25%. Stand height increases of 10 m were simulated over 35%-50% of the current forest area in central Siberia. In the extremely warm A2 climate scenario, the tall trees (25-30 m) would occur over 8%-12% of area in all forest types except forest-tundra by the end of the century. In forest-steppe, trees of 30-40 m may cover some 15% of the area under sufficient moisture.

  15. Lightning activity on the central Tibetan Plateau and its response to convective available potential energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning flash activities on the central Tibetan Plateau have been studied by using the satellite-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) database from January 1998 to July 2002. The lightning activity shows a clear diurnal variation on the central Plateau. The peak lightning activity appears at about 17︰00 which is 3 h earlier than that in Jingzhou, Hubei in the same latitude belt nearby, indicating that the lightning activity is a sensitive indicator of solar heating on the Plateau. The lightning discharge is weaker on the Plateau than Jingzhou, Hubei and other low-altitude continental regions because of the lower convective available potential energy (CAPE) on the Plateau. The CAPE on the Plateau is 12 times lower than that in Jingzhou, Hubei, and 20 times lower than that in the sea-level region, such as Guangzhou and Florida. However, the sensitivity of lightning activity to CAPE changes on the Plateau is up to 30 times more sensitive than other prominent low-altitude regions.

  16. Current understanding of circulating tumor cells – potential value in malignancies of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz A. Adamczyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the blood via so-called 'liquid biopsies' carries enormous clinical potential in malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS because of the potential to follow disease evolution with a blood test, without the need for repeat neurosurgical procedures with their inherent risk of patient morbidity. To date studies in non-CNS malignancies, particularly in breast cancer, show increasing reproducibility of detection methods for these rare tumor cells in the circulation. However, no method has yet received full recommendation to use in clinical practice, in part because of lack of a sufficient evidence base regarding clinical utility. In CNS malignancies one of the main challenges is finding a suitable biomarker for identification of these cells, because automated systems such as the widely used Cell Search system are reliant on markers such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM which are not present in CNS tumors. This review examines methods for CTC enrichment and detection, and reviews the progress in non-CNS tumors and the potential for using this technique in human brain tumors.

  17. Fire behavior potential in central Saskatchewan under predicted climate change : summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, M.; Hirsch, K.; Todd, B.; Flannigan, M. [Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kafka, V. [Parks Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Flynn, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This study assesses fire danger and fire behaviour potential in central Saskatchewan using simulated climate scenarios produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), including scenario analysis of base, double and triple level carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and uses available forest fuels to develop an absolute measure of fire behaviour. For each of these climate scenarios, the CRCM-generated weather was used as input variables into the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System. Fire behavior potential was quantified using head fire intensity, a measure of the fire's energy output because it can be related to fire behavior characteristics, suppression effectiveness, and fire effects. The report discusses the implications of fire behavior potential changes for fire and forest management. Preliminary results suggest a large increase in area burned in the study area by the end of the twenty-first century. Some of the possible fire management activities for long-term prediction include: pre-positioning of resources, preparedness planning, prioritization of fire and forest management activities and fire threat evaluation. 16 refs., 1 tab, 7 figs.

  18. Shielded attractive shell model again: resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reščič, J.; Kalyuzhnyi, Y. V.; Cummings, P. T.

    2016-10-01

    The approach developed earlier to describe the dimerizing shielded attractive shell (SAS) primitive model of chemical association due to Cummings and Stell is generalized and extended to include a description of a polymerizing SAS model. Our extension is based on the combination of the resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force (RTPT-CF) associating potential and self consistent scheme, which takes into account the changes in the system free volume due to association. Theoretical results for thermodynamical properties of the model at different bonding length, density and temperature are compared against newly generated computer simulation results. The theory gives very accurate predictions for the model with bonding length L * from the range 0  <  L *  <  0.6 at all values of the density and temperature studied, including the limit of infinitely large temperature.

  19. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed.

  20. [Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae) potential for dendrochronological studies in the Selva Central of Perú].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra Espinoza, Manuel Jesús; Inga Guillen, Gaby Janet; Santos Morales, Mariano; Arisméndiz Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    2014-06-01

    Despite the progress made during the past 20 years, searching dendrochronological potential in tropical and subtropical tree species, tropical dendrochronology, is still in a development stage. The aim of this research was to determine the potential of C. odorata for dendrochronological studies in the Selva Central of Perú. The tree-ring anatomical characteristics were carefully examined and we were able to develop a 215 year (1795-2 009) tree-ring chronology and correlate it with precipitation records. The tree-ring chronology was developed based on 47 series of 27 trees. Tree rings are clearly delimited by large pore diameters in earlywood and small ones in latewood associated with marginal and paratracheal parenchyma. The tree-ring chronology was related to precipitation records from Satipo and significant correlations were found with the previous rainy season and late dry season of the current growth period. Moreover, we found close relationship between tree growth and total precipitations of the hydrological period (December to September) for the interval 1990-2009. These results demonstrate the influence of rainfall at different stages of C. odorata radial growth. The good discrimination of annual rings, strong relationship with precipitation, the wide range and longevity of trees (200 years) make C. odorata a very promising species for dendrochronological studies in tropical and subtropical forest of America.

  1. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng X

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1–100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic, which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood–brain barrier (BBB, which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs, including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS. Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems. Keywords: dental, nanomaterials, central nervous system, toxicity, testing methods, risk assessment

  2. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  3. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  4. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  5. Biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Countries and opportunities for the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faaij, A.; Hoogzaad, J.; Van Dam, J.; Smeets, E.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-12-15

    This paper discusses an approach to determine future biomass production potentials and cost supply curves based on a bottom-up approach. The approach uses detailed data on NUTS3 level (the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) provides a single, uniform breakdown of the economic territory of the European Union). The NUTS is the territorial classification for the compilation of regional accounts for Central and Eastern European Countries and results in biomass supply curves for different scenario conditions that could occur in a European setting. A first assessment of the Ukraine reveals that even with modest assumptions, the Ukrainian agricultural sector could supply 2,000 to 3,000 PJ of primary biomass per year on medium term (i.e. 2010-2015). Cost levels of liquid fuels produced from biomass (such as methanol or Fischer-Tropsch diesel) could end up around 6 Euro/GJ, which is about competitive with production costs of diesel and gasoline from mineral oil. Given the growing demand for biofuels in particular in the EU, biofuels could prove an extremely valuable export commodity for the Ukraine on shorter term already.

  6. Mini Review: circular RNAs as potential clinical biomarkers for disorders in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs (circRNAs are a type of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs, produced in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. They are more stable than linear RNAs, and possess spatio-temporal properties. CircRNAs do not distribute equally in the neuronal compartments in the brain, but largely enriched in the synapses. These ncRNA species can be used as potential clinical biomarkers in complex disorders of the central nervous system (CNS, which is supported by recent findings. For example, ciRS-7 was found to be a natural microRNAs sponge for miRNA-7 and regulate Parkinson’s disease (PD/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD-related genes; circPAIP2 is an intron-retaining circRNA which upregulates memory-related parental genes PAIP2 to affect memory development through PABP reactivation. The quantity of circRNAs carry important messages, either when they are inside the cells, or in circulation, or in exosomes released from synaptoneurosomes and endothelial. In addition, small molecules such as microRNAs and microvesicles can pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB and get into blood. For clinical applications, the study population needs to be phenotypically well-defined. CircRNAs may be combined with other biomarkers and imaging tools to improve the diagnostic power.

  7. Dental pulp stem cells and their potential roles in central nervous system regeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Fraser; Sloan, Alastair; Song, Bing

    2013-11-01

    Functional recovery from injuries to the brain or spinal cord represents a major clinical challenge. The transplantation of stem cells, traditionally isolated from embryonic tissue, may help to reduce damage following such events and promote regeneration and repair through both direct cell replacement and neurotrophic mechanisms. However, the therapeutic potential of using embryonic stem/progenitor cells is significantly restricted by the availability of embryonic tissues and associated ethical issues. Populations of stem cells reside within the dental pulp, representing an alternative source of cells that can be isolated with minimal invasiveness, and thus should illicit fewer moral objections, as a replacement for embryonic/fetal-derived stem cells. Here we discuss the similarities between dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and the endogenous stem cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and their ability to differentiate into neuronal cell types. We also consider in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the ability of DPSCs to help protect against and repair neuronal damage, suggesting that dental pulp may provide a viable alternative source of stem cells for replacement therapy following CNS damage.

  8. Geothermal potential of West-Central New Mexico from geochemical and thermal gradient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitte, D.; Gambill, D.T.

    1980-11-01

    To study the low temperature and Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of west-central New Mexico, 46 water samples were collected and geothermal gradient measurements were made in 29 wells. Water chemistry data indicate that all the samples collected are meteoric waters. High temperatures of samples taken from wells between Gallup and Tohatchi indicate these wells may derive water from a warm aquifer below the depth of the wells. The chemistries of the samples farther south on the Zuni Indian reservation suggest these waters are not circulating below 600 m of the surface. Geothermometry calculations support the conclusion that the waters sampled are meteoric. The geothermometry also indicates that the deep reservoir between Gallup and Tohatchi may be greater than 60/sup 0/C. Thermal gradient data indicate an area of high gradient on the Zuni Indian Reservation with a measured maximum of 67/sup 0/C/km between 181 m and 284 m. This high probably is not hydrologically controlled. The maximum gradients in the study area are 76/sup 0/C/km and 138/sup 0/C/km, measured just east of Springerville, Arizona. These gradients are undoubtedly controlled by circulating water, possibly heated by a magmatic source at depth and circulating back to the surface.

  9. Paleosols in central Illinois as potential sources of ammonium in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessner, J.J.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Glacially buried paleosols of pre-Holocene age were evaluated as potential sources for anomalously large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater in East Central Illinois. Ammonium has been detected at concentrations that are problematic to water treatment facilities (greater than 2.0 mg/L) in this region. Paleosols characterized for this study were of Quaternary age, specifically Robein Silt samples. Paleosol samples displayed significant capacity to both store and release ammonium through experiments measuring processes of sorption, ion exchange, and weathering. Bacteria and fungi within paleosols may significantly facilitate the leaching of ammonium into groundwater by the processes of assimilation and mineralization. Bacterial genetic material (DNA) was successfully extracted from the Robein Silt, purified, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to produce 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) community analyses. The Robein Silt was found to have established diverse and viable bacterial communities. 16S rRNA TRFLP comparisons to well-known bacterial species yielded possible matches with facultative chemolithotrophs, cellulose consumers, nitrate reducers, and actinomycetes. It was concluded that the Robein Silt is both a source and reservoir for groundwater ammonium. Therefore, the occurrence of relatively large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater monitoring data may not necessarily be an indication of only anthropogenic contamination. The results of this study, however, need to be placed in a hydrological context to better understand whether paleosols can be a significant source of ammonium to drinking water supplies. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1-100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic), which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS). Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems.

  11. Potential Use of HF Radar for Tsunami Detection in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ozer, Ceren

    2016-04-01

    Today, HF radar is recognized as internationally cost-effective and efficient solution to provide near-real time measurements that cover a large area continuously over time for ocean hazards warning and long term ocean monitoring studies such as, seasonal forecasts of climate, hurricanes, s torm surges and large-scale ocean circulation changes. These radar systems recently became an operational tool in coastal monitoring worldwide. They are used for many operational applications that include ship detection, tracking, guidance, distribution of pollutants, fishery and oceanography. HF radar data used for the tsunami warnings, can also be used for the other purposes and be of potential interest to wide application area users and stakeholders. Moreover multi user applications will ensure the system is maintained operationally over the long term. Hence the system is cost effective also with regards to maintenance. New algorithms allow useful detection and verification for tsunami detection. While technical monitoring capacity and the algorithms for tsunami detection is improved significantly, further studies are required to obtain complete wave height determination. We analysed the available technology and algorithms for the purpose of tsunami detection in the central-eastern Mediterranean and its connected Seas (Aegean and Black Sea). Since the study area is characterized by narrow continental shelf area, the HF radar observation for the purpose of tsunami detection is possible in restricted areas. While extensive continental shelves in the northeastern Black Sea and along the coast of Tunisia in the central Mediterranean let tsunami detection 2.5 hours before tsunami waves hit the coast, the detection is possible around 1 hr or less in advance for the remaining basins with wide continental shelf areas. The bathymetric structure is important for deciding the applicability of HF radar systems for the tsunami detection in continental shelf areas, which can be covered by

  12. Potential interactions of central nervous system drugs used in the elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bueno Morrone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of CNS drugs and to identify the most frequently observed potential drug interactions in the elderly living in Southern Brazil. METHODS: A population-based, transversal and observational study was carried out during 2006-2007. Four hundred and eighty elderly individuals of both genders were randomly recruited and interviewed. A validated pharmacotherapeutic questionnaire and the Micromedex® Healthcare Series were utilized to analyze potential drug interactions. A severity rating scale employing the categories of "mild", "moderate" and "severe" was used to describe the interactions. RESULTS: A population of elderly living in Southern Brazil was interviewed and 98 reported using CNS drugs, 74.5% female and 25.5% male. Out of these patients, 32.0% reported severe or moderate pharmacological interactions related to the use of other drugs. Alprazolam and imipramine were reported to potentially interact with tobacco. Twenty potential moderate drug/ethanol interactions were found. The potential drug/caffeine interactions were classified as mild on the severity scale. CONCLUSION: Elderly being prescribed drugs that act on the CNS should be closely monitored, and furthermore, should be warned against potential drug-drug, drug-ethanol, and drug-tobacco interactions.OBJETIVO: Descrever o uso de medicamentos que atuam no sistema nervoso central (SNC e identificar as possíveis interações mais frequentes com esses medicamentos em idosos do sul do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional, transversal e observacional, realizado durante 2006-2007. Quatrocentos e oitenta idosos de ambos os sexos foram randomizados e entrevistados. Foram utilizados um questionário farmacoterapêutico validado e o programa Micromedex® Healthcare Series para analisar as potenciais interações com os medicamentos. Foi utilizada uma escala para descrever a gravidade das interações nas categorias de "leve", "moderada" e "grave". RESULTADOS

  13. Limitations and potentials of dual-purpose cow herds in Central Coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Nicholson, Charles F; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Feed chemical and kinetic composition and animal performance information was used to evaluate productivity limitations and potentials of dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0) was systematically applied to specific groups of cows in structured simulations to establish probable input-output relationships for typical management, and to estimate probable outcomes from alternative management based on forage-based dietary improvements. Key herd vulnerabilities were pinpointed: chronic energy deficits among dry cows of all ages in late gestation and impeded growth for immature cows. Regardless of the forage season of calving, most cows, if not all, incur energy deficits in the final trimester of gestation; thus reducing the pool of tissue energy and constraining milking performance. Under typical management, cows are smaller and underweight for their age, which limits feed intake capacity, milk production and the probability of early postpartum return to ovarian cyclicity. The substitution of good-quality harvested forage for grazing increased predicted yields by about one-third over typical scenarios for underweight cows. When diets from first parturition properly supported growth and tissue repletion, milk production in second and third lactations was predicted to improve about 60%. Judiciously supplemented diets based on good quality grass and legume forages from first calving were predicted to further increase productivity by about 80% across a three-lactation cow lifetime. These dual-purpose herd owners have large incentives to increase sales income by implementing nutritional strategies like those considered in this study.

  14. Nitric oxide in central amygdala potentiates expression of conditioned withdrawal induced by morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Karami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate if nitric oxide (NO in the central amygdala (CeA is involved in the expression of withdrawal aspects induced by morphine. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g were bilaterally cannulated in the CeA and conditioned to morphine using an unbiased paradigm. Morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg was subcutaneously injected once a day throughout the conditioning phase of the procedure. This phase also included 3-saline paired sessions. Naloxone (0.1-0.4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.], an antagonist of opioid receptors, was administered i.p. 10 min prior to testing of morphine-induced withdrawal features. The NO precursor, L-arginine (0.3-3 μg/rat was intra-CeA injected prior to testing of naloxone response. To evaluate the involvement of NO system an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS, N G -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (0.3-3 μg/rat, was injected ahead of L-arginine. Control group received saline solely instead of drug. As a complementary study, the activation of NOS was studied by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d. Results: Morphine induced a significant increase in wet dog shaking and grooming behaviors compared with controls. Injection of naloxone pre-testing of morphine response significantly reversed the response to morphine. However, pre-microinjection of L-arginine intra-CeA recovered the response to morphine. Injection of L-NAME intra-CeA ahead of L-arginine though had no effect behaviorally, but, inhibited the NOS which has been evidenced by NADPH-d. Conclusion: The present study shows that NO in the CeA potentiates the expression of conditioned withdrawal induced by morphine paired with naloxone.

  15. The vertical gradient of Electro-Atmospheric potential at Macerata (Italy (Central East Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. GUALTIERI

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies eleven years of measures of the gradient
    of electro-atmospheric potential carried out in the Observatory of
    Macerata (East Central Apennines. The medium yearly and monthly
    values as well as the medium hourly values have been calculated. The
    calculations are based on the values of five calm days chosen with probabilistic
    methods from all the calm days of the month considered. The equation lias also been found from the medium hourly curve by
    means of harmonic analysis. Then the harmonics have been examined
    stopping at the third, and it has been found that these reflected the different
    general and local components such as that due to the masses of air of maritime
    origin and that due to the masses of continental air operating alternatively
    in the region of observation. The general minimum of the local hours
    "> a. m. (4 TU is clearly shown by the first harmonic, and it is also present
    in the medium hourly curve but appears in this less accentuated than what
    we would expect it to be.
    Finally the behaviours of the vertical gradient in clear, cloudy and
    calm days have been studied and the different results compared.
    The behaviour of the parameter of the atmospheric electricity in relation
    to the solar phenomena has also been studied and in particular with the
    behaviour of the sunspots during the eleven years of observations.

  16. Modeling the potential distribution of three lichens of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents models of potential geographical distribution of Xanthoparmelia delisei, X. loxodes, and X. verruculifera in Central Europe. The models were developed with MaxEnt (maximum entropy algorithm) based on 224 collection localities and bioclimatic variables. The applied method enabled to identify the areas where climatic conditions are the most suitable for modeled species outside their known localities. According to obtained model, high potential distribution of the X. delisei a...

  17. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM2.5 with personal exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Aileen; Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise; Leseman, Daan L A C; Hellack, Bryan; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert; Janssen, Nicole A H

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial v

  18. Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2011-01-11

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

  19. POTENTIAL AND LIMITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EAST EUROPE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    CIRLEA Filip; Iancu, Iulian

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (solar power, wind power, hydroenergy, biomass, biofuels) with energy efficiency contribute to increasing security of electricity supply, competitiveness and sustainable development. The countries of the Central and South-East Europe region must to develop a focus on alternative energy sources and on energy efficiency and energy saving. Developing the renewable energy sector in a sustainable manner in the Central and South-East Europe region would enhance security of ...

  20. MINERALIZATION POTENTIALS OF PEGMATITES IN THE NASARAWA AREA OF CENTRAL NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintola O. F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pegmatites in Nasarawa area of Central Nigeria lie within a fracture-controlled east-north-east trending rare metal pegmatite belt closely associatedwith late PanAfrican peraluminous granites inNigeria. Trace elements of feldspars andmuscovites of pegmatites inNasarawa area of CentralNigeriawere analyzed to determine the raremetalsmineralization potentials of the pegmatites. The minerals show fractionation even within units of complex mineralizedpegmatites as indicated by the wide ranges of K/Rb in Na-feldspars (albites, muscovites and K-feldspars and the wide range of K/Tl in the latter two minerals. Cs, Rb and Tl and the rare earth elements (REEs Ce, La, Pr and Y are enriched in the K-bearing muscovites and K-feldspars; K-feldspars have the highest average values of Tl, Ce, La, Pr and Y while the muscovites have the highest average values of Sn, Nb, Ga, F and Zn. Average values of Ta, Sr, Ba,Wand Zr are highest in the albites,which also have the lowest averageNb/Ta ratio. This is an indication that these elementsare enriched along lateNa-rich raremetalmineralizing fluids. The rare alkalisRb and Cs and Tl are positively correlated with the rare lithophile elements (Ta, REEs, Pb, Bi and Y, in both the pegmatite K-feldspars and muscovites, strongly positively correlated with Sn in the muscovites but negatively correlated with Nb in the minerals. Inthe pegmatitic albites, Nb has very strong positive correlations with Ta (0.868 and Zr (0.847, which is indicative of the incorporations/substitution of these elements in the crystal lattice of the ore minerals. There is a general enrichment of the rare elements towards themiddle and inner zones of the complexmineralized pegmatites. Fluorine, phosphorus and boron-rich fluids played significant roles in the magmatic complexation/fractionation and concentration of Sn-Ta-Li-Cs-Be in the albitized zones of the highly evolved pagmatites.K/Rb versusCs in theK-feldspars classify the pegmatites into

  1. Helicobacter pylori as a potential target for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcelo Barbante Casella

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and changes in best-corrected visual acuity and macular detachment in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Seventeen patients diagnosed with central serous chorioretinopathy were examined for gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori using the urease test and gastric biopsy. Helicobacter pylory-positive patients were treated with the appropriate medication. The response to therapy was monitored by evaluating the best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography. The data were analyzed using Student's t-test before and after treatment. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (15 eyes aged 30-56 years (mean 43.4 ± 8.3 years were positive for Helicobacter pylori. Most of the positive patients had gastric symptoms (78.5%; one had bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy. The mean baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 20/98 (logMAR = 0.53 ± 0.28. Three months after starting treatment with antibiotics, the serous detachment had resolved in 14 of 15 eyes, but two cases required laser treatment. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 27 months. The mean final best-corrected visual acuity differed significantly from baseline. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that Helicobacter pylori infection may be present in many chronic central serous chorioretinopathy patients and that treatment for the infection may have a favorable effect on the outcome of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Due to the possibility of the spontaneous regression of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy and the high prevalence of the infection in the general population, prospective and masked clinical trials are necessary to confirm that treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection may benefit patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

  2. [Recent progress of potential effects and mechanisms of chlorogenic acid and its intestinal metabolites on central nervous system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-na; Zhou, Ming-mei; Li, Yun; Shi, Xiao-wen; Jia, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid displays several important roles in the therapeutic properties of many herbs, such as antioxidant activity, antibacterial, antiviral, scavenging free radicals and exciting central nervous system. Only about one-third of chlorogenic acid was absorbed in its prototype, therefore, its gut metabolites play a more important role in the therapeutic properties of chlorogenic acid. It is necessary to consider not only the bioactivities of chlorogenic acid but also its gut metabolites. This review focuses on the potential activities and mechanisms of chlorogenic acid and its gut metabolites on central nervous system diseases.

  3. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean-potential impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier Gon, H.A.C. van der

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size dis

  4. Chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the Central Atlantic Ocean - Potential impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier Gon, H.A.C. van der

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size dis

  5. The potential of indigenous and naturalized fodder trees and shrubs for intensive use in central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roothaert, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    There are opportunities for increasing milk production in central Kenya through the use of tree fodder, leading to higher farm income. Most research for intensive use of fodder trees has been carried out on exotic species, neglecting indigenous ones. The objectives of this study were to assess the p

  6. Sodium entry during action potentials of mammalian central neurons: incomplete inactivation and reduced metabolic efficiency in fast-spiking neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Brett C.; Bean, Bruce P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the time course of sodium entry during action potentials of mouse central neurons at 37 °C to examine how efficiently sodium entry is coupled to depolarization. In cortical pyramidal neurons, sodium entry was nearly completely confined to the rising phase of the spike: only ~25% more sodium enters than the theoretical minimum necessary for spike depolarization. However, in fast-spiking GABAergic neurons (cerebellar Purkinje cells and cortical interneurons), twice as much sodium en...

  7. Microparticles generated by decompression stress cause central nervous system injury manifested as neurohypophysial terminal action potential broadening

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The study goal was to use membrane voltage changes during neurohypophysial action potential (AP) propagation as an index of nerve function to evaluate the role that circulating microparticles (MPs) play in causing central nervous system injury in response to decompression stress in a murine model. Mice studied 1 h following decompression from 790 kPa air pressure for 2 h exhibit a 45% broadening of the neurohypophysial AP. Broadening did not occur if mice were injected with the MP lytic agent...

  8. Bound state solution of Dirac equation for Hulthen plus trigonometric Rosen Morse non-central potential using Romanovski polynomial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suparmi, A., E-mail: suparmiuns@gmail.com; Cari, C., E-mail: suparmiuns@gmail.com [Physics Department, Post Graduate Study, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Angraini, L. M. [Physics Department, Mataram University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    The bound state solutions of Dirac equation for Hulthen and trigonometric Rosen Morse non-central potential are obtained using finite Romanovski polynomials. The approximate relativistic energy spectrum and the radial wave functions which are given in terms of Romanovski polynomials are obtained from solution of radial Dirac equation. The angular wave functions and the orbital quantum number are found from angular Dirac equation solution. In non-relativistic limit, the relativistic energy spectrum reduces into non-relativistic energy.

  9. Tracking potential source areas of Central European loess: examples from Tokaj (HU), Nussloch (D) and Grub (AT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Ann-Kathrin; Qi, Yue; Siebel, Wolfgang; Wu, Jiade; Zöller, Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    There are several competing hypotheses for the origin of loess in Europe but quantitative evidence is still rare. Here, Sr-Nd isotopic and bulk elemental composition of loess from Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 from three study regions in Central Europe - Nussloch (Germany), Grub (Austria) and Tokaj (Hungary) - are analyzed. This study aims at examining differences and similarities of loess deposits throughout Europe, correlating loess with potential source rocks from major mountain ranges and comparing loess with floodplain sediments from main rivers as integrated samples of the drainage areas. The results show that European loess deposits are largely uniform and that sediment sources have been rather stable in the Southern and Eastern parts of Central Europe and more variable in West Central Europe. However, the methods used are not sufficient to unequivocally confirm and reject potential sediment sources but, in combination, help to identify the most likely sediment origins. While a direct correlation of loess and potential source rocks is dif- ficult, the comparison with floodplain sediments is most promising and confirms previous hypotheses. Loess from Tokaj and Grub is most likely a mix of material transported by the Danube River and sediments from the surrounding mountains. Rhine River sediments are probably the main source of loess at Nussloch.

  10. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  11. Modeling the potential distribution of three lichens of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents models of potential geographical distribution of Xanthoparmelia delisei, X. loxodes, and X. verruculifera in Central Europe. The models were developed with MaxEnt (maximum entropy algorithm based on 224 collection localities and bioclimatic variables. The applied method enabled to identify the areas where climatic conditions are the most suitable for modeled species outside their known localities. According to obtained model, high potential distribution of the X. delisei and X. loxodes was found in the northern and northeastern Poland, when areas most suitable for X. verruculifera were placed in the south, especially in the Carpathians. Model also suggests that potential distribution of X. delisei could be wider than known data on its occurrence and extend to Lithuania, Belarus and the Czech Republic. MaxEnt modeling of X. loxodes showed the widest potential distribution for this species in Central Europe with the best regions in Lithuania. Potential distribution in all models was strongly influenced by precipitation-related variables. All the modelled species prefer areas where precipitation in the coldest quarter is very low.

  12. Usage of Multimodal Evoked Potentials in Diagnosis of Changes in Central Nervous System in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Özbek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evoked potentials are used in the functional assessment of sensory and motor pathways. Conflicting results have been reported in different studies about the value of evoked potentials in demyelinating diseases. Over 80% of patients with multiple sclerosis present with a relapsing–remitting form of the disease. In this study we aimed to examine the value of each evoked potential to demonstrate the demyelinating lesions in a homogenous group of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. We also aimed to examine the correlation between clinical status and evoked potential abnormalities. METHODS: Twenty patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and ten healthy volunteers were included in the study to evaluate the value of evoked potentials in a homogenous group. Visual, somatosensory and motor evoked potentials were measured and EDSS scores of the patients were calculated. RESULTS: Of 20 patients, 15 patients(75% had VEP abnormality, 14 patients (70% had MEP abnormality and 12 patients (60% had tibial SEP abnormality. All patients had at least one abnormal evoked potential measurement. The abnormality of evoked potentials also had a correlation with high EDSS scores. CONCLUSION: We concluded that evoked potentials, especially used in combination, are good markers to show the nervous damage in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  13. A potential new energy pathway in Central Lake Erie: The round goby connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.B.; Bunnell, D.B.; Knight, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Round gobies, invasive fish that entered Lake Erie in 1994, are altering energy, contaminant, and nutrient pathways. Our objective was to quantify how they alter energy pathways in the central basin of Lake Erie by describing their diet and identifying the degree to which predatory fish feed upon round gobies. We used bioenergetic models parameterized with data collected in the central basin between 1995 and 2002 to estimate the type and amount of prey eaten, the biomass accumulation rate for the round goby population, and a partitioning of the food energy into “new” energy derived from dreissenids as opposed to existing energy derived from zooplankton and non-dreissenid benthic prey. Mean (± SE) prey consumption peaked at 5.98 ± 2.17×104 tonnes wet mass in 1999 coincident with the maximum population size of 4.2 ± 1.5 billion round gobies. Zooplankton (40.2% by biomass) and dreissenid mussels (38.3%) dominated the prey consumed. Almost 90% of the zooplankton biomass was consumed by age-0 round gobies, while over 80% of the dreissenids were eaten by older ages. Standing stock biomass of round gobies ranged between 203 and 4,803 tonnes y−1 (interannual range), with an additional 475 to 8,943 tonnes of biomass accumulating through growth each year. Piscivorous fish showed an increasing reliance on round gobies as prey, with round gobies being the dominant prey fish in the diets of benthic-oriented predators. Hence, by being one of the few benthivores that exploit dreissenid mussels as prey, our analyses reveal that round gobies transfer new energy up the central Lake Erie food web.

  14. Interseismic coupling and seismic potential along the Central Andes subduction zone

    OpenAIRE

    Chlieh, Mohamed; Perfettini, Hugo; Tavera, Hernando; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Remy, Dominique; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Rolandone, Frédérique; Bondoux, Francis; Gabalda, Germinal; Bonvalot, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    We use about two decades of geodetic measurements to characterize interseismic strain build up along the Central Andes subduction zone from Lima, Peru, to Antofagasta, Chile. These measurements are modeled assuming a 3-plate model (Nazca, Andean sliver and South America Craton) and spatially varying interseismic coupling (ISC) on the Nazca megathrust interface. We also determine slip models of the 1996 M(w) = 7.7 Nazca, the 2001 M(w) = 8.4 Arequipa, the 2007 M(w) = 8.0 Pisco and the M(w) = 7....

  15. FROM CENTRALITY TO INTERMEDIACY IN THE GLOBAL TRANSPORT NETWORK? UKRAINE’S TRIALS AND TRIBULATIONS AS A POTENTIAL TRANSIT COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Grushevska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine currently is in a very complex economic and political situation, which in itself represents a pivotal point for its further recovery and evolution. Nevertheless, the rise of economic centres in Eastern and Central Europe creates opportunities for Ukraine to develop short sea shipping services (via the Black Sea and water and land-based hub-feeder networks to and from these areas. This paper provides an academic study of the potential of Ukraine in taking up a role in emerging distribution systems in East and Central Europe facilitating the cargo transportation from regions such as Central Asia, Caucasus and even more distant overseas areas. Based on the concepts of intermediacy and centrality as introduced by Fleming and Hayuth (1994 the role of Ukraine in the global and regional transport networks will be analysed in order to assess to what extent particular regions in Ukraine can serve as important gateways to Europe. An extensive review and synthesis of the published studies during the last 20 years on Ukraine’s transit flows and transit function will be presented. The obtained results will be contraposed to the results obtained from about 20 interviews conducted with transport business representatives in Ukraine and abroad. Based on the outcome of bottlenecks and deficiencies in Ukraine’s transport system, the optimal road map for Ukraine’s integration into the European transport network will be defined.

  16. CULTURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijitapure Wimalaratana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has recorded a tremendous growth in the past and this trend will continue further uninterruptedly. Sri Lanka has been one of the major tourist attractions since antiquity. The end of a protracted civil war has been a blessing for the tourist industry and the consequent rapid expansion of tourist infrastructure in the island. Although the island is a small one, it is rich in religious and cultural diversity. Buddhism is the main religion of the majority of people, while Hinduism, Christianity and Islam are also practiced by portions of the population. The resultant rich cultural heritage of the island has been constructed around religious practices, historical monuments and ancient cities, meditation, yoga, folk music and dances, festivities, ceremonies and rituals. Special sites with multi religious attractions reflect the diversity and uniqueness of a rich culture. The North Central Province of Sri Lanka is especially rich in cultural resources owing largely to it housing two cities that served as the island’s capital for more than 1000 years in ancient times. Only a small fraction of this vast amount of resources has been utilized by the tourism industry so far. The paper argues that the promotion of religious and cultural tourism products in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka will open up new avenues of engagement for tourists and income generation for the island. Ancient monuments and religious sites, segments of culture tourism, would be magnates to overseas archeologists and Buddhist communities.

  17. Central nervous insulin administration does not potentiate the acute glucoregulatory impact of concurrent mild hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Volker; Lehnert, Hendrik; Staub, Josefine; Wönne, Kathrin; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Experiments in rodents suggest that hypothalamic insulin signaling essentially contributes to the acute control of peripheral glucose homeostasis. Against this background, we investigated in healthy humans whether intranasal (IN) insulin, which is known to effectively reach the brain compartment, impacts systemic glucose metabolism. Twenty overnight-fasted healthy, normal-weight men were IN administered 210 and 420 international units [IU] (10 and 20 IU every 15 min) of the insulin analog aspart (ins-asp) and placebo, respectively, during experimental sessions lasting 6 h. The use of ins-asp rather than human insulin enabled us to disentangle exogenous and endogenous insulin kinetics. IN insulin dose-dependently decreased plasma glucose concentrations while reducing C-peptide and attenuating endogenous insulin levels. However, we also observed a slight dose-dependent permeation of ins-asp into the circulation. In control experiments mimicking the systemic but not the central nervous uptake of the IN 210 IU dose via intravenous infusion of ins-asp at a dose of 0.12 IU/kg/24 h (n = 10), we obtained essentially identical effects on fasting plasma glucose concentrations. This pattern indicates that sustained IN insulin administration to the human brain to enhance central nervous insulin signaling does not acutely alter systemic glucose homeostasis beyond effects accounted for by concurrent mild hyperinsulinemia.

  18. Description of Anopheles gabonensis, a new species potentially involved in rodent malaria transmission in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahola, Nil; Makanga, Boris; Yangari, Patrick; Jiolle, Davy; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, François; Ollomo, Benjamin; Ayala, Diego; Prugnolle, Franck; Paupy, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    The genus Anopheles includes mosquito vectors of human malaria and arboviruses. In sub-Saharan Africa, the anopheline fauna is rich of nearly 150 species, few of which are anthropophilic and capable of transmitting pathogens to humans. Some of the remaining species are found in forests far from human environments and are vectors of wildlife pathogens. The diversity and the biology of these species have yet to be fully described. As a contribution to furthering knowledge of sylvan Anophelinae, using morphological and molecular tools we describe a new Anopheles species collected in Gabon (Central Africa), which we have named Anopheles gabonensis n. sp. We also molecularly screened this species to detect infections by Plasmodium parasites. The results showed the species to have been infected by Plasmodium vinckei, a rodent parasite. We discuss the role of An. gabonensis n. sp. in the transmission of P. vinckei in the rainforest areas of Central Africa and its potential to transfer pathogens to humans.

  19. Potentialities at central region Cuba to flowering use in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. genetic improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Caraballoso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flowering of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is necessary to the cultivation genetic improvement; it is executed after 2005 by the National Center of Hybridization located in Guayos, Sancti Spíritus province and require contiguous areas. Was objective this work classifying the environment of central region of Cuba in function of sugarcane flowering. 26 localities were evaluated to soil and climatic variables and use the “C86-12” variety to the flowering recognized in other study and evaluated the flowering intensity. The principal component was used to identification principal variables, the automatic classification analyses to clustering and discriminant analysis to corroborate them. The result show a high association flowering and altitude and the climatic variables associate them. The localities were clustering in three groups with 100 % of good classification. One locality was selecting by each group. The handle combine to localities increased the parental flowering and increased exploitation of genetic variability in the sugarcane.

  20. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasar, D.; Withers, C.

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  1. Potential impact of Chironomus plumosus larvae on hypolimnetic oxygen in the central basin of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soster, Frederick M.; Matisoff, Gerald; Schloesser, Donald W.; Edwards, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that burrow-irrigating infauna can increase sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and impact hypolimnetic oxygen in stratified lakes. We conducted laboratory microcosm experiments and computer simulations with larvae of the burrowing benthic midge Chironomus plumosus to quantify burrow oxygen uptake rates and subsequent contribution to sediment oxygen demand in central Lake Erie. Burrow oxygen uptake and water flow velocities through burrows were measured using oxygen microelectrodes and hot film anemometry, respectively. Burrow oxygen consumption averaged 2.66 × 10− 10 (SE = ± 7.82 × 10− 11) mol O2/burrow/s at 24 °C and 9.64 × 10− 10 (SE = ± 4.86 × 10− 10) mol O2/burrow/s at 15 °C. In sealed microcosm experiments, larvae increased SOD 500% at 24 °C (density = 1508/m2) and 375% at 15 °C (density = 864/m2). To further evaluate effects of densities of C. plumosus burrows on SOD we developed a 3-D transport reaction model of the process. Using experimental data and chironomid abundance data in faunal surveys in 2009 and 2010, we estimated that bioirrigation by a population of 140 larvae/m2 could account for between 2.54 × 10− 11 mol/L/s (model results) and 5.58 × 10− 11 mol/L/s (experimental results) of the average 4.22 × 10− 11 mol/L/s oxygen depletion rate between 1970 and 2003, which could have accounted for 60–132% of the oxygen decline. At present, it appears that the population density of this species may be an important factor in development of hypoxic or anoxic conditions in central Lake Erie.

  2. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astitha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  3. Chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the Central Atlantic Ocean – potential impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. C. Denier van der Gon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates, natural (desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, designating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols indicates that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud and entrainment. The sodium (sea salt related aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  4. Chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the Central Atlantic Ocean - potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2010-02-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates), natural (desert dust, sea salt) and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust) aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode) are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, designating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols indicates that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud and entrainment). The sodium (sea salt related) aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  5. Modelling the chemically aged and mixed aerosols over the eastern central Atlantic Ocean - potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Spyrou, C.; O'Hirok, W.; Lelieveld, J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2010-07-01

    Detailed information on the chemical and physical properties of aerosols is important for assessing their role in air quality and climate. This work explores the origin and fate of continental aerosols transported over the Central Atlantic Ocean, in terms of chemical composition, number and size distribution, using chemistry-transport models, satellite data and in situ measurements. We focus on August 2005, a period with intense hurricane and tropical storm activity over the Atlantic Ocean. A mixture of anthropogenic (sulphates, nitrates), natural (desert dust, sea salt) and chemically aged (sulphate and nitrate on dust) aerosols is found entering the hurricane genesis region, most likely interacting with clouds in the area. Results from our modelling study suggest rather small amounts of accumulation mode desert dust, sea salt and chemically aged dust aerosols in this Atlantic Ocean region. Aerosols of smaller size (Aitken mode) are more abundant in the area and in some occasions sulphates of anthropogenic origin and desert dust are of the same magnitude in terms of number concentrations. Typical aerosol number concentrations are derived for the vertical layers near shallow cloud formation regimes, indicating that the aerosol number concentration can reach several thousand particles per cubic centimetre. The vertical distribution of the aerosols shows that the desert dust particles are often transported near the top of the marine cloud layer as they enter into the region where deep convection is initiated. The anthropogenic sulphate aerosol can be transported within a thick layer and enter the cloud deck through multiple ways (from the top, the base of the cloud, and by entrainment). The sodium (sea salt related) aerosol is mostly found below the cloud base. The results of this work may provide insights relevant for studies that consider aerosol influences on cloud processes and storm development in the Central Atlantic region.

  6. Asymptotic iteration method for the modified Pöschl-Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential in the Dirac equation spin symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Beta Nur; Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Husein, Andri Sofyan

    2017-02-01

    Analytical solution of the Dirac equation for the modified Pöschl-Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential for spin symmetry is studied using asymptotic iteration method. One-dimensional Dirac equation consisting of the radial and angular parts can be obtained by the separation of variables. By using asymptotic iteration method, the relativistic energy equation and orbital quantum number ( l) equation can be obtained, where both are interrelated. Relativistic energy equation is calculated numerically by the Matlab software. The increase in the radial quantum number n r causes a decrease in the energy value, and the wave functions of the radial and the angular parts are expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. Some thermodynamical properties of the system can be determined by reducing the relativistic energy equation to the non-relativistic energy equation. Thermodynamical properties such as vibrational partition function, vibrational specific heat function and vibrational mean energy function are expressed in terms of error function.

  7. Asymptotic iteration method for the modified Pöschl–Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential in the Dirac equation spin symmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BETA NUR PRATIWI; A SUPARMI; C CARI; ANDRI SOFYAN HUSEIN

    2017-02-01

    Analytical solution of the Dirac equation for the modified Pöschl–Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential for spin symmetry is studied using asymptotic iteration method. One-dimensional Dirac equation consisting of the radial and angular parts can be obtained by the separation of variables. By usingasymptotic iteration method, the relativistic energy equation and orbital quantum number (l) equation can be obtained, where both are interrelated. Relativistic energy equation is calculated numerically by the Matlab software. The increase in the radial quantum number $n_r$ causes a decrease in the energy value, and the wave functions of the radial and the angular parts are expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. Some thermodynamical properties of the system can be determined by reducing the relativistic energy equation to the non-relativisticenergy equation. Thermodynamical properties such as vibrational partition function, vibrational specific heat function and vibrational mean energy function are expressed in terms of error function.

  8. Caregiver Mental Health and Potentially Harmful Caregiving Behavior: The Central Role of Caregiver Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Gordon; Kosberg, Jordan I.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Dooley, W. Keith; DeCoster, Jamie; Williamson, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Caregivers feeling stress and experiencing mental health problems can be at risk for engaging in abusive acts against elderly care recipients. Potentially harmful behavior (PHB) was used as a measure of caregivers' engagement in, or fear of engagement in, behavior that places dependent care recipients at risk of physical and/or…

  9. Interseismic coupling and seismic potential along the Central Andes subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlieh, Mohamed; Perfettini, Hugo; Tavera, Hernando; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Remy, Dominique; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Rolandone, FréDéRique; Bondoux, Francis; Gabalda, Germinal; Bonvalot, Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    We use about two decades of geodetic measurements to characterize interseismic strain build up along the Central Andes subduction zone from Lima, Peru, to Antofagasta, Chile. These measurements are modeled assuming a 3-plate model (Nazca, Andean sliver and South America Craton) and spatially varying interseismic coupling (ISC) on the Nazca megathrust interface. We also determine slip models of the 1996 Mw = 7.7 Nazca, the 2001 Mw = 8.4 Arequipa, the 2007 Mw = 8.0 Pisco and the Mw = 7.7 Tocopilla earthquakes. We find that the data require a highly heterogeneous ISC pattern and that, overall, areas with large seismic slip coincide with areas which remain locked in the interseismic period (with high ISC). Offshore Lima where the ISC is high, a Mw˜8.6-8.8 earthquake occurred in 1746. This area ruptured again in a sequence of four Mw˜8.0 earthquakes in 1940, 1966, 1974 and 2007 but these events released only a small fraction of the elastic strain which has built up since 1746 so that enough elastic strain might be available there to generate a Mw > 8.5 earthquake. The region where the Nazca ridge subducts appears to be mostly creeping aseismically in the interseismic period (low ISC) and seems to act as a permanent barrier as no large earthquake ruptured through it in the last 500 years. In southern Peru, ISC is relatively high and the deficit of moment accumulated since the Mw˜8.8 earthquake of 1868 is equivalent to a magnitude Mw˜8.4 earthquake. Two asperities separated by a subtle aseismic creeping patch are revealed there. This aseismic patch may arrest some rupture as happened during the 2001 Arequipa earthquake, but the larger earthquakes of 1604 and 1868 were able to rupture through it. In northern Chile, ISC is very high and the rupture of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake has released only 4% of the elastic strain that has accumulated since 1877. The deficit of moment which has accumulated there is equivalent to a magnitude Mw˜8.7 earthquake. This study thus

  10. Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    --as during motor exercise--activated 5-HT1A receptors that decreased motoneuronal excitability. Electrophysiological tests combined with pharmacology showed that focal activation of 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS), but not on other motoneuronal compartments, inhibited the action potential...... adequately independently of the muscle physiology. Indirect evidence indicates that central fatigue is caused by serotonin (5-HT), but the cellular mechanisms are unknown. In a slice preparation from the spinal cord of the adult turtle, we found that prolonged stimulation of the raphe-spinal pathway...

  11. On the potential contribution of open lead particle emissions to the central Arctic aerosol concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Held

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During the ice-breaker borne ASCOS expedition (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study direct eddy covariance measurements of aerosol number fluxes were carried out in August 2008 on the edge of an ice floe drifting in the central Arctic Ocean between 2°–10° W longitude and 87°–87.5° N latitude. The median aerosol transfer velocities over different surface types (open water leads, ice ridges, snow and ice surfaces ranged from 0.27 to 0.68 mm s−1 during deposition-dominated episodes. Emission periods were observed more frequently over the open lead, while the snow behaved primarily as a deposition surface. Directly measured aerosol fluxes were compared with particle deposition parameterizations in order to estimate the emission flux from the observed net aerosol flux. Finally, the contribution of the open lead particle source to atmospheric variations in particle number concentration was evaluated and compared with the observed temporal evolution of particle number. The direct emission of aerosol particles from the open lead can only explain 5–10% of the observed particle number variation in the mixing layer close to the surface.

  12. The enigmatic Zerelia twin-lakes (Thessaly, Central Greece): two potential meteorite impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, V. J.; Lagios, E.; Reusser, E.; Sakkas, V.; Gartzos, E.; Kyriakopoulos, K.

    2013-09-01

    Two circular permanent lakes of 150 and 250 m diameter and 6-8 m depth to an unconsolidated muddy bottom occur 250 m apart from each other in the agricultural fields SW of the town of Almiros (Thessaly, central Greece). The age of the lakes is assumed to be Late Pliocene to Early Holocene with a minimum age of approx. 7000 yr BP. The abundant polymict, quartz-rich carbonate breccia and clasts with a clay rich matrix in the shallow embankments of the lakes show weak stratification but no volcanic structures. The carbonate clasts and particles often display spheroidal shapes and consist of calcite aggregates with feathery, arborescent, variolitic to micro-sparitic textures and spheroidal fabrics, recrystallized and deformed glass-shaped fragments, calcite globules in quartz; thus indications of possible carbonate melting, quenching and devitrification. The carbonatic matrix includes small xenomorphic phases, such as chromspinel, zircon with blurred granular and skeletal textures, skeletal rutile and ilmenite, which are interpreted as relicts of partial melting and quenching under high temperatures of 1240-1800 °C. Only a few quartz fragments exhibit indistinct planar fractures. In several cases they include exotic Al-Si- and sulfur bearing Fe-phases, projectile, which may has split into two fragments before reaching the surface.

  13. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in north-central Box Elder County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.C.; Kolesar, P.T.

    1984-12-01

    The low-temperature geothermal resources of north-central Box Elder County, Utah were assessed. Exploration techniques used included chemical analyses of water from wells and springs, temperature surveys, and temperature-depth measurements in unused wells within the study area. The highest water temperatures (31/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, and 29/sup 0/C) recorded in this research were located in three separate geographic regions, suggesting that no single warm water occurrence dominates the study area. Total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations ranged from 294 to 11,590 mg/l. Areas of warm water occurrences generally had TDS values of greater than 1100 mg/l. Reservoir temperatures were estimated using chemical geothermometers. Calculated temperatures ranged between 50/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C. Temperature-depth measurements were logged in 16 unused wells. Thermal gradients calculated from the profiles ranged from isothermal to 267/sup 0/C/km. The background gradient for the study area appears to be slightly above the average Basin and Range gradient of 35/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradients were calculated for the area approximately eight kilometers west of Snowville, Utah, which is also an area of warm water. 61 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Potential pharmaceutical resources of the Qinling Mountain in central China:medicinal fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi SHEN; Wei CHEN; Zhuyun YAN; Zhenfeng XIE

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation on fungal diversity shows that there were rich fungal resources of up to 196 species,belonging to 41 families and 90 genera,in the Qinling Mountainous Range of central China.The dominant families were Polyporaceae,Russulaceae,Tricholomatacea and Lycoperdaceae,which comprised 107 species,54.59% of the total species.The dominant genera were Russula, Lactarius, Trametes, Phellinus, Coprinus,Lycoperdon,Suillu,and Calvatia,which consisted of 59 species,30.09% of the total species.According to the geographical characteristics,the genera were grouped into:cosmopolitan element (74.98%),pantropical element (3.57%),tropical element (1.02%) and north temperate element (21.43%),with the cosmopolitan element constituting the majority.Among these,the cosmopolitan and North Temperate Zone were characteristic of this region.Based on relevant literature review,the primary pharmaceutical action of the medicinal fungi in Qinling Mountain can be classified as follows:anti-cancer,anti-bacteria,anti-inflammation,relief of muscle rigidity and activation of collaterals,hemostasis,immunological regulation,as well as nourishing the stomach and tonification which means enhancing the body system.

  15. Priorities for realizing the potential to increase agricultural productivity and growth in Western and Central Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Johnson, Michael; Magalhaes, Eduardo [UNIFESP; DIAO, Xinshen; You, Liang; Chamberlin, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    "We identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa, at both the country and the regional level, to achieve economy-wide growth goals in the region. To do this, we adopt a modeling and analytical framework that involves the integration of spatial analysis to identify yield gaps determining growth potential of different agricultural activities for areas with similar conditions and an economy-wide multimarket model to simulate ex ante the economic effects of...

  16. Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Florence; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Perrier, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Motor fatigue induced by physical activity is an everyday experience characterized by a decreased capacity to generate motor force. Factors in both muscles and the central nervous system are involved. The central component of fatigue modulates the ability of motoneurons to activate muscle adequately independently of the muscle physiology. Indirect evidence indicates that central fatigue is caused by serotonin (5-HT), but the cellular mechanisms are unknown. In a slice preparation from the spinal cord of the adult turtle, we found that prolonged stimulation of the raphe-spinal pathway—as during motor exercise—activated 5-HT1A receptors that decreased motoneuronal excitability. Electrophysiological tests combined with pharmacology showed that focal activation of 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS), but not on other motoneuronal compartments, inhibited the action potential initiation by modulating a Na+ current. Immunohistochemical staining against 5-HT revealed a high-density innervation of 5-HT terminals on the somatodendritic membrane and a complete absence on the AIS. This observation raised the hypothesis that a 5-HT spillover activates receptors at this latter compartment. We tested it by measuring the level of extracellular 5-HT with cyclic voltammetry and found that prolonged stimulations of the raphe-spinal pathway increased the level of 5-HT to a concentration sufficient to activate 5-HT1A receptors. Together our results demonstrate that prolonged release of 5-HT during motor activity spills over from its release sites to the AIS of motoneurons. Here, activated 5-HT1A receptors inhibit firing and, thereby, muscle contraction. Hence, this is a cellular mechanism for central fatigue. PMID:23487756

  17. Addition theorems for Slater-type orbitals and their application to multicenter multielectron integrals of central and noncentral interaction potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseinov, Israfil

    2003-06-01

    By the use of complete orthonormal sets of psi(alpha)-ETOs (alpha=1, 0, m1, m2,...) introduced by the author, new addition theorems are derived for STOs and arbitrary central and noncentral interaction potentials (CIPs and NCIPs). The expansion coefficients in these addition theorems are expressed through the Gaunt and Gegenbauer coefficients. Using the addition theorems obtained for STOs and potentials, general formulae in terms of three-center overlap integrals are established for the multicenter t-electron integrals of CIPs and NCIPs that arise in the solution of the N-electron atomic and molecular problem (2hthN) when a Hylleraas approximation in Hartree-Fock-Roothaan theory is employed. With the help of expansion formulae for translation of STOs, the three-center overlap integrals are expressed through the two-center overlap integrals. The formulae obtained are valid for arbitrary quantum numbers, screening constants and location of orbitals.

  18. Vestibular-dependent inter-stimulus interval effects on sound evoked potentials of central origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N P M; Govender, S; Colebatch, J G

    2016-11-01

    Todd et al. (2014ab) have recently demonstrated the presence of vestibular-dependent contributions to auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) when passing through the vestibular threshold as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), including a particular deflection labeled as an N42/P52 prior to the long-latency AEPs N1 and P2. In this paper we report the results of an experiment to determine the effect of inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and regularity on potentials recorded above and below VEMP threshold. Five healthy, right-handed subjects were recruited and evoked potentials were recorded to binaurally presented sound stimulation, above and below vestibular threshold, at seven stimulus rates with ISIs of 212, 300, 424, 600, 848, 1200 and 1696 ms. The inner five intervals, i.e. 300, 424, 600, 848, 1200 ms, were presented twice in both regular and irregular conditions. ANOVA on the global field power (GFP) were conducted for each of four waves, N42, P52, N1 and P2 with factors of intensity, ISI and regularity. Both N42 and P52 waves showed significant ANOVA effects of intensity but no other main effects or interactions. In contrast both N1 and P2 showed additional effects of ISI, as well as intensity, and evidence of non-linear interactions between ISI and intensity. A source analysis was carried out consistent with prior work suggesting that when above vestibular threshold, in addition to bilateral superior temporal cortex, ocular, cerebellar and cingulate sources are recruited. Further statistical analysis of the source currents indicated that the origin of the interactions with intensity may be the ISI sensitivity of the vestibular-dependent sources. This in turn may reflect a specific vestibular preference for stimulus rates associated with locomotion, i.e. rates close to 2 Hz, or ISIs close to 500 ms, where saccular afferents show increased gain and the corresponding reflexes are most sensitive.

  19. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  20. Preliminary description of hydrologic characteristics and contaminant transport potential of rocks in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    This report aims at consolidating existing data useful in defining the hydrologic characteristics of the Pasco Basin within south-central Washington. It also aims at compiling the properties required to evaluate contaminant transport potential within individual subsurface strata in this basin. The Pasco Basin itself is a tract of semi-arid land covering about 2,000 square miles in south-central Washington. The regional geology of this basin is dominated by tholeiitic flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The surface hydrology of the basin is dominated by the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers. Short-lived ephemeral streams may flow for a short period of time after a heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The subsurface hydrology of the Pasco Basin is characterized by an unconfined aquifer carrying the bulk of the water discharged within the basin. This aquifer overlies a series of confined aquifers carrying progressively smaller amounts of groundwater as a function of depth. The hydraulic properties of the various aquifers and non-water-bearing strata are characterized and reported. A summary of the basic properties is tabulated. The hydrochemical data obtained are summarized. The contaminant transport properties of the rocks in the Pasco Basin are analyzed with emphasis on the dispersion and sorption coefficients and the characteristics of the potential reactions between emplaced waste and the surrounding medium. Some basic modeling considerations of the hydrogeologic systems in the basin with a brief discussion of model input requirements and their relationship to available data are presented.

  1. Assessment of thermal bioclimate and tourism climate potential for central Europe—the example of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Rammelberg, Joscha; Junk, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Tourism destinations often require information about climate to assess their climate potential. This can be performed in terms of mean conditions of relevant climatological parameters. For a user-friendly analysis and visualization of climate data relevant for tourism application in Luxembourg, information is prepared based on the facets of climate in tourism. Information on thermal comfort/stress conditions as well as aesthetical and physical parameters is considered. In the present study, relevant and sensible factors were identified and presented. Therefore, physiologically equivalent temperature, precipitation patterns and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme are applied. In addition, extreme events relevant for heat stress are analysed based on existing data sets (i.e. heat waves of 2010). Expected climatic conditions for the future are investigated using the projections of two different regional climate models. The results concerning climate change conditions reveal increasing heat stress and sultriness but decreasing cold stress. This information is the basis for an adequate assessment to provide relevant information for different environmental planning issues as well as for the growing tourism sector of Luxembourg.

  2. Appraisal the Potential of Central Iran, in the Context of Health Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Rokni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to appraisal the prose and cone of Shiraz City in terms of its potential in the context of health tourism.Methods: The statistical sample included medical and health tourism sector in the city of Shiraz in the northwest of Fars Province, south of Iran. The efficient authorities on the topic were identified through the hospitals engaging in medical tourism. The research was based on theoretical sampling through which the experienced people of extensive knowledge on medical tourism were interviewed.Results: Active hospitals on attraction foreign patients averagely admit 15 and 50 foreign patients monthly and annually, respectively. Arab countries in the Persian Gulf were detected as the main marketing for Shiraz medical tourism. Oman encompassed the highest rate with 20% of admitted patients. Eye treatments with 30% and orthopedic with 6% were demonstrated as the highest and lowest rates in terms of foreign patients’ needs, respectively. Closeness of cultural and religious beliefs and familial relationships on one hand and trusting to Iranian physicians on the other hand were amongst the most reasons for selecting Iran as a destination for medical tourism by patients.Conclusion: Implementing 4 strategies on monitoring medical tourism would result into significant improvement of attracting more foreigner patients not only into Shiraz but all around Iran. These items have been discussed in the text.

  3. Reservoir Potential of Silurian Carbonate Mud Mounds in the Southern Sichuan Basin, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; YANG Xiaoping; Steve KERSHAW; ZHANG Baomin

    2006-01-01

    Lower Silurian mud mounds of the Shinuilan Formation, located in the southern Sichuan Basin, China, have developed in open shelf settings in deeper water than shallow-water reef-bearing limestones that occur in the region. An integration of the outcrop, drill data and seismic profiles show that contemporaneous faults have controlled the boundary and distribution of the sedimentary facies of Lower Silurian rocks in the southern Sichuan Basin. Mounds appear to have developed in the topographic lows formed by synsedimentary faulting, on the shelf of the Yangtze Platform. Average mound thickness is 20 m, maximum 35 m. Mounds are composed mainly of micrite, possibly microbially bound, and are overlain by shales. Mound tops are preferentially dolomitized, with the Mg2+ source probably from the clay content of the mound-top carbonate. Microfacies analysis and reconstruction of the diagenetic history reveal that the mound tops have higher porosity, and are gas targets; in contrast, mound cores and limbs show pores filled by three generations of calcite cement, and therefore have a low gas potential.

  4. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  5. Effects of penicillin on procaine-elicited bursts of potential in central neuron of snail, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Lu, Kuan-Ling; Hsiao, Ru-Wan; Lee, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Hong-Chieh; Lin, Chia Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2008-08-01

    Effects of penicillin on changes in procaine-elicited bursts of potential (BoP) were studied in a central neuron (RP4) of snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. Procaine elicited BoP in the RP4 neuron while penicillin elicited depolarization of the neuron. Penicillin decreased the BoP elicited by procaine in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of penicillin on the procaine-elicited BoP was not altered in the preparations treated with ascorbate or L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). However, the inhibitory effect of penicillin on the procaine-elicited BoP was enhanced with a decrease in extracellular sodium ion. Sodium ion was one of the important ions contributing to the action potential of the neuron. Two-electrode voltage-clamp studies revealed that penicillin decreased the fast sodium inward current of the neuron. It is concluded that penicillin inhibited the BoP elicited by procaine and sodium ion altered the effect of penicillin on procaine-elicited BoP.

  6. Provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize variety (Zea mays L.) grown in different geographical locations of central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeyoung; Ndolo, Victoria U; Katundu, Mangani; Nyirenda, Blessings; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Arntfield, Susan; Beta, Trust

    2016-04-01

    The provitamin A potential of landrace orange maize from different locations (A, B, C and D) of central Malawi has been evaluated. Physicochemical compositions, color, total carotenoid content (TCC), carotenoid profiles, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant capacities of maize were determined. Color values of orange maize had correlations with β-cryptoxanthin (r>0.36). TCC of white and orange maize averaged 2.12 and 59.5 mg/kg, respectively. Lutein was the most abundant carotenoid (47.8%) in orange maize, followed by zeaxanthin (24.2%), β-carotene (16.4%) and β-cryptoxanthin (11.6%). Location D showed the highest levels of lutein, zeaxanthin and antioxidant capacity. Provitamin A content of orange maize met the target level (15 μg/g) of biofortification. Retinol activity equivalent (RAE) from β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in orange maize averaged 81.73 μg/100g. In conclusion, orange maize has the potential to be a natural source of provitamin A.

  7. A study of weeds as potential inoculum sources for a tomato-infecting begomovirus in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, S S; Hallwass, M; Aquino, O M; Inoue-Nagata, A K

    2013-05-01

    Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) is the most important begomovirus species in Brazilian tomato production. Many weeds are associated with tomato, and some are hosts of begomoviruses. Only one species of weed, Nicandra physaloides, has been found to be infected with ToSRV. In this study, four weed species were investigated for their capacity to be infected by ToSRV and serve as a potential source of inoculum for tomato. Begomoviruses from naturally infected Crotalaria spp., Euphorbia heterophylla, N. physaloides, and Sida spp. were successfully transferred to tomato plants by biolistic inoculation. ToSRV was the major virus transferred to tomato. In contrast, other begomoviruses were transferred to weeds, such as Sida micrantha mosaic virus and Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus. Furthermore, a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus is reported. We also confirmed that Crotalaria spp., E. heterophylla, and Sida spp. are infected with ToSRV but at low viral titers and in mixed infections with weed-infecting begomoviruses. Thus, it was demonstrated that weeds are potential sources of ToSRV for tomato in central Brazil.

  8. Second-order resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central-force associating potential: multi-patch colloidal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Y V; Marshall, B D; Chapman, W G; Cummings, P T

    2013-07-28

    We propose a second-order version of the resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for patchy colloidal models with arbitrary number of multiply bondable patches. The model is represented by the hard-sphere fluid system with several attractive patches on the surface and resummation is carried out to account for blocking effects, i.e., when the bonding of a particle restricts (blocks) its ability to bond with other particles. The theory represents an extension of the earlier proposed first order resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force associating potential and takes into account formation of the rings of the particles. In the limiting case of singly bondable patches (total blockage), the theory reduces to Wertheim thermodynamic perturbation theory for associating fluids. Closed-form expressions for the Helmholtz free energy, pressure, internal energy, and chemical potential of the model with an arbitrary number of equivalent doubly bondable patches are derived. Predictions of the theory for the model with two patches appears to be in a very good agreement with predictions of new NVT and NPT Monte Carlo simulations, including the region of strong association.

  9. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  10. MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosing Cancers of Central Nervous System: a Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Wan, Qun; Li, Li; Jin, Haifeng; Liu, Yonghong; Wang, Yangang; Zhang, Guangyun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown abnormal microRNA (miRNA) expression levels in the central nervous system (CNS) of cancer patients, suggesting that miRNAs may serve as promising biomarkers for cancers of CNS. However, other studies have arrived at conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to systematically measure the potential diagnostic value of miRNAs for CNS cancers. Electronic databases as well as other sources were searched until to April 12, 2014 for relevant articles. Data from different studies were pooled using the random-effects model. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative LR (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), together with the summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve, and area under the SROC curve (AUC) value were used to estimate overall diagnostic performance. Twenty-three studies from 6 articles were included in the current meta-analysis with a total of 299 CNS cancer patients and 418 controls. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.89), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.88), 5.1 (95% CI, 3.4-7.5), 0.18 (95% CI, 0.12-0.26), 28 (95% CI, 14-58), and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.93), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-based miRNAs assays yielded more accurate results and seemed to be more sensitive in diagnosing of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). In conclusion, miRNAs may be suitable for serving as noninvasive biomarkers for CNS cancers detection. However, further validation based on a larger sample of patients and controls is still required.

  11. Occurrence and potential toxicity of pyrethroids and other insecticides in bed sediments of urban streams in central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintzen, Emily P. [Department of Environmental Studies, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62091 (United States); Belden, Jason B. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, 430 Life Science West, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)], E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu

    2009-01-15

    Despite heavy insecticide usage in urban areas, only a few studies have investigated the impact of current-use insecticides on benthic invertebrates in urban streams. The objective of this study was to measure the presence and concentration of current-use pesticides in sediments of residential streams in central Texas. Additionally, toxicity of these sediments to Hyalella azteca was evaluated. Sediment samples were collected from several sites in urban streams over the course of a year, of which, 66% had greater than one toxic unit (TU) of insecticide. Bifenthrin was the greatest contributor accounting for 65% of the TUs, and sediment toxicity to H. azteca correlated with the magnitude of total insecticides and bifenthrin TUs. The results of this study further raise concerns over the environmental consequences posed by many current-use insecticides, especially pyrethroids, in urban settings. - This study examined the presence of insecticides in Texas stream sediments as a model for evaluating the potential impact of urban insecticide use in the Southern United States.

  12. Microparticles generated by decompression stress cause central nervous system injury manifested as neurohypophysial terminal action potential broadening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-11-01

    The study goal was to use membrane voltage changes during neurohypophysial action potential (AP) propagation as an index of nerve function to evaluate the role that circulating microparticles (MPs) play in causing central nervous system injury in response to decompression stress in a murine model. Mice studied 1 h following decompression from 790 kPa air pressure for 2 h exhibit a 45% broadening of the neurohypophysial AP. Broadening did not occur if mice were injected with the MP lytic agent polyethylene glycol telomere B immediately after decompression, were rendered thrombocytopenic, or were treated with an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS) prior to decompression, or in knockout (KO) mice lacking myeloperoxidase or iNOS. If MPs were harvested from control (no decompression) mice and injected into naive mice, no AP broadening occurred, but AP broadening was observed with injections of equal numbers of MPs from either wild-type or iNOS KO mice subjected to decompression stress. Although not required for AP broadening, MPs from decompressed mice, but not control mice, exhibit NADPH oxidase activation. We conclude that inherent differences in MPs from decompressed mice, rather than elevated MPs numbers, mediate neurological injury and that a component of the perivascular response to MPs involves iNOS. Additional study is needed to determine the mechanism of AP broadening and also mechanisms for MP generation associated with exposure to elevated gas pressure.

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone actions in the central regulation of energy metabolism: potential sensory roles for the circumventricular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyda, T D; Smith, P M; Ferguson, A V

    2009-04-01

    A variety of circulating signals provide essential information to the central nervous system (CNS) regarding nutritional status. The gastrointestinal system produces many such molecules that are now known to have profound effects on feeding behavior and the control of metabolism as a consequence of their ability to regulate the neural circuitry involved in metabolic homeostasis. Although many of these substances have been suggested to directly access such brain centers, their lipophobic characteristics suggest that alternative mechanisms should be considered. In this paper, we consider one such alternative, namely, that a specialized group of CNS structures collectively known as the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs), which are not protected by the normal blood-brain barrier, may play important roles in such blood to brain communications. Specifically, we review a developing literature that shows receptors for, and functional actions of, gastrointestinal hormones such as amylin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin and peptide YY in the area postrema and subfornical organ. Collectively, these observations suggest potentially significant roles for the sensory CVOs in the regulation of energy balance.

  14. Are There Abnormalities in Peripheral and Central Components of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puta, Christian; Franz, Marcel; Blume, Kathrin R.; Gabriel, Holger H. W.; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Weiss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) was shown to be associated with longer reflex response latencies of trunk muscles during external upper limb perturbations. One theoretical, but rarely investigated possibility for longer reflex latencies might be related to modulated somatosensory information processing. Therefore, the present study investigated somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation in CLBP patients and healthy controls (HC). Latencies of the peripheral N9 SEP component were used as the primary outcome. In addition, latencies and amplitudes of the central N20 SEP component, sensory thresholds, motor thresholds and nerve conduction velocity were also analyzed in CLBP patients and HC. There is a trend for the CLBP patients to exhibit longer N9 latencies at the ipsilateral Erb’s point compared to HC. This trend is substantiated by significantly longer N9 latencies in CLBP patients compared to normative data. None of the other parameters showed any significant difference between CLBP patients and HC. Overall, our data indicate small differences of the peripheral N9 SEP component; however, these differences cannot explain the reflex delay observed in CLBP patients. While it was important to rule out the contribution of early somatosensory processing and to elucidate its contribution to the delayed reflex responses in CLBP patients, further research is needed to find the primary source(s) of time-delayed reflexes in CLBP. PMID:27799904

  15. Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cotel, Florence; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Perrier, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Motor fatigue induced by physical activity is an everyday experience characterized by a decreased capacity to generate motor force. Factors in both muscles and the central nervous system are involved. The central component of fatigue modulates the ability of motoneurons to activate muscle adequately independently of the muscle physiology. Indirect evidence indicates that central fatigue is caused by serotonin (5-HT), but the cellular mechanisms are unknown. In a slice preparation from the spi...

  16. The crustal structure of Beira High, central Mozambique-Combined investigation of wide-angle seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian Olaf; Jokat, Wilfried; Schreckenberger, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    The timing and geometry of the initial Gondwana break-up between Africa and East Antarctica is still poorly known due to missing information about the continent-ocean boundaries along the rifted margins. In this context, the Beira High off central Mozambique forms a critical geological feature of uncertain crustal fabric. Based on new wide-angle seismic and potential field data across Beira High a P-wave velocity model, supported by amplitude and gravity modelling, provides constraints on the crustal composition of this area. In the Mozambique Basin mainly normal oceanic crust of 5.5-7 km thickness with velocities of 6.5-7.0 km/s in the lower crust is present. A sharp transition towards Beira High marks the continent-ocean boundary. Here the crust thickens to 23 km at maximum. A small velocity-depth gradient and a constant increase in velocity with basal velocities of maximum 7.0 km/s are in good agreement with typical velocities of continental crust and continental fragments. The density model indicates the existence of felsic material in greater depths and supports a fabric of stretched, but highly intruded continental crust below Beira High. A gradual decrease in crustal thickness characterizes the transition towards the Mozambican shelf area. Here, in the Zambezi Delta Depression 12 km of sediments cover the underlying 7 km thick crust. The presence of a high-velocity lower crustal body with velocities of 7.1-7.4 km/s indicates underplated, magmatic material in this part of the profile. However, the velocity structure in the shelf area allows no definite interpretation because of the experimental setup. Thus, the crustal nature below the Zambezi Delta and consequently the landward position of the continent-ocean boundary remains unknown. The difference in stretching below the margins of Beira High suggests the presence of different thinning directions and a rift jump during the early rifting stage.

  17. A strong enrichment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Nord-Trøndelag (central Norway) forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, C; Fabian, K; Schilling, J; Roberts, D; Englmaier, P

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of soil C and O horizon samples in a recent regional geochemical survey of Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway (752 sample sites covering 25,000 km2), identified a strong enrichment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the O horizon. Of 53 elements analysed in both materials, Cd concentrations are, on average, 17 times higher in the O horizon than in the C horizon and other PTEs such as Ag (11-fold), Hg (10-fold), Sb (8-fold), Pb (4-fold) and Sn (2-fold) are all strongly enriched relative to the C horizon. Geochemical maps of the survey area do not reflect an impact from local or distant anthropogenic contamination sources in the data for O horizon soil samples. The higher concentrations of PTEs in the O horizon are the result of the interaction of the underlying geology, the vegetation zone and type, and climatic effects. Based on the general accordance with existing data from earlier surveys in other parts of northern Europe, the presence of a location-independent, superordinate natural trend towards enrichment of these elements in the O horizon relative to the C horizon soil is indicated. The results imply that the O and C horizons of soils are different geochemical entities and that their respective compositions are controlled by different processes. Local mineral soil analyses (or published data for the chemical composition of the average continental crust) cannot be used to provide a geochemical background for surface soil. At the regional scale used here surface soil chemistry is still dominated by natural sources and processes.

  18. Salvage logging in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria and its potential impacts on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, D B; Ought, K

    2006-08-01

    The two major forms of disturbance in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria (southeastern Australia) are clearfell logging and unplanned wildfires. Since the 1930s wildfire has been followed by intensive and extensive salvage-logging operations, which may proceed for many years after a wildfire has occurred. Although applied widely, the potential effects of salvage logging on native flora and fauna have been poorly studied. Our data indicate that the abundance of large trees with hollows is significantly reduced in forests subject to salvage harvesting. This has implications for thepersistence of an array of such cavity-using vertebrates as the endangered arboreal marsupial, Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelidues leadbeateri). Salvage logging also reduces the prevalence of multiaged montane ash forests--places that typically support the highest diversity of arboreal marsupials and forest birds. Limited research has been conducted on the effects of salvage logging on plants; thus, we constructed hypotheses about potential impacts for further testing based on known responses to clearfell logging and key life history attributes. We predict many species, such as vegetatively resprouting tree ferns, will decline, as they do after clearfelling. We also suggest that seed regenerators, which typically regenerate well after fire or conventional clearfelling, will decline after salvage logging because the stimulation for germination (fire) takes place prior to mechanical disturbance (logging). Understoryplant communities in salvage-logged areas will be dominated by a smaller suite of species, and those that are wind dispersed, have viable soil-stored seed remaining after salvage logging, or have deep rhizomes are likely to be advantaged. We recommend the following improvements to salvage-logging policies that may better incorporate conservation needs in Victorian montane ash forests: (1) exemption of salvage logging from some areas (e.g., old

  19. Potential growth and biomass productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus as affected by plant density and N-fertilization in central Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danalatos, N.G.; Archontoulis, S.V.; Mitsios, I.

    2007-01-01

    The potential growth and biomass productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus was investigated under constraint-free conditions during two years with appreciable different climatic conditions in central Greece, and under three different plant densities (0.66, 1, 2 pl m(-2)) and two different nitrogen dres

  20. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards—A prewildfire evaluation for the Jemez Mountains, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.

    2016-08-11

    Wildfire can substantially increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire or subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known, probabilities of fire and debris‑flow occurrence for given locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Jemez Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in both the unburned and previously burned areas of the Jemez Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Forest Service.Of the 4,998 subbasins modeled for this study, computed debris-flow probabilities in 671 subbasins were greater than 80 percent in response to the 100-year recurrence interval, 30-minute duration rainfall event. These subbasins ranged in size from 0.01 to 6.57 square kilometers (km2), with an average area of 0.29 km2, and were mostly steep, upstream tributaries to larger channels in the area. Modeled debris-flow volumes in 465 subbasins were greater than 10,000 cubic meters (m3), and 14 of those subbasins had modeled debris‑flow volumes greater than 100,000 m3.The rankings of integrated relative debris-flow hazard indexes for each subbasin were generated by multiplying the individual subbasin values for debris-flow volume, debris‑flow probability, and average burn probability. The subbasins with integrated hazard index values in the top 2 percent typically are large, upland tributaries to canyons and channels primarily in the Upper Rio Grande

  1. Correlation of Geoelectric Data with Aquifer Parameters to Delineate the Groundwater Potential of Hard rock Terrain in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batte, A. G.; Barifaijo, E.; Kiberu, J. M.; Kawule, W.; Muwanga, A.; Owor, M.; Kisekulo, J.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of aquifer parameters is essential for management of groundwater resources. Conventionally, these parameters are estimated through pumping tests carried out on water wells. This paper presents a study that was conducted in three villages (Tumba, Kabazi, and Ndaiga) of Nakasongola District, central Uganda to investigate the hydrogeological characteristics of the basement aquifers. Our objective was to correlate surface resistivity data with aquifer properties in order to reveal the groundwater potential in the district. Existing electrical resistivity and borehole data from 20 villages in Nakasongola District were used to correlate the aquifer apparent resistivity ( ρ e) with its hydraulic conductivity ( K e), and aquifer transverse resistance (TR) with its transmissivity ( T e). K e was found to be related to ρ e by; {{Log }}(K_{{e}} ) = - 0.002ρ_{{e}} + 2.692 . Similarly, TR was found to be related to T by; {{TR}} = - 0.07T_{{e}} + 2260 . Using these expressions, aquifer parameters ( T c and K c) were extrapolated from measurements obtained from surface resistivity surveys. Our results show very low resistivities for the presumed water-bearing aquifer zones, possibly because of deteriorating quality of the groundwater and their packing and grain size. Drilling at the preferred VES spots was conducted before the pumping tests to reveal the aquifer characteristics. Aquifer parameters ( T o and K o) as obtained from pumping tests gave values (29,424.7 m2/day, 374.3 m/day), (9,801.1 m2/day, 437.0 m/day), (31,852.4 m2/day, 392.9 m/day). The estimated aquifer parameter ( T c and K c) when extrapolated from surface geoelectrical data gave (7,142.9 m2/day, 381.9 m/day), (28,200.0 m2/day, 463.4 m/day), (19,428.6 m2/day, 459.2 m/day) for Tumba, Kabazi, and Ndaiga villages, respectively. Interestingly, the similarity between the K c and K o pairs was not significantly different. We observed no significant relationships between the T c and T o pairs. The root

  2. Exploring the potential of co-investments in land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Like in any other part of the country, land degradation resulting from water erosion and nutrient depletion     is one of the most challenging problems for farmers in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia.     Nevertheless, investments in land management t

  3. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro rock sulfur content is ∼2.3 wt.% whereas sulfur content is ∼5.0–5.6 wt.% in whole rock extracts with high polar components, consistent with extraction from S-rich Type IIs organic matter which could generate hydrocarbons at low thermal maturity. Low Fe-sulfide mineral abundance and comparison of Pr/Ph ratios between saturate and whole extracts suggest limited Fe concentration resulted in sulfurization of organic matter during early diagenesis. From these observations, we infer that a Type IIs kerogen in ‘immature’ bituminous marl at Madr could be generating high sulfur viscous oil which is seeping from outcrop. However, oil-seep samples were not collected for correlation studies. Aluminum-normalized trace element concentrations indicate enrichment of redox sensitive trace elements Mo, U and V and suggest anoxic-euxinic conditions during sediment deposition. The bulk of organic matter observed via optical microscopy is strongly fluorescent amorphous bituminite grading to lamalginite, possibly representing microbial mat facies. Short chain n-alkanes peak at C14–C16 (n-C17/n-C29 > 1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including

  4. Impact of Iymph node metastases identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer: potential role of BRAFV600E mutation in defining CND

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahrani, Ali S.; XING, MINGZHAO

    2013-01-01

    The impact of metastasized cervical lymph nodes (CLN) identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence/persistence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and the extent of CND needed to reduce recurrence/persistence have not been firmly established. To assess the impact of CLN metastasis and BRAF mutation on the recurrence/persistence of PTC and the potential of BRAF mutation in assisting CND, we analysed data of 379 consecutive patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy with (n=24...

  5. Bound State Solution of Dirac Equation for Generalized Pöschl-Teller plus Trigomometric Pöschl-Teller Non- Central Potential Using SUSY Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bound state solution of the Dirac equation for generalized PöschlTeller and trigonometric Pöschl-Teller non-central potentials was obtained using SUSY quantum mechanics and the idea of shape invariance potential. The approximate relativistic energy spectrum was expressed in the closed form. The radial and polar wave functions were obtained using raising and lowering of radial and polar operators. The orbital quantum numbers were found from the polar Dirac equation, which was solved using SUSY quantum mechanics and the idea of shape invariance.

  6. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission: potential role for people who inject drugs in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNairy, Margaret L; Deryabina, Anna; Hoos, David; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2013-11-01

    Interest in the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention stems from mounting evidence from research studies demonstrating that ART is associated with a decrease in sexual HIV transmission among serodiscordant couples and, perhaps, in other populations at risk. There is paucity of data on the efficacy of ART for prevention in key populations, including persons who inject drugs (PWID). In this paper, we examine the current status of HIV services for PWID in Central Asia, the use of ART by this population and explore ART for prevention for PWID in this context. We also discuss research and implementation questions with relevance to such a strategy in the region.

  7. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  8. Block faulted turbidites: an Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous subtle play-potential in the Central Graben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregersen, U.; Rasmussen, E.S.

    1998-10-01

    The Gertrud Graben, in the Danish Central Graben, was formed during Early Volgain by extensional block rotation, bounded by a series of NW-SE trending normal faults. The post-rift topography, formed after the Early Volgian rift pulse, controlled the depocenteres of Volgian-Ryazanian turbidites. The turbidites are interbedded in the Farsund Formation. Seismic correlation to basin marginal turbidite sand in the Jeppe-1 and Gwen-2 wells suggest, that high amplitude horizons and high acoustic impedance values in the depocenter of the turbidites probably reflect accumulation of sand-rich turbidites. The high amplitude and impedance values, calculated from seismic inversion, are locally concentrated in minor closures. A short flat impedance horizon within the turbidite depocenter and below a closure possible indicates hydrocarbon accumulation, adjacent to a well-known Jurassic source-rock (the `Hot Unit`) in the Central Graben area. The turbidites seem to have been transported mainly from the north, possibly from the Mandal High or Piggvar Terrace areas. Subsequent Late Ryazanian block faulting and local compressional tectonics caused erosional truncation of upper parts of the turbidites on footwall blocks, but preserved parts of the basin axial turbidites from erosion in the hanging wall positions. (au) 23 fig., 22 refs.

  9. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  10. Agreement of central site measurements and land use regression modeled oxidative potential of PM{sub 2.5} with personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aileen, E-mail: Yang@uu.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hoek, Gerard; Montagne, Denise [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Leseman, Daan L.A.C. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hellack, Bryan [Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), e.V., Blierheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J. [Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology, Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), e.V., Blierheimer Str. 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Cassee, Flemming R. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Brunekreef, Bert [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.178, 3508TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Janssen, Nicole A.H. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative potential (OP) of ambient particulate matter (PM) has been suggested as a health-relevant exposure metric. In order to use OP for exposure assessment, information is needed about how well central site OP measurements and modeled average OP at the home address reflect temporal and spatial variation of personal OP. We collected 96-hour personal, home outdoor and indoor PM{sub 2.5} samples from 15 volunteers living either at traffic, urban or regional background locations in Utrecht, the Netherlands. OP was also measured at one central reference site to account for temporal variations. OP was assessed using electron spin resonance (OP{sup ESR}) and dithiothreitol (OP{sup DTT}). Spatial variation of average OP at the home address was modeled using land use regression (LUR) models. For both OP{sup ESR} and OP{sup DTT}, temporal correlations of central site measurements with home outdoor measurements were high (R>0.75), and moderate to high (R=0.49–0.70) with personal measurements. The LUR model predictions for OP correlated significantly with the home outdoor concentrations for OP{sup DTT} and OP{sup ESR} (R=0.65 and 0.62, respectively). LUR model predictions were moderately correlated with personal OP{sup DTT} measurements (R=0.50). Adjustment for indoor sources, such as vacuum cleaning and absence of fume-hood, improved the temporal and spatial agreement with measured personal exposure for OP{sup ESR}. OP{sup DTT} was not associated with any indoor sources. Our study results support the use of central site OP for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies focusing on short-term health effects. - Highlights: • Oxidative potential (OP) of PM was proposed as a health-relevant exposure metric. • We evaluated the relationship between measured and modeled outdoor and personal OP. • Temporal correlations of central site with personal OP are moderate to high. • Adjusting for indoor sources improved the agreement with personal OP. • Our results

  11. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  12. Use of Potential Fields Data to Identify Petrological Controls on Seismicity within South-Central and Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Veilleux, A. M.; Rodriguez, H.; de La Pena, A.; Mankhemthong, N.

    2010-12-01

    We have used data from regional gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to determine how variations in petrological properties of the upper plate(s) and subducting lower plate(s) influence the concentration of background seismicity in south-central and southeastern Alaska, as well as possible controls on asperities that ruptured during great earthquakes along the plate margin. In the Prince William Sound region it appears that seismicity concentrates at the edges of mafic and ultramafic bodies within the upper (North American) plate, while within Cook Inlet upper plate seismicity concentrates at the edges of a large serpentinite body. Rupture segmentation during the 1958 Fairweather earthquake in southeastern Alaska is associated with gravity highs along the Fairweather fault, while segmentation of the Queen Charlotte fault system appears related to changes in the structure of the Pacific plate. Although gravity coverage within the St. Elias region is sparse, background seismicity at depths of 10 to 20 km, including aftershocks of the 1979 Mw=7.4 St. Elias event, wraps around the edge of a gravity high located at the intersection of the Pamplona and Chugach-St. Elias fault systems. These results emphasize how additional gravity and magnetic data collection should be included as part of the upcoming Earthscope initiative in Alaska.

  13. Evaluation of Ancient and Future Submarine Landslides Along the Central California Coast and Their Potential to Generate Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. G.; Paull, C. K.; Ward, S.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.

    2001-12-01

    Submarine landslides have been located along the central California continental margin with the use of multibeam bathymetric and sub-bottom profiling data. These features are primarily concentrated on the lower continental slope and in submarine canyons. Recent evaluation of these landslides indicates that they are of various ages and types and formed in different ways. For example, the extensive slope failure morphology on the lower Point Sur slope range from subtle to very sharp geomorphic shapes that suggest these landslides have occurred over a long period of time. These landslides are large features (up to 215 km2) and form primarily from bottom-up processes in a retrogressive fashion. In contrast, some of the landslide scars located on flanks of submarine canyons appear youthful indicating recent activity. Several landslide scars and blocks are also located in the headward parts of Ascension and Monterey canyons. If these scars were generated by catastrophic slope failure, they are of the size (greater than 2 km2) and depth (lie at water depths less than 400 m) to have produced a tsunamis. Based on the presence of possible incipient crown scarps, we have also identified areas within the Ascension-Monterey submarine canyons system where wall failures may occur in the future. We are in the process of using computer simulations to assess the size and extent of tsunamis that these landslides might induce. On the horizon, we hope to develop a full probabilistic hazard estimate for landslide tsunamis run-up around Monterey Bay.

  14. POLYGNATHUS ROSAE N. SP. (CONODONTA AND ITS BIOSTRATIGRAPHICAL CORRELATION POTENTIAL (LOWER EMSIAN, LOWER DEVONIANIN THE SPANISH CENTRAL PYRENEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems around the Pragian/Emsian (P/E boundary have been widely discussed by several authors, who have pointed out that the present Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP in the Zinzilban section (Kitab Reserve, Uzbekistan, is much older than the traditional German Siegenian-Emsian boundary, a fact that considerably reduces the duration of the traditional Pragian Stage. A comprehensive conodont study of two important sections (Isábena 1 and Baliera 6 demonstrates the presence of the conodont indexes for the P/E boundary in both senses (official and traditional in the Spanish Central Pyrenees (SCP. Within the important conodont faunas registered, the presence of a new early polygnathid species Polygnathus rosae n. sp. stands out. Its stratigraphic range in the two sections is restricted to a short interval around the traditional beginning of the Emsian Stage. This particular distribution permits direct relation between both indexes, a better characterization of the P/E boundary in the traditional German sense and increases the palaeontological knowledge of this stratigraphic interval. Conodont records in the SCP suggest that Po. rosae n. sp. could be a good local index, too. In addition, Po. rosae n. sp. represents the last known step of the lineage Po. pireneaePo. rosae n. sp., a new early polygnathid lineage that supports the early radiation of the genus around the P/E boundary. 

  15. Central nervous system complications of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The potential role for prophylactic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.C.; Howser, D.M.; Anderson, T.; Fisher, R.I.; Jaffe, E.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    In 38 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by malignant lymphoma developed during an eight year period. All patients had lymphomatous meningitis; clinical involvement of the spinal nerves or cranial nerves suggested the diagnosis. Spinal fluid was abnormal in 97% of the patients although a positive cytology could be documented in only 67% by lumbar puncture. The histology in 82% of the patients was diffuse. Involvement of the CNS in nodular lymphoma was uncommon (3%), and the histology in virtually all of these patients had converted to diffuse. At the time of diagnosis of CNS disease, 95% of the patients had other evidence of advanced disease; 66% had bone marrow involvement. In only 18% of the patients did CNS disease develop while they werin clinical remission. Eighty-five percent of the patients treated with whole brain irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy had a good clinical response. Knowledge of these risk factors permits definition of a group of patients who may benefit from CNS prophylaxis.

  16. Microcystin-producing and non-producing cyanobacterial blooms collected from the Central India harbor potentially pathogenic Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Prashant; Kumar Agrawal, Manish; Nath Bagchi, Suvendra

    2015-05-01

    On the basis of relative abundance, frequency and biovolume, the important value index ranks were assigned to individual cyanobacteria in phytoplankton samples collected from fourteen water resources of Central India. The mcyABDE genes were detected in all the blooms with Microcystis (-aeruginosa, -viridis, -panniformis, -botrys) as being the major constituent morphospecies. On the other hand, blooms composed of primarily Oscillatoria (-limosa,-agardhii, -laetevirens) along with Anabaena, Nostoc, Phormidium and Spirulina as sub-dominant forms exhibited quite a patchy distribution of one or the other mcy genes. Fifty percent of Microcystis- but none of the Oscillatoria dominant blooms produced microcystins-RR and desmethyl-RR at 0.03-0.41mgg(-1) bloom dry mass. Traces of dissolved microcystin was detected in lake water, which is well below the WHO guideline. Irrespective of cyanobacterial composition and microcystin production ability, during the study period 43-64% of the cyanobacterial bloom samples exhibited association of viable but nonculturable forms of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, as evident from amplification of the antigen genes. We believe that spread of endemic cholera is the major threat associated with harmful algal blooms.

  17. Relativistic Energy Analysis Of Five Dimensional q-Deformed Radial Rosen-Morse Potential Combined With q-Deformed Trigonometric Scarf Non-Central Potential Using Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM)

    CERN Document Server

    Pramono, Subur; Cari, Cari

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the exact solution of Dirac equation in the hyper-spherical coordinate under influence of separable q-Deformed quantum potentials. The q-deformed hyperbolic Rosen-Morse potential is perturbed by q-deformed non-central trigonometric Scarf potentials, where whole of them can be solved by using Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM). This work is limited to spin symmetry case. The relativistic energy equation and orbital quantum number equation lD-1 have been obtained using Asymptotic Iteration Method. The upper radial wave function equations and angular wave function equations are also obtained by using this method. The relativistic energy levels are numerically calculated using Mat Lab, the increase of radial quantum number n causes the increase of bound state relativistic energy level both in dimension D = 5 and D = 3. The bound state relativistic energy level decreases with increasing of both deformation parameter q and orbital quantum number nl.

  18. Poisson's ratio analysis (Vp/Vs) on volcanoes and geothermal potential areas in Central Java using tomography travel time method of grid search relocation hypocenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, W.; Palupi, I. R.; Nurdian, S. W.; Giamboro, W. S.; Soesilo, J.

    2016-11-01

    Poisson's Ratio illustrates the elasticity properties of a rock. The value is affected by the ratio between the value of P and S wave velocity, where the high value ratio associated with partial melting while the low associated with gas saturated rock. Java which has many volcanoes as a result of the collision between the Australian and Eurasian plates also effects of earthquakes that result the P and S wave. By tomography techniques the distribution of the value of Poisson's ratio can be known. Western Java was dominated by high Poisson's Ratio until Mount Slamet and Dieng in Central Java, while the eastern part of Java is dominated by low Poisson's Ratio. The difference of Poisson's Ratio is located in Central Java that is also supported by the difference characteristic of hot water manifestation in geothermal potential area in the west and east of Central Java Province. Poisson's ratio value is also lower with increasing depth proving that the cold oceanic plate entrance under the continental plate.

  19. PMP-22 expression in the central nervous system of the embryonic mouse defines potential transverse segments and longitudinal columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, E; Braun, C; Thomas, J L; Peyron, F; Martinez, S; Zalc, B

    1997-02-10

    PMP-22, a major constituent of peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelin, is also present in the central nervous system (CNS), in motoneurons of the cranial nerve motor nuclei and spinal cord (Parmantier et al. [1995] Eur. J. Neurosci. 7:1080-1088). The expression of PMP-22 in the CNS during embryonic and early postnatal development was investigated and showed a biphasic spatio-temporal pattern. The expression of PMP-22 started at embryonic day (E)11.5, in restricted longitudinal and transverse domains, in the ventricular zone of the spinal cord, rhombencephalon, mesencephalon and prosencephalon. In the mid- and forebrain, the PMP-22 signal was detectable in a longitudinal domain that followed ventrally the basal/alar boundary but could no longer be detected dorsally at some distance from the roof plate. Along the caudo-rostral axis, the territory in which PMP-22 was detected spanned the mesencephalon and the prosencephalon, extending caudally from the limit between the isthmus and the mesencephalon, and rostrally to the boundary between prosomeres 4 and 5 (p4/p5). In agreement with the prosomeric model of forebrain organization proposed by Puelles and Rubenstein ([1993] TINS 16:472-479), differences in the level of PMP-22 expression in p2, p3, and p4 clearly defined the p2/p3 and p3/p4 neuromeric boundaries. By E17.5, PMP-22 was no longer detected in the ventricular zone, but at E18.5 it began to be expressed in motoneurons of cranial nerve motor nuclei and, after birth, following a rostro-caudal gradient, in the ventral spinal cord.

  20. Potential influence of wildfire in modulating climate-induced forest redistribution in a central Rocky Mountain landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John L.; Shinneman, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionClimate change is expected to impose significant tension on the geographic distribution of tree species. Yet, tree species range shifts may be delayed by their long life spans, capacity to withstand long periods of physiological stress, and dispersal limitations. Wildfire could theoretically break this biological inertia by killing forest canopies and facilitating species redistribution under changing climate. We investigated the capacity of wildfire to modulate climate-induced tree redistribution across a montane landscape in the central Rocky Mountains under three climate scenarios (contemporary and two warmer future climates) and three wildfire scenarios (representing historical, suppressed, and future fire regimes).MethodsDistributions of four common tree species were projected over 90 years by pairing a climate niche model with a forest landscape simulation model that simulates species dispersal, establishment, and mortality under alternative disturbance regimes and climate scenarios.ResultsThree species (Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, subalpine fir) declined in abundance over time, due to climate-driven contraction in area suitable for establishment, while one species (ponderosa pine) was unable to exploit climate-driven expansion of area suitable for establishment. Increased fire frequency accelerated declines in area occupied by Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, and subalpine fir, and it maintained local abundance but not range expansion of ponderosa pine.ConclusionsWildfire may play a larger role in eliminating these conifer species along trailing edges of their distributions than facilitating establishment along leading edges, in part due to dispersal limitations and interspecific competition, and future populations may increasingly depend on persistence in locations unfavorable for their establishment.

  1. Sedimentology, petrology, and gas potential of the Brallier Formation: upper Devonian turbidite facies of the Central and Southern Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundegard, P.D.; Samuels, N.D.; Pryor, W.A.

    1980-03-01

    The Upper Devonian Brallier Formation of the central and southern Appalachian basin is a regressive sequence of siltstone turbidites interbedded with mudstones, claystones, and shales. It reaches 1000 meters in thickness and overlies basinal mudrocks and underlies deltaic sandstones and mudrocks. Facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate differences between the depositional system of the Brallier Formation and those of modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences. The Brallier system is of finer grain size and lower flow intensity. In addition, the stratigraphic transition from turbidites to deltaic sediments is gradual and differs in its facies succession from the deposits of the proximal parts of modern submarine fans. Such features as massive and pebbly sandstones, conglomerates, debris flows, and massive slump structures are absent from this transition. Paleocurrents are uniformly to the west at right angles to basin isopach, which is atypical of ancient turbidite systems. This suggests that turbidity currents had multiple point sources. The petrography and paleocurrents of the Brallier Formation indicate an eastern source of sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks with modern relief and rainfall. The depositional system of the Brallier Formation is interpreted as a series of small ephemeral turbidite lobes of low flow intensity which coalesced in time to produce a laterally extensive wedge. The lobes were fed by deltas rather than submarine canyons or upper fan channel systems. This study shows that the present-day turbidite facies model, based mainly on modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences, does not adequately describe prodeltaic turbidite systems such as the Brallier Formation. Thickly bedded siltstone bundles are common features of the Brallier Formation and are probably its best gas reservoir facies, especially when fracture porosity is well developed.

  2. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  3. Volcanic settings and their reservoir potential: An outcrop analog study on the Miocene Tepoztlán Formation, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2011-07-01

    The reservoir potential of volcanic and associated sedimentary rocks is less documented in regard to groundwater resources, and oil and gas storage compared to siliciclastic and carbonate systems. Outcrop analog studies within a volcanic setting enable to identify spatio-temporal architectural elements and geometric features of different rock units and their petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, which are important information for reservoir characterization. Despite the wide distribution of volcanic rocks in Mexico, their reservoir potential has been little studied in the past. In the Valley of Mexico, situated 4000 m above the Neogene volcanic rocks, groundwater is a matter of major importance as more than 20 million people and 42% of the industrial capacity of the Mexican nation depend on it for most of their water supply. Here, we present porosity and permeability data of 108 rock samples representing five different lithofacies types of the Miocene Tepoztlán Formation. This 800 m thick formation mainly consists of pyroclastic rocks, mass flow and fluvial deposits and is part of the southern Transmexican Volcanic Belt, cropping out south of the Valley of Mexico and within the two states of Morelos and Mexico State. Porosities range from 1.4% to 56.7%; average porosity is 24.8%. Generally, permeabilities are low to median (0.2-933.3 mD) with an average permeability of 88.5 mD. The lavas are characterized by the highest porosity values followed by tuffs, conglomerates, sandstones and tuffaceous breccias. On the contrary, the highest permeabilities can be found in the conglomerates, followed by tuffs, tuffaceous breccias, sandstones and lavas. The knowledge of these petrophysical rock properties provides important information on the reservoir potential of volcanic settings to be integrated to 3D subsurface models.

  4. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies of tedizolid to assess the potential for peripheral or central monoamine oxidase interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, S; Bartizal, K; Minassian, S L; Fang, E; Prokocimer, P

    2013-07-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug whose active moiety, tedizolid, has improved potency against Gram-positive pathogens and pharmacokinetics, allowing once-daily administration. Given linezolid warnings for drug-drug and drug-food interactions mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, including sporadic serotonergic toxicity, these studies evaluated tedizolid for potential MAO interactions. In vitro, tedizolid and linezolid were reversible inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B; the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for tedizolid was 8.7 μM for MAO-A and 5.7 μM for MAO-B and 46.0 and 2.1 μM, respectively, with linezolid. Tedizolid phosphate was negative in the mouse head twitch model of serotonergic activity. Two randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical studies assessed the potential of 200 mg/day tedizolid phosphate (at steady state) to enhance pressor responses to coadministered oral tyramine or pseudoephedrine. Sensitivity to tyramine was determined by comparing the concentration of tyramine required to elicit a ≥ 30-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (TYR30) when administered with placebo versus tedizolid phosphate. The geometric mean tyramine sensitivity ratio (placebo TYR30/tedizolid phosphate TYR30) was 1.33; a ratio of ≥ 2 is considered clinically relevant. In the pseudoephedrine study, mean maximum systolic blood pressure was not significantly different when pseudoephedrine was coadministered with tedizolid phosphate versus placebo. In summary, tedizolid is a weak, reversible inhibitor of MAO-A and MAO-B in vitro. Provocative testing in humans and animal models failed to uncover significant signals that would suggest potential for hypertensive or serotonergic adverse consequences at the therapeutic dose of tedizolid phosphate. Clinical studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01539473 (tyramine interaction study conducted at Covance Clinical Research Center, Evansville, IN) and NCT01577459

  5. Identification of aquifer potential by using resistivity method: A case study in Kedawung and Sambirejo district, Sragen, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsono; Legowo, B.; Koesuma, S.

    2016-11-01

    It has been done geophysics survey by using resistivity method with Schlumberger configuration in Sambirejo and Kedawung subdistrict, Sragen regency, Indonesia. This research aims to identification of aquifer potential in those area. Totally there are 22 site surveys where 11 sites located in Sambirejo and 11 sites located in Kedawung subdistrict. Data collection was performed by using Resistvitymeter OYO McOHM-EL with length of current electrode from 1,5 meter up to 350 meter. Data processing was done by using IP2win software, while cross section was processed using Rockwork software. The result shows that in Sambirejo subdistrict, the aquifer layer consist of clayey sand and sand, While in Kedawung subdistrict, The aquifer layers consist of clayey sand, sand, gravel sand, gravel and breccias. Identification of groundwater potential zones as good and very good category was show that the sounding point was have a huge of groundwater source for in Sambirejo subdistrict is TS2, TS5, TS7, TS8, and TS9, while in Kedawung subdistrict is TS13, TS14, T15, TS16,TS17,TS18, TS19, TS20, TS21 dan TS22, respectively.

  6. The Potential of Umbul Sungsang Spring Water for Drinking Wate, PDAM, and Irigation Purposes at Banyudono, Boyolali, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohman Hakim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbul Sungsang spring located in the foot of a Merapi is on shift zone between volcanic foot plain and fluvial volcanic fott plain constitutes spring belt. Up to the present, the population use that spring for drinking water and irrigation. The planning of taking water by Municipal Waterworks to supply Solo population causes people around it worried because the usually use that spring. Therefore it is needed to conduct a research to know the potential of that spring. The aim of this research is to account how much the need of drinking water, manucipal waterworks and irrigation and the potential of the spring which is available. The research uses survey method. Primary and secondary data are collected, analyzed quantitatively by using software aid to do simulation the need of irrigation. The result of the research shows that the need of drinking water is 0.068 lt/second/day taken in dry season; manucipal waterworks uses 200 lt/second/day and for irrigation is about 442.2 lt/second/day with the pattern rice – tobacco – rice. Irrigation is also supplied from Bendung Bukur Ireng. The result of the research also shows that in October period I, II, III, and November period II and I lack of water. Therefore municipal waterworks must not use water on Otober and November, while on July and September adjust to the rest of discharge of water, which is available. Its water quality fulfils the requirement for various needs.

  7. Coping with commitment: Projecting future thermal stress on coral reefs worldwide and the potential importance of the Central Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.

    2009-05-01

    Sea surface temperatures of only 1-2°C greater than the usual summer maximum can cause mass coral bleaching, a paling of the reef-building animals caused by a breakdown of the symbiosis with the colourful dinoflagellates Symbiodinium. A range of recent studies have concluded that anthropogenic climate change may rapidly increase the frequency of mass coral bleaching events, leading to declines in coral cover, shifts in the composition of corals and other reef-dwelling organisms, and stress on the human populations that depend on coral reef ecosystems for food, income and shoreline protection. Recent analysis with AVHRR observed sea surface temperatures and the results of two global climate models (GFDL CM2.0 and CM2.1) shows physical warming commitment from current accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause over half of the world's coral reefs to experience harmfully frequent (p > 0.2 year-1) severe thermal stress events (DHM > 2°C/month) by 2080. An additional "societal" warming commitment, caused by the time required to shift from a "business-as-usual" emissions trajectory to a 550 ppm CO2 stabilization trajectory, may cause over 80 percent of the world's coral reefs to experience harmfully frequent events by 2030. Thermal adaptation or acclimation of 1.5°C - whether accomplished via biological mechanisms, coral community shifts and/or management interventions - would postpone the forecast by 50-80 years, possibly providing time for the world to shift from the business-as-usual emissions trajectory to a stabilization trajectory which could protect the majority of reefs from harmfully frequent thermal stress events. Sensitivity analysis using historical sea surface temperatures, bleaching reports and coral cover observations indicates that coral reefs in regions which experience high year-to-year SST variability, in particular the atolls of the central equatorial Pacific, may possess higher thermal stress thresholds and greater resistance to

  8. Quaternary volcanism in the Acambay graben, Mexican Volcanic Belt: Re-evaluation for potential volcanic danger in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Lacan, P.; Roldan-Quintana, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Zuniga, R. R.; Laurence, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is best known for the major active stratovolcanoes, such as Popocatépetl, Citlaltépetl and Colima. The most common stratovolcanoes in this province are modest-size cones with heights of 800 to 1000 m. Examples are Tequila, Sangangüey, Las Navajas, Culiacán, La Joya, El Zamorano, Temascalcingo and Altamirano; these last two were formed within the Acambay Graben in central MVB. The Acambay graben (20 x 70 km) is 100 km to the NW of Mexico City, with E-W trending seismically active normal faults; in particular the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault related to a mB =7 earthquake in 1912. Within the graben there are many volcanic structures, including calderas, domes, cinder cones and stratovolcanoes; Temascalcingo and Altamirano are the largest, with about 800 and 900 m heights, respectively. Temascalcingo is mostly composed of dacitic lavas and block and ash flow deposits. Includes a 3 x 2.5 km summit caldera and a magmatic sector collapse event with the associated debris avalanche deposit. 14C ages of 37-12 ka correspond to the volcano's latest phases that produced pyroclastic deposits. A major plinian eruption formed the San Mateo Pumice with an age of <20 Ka. Altamirano volcano is poorly studied; it is andesitic-dacitic, composed of lavas, pyroclastic flow deposits, and pumice fallouts. Morphologically is better preserved than Temascalcingo, and it should be younger. 14C ages of 4.0-2.5 ka were performed in charcoal within pyroclastic flow deposits that apparently were erupted from Altamirano. An undated 3 m thick pumice fallout on the flanks of Altamirano volcano could be also Holocene. It represents a major explosive event. The relatively young ages found in volcanic deposits within the Acambay graben raise the volcanic danger level in this area, originally thought as an inactive volcanic zone. The two major volcanoes, Temascalcingo and Altamirano, should be considered as dormant volcanoes that could restart activity at any time. We

  9. Potential hydrologic effects of peat mining in the Red Lake Peatlands, north-central Minnesota: A project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Donald I.

    1979-01-01

    Peat is being considered for fuel in Minnesota. This study will investigate the potential effects of large-scale surface mining of peat on the hydrology and water quality of Upper Red Lake and the Tamarac River. The major aspects of the study are the characterization of the surface-water and groundwater hydrology and water quality, including the trace-metal content of the peat. Data will be collected to construct two- and three-dimensional digital models to simulate the movement of ground water and its relation to surface water in the peatlands, streams, and lakes. After the model is calibrated with field data, it will be used to evaluate the effect of mining peat on the hydrology and water quality of the Upper Red Lake and Tamarac River.

  10. Uranium potential of precambrian rocks in the Raft River area of northwestern Utah and south-central Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, B.A.

    1980-09-01

    A total of 1214 geochemical samples were collected and analyzed. The sampling media included 334 waters, 616 stream sediments, and 264 rocks. In addition, some stratigraphic sections of Elba and Yost Quartzites and Archean metasedimentary rock were measured and sampled and numerous radiation determinations made of the various target units. Statistical evaluation of the geochemical data permitted recognition of 156 uranium anomalies, 52 in water, 79 in stream sediment, and 25 in rock. Geographically, 68 are located in the Grouse Creek Mountains, 43 in the Raft River Mountains, and 41 in the Albion Range. Interpretation of the various data leads to the conclusion that uranium anomalies relate to sparingly and moderately soluble uraniferous heavy minerals, which occur as sparse but widely distributed magmatic, detrital, and/or metamorphically segregated components in the target lithostratigraphic units. The uraniferous minerals known to occur and believed to account for the geochemical anomalies include allanite, monazite, zircon, and apatite. In some instances samarskite may be important. These heavy minerals contain uranium and geochemically related elements, such as Th, Ce, Y, and Zr, in sufficient quantities to account for both the conspicuous lithologic preference and the generally observed low amplitude of the anomalies. The various data generated in connection with this study, as well as those available in the published literature, collectively support the conclusion that the various Precambrian W and X lithostratigraphic units pre-selected for evaluation probably lack potential to host important Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits. Moreover it is also doubted that they possess any potential to host Proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits.

  11. Use of gravity potential field methods for defining a shallow magmatic intrusion: the Mt. Amiata case history (Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Chiara; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano; Pauselli, Cristina; Heyde, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the Bouguer gravity anomaly signal beneath the Mt. Amiata area in order to reconstruct the subsurface setting. The study area is characterized by a pronounced gravity minimum, possibly correlated with the observed anomalous heat flow and hydrothermal activity. Using different approaches, previous authors defined a low density body (generally interpreted as a magmatic intrusion) beneath this area, which could explain the observed gravity anomaly minimum. However the proposed geologic models show different geometries and densities for the batholith. The gravity data used in this study (kindly provided by eni) were acquired from different institutions (eni, OGS, USDMA and Servizio Geologico d'Italia) and collected in a unique dataset, consisting of about 50000 stations, randomly distributed, which cover Central Italy, with a spacing of less than 1 km. For each station the elevation and the Bouguer gravity anomaly data are given. From this dataset, we created two maps of the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the topography, using the Minimum Curvature gridding method considering a grid cell size of 500m x 500m. The Bouguer gravity anomaly has been computed using a density of 2.67 g/cm3. From these maps we extracted a window of about 240 km2 (12x20 km) for the study area, which includes the Mt. Amiata region and the adjacent Radicofani sedimentary basin. The first part of this study was focused on calculating the first order vertical derivative and the power spectra analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly to enhance the effect of shallow bodies and estimating the source depth respectively. The second part of this study was focused on constructing a 3D geological density model of the subsurface setting of the studied area, implementing a forward modelling approach. The stratigraphy of the study area's upper crust schematically consists of six litho-mechanical units, whose density was derived from velocity data collected by active seismic surveys. A preliminary

  12. Potential of deterministic and geostatistical rainfall interpolation under high rainfall variability and dry spells: case of Kenya's Central Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, M. Oscar; Mucheru-Muna, M.; Ngetich, F. K.; Mugwe, J.; Mugendi, D.; Mairura, F.; Shisanya, C.; Makokha, G. L.

    2016-04-01

    Drier parts of Kenya's Central Highlands endure persistent crop failure and declining agricultural productivity. These have, in part, attributed to high temperatures, prolonged dry spells and erratic rainfall. Understanding spatial-temporal variability of climatic indices such as rainfall at seasonal level is critical for optimal rain-fed agricultural productivity and natural resource management in the study area. However, the predominant setbacks in analysing hydro-meteorological events are occasioned by either lack, inadequate, or inconsistent meteorological data. Like in most other places, the sole sources of climatic data in the study region are scarce and only limited to single stations, yet with persistent missing/unrecorded data making their utilization a challenge. This study examined seasonal anomalies and variability in rainfall, drought occurrence and the efficacy of interpolation techniques in the drier regions of eastern Kenyan. Rainfall data from five stations (Machang'a, Kiritiri, Kiambere and Kindaruma and Embu) were sourced from both the Kenya Meteorology Department and on-site primary recording. Owing to some experimental work ongoing, automated recording for primary dailies in Machang'a have been ongoing since the year 2000 to date; thus, Machang'a was treated as reference (for period of record) station for selection of other stations in the region. The other stations had data sets of over 15 years with missing data of less than 10 % as required by the world meteorological organization whose quality check is subject to the Centre for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM) through MeteoSwiss and EMPA bodies. The dailies were also subjected to homogeneity testing to evaluate whether they came from the same population. Rainfall anomaly index, coefficients of variance and probability were utilized in the analyses of rainfall variability. Spline, kriging and inverse distance weighting interpolation techniques were assessed using daily rainfall data and

  13. [Anatomic characterization of growth-rings in 80 potential tree species for dendrocronological studies in the Central Forest, Perú].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Gutiérrez, Lizandro Adal; Valencia Ramos, Gina Mariela

    2013-09-01

    The knowledge about the existence of annual tree rings in tropical trees, which was already found at the beginning of the last century, was ignored by many scientists for a long time. Wood samples of 80 tree species from seven different sites belonging to Satipo and Chanchamayo provinces in Central Forest, Perú. Wood slices were taken at 1.30 m height, following the Peruvian Technical Norms (NTP) 251-008, COPANT norms 30:1-019 and IAWA (1989). Results showed that 24 of the 80 tree species analyzed showed a potential for dendrocronological studies, 25 had problems for growth-rings analysis, and 31 did not have potential. The problems most frequently found were: barely visible or irregular ring growth, parenchyma bands and multiseriate rays difficult to be identified in rings growth. The "T" Student test showed that the significant variation in vessel and fiber diameters between growth zones (Early-wood and late-wood) of species with potential for dendrocronology, do have a periodic cells production, so is possible to suggest the annual formation of each growth-ring. However, those species without potential to dendrocronology may be influenced by of a lot of factors, such as biotic and abiotic conditions of environment, as well as the genetic aspect of each species.

  14. Viewls - Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios. Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. (and others)

    2006-01-15

    The EU has set ambitious targets to increase the use of Renewable Energy Sources from which a large part has to come from biomass To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed which requires large areas of land in the EU. This article discusses a methodology and results for a regional biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Accession countries (CEEC). The biomass potential assessment is implemented for a defined set of scenarios. The scenarios are based on the main drivers in Europe relevant for agriculture and land use change, i.e. World Trade Negotiations or Common Agricultural Policy. The methodology for the biomass potential assessment is based on land use changes over time. A certain amount of land is needed to meet the required production for food (derived from agricultural crops and livestock) and wood products. The surplus available land can possibly be used for biomass production. Results of the biomass potential assessment are available on a Nuts-3 region level in the CEEC for different scenarios. As the concept of large-scale biomass production is only feasible when production is profitable for the stakeholders involved, price and cost-relations are included in the assessment. Final deliverable are cost-supply curves from different sources (energy crops, residues) and scenarios for the CEEC. (au)

  15. Nitroglycerin induces migraine headache and central sensitization phenomena in patients with migraine without aura: a study of laser evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Libro, Giuseppe; Guido, Marco; Difruscolo, Olimpia; Losito, Luciana; Sardaro, Michele; Cerbo, Rosanna

    2004-06-17

    In migraineurs nitroglycerin (NTG) induces severe delayed headache, resembling spontaneous migraine attacks. The aim of the present study was to evaluate NTG laser evoked potentials (LEP) features amplitude and pain sensation to laser stimuli during NTG-induced headache. Nine patients were selected. Headache was induced by oral administration of 0.6 mg of NTG; signals were recorded through disk electrodes placed at the vertex and referred to linked earlobes. CO(2)-LEPs delivered by stimulation of the dorsum of both hands and the right and left supraorbital zones were evaluated after the onset of moderate or severe headache resembling spontaneous migraine and at least 72 h after the end of the headache phase. Patients exhibited a significant heat pain threshold reduction and an LEPs amplitude increment during headache when both the supraorbital zones were stimulated. NTG appeared to support a reliable experimental model of migraine, based on the neuronal effects on the integrative-nociceptive structures. The LEPs facilitation during NTG-induced headache may be subtended by a hyperactivity of nociceptive cortex as well as by a failure of pain-inhibitory control.

  16. Approximate analytical solution of the Dirac equation for pseudospin symmetry with modified Po schl-Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential using asymptotic iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, B. N.; Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Husein, A. S.; Yunianto, M.

    2016-08-01

    We apllied asymptotic iteration method (AIM) to obtain the analytical solution of the Dirac equation in case exact pseudospin symmetry in the presence of modified Pcischl- Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential. The Dirac equation was solved by variables separation into one dimensional Dirac equation, the radial part and angular part equation. The radial and angular part equation can be reduced into hypergeometric type equation by variable substitution and wavefunction substitution and then transform it into AIM type equation to obtain relativistic energy eigenvalue and wavefunctions. Relativistic energy was calculated numerically by Matlab software. And then relativistic energy spectrum and wavefunctions were visualized by Matlab software. The results show that the increase in the radial quantum number nr causes decrease in the relativistic energy spectrum. The negative value of energy is taken due to the pseudospin symmetry limit. Several quantum wavefunctions were presented in terms of the hypergeometric functions.

  17. Summer dietary nitrogen availability as a potential bottom-up constraint on moose in south-central Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Scott H; Spalinger, Donald E; Collins, William B; Schoen, Erik R; Stevenson, Timothy; Bucho, Michele

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that the growth and fecundity of northern ungulates may be coupled to their summer nutrition. Here, we compare summer dietary nitrogen availability of the five major browse plants (comprising approximately 79% of the diet) of moose (Alces alces) in Denali National Park and Nelchina Basin, Alaska, USA. In recent years the productivity of Denali moose has been significantly higher than that of Nelchina moose, prompting this comparison. We examined the phenological progression of leaf nitrogen concentration, tannin-protein precipitation capacity, and digestible protein over three summers in both regions. We then modeled the potential nutritional consequences for a cow moose consuming representative diets on each range, predicting both net protein intake (NPI) and lean body mass accumulation each year. We found that leaf nitrogen and digestible protein decreased, while tannin-protein precipitation capacity increased throughout the summer for all forages. There was 23% more digestible protein in Denali leaves than Nelchina leaves on average, and this difference was significant in all three years. Tannins accounted for a large (mean = 46%) reduction in protein availability, suggesting a key role of these secondary compounds in the nitrogen balance of moose in these regions. Finally, our NPI model predicted that Denali cows were in positive protein balance 17 days longer than Nelchina cows and accumulated 18 kg more lean body mass over the summer, on average. We conclude that summer dietary nitrogen availability may act as a nutritional constraint on moose and suggest that more emphasis be placed on elucidating its role in population dynamics and conservation of northern ungulates.

  18. Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, S; Alves-Pires, C; Maia, C; Cortes, S; Cristovão, J M S; Gonçalves, L; Campino, L; Afonso, M O

    2013-03-01

    vertebrate hosts. The high abundance and distribution of proven vector species, together with a canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence of 7.93% in the District, and the capture of a gravid infective sand fly female, suggests that Torres Novas municipality is a potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in the country.

  19. Cough reflex is additively potentiated by inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobronchial [corrected] receptors and enhanced by stimulation of the central respiratory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tetsuri; Hayama, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    The cough is an essential airway defense reflex. In this study we investigated the coordination of inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobronchial receptors in the cough reflex. In 15 beagle dogs (7-9 kg) lightly anesthetized with intravenous profobol (20-30 mg/kg/h), the cough response was elicited with mechanical stimulation of either the vocal chord or tracheal bifurcation. Simultaneous stimulation of both sites increased all the parameters of cough strength, that is, mean pleural pressure (P (pl)), mean expiratory flow, number of cough bouts, and cough duration, in comparison with stimulation of the sites individually. The increases in mean P (pl) and cough duration reached statistical significance (13.3 vs. 18.4 cmH(2)O and 13.3 vs. 18.2 s, respectively). When the anesthetic level became deeper, the prolongation of cough duration almost disappeared, but the augmentation of mean P (pl) was much less affected. During stimulation of the central respiratory neurons by intravenous dimorphoramine or acute hyperoxic hypercapnia, the cough strength increased significantly. We concluded that inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobonchial cough receptors acted in concert and potentiated the cough reflex. Furthermore, stimulation of the central respiratory neurons may increase the intensity of a cough response.

  20. Potential minability and economic viability of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia; a prefeasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas W.; Pierce, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a coal resource assessment of several areas in Armenia from 1997 to 1999. This report, which presents a prefeasibility study of the economic and mining potential of one coal deposit found and studied by the USGS team, was prepared using all data available at the time of the study and the results of the USGS exploratory work, including core drilling, trenching, coal quality analyses, and other ongoing field work. On the basis of information currently available, it is the authors? opinion that a small surface coal mine having about a 20-year life span could be developed in the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, specifically at the Dzoragukh site. The mining organization selected or created to establish the mine will need to conduct necessary development drilling and other work to establish the final feasibility study for the mine. The company will need to be entrepreneurial, profit oriented, and sensitive to the coal consumer; have an analytical management staff; and focus on employee training, safety, and protection of the environment. It is anticipated that any interested parties will be required to submit detailed mining plans to the appropriate Armenian Government agencies. Further development work will be required to reach a final decision regarding the economic feasibility of the mine. However, available information indicates that a small, economic surface mine can be developed at this locality. The small mine suggested is a typical surface-outcropstripping, contour mining operation. In addition, auger mining is strongly suggested, because the recovery of these low-cost mining reserves will help to ensure that the operation will be a viable, economic enterprise. (Auger mining is a system in which large-diameter boreholes are placed horizontally into the coal seam at the final highwall set as the economic limit for the surface mining operation). A special horizontal boring machine, which can be imported from

  1. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Reelfoot rift is one segment of a late Proterozoic(?) to early Paleozoic intracontinental rift complex in the south-central United States. The rift complex is situated beneath Mesozoic to Cenozoic strata of the Mississippi embayment of southeastern Missouri, northeastern Arkansas, and western Tennessee and Kentucky. The rift portion of the stratigraphic section consists primarily of synrift Cambrian and Ordovician strata, capped by a postrift sag succession of Late Ordovician to Cenozoic age. Potential synrift source rocks have been identified in the Cambrian Elvins Shale. Thermal maturity of Paleozoic strata within the rift ranges from the oil window to the dry gas window. Petroleum generation in Elvins source rocks likely occurred during the middle to late Paleozoic. Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks unconformably overlie various Paleozoic units and define the likely upper boundary of the petroleum system.

  2. Identification of groundwater potential zones in the Machuca River in the Central Pacific of Costa Rica using a GIS-Multi-criteria analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, J. P.; Stefan, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply systems in the Machuca River basin in the Central Pacific of Costa Rica are subject to fluctuations in their production capacity at the end of the dry season; especially in the lower part of the basin. The urban development - and water demand -- is expected to increase because of a newly build highway. In order to understand the actual water resources and to asses new ones, the identification of groundwater potential zones is done using a geographical information system (GIS) based on thematic raster using fixed score and weight computed by the multi influencing factor (MIF) technique. The thematic layers used in the analysis are lithology, slope, land-use, lineament, drainage, soil and rainfall. The results were compared with the results of the Modified Thornthwaite-Mather model used to perform the water balance on a monthly scale. The groundwater potential was divided into three categories: no suitable, suitable, and very suitable zones. The resulting map is a decision support tool for the planning and management of groundwater resources in the Machuca River basin.

  3. Separation of land-use change induced signals from noise by means of evaluating perturbed RCM ensembles: Assessing the potential impacts of urbanization and deforestation in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Patrick; Nguyen, Phuong N. B.; Cullmann, Johannes; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) comprise both terrestrial and atmospheric compartments and thereby allowing to study land atmosphere feedbacks, and in particular the land-use and climate change impacts. In this study, a methodological framework is developed to separate the land use change induced signals in RCM simulations from noise caused by perturbed initial boundary conditions. The framework is applied for two different case studies in SE Asia, i.e. an urbanization and a deforestation scenario, which are implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The urbanization scenario is produced for Da Nang, one of the fastest growing cities in Central Vietnam, by converting the land-use in a 20 km, 14 km, and 9 km radius around the Da Nang meteorological station systematically from cropland to urban. Likewise, three deforestation scenarios are derived for Nong Son (Central Vietnam). Based on WRF ensemble simulations with perturbed initial conditions for 2010, the signal to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated to identify areas with pronounced signals induced by LULCC. While clear and significant signals are found for air temperature, latent and sensible heat flux in the urbanization scenario (SNR values up to 24), the signals are not pronounced for deforestation (SNR values < 1). Albeit statistically significant signals are found for precipitation, low SNR values hinder scientifically sound inferences for climate change adaptation options. It is demonstrated that ensemble simulations with more than at least 5 ensemble members are required to derive robust LULCC adaptation strategies, particularly if precipitation is considered. This is rarely done in practice, thus potentially leading to erroneous estimates of the LULCC induced signals of water and energy fluxes, which are propagated through the regional climate - hydrological model modeling chains, and finally leading to unfavorable decision support.

  4. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the

  5. THE POTENTIAL OF FOREST BUFFER TO PREVENT STREAM FROM WATER POLLUTANTS:A CASE STUDY IN GROJOKAN SEWU SUB-WATERSHED, KARANGANYAR DISTRICT, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Wahyuningrum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Population growth leads to water scarcity in terms of both quality and quantity. Agricultural and urban watersheds potentially produce more pollutantsthan forested area. It is considered that forested area has potential in storing and protecting water supply in such a way that water distribution and quality can be guaranteed. The objective of  the study was to determine the relationship between the percentages of forested area in a watershed with the water quality. Thestudy was conducted in 2010in GrojokanSewu Sub-watershed, Karanganyar District, Central Java. Using GIS (Geographic Information System, this sub-watershedwas divided into four sub-sub-watershedswith different percentages of forested areas. Water samples were collected in each sub-sub-watershedto find out the relationship between the forested area and the total dissolvedsolids, turbidity, sodium, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate and organic matters. The statistical analysis indicates relationships in quadratic form between sodium, nitrite, TDS, sulfate and organic matters with the percentage of  forested area (R2=0.99, R2=0.99, R2=0.98, R2=0.95 and R2=0.77, respectively. The relationships are different from those of turbidity and nitrate that have low R2 (R2=0.28 and R2=0.36 values. It implies that the forested area is capable to reduce sodium, nitrite, TDS, sulfate and organic matters, and thus water pollutants can be reduced by forest formation as it can filter water through retention of sediments and nutrients.

  6. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer, composed of a thick sequence of very porous limestone and dolomite, is the principal source of water supply in the Silver Springs ground-water basin of central Marion County, Florida. The karstic nature of the local geology makes the aquifer susceptible to contaminants from the land surface. Contaminants can enter the aquifer by seepage through surficial deposits and through sinkholes and drainage wells. Potential contaminants include agricultural chemicals, landfill leachates and petroleum products from leaking storage tanks and accidental spills. More than 560 sites of potential contamination sources were identified in the basin in 1990. Detailed investigation of four sites were used to define hydrologic conditions at representative sites. Ground-water flow velocities determined from dye trace studies ranged from about 1 foot per hour under natural flow conditions to about 10 feet per hour under pumping conditions, which is considerably higher than velocities estimated using Darcy's equation for steady-state flow in a porous medium. Water entering the aquifer through drainage wells contained bacteria, elevated concentrations of nutrients, manganese and zinc, and in places, low concentrations of organic compounds. On the basis of results from the sampling of 34 wells in 1989 and 1990, and from the sampling of water entering the Upper Floridan aquifer through drainage wells, there has been no widespread degradation of water quality in the study area. In an area of karst, particularly one in which fracture flow is significant, evaluating the effects from contaminants is difficult and special care is required when interpolating hydrogeologic data from regional studies to a specific. (USGS)

  7. Exploring the potential benefits of vaccinia virus complement control protein in controlling complement activation in pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Girish J; Fernando, Nilisha; Zhou, Jianhua; Valter, Krisztina

    2014-10-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for the development of diseases related to the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases, linkage studies and genome-wide association studies found strong links with complement regulatory genes and disease risk. In AD, both CLU and CR1 genes were implicated in the late-onset form of the disease. In AMD, polymorphisms in CFH, CFB and C2 were similarly implicated. The cost of caring for patients with AD or AMD is approaching billions of dollars, and with the baby boomers reaching their 60's, this amount is likely to increase further. Intervention using complement inhibitors for individuals in their early 50s who are at a higher risk of disease development, (testing positive for genetic risk factors), could slow the progression of AD or AMD and possibly prevent the severity of late stage symptoms. Although we have used the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) to elucidate the role of complement in CNS diseases, it has merely been an investigational tool but not the only possible potential therapeutic agent.

  8. Bioactive Potential of Marine Macroalgae from the Central Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) Assessed by High-Throughput Imaging-Based Phenotypic Profiling

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan

    2017-03-20

    Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target. Subsequent chemical profiling of the active fractions of two brown algal species by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed possible candidate molecules. A database query of these molecules led us to groups of compounds with structural similarities, which are suggested to be responsible for the observed activity. Our work demonstrates the versatility and power of cytological profiling for the bioprospecting of unknown biological resources and highlights Red Sea algae as a source of bioactives that may serve as a starting point for further studies.

  9. Impact of lymph node metastases identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer: potential role of BRAFV600E mutation in defining CND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Ali S; Xing, Mingzhao

    2013-02-01

    The impact of metastasized cervical lymph nodes (CLN) identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence/persistence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and the extent of CND needed to reduce recurrence/persistence have not been firmly established. To assess the impact of CLN metastasis and BRAF mutation on the recurrence/persistence of PTC and the potential of BRAF mutation in assisting CND. Analyses of 379 consecutive patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy with (n=243) or without CND (n=136) at a tertiary-care academic hospital during the period 2001-2010 for their clinicopathological outcomes and BRAF mutation status. Increasingly aggressive tumor characteristics were found as the extent of CND was advanced following conventional risk criteria from non-CND to limited CND to formal CND. Disease recurrence/persistence rate also sharply rose from 4.7% to 15.7% and 40.5% in these CND settings respectively (PCND to formal CND (PCND. A strong association of CLN metastasis and BRAF mutation with disease recurrence/persistence was revealed on Kaplan-Meier analysis and BRAF mutation strongly predicted CLN metastasis. CLN metastases found on CND are closely associated with disease recurrence/persistence of PTC, which are both strongly predicted by BRAF mutation. Current selection of PTC patients for CND is appropriate but higher extent of the procedure, once selected, is needed to reduce disease recurrence, which may be defined by combination use of preoperative BRAF mutation testing and conventional risk factors of PTC.

  10. Bioactive Potential of Marine Macroalgae from the Central Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) Assessed by High-Throughput Imaging-Based Phenotypic Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremb, Stephan; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target. Subsequent chemical profiling of the active fractions of two brown algal species by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed possible candidate molecules. A database query of these molecules led us to groups of compounds with structural similarities, which are suggested to be responsible for the observed activity. Our work demonstrates the versatility and power of cytological profiling for the bioprospecting of unknown biological resources and highlights Red Sea algae as a source of bioactives that may serve as a starting point for further studies. PMID:28335513

  11. Liquid-gas phase behavior of polydisperse dipolar hard-sphere fluid: Extended thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force associating potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Kalyuzhnyi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The liquid-gas phase diagram for polydisperse dipolar hard-sphere fluid with polydispersity in the hard-sphere size and dipolar moment is calculated using extension of the recently proposed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force (TPT-CF associating potential. To establish the connection with the phase behavior of ferrocolloidal dispersions it is assumed that the dipole moment is proportional to the cube of the hard-sphere diameter. We present and discuss the full phase diagram, which includes cloud and shadow curves, binodals and distribution functions of the coexisting daughter phases at different degrees of the system polydispersity. In all cases studied polydispersity increases the region of the phase instability and shifts the critical point to the higher values of the temperature and density. The larger size particles always fractionate to the liquid phase and the smaller size particles tend to move to the gas phase. At relatively high values of the system polydispersity three-phase coexistence is observed.

  12. Palynology, palynofacies and petroleum potential of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Diasty, W. Sh.; El Beialy, S. Y.; Abo Ghonaim, A. A.; Mostafa, A. R.; El Atfy, H.

    2014-07-01

    Palynological, palynofacies and organic geochemical results of 46 samples retrieved from the Upper Cretaceous - Eocene Matulla, Brown Limestone and Thebes formations, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt are presented. The two latter formations are not dated palynologically as their lithology is not promising for palynological yield. However the Matulla Formation is dated as Turonian-Santonian age, based on the combined evidence of pollen and dinocysts. Palynofacies analysis carried out under both transmitted and fluorescent microscopy indicated that both the Thebes and Brown Limestone formations are deposited under a distal suboxic-anoxic environment. On the other hand, the Turonian-Santonian Matulla Formation supported the existence of a marginal marine deposition under dysoxic-anoxic basin to proximal suboxic-anoxic shelf environments. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and TOC results indicated that most of the studied formations are thermally immature to marginally mature and have a good petroleum potential. They are organically-rich in both oil- and gas-prone kerogen Type-II and II/III, deposited under marine reducing conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.

  13. REE Compositions of Lower Ordovician Dolomites in Central and North Tarim Basin, NW China: A Potential REE Proxy for Ancient Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuefeng; HU Wenxuan; JIN Zhijun; ZHANG Juntao; QIAN Yixiong; ZHU Jingquan; ZHU Dongya; WANG Xiaolin; XIE Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    Rare earth dement compositions of Lower Ordovician dolomites in the Central and Northern Tarim Basin are studied. Most dolomite samples are more or less contaminated by clay minerals. Their rare earth element compositions have been consequently changed, showing both seawater-like and non-seawater-like features. The clay contamination should be disposed before the REE data are used. Through ICP-MS and ICP-AES analyses, the REE features are well documented. The clay contamination is quantitatively determined by microscopic investigation, trace elements and REE contents. The dolomites, at least in the Tarim Basin, are thought to be pure when their total LREE contents are less than 3x10-6. Through comparison, the pure dolomites show similarities in REE patterns but differences in REE contents with co-existing pure limestone, which indicates that dolomitization may slightly change the REE compositions. Nevertheless, whatever the change is, the pure dolomites may act as a potential REE proxy for Ordovician seawater, which would be significant for ancient massive dolomite strata that lack limestone.

  14. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  15. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoirs to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas consists of a thick (>450 m) and deeply buried (>1 km) succession of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group strata (dolomite) overlain by Lower Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous-age carbonate, chert, and shale. The Arbuckle Group is a thick widespread saline aquifer in southern Kansas. A 500 meter core of the OPAS interval and immediate overlying Pennsylvanian shale caprock were cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, a nearly depleted oil field in Sumner County, in south-central Kansas. An exhaustive set of modern logs were run in the KGS #1-32 well including chemical, microresistivity imaging, dipole sonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and standard porosity and resistivity wireline logs. In addition, routine and special core analyses provide vital means to calibrate these logs. Core also provide vital chemical analyses and rock samples to run flow experiments, including in situ conditions, to establish reaction kinetics of rock and connate brines with CO2. Core and logs also provide the means to calibrate a 26 km2 multicomponent 3D seismic survey that was acquired in Wellington Field in 2010. Studies of four oil fields, also part of this project, are underway in southwestern Kansas to provide additional calibration points for the western part of the regional study that covers 65,000 km2 where CO2 sequestration capacity will be measured. Several hundred deep wells have been identified to serve as type wells in the regional study area. Well logs and sample descriptions are being digitized, correlated, and mapped to define distribution of aquifers, oil reservoirs, and caprocks. Drill stem test data have been analyzed for deep wells to establish that the Arbuckle is an open aquifer connected to surface exposures 100s of km to east in central Missouri. Over 500 km2 of 3D seismic have been donated by industrial partners to aid in understanding fault and fracture

  16. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug Objective: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre Materials and Methods: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods Results: Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site Conclusion: Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre-based various herbal preparations. SUMMARY Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre.Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl

  17. Measurement of Motor Evoked Potential in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Based on Latency, Amplitude, Central Motoric Conduction Time and Resting Motor Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugas Ratmono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After stroke, there are dynamic changes of motor evoked potential (MEP, including latency, amplitude, central motoric conduction time (CMCT and resting motor threshold (RMT in cerebral. However, latency, CMCT, amplitude and RMT have not been clearly shown in acute ischemic stroke patients with motoric function impairment based on Modified Motoric Research Council Scale (MRCs. METHODS: Patients with motoric function impairment after acute ischemic stroke were recruited, scored based on MRCs and grouped. Latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT (% intensity was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT of subjects based on affected hemisphere (AH and unaffected hemisphere (UH; stroke onset; and motoric severity; were analyzed and compared statistically. RESULTS: Thirty-seven subjects with complete assessments were selected. Results of MEP size measurement between AH and UH showed that latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT of AH and UH were significantly different (p<0.05. In accordance to AH and UH results, latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT of mild, moderate and severe groups based on motoric severity, showed that latency and CMCT were prolonged, RMT was increased, while amplitude was decreased along with severity increment. The amplitude and RMT among the groups were significantly different with p=0.034 and p=0.029, respectively. CONCLUSION: MEP size measurement including latency, amplitude, CMCT and RMT have significant different in AH and UH. In addition, amplitude and RMT were significantly different in MRCs groups, therefore the MEP size measurement could be suggested as prognostic tool. KEYWORDS: MEP, latency, amplitude, CMCT, RMT

  18. Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.; Moro, M.; Fubelli, G.; Saroli, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Galadini, F.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the Middle Aterno Valley fault system (MAVF), a poorly investigated seismic gap in the central Apennines, adjacent to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake epicentral area. Geological and paleoseismological analyses revealed that the MAVF evolved through hanging wall splay nucleation, its main segment moving at 0.23-0.34 mm/year since the Middle Pleistocene; the penultimate activation event occurred between 5388-5310 B.C. and 1934-1744 B.C., the last event after 2036-1768 B.C. and just before 1st-2nd century AD. These data define hard linkage (sensu Walsh and Watterson, 1991; Peacock et al., 2000; Walsh et al., 2003, and references therein) with the contiguous Subequana Valley fault segment, able to rupture in large magnitude earthquakes (up to 6.8), that did not rupture since about two millennia. By the joint analysis of geological observations and seismological data acquired during to the 2009 seismic sequence, we derive a picture of the complex structural framework of the area comprised between the MAVF, the Paganica fault (the 2009 earthquake causative fault) and the Gran Sasso Range. This sector is affected by a dense array of few-km long, closely and regularly spaced Quaternary normal fault strands, that are considered as branches of the MAVF northern segment. Our analysis reveals that these structures are downdip confined by a decollement represented by to the presently inactive thrust sheet above the Gran Sasso front limiting their seismogenic potential. Our study highlights the advantage of combining Quaternary geological field analysis with high resolution seismological data to fully unravel the structural setting of regions where subsequent tectonic phases took place and where structural interference plays a key role in influencing the seismotectonic context; this has also inevitably implications for accurately assessing seismic hazard of such structurally complex regions.

  19. Concentration, ozone formation potential and source analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a thermal power station centralized area: A study in Shuozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Li, Yinghui; Li, Lijuan; Bai, Huiling

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m(3); XB, 58.94 μg/m(3)) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m(3); XB, 43.46 μg/m(3)), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub. Alkanes were the dominant group at both HB and XB in both sampling periods, but the contribution of aromatic pollutants at HB in the autumn was much higher than that of the other alkanes (11.16-19.55%). Compared to other cities, BTEX pollution in Shuozhou was among the lowest levels in the world. Because of the high levels of aromatic pollutants, the ozone formation potential increased significantly at HB in the autumn. Using the ratio analyses to identify the age of the air masses and analyze the sources, the results showed that the atmospheric VOCs at XB were strongly influenced by the remote sources of coal combustion, while at HB in the spring and autumn were affected by the remote sources of coal combustion and local sources of vehicle emission, respectively. Source analysis conducted using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model at Shuozhou showed that coal combustion and vehicle emissions made the two largest contributions (29.98% and 21.25%, respectively) to atmospheric VOCs. With further economic restructuring, the influence of vehicle emissions on the air quality should become more significant, indicating that controlling vehicle emissions is key to reducing the air pollution.

  20. O potencial diagnóstico dos indicadores da obesidade centralizada The potential of central obesity antropometric indicators as diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Salas Martins

    2003-12-01

    com os fatores socioeconômicos, risco de desnutrição pregressa e com as alterações indicativas da síndrome metabólica do que a CC, mais associada aos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares ateroscleróticas.OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the indicators of centralized obesity, namely by waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR and waistline measure (WM, express different metabolic disorders. Thus, a study was conducted in order to verify the diagnostic potential of the relationship between these two measures and social, behavioral, and biological determinants of centralized obesity. METHODS: Two hierarchical multiple regression models were applied to a 1,042 subject sample from the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, in order to evaluate relationships between indicators and determinants for centralized obesity. Clinical, biochemical/laboratory, and behavioral surveys were carried out using standardized questionnaires. Evaluation included blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, and waistline and hip measures. RESULTS: WHR was significantly associated with low stature and strongly related to socioeconomic level; this was not the case with WM. Both WHR and WM were strongly associated with age, sex, and sedentary lifestyle. Women were at greater risk of centralized obesity then men: OR=5.04 and 7.27 for WHR and WM, respectively. WHR was significantly associated with alterations indicative of metabolic syndrome: hypertension and low levels of HDL-cholesterol. WM was significantly associated with hypertension alone. Both indicators were strongly associated with the concomitant presence of two or more alterations related to metabolic syndrome. Unlike WHR, WC was associated with hypercholesterolemia. CONCLUSIONS: WHR was more closely associated with socioeconomic factors, former risk of malnutrition, and alterations indicative of metabolic syndrome than WM, which was more closely associated with risk factors for cardiovascular and arteriosclerotic

  1. Potential role of environmental contaminants in the pathology of beak deformities among Black-capped chickadees in South-central Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — More than 1,400 individual Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) with beak deformities were recorded in south-central Alaska between 1991 and 2005. Over 200...

  2. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  3. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  4. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow, Resource Optimization, and Potential Effects of Prolonged Drought for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Derek W.; Kunkel, Christopher D.; Peterson, Steven M.; Traylor, Jonathan P.

    2015-08-13

    A hydrogeological study including two numerical groundwater-flow models was completed for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area of central Oklahoma. One numerical groundwater-flow model, the Citizen Potawatomi Nation model, encompassed the jurisdictional area and was based on the results of a regional-scale hydrogeological study and numerical groundwater flow model of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, which had a geographic extent that included the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area. The Citizen Potawatomi Nation numerical groundwater-flow model included alluvial aquifers not in the original model and improved calibration using automated parameter-estimation techniques. The Citizen Potawatomi Nation numerical groundwater-flow model was used to analyze the groundwater-flow system and the effects of drought on the volume of groundwater in storage and streamflow in the North Canadian River. A more detailed, local-scale inset model was constructed from the Citizen Potawatomi Nation model to estimate available groundwater resources for two Citizen Potawatomi Nation economic development zones near the North Canadian River, the geothermal supply area and the Iron Horse Industrial Park.

  6. Distributed Assessment of Network Centrality

    CERN Document Server

    Wehmuth, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for the Distributed Assessment of Network CEntrality (DANCE) in complex networks. DANCE attributes to each node a volume-based centrality computed using only localized information, thus not requiring knowledge of the full network topology. We show DANCE is simple, yet efficient, in assessing node centrality in a distributed way. Our proposal also provides a way for locating the most central nodes, again using only the localized information at each node. We also show that the node rankings based on DANCE's centrality and the traditional closeness centrality correlate very well. This is quite useful given the vast potential applicability of closeness centrality, which is however limited by its high computational costs. We experimentally evaluate DANCE against a state-of-the-art proposal to distributively assess network centrality. Results attest that DANCE achieves similar effectiveness in assessing network centrality, but with a significant reduction in the associated costs for practical ap...

  7. Motion of a stationary satellite in the neighbourhood of the equilibrium points of a central potential perturbed by the J/sub 22/ term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxa, P.A. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Geodesia e Geofisica)

    In this paper we study the position and the characteristics of the equilibrium points of a planet gravitational potential as functions of the J/sub 22/ parameter under the assumption that the potential is truncated to the first tesseral harmonic V=V/sub 0/+J/sub 22/V/sub 22/. The variational equations are solved analytically in the neighbourhood of these points to determine the possible periodic orbits of a stationary satellite in the equatorial plane. A numerical investigation of the problem is reported with the presentation of some periodic orbits of different families of stable and unstable type.

  8. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  9. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  10. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial.

  11. Interactions and potential implications of Plasmodium falciparum-hookworm coinfection in different age groups in south-central Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie A Righetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the widespread distribution of Plasmodium and helminth infections, and similarities of ecological requirements for disease transmission, coinfection is a common phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere in the tropics. Interactions of Plasmodium falciparum and soil-transmitted helminths, including immunological responses and clinical outcomes of the host, need further scientific inquiry. Understanding the complex interactions between these parasitic infections is of public health relevance considering that control measures targeting malaria and helminthiases are going to scale. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in April 2010 in infants, young school-aged children, and young non-pregnant women in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Stool, urine, and blood samples were collected and subjected to standardized, quality-controlled methods. Soil-transmitted helminth infections were identified and quantified in stool. Finger-prick blood samples were used to determine Plasmodium spp. infection, parasitemia, and hemoglobin concentrations. Iron, vitamin A, riboflavin, and inflammation status were measured in venous blood samples. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multivariate regression analysis revealed specific association between infection and demographic, socioeconomic, host inflammatory and nutritional factors. Non-pregnant women infected with P. falciparum had significantly lower odds of hookworm infection, whilst a significant positive association was found between both parasitic infections in 6- to 8-year-old children. Coinfected children had lower odds of anemia and iron deficiency than their counterparts infected with P. falciparum alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that interaction between P. falciparum and light-intensity hookworm infections vary with age and, in school-aged children, may benefit the host through preventing iron deficiency anemia. This observation warrants additional investigation to

  12. The role of functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the central nervous system injury and repair: new potentials for neuroprotection with Cerebrolysin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Menon, Preeti K; Lafuente, José Vicente; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Wang, Y Andrew; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Mössler, Herbert; Patnaik, Ranjana; Sharma, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (FMIONPs) are being explored for the development of various biomedical applications, e.g., cancer chemotherapy and/or several other radiological or diagnostic purposes. However, the effects of these NPs per se on the central nervous system (CNS) injury or repair are not well known. This review deals with different aspects of FMIONPs in relation to brain function based on the current literature as well as our own investigation in animal models of CNS injuries. It appears that FMIONPs are innocuous when administered intravenously within the CNS under normal conditions. However, abnormal reactions to FMIONPs in the brain or spinal cord could be seen if they are combined with CNS injuries e.g., hyperthermia or traumatic insults to the brain or spinal cord. Thus, administration of FMIONPs in vivo following whole body hyperthermia (WBH) or a focal spinal cord injury (SCI) exacerbates cellular damage. Since FMIONPs could help in diagnostic purposes or enhance the biological effects of radiotherapy/chemotherapy it is likely that these NPs may have some adverse reaction as well under disease condition. Thus, under such situation, adjuvant therapy e.g., Cerebrolysin (Ever NeuroPharma, Austria), a suitable combination of several neurotrophic factors and active peptide fragments are the need of the hour to contain such cellular damages caused by the FMIONPs in vivo. Our observations show that co-administration of Cerebrolysin prevents the FMIONPs induced pathologies associated with CNS injuries. These observations support the idea that FMIONPs are safe for the CNS in disease conditions when co-administered with cerebrolysin. This indicates that cerebrolysin could be used as an adjunct therapy to prevent cellular damages in disease conditions where the use of FMIONPs is required for better efficacy e.g., cancer treatment.

  13. Reconstruction of the late Holocene climate in the Minusink Hollow, south-central Siberia, and its potential influence on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction. Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. Gumilev (2000) developed a theory relating the rise, development and fall of human cultures (ethnos) to the changing environment. This theory improved our understanding of human history as the natural interactions the biosphere and sociosphere. We test the hypothesis that climate change altered the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and forced them to choose agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow located at the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Methods. Three different methods (the Montane Bioclimatic Model; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) were employed to reconstruct vegetation from the fossil pollen of sediment cores of two mountain lakes in the study area at eleven time slices relating to successive human cultures back to the midHolocene. Our bioclimatic model was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. Climate-based regression models were developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Results. Our pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe lands dominating up to 85% of the area and four wetter periods with forests dominating up to 60% of the area since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased one order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space likely suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields dropped during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields could increase twofold and support more fixed human settlements centered around farming and herding cattle. Thus, the dry periods

  14. Potential influence of the late Holocene climate on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding in the Minusinsk Hollow, south-central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, T. A.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. We test the hypothesis that climate change influenced the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and favored agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow, located in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Three different methods (the Montane BioClimatic Model, MontBCliM; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) are employed to reconstruct vegetation taken from the fossil pollen of sediment cores in two mountain lakes at eleven time slices related to successive human cultures back to the mid-Holocene. MontBCliM model is used inversely to convert site paleo-vegetation into site paleo-climates. Climate-based regression models are developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe and wetter periods with forests since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased by an order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields decreased during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields increased twofold and supported more fixed human settlements centered around farming and cattle herding. Thus, the dry periods favored pastoralist rather than farming activities. Conversely, tribes that practiced agriculture had some advantage in the wet periods.

  15. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  16. Identifying Sources and Assessing Potential Risk of Exposure to Heavy Metals and Hazardous Materials in Mining Areas: The Case Study of Panasqueira Mine (Central Portugal as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Candeias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sn-W Panasqueira mine, in activity since the mid-1890s, is one of the most important economic deposits in the world. Arsenopyrite is the main mineral present as well as rejected waste sulphide. The long history is testified by the presence of a huge amount of tailings, which release considerable quantities of heavy metal(loids into the environment. This work assesses soil contamination and evaluates the ecological and human health risks due to exposure to hazardous materials. The metal assemblage identified in soil (Ag-As-Bi-Cd-Cu-W-Zn; potentially toxic elements (PTEs reflects the influence of the tailings, due to several agents including aerial dispersion. PTEs and pH display a positive correlation confirming that heavy metal mobility is directly related to pH and, therefore, affects their availability. The estimated contamination factor classified 92.6% of soil samples as moderately to ultra-highly polluted. The spatial distribution of the potential ecological risk index classified the topsoil as being of a very high ecological risk, consistent with wind direction. Non-carcinogenic hazard of topsoil, for children (1–6 years, showed that for As the non-carcinogenic hazard represents a high health risk. The carcinogenic risks, both for children and adult alike, reveal a very high cancer risk mostly due to As ingestion.

  17. Potential contribution of planktonic components to ammonium cycling in the coastal area off central-southern Chile during non-upwelling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Veronica; Morales, Carmen E.; Farías, Laura; Cornejo, Marcela; Graco, Michelle; Eissler, Yoanna; Cuevas, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential contributions of different microbial components (consumption and production, and carbon assimilation associated with photolithotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic (nitrification) metabolisms in the water column were performed. Despite low water column concentrations of ammonium in wintertime, intense ammonium transformations were registered. Prokaryotes (or bacterioplankton) contributed most to ammonium generation rates over the entire water column; these rates increased with depth (0.4-3.1 μM d -1). In surface waters (10 m depth), aerobic ammonium oxidation (potentially by Bacteria and Archaea) was the dominant consumption process (average 0.7 μM d -1) whereas in the subsurface layer (20 and 50 m depth), unexpectedly, eukaryotes accounted for most of its consumption (average 2.1 μM d -1). Nitrification oxidized an important proportion of the ammonium in both layers (from 25% to 100%) and provided regenerated nitrate. The integrated water column rates of chemosynthesis (0.005 g C m -2 d -1) represented a large proportion (51%) of the total dark carbon fixation during the non-upwelling season when integrated rates of photosynthesis are relatively low (0.42 g C m -2 d -1) and microbial food webs dominate the transfer of carbon within this coastal system.

  18. Multi-resolution Changes in the Spatial Extent of Perennial Arctic Alpine Snow and Ice Fields with Potential Archaeological Significance in the Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, M. E.; Freeburg, A. K.; Rasic, J. T.; Ciancibelli, C.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Perennial snow and ice fields could be an important archaeological and paleoecological resource for Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve in the central Brooks Range mountains of Arctic Alaska. These features may have cultural significance, as prehistoric artifacts may be frozen within the snow and ice. Globally significant discoveries have been made recently as ancient artifacts and animal dung have been found in melting alpine snow and ice patches in the Southern Yukon and Northwest Territories in Canada, the Wrangell mountains in Alaska, as well as in other areas. These sites are melting rapidly, which results in quick decay of biological materials. The summer of 2015 saw historic lows in year round snow cover extent for most of Alaska. Twenty mid to high elevation sites, including eighteen perennial snow and ice fields, and two glaciers, were surveyed in July 2015 to quantify their areal extent. This survey was accomplished by using both low flying aircraft (helicopter), as well as with on the ground in-situ (by foot) measurements. By helicopter, visual surveys were conducted within tens of meters of the surface. Sites visited by foot were surveyed for extent of snow and ice coverage, melt water hydrologic parameters and chemistry, and initial estimates of depths and delineations between snow, firn, and ice. Imagery from both historic aerial photography and from 5m resolution IKONOS satellite information were correlated with the field data. Initial results indicate good agreement in permanent snow and ice cover between field surveyed data and the 1985 to 2011 Landsat imagery-based Northwest Alaska snow persistence map created by Macander et al. (2015). The most deviation between the Macander et al. model and the field surveyed results typically occurred as an overestimate of perennial extent on the steepest aspects. These differences are either a function of image classification or due to accelerated ablation rates in perennial snow and ice coverage

  19. Demand-side management energy saving potential in commercial and governmental/institutional sectors and its impact on power planning : a case study of central grid of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.S.; Al-Khrousi, A.R.; Al-Hindi, M.; Al-Mahrouqi, Y. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). College of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of Demand-Side Management (DSM) energy saving potential in commercial, government and institutional sectors of Oman were presented along with an evaluation of its impact on generation capacity and energy savings. DSM was defined as electricity demand management by methods such as peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting, and strategic conservation. Peak clipping reduces electricity demand during on-peak periods of the day, thus lowering the peak demand that utilities must meet. In contrast, valley filling increases the electrical load during off-peak periods. Load shifting refers to the movement of loads from peak periods to off-peak periods without any shift in energy use. Strategic load growth aims to increase the load in the future, while strategic conservation aims to decrease the load in the future without any shift in demand to another time. The purpose of DSM is to influence the amount or timing of customers' energy use. It has a positive environmental outlook and provides the best solution between load growth and increasing constraints on new and existing generation, transmission and distribution capacity. Resource options for DSM include energy efficiency options, such as energy efficient appliances, lighting, high efficiency heating, ventilating and air conditioning. Other options include load management and tariffs such as time-of-use incentives. The goal of electricity planning is to meet the load forecast with high reliability at a minimum cost. DSM economic energy savings potential is worked out from both the customer point of view and the electric utility's point of view. The study showed that the use of DSM in commercial and government sectors is economically justified from the customer point of view. DSM programs in the government and commercial sectors reduced the energy consumption to 21 and 38 per cent respectively. The discounted payback period of investment in efficient lighting and air-conditioning was between 4

  20. HOW ARE PLANT SPECIES IN CENTRAL EUROPEAN BEECH (FAGUS SYLVATICA L. FORESTS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE CHANGES? SHIFT OF POTENTIAL SUITABLE HABITATS UNDER GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Jantsch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals which temperature range is favoured or avoided by 156 forest plant species and how the distribution of potential suitable habitats of species in beech forests may change in the future. We performed 140 phytosociological relevés along a temperature gradient (4.1 to 9.8 °C in Bavaria, southern Germany, on south exposed slopes. One half of the plots were located on acidic substrate, the other half on base-rich substrate. Generalized linear models (GLM were used to analyse species occurrence along the temperature gradient and to model habitats for species in beech forests under a present (1971-2000 and a future climate (2071-2100 scenario assuming a temperature increase of 1.8 °C. Herb species of beech forests are more adapted to lower temperatures and tree species more to higher temperatures. Current habitats will clearly change under increasing temperatures. We found large habitat losses for Luzula sylvatica (Huds. Gaudin, Maianthemum bifolium (L. F. W. Schmidt, Picea abies (L. H. Karst., Prenanthes purpurea L. and large habitat gains for Carpinus betulus L., Impatiens parviflora DC., Prunus avium (L. L. and Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. on both substrates. Forestry will be affected positively as well as negatively with a change in tree cultivation. Losses in biodiversity might be strong for mountainous forests and must also be considered in future conservation plans.

  1. Friction and mixing effects on potential vorticity for bottom current crossing a marine strait: an application to the Sicily Channel (central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Falcini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here the evolution of vorticity and potential vorticity (PV for a bottom current crossing a marine channel in shallow-water approximation, focusing on the effect of friction and mixing. We argue that bottom current vorticity is prone to significant sign changes and oscillations due to topographic effects when, in particular, the current flows over the sill of a channel. These vorticity variations are, however, modulated by frictional effects due to seafloor roughness and morphology. Such behavior is also reflected in the PV spatial evolution, which shows an abrupt peak around the sill region. Our theoretical findings are discussed by means of in situ hydrographic data related to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water, i.e., a dense, bottom water vein that flows northwestward, along the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea. Indeed, the narrow sill of this channel implies that friction and entrainment need to be considered. Small tidal effects in the Sicily Channel allow for a steady theoretical approach. Our diagnoses on vorticity and PV allow us to obtain general insights about the effect of mixing and friction on the pathway and internal structure of bottom-trapped currents flowing through channels and straits, and to discuss spatial variability of the frictional coefficient. Our approach significantly differs from other PV-constant approaches previously used in studying the dynamics of bottom currents flowing through rotating channels.

  2. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  3. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  4. Effect of a new series of bicyclic compounds with potential thymoleptic properties on the reserpine-resistant uptake mechanism of central and peripheral monoamine neurones in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, A; Fuxe, K; Hamberger, B; Malmfors, T

    1969-05-01

    1. Bicyclic compounds with potential thymoleptic properties (Lu-compounds) have recently become available, and their effects on the membrane pumps of the central and peripheral monoamine neurones have now been tested and compared with those of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs.2. Biochemical and histochemical in vivo studies have been performed. The possible blocking action of Lu-compounds on the noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) displacement caused by 4,alpha-dimethyl-metatyramine (H 77/77) and 4-methyl-alpha-ethyl-meta-tyramine (H 75/12), respectively, has been studied, and a positive result has been taken as evidence for membrane pump blocking activity. No certain effects were obtained on the 5-HT displacement induced by H 75/12, whereas a partial blockade of the NA displacement by H 77/77 in central NA neurones was obtained after most of the Lu-compounds (Lu-3-010, 3-049, 3-092, 4-012) and especially after the thiophthalane derivative Lu 5-003. The ED50 of the latter drug was around 8 mg/kg, that is, somewhere between protriptyline (ED50 4 mg/kg) and desipramine (ED50 15 mg/kg) in potency.3. Histochemical in vivo studies on the rat iris revealed that Lu 5-003 and especially the corresponding phthalane derivative Lu 3-010 were potent in blocking the uptake of alpha-methyl-NA in the adrenergic nerve terminals of the iris. The other Lu-compounds were less active. The releasing effects of the Lu-compounds on the extragranular accumulation of alpha-methyl-NA in the adrenergic terminals were weak compared with membrane blocking activity.4. In vitro studies on the central and peripheral catecholamine (CA) neurones have also been performed. In the same way as, for example, protriptyline the Lu-compounds only blocked accumulation of alpha-methyl-NA in the NA terminals but not in the dopamine (DA) nerve terminals. Lu 5-003 and Lu 3-010 were the most potent of the Lu-drugs when added in vitro. The Lu-drugs were also injected in vivo after which the effect

  5. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  6. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  7. Central pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  8. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  9. Petrophysical examination of CO₂-brine-rock interactions-results of the first stage of long-term experiments in the potential Zaosie Anticline reservoir (central Poland) for CO₂ storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Radosław; Wdowin, Magdalena; Manecki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of experiment-induced alterations and changes in the properties of reservoir rocks and sealing rocks sampled from potential reservoir for CO₂. In the experiment, rocks submerged in brine in specially constructed reactors were subjected to CO₂ pressure of 6 MPa for 20 months at room temperature. Samples of Lower Jurassic reservoir rocks and sealing rocks (sandstones, claystones, and mudstones) from the Zaosie Anticline (central Poland) were analysed for their petrophysical properties (specific surface area, porosity, pore size and distribution) before and after the experiment. Comparison of the ionic composition the brines before and after the experiment demonstrated an increase in total dissolved solids as well as the concentration of sulphates and calcium ions. This indicates partial dissolution of the rock matrix and the cements. As a result of the reaction, the properties of reservoir rocks did not changed significantly and should not affect the process of CO₂ storage. In the case of the sealing rocks, however, the porosity, the framework density, as well as the average capillary and threshold diameter increased. Also, the pore distribution in the pore space changed in favour of larger pores. The reasons for these changes could not be explained by petrographic characteristics and should be thoroughly investigated.

  10. Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical

  11. A Study of Magnetic Motor Evoked Potentials in the Central Nervous System Dysfunction Model of Myasthenia Gravis%大鼠重症肌无力中枢损害运动诱发电位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 夏君慧; 孙成超; 叶好好

    2000-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation of acetylcholine receptor antibodies(AChRAb) and dysfunction of central neuvous system (CNS) motor transmission in myasthenia gravis(MG) . Methods IgG purified from MG patient sera was injected into the lateral cerebroventricular system before and after application of motor evoked potential(MEP) examination .Results Intracerebroventricular administration of AChRAb produced loss of MEP wave or prolongation of the latency of the MEP wave,compared to injection of IgG purified from healthy control . Conclusion It is concluded that intracerebroventricular administration of AChRAb causes dysfunction of motor pulse transmission in rats . Present study has further demonstrated that AChRAb cause CNS dysfunction .%目的 探讨乙酰胆碱受体抗体(AChRAb)与中枢神经系统(CNS)运动传导通路之间的关系。方法 从AChRAb阳性的全身型重症肌无力(MG)患者血清中提取纯化IgG,然后注入大鼠侧脑室,观察其对运动诱发电位(MEP)的影响。结果 注入大鼠侧脑室内的AChRAb可致大鼠MEP异常,表现为MEP波消失或潜伏期延长。结论 本研究进一步证实MG患者的AChRAb不仅可以作用于NMJ处的AChR,而且还可作用于大鼠CNS,致CNS运动传导通路功能异常。

  12. Estimating the reactivation potential of existing fractures in subsurface granitoids from outcrop analogues and in-situ stress modeling: implications for EGS reservoir stimulation with an example from Meiningen (Thuringia, Central Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Kasch, Norbert; Siegburg, Melanie; Navabpour, Payman; Thieme, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The southwestern part of Thuringia (central Germany) hosts large subsurface extents of Lower Carboniferous granitoids of the Mid-German Crystalline Rise, overlain by an up to several kilometer thick succession of Lower Permian to Mid-Triassic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The granitic basement represents a conductivity-controlled ('hot dry rock') reservoir of high potential that could be targeted for economic exploitation as an enhanced geothermal system (EGS) in the future. As a preparatory measure, the federal states of Thuringia and Saxony have jointly funded a collaborative research and development project ('Optiriss') aimed at mitigating non-productivity risks during the exploration of such reservoirs. In order to provide structural constraints on the fracture network design during reservoir stimulation, we have carried out a geometric and kinematic analysis of pre-existing fracture patterns in exposures of the Carboniferous basement and Mesozoic cover rocks within an area of c. 500 km2 around the towns of Meiningen and Suhl, where granitic basement and sedimentary cover are juxtaposed along the southern border fault of the Thuringian Forest basement high. The frequency distribution of fractures was assessed by combining outcrop-scale fracture measurements in 31 exposures and photogrammetric analysis of fractures using a LIDAR DEM with 5 m horizontal resolution and rectified aerial images at 4 localities. This analysis revealed a prevalence of NW-SE-trending fractures of mainly joints, extension veins, Permian magmatic dikes and subordinately brittle faults in the Carboniferous granitic basement, which probably resulted from Permian tectonics. In order to assess the reactivation potential of fractures in the reservoir during a stimulation phase, constraints on the current strain regime and in-situ stress magnitudes, including borehole data and earthquake focal mechanisms in a larger area, were needed. These data reveal a presently NW-SE-trending maximum

  13. Central core disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth Heinz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Central core disease (CCD is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies. CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal weakness pronounced in the hip girdle; orthopaedic complications are common and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS is a frequent complication. CCD and MHS are allelic conditions both due to (predominantly dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1 gene, encoding the principal skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (RyR1. Altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis within muscle cells due to mutation-induced conformational changes of the RyR protein are considered the main pathogenetic mechanism(s. The diagnosis of CCD is based on the presence of suggestive clinical features and central cores on muscle biopsy; muscle MRI may show a characteristic pattern of selective muscle involvement and aid the diagnosis in cases with equivocal histopathological findings. Mutational analysis of the RYR1 gene may provide genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Management is mainly supportive and has to anticipate susceptibility to potentially life-threatening reactions to general anaesthesia. Further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms may provide the basis for future rational pharmacological treatment. In the majority of patients, weakness is static or only slowly progressive, with a favourable long-term outcome.

  14. Glial involvement in trigeminal central sensitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that trigeminal neurons exhibit central sensitization, an increase in the excitability of neurons within the central nervous system to the extent that a normally innocuous stimulus begins to produce pain after inflamma-tion or injury, and that glial activities play a vital role in this central sensitization. The involvement of glial cells in trigeminal central sensitization contains multiple mechanisms, including interaction with glutamatergic and purinergic receptors. A better understanding of the trigeminal central sensitization mediated by glial cells will help to find potential therapeutic targets and lead to developing new analge-sics for orofacial-specific pain with higher efficiency and fewer side-effects.

  15. Estimation of the geothermal potential of the Caldara di Manziana site in the Mts Sabatini Volcanic District (Central Italy) by integrating geochemical data and 3D-GIS modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaldi, Massimo; Lelli, Matteo; Tarchini, Luca; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Patera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    High-enthalpy geothermal fields of Central Italy are hosted in deeply fractured carbonate reservoirs occurring in thermally anomalous and seismically active zones. However, the Mts. Sabatini volcanic district, located north of Rome, has an interesting deep temperatures (T), but it is characterized by low to very low seismicity and permeability in the reservoir rocks (mostly because of hydrothermal self-sealing processes). Low PCO2 facilitates the complete sealing of the reservoir fractures, preventing hot fluids rising and, determining a low CO2 flux at the surface. Conversely, high CO2 flux generally reflects a high pressure of CO2, suggesting that an active geothermal reservoir is present at depth. In Mts. Sabatini district, the Caldara of Manziana (CM) is the only zone characterized by a very high CO2 flux (188 tons/day) from a surface of 0.15 km2) considering both the diffuse and viscous CO2 emission. This suggests the likely presence of an actively degassing geothermal reservoir at depth. Emitted gas is dominated by CO2 (>97 vol.%). Triangular irregular networks (TINs) have been used to represent the morphology of the bottom of the surficial volcanic deposits, the thickness of the impervious formation and the top of the geothermal reservoir. The TINs, integrated by T-gradient and deep well data, allowed to estimate the depth and the temperature of the top of the geothermal reservoir, respectively to ~-1000 m from the surface and to ~130°C. These estimations are fairly in agreement with those obtained by gas chemistry (818geothermal potential has been estimated to 48÷68 MW, which would represent ~30% to ~40% of the total thermal power estimated at regional scale for the Manziana geothermal system. Our results, suggest that the W-SW sector of Bracciano lake is the most thermally anomalous zone of the area. Geothermometers and the GIS model indicated a temperature range between 120 and 150°C, confirming the presence of a medium-enthalpy geothermal resource in

  16. Recent (2008-10) concentrations and isotopic compositions of nitrate and concentrations of wastewater compounds in the Barton Springs zone, south-central Texas, and their potential relation to urban development in the contributing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2008–10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Austin, the City of Dripping Springs, the Barton Springs/Edwards Aquifer Conservation District, the Lower Colorado River Authority, Hays County, and Travis County, collected and analyzed water samples from five streams (Barton, Williamson, Slaughter, Bear, and Onion Creeks), two groundwater wells (Marbridge well [YD–58–50–704] and Buda well [LR–58–58–403]), and the main orifice of Barton Springs in Austin, Texas, with the objective of characterizing concentrations and isotopic compositions of nitrate and concentrations of wastewater compounds in the Barton Springs zone. The Barton Springs zone is in south-central Texas, an area undergoing rapid growth in population and in land area affected by development, with associated increases in wastewater generation. Over a period of 17 months, during which the hydrologic conditions transitioned from dry to wet, samples were collected routinely from the streams, wells, and spring and, in response to storms, from the streams and spring; some or all samples were analyzed for nitrate, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, and waste­water compounds. The median nitrate concentrations in routine samples from all sites were higher in samples collected during the wet period than in samples collected during the dry period, with the greatest difference for stream samples (0.05 milligram per liter during the dry period to 0.96 milligram per liter for the wet period). Nitrate concentrations in recent (2008–10) samples were elevated relative to concentrations in historical (1990–2008) samples from streams and from Barton Springs under medium- and high-flow conditions. Recent nitrate concentrations were higher than historical concentrations at the Marbridge well but the reverse was true at the Buda well. The elevated concentrations likely are related to the cessation of dry conditions coupled with increased nitrogen loading in the

  17. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  18. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  19. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  20. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  1. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed.

  2. Central venous catheter - flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/22/2016 Updated by: ...

  3. Erroneous laboratory values obtained from central catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J B; Messina, M

    1991-01-01

    Serious analytic errors in potassium measurements have been identified in blood specimens obtained from newly inserted central catheters. Erroneous elevated readings have been related to interactions of chemistry analyzer electrodes and substances fixed to external and intraluminal walls of the central catheter. Anecdotal summaries of this phenomenon are presented to enable the nurse to recognize potential problems when sampling blood from central catheters. Studies were performed to determine the amount of flush necessary to clear the catheter of interfering residue. To eliminate this potentially hazardous occurrence, recommended flush volumes, nursing implications, and actions are described.

  4. Reservoir Characterization for CO2 Sequestration: Assessing the Potential of the Devonian Carbonate Nisku Formation of Central Alberta Caractérisation de réservoir en vue du stockage géologique de CO2 : évaluation du potentiel offert par les carbonates dévoniens de la formation de Nisku, en Alberta central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisinger C.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wabamun Lake area of Central Alberta, Canada includes several large CO2 point source emitters, collectively producing more than 30 Mt annually. Previous studies established that deep saline aquifers beneath the Wabamun Lake area have good potential for the large-scale injection and storage of CO2. This study reports on the characterization of the Devonian carbonate Nisku Formation for evaluation as a CO2 repository. Major challenges for characterization included sparse well and seismic data, poor quality flow tests, and few modern measurements. Wireline porosity measurements were present in only one-third of the wells, so porosity and flow capacity (permeability-thickness were estimated using wireline electrical measurements. The Archie cementation factor appears to vary between 2 and 3, creating uncertainty when predicting porosity using the electrical measurements; however, high-porosity zones could be identified. The electrically-based flow capacity predictions showed more favorable values using a correlation with core than the relation based on drill stem and production tests. This behavior is expected, since the flow test flow capacities are less influenced by local occurrences of very permeable vuggy and moldic rocks. Facies distributions were modeled using both pixel and object methods. The object models, using dimensions obtained from satellite imaging of modern day environments, gave results that were more consistent with the geological understanding of the Nisku and showed greater large-scale connectivity than the pixel model. Predicted volumes show considerable storage capacity in the Nisku, but flow simulations suggest injection capacities are below an initial 20 Mt/year target using vertical wells. More elaborate well designs, including fracture stimulation or multi-lateral wells may allow this goal to be reached or surpassed. Plusieurs gros émetteurs de CO2, totalisant 30 Mt annuels, sont localisés dans la région du Lac

  5. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  6. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  7. Diet and trophic ecology of the lanternfish Electrona risso (Cocco 1829) in the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) and potential resource utilization from the Deep Scattering Layer (DSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Pietro; Andaloro, Franco; Esposito, Valentina; Granata, Antonia; Guglielmo, Letterio; Guglielmo, Rosanna; Musolino, Simona; Romeo, Teresa; Zagami, Giacomo

    2016-07-01

    The feeding habits of the mesopelagic lanternfish Electrona risso from the Strait of Messina (central Mediterranean Sea) were analyzed for the first time. A total of 326 individuals were collected stranded along the Sicilian coast of the Strait of Messina from October 2012 to May 2013. Specimens ranged from 12.0 to 53.8 mm LS (mean LS = 38.6 ± 8.4 mm). Their stomach content was examined and prey composition and feeding strategy were investigated. The results indicate that E. risso is a specialist predator, which feeds mainly on the small mesopelagic fish Cyclothone braueri (%IRI = 74.06) and in minor proportion on zooplankton, with a prevalence of copepods. The specialized feeding strategy of E. risso is confirmed by the low value of Levins standardized index (Bj = 0.141), which indicated a restricted niche breadth. The value of the index of trophic level (TROPH) for E. risso resulted 4.20. The prey composition suggests that E. risso can be considered a weakly vertical migrating species, that feeds on the DSL crustacean and fish communities below 300 m of depth.

  8. Hidrogenionic potential (pH of the attractant, trap density and control threshold for Ceratitis capitata (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE on Hamlin oranges in São Paulo central region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Branco Paiva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of initial pH values of 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5 of the attractant (protein bait Milhocina® and borax (sodium borate in the field, on the capture of fruit flies in McPhail traps, using 1, 2, 4 and 8 traps per hectare, in order to estimate control thresholds in a Hamlin orange grove in the central region of the state of São Paulo. The most abundant fruit fly species was Ceratitis capitata, comprising almost 99% of the fruit flies captured, of which 80% were females. The largest captures of C. capitata were found in traps baited with Milhocina® and borax at pH 8.5. Captures per trap for the four densities were similar, indicating that the population can be estimated with one trap per hectare in areas with high populations. It was found positive relationships between captures of C. capitata and the number of Hamlin oranges damaged, 2 and 3 weeks after capture. It was obtained equations that correlate captures and damage levels which can be used to estimate control thresholds. The average loss caused in Hamlin orange fruits by C. capitata was 2.5 tons per hectare or 7.5% of production.

  9. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or hands. Central pain syndrome often begins shortly after the causative injury or damage, but may be delayed by months or even years, especially if it is related to post-stroke pain. × Definition Central pain syndrome is a neurological ...

  10. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Blattner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as "hot comb alopecia," "follicular degeneration syndrome," "pseudopelade" in African Americans and "central elliptical pseudopelade" in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races.

  11. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  12. Optimal central bank transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the opt

  13. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  14. The central peak revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirane, G.

    1995-10-27

    The central peak in SrTiO{sub 3} was first observed by Riste and his collaborators in 1971. This was one of the key discoveries leading to an understanding of the dynamics of phase transitions. The most recent discovery of two length scales in SrTiO{sub 3} motivated a reinvestigation of the soft phonon and associated central peak by neutron scattering. These recent experiments shed new light on the nature of the central peak. It is now well established to be strongly sample dependent and it originates from defects in bulk crystals.

  15. Imaging central pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Greenspan, Joel D; Kim, Jong H; Coghill, Robert C; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick A

    2007-06-01

    Anatomic, functional, and neurochemical imaging studies have provided new investigative tools in the study of central pain. High-resolution imaging studies allow for precise determination of lesion location, whereas functional neuroimaging studies measure pathophysiologic consequences of injury to the central nervous system. Additionally, magnetic resonance spectroscopy evaluates lesion-induced neurochemical changes in specific brain regions that may be related to central pain. The small number of studies to date precludes definitive conclusions, but the recent findings provide information that either supports or refutes current hypotheses and can serve to generate new ideas.

  16. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities ...

  17. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  18. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  19. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  20. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  1. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  2. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    and temporal variability in climate, land-use changes, and available surface-water deliveries. For example, the droughts of 1976-77 and 1987-92 led to reduced streamflow and surface-water deliveries and increased evapotranspiration and groundwater pumpage throughout most of the valley, resulting in a decrease in groundwater storage. Since the mid-1990s, annual surface-water deliveries generally have exceeded groundwater pumpage, resulting in an increase or no change in groundwater storage throughout most of the valley. However, groundwater is still being removed from storage during most years in the southern part of the Central Valley. The CVHM is designed to be coupled with Global Climate Models to forecast the potential supply of surface-water deliveries, demand for groundwater pumpage, potential subsidence, and changes in groundwater storage in response to different climate-change scenarios. The detailed database on texture properties coupled with CVHM's ability to simulate the combined effects of recharge and discharge make CVHM particularly useful for assessing water-management plans, such as conjunctive water use, conservation of agriculture land, and land-use change. In the future, the CVHM could be used in conjunction with optimization models to help evaluate water-management alternatives to effectively utilize the available water resources.

  3. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  4. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  5. Towards a new High Resolution Orthophoto Mosaic Circa 1976 for the Northern Eurasia: Assessing the Potential of Declassified Hexagon KH-9 Images (Tien Shan Region, Central Asia Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surazakov, A.; Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.

    2008-12-01

    Repeated satellite-based inventories of land-cover and land-use, such as Global Landsat Orthorectified data collection (28.5-57 m resolution), are crucial for understanding dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. However, accurate estimation of dynamics of certain natural and man-made phenomena (mountain glaciers, lakes, urban and agricultural areas) often requires higher resolution remote sensed datasets (with resolution below 10-20 m). In the Northern Eurasia, such datasets are often too expensive or unavailable for a regional study (for example SPOT, TK-350, aerial photography) or span only the last decade (for example Landsat ETM, ASTER, IRS, ALOS/PRISM). This study estimates accuracy and potential of historical Hexagon KH-9 images for generation of a high resolution orthorectified product circa 1976 on a regional scale. The Hexagon KH-9 images were declassified by the U.S. Government in 2002. Although the KH-9 dataset coverage is global, it is particularly rich over the Northern Eurasia where multiple repeat images were acquired for the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency. Using a set of KH-9 images we generated a high quality orthorectified mosaic for the area of Tien Shan mountain system (about 550,000 km2) with resolution of 6-9 m and horizontal accuracy about 9 m. The panchromatic orthophoto mosaic is a unique dataset that for the first time portrays the remote region with such detail and, at the same time, extends the retrospective for more than three decades. The mosaic enabled creation of a glacier inventory for the Tien Shan mountains circa 1976. The Tien Shan case study demonstrated that Hexagon KH-9 images can be used for generation of a land-cover/land-use inventory circa 1976 on regional scales and with high spatial resolution.

  6. Central respiratory failure during acute organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Jennifer L; Dunn, Courtney; Gaspari, Romolo J

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is a global health problem with over 250,000 deaths per year. OPs affect neuronal signaling through acetylcholine (Ach) neurotransmission via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), leading to accumulation of Ach at the synaptic cleft and excessive stimulation at post-synaptic receptors. Mortality due to OP agents is attributed to respiratory dysfunction, including central apnea. Cholinergic circuits are integral to many aspects of the central control of respiration, however it is unclear which mechanisms predominate during acute OP intoxication. A more complete understanding of the cholinergic aspects of both respiratory control as well as neural modification of pulmonary function is needed to better understand OP-induced respiratory dysfunction. In this article, we review the physiologic mechanisms of acute OP exposure in the context of the known cholinergic contributions to the central control of respiration. We also discuss the potential central cholinergic contributions to the known peripheral physiologic effects of OP intoxication.

  7. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir To Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W. Lynn [University Of Kansas Center For Research, Inc. Lawrence, KS (United States); Rush, Jason [University Of Kansas Center For Research, Inc. Lawrence, KS (United States); Raney, Jennifer [University Of Kansas Center For Research, Inc. Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1. Drilled, cored, and logged three wells to the basement and collecting more than 2,700 ft of conventional core; obtained 20 mi2 of multicomponent 3D seismic imaging and merged and reprocessed more than 125 mi2 of existing 3D seismic data for use in modeling CO2- EOR oil recovery and CO2 storage in five oil fields in southern Kansas. 2. Determined the technical feasibility of injecting and sequestering CO2 in a set of four depleted oil reservoirs in the Cutter, Pleasant Prairie South, Eubank, and Shuck fields in southwest Kansas; of concurrently recovering oil from those fields; and of quantifying the volumes of CO2 sequestered and oil recovered during the process. 3. Formed a consortium of six oil operating companies, five of which own and operate the four fields. The consortium became part of the Southwest Kansas CO2-EOR Initiative for the purpose of sharing data, knowledge, and interest in understanding the potential for CO2-EOR in Kansas. 4. Built a regional well database covering 30,000 mi2 and containing stratigraphic tops from ~90,000 wells; correlated 30 major stratigraphic horizons; digitized key wells, including wireline logs and sample logs; and analyzed more than 3,000 drill stem tests to establish that fluid levels in deep aquifers below the Permian evaporites are not connected to the surface and therefore pressures are not hydrostatic. Connectivity with the surface aquifers is lacking because shale aquitards and impermeable evaporite layers consist of both halite and anhydrite. 5. Developed extensive web applications and an interactive mapping system that do the following: a. Facilitate access to a wide array of data obtained in the study, including core descriptions and analyses, sample logs, digital (LAS) well logs, seismic data, gravity and magnetics maps, structural and stratigraphic maps, inferred fault traces, earthquakes, Class I and II disposal wells, and

  8. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoir To Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watney, W. Lynn [University Of Kansas Center For Research, Inc. Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1. Drilled, cored, and logged three wells to the basement and collecting more than 2,700 ft of conventional core; obtained 20 mi2 of multicomponent 3D seismic imaging and merged and reprocessed more than 125 mi2 of existing 3D seismic data for use in modeling CO2- EOR oil recovery and CO2 storage in five oil fields in southern Kansas. 2. Determined the technical feasibility of injecting and sequestering CO2 in a set of four depleted oil reservoirs in the Cutter, Pleasant Prairie South, Eubank, and Shuck fields in southwest Kansas; of concurrently recovering oil from those fields; and of quantifying the volumes of CO2 sequestered and oil recovered during the process. 3. Formed a consortium of six oil operating companies, five of which own and operate the four fields. The consortium became part of the Southwest Kansas CO2-EOR Initiative for the purpose of sharing data, knowledge, and interest in understanding the potential for CO2-EOR in Kansas. 4. Built a regional well database covering 30,000 mi2 and containing stratigraphic tops from ~90,000 wells; correlated 30 major stratigraphic horizons; digitized key wells, including wireline logs and sample logs; and analyzed more than 3,000 drill stem tests to establish that fluid levels in deep aquifers below the Permian evaporites are not connected to the surface and therefore pressures are not hydrostatic. Connectivity with the surface aquifers is lacking because shale aquitards and impermeable evaporite layers consist of both halite and anhydrite. 5. Developed extensive web applications and an interactive mapping system that do the following: a. Facilitate access to a wide array of data obtained in the study, including core descriptions and analyses, sample logs, digital (LAS) well logs, seismic data, gravity and magnetics maps, structural and stratigraphic maps, inferred fault traces, earthquakes, Class I and II disposal wells, and

  9. Evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, George H

    2013-11-01

    Before the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), evoked potentials (EPs)-visual evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and brain stem auditory evoked responses-were commonly used to determine a second site of disease in patients being evaluated for possible multiple sclerosis (MS). The identification of an area of the central nervous system showing abnormal conduction was used to supplement the abnormal signs identified on the physical examination-thus identifying the "multiple" in MS. This article is a brief overview of additional ways in which central nervous system (CNS) physiology-as measured by EPs-can still contribute value in the management of MS in the era of MRIs.

  10. Assessing of genotoxicity of 16 centralized source-waters in China by means of the SOS/umu assay and the micronucleus test: initial identification of the potential genotoxicants by use of a GC/MS method and the QSAR Toolbox 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yan; Weiwei, Jiang; Na, Li; Mei, Ma; Donghong, Wang; Zijian, Wang; Kaifeng, Rao

    2014-03-15

    Only few studies were conducted to assess genotoxicity of centralized source waters in China and almost none of them dealt with the causal relationship between the genotoxic effect and genotoxicants. In this work, 16 centralized source waters in China were sampled from five river systems and genotoxicity of their organic extracts was assessed by use of the SOS/umu test for DNA-damaging effect and the miniaturized flow cytometry-based micronucleus (MN) test for chromosome-damaging effect. In addition, initial identification of potential genotoxicants for the six samples from the Yangtze River was done with a GC/MS method and the QSAR toolbox 3.0. The results demonstrate that eight samples showed both indirect and direct DNA-damaging effects, another four samples showed only indirect DNA-damaging effects, while chromosome-damaging effects were found for 14 out of the 16 samples, in which aneugenic and clastogenic modes of action were found for 4 and 10 samples, respectively. Both direct/indirect DNA-damaging effects and chromosome-damaging effects were induced by the six Yangtze River samples, and the existing different types of genotoxicant confirmed the results. Furthermore, o-phenylphenol was initially identified as the major cause for the DNA-damaging effects while PAHs, pesticides, phenol and anthraquinone were identified as ubiquitous chromosome-damaging agents among these samples. In conclusion, a combination of the SOS/umu test and the miniaturized flow cytometry-based MN test to detect both DNA-damaging and chromosome-damaging effects could be used as a comprehensive genotoxicity assessment tool for the evaluation and classification of genotoxicity of complex mixtures, and potential genotoxicants can be initially identified with additional information from chemical analysis and the QSAR toolbox.

  11. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  12. SOCRATES Invades Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Slowinski

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore the current reality faced by higher education students in Central and Eastern Europe and to draw out the implications of this current reality for policy makers in the future. In the article, I explore the influence of transnational corporations' training programs on education as it currently pertains to Central and Eastern European higher education and employment. In addition, multinational corporate entities exercise influence on European Union policy through the role of lobby organizations and activities. I explore the influence of these practices on education with an emphasis on the emerging importance of Western language skills. In addition, I focus on the European Union and its efforts to expand into Central and Eastern Europe in order to provide a focal point for analysis.

  13. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  14. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  15. Glueballs A central mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin

    2000-01-01

    Glueball candidates and qqbar mesons have been found to be produced with different momentum and angular dependences in the central region of pp collisions. This talk illustrates this phenomenon and explains the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0++,0-+, 1++, 2++ and 2-+. For production of 0++ and 2++ mesons the analysis reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates. An explanation is given for the absence of 0-+ glueball candidates in central production at present energies and the opportunity for their discovery at RHIC is noted.

  16. Potentials Unbounded Below

    CERN Document Server

    Curtright, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Continuous interpolates are described for classical dynamical systems defined by discrete time-steps. Functional conjugation methods play a central role in obtaining the interpolations. The interpolates corrrespond to particle motion in an underlying potential, V. Typically, V has no lower bound and can exhibit switchbacks wherein V changes form when turning points are encountered by the particle. The logistic map is used to illustrate these features.

  17. Retiring the central executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement.

  18. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bano, Shahina; Chaudhary, Vikas; Yadav, Sachchidanand

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system tuberculosis is a rare presentation of active tuberculosis and accounts for about 1% of cases (1). The three clinical categories include meningitis, intracranial tuberculomas, and spinal tuberculous arachnoiditis. We report a case of a young man who presented with active pulmonary tuberculosis in addition to tuberculous meningitis and the presence of numerous intracranial tuberculomas.

  19. Central venous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  20. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  1. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  2. Central nervous system tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2014-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients.

  3. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology.

  4. Multicultural Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  5. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma.

  6. Company activities - central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayling, G.

    2007-06-15

    The first section of the article gives an overview of exploration and new developments in the field of gold, nickel, diamond and opal mining in central Queensland. The second part looks at coal, coal seam gas and petroleum exploration and development projects in the area. 1 fig.

  7. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    2016-01-01

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they a

  8. Central areolar choroidal dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zonneveld-Vrieling, M.N.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, follow-up data and molecular genetic background in a large group of patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred three patients with CACD from the Netherlands. METHODS

  9. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  10. Centrals Lafayette and Aguirre as potential sites for energy cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delucca, R.

    1980-01-01

    Bagasse is the fiber residue left after grinding sugarcane. Its most important characteristics are its heating value, fiber content, moisture content, and ash. Bagasse has always been used in Puerto Rico's sugar mills as fuel for the generation of steam, which in turn is used for moving the mill engines, for processing (and evaporation), and for the generation of electricity. The total bagasse produced during the 1980 crop in all the Puerto Rico sugar mills amounted to approximately 827,213 tons (equivalent on an undried basis to 1,109,293 barrels of fuel-oil, which at current prices would amount to $23,572,476). Since not all sugar mills in Puerto Rico have steam-measuring instrumentation, it is not readily known how much steam was actually produced in the sugar mills from bagasse. But using the Aguirre steam production data we can get a rough figure of what the steam production could have been. In this way we have figured a total steam production of 1,216,320 pounds of steam per hour. After using 60% of this steam for cane grinding, we then have left 486,528 pounds of steam per hour. This amount of steam could be used to produce 12,637.1 kwh of energy in the mill power plants (from bagasse fuel only), as surplus energy which could be sold to the P.R. Electric Power Authority. This would have a value of $3,022,890.00 for a 125-day crop.

  11. Central nicotinic receptors: structure, function, ligands, and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, M Novella; Gratteri, Paola; Guandalini, Luca; Martini, Elisabetta; Bonaccini, Claudia; Gualtieri, Fulvio

    2007-06-01

    The growing interest in nicotinic receptors, because of their wide expression in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues and their involvement in several important CNS pathologies, has stimulated the synthesis of a high number of ligands able to modulate their function. These membrane proteins appear to be highly heterogeneous, and still only incomplete information is available on their structure, subunit composition, and stoichiometry. This is due to the lack of selective ligands to study the role of nAChR under physiological or pathological conditions; so far, only compounds showing selectivity between alpha4beta2 and alpha7 receptors have been obtained. The nicotinic receptor ligands have been designed starting from lead compounds from natural sources such as nicotine, cytisine, or epibatidine, and, more recently, through the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries. This review focuses on the structure of the new agonists, antagonists, and allosteric ligands of nicotinic receptors, it highlights the current knowledge on the binding site models as a molecular modeling approach to design new compounds, and it discusses the nAChR modulators which have entered clinical trials.

  12. Geometry and earthquake potential of the shoreline fault, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2013-01-01

    The Shoreline fault is a vertical strike‐slip fault running along the coastline near San Luis Obispo, California. Much is unknown about the Shoreline fault, including its slip rate and the details of its geometry. Here, I study the geometry of the Shoreline fault at seismogenic depth, as well as the adjacent section of the offshore Hosgri fault, using seismicity relocations and earthquake focal mechanisms. The Optimal Anisotropic Dynamic Clustering (OADC) algorithm (Ouillon et al., 2008) is used to objectively identify the simplest planar fault geometry that fits all of the earthquakes to within their location uncertainty. The OADC results show that the Shoreline fault is a single continuous structure that connects to the Hosgri fault. Discontinuities smaller than about 1 km may be undetected, but would be too small to be barriers to earthquake rupture. The Hosgri fault dips steeply to the east, while the Shoreline fault is essentially vertical, so the Hosgri fault dips towards and under the Shoreline fault as the two faults approach their intersection. The focal mechanisms generally agree with pure right‐lateral strike‐slip on the OADC planes, but suggest a non‐planar Hosgri fault or another structure underlying the northern Shoreline fault. The Shoreline fault most likely transfers strike‐slip motion between the Hosgri fault and other faults of the Pacific–North America plate boundary system to the east. A hypothetical earthquake rupturing the entire known length of the Shoreline fault would have a moment magnitude of 6.4–6.8. A hypothetical earthquake rupturing the Shoreline fault and the section of the Hosgri fault north of the Hosgri–Shoreline junction would have a moment magnitude of 7.2–7.5.

  13. Unlocking India’s Strategic Potential in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject...lingering suspicion and poten- tially explosive conflict between the two countries, which are only starting to learn the ropes of project- ing

  14. Chanco formation, a potential Cretaceous reservoir, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecione, G.

    1983-07-01

    The Chanco embayment lies 300 km SSW of Santiago, Chile. The sequence within this basin above the metamorphic basement is: Chanco Formation (very clean sandstone), Quiriquina Formation (glauconitic sandstone, rich in organic matter), and Navidad Group (a very good caprock). This section thus contains reservoir, source and caprocks, and is therefore very promising for petroleum investigations. The offshore C-1 well yielded salt-water with gas shows, and two wells drilled onshore yielded shows of gas. The C-1 well lies on a gently-dipping EW-striking anticlinal structure, the presence of which makes the area very prospective.

  15. Induced, endogenous and exogenous centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Martin G.; Stephen P. Borgatti

    2010-01-01

    Centrality measures are based upon the structural position an actor has within the network. Induced centrality, sometimes called vitality measures, take graph invariants as an overall measure and derive vertex level measures by deleting individual nodes or edges and examining the overall change. By taking the sum of standard centrality measures as the graph invariant we can obtain measures which examine how much centrality an individual node contributes to the centrality of the other nodes in...

  16. Do Central Banks Need Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Stella

    1997-01-01

    Central banks may operate perfectly well without capital as conventionally defined. A large negative net worth, however, is likely to compromise central bank independence and interfere with its ability to attain policy objectives. If society values an independent central bank capable of effectively implementing monetary policy, recapitalization may become essential. Proper accounting practice in determining central bank profit or loss and rules governing the transfer of the central bank’s ope...

  17. The Analysis and Measurement of Trade Potential and Trade Prospect between China and Central Asia Countries under the Background of the Silk Road Economic Belt%“一带”背景下中国与中亚五国贸易潜力测算及前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志刚; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    中亚五国是“丝绸之路经济带”沿线的核心区域,所以研究中国与中亚五国贸易潜力对推进丝绸之路经济带建设具有十分重要的理论价值与现实意义。通过构建引力模型对中国与中亚五国贸易潜力进行实证分析及前景展望,结果表明:双方经济发展水平、交通运输成本、关税水平和上合组织等因素是影响出口及双边贸易的主要因素,其中双方经济发展水平、上合组织对出口及双边贸易总量有积极的影响,而距离及关税税率水平对出口和双边贸易总量起到一定的阻碍作用,其中关税水平对双边贸易总额的阻碍作用更为强烈。中国同哈萨克斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、土库曼斯坦双边贸易在2010年前基本处于“潜力巨大型”,而2010年后,处于“潜力再造型”状态。而乌兹别克斯坦除2009年以外一直处于“潜力巨大型”。因此推进上合组织框架下中国—中亚自由贸易区的建立,加快区域一体化的进程,加快中国与中亚国家互联互通建设有利于促进中国对中亚国家的双边贸易。此外,由于双方贸易的互补性及“丝绸之路经济带”的建设,中国与中亚五国贸易发展前景广阔。%By constructing trade gravity model ,the authors analyze the trade potential and prospect between China and central Asia countries .The findings suggest that :The economic development level of two sides ,transportation cost ,tariff level and SCO are the main factors in the impact of export and total trade;economic development level and SCO have a positive impact on bilateral trade and the total export ,distance and tariff have hindered exports and bilateral trade ,w hile tariff have a stronger obstructive effect on bilateral trade . Before 2010 , the bilateral trade of China with Kazakhstan ,Tajikistan ,Kyrgyzstan ,Turkmenistan ,located in a“potential type” ,and after 2010 , located in

  18. N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a novel metabotropic glutamate 2 potentiator with potential anxiolytic/antidepressant properties: in vivo profiling suggests a link between behavioral and central nervous system neurochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Matthew J; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Falcone, Julie F; Katner, Jason S; Perry, Kenneth W; Hart, John; Rorick-Kehn, Linda; Overshiner, Carl D; Rasmussen, Kurt; Chaney, Stephen F; Benvenga, Mark J; Li, Xia; Marlow, Deanna L; Thompson, Linda K; Luecke, Susan K; Wafford, Keith A; Seidel, Wesley F; Edgar, Dale M; Quets, Anne T; Felder, Christian C; Wang, XuShan; Heinz, Beverly A; Nikolayev, Alexander; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Mayhugh, Daniel; Khilevich, Albert; Zhang, Deyi; Ebert, Philip J; Eckstein, James A; Ackermann, Bradley L; Swanson, Steven P; Catlow, John T; Dean, Robert A; Jackson, Kimberley; Tauscher-Wisniewski, Sitra; Marek, Gerard J; Schkeryantz, Jeffrey M; Svensson, Kjell A

    2011-01-01

    The normalization of excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission through the activation of metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors may have therapeutic potential in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety/depression and schizophrenia. Here, we characterize the pharmacological properties of N-(4-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(isobutyryl)phenoxy)methyl)benzyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (THIIC), a structurally novel, potent, and selective allosteric potentiator of human and rat mGlu2 receptors (EC(50) = 23 and 13 nM, respectively). THIIC produced anxiolytic-like efficacy in the rat stress-induced hyperthermia assay and the mouse stress-induced elevation of cerebellar cGMP and marble-burying assays. THIIC also produced robust activity in three assays that detect antidepressant-like activity, including the mouse forced-swim test, the rat differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s assay, and the rat dominant-submissive test, with a maximal response similar to that of imipramine. Effects of THIIC in the forced-swim test and marble burying were deleted in mGlu2 receptor null mice. Analysis of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) showed that THIIC had a sleep-promoting profile with increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) and decreased REM sleep. THIIC also decreased the dark phase increase in extracellular histamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and decreased levels of the histamine metabolite tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA) in rat cerebrospinal fluid. Collectively, these results indicate that the novel mGlu2-positive allosteric modulator THIIC has robust activity in models used to predict anxiolytic/antidepressant efficacy, substantiating, at least with this molecule, differentiation in the biological impact of mGlu2 potentiation versus mGlu2/3 orthosteric agonism. In addition, we provide evidence that sleep EEG and CSF t-MeHA might function as viable biomarker approaches to facilitate the translational development of THIIC and other mGlu2

  19. Central simple Poisson algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yucai; XU Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  20. Central corneal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bijsterveld, O P

    1976-05-01

    Central corneal abscess developed in the experimental animal after inoculation of biologically active staphylococcal strains in a paracentral epithelial lesion of the cornea. These abscesses did not ulcerate, developed only with high inocula, occurred more frequently in immunized rabbits. A serpiginous type of ulceration did not develop at the site of the initial epithelial lesion nor at any other place in the cornea. Histologically, the lesions consisted of densely packed polymorphonuclear leukocytes between the corneal lamellae.

  1. FNAL central email systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  2. Centrality Measures in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Francis; Tebaldi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We show that although the prominent centrality measures in network analysis make use of different information about nodes' positions, they all process that information in an identical way: they all spring from a common family that are characterized by the same simple axioms. In particular, they are all based on a monotonic and additively separable treatment of a statistic that captures a node's position in the network.

  3. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  4. Electricity in Central Asia: Market and investment opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC report examines the vast interdependent electricity systems of the Central Asian states; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The report outlines the progress of market reform in this region and identifies the potential for investment opportunities.

  5. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  6. Determination of potential risk of heat stress of cattle in four locations of Central and Southern Chile Determinación del riesgo potencial de estrés térmico del ganado bovino en cuatro localidades del centro y sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Arias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological data from December to January of years 1999 to 2007 from weather stations located in four localities in Chile (Curicó, Chillán, Temuco and Osorno were used to calculate the adjusted temperature-humidity index (THIadj-max. Climate variables used to calculate the index were: wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity and an estimated value of solar radiation. When the values of THIadj-max were greater than 75, those days were considered as “alert” and as potential risk of heat stress in cattle. Additionally, the impact of climate on animal production was assessed by means of potential losses in milk production for each locality estimated by two equations. The localities of Curicó and Chillán presented similar values of THIadj-max (79.4 and 79.1, respectively, and both were higher than those for Temuco and Osorno (77.1 and 68.1, respectively, P 75 was greater in the Central region. In addition, the estimated mean milk production loss was greater in the Central regions (1.5 to 4.3 and 1.2 to 3.1 L*cow-1*d-1 for Curicó and Chillán, respectively. Conversely, the Southern regions, Temuco and Osorno, presented lower potential losses with 0.9 to 2.6 and 0.1 to 0.6 L*cow-1*d-1, respectively. In conclusion, the potential risk of heat stress of cattle seems greater in Curicó and Chillán, moderate in Temuco and minimum in Osorno. Additional research is needed in the order to quantify the impacts of environmental conditions in productivity and welfare of cattle in Chile.Datos climáticos del periodo diciembre a febrero de los años 1999 al 2007 provenientes de estaciones meteorológicas situadas en Curicó, Chillán, Temuco y Osorno fueron utilizados para calcular un índice temperatura-humedad ajustado por el efecto del viento y de la radiación (THIadj-max. Las variables climáticas utilizadas para calcular este índice incluyeron: velocidad del viento, temperatura máxima del aire, humedad relativa y un valor estimado de la

  7. Central nervous system manifestations of neonatal lupus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Lin, K-L; Chen, C-L; Wong, A May-Kuen; Huang, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal lupus is a rare and acquired autoimmune disease. Central nervous system abnormalities are potential manifestations in neonatal lupus. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed the clinical features of previously reported neonatal lupus cases where central nervous system abnormalities had been identified. Most reported neonatal lupus patients with central nervous system involvement were neuroimaging-determined and asymptomatic. Only seven neonatal lupus cases were identified as having a symptomatic central nervous system abnormality which caused physical disability or required neurosurgery. A high percentage of these neurosymptomatic neonatal lupus patients had experienced a transient cutaneous skin rash and had no maternal history of autoimmune disease before pregnancy.

  8. Smoothed dynamics in the central field problem

    CERN Document Server

    Santoprete, Manuele

    2009-01-01

    Consider the motion of a material point of unit mass in a central field determined by a homogeneous potential of the form $(-1/r^{\\alpha})$, $\\alpha>0,$ where $r$ being the distance to the centre of the field. Due to the singularity at $r=0,$ in computer-based simulations, usually, the potential is replaced by a similar potential that is smooth, or at least continuous. In this paper, we compare the global flows given by the smoothed and non-smoothed potentials. It is shown that the two flows are topologically equivalent for $\\alpha < 2,$ while for $\\alpha \\geq 2,$ smoothing introduces fake orbits. Further, we argue that for $\\alpha\\geq 2,$ smoothing should be applied to the amended potential $c/(2r^2)-1/r^{\\alpha},$ where $c$ denotes the angular momentum constant.

  9. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - flushing Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/17/2016 Updated by: ...

  10. Central effects of fingolimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Vítor T; Fonseca, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. El fingolimod, un modulador del receptor de la esfingosina-1-fosfato (S1P) dotado de un mecanismo de accion novedoso, fue el primer tratamiento oral aprobado para la esclerosis multiple remitente recurrente. Su union a los receptores S1P1 de los linfocitos promueve la retencion selectiva de los linfocitos T virgenes y de memoria central en los tejidos linfoides secundarios, lo que impide su salida hacia el sistema nervioso central (SNC). Asimismo, el fingolimod atraviesa con facilidad la barrera hematoencefalica, y diversos estudios le atribuyen un efecto neuroprotector directo en el SNC. Objetivo. Revisar la informacion disponible acerca de los efectos centrales del fingolimod. Desarrollo. El desequilibrio entre los procesos lesivos y reparadores constituye un reflejo de la desmielinizacion cronica, la degeneracion axonal y la gliosis, y parece contribuir a la discapacidad que la esclerosis multiple acarrea. La facilidad con la que el fingolimod atraviesa la barrera hematoencefalica le permite actuar directamente sobre los receptores S1P localizados en las celulas del SNC. Una vez en el interior del SNC, ocupa los receptores S1P de los oligodendrocitos y de sus celulas precursoras, de los astrocitos, los microgliocitos y las neuronas, fomentando la remielinizacion, la neuroproteccion y los procesos endogenos de regeneracion. La eficacia evidenciada en los ensayos clinicos concuerda con un mecanismo de accion que incluiria efectos directos sobre las celulas del SNC. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles indican que la eficacia del fingolimod en el tratamiento de la esclerosis multiple se debe a su ambivalencia como molecula inmunomoduladora y moduladora directa de los receptores S1P del SNC. Tanto es asi que estudios recientes le atribuyen efectos neuroprotectores en varios modelos que suscitan expectativas en torno a su posible aplicacion terapeutica en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el paludismo cerebral y el neuroblastoma, asi como en la neuroproteccion

  11. [Central anticholinergic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Urretavizcaya, P; Cenoz Osinaga, J C; Jáuregui Garía, M L; Gállego Culleré, J

    1991-10-01

    Two new cases of anticolinergic central syndrome are described. The first case, a 8 year old girl, suffered a severe encefalopathy after topical application of mydriatic cholirio as an aid in a rutine study of ocular refraction. The second case, 67 year old man presented a severe neurological picture after accidental intake of a silvester plantground (Atropa belladonna). His neurological condition returned quickly to normal whith administration of physostigmine. Differents aspects of the etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis are discussed with special emphasis in patients with delirium or acute confusional states. Finally, attention is drawn in the necessity of a properly use of anticholinergic drugs overcoat in aged or children.

  12. Central osteosclerosis with trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeling, Emma L.; Brady, Angela F. [North West Thames Regional Genetics Service, Kennedy-Galton Centre, Level 8 V, North West London Hospitals NHS Trust, Watford Road, HAI 3UJ, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Cruwys, Michele [Department of Paediatrics, Hillingdon Hospital, Hillingdon, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Suri, Mohnish [Clinical Genetics Service, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Aylett, Sarah E. [Neurosciences Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare, autosomal recessive, multisystem disorder associated with defects in nucleotide excision repair. We report a 7-year-old boy with TTD due to mutation in the XPD gene. The patient has classic features of this condition, including brittle, sulphur-deficient hair, ichthyosis, growth retardation and developmental delay. In addition, he has radiological evidence of progressive central osteosclerosis. Although similar radiological findings have previously been reported in a small number of patients, this association is not widely recognised. We review the radiological findings in this and other similar cases and discuss the natural history of these bony changes. (orig.)

  13. Ecological networks and nature policy in central Russia : peat bogs in central and northern Meshera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butovsky, R.O.; Reijnen, R.; Otchagov, D.M.; Aleshenko, G.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, E.

    2001-01-01

    In central and northern Meshera, Russia, the habitat of many characteristic peat bog species now show a very fragmented pattern. Peat mining and other human influences are the most important causes. As a result the potentials for viable populations ofcharacteristic peat bog species have decreased co

  14. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...... manipulation instrument -, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  15. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, David A; Olsen, Elise A

    2008-01-01

    A progressive scarring alopecia of the central scalp is commonly seen in young to middle-aged females of African descent. It usually starts at the vertex or mid top of the scalp and gradually spreads centrifugally, hence, the unifying term of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. The clinical pattern is suggestive of female pattern alopecia, but a lack of follicular pores indicative of scarring is present. It can progress for years before slowly burning out. The etiology is unknown but genetic factors may be important. It is often associated with a history of traumatic hairstyling involving heat, traction, and chemicals. However, most patients of African descent without this disorder have similar styling habits. Nonetheless, avoidance of physical and chemical trauma to the scalp hair, the use of suitable shampoos and conditioners, and the encouragement of natural hairstyles may be helpful. Any infection should be treated. Topical or intralesional corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics may be useful and topical minoxidil should be tried with the hope of preventing further scarring and encouraging regrowth of recovering follicles. Current research into the etiology of this disorder will help to foster much-needed clinical trials of therapeutic agents.

  16. Central Sumatra enjoys success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongsosantiko, A.

    1977-05-02

    The Sihapas group contains the most prolific oil producing zones in the Central Sumatra Basin. It represents the transgressive, coarse clastic sequence deposited during the early Miocene. Some of these sandstone grade laterally into siltstones and shales of the Telisa Formation, believed to be a major source of rock for Central Sumatra oil. Recent exploratory wells drilled between the mountain front and coastal plain areas have provided more data for stratigraphic studies. These have resulted in subdivision of the lower Miocene transgressive sequence into discrete rock-stratigraphic units. The former Sihapas Formation has subsequently been elevated to group rank and now consists of several formations with the Duri Formation as the uppermost sand unit. This study covers Caltex's areas of operation, which includes the area between the Kampar River of the south, the Barumum River to the north, the Malacca Straits to the east, and the Barisan Mt. to the west. A basic map shows the regional scene, while a stratigraphic chart shows the lithology.

  17. en los pivotes centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Roque Rodés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión y comentarios sobre las ventajas y limitantes del empleo del LEPA (Low Enery Precision Aplication en los sistemas de riego de pivotes centrales. Estos sistemas o filosofía de manejo del agua para condiciones de escasez o mala calidad del líquido es una alternativa viable para la producción de alimentos. Introducida en la década del 80 en las planicies del sur de Texas, donde la alta evaporación del agua y la necesidad de regar grandes áreas con pivotes centrales obligaba a la búsqueda de una alternativa para incrementar al máximo la eficiencia de aplicación del riego. Aún en fase de estudio e introducción en Cuba para áreas específicas, puede ser una solución de incremento de los rendimientos de los cultivos, empleando menos agua y aguas con calidad limitada

  18. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  19. Damage to the central noradrenergic system and changes of P3-like cognitive potential in rats%大鼠认知电位类P3变化与损伤中枢去甲肾上腺素能系统的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃春; 周丽丽

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that central noradrenergic system takes part in learning and memory, but there are a few researches focused on the effects of impairing the central noradrenergic system on rat' s P3-like cognitive potential.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of impairing the central noradrenergic system on rat's P3-like cognitive potential.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study based on the experimental animals.SETTING: Department of physiology in a medical college of a university.MATERIALS: Totally 30 male SD rats, clean degree, weighing from 500 to 600 g, were selected from the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen Medical University(certificate: 26-99A018), drank freely and fed timely under the normal condition. After Y-maze test of all the rats, 24 rats with normal learning and memory function, which met the criteria specified in the description of Y-maze test, were randomly divided into three groups(8 rats in each group): control group, 6-oxidopamine (6-OHDA) injection group and saline control group.INTERVENTIONS: The models of central norndrenergic system impairment were made by injecting 6-hydroxysopamine(6-OHDA) into the bilateral dorsal noradrenergic bundle in dentate granule(DG). Then Y-type maze test and elicitation of P3-likewere carried out respectively before and after the models were built.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome: P3-like latency, total reaction time(TRT) and error number(EN). Secondary outcome: Results of P3-like test recorded in the 12 days after the models were built.RESULTS: As compared with the controls, the model rats' P3-like latency and total reaction time(TRT) prolonged and error number(EN) increased statistically ( P < 0.05 ).CONCLUSION: Central NE takes part in the activities of learning and memory and plays a certain role in the production and integration of P3 -like.%背景:中枢去甲肾上腺素参与了学习记忆过程,但关于损毁中枢去甲肾上腺素能系统对大鼠认知电位类P3的影响报道

  20. Relativistic Newtonian Dynamics under a central force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Yaakov

    2016-10-01

    Planck's formula and General Relativity indicate that potential energy influences spacetime. Using Einstein's Equivalence Principle and an extension of his Clock Hypothesis, an explicit description of this influence is derived. We present a new relativity model by incorporating the influence of the potential energy on spacetime in Newton's dynamics for motion under a central force. This model extends the model used by Friedman and Steiner (EPL, 113 (2016) 39001) to obtain the exact precession of Mercury without curving spacetime. We also present a solution of this model for a hydrogen-like atom, which explains the reason for a probabilistic description.

  1. Centrality Measures in Urban Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Crucitti, P; Porta, S; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural order of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. We present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Four different measures of centrality, namely closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over eighteen 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e. valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indexes over the networks is investigated graphically by means of colour-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term Multiple Centrality Assessment(MCA), grounded not a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely captu...

  2. Orden monetario y bancos centrales Monetary order and Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglietta Michel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el enfoque evolucionista e institucionalista de la economía de las convenciones francesa, este trabajo analiza el surgimiento histórico de la banca central y la creación institucional del 'arte de la banca central'. El artículo estudia los modelos formales del orden monetario, la banca libre y la banca central, y analiza los eventos históricos que llevaron a que el Banco de Inglaterra inventara el arte de manejar los bancos centrales en conjunción con el aprendizaje colectivo e institucional que lo hizo posible. Aglietta muestra que la banca central no es una creación del Estado sino una creación institucional endógena al sistema de mercado.With the evolutionist and institutionalist focus of the economics of the French conventions, this paper analyzes the historical rise of the central bank and the institutional creation of the 'art of the central bank'. The article studies formal models of the monetary order, free banking and the central bank, and analyzes the historie events that led to the Bank of England inventing the art of managing the central banks, in conjunction with the collective and institutional learning that made it possible. Aglietta shows that the central bank is not a creation of the State, but rather aninstitutional creation endogenous to the market system.

  3. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction - An alternative surgical technique for central pancreatic mass resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswanto Sucandy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Central pancreatectomy has gained popularity in the past decade as treatment of choice for low malignant potential tumor in the midpancreas due to its ability to achieve optimal preservation of pancreatic parenchyma. Simultaneously, advancement in minimally invasive approach has contributed to numerous novel surgical techniques with significantly lower morbidity and mortality. With the purpose of improving patient outcomes, we describe a laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy as an alternative method to the previously described open central pancreatectomy with roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction. Case Report: A 39 year old man presented to our clinic with a 2.5 cm neuroendocrine tumor at the neck of the pancreas. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction was successfully performed. Operative time was 210 minutes with blood loss of 200 ml. Postoperative course was uneventful except for a minimal pancreatic leak which was controlled by an intraoperatively placed closed suction drain. At 2 week follow up, patient was asymptomatic with well preserved pancreatic endo and exocrine functions. Permanent pathology findings showed a well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with negative margins and nodes. Conclusions: Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction is feasible and safe for a centrally located tumor. Laparoscopic assisted technique facilitates application of minimally invasive approach by increasing surgical feasibility in typically complex pancreatic operations.

  4. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction - An alternative surgical technique for central pancreatic mass resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswanto Sucandy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Central pancreatectomy has gained popularity in the past decade as treatment of choice for low malignant potential tumor in the midpancreas due to its ability to achieve optimal preservation of pancreatic parenchyma. Simultaneously, advancement in minimally invasive approach has contributed to numerous novel surgical techniques with significantly lower morbidity and mortality. With the purpose of improving patient outcomes, we describe a laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy as an alternative method to the previously described open central pancreatectomy with roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction. Case Report: A 39 year old man presented to our clinic with a 2.5 cm neuroendocrine tumor at the neck of the pancreas. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction was successfully performed. Operative time was 210 minutes with blood loss of 200 ml. Postoperative course was uneventful except for a minimal pancreatic leak which was controlled by an intraoperatively placed closed suction drain. At 2 week follow up, patient was asymptomatic with well preserved pancreatic endo and exocrine functions. Permanent pathology findings showed a well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with negative margins and nodes. Conclusions: Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction is feasible and safe for a centrally located tumor. Laparoscopic assisted technique facilitates application of minimally invasive approach by increasing surgical feasibility in typically complex pancreatic operations.

  5. UA1 central detector

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

  6. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  7. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality......” plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings. While most Bugkalot men has...... today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can provide general insights...

  8. Dirac particle in a pseudoscalar potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico), D.F.; Zentella-Dehesa, A. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Intituto de Quimica, UNAM Ap. Postal 70-213, 04510 (Mexico), D.F.

    1996-02-01

    We study the problem of a Dirac particle with a pseudoscalar interaction in the potential approximation. It is shown how nonperturbative relativistic solutions arise. The case of the central pseudoscalar potential is explicitly worked out also in a closed form. The angular functions are worked out in general for this central case. Finally for the special case of the spherical well the radial solutions are shown to behave like Bessel-type functions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Investigation of Central Pain Processing in Post-Operative Shoulder Pain and Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia, Carolina; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark; Wu, Samuel S.; Wright, Thomas W.; Moser, Michael; Farmer, Kevin; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Measures of central pain processing like conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR) have been described to assess different components of central pain modulatory mechanisms. Central pain processing potentially play a role in the development of postsurgical pain, however, the role of CPM and SHPR in explaining postoperative clinical pain and disability is still unclear.

  10. Violent potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Friis Søgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as ‘performed violent potentiality’ plays a critical role in relation to Bugkalot men’s construction of hegemonic masculinity and the sustaining of complex egalitarian relations. The Bugkalot have a notoriously violent history; until the late 1970s more than half of the adult men engaged in ritual killings......This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters engaged in ritual killings. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence....... While most Bugkalot men have today abandoned headhunting, the potentials for violence and dominance, which the act of headhunting sought to elicit, remains a critical aspect of masculinity. We propose that a focus on the social significance of performative violent potentiality among Bugkalot men can...

  11. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  12. [MANAGEMENT OF CENTRAL HYPERSOMNIAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Lopez, Régis

    2016-06-01

    Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom. The treatment of daytime sleepiness is based on modafinil in first intention. Other psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and exceptionally dextro-amfetamine may be considered. In narcolepsy type 1, antidepressants such as inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline will be considered to improve cataplexy. Sodium oxybate is an effective treatment on sleepiness, cataplexy and bad night sleep in narcolepsy. The management for other symptoms or comorbidities should be considered it necessary such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, the disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Important therapeutic perspectives are to be expected concerning new psychostimulant and anticataplectiques, but mainly on immune-based therapies administered as early as possible after disease onset and on hypocretin replacement therapy for patients with severe symptoms.

  13. Violent Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard; Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the social significance of violence as potentiality and performance among former headhunters. Taking its outset in an ethnographic study of violence and masculinity among the Philippine people known as the Bugkalot, we explore how violence as “performed violent potentiality”...

  14. Potential Geographical Distribution of Genus Ammopiptanthus (Leguminosae) in the Eastern Central Asian Desert and Its Determinant Environmental Factors%沙冬青属植物在亚洲中部荒漠区的潜在地理分布及驱动因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松梅; 张明理; 陈曦

    2012-01-01

    在较大的空间尺度上,物种分布模型是预测物种潜在分布的有效途径之一。利用最大熵模型MAXENT,预测了蒙古沙冬青和新疆沙冬青在亚洲中部荒漠区的潜在分布;借助模型启发式搜索和多元线性回归分析揭示了控制其潜在分布的驱动因子。结果表明:①蒙古沙冬青的潜在适生区和实际分布范围基本一致,局限在阿拉善荒漠区的东部和南部、鄂尔多斯西部;最适生的分布区局限在内蒙古乌兰布和沙漠东缘和贺兰山北部的小部分区域。控制蒙古沙冬青潜在分布的关键因子主要是反映极端的温度和降水条件的因子,如最干月降水量、极端最低温和最冷季平均温度等。②新疆沙冬青最适生的潜在分布区局限在新疆乌恰县和沿昆仑山向南延伸的区域。反映极端气候和气候变化范围的因子,如温度季节性、最冷季平均温度、最湿月降水量和降水季节性等以及海拔,基本控制了新疆沙冬青的潜在分布。%On a large spatial scale, species distribution model is one of the effective ways for modelling species' potential distribution. Using species distribution model (MAXENT), this study aimed to determine the potential distribution areas of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and Ammopiptanthus nanus in the eastern Central Asian desert, and then to identify the determinant environmental variables contributing to the distri- bution. Results show that: (1) The produced potential distribution areas of A. mongolicus agree well with the observed ones, and species A. mongolicus are restricted distributed in the eastern and southern part of Alxa desert and the western Ordos of Inner Mongolia. The most suitable habitats are in the eastern edge of the Ulan Buh Desert and a small area of northern Helan Mountain. The distribution-influencing factors are mainly the extreme temperature and precipitation, for example, the most drought month

  15. Expansion of museums in Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagodzińska, Katarzyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents reflections on the specificity of collections and museums of contemporary art in Central Europe and considers a possibility of creating a regional alternative for the West. The analysis is conducted in the context of the expansionist policy of contemporary museums – notably the Louvre, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the Hermitage – whose numerous new development projects gave rise to a number of dilemmas in the museological world. The author discusses global "museum brands" that invest in Central Europe and addresses the possible profits of the expansion of such "concerns" for culture in the region, as well as emphasises the potential of the region itself, which may be used for its development without the avail of the internationally renowned collectors' names.

  16. A Review of Select Centralized Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Spiegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain can be broadly divided into 3 classes, including nociceptive or inflammatory pain (protective, neuropathic (pathological, occurring after damage to the nervous system, or centralized (pathological, due to abnormal function but with no damage or inflammation to the nervous system. The latter has been posited to occur when descending analgesic pathways are attenuated and/or glutamatergic transmission is facilitated. Additionally, this “pain prone phenotype” can be associated with early life trauma and a suboptimal response to opiates. This article will review the relationships between centralized pain syndromes (ie, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, childhood sexual abuse, and opiate misuse. Finally, treatment implications, potentially effecting primary care physicians, will be discussed.

  17. y Banca Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel García Banchs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las teorías monetarias modernas, ortodoxas y heterodoxas, han pasado por alto el hecho de que posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial el mundo quedó dividido entre economías emisoras y receptoras de reservas, pasando el sistema monetario internacional desde entonces a ser completamente asimétrico. De allí que, desde el punto de vista teórico, señalemos la necesidad de tomar en cuenta si las economías emiten o no una moneda de reserva internacional, pues ello explicaría la existencia de diversas prácticas monetarias a nivel mundial. Este trabajo propone, y calcula, indicadores basados en datos provenientes de los balances de activos y pasivos de quince bancos centrales pertenecientes a Norteamérica, Suramérica, Europa y Asia. Los hallazgos con respecto a las diversas estructuras de activos y pasivos confirman la hipótesis acerca de la presencia de tales asimetrías. Se infiere en consecuencia que la política monetaria es menos flexible pero más influyente en las economías receptoras de reservas, y a la vez más flexible pero menos influyente en las economías emisoras. En pocas palabras, la exogeneidad de la tasa de interés de corto plazo es más débil en el caso de las economías receptoras de reservas las cuales se ven obligadas a acumular divisas y a procurar la estabilidad del tipo de cambio, debido a que sus monedas locales no son aceptadas en el exterior. Así, aunque la oferta crediticia es endógena en esas economías, las mismas no han sido capaces de librarse aún de la necesidad de mantener reservas monetarias en divisas extranjeras

  18. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Central African Republic contains 242,000 square miles, which rolling terrain almost 2000 feet above sea level. The climate is tropical, and it has a population of 2.8 million people with a 2.5% growth rate. There are more than 80 ethnic groups including Baya 34%, Banda 28%, Sara 10%, Mandja 9%, Mboum 9%, and M'Baka 7%. The religions are traditional African 35%, protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, and Muslim 15%, and the languages are French and Sangho. The infant mortality rate is 143/1000, with expectancy at 49 years and a 40% literacy rate. The work force of 1 million is 70% agricultural, industry 6% and commerce and service 6% and government 3%. The government consists of a president assisted by cabinet ministers and a single party. Natural resources include diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, and oil, and major industries are beverages, textiles, and soap. Agricultural products feature coffee, cotton, peanuts, tobacco, food crops and livestock. Most of the population live in rural areas and most of the 80 ethnic groups have their own language. This is one of the world's least developed countries, with a per capita income of $375/year. The main problems with development are the poor transportation infrastructure, and the weak internal and international marketing systems. The US and various international organizations have aided in agriculture development, health programs, and family planning. US investment is mainly in diamond and gold mining, and although oil drilling has been successful it is not economically feasible at current prices.

  19. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  20. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the p

  1. Central presbycusis: an emerging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, George A

    2012-07-01

    Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system (central presbycusis) is common but rarely looked for by those who provide aural rehabilitation. Patients who complain of difficulty hearing in noise--the key symptom of central presbycusis--are generally disadvantaged with conventional rehabilitation. This symptom should be documented with commercially available speech-in-noise tests, which use materials that are uncomplicated to administer. Those patients who perform poorly on such tests should have a customized rehabilitation program aimed at optimizing their remaining communication abilities. Otolaryngologists who provide auditory rehabilitation may wish to consider expanding their practices to meet the communication needs of older patients with central presbycusis. Central presbycusis is an emerging area for basic and clinical research in auditory neurotology, particularly in the relation of cognitive dysfunction to impaired auditory processing.

  2. Central serous chorioretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.; Munch, I.C.; Hasler, P.W.;

    2008-01-01

    detachments. Granular or fibrinous material may accumulate in the subretinal cavity. Serous detachment often resolves spontaneously. From first contact, counselling about the potential relation to stress and glucocorticoid medication is warranted. After 3 months without resolution of acute CSC or in chronic...... CSC, treatment should be considered. Resolution of detachment can usually be achieved in acute CSC by focal photocoagulation of leaking RPE lesions or, in chronic CSC, by photodynamic therapy. The effect of therapy on long-term visual outcome is insufficiently documented. Reattachment within 4 months...... of onset is considered a relevant therapeutic target because prolonged detachment is associated with photoreceptor atrophy. This suggests that the value of treatment depends upon proper selection of cases that will not resolve without therapy. Chronic CSC may be difficult to differentiate from occult...

  3. Centralized versus Decentralized Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke

    This paper brings into question whether information systems should be centralized or decentralized in order to provide greater support for different business processes. During the last century companies and organizations have used different approaches for centralization and decentralization; a simple answer to the question does not exist. This paper provides a survey of the evolution of centralized and decentralized approaches, mainly in a Nordic perspective. Based on critical reflections on the situation in the end of the century we can discuss what we can learn from history to achieve alignment between centralized and decentralized systems and the business structure. The conclusion is that theories, management and practice for decisions on centralization or decentralization of information systems must be improved. A conscious management and control of centralization /decentralization of IT support is a vital question in the company or the organization, and this is not a task that can be handled only by IT-specialists. There is a need for business oriented IT management of centralization/decentralization.

  4. Betweenness centrality profiles in trees

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Benjamin; Turan, Gyorgy

    2016-01-01

    Betweenness centrality of a vertex in a graph measures the fraction of shortest paths going through the vertex. This is a basic notion for determining the importance of a vertex in a network. The k-betweenness centrality of a vertex is defined similarly, but only considers shortest paths of length at most k. The sequence of k-betweenness centralities for all possible values of k forms the betweenness centrality profile of a vertex. We study properties of betweenness centrality profiles in trees. We show that for scale-free random trees, for fixed k, the expectation of k-betweenness centrality strictly decreases as the index of the vertex increases. We also analyze worst-case properties of profiles in terms of the distance of profiles from being monotone, and the number of times pairs of profiles can cross. This is related to whether k-betweenness centrality, for small values of k, may be used instead of having to consider all shortest paths. Bounds are given that are optimal in order of magnitude. We also pre...

  5. Renormalization of singular potentials and power counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, B.; van Koick, U.; van Kolck, U.

    2008-01-01

    We use a toy model to illustrate how to build effective theories for singular potentials. We consider a central attractive 1/r(2) potential perturbed by a 1/r(4) correction. The power-counting rule, an important ingredient of effective theory, is established by seeking the minimum set of short-range

  6. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  7. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  8. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohadjer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  9. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  10. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  11. Central cementifying fibroma of mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Edward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Central cementifying fibroma is a rare non odontogenic tumor coming in the group of fibro osseouslesion, arising from periodontal ligament and is usually seen in tooth bearing area. It can affect boththe mandible and the maxilla, particularly the mandible. This bone tumour consists of highly cellular,fibrous tissue that contains varying amounts of calcified tissue resembling bone, cementum or both.Here we present a case of Central cementifying fibroma (recurrent in a 34 year old female.

  12. Inferring Centrality from Network Snapshots

    OpenAIRE

    Haibin Shao; Mehran Mesbahi; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi

    2017-01-01

    The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagati...

  13. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  14. Cancer-related fatigue: central or peripheral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuzsen, Tugba; Davis, Mellar P; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Walsh, Declan; Siemionow, Vlodek; Kirkova, Jordanka; Khoshknabi, Dilara; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan; Yue, Guang H

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate cancer-related fatigue (CRF) by objective measurements to determine if CRF is a more centrally or peripherally mediated disorder, cancer patients and matched noncancer controls completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) and underwent neuromuscular testing. Cancer patients had fatigue measured by the BFI, were off chemotherapy and radiation (for more than four weeks), had a hemoglobin level higher than 10 g/dL, and were neither receiving antidepressants nor were depressed on a screening question. The controls were screened for depression and matched by age, gender, and body mass index. Neuromuscular testing involved a sustained submaximal elbow flexion contraction (SC) at 30% maximal level (30% maximum elbow flexion force). Endurance time (ET) was measured from the beginning of the SC to the time when participants could not maintain the SC. Evoked twitch force (TF), a measure of muscle fatigue, and compound action potential (M-wave), an assessment of neuromuscular-junction transmission were performed during the SC. Compared with controls, the CRF group had a higher BFI score (Pcontrols, P<0.05). This indicated less muscle fatigue. There was a greater TF (P<0.05) at the end of the SC, indicating greater central fatigue, in the CRF group, which failed to recruit muscle (to continue the SC), as well as the controls. M-Wave amplitude was lower in the CRF group than in the controls (P<0.01), indicating impaired neuromuscular junction conduction with CRF unrelated to central fatigue (M-wave amplitude did not change with SC). These data demonstrate that CRF patients exhibited greater central fatigue, indicated by shorter ET and less voluntary muscle recruitment during an SC relative to controls.

  15. Controlling centrality in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Romance, Miguel; Russo, Giovanni; Latora, Vito

    2011-01-01

    Spectral centrality measures allow to identify influential individuals in social groups, to rank Web pages by their popularity, and even to determine the impact of scientific researches. The centrality score of a node within a network crucially depends on the entire pattern of connections, so that the usual approach is to compute the node centralities once the network structure is assigned. We face here with the inverse problem, that is, we study how to modify the centrality scores of the nodes by acting on the structure of a given network. We prove that there exist particular subsets of nodes, called controlling sets, which can assign any prescribed set of centrality values to all the nodes of a graph, by cooperatively tuning the weights of their out-going links. We show that many large networks from the real world have surprisingly small controlling sets, containing even less than 5-10% of the nodes. These results suggest that rankings obtained from spectral centrality measures have to be considered with ex...

  16. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  17. Deuteron wave function and OPE potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, S.; Rosa-Clot, M.

    1987-06-01

    The deuteron wave function is calculated integrating from outside the Schredinger equation using as input its asymptotic behaviour. Some potentials are tested and the one pion exchange potential (OPEP) is shown to be the main responsible of the wave function structure up to distances of about 1 fm. The relevance of the short range part of the potential is analyzed and it is shown that a substantial enhancement of the OPEP central part is needed in the deuteron channel.

  18. The Anthropology of Potentiality in Biomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Hoeyer, Klaus; Helmreich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, potentiality serves as a central concept in the life sciences and in medical practices. This special issue of Current Anthropology explores how genes, cells, bodies, and populations as well as technologies, disciplines, and research areas become imbued...... and practices associated with potentiality, we must integrate an awareness of our own social scientific assumptions about potentiality with critical scrutiny of how the word and concept operate in the lives of the people we study....

  19. Rosette Central Configurations, Degenerate central configurations and bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Jinzhi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we find a class of new degenerate central configurations and bifurcations in the Newtonian $n$-body problem. In particular we analyze the Rosette central configurations, namely a coplanar configuration where $n$ particles of mass $m_1$ lie at the vertices of a regular $n$-gon, $n$ particles of mass $m_2$ lie at the vertices of another $n$-gon concentric with the first, but rotated of an angle $\\pi/n$, and an additional particle of mass $m_0$ lies at the center of mass of the system. This system admits two mass parameters $\\mu=m_0/m_1$ and $\\ep=m_2/m_1$. We show that, as $\\mu$ varies, if $n> 3$, there is a degenerate central configuration and a bifurcation for every $\\ep>0$, while if $n=3$ there is a bifurcations only for some values of $\\epsilon$.

  20. On quantum potential dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Struyve, Ward

    2015-01-01

    Non-relativistic de Broglie-Bohm theory describes particles moving under the guidance of the wave function. In de Broglie's original formulation, the particle dynamics is given by a first-order differential equation. In Bohm's reformulation, it is given by Newton's law of motion with an extra potential that depends on the wave function—the quantum potential—together with a constraint on the possible velocities. It was recently argued, mainly by numerical simulations, that relaxing this velocity constraint leads to a physically untenable theory. We provide further evidence for this by showing that for various wave functions the particles tend to escape the wave packet. In particular, we show that for a central classical potential and bound energy eigenstates the particle motion is often unbounded. This work seems particularly relevant for ways of simulating wave function evolution based on Bohm's formulation of the de Broglie-Bohm theory. Namely, the simulations may become unstable due to deviations from the velocity constraint.

  1. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  2. Coverage centralities for temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex by the proportion of (normal) vertex pairs, the quickest routes between which can (or should) use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bo...

  3. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  4. Status of the protected areas of the Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Yamindou, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) has made an impressive commitment to biodiversity conservation, with a total of 15 protected areas covering about 10.9% of the country. This study critically examines the status of these protected areas in light of their potential for long-term protection of biodiv

  5. TRADE, CAPITAL AND THE TRANSITION IN CENTRAL-EUROPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANBERGEIJK, PAG; LENSINK, R

    1993-01-01

    The potential for export-oriented growth and the impact of official capital injections is assessed for five Central European countries in the years 1990 2000 by means of a neoclassical simulation model. Export growth is essential for the transition to a market-oriented economy and the recovery of Ce

  6. Klinisk kompetencevurdering er central i alle speciallægeuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Ostergaard, Doris; Konge, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    According to the Danish Ministry of Health recommendations, workplace-based assessment (WPBA) should be a central component in postgraduate specialty training. In this review the potential impact of WPBA with regard to patient safety, medical licensing and effects on doctors' learning is explored...

  7. Inferring Centrality from Network Snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibin; Mesbahi, Mehran; Li, Dewei; Xi, Yugeng

    2017-01-01

    The topology and dynamics of a complex network shape its functionality. However, the topologies of many large-scale networks are either unavailable or incomplete. Without the explicit knowledge of network topology, we show how the data generated from the network dynamics can be utilised to infer the tempo centrality, which is proposed to quantify the influence of nodes in a consensus network. We show that the tempo centrality can be used to construct an accurate estimate of both the propagation rate of influence exerted on consensus networks and the Kirchhoff index of the underlying graph. Moreover, the tempo centrality also encodes the disturbance rejection of nodes in a consensus network. Our findings provide an approach to infer the performance of a consensus network from its temporal data. PMID:28098166

  8. CENTRAL MECHANISMS OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S. Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture is an component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that has been used for three thousand years to treat diseases and relieve pain. Pain is found to be the most common reason for people to use acupuncture. Due to recent scientific findings, acupuncture treatment has been accepted worldwide. Numerous trials have been conducted especially in analgesia. The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, however, the underlying mechanism still not clear. This article summarizes the central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. Method: We have focused on examining the recent literature on acupuncture analgesia. The central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. We focused on the studies related to central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia from these aspects: (neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy. Result: The result revealed that acupuncture act on various parts of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral ganglia and cerebral cortex to alleviate pain. The central mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture include neurohumors and neurotransmitters, which are involved in analgesia. At spinal level, Spinal opioids, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin are the key elements acupuncture-induced analgesia. At brain level, Endogenous opioid peptides, limbic system play essential roles in mediating the analgesia. Conclusion: Acupuncture is an effective approach to pain management. There is good evidence in both experimental and clinical research that supports acupuncture efficacy in management of chronic pain through central nervous system. Acupuncture should be strongly used as a part of pain management plans. This work helps in improving our understanding of the scientific basis underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  9. Soil indigenous knowledge in North Central Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and classifying soils is part of an important learning process to improve soil management practices, soil quality and increase productivity. In order to assess soil quality improvement related to an ongoing land reform in North-Central Namibia, the characteristics that determine soil quality in the local land use context were determined in this study. To do so, we collated the indigenous soil knowledge in North-Central Namibia where the Ovakwanyama cultivate pearl millet for centuries. Local soil groups are defined mostly based on their productivity potential, which varies depending on the rainfall pattern. The morphological criteria used by the farmers to differentiate the soil groups (colour, consistence) were supported by a conventional analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. Now, they can be used to develop a soil quality assessment toolbox adapted to the regional use. The characteristics of the tool box do not directly indicate soil quality, but refer to local soils groups. The quality of these groups is relatively homogenous at the local scale. Our results show that understanding of indigenous soil knowledge has great potential to improve soil quality assessment with regards to land use. The integration of this knowledge with the conventional soil analysis improves the local meaning of such a "scientific" assessment and thus facilitates dialog between farmers and agronomists, but also scientists working in different regions of the world, but in similar conditions. Overall, the integration of indigenous knowledge in international classification systems (e.g. WRB) as attempted in this study has thus a major potential to improve soil mapping in the local context.

  10. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David

    2016-01-01

    In this brief invited review, I will attempt to summarise some of the key areas of interest in the study of central stars of planetary nebulae which (probably) won't be covered by other speakers' proceedings. The main focus will, inevitably, be on the subject of multiplicity, with special emphasis on recent results regarding triple central star systems as well as wide binaries which avoid a common-envelope phase. Furthermore, in light of the upcoming release of Kepler's Campaign 11 data, I will discuss a few of the prospects from that data including the unique possibility to detect merger products.

  11. Central Libraries in Uncertain Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses security and safety issues for public libraries, especially high-profile central facilities, in light of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Highlights include inspecting bags as patrons enter as well as exit; the need for security guidelines for any type of disaster or emergency; building design; and the importance of communication.…

  12. New Economy, Old Central Banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, Jan Marc

    2002-01-01

    Proponents of the so-called New Economy claim that it entails a structural change of the economy. Such a change, in turn, would require the central bank to rethink its monetary policy to the extent that traditional relationships between inf1ation and economic growth are no longer valid. But such a r

  13. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  14. Water Governance in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Assche, Van Kristof; Valentinov, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    We develop a social systems theory perspective on Central Asian post-Socialist transition, placing particular emphasis on the coordination problems in transboundary water governance. The extensive Soviet water-energy infrastructure around the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers required coordination, bu

  15. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  16. Learning and the central bank

    OpenAIRE

    Charles T. Carlstrom; Timothy S. Fuerst

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that sunspot equilibria may arise under an interest-rate operating procedure in which the central bank varies the nominal rate with movements in future inflation (a forward-looking Taylor rule). This paper demonstrates that these sunspot equilibria may be learnable in the sense of E-stability.

  17. The MEANING multilingual central repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atserias, J.; Villarejo, L.; Rigau, G.; Agirre, E.; Carroll, J.; Magnini, B.; Vossen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of the Multilingual Central Repository, a lexical knowledge base developed in the framework of the MEANING project. Currently the MCR integrates into the EuroWordNet framework five local wordnets (including four versions of the English WordNet from Princeton),

  18. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  19. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  20. 27 CFR 9.75 - Central Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Coast. 9.75... Central Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Central Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Central Coast...

  1. Central motor conduction in brachial monomelic amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of subclinical involvement of motor pathways in clinically diagnosed Brachial Monomelic Amyotrophy (BMMA is unknown. Aims: To determine the prevalence of subclinical involvement of central motor pathways in BMMA using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Setting and Design: Prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods: Central motor conduction time (CMCT was determined by ′F′ wave method using figure-of-eight coil attached to Magstim 200 stimulator, in 17 patients with BMMA. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from first dorsal interosseous of the affected (AFF and unaffected upper limbs (UNAFF at rest and during partial contraction. Comparison was made with data from 10 healthy controls (CTRL. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Results: Compared to controls, the mean CMCT of AFF was significantly prolonged, both at rest and contraction: (a Rest: AFF-6.68±1.78 ms, UNAFF-6.36±1.16 ms, CTRL-5.71±1.02 ms; Fisher′s PLSD for AFF vs. CTRL: P =0.037, (b Contraction: AFF-5.78±1.62 ms, UAFF - 4.86±1.38 ms, CTRL-4.06±0.80 ms; Fisher′s PLSD for AFF vs. CTRL; P =0.0002, AFF vs. UNAFF- P =0.044. Prolonged CMCT (>mean+2SD of controls was observed in 29.4% of AFF and 6.25% of UNAFF at rest, and in 47.1% and 23.5% respectively during contraction. Conclusions: Dysfunction of central motor pathways was observed in both affected and unaffected upper limbs of some patients with BMMA of upper limbs. The dysfunction was more pronounced during voluntary contraction. A larger study is needed to validate the significance of these findings.

  2. Sustained effects of acupuncture stimulation investigated with centrality mapping analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Long

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can have instant and sustained effects, however its mechanisms of action are still unclear. Here we investigated the sustained effect of acupuncture by evaluating centrality changes in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging after manually stimulating the acupuncture point ST36 at the lower leg or two control point locations (CP1 same dermatome, CP2 different dermatome. Data from a previously published experiment evaluating instant BOLD effects and S2-seed-based resting state connectivity was re-analyzed using eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM and degree centrality mapping (DCM. These data-driven methods might add new insights into sustained acupuncture effects on both global and local inter-region connectivity (centrality by evaluating the summary of connections of every voxel. We found higher centrality in parahippocampal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus after ST36 stimulation in comparison to the two control points. These regions are positively correlated to major hubs of the default mode network, which might be the primary network affected by chronic pain. The stronger integration of both regions within the whole-brain connectome after stimulation of ST36 might be a potential contributor to pain modulation by acupuncture. These findings highlight centrality mapping as a valuable analysis for future imaging studies investigating clinically-relevant outcomes associated with physiological response to acupuncture stimulation.

  3. Central adiposity and the propensity for rehearsal in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling FCM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiona CM Ling, Rich SW Masters, Clare CW Yu, Alison M McManusInstitute of Human Performance, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong KongBackground: There is increasing evidence that continuous activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and the central sympathetic nervous system contributes to the pathogenesis of central adiposity via increased psychological stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the link between central adiposity and the propensity for Chinese children to rehearse emotionally upsetting events, a dimension of psychological stress. Additionally, gender differences in this relationship were explored.Methods: Waist circumference, which is a marker of central adiposity and associated risks of developing cardiovascular disease, was measured and the propensity for rehearsal was assessed twice over two consecutive years in Hong Kong Chinese children (n = 194, aged 7–9 years, using a psychometric tool.Results: Children with waist circumference indicative of a risk of cardiovascular disease displayed higher rehearsal scores than children categorized as “not at risk”, as did boys compared with girls. Our results suggest that central adiposity and the propensity for rehearsal of emotionally upsetting events may be linked in Chinese children.Conclusion: Future prospective studies examining the direction of causality between central adiposity and rehearsal can potentially have valuable clinical implications.Keywords: obesity, abdominal, stress, psychological, Hong Kong, child

  4. An exchange rate determination model for central banks' interventions in financial markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林浚清; 黄祖辉; 战明华

    2002-01-01

    We establish an exchange rate determination model for central banks' in terventions in financial markets. The model shows that central banks can adjust exchange rate by several policy instruments and that different instruments may h ave different effects on exchange rate determination. It specifies potential pol icy instruments for central banks as well as their policy effects. Based on thes e effects, feasible matches of policy instruments in contingent intervention are put forth.

  5. Central cholinergic regulation of respiration: nicotinic receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuesi M SHAO; Jack L FELDMAN

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in brainstem and spinal cord regions involved in the control of breathing. These receptors mediate central cholinergic regulation of respiration and effects of the exogenous ligand nicotine on respiratory pattern. Activation of a4* nAChRs in the preBotzinger Complex (preBotC), an essential site for normal respiratory rhythm generation in mammals, modulates excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and depolarizes preBotC inspiratory neurons, leading to increases in respiratory frequency. nAChRs are also present in motor nuclei innervating respiratory muscles. Activation of post- and/or extra-synaptic a4* nAChRs on hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons depolarizes these neurons, potentiating tonic and respiratory-related rhythmic activity. As perinatal nicotine exposure may contribute to the pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), we discuss the effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on development of the cholinergic and other neurotransmitter systems involved in control of breathing. Advances in understanding of the mechanisms underlying central cholinergic/nicotinic modulation of respiration provide a pharmacological basis for exploiting nAChRs as therapeutic targets for neurological disorders related to neural control of breathing such as sleep apnea and SIDS.

  6. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  7. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi; Hamid Zamani Moghadam Dolu; Elham Pishbin; Maryam Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central veno...

  8. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  9. Central bronchial carcinoid: Management of a case and anesthetic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, D; Kashyap, L; Batra, RK; Bhagat, C

    2016-01-01

    Obstructing lesions of the central airways present with a variety of symptoms and are often associated with pneumonia or asthma-like states. Anesthesia to these patients often presents challenges right from the preoperative stabilization of underlying lung condition, mask ventilation in the supine position to maintaining oxygenation and ventilation in the intraoperative and postoperative period. We present here a case of a young woman with a central bronchial tumor with significant airway obstruction with potential for major bleeding and subsequent anesthetic management without lung sacrificing measures and cardiopulmonary bypass assistance. PMID:26955320

  10. Central bronchial carcinoid: Management of a case and anesthetic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructing lesions of the central airways present with a variety of symptoms and are often associated with pneumonia or asthma-like states. Anesthesia to these patients often presents challenges right from the preoperative stabilization of underlying lung condition, mask ventilation in the supine position to maintaining oxygenation and ventilation in the intraoperative and postoperative period. We present here a case of a young woman with a central bronchial tumor with significant airway obstruction with potential for major bleeding and subsequent anesthetic management without lung sacrificing measures and cardiopulmonary bypass assistance.

  11. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modabber, Milad, E-mail: mmodabber@gmail.com [McMaster University, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine (Canada); Kundu, Sanjoy [Scarborough Hospital and Scarborough Vascular Ultrasound, The Vein Institute of Toronto (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  12. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  13. Survey of citrus tristeza virus populations in Central California that react with MCA13 monoclonal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Citrus Pest Detection Program (CPDP) of the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency monitors Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in Central California. MCA13 is a severe strain discriminating monoclonal antibody used to screen for potentially virulent CTV isolates. MCA13-reactive CTV isolates are...

  14. Centrally active nonhormonal hot flash therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Charles L; Stearns, Vered; Barton, Debra

    2005-12-19

    Given the problems associated with hormonal therapy, and the prominent problem of hot flashes in menopausal women, there is a need for nonhormonal agents to alleviate hot flashes. Several compounds that appear to act on the central nervous system have been investigated. Potential mechanisms for their effects on hot flashes have been described. Bellergal (no longer available on the US market, where it was known as Bellergal-S), a combination preparation sedative that consists of low-dose phenobarbital, ergotamine tartrate, and levorotatory alkaloids of belladonna, is an old agent that was popular approximately 20 years ago; however, there is limited suggestion of efficacy for this agent. Clonidine, an older antihypertensive drug, is another centrally active agent that has been studied. Randomized trials have demonstrated that it clearly works for reducing hot flashes, but the magnitude of efficacy is somewhat limited. Toxicity from this agent limits its utility in the clinic. Methyldopa is another centrally active agent that has been studied but to a more limited degree. It appears to have minimal efficacy and too much toxicity to make it clinically useful. Anecdotal observations from a number of sources suggested that newer antidepressants can alleviate hot flashes. This led to pilot trials of venlafaxine and paroxetine, with results suggesting benefit from both drugs. Subsequently, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials of venlafaxine, paroxetine, and fluoxetine were conducted. All 3 of these clinical trials demonstrated statistically significant reductions in hot flashes with these newer antidepressants compared with placebo. Pilot trials of citalopram and mirtazapine, 2 other newer antidepressants, have also suggested efficacy. Toxicity evaluations have suggested that these agents are, again, well tolerated by the majority of patients. A recent trial, however, was unable to demonstrate any benefit for fluoxetine or citalopram over a placebo

  15. Centrality in Interconnected Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Omodei, Elisa; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases, they require to be modeled by interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions on several levels simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology, from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network. However, defining the centrality of actors in an interconnected structure is not trivial. In this paper, we capitalize on the tensorial formalism, recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, to show how several centrality measures -- well-known in the case of standard ("monoplex") networks -- can be extended naturally to the realm of interconnected multiplexes. We consider diagnostics widely used in different fields, e.g., computer science, biology, communication and social sciences, to cite only some of them. We show, both theoretically and numerically, that using the weighted monoplex obta...

  16. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  17. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  18. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; /MIT; Neubauer, M.; /UC, San Diego; Sfiligoi, I.; /Frascati; Weems, L.; /Fermilab; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  19. Celtic Sites of Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, Manuel

    This chapter concerns the astronomy practiced by Celtic peoples in some parts of central Iberia, specifically the Vetton and Celtiberian peoples, inhabitants of the so-called Late Iron Age. The construction of some elements of religion or worship was perfectly determined by geometry, topography, and especially astronomy, because their spatial orientation occurs in locations of great interest for maintaining the local calendar. The maintenance of this calendar was probably the primary objective of some of the elements studied.

  20. Information from the central stores

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    All items sold in the CERN shop (Bldg. 33) are now available in the central stores (Bldg. 73) and can be purchased on-line via EDH “Material Request” or at the “Emergency Desk” of the stores on the ground floor of Bldg. 73. These items are visible in the CERN catalogue under the “SCEM” codes beginning with 92. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SEM Group

  1. Central Asia, Physical Geography Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    over 2,000 m) is not applicable to Central Asia, partly because the general hypsometric level of this region is high and unstable, as a consequence of...organic fossils in them, gastropods have been discovered. On the main territory of the Tarim massif, which evidently represented a weakly elevated...places seams of gypsum and rock salt, and, in a part to the west of the town of Aksu, also a bed of gray limestone with small fresh- water gastropods

  2. Central charges in regular mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Villanueva, V M

    1997-01-01

    We consider the algebra associated to a group of transformations which are symmetries of a regular mechanical system (i.e. system free of constraints). For time dependent coordinate transformations we show that a central extension may appear at the classical level which is coordinate and momentum independent. A cochain formalism naturally arises in the argument and extends the usual configuration space cochain concepts to phase space.

  3. Economic Development Through Biomass Systems Integration in Central Florida: Final Report; May 5, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, J. A.; Smith, W. H.

    2004-07-01

    Reclaimed phosphate mined land in central Florida has been identified as an area with potential for growing biomass crops. Approximately 73,000 acres of land could be available for production. Additional research is needed to define the possibilities.

  4. Central vein perforation during tunneled dialysis catheter insertion: principles of acute management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Uei

    2014-10-01

    Central venous perforation during dialysis catheter insertion is a potentially fatal complication. Prompt recognition and judicious initial steps are important in optimizing the outcome. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the imaging features and steps in initial management.

  5. Central sensitization in chronic low back pain: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare

    2016-11-21

    Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.

  6. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity.

  7. Central hypersensitivity in chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curatolo, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Clinical research has consistently detected alteration in central pain processing leading to hypersensitivity. Most methods used in humans are reliable and have face validity to detect widespread central hypersensitivity. However, construct validity is difficult to investigate due to lack of gold...... standards. Reference values in the pain-free population have been generated, but need replication. Research on pain biomarkers that reflect specific central hypersensitivity processes is warranted. Few studies have analyzed the prognostic value of central hypersensitivity. Most medications acting at central...... level and some non-pharmacological approaches, including psychological interventions, are likely to attenuate central hypersensitivity....

  8. Centralized co-digestion and efficient nutrient recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafdrup, S. [Danish Energy Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The centralized biogas plants co-digest animal manure and organic waste, producing biogas and liquid fertilizer as a result. 19 centralized biogas plants are in operation in Denmark. In 1996 they digested 200,000 tonnes organic industrial wastes with 800,000 tonnes manure. The average gate fee for waste reception is around DKK 50 per tonne. Thus, the centralized biogas plants provide the organic waste producers with an economically attractive as well as environmentally sound recycling option. The farmers play a key role. It is a precondition that the farmers benefit sufficiently from the operation of the centralized biogas plant. An average economic advantage for the farmers of approximately DKK 5 in all per m{sup 3} slurry has been calculated. Even though this is a relatively modest amount, it is enough to generate interest on the part of the farmers. A further tightening of the legislation is expected in a few years concerning utilization of nutrients in manure and land applied organic wastes. This, together with increasing focus on odour reduction, is expected to add to the farmers interests in centralized biogas plants. At present biogas contributes with 2 PJ per year to the energy supply in Denmark. According to the official energy action plan, the total biogas production from all kinds of biogas plants is to be doubled by the year 2000 and increased 10-fold by the year 2020. A major part of this increase is expected to come from new centralized biogas plants. The annual potential for biogas production from biomass resources available in Denmark is estimated to be approximately 30 PJ. Animal manure comprises about 80% of this potential. (au)

  9. Extreme Gas Properties in the Central 10 Parsecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Elisabeth A.; Güsten, R.; Requena Torres, M. A.; Lang, C. C.; Morris, M.; Butterfield, N.; Ludovici, D.; Schmitz, S.; Ott, J.

    2014-01-01

    Gas in the central parsecs of our Galaxy is subject to a harsh environment, including the close proximity of a supermassive black hole and a massive nuclear star cluster. By characterizing the molecular gas conditions in this region, it is possible not only to quantify the effect the black hole and star cluster have on nearby gas, we can also help to infer the future evolution of the central parsec by determining whether this gas will form stars, accrete, or escape entirely. We present a combination of results from the APEX, VLA, and GBT telescopes which place new limits on the large densities, temperatures, and turbulent line widths found in the molecular gas in the Circumnuclear disk (CND) and the central 10 parsecs. Using data from the APEX telescope, we find that the majority of gas in the CND is not stable against tidal disruption, and all but one clump studied are likely transient. We additionally find that reprocessed dust radiation from the central cluster appears to be contributing to radiative excitation of HCN in the CND, which may lower the gas densities inferred using this molecule. We also use VLA and GBT data to identify a new 400 K gas component in several clouds in the central 10 parsecs, and evaluate the supermassive black hole and central star cluster as potential heating sources for this gas. Finally, we will present a new study of the distribution of gas temperatures and turbulence in the central 10 parsecs, and a search for trends in these properties as a function of distance from the nucleus. Together, these studies place new constraints on the most extreme conditions found in Galactic center molecular gas, and the processes which are responsible.

  10. Nodal centrality of functional network in the differentiation of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene; Goñi, Joaquín; Kent, Jerillyn S; Howell, Josselyn; Bolbecker, Amanda; Puce, Aina; O'Donnell, Brian F; Hetrick, William P

    2015-10-01

    A disturbance in the integration of information during mental processing has been implicated in schizophrenia, possibly due to faulty communication within and between brain regions. Graph theoretic measures allow quantification of functional brain networks. Functional networks are derived from correlations between time courses of brain regions. Group differences between SZ and control groups have been reported for functional network properties, but the potential of such measures to classify individual cases has been little explored. We tested whether the network measure of betweenness centrality could classify persons with schizophrenia and normal controls. Functional networks were constructed for 19 schizophrenic patients and 29 non-psychiatric controls based on resting state functional MRI scans. The betweenness centrality of each node, or fraction of shortest-paths that pass through it, was calculated in order to characterize the centrality of the different regions. The nodes with high betweenness centrality agreed well with hub nodes reported in previous studies of structural and functional networks. Using a linear support vector machine algorithm, the schizophrenia group was differentiated from non-psychiatric controls using the ten nodes with the highest betweenness centrality. The classification accuracy was around 80%, and stable against connectivity thresholding. Better performance was achieved when using the ranks as feature space as opposed to the actual values of betweenness centrality. Overall, our findings suggest that changes in functional hubs are associated with schizophrenia, reflecting a variation of the underlying functional network and neuronal communications. In addition, a specific network property, betweenness centrality, can classify persons with SZ with a high level of accuracy.

  11. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  12. Central cholinesterase inhibition enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyakin, Maxim; Rajasekaran, Karthik; Kapur, Jaideep

    2010-04-01

    Central cholinergic overstimulation results in prolonged seizures of status epilepticus in humans and experimental animals. Cellular mechanisms of underlying seizures caused by cholinergic stimulation remain uncertain, but enhanced glutamatergic transmission is a potential mechanism. Paraoxon, an organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor, enhanced glutamatergic transmission on hippocampal granule cells synapses by increasing the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in a concentration-dependent fashion. The amplitude of mEPSCs was not increased, which suggested the possibility of enhanced action potential-dependent release. Analysis of EPSCs evoked by minimal stimulation revealed reduced failures and increased amplitude of evoked responses. The ratio of amplitudes of EPSCs evoked by paired stimuli was also altered. The effect of paraoxon on glutamatergic transmission was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine and partially mimicked by carbachol. The nicotinic receptor antagonist α -bungarotoxin did not block the effects of paraoxon; however, nicotine enhanced glutamatergic transmission. These studies suggested that cholinergic overstimulation enhances glutamatergic transmission by enhancing neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals.

  13. CHINA AND ENERGY SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Pan

    2007-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts: China’s energy policy and energy development strategy; Central Asia’s significance for China’s overseas energy development strategy; and Central Asia’s energy security and energy development.

  14. [Historical demography in the Central American isthmus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Brignoli, H

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews and evaluates sources of information on the demographic history of Central America. Past and present administrative, state, ecclesiastical, and genealogical sources are examined, and recent studies of various Central American countries are cited. A bibliography is provided

  15. Puente del Pedrido, tramo central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torroja, Eduardo

    1962-02-01

    Full Text Available Planteada la necesidad de proceder a la ejecución del tramo central del puente en el Pasaje del Pedrido sobre la ría de Betanzos, y encontrándonos con que las armaduras para el mismo, que ya estaban acopiadas a pie de obra antes de la guerra, estaban totalmente no tuvimos inconveniente, puesto que habían de adquirirse de nuevo, en introducir algunas ligeras modificaciones sobre el proyecto anterior, a fin de reducir en lo posible el coste de la obra.

  16. Nonlocally Centralized Simultaneous Sparse Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷阳; 宋占杰

    2016-01-01

    The concept of structured sparse coding noise is introduced to exploit the spatial correlations and nonlo-cal constraint of the local structure. Then the model of nonlocally centralized simultaneous sparse coding(NC-SSC)is proposed for reconstructing the original image, and an algorithm is proposed to transform the simultaneous sparse coding into reweighted low-rank approximation. Experimental results on image denoisng, deblurring and super-resolution demonstrate the advantage of the proposed NC-SSC method over the state-of-the-art image resto-ration methods.

  17. Inverting the central limit theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Navascues, Miguel; Villanueva, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    The central limit theorem states that the sum of N independently distributed n-tuples of real variables (subject to appropriate normalization) tends to a multivariate gaussian distribution for large N. Here we propose to invert this argument: given a set of n correlated gaussian variables, we try to infer information about the structure of the discrete microscopic probability distributions whose convolution generated such a macroscopic behavior. The techniques developed along the article are applied to prove that the classical description of certain macroscopic optical experiments is infinitely more complex than the quantum one.

  18. Kalmanovitz y la banca central.

    OpenAIRE

    Maya M, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Salomón Kalmanovitz, Codirector del Banco de la República (B de la R) hasta enero de 2005, uno de los economistas colombianos más brillantes, publicó un libro titulado Ensayos sobre Banca Central, Comportamiento, Independencia e Historia (Norma, 2003). Si los estudiantes de economía de los años 70 y 80 estudiaron a un Kalmanovitz marxista, los estudiantes de hoy estudian a un economista ortodoxo y liberal, igualmente brillante. Kalmanovitz es un partidario de la independencia de la BC para la...

  19. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  20. Capitalizing Central Banks: A Net Worth Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Ize

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a simple, quantitative, net worth-based, approach to assessing the need for central bank capital. It derives a concept of "core capital" (a function of the central bank's operating expenditures and the carrying cost of its international reserves) as the minimum capital needed by a central bank to ensure the credibility of its inflation target. The approach is illustrated with the published accounts of three loss-making central banks and selected accounting entries for a br...

  1. The European Central Bank and the Eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Carol C. Bertaut

    2002-01-01

    The Eurosystem comprises the European Central Bank at its center as well as the national central banks of the twelve countries currently participating in monetary union. The European Central Bank was established in July 1998, six months before the beginning of Stage Three of economic and monetary union. Although decisions regarding monetary policy are made centrally by the Governing Council of the Eurosystem, the operational aspects of monetary policy-including open market operations, adminis...

  2. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  3. RMB Exchange Market Pressure and Central Bank Exchange Market Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Liu; Jing Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The present paper uses the model-dependent and the model-independent approach to measure the RMB exchange market pressure (EMP) and the central bank's intervention using monthly data from January 1999 to June 2008. It is determined that the RMB has been under great appreciation pressure over the past decade. However, the pressure has been weakening since 2005. The two approaches provide significantly different results in terms of the estimated RMB EMP indices and the estimated central bank's interventions. The differences may lead to different predictions of potential currency crises. According to the estimation of the RMB EMP, and based on the model-independent approach, the paper shows that China has been under threat of an appreciation currency crisis since 2008. Therefore, China should adopt a more flexible exchange rate regime to prevent a potential crisis.

  4. Central Pontine Myelinolysis: Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Akar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central pontine myelinolysis is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of myelin in the central pons as well as in the other parts of the brain like basal ganglia, lateral geniculate bodies, external and internal capsules, and cerebellum. We report the clinical and radiological findings of three patients with central pontine myelinolysis and one patient with both pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis.

  5. Central bank independence and inflation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the relationship between central bank independence (CBI), proxied by the central bank governor's turnover rate and an indicator based on central bank laws in place, and inflation using a random coefficient model with the Hildreth-Houck estimator for more than 100 countries in the perio

  6. "Christofest" New Yorgi Central Parkis / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    12. II 2005. a. avatakse Christo ja Jeanne-Claude'i keskkonnainstallatsioon "The Gates" New Yorgi Central Parkis. Paralleelselt toimub Metropolitan Muuseumis näitus "Christo and Jeanne-Claude : The Gates, Central Park, New York", kus eksponeeritakse Central Parki installatsiooni ettevalmistavaid materjale: joonistusi, diagramme, fotosid jne

  7. Functionalized carbon nanotubes for potential medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Yuhong; Yan, Bing

    2010-06-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes display unique properties that enable a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity. High aspect ratio, unique optical property and the likeness as small molecule make carbon nanotubes an unusual allotrope of element carbon. After functionalization, carbon nanotubes display potentials for a variety of medicinal applications, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infectious diseases and central nervous system disorders, and applications in tissue engineering. These potential applications are particularly encouraged by their ability to penetrate biological membranes and relatively low toxicity.

  8. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  9. Conservation et anthropisation en Afrique centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and Anthropization in Central Africa. As we enter a millennium often referred to as Anthropocene, with reference to the influence never before seen in the history of a species namely the human being, world biodiversity declines at an accelerated pace. A pace of change so severe that researchers have difficulties describing the current phenomena. Wildlife in particular is seriously threatened, to such an extent that we speak about the biggest massive extinction of animal species ever to occur on Earth. Many regions of the globe, in particular Central Africa, thus see theirbiodiversity disappearing before it is even documented. With regard to its concerns about the sustainability of the environment, the journal Tropicultura now opens its columns to authors working in conservation and the relations between man and nature, and more particularly its wildlife. Stemming from a call for contributions directed at young active researchers in Central.Africa, this special issue is as diverse as the themes developed in conservation of this region. >From plains Gorillas of Cameroon to bushmeat consumption in Gabon and the participative management in Congo, intrepid scientists offer us an anthology of fascinating stories. Scattered at the edge of dense forests, in remote and sometimes dangerous areas, these researchers raise numerous questions about the future of wildlife in this part of the globe. A frightening future, since the threats seem more numerous than the solutions. Nevertheless, these articles also deliver a positive vision of the situation. They demonstrate the will of enthusiast conservationists to fight relentlessly for the preservation of our ecosystems. They also demonstrate the increasing implication of researchers from those regions to protect their incredible heritage and reconcile man and nature. If figures are disturbing and human population grows and expands perpetually, particularly in these countries, the interest for

  10. A Universal Quantum Network Quantum Central Processing Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG An-Min

    2001-01-01

    A new construction scheme of a universal quantum network which is compatible with the known quantum gate- assembly schemes is proposed. Our quantum network is standard, easy-assemble, reusable, scalable and even potentially programmable. Moreover, we can construct a whole quantum network to implement the generalquantum algorithm and quantum simulation procedure. In the above senses, it is a realization of the quantum central processing unit.

  11. Energy offer expansion by the implantation of a small SHPP (Small Hydroelectric Power Plant) at the Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a brief analysis of social-environmental impact potentials; Expansao da oferta de energia pela implantacao de uma PCH (pequena central hidreletrica) no municipio de Paracambi: uma breve analise sobre potenciais impactos socioambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Rafael; Chaves, Alison; Coutinho, Douglas; Alves, Joberson [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia, Paracambi, RJ (Brazil); Freitas, Marcos A.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the potential social and environmental impacts from the implementation and operation of the SHPP which will guarantee the energy offer expansion in the order of 25 MW, proposing the viabilization of growing and local economic development with environmental sustainability, assured by the environmental programs and mitigatory measurements and/or compensatories as disposed in the EIA/Rima of the enterprising and observed in the data systematization of in loco research.

  12. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  13. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  14. Geologic characterization of Cuvette Centrale petroleum systems Congo-DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentelli, Maria Gabriela C.; Barbosa, Mauro; Rezende, Nelio G.A.M. [HRT Petroleum, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Cuvette Centrale is an almost unexplored basin, which contains some petroleum system elements that indicate the presence of hydrocarbons. In this sense; this paper presents an exploratory alternative for this intracratonic basin. The interpretation of the limited gravimetric, magnetometric, geochemical and seismic available data allowed the identification of many huge structural features and also some areas with hydrocarbon potential for stratigraphic traps. The presence of several oil and gas seeps widespread around the Busira and Lokoro sub-basins indicate that at least one active petroleum system exist in the basin. Despite only four wells have been drilled in the basin, one of them presented oil shows during drilling. Geological correlations between Brazilian Paleozoic basins and Cuvette Centrale sedimentary sequences permitted to conclude that Cambro-Ordovician and Siluro-Devonian source rocks must be present and active in the Cuvette Centrale basin. The tectono-stratigraphic evolution history of the Cuvette Centrale from Neo proterozoic to Recent times shows extensional and compressional/transpressional alternating phases along the geological time. The most confident petroleum system expected in the Cuvette Centrale is characterized by the Cambrian Mamungi shale - source rock - and the Cambro-Ordovician. Upper Arenaceous Sequence - reservoirs, as observed in the MBandaka and Gilson wells and confirmed by surface geology in outcrops. Besides, other potential petroleum systems are expected to occur in the basin. One is characterized by the Neo proterozoic Itury Group source rock and reservoirs in the mature/over mature stage, the others are the Siluro-Devonian and Cretaceous source rocks and reservoirs, expected to occur with better maturity conditions only in the deeper parts of the basin. (author)

  15. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    McNulty, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a unique process at hadron machines in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. LHCb have measured the cross-sections for the CEP of vector mesons, $J/\\psi,\\psi(2S),\\Upsilon(1S),\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(3S)$, which are photo-produced. In the double pomeron exchange process, preliminary measurements have been made of $\\chi_{c0},\\chi_{c1}, \\chi_{c2}$ meson production while the first observations of the CEP of pairs of charmonia, $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $J/\\psi \\psi(2S)$, have been made and limits obtained on the pair production of other charmonia.

  16. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  17. CST-01-Central Standard Timing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    薄如蝉翼名为CentralStandardTiming的工作室推出了E—ink材质代号为CST-01的手表,其厚度仅为0.8mm,号称全球最薄。一次充电10分钟便可连续使用15年。该手表屏幕由多层柔性材料构成。整体十分轻巧并且可弯曲,腕带则采用了柔性不锈钢材质。CST-01的预售价格为129美元。约合人民币800元,目前已经在著名的集资网站Kickstarter上创建项目。

  18. 美国俄亥俄州中部大德尔比支流上游的水文、水质和恢复潜力研究(摘要)%Hydrology,Water Quality,and Restoration Potential for the Upper Big Darby Creek,Central Ohio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立; 威廉·杰·米奇; 丹尼尔·弗·芬克

    2007-01-01

    The restoration of riparian buffers as well as the creation and restoration of wetlands along streams are practices that can be used to control point and non-point source pollution. Our study provides hydrology and water quality data from 2000~2002 in anticipation of recommending restoration of the headwaters of the Big Darby Creek Watershed in central Ohio. One tributary of concern in the headwaters, Flat Branch. contributed 11% of the total river flow during April 2002 flooding and 56 and 88% of the flow in the headwater study area during non-growing(winter and early spring) and growing (summer and early fall)seasons, respectively. There were significant differences in water chemistry, both temporally and spatially, at each sampling station within the upper watershed. Flat Branch was seasonally or continuously higher in temperature, pH, and turbidity, and lower in dissolved ions and oxygen than Darby Creek. Low dissolved oxygen at dawn during the summer months caused by diurnal metabolism in the water column is also a concern in Darby Creek. We propose the creation/restoration of riparian wetlands at the confluence of the Big Darby and Flat Branch as one solution to degrading water quality in the upper Big Darby watershed. Flood pulses, particularly from the Flat Branch, Could be directed to riparian wetlands,which would minimize downstream erosion and capture the water exactly when several pollutants(sediments, nitrates, and so forth)are in higher concentrations. The restoration area could have flood control, habitat, and ecotourism values as well.

  19. Evaluating Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, P. C.; Hunt, E. R.; McCarty, G. W.; Daughtry, C. S.; Izaurralde, C.

    2005-12-01

    The potential for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration through landuse and management of agricultural systems is of great interest worldwide. Agricultural soils can be a source of CO2 when not properly managed but can also be a sink for sequestering CO2 through proper soil and crop management. The EPIC-CENTURY biogeochemical model was used to simulate the baseline level of soil carbon from soil survey data and project changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) under different tillage and crop management practices for corn and soybean crops. The study was conducted in central Iowa (50 km x 100 km) to simulate changes in soil carbon over the next 50 years. The simulations were conducted in two phases; initially a 25-year period (1971-1995) was simulated using conventional tillage practices since there was a transition in new management after 1995. In the second 25-year period (1996-2020), four different modeling scenarios were applied namely; conventional tillage, mulch tillage, no-tillage and no-tillage with a rye cover crop over the winter. The model simulation results showed potential gains in soil carbon in the top layers of the soil for conservation tillage. The simulations were made at a spatial resolution of 1.6 km x 1.6 km and mapped for the study area. There was a mean reduction in soil organic carbon of 0.095 T/ha per year over the 25-year period starting with 1996 for the conventional tillage practice. However, for management practices of mulch tillage, no tillage and no tillage with cover crop there was an increase in soil organic carbon of 0.12, 0.202 and 0.263 T/ha respectively over the same 25-year period. These results are in general similar to studies conducted in this region.

  20. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  1. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Pauly, T; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Spiwoks, R; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T; 14th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference 2005

    2005-01-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose particle physics detector at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider where two pulsed beams of protons are brought to collision at very high energy. There are collisions every 25 ns, corresponding to a rate of 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system reduces this rate to about 200 Hz while keeping bunch crossings which potentially contain interesting processes. The Level-1 trigger, implemented in electronics and firmware, makes an initial selection in under 2.5 us with an output rate of less than 100 kHz. A key element of this is the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) which combines trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors to make the final Level-1 accept decision in under 100 ns on the basis of lists of selection criteria, implemented as a trigger menu. Timing and trigger signals are fanned out to all sub-detectors, while busy signals from all sub-detector read-out systems are collected and fed into the CTP in order to throttle the generation of Level-1 triggers.

  2. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano­neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, blood–brain barrier, autophagy, ROS

  3. The structure of western Sicily, central Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, R.; Sulli, A. [Universita di Palermo, Dip. di Geologia e Geodesia, Palermo (Italy); Merlini, S. [ENI-Divisione AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    Western Sicily is part of the Sicilian chain, a sector of the SE-verging Alpine orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, boreholes and recent inland geological data, have enabled us to assess the deep structural grain. A wedge of flat-lying Mesozoic-Miocene carbonate and terrigenous rocks (pre-Panormide nappes) is superimposed on NW-trending, 7-8 km thick, Mesozoic-Paleogene carbonate thrust ramps (Trapanese units), arranged in two structural levels extending from the Tyrrhenian coast to western offshore Sicily. Upper Miocene to Pleistocene terrigenous strata, often deformed, fill syntectonic basins above the thrust pile. The main tectonic transport of the thrust pile, developing from Early Miocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene times, was towards the east and southeast. Initial stacking and deformation of the pre-Panormide allochthon is bracketed between Early and Late Miocene. The Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene underthrusting of the Trapanese-Saccense units, that acted through more recent deep-seated thrusts in the carbonate platform layer, induced late stage refolding and further shortening in the early emplaced pre-Panormide nappe. Previously formed structures appear to have been dissected or reactivated by a right oblique transpression during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. The geometry of the carbonate bodies opens new potential perspectives on the existence of structural traps, but the uncertainties of source rock occurrence remain. (Author)

  4. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  5. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  6. Is Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae) invading houses in central Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferreira, Jonatas B C; Santana, Daniella B; Cuba, César A Cuba

    2008-08-01

    Sylvatic triatomines of the genus Rhodnius commonly fly into houses in Latin America, maintaining the risk of Chagas disease transmission in spite of control efforts. In the recent past, adult bugs collected inside houses in central Brazil were identified as R. prolixus, a primary disease vector whose natural geographical range excludes this region. Three nearly sibling species (R. neglectus, R. nasutus, and R. robustus), secondary vectors with limited epidemiological significance, occur naturally south of the Brazilian Amazon. The specific status of Rhodnius specimens found inside houses in central Brazil is therefore an epidemiologically important (and still debated) issue. We used wing and head geometric morphometrics to investigate the taxonomic status of 230 adult specimens representing all four 'R. prolixus group' species (19 populations from palm trees, domiciles, and reference laboratory colonies). Discriminant analyses of shape variation allowed for an almost perfect reclassification of individuals to their putative species. Shape patterning revealed no consistent differences between most specimens collected inside houses in central Brazil and R. neglectus, and showed that R. robustus and R. neglectus occur sympatrically (and fly into houses) in southern Amazonia. Furthermore, all Brazilian specimens clearly differed from our reference R. prolixus population. Using geometric morphometrics, we confidently ascribed individual triatomines to their species within the problematic 'R. prolixus group', illustrating the potential value of this approach in entomological surveillance. Our results strongly support the idea that R. neglectus, and not R. prolixus, is the species invading houses in central Brazil.

  7. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  8. Engineering central metabolism - a grand challenge for plant biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetlove, Lee J; Nielsen, Jens; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-12-22

    The goal of increasing crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency is being addressed by a number of ambitious research projects seeking to re-engineer photosynthetic biochemistry. Many of these projects will require the engineering of substantial changes in fluxes of central metabolism. However, as has been amply demonstrated in simpler systems such as microbes, central metabolism is extremely difficult to rationally engineer. This is because of multiple layers of regulation that operate to maintain metabolic steady state and because of the highly connected nature of central metabolism. In this review we discuss new approaches for metabolic engineering that have the potential to address these problems and dramatically improve the success with which we can rationally engineer central metabolism in plants. In particular, we advocate the adoption of an iterative 'design-build-test-learn' cycle using fast-to-transform model plants as test beds. This approach can be realised by coupling new molecular tools to incorporate multiple transgenes in nuclear and plastid genomes with computational modelling to design the engineering strategy and to understand the metabolic phenotype of the engineered organism. We also envisage that mutagenesis could be used to fine-tune the balance between the endogenous metabolic network and the introduced enzymes. Finally, we emphasise the importance of considering the plant as a whole system and not isolated organs: the greatest increase in crop productivity will be achieved if both source and sink metabolism are engineered.

  9. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  10. Performance contracting in central government in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2015-01-01

    in organisational structure, tasks, culture and time with performance contracts is expected to affect the contract content, hypotheses on variation across agencies are deduced. The empirical basis of the paper is a study of all performance contracts between parent ministries and subordinate agencies in Danish......This paper looks into performance contracting in Danish central government. Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) was adopted in central government in Denmark during the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1991, performance contracts between parent ministries and their agencies were introduced...... in Danish central government. Since their introduction, performance contracts have become central elements in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, and today they are nearly universally adopted in central government. In Denmark, the Ministry of Finance is responsible...

  11. Hirsch index as a network centrality measure

    CERN Document Server

    Campiteli, Monica G; Soles, Paulo R C; Soares, Leonardo H D; Kinouchi, Osame

    2010-01-01

    We study the h Hirsch index as a local node centrality measure for complex networks in general. The h index is compared with the Degree centrality (a local measure), the Betweenness and Eigenvector centralities (two non-local measures) in the case of a biological network (Yeast interaction protein-protein network) and a linguistic network (Moby Thesaurus II) as test environments. In both networks, the Hirsch index has poor correlation with Betweenness centrality but correlates well with Eigenvector centrality, specially for the more important nodes that are relevant for ranking purposes, say in Search Machine Optimization. In the thesaurus network, the h index seems even to outperform the Eigenvector centrality measure as evaluated by simple linguistic criteria.

  12. A matrix analysis of different centrality measures

    CERN Document Server

    Benzi, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Node centrality measures including degree, eigenvector, Katz and subgraph centralities are analyzed for both undirected and directed networks. We show how parameter-dependent measures, such as Katz and subgraph centrality, can be "tuned" to interpolate between degree and eigenvector centrality, which appear as limiting cases of the other measures. We interpret our finding in terms of the local and global influence of a given node in the graph as measured by graph walks of different length through that node. Our analysis gives some guidance for the choice of parameters in Katz and subgraph centrality, and provides an explanation for the observed correlations between different centrality measures and for the stability exhibited by the ranking vectors for certain parameter ranges. The important role played by the spectral gap of the adjacency matrix is also highlighted.

  13. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  14. Market strategies for Central American dry beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertínez, Lourdes; Bernsten, Richard; Zamora, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the past few years, the dry bean sub-sector in CentralAmerica has witnessed many dynamic changes. Unless wefind ways to increase the competitiveness of the regionalbean sub-sector, Central American countries will likelyexperience significant negative social and economic impacts,especially since these countries are facing the challenge ofadjusting to new open markets, such as the Central AmericanFree Trade Agreement (CAFTA). Bean traders, retailers, andknowledgeable government official in C...

  15. Transpleural central venous catheter discovered during thoracotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Malhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an uncommon complication of subclavian central venous catheterization, discovered at thoracotomy. The central venous catheter (CVC was placed by left infraclavicular route after induction of general anesthesia. CVC was secured after aspiration of blood and satisfactory central venous tracing. On thoracotomy, CVC was noticed to traverse the pleural cavity while the tracing was normal. CVC was thus removed consequent to which bleeding from each puncture site was noticed, that were secured surgically.

  16. Generalized Morse Potential Symmetry and Satellite Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Del Sol-Mesa, A; Smirnov, Yu F; Smirnov, Yu. F.

    1998-01-01

    We study in detail the bound state spectrum of the generalized Morse potential~(GMP), which was proposed by Deng and Fan as a potential function for diatomic molecules. By connecting the corresponding Schrödinger equation with the Laplace equation on the hyperboloid and the Schrödinger equation for the an $so(2,2)$ symmetry algebra, and obtain an explicit realization of the latter as $su(1,1) \\oplus su(1,1)$. We prove that some of the $so(2,2)$ generators connect among themselves wave functions belonging to different GMP's (called satellite potentials). The conserved quantity is some combination of the potential parameters instead of the level energy, as for potential algebras. Hence, $so(2,2)$ belongs to a new class of symmetry algebras. We also stress the usefulness of our algebraic results for simplifying the calculation of Frank-Condon factors for electromagnetic transitions between rovibrational levels based on different electronic states.

  17. The Centrality of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Miles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available I am excited about this new journal focused on the subject of organization design. In my view, organization design is a central issue in the field of management. Designing an organization requires an understanding of strategy, as we pointed out some time ago (Miles & Snow, 1978. For example, if you want to be a prospector (a first-mover strategy, you have to design your firm to move quickly in new directions, which is likely to require that it be arranged so that various kinds of teams can interact across organizational units and levels. Designing an organization to follow a first-mover strategy also requires both an understanding of leadership and a commitment to the free flow of information throughout the organization. Leaders must understand how cross-functional teams pursue ideas and opportunities, and they must facilitate collaborative knowledge sharing to drive innovations that help the firm operate entrepreneurially. Because an organization is a complex, dynamic system, perhaps no other single topic is so deeply implanted at the core of management, organization theory, and organizational behavior as organization design. Moreover, organization design once was, and could be again, the topic of an ongoing dialogue between managers and academics focused on business organizations.

  18. Maximal switchability of centralized networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2016-08-01

    We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.

  19. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  20. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunov, I. [CERN; Andreeva, J. [CERN; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P. [CERN

    2014-01-01

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required, They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  1. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Given the distributed nature of the grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and scared around the globe, VOs are facing the challenge to monitor the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard SSB (Site Status Board) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be set. During the integration of the CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were implemented; all in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can use them as well. Alongside these enhancements, there were a few changes to the core of the SSB framework from which the CMS production team was able to benefit. We will present the details of the implementation and the adva...

  2. [Aniseikonia of central serous chorioretinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, H; Awaya, S

    1992-03-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CRS) is one of the typical diseases that accompany micropsia. However very little is known about micropsia of CRS, because of the difficulty to measure "aniseikonia" in terms of micropsia. Aniseikonia in 65 cases of CRS was measured quantitatively by Awaya's New Aniseikonia Tests (NAT). The tests were performed at two different distances of 40 cm (visual angle: 6 degrees) and 20 cm (12 degrees) and under 4 meridians of the halfmoon on NAT, horizontal, 45 degrees, vertical and 135 degrees, respectively. The mean value of aniseikonia under each testing condition was as follows: 6 degrees horizontal -3.13%, 45 degrees -2.56%, vertical -2.13%, 135 degrees -2.57%, 12 degrees; horizontal -1.38%, 45 degrees -1.69%, vertical -1.84%, 135 degrees -1.50%. At 6 degrees aniseikonia is larger in the horizontal meridian than in the vertical with statistical significance (t-test, p less than 0.05), while at 12 degrees aniseikonia is smaller than at 6 degrees and shows no particular tendency in terms of meridian. The phenomenon observed at 6 degrees may be what is called "oriented metamorphopsia".

  3. Concept of the central clip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Chan, Pak Hei; Foin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    -risk surgical population with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with severe MR (3 or 4+) and high operative risk (as defined by logistic EuroSCORE) refused for conventional mitral valve repair were considered for MitraClip(®). The procedure was performed under general anaesthesia...... with transoesophageal echocardiographic (TOE) guidance. Device success was defined as placement of one or more MitraClips(®) with a reduction of MR to ≤2+. Patients were followed up clinically and with TOE at one month and one year. From September 2009 to March 2012, 43 patients with severe MR with a mean age of 74.......8±10.7 years (30 males, 13 females; mean logistic EuroSCORE 24.1±11, mean LVEF 47.5±18.5%; mean±SD) were treated. Median follow-up was 385 days (104-630; Q1-Q3). Device implantation success was 93%. All patients were treated following the central clip concept: 52.5% of MR was degenerative in aetiology and 47...

  4. Central venous line complications and tip detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Rezaee Gheshlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous line is one of a creative instrument that saves human’s life in critical medical situation. Central venous line access is frequently involved in the disease management. It is used for rapid fluid therapy, transvenous pacemakers, infusion of some medications, hemodialysis or plasmapheresis and etc. Most of the emergency departments have some staffs that are trained for central venous line insertion but related complications occur during central venous line placement.Central venous line might have some complications and complication follow-up should be considered. Thromboembolism and infection are two important medical complications. Arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax and hemothorax are mechanical Central venous line complications. Chest X-ray and some other techniques should be used for detecting these complications.Central venous line tip misplace is a considerable problem for emergency department staffs, previously chest X-ray has been used for central venous line misplace detection. In some recent studies, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and intravascular electrocardiography have been used for central venous line misplace.

  5. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pizza

    Full Text Available Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, narcolepsy type 2 (NT2 and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population.We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1 and 470 healthy subjects.Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years, a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30-3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26-3.30], as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps. Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56-2.69]. Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects.Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment.

  6. Auditory evoked potentials and multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Gentile Matas; Sandro Luiz de Andrade Matas; Caroline Rondina Salzano de Oliveira; Isabela Crivellaro Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease that can affect several areas of the central nervous system. Damage along the auditory pathway can alter its integrity significantly. Therefore, it is important to investigate the auditory pathway, from the brainstem to the cortex, in individuals with MS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize auditory evoked potentials in adults with MS of the remittent-recurrent type. METHOD: The study comprised 25 individuals w...

  7. A global central banker competency model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Brits

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: No comprehensive, integrated competency model exists for central bankers. Due to the importance of central banks in the context of the ongoing global financial crisis, it was deemed necessary to design and validate such a model.Research purpose: To craft and validate a comprehensive, integrated global central banker competency model (GCBCM and to assess whether central banks using the GCBCM for training have a higher global influence.Motivation for the study: Limited consensus exists globally about what constitutes a ‘competent’ central banker. A quantitatively validated GCBCM would make a significant contribution to enhancing central banker effectiveness, and also provide a solid foundation for effective people management.Research approach, design and method: A blended quantitative and qualitative research approach was taken. Two sets of hypotheses were tested regarding the relationships between the GCBCM and the training offered, using the model on the one hand, and a central bank’s global influence on the other.Main findings: The GCBCM was generally accepted across all participating central banks globally, although some differences were found between central banks with higher and lower global influence. The actual training offered by central banks in terms of the model, however, is generally limited to technical-functional skills. The GCBCM is therefore at present predominantly aspirational. Significant differences were found regarding the training offered.Practical/managerial implications: By adopting the GCBCM, central banks would be able to develop organisation-specific competency models in order to enhance their organisational capabilities and play their increasingly important global role more effectively.Contribution: A generic conceptual framework for the crafting of a competency model with evaluation criteria was developed. A GCBCM was quantitatively validated.

  8. [Eales' disease involving central nervous system white matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antigüedad, A; Zarranz, J J

    1994-01-01

    Eales' disease (ED) is a rare condition characterized by repeated retinal and vitreous hemorrhages. The only extraocular involvement described occasionally in the literature is neurological. Histologically, vasculitis in ED is usually restricted to the eye, but occasionally involves the central nervous system, where demyelinizing lesions may also occur. We present a 34-year-old male with ED and subclinical central nervous system involvement. Craneal magnetic resonance images (MR) suggested demyelinization; brainstem auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials were abnormal. There was moderate pleocytosis in CSF and intratecal production of immunoglobulins with oligoclonal bands. Follow-up over a period of 2.5 years showed no clinical, MR or CSF changes in spite of continued opthamological impairment. Little is known about factors that affect the development or not of demyelinizing lesions in ED patients with neurological involvement demonstrated by intratecal production of immunoglobulins. Identification of such factors may contribute to our understanding of other diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.

  9. THE CENTER vs. THE PERIPHERY IN CENTRAL- JAVANESE MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutin Aryanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of pawestren, women's room in Javanese mosques, is an opportunity to promote gender equality in Muslim society. Pawestren opens women's access to public space in Muslim society, yet still unequal to men's. Architecturally, pawestren occupies lower hierarchy than men's space in the mosque. The difference is also reflected in the local linguistic terms used for both spaces. In fact, pawestren, in both traditional and modern Central-Javanese mosques is considered to be an annex. This inevitably differs the access and control of women's from men's to the mosque. This paper aims at criticizing gender-based segregation of space in the mosque, particularly those in Central Java. Pawestren can be either good or bad potential in Islamic society beyond gender equality. This paper is expected to give insight understanding of gender equality through space and furthermore enhance the gender equality itself in religious buildings.

  10. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    of a factor less than 2 in the primary methods used to measure the central masses of nearby inactive and active galaxies, namely resolved gas and stellar kinematics in the underlying host galaxy and reverberation-mapping techniques. The UV relationship holds good potential for being a powerful tool to study...... stresses the need for better observational constraints to be placed on this relationship. The empirically calibrated relationships presented here will be applied to quasar samples in forthcoming work.......An empirical relationship, of particular interest for studies of high redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars, between the masses of their central black-holes and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) parameters measured in single-epoch AGN spectra is presented. This relationship is calibrated...

  11. Tapping into the edible fungi biodiversity of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA K. RAI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Karwa A, Rai MK (2010 Tapping into the edible fungi biodiversity of Central India. Biodiversitas 11: 97-101. Melghat forest in Central India was surveyed for occurrence of wild edible fungi and their prevalent favorable ecological factors. Studies were carried out for three consequent years in the months of June to February (2006-2008. A total of 153 species of mushrooms were recorded, collected, photographed and preserved. The enormous biomass in the forest favors variety of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Dominating species belong to genera Agaricus, Pleurotus, Termitomyces, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Auricularia, Schizophyllum, Morchella, etc. The biotechnological potential of these important mushrooms is needed to be exploited. These studies will open new avenues in improvement of breeding programs of commercially cultivated mushroom species.

  12. Indicators of the Interdisciplinarity of Journals: Diversity, Centrality, and Citations

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    A citation-based indicator for interdisciplinarity has been missing hitherto among the set of available journal indicators. In this study, we investigate betweenness centrality, entropy, the Gini coefficient, and more recently proposed measures for diversity that combine the statistics of vectors and distances in networks, in terms of their potential to fill this gap. The effects of various normalizations are specified and measured using the matrix of 8,207 journals contained in the Journal Citation Reports of the (Social) Science Citation Index. Betweenness centrality in (1-mode) affiliations networks provides an indicator outperforming betweenness in the (2-mode) citation network. Entropy as a vector-based indicator performs better than the Gini coefficient, but is sensitive to size. Science and Nature, for example, are indicated at the top of the list. The new diversity measure provides reasonable results when (1 - cosine) is assumed as a measure for the distance, but results using Euclidean distances are ...

  13. Haemangiopericytoma of central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, M.F.; Benjamin, C.S. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Clinical Oncology

    1995-02-01

    The records of four patients presenting with a histological diagnosis of haemangiopericytoma of the central nervous system, in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed retrospectively, with the aim of determining the natural history of the disease and response to various treatment modalities. Three out of the four patients reviewed presented with primary cerebral disease and the fourth with a primary spinal cord tumour. All three cerebral primary patients were initially treated with local surgical excision. All three patients received radical radiotherapy following local recurrence. The first two patients remained disease-free locally although one patient developed a solitary liver metastasis 5 years after radiotherapy. The third patient was referred with multiple cerebral metastases and failed to respond to radiotherapy. The patient with the primary lesion in the spinal cord was treated with local excision followed by postoperative radiotherapy and remains disease-free 17 years after treatment. One patient failed to respond to chemotherapy, prescribed to treat a local recurrence adjacent to the previous radiotherapy field. This was successfully excised subsequently. The patient presenting with multiple cerebral metastases was the only patient to die of this disease. Results suggest that local recurrence is avoidable with adequate wide excision of the primary tumour followed by local radical radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains controversial and no conclusion could be drawn regarding the role of palliative radiotherapy from this study. Active treatment and long-term follow-up are necessary because of the relative aggressiveness of this disease and the propensity for late relapses. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengor, A.M.C. (Instanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey))

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  15. X-Ray of One-Sided “White Lung” after Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Casanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complications during insertion of a subclavian central venous line are rare but potentially serious. This case report describes the radiological abnormality of a one-sided pleural effusion during a routine control directly after a difficult central venous catheterization. We illustrate the findings, the initial emergency management, and our procedure to rule out an iatrogenic hemothorax. Possible differential diagnoses and strategies for management of a suspected complication are discussed.

  16. CENTRAL ASIA IN THE FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA, THE UNITED STATES, AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Omarov, Mels; Omarov, Noor

    2009-01-01

    The Soviet Union left behind a geopolitical vacuum in Central Asia which augmented the interest of outside powers in the region. Indeed, its advantageous geopolitical location, natural riches (oil and gas in particular), as well as transportation potential and the possibility of using it as a bridgehead in the counter-terrorist struggle have transformed Central Asia into one of the most attractive geopolitical areas. The great powers' highly divergent interests have led to their sharp rivalry...

  17. Ghrelin: Central and Peripheral Implications in Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eMéquinion

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food intake and associated disorders are gaining large emphasis in our societies due to their dramatic physiological and psychological consequences on health. Chronic food restriction is a major symptom described in restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN patients. This disease, mostly observed in young women is the third cause of chronic illness in teenagers. It leads to central and/or peripheral reprogramming that permits the organism to endure the reduced energy supplies. These drastic conditions induce severe weight loss, metabolic disturbances, infertility, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Moreover, increasing number of arguments consider AN as an addictive behaviour to food deprivation or weight loss or physical activity, usually associated with mood disorders. This suggests a potential alteration of the central reward system. Significant changes in hormones involved in energy metabolism, regulation of feeding behaviours and bone formation are described in AN patients, but also in animal models presenting a strong face validity. Surprisingly, the plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, are increased. This hormone acts centrally to modulate food intake, but also peripherally mainly to maintain blood glucose and to regulate gastric motility. Such increase in plasma ghrelin levels seems paradoxical in light of the restrained eating adopted by these AN patients, but adaptive. The aim of this review is to describe the role played by ghrelin in AN focusing on its central vs peripheral action. The chronic food restriction induces both in AN patients and in rodent models a profound alteration in the « ghrelin » signal integration that lead to the development of inappropriate behaviours like hyperactivity or addiction to food starvation and therefore a greater depletion in energy reserves. The question of a transient insensitivity to ghrelin and/or a potential metabolic reprogramming is discussed in regard of new clinical treatments currently

  18. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant hydraulic conductivity value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses...

  19. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  20. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries created for a previously published report about the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area...

  1. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of a constant recharge value for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of...

  2. Central Life Interests and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Robert; And Others

    Data on central life interests (CLI) and five aspects of job satisfaction were obtained in a sample of bluecollar males and two samples of clerical females. Both a multiple discriminant analysis and a bivariate analysis were performed. The results of these analyses showed that central life interest was significantly related to the total set of job…

  3. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  4. An unusual Complication of Central Venous Cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheter (CVC hub fracture is a rare complication of central venous cannulation. We report a case where catheter hub fracture was detected immediately after CVC insertion. Causes of catheter hub fracture and its complications are discussed.

  5. The Latino Experience in Central Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Central Falls is, by far, the poorest community in Rhode Island. More than 40 percent of the children under 18 live in poverty, and 40 percent of that group live in severe poverty. At Central Falls High School, low-income Latino students have fallen behind their white counterparts, with shockingly low graduation, poor literacy, and low…

  6. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...

  7. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been…

  8. China-Central Asia Power Cooperation Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo

    2010-01-01

    After analyzing the basic information,distribution of energy resources and condition of power industry in Central Asia, the high feasibility for China to cooperate closely with Central Asia in transnational power interconnection, power investment and technology exchanges, etc. is studied. Furthermore, the forms, mechanisms, existing problems and suggestions for the improvement of current policies related to the power cooperation are proposed.

  9. An overview of CMS central hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Katta, S

    2002-01-01

    The central hadron calorimeter for CMS detector is a sampling calorimeter with active medium as scintillator plates interleaved with brass absorber plates. It covers the central pseudorapidity region (¿ eta ¿<3.0). The design and construction aspects are reported. The status of construction and assembly of various subdetectors of HCAL are presented. (5 refs).

  10. The Cartan Matrix of a Centralizer Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Umesh V Dubey; Amritanshu Prasad; Pooja Singla

    2012-02-01

    The centralizer algebra of a matrix consists of those matrices that commute with it. We investigate the basic representation-theoretic invariants of centralizer algebras, namely their radicals, projective indecomposable modules, injective indecomposable modules, simple modules and Cartan matrices. With the help of our Cartan matrix calculations we determine their global dimensions. Many of these algebras are of infinite global dimension.

  11. Central bank independence and financial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that central bank independence (CBI) may not only be beneficial for reaching the objective of price stability, but also for maintaining financial stability. Greater independence from external pressure implies that central banks are less politically constrained in acting to prevent

  12. A SCALED CENTRAL PATH FOR LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-xiang Yuan

    2001-01-01

    Interior point methods are very efficient methods for solving large scale linear programming problems. The central path plays a very important role in interior point methods. In this paper we propose a new central path, which scales the variables. Thus it has the advantage of forcing the path to have roughly the same distance from each active constraint boundary near the solution.

  13. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  14. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. This volume is an executive summary. (WHK)

  15. Central venous catheter (CVC) removal for patients of all ages with candidaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janum, Susanne; Afshari, Arash

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Candida bloodstream infections most often affect those already suffering serious, potentially life-threatening conditions and often cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most affected persons have a central venous catheter (CVC) in place. The best CVC management in these cases has...... conclusions. At this stage, RCTs have provided no evidence to support the benefit of early or late catheter removal for survival or other important outcomes among patients with candidaemia; no evidence with regards to assessment of harm or benefit with prompt central venous catheter removal and subsequent re......-insertion of new catheters to continue treatment; and no evidence on optimal timing of insertion of a new central venous catheter....

  16. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry.

  17. Central differences, Euler numbers and symbolic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2013-01-01

    I relate some coefficients encountered when computing the functional determinants on spheres to the central differentials of nothing. In doing this I use some historic works, in particular transcribing the elegant symbolic formalism of Jeffery (1861) into central difference form which has computational advantages for Euler numbers, as discovered by Shovelton (1915). I derive sum rules for these, and for the central differentials, the proof of which involves an interesting expression for powers of sech x as multiple derivatives. I present a more general, symbolic treatment of central difference calculus which allows known, and unknown, things to be obtained in an elegant and compact fashion gaining, at no cost, the expansion of the powers of the inverse sinh, a basic central function. Systematic use is made of the operator 2 asinh(D/2). Umbral calculus is employed to compress the operator formalism. For example the orthogonality/completeness of the factorial numbers, of the first and second kinds, translates, ...

  18. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  19. Centrality and economic development in the Rijnland region: social and spatial concepts of centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.

    2007-01-01

    In urban research, spatial and social concepts of centrality are being distinguished. From a spatial point of view, metrical centrality implies that something is located in the middle of an area. However, metrical and topological centrality are not equivalent. In research where space syntax methods

  20. The adult macaque spinal cord central canal zone contains proliferative cells and closely resembles the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Cebrian-Silla, Arantxa; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Garcia-Tarraga, Patricia; Matías-Guiu, Jorge; Gomez-Pinedo, Ulises; Molina Aguilar, Pilar; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Luquin, Maria-Rosario; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The persistence of proliferative cells, which could correspond to progenitor populations or potential cells of origin for tumors, has been extensively studied in the adult mammalian forebrain, including human and nonhuman primates. Proliferating cells have been found along the entire ventricular system, including around the central canal, of rodents, but little is known about the primate spinal cord. Here we describe the central canal cellular composition of the Old World primate Macaca fascicularis via scanning and transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry and identify central canal proliferating cells with Ki67 and newly generated cells with bromodeoxyuridine incorporation 3 months after the injection. The central canal is composed of uniciliated, biciliated, and multiciliated ependymal cells, astrocytes, and neurons. Multiciliated ependymal cells show morphological characteristics similar to multiciliated ependymal cells from the lateral ventricles, and uniciliated and biciliated ependymal cells display cilia with large, star-shaped basal bodies, similar to the Ecc cells described for the rodent central canal. Here we show that ependymal cells with one or two cilia, but not multiciliated ependymal cells, proliferate and give rise to new ependymal cells that presumably remain in the macaque central canal. We found that the infant and adult human spinal cord contains ependymal cell types that resemble those present in the macaque. Interestingly, a wide hypocellular layer formed by bundles of intermediate filaments surrounded the central canal both in the monkey and in the human, being more prominent in the stenosed adult human central canal.

  1. Ethanol and corticotropin releasing factor receptor modulation of central amygdala neurocircuitry: An update and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2015-05-01

    The central amygdala is a critical brain region for many aspects of alcohol dependence. Much of the work examining the mechanisms by which the central amygdala mediates the development of alcohol dependence has focused on the interaction of acute and chronic ethanol with central amygdala corticotropin releasing factor signaling. This work has led to a great deal of success in furthering the general understanding of central amygdala neurocircuitry and its role in alcohol dependence. Much of this work has primarily focused on the hypothesis that ethanol utilizes endogenous corticotropin releasing factor signaling to upregulate inhibitory GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala. Work that is more recent suggests that corticotropin releasing factor also plays an important role in mediating anxiety-like behaviors via the enhancement of central amygdala glutamatergic transmission, implying that ethanol/corticotropin releasing factor interactions may modulate excitatory neurotransmission in this brain region. In addition, a number of studies utilizing optogenetic strategies or transgenic mouse lines have begun to examine specific central amygdala neurocircuit dynamics and neuronal subpopulations to better understand overall central amygdala neurocircuitry and the role of neuronal subtypes in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. This review will provide a brief update on this literature and describe some potential future directions that may be important for the development of better treatments for alcohol addiction.

  2. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  3. Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additonal Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents.

  4. FBIS report: Science and technology. Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Translated articles cover the following topics: multimodel approach to description of spacecraft control processes; electrostatic discharge damage to solar cells on space vehicles in magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma; active highly sensitive damping systems and microgravitation; quaternion synthesis of nonlinear control of orientation of moving object; dynamics of deployment of space cable system; improved confinement mode in a T-10 Tokamak with injection of a slow hydrogen pellet; tritium generation in the interaction of a dense deuterium plasma stream with a metal surface; interrelation of superconductivity and the natural chemical interaction of components of matter; scattering of low-frequency sound by sphere moving in ideal fluid; research on process of polymerization of epoxy resins by acoustic methods; growing Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconducting crystals in the system Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(x)-BaBiO3; predicting the probability of object recognition from space images; zodiak project - contact sensing of atmospheric crisis conditions with rocket and space facilities; method of determining the periodicity of earth imaging with a satellite system and efficient orbital structures to solve the problem of earth resources observation; space image materials in a geographic information system technology to study tectonic criteria of petroleum potential in subarctic regions of Russia; fractals in sea ice and properties of images at different spatial resolutions; solving the three-dimensional inverse problem of remote refractometric sensing of Earth's atmosphere; indices of sensitivity of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone to ozone-active factors and model estimates; elemental composition of aerosol in the atmosphere of the Central Russian arctic; propagation of high energy laser pulses in clouds; and artificial scattering of supercooled fogs at airports with liquid nitrogen.

  5. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Chevalier, B.

    1996-01-01

    Four different building models are described - two from France and two from Denmark. For each country a single family house and a centrally located flat in a multi storey building have been chosen. The buildings is built according to the French and the Danish building code respectively...

  6. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Chevalier, B.

    1996-01-01

    Four different building models are described. The buildings are a single family house and a centrally located flat in a multi storey building located in Denmark and France (Nice) respectively. The buildings are built according to the Danish respectively the French building code....

  7. Composite absorbing potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Sala, P R

    1998-01-01

    The multiple scattering interferences due to the addition of several contiguous potential units are used to construct composite absorbing potentials that absorb at an arbitrary set of incident momenta or for a broad momentum interval.

  8. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  9. Soils - Potential Runoff

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  10. Guidewire-Related Complications during Central Venous Catheter Placement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal A. Khasawneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seldinger's technique is widely used to place central venous and arterial catheters and is generally considered safe. The technique does have multiple potential risks. Guidewire-related complications are rare but potentially serious. We describe a case of a lost guidewire during central venous catheter insertion followed by a review of the literature of this topic. Measures which can be taken to prevent such complications are explained in detail as well as recommended steps to remedy errors should they occur.

  11. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles.

  12. The Cost of Supplying Segmented Consumers From a Central Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Klose, Andreas

    consider three measures of dispersion of demand points: the average distance between demand points, the maximum distance and the surface size.In our distribution model, all demand points are restocked from a central facility. The observed logistics costs are determined using the tour length estimations......Organizations regularly face the strategic marketing decision which groups of consumers they should target. A potential problem, highlighted in Steenkamp et al. (2002), is that the target consumers may be so widely dispersed that an organization cannot serve its customers cost-effectively. We...... measure if there are many stops on a route and with our average distance measure if there are relatively few....

  13. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... was in some situations driven by organic matter alone. Nitrous oxide (N2O) became an increasingly important product of denitrification with increasing sulfide concentration and was >80% of the total N gas formation at 10 μM sulfide. The potential rates of denitrification measured in incubations at elevated...

  14. Evaluation of solar-air-heating central-receiver concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Williams, T.A.; Brown, D.R.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Hauser, S.G.; McLean, M.A.; Paluszek, A.M.; Young, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The potential of seven proposed air-heating central receiver concepts are evaluated based on an independent, uniform of each one's performance and cost. The concepts include: metal tubes, ceramic tubes, sodium heat pipes, ceramic matrix, ceramic domes, small particles, and volumetric heat exchange. The selection of design points considered in the analysis, the method and ground rules used in formulating the conceptual designs are discussed, and each concept design is briefly described. The method, ground rules, and models used in the performance evaluation and cost analysis and the results are presented. (LEW)

  15. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  16. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis.

  17. Using Network Centrality Measures to Improve National Journal Classification Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Repiso, Rafael;

    2016-01-01

    In countries like Denmark and Spain classified journal lists are now being produced and used in the calculation of nationwide performance indicators. As a result, Danish and Spanish scholars are advised to contribute to journals of high 'authority' (as in the former) or those within a high class...... mismatches of journal categories and implementing list revisions....... (as in the latter). This can create a few problems. Based on a sample of Library and Information Science publications, the aim of this paper is to examine both the Danish and Spanish classification lists, and determine the potential use of network centrality measures for identifying possible...

  18. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  19. Analysis of an Abrupt Rainstorm Process in Central Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim is to expound the abrupt rainstorm in the central Hunan Province on May 6 in 2010.[Method] By dint of NCEP 1°×1° reanalysis data,routine observation data,auto-station precipitation and FY-2C satellite data,the large-scale circulation background and physical condition during the large rainstorm period from the night on May 5 to 6 in 2010 were analyzed.The large scale environment,meso-scale characteristics and potential causes for the formation of large precipitation were revealed.By dint ...

  20. Betweenness Centrality in Some Classes of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raghavan Unnithan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several centrality measures that have been introduced and studied for real-world networks. They account for the different vertex characteristics that permit them to be ranked in order of importance in the network. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the influence of a vertex over the flow of information between every pair of vertices under the assumption that information primarily flows over the shortest paths between them. In this paper we present betweenness centrality of some important classes of graphs.