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Sample records for central plateau southeastern

  1. Middle to late cenozoic magmatism of the southeastern Colorado plateau and central Rio Grande rift (New Mexico and Arizona, U.S.A.) : a model for continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, W.S.; Perry, F.V.; Vaniman, D.T.; Nealey, L.D.; Leavy, B.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Kyle, P.; Bartov, Y.; Steinitz, G.; Gladney, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The region of the present Rio Grande rift and southeastern Colorado Plateau underwent lithospheric extension during middle to late Cenozoic deformation affecting the entire southwestern U.S. Lithospheric mantle was disrupted, and in many regions displaced or replaced by asthenospheric mantle at depths from which basaltic magmas were derived and erupted to the surface. Study of the igneous rocks erupted or intruded during this deformation yields insights into processes of magmatism associated with extension of continental lithosphere. Magmatic rocks associated with an early (late Oligocene-early Miocene) ductile phase of extension are dominantly basaltic andesites and related, calc-alkaline intermediate to silicic derivative rocks. Mafic magmas were probably derived from isotopically "enriched" lithospheric mantle. Igneous rocks associated with a later (middle Miocene-Holocene), more brittle phase of extension include widespread basaltic rocks and localized central volcanoes of intermediate to silicic composition. Isotopic compositions of mafic rocks, which include both tholeiitic and alkalic basalts, correlate strongly with tectonic setting and lithospheric structure. Basalts erupted in areas of greatest crustal extension, such as the central and southern rift and Basin and Range province, were derived from isotopically "depleted" (correlated with "asthenospheric") mantle. Also, isotopic compositions of Pliocene to Holocene basalts are slightly more depleted than those of Miocene basalts, suggesting that subcrustal lithospheric mantle was thinned during late Miocene extension. Intermediate rocks of the central volcanoes formed by a complex combination of processes, probably dominated by fractional crystallization and by assimilation of upper and lower crust in isolated, small magma chambers. The petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic data are compatible with a model, derived first from geophysical data, whereby lithosphere is thinned beneath the central rift and

  2. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  3. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  4. Crustal-scale tectonic wedging in the central Longmen Shan: Constraints on the uplift mechanism in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renqi; He, Dengfa; Xu, Xiwei; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    This study focuses on the upper-middle crust (UMC) deformation in the central Longmen Shan (LMS). The results of this study are constrained by the surface geology, typical seismic reflection profiles, previously available thermochronology, and deep geophysical data. Regional seismic profiles demonstrate a strata dip of about 2°, northwest trending, from the Sichuan Basin (SB) to LMS. The interpretation of shallow artificial seismic reflection data indicates that an unknown basement structure lead to the uplifting of the sedimentary cover by 3-4 km. A long and wide-angle reflection seismic profile presents evidence that the middle crustal-scale structure is involved in the deformation. Geophysical data support that there is an upper detachment (D1) at the depth of ∼20 km. The other lower detachment (D2) could be generated at approximately 30-40 km depth in the low velocity zone. The ductile middle crust between the D1 and D2, has shortening and forming a wedge tip beneath the transition zone of the LMS and the SB. The deformation of the LMS frontal monocline belt is related to this crustal-scale wedging. Two different tectonic stages are distinguished in the Cenozoic through the axial surface analysis and chronological data. During the first stage, the crustal-scale tectonic wedge was developed between the upper and lower detachment, resulting in the uplift of the UMC. During the second stage, the middle crust could hardly be extruding and uplifting. The brittle upper crust was rapidly uplifted and shortened by the shallow major thrusts, which were developed on the D1. The D1 and D2 controlled the uplifting and shortening in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The lower crust (LC) may be decoupled from the D2 and subducted due to the resistance by the stable craton underlying the SB. The structural model manifests the importance of multi-detachments and the superimposed deformation in the LMS thrust belt. However, we emphasize that this crustal

  5. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  6. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  7. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were

  8. Vertical crustal movement around the southeastern Tibetan Plateau constrained by GPS and GRACE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Wang, Qingliang; Cui, Duxin; Qin, Shanlan

    2016-03-01

    Using measurements of continuous GPS stations and GRACE across the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, we found that the GRACE-derived vertical displacements are highly correlated with GPS-modeled vertical annual and semiannual displacements, which demonstrates that the vertical seasonal variations on ground surface are mainly caused by hydrological mass loading. After removing GRACE-modeled seasonal variations from the GPS time series, we used a stacking technique to filter out the common mode errors. Then we estimated the best noise model for the filtered time series, which can be best characterized by power law noise model. Finally, we determined the rates of vertical crustal movement of southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our results suggest that the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is undergoing uplift, whereas the southern Sichuan-Yunnan fragment is subsiding with respect to the region to the north. The assumption of uniform extension throughout the crust does not explain the subsidence of southern Sichuan-Yunnan fragment.

  9. Niche conservatism in Gynandropaa frogs on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Broennimann, Olivier; Guisan, Antoine; Wang, Bin; Huang, Yan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The role of ecological niche in lineage diversification has been the subject of long-standing interest of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Gynandropaa frogs diversified into three independent clades endemic to the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Here, we address the question whether these clades kept the same niche after separation, and what it tells us about possible diversification processes. We applied predictions in geographical (G)-space and tests of niche conservatism in environmental (E)-space. Niche models in G-space indicate separate regions with high suitability for the different clades, with some potential areas of sympatry. While the pair of central and eastern clades displayed the largest niche overlap for most variables, and strict niche equivalency was rejected for all clade-pairs, we found no strong evidence for niche divergence, but rather the signature of niche conservatism compared to null models in E-space. These results suggest a common ancestral ecological niche, and as such give good support to divergence through allopatric speciation, but alternative explanations are also possible. Our findings illustrate how testing for niche conservatism in lineage diversification can provide insights into underlying speciation processes, and how this information may guide further research and conservation practices, as illustrated here for amphibians on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:27601098

  10. Regional geophysical investigations in central Colorado Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravity and aeromagnetic surveys covering about 15,000 square miles in the central Colorado Plateau in Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico were conducted to assist in determining the regional subsurface geology as it may relate to uranium, oil, and potash exploration. The dominant gravity anomalies are conspicuous gravity lows over the salt anticlines. Both broad regional highs, which occur over the monoclinal uplifts where denser rocks are close to the surface, and regional lows, which occur over the basin and platform areas, are caused by lateral density contrasts related to structural relief. Most of the magnetic anomalies arise from contrasts in magnetization of the Precambrian basement

  11. Central Plateau Cleanup at DOE's Hanford Site - 12504

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion of Hanford's Central Plateau includes significant work in and around the center of the Hanford Site - located about 7 miles from the Columbia River. The Central Plateau is the area to which operations will be shrunk in 2015 when River Corridor cleanup is complete. This work includes retrieval and disposal of buried waste from miles of trenches; the cleanup and closure of massive processing canyons; the clean-out and demolition to 'slab on grade' of the high-hazard Plutonium Finishing Plant; installation of key groundwater treatment facilities to contain and shrink plumes of contaminated groundwater; demolition of all other unneeded facilities; and the completion of decisions about remaining Central Plateau waste sites. A stated goal of EM has been to shrink the footprint of active cleanup to less than 10 square miles by 2020. By the end of FY2011, Hanford will have reduced the active footprint of cleanup by 64 percent exceeding the goal of 49 percent. By 2015, Hanford will reduce the active footprint of cleanup by more than 90 percent. The remaining footprint reduction will occur between 2015 and 2020. The Central Plateau is a 75-square-mile region near the center of the Hanford Site including the area designated in the Hanford Comprehensive Land Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement (DOE 1999) and Record of Decision (64 FR 61615) as the Industrial-Exclusive Area, a rectangular area of about 20 square miles in the center of the Central Plateau. The Industrial-Exclusive Area contains the 200 East and 200 West Areas that have been used primarily for Hanford's nuclear fuel processing and waste management and disposal activities. The Central Plateau also encompasses the 200 Area CERCLA National Priorities List site. The Central Plateau has a large physical inventory of chemical processing and support facilities, tank systems, liquid and solid waste disposal and storage facilities, utility systems, administrative facilities, and groundwater monitoring

  12. MODIS-based air temperature estimation in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and neighboring areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yonghui; ZHANG Baiping

    2012-01-01

    Climatic conditions are difficult to obtain in high mountain regions due to few meteorological stations and,if any,their poorly representative location designed for convenient operation.Fortunately,it has been shown that remote sensing data could be used to estimate near-surface air temperature (Ta) and other climatic conditions.This paper makes use of recorded meteorological data and MODIS data on land surface temperature (Ts) to estimate monthly mean air temperatures in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and its neighboring areas.A total of 72 weather stations and 84 MODIS images for seven years (2001 to 2007) are used for analysis.Regression analysis and spatio-temporal analysis of monthly mean Ts vs.monthly mean Ta are carried out,showing that recorded Ta is closely related to MODIS Ts in the study region.The regression analysis of monthly mean Ts vs.Ta for every month of all stations shows that monthly mean Ts can be rather accurately used to estimate monthly mean Ta (R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.90 and standard error between 2.25 ℃ and 3.23℃).Thirdly,the retrieved monthly mean Ta for the whole study area varies between 1.62℃ (in January,the coldest month) and 17.29 ℃ (in July,the warmest month),and for the warm season (May-September),it is from 13.1 ℃ to 17.29℃.Finally,the elevation of isotherms is higher in the central mountain ranges than in the outer margins; the 0℃ isotherm occurs at elevation of about 4500±500 m in October,dropping to 3500±500 m in January,and ascending back to 4500±500 m in May next year.This clearly shows that MODIS Ts data combining with observed data could be used to rather accurately estimate air temperature in mountain regions.

  13. Drainage Evolution during the Uplift of the Central Anatolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Meijers, M. J.; Willenbring, J. K.; Kaymakci, N.; Whitney, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Anatolian plateau formed in the past 8-6 Myrs, associated to a change in tectonic regime, from contraction to extensional escape tectonics. We have examined the response of the river drainage of Central Anatolia to the rise of the plateau uplift and to the formation of the Anatolian microplate, tracking changes in drainage organization. Anatolia experienced widespread rock uplift and erosion in the Late Oligocene, generating a narrow, steep, and quickly eroding mountain range above the future southern plateau margin. A regionally widespread marine transgression resulted from wholesale foundering of this orogen in Early Miocene time. Widespread planation surfaces overlapped by Miocene marine carbonates bevel this topography, indicating that relief had been reduced to a low elevation pedimented landscape by the end of the Middle Miocene. Plateau uplift initiated around 11 My ago in Eastern Anatolia; it was echoed in Central Anatolia by a short-lived phase of contraction and localized uplifts that predate escape tectonics and mark the beginning of the current topographic differentiation of the southern plateau margin. The through-going drainage network inherited disintegrated, and a vast zone of inward drainage formed at the location of the future plateau interior. Between 8 and 6 My, the southern plateau margin (i.e. the Tauride Mountains) emerged. δ18O analyses on lacustrine and pedogenic carbonates show that the southern plateau margin, if not the plateau interior, had experienced enough uplift by 5 My to generate a substantial rain shadow over the plateau interior. Being disconnected from the regional base level from the start, the plateau interior was able to rise without experiencing substantial dissection. It reconnected to all surrounding sediment sinks (Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Persian Gulf) over the past 5 My. We discuss the mechanisms that have driven this reconnection. Bottom-up processes of integration such as drainage divide retreat

  14. Potential high resolution paleoclimate and palaeoecology variations on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Herzschuh, U.; Liu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Varve analysis is a commonly used method to infer high resolution records from lacustrine sediments, which has been applied to northeastern and southeastern China for crater lakes. However, limited by appropriate archive, it has not yet been widely investigated on the Tibetan Plateau, an area that was recognized with significant influences on climate changes over the Eurasian continent and even the whole globe. Lake Basom Co (approximately 30° N and 94° E) is an alpine mountainous lake situated about 3500 m a.s.l. in the southeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau, covering an area of 26 km2, with maximum water depth of over 120 meters. This area is dominated by the Indian Summer Monsoon, and thus has responded sensitively to the climate change. Furthermore, the lake locates at the transitional zone from alpine forest to the alpine steppe/meadow, which is also an ideal site to infer the past vegetation changes in this region. In summer and autumn 2012, several short cores and two ca. 4-m long sediment cores were recovered under about 80 m water depth. Continuously thin laminations were persevered in both the short cores and the long core fragments. Preliminary analyses on the short cores and Pb/Cs dating results indicate that the upmost 20 cm sediments probably consist of annually formed laminations, i.e. varves. The laminations preserved in the long cores need to be further proved whether they are annually formed. Nevertheless, such record could provide us an opportunity to infer high resolution variations in paleoclimate and palaeoecology histories over this region. Lithology of the upper 14 cm sediment recovered from Lake Basom Co under 60 meters water depth

  15. Active tectonics of the Ganzi-Yushu fault in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; He, Honglin; Densmore, Alexander L.; Li, An; Yang, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiwei

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing convergence between India and Eurasia apparently is accommodated not merely by crustal shortening in Tibet, instead also by motions along strike slip faults which are usually boundaries between tectonic blocks, especially in the Tibetan Plateau. Quantification of this strike slip faulting is fundamental for understanding the collision between India and Eurasia. Here, we use a variety of geomorphic observations to place constraints on the late Quaternary kinematics and slip rates of the Ganzi-Yushu fault, one of the significant strike-slip faults in eastern Tibet. The Ganzi-Yushu fault is an active, dominantly left-lateral strike-slip structure that can be traced continuously for up to 500 km along the northern boundary of the clockwise-rotating southeastern block of the Tibetan Plateau. We analyse geomorphic evidence for deformation, and calculate the late Quaternary slip rates at four sites along the eastern portion of the fault trace. The latest Quaternary apparent throw rates are variable along strike but are typically ~ 1 mm/a. Rates of strike-slip displacement are likely to be an order of magnitude higher, 8-11 mm/a. Trenching at two locations suggests that the active fault behaviour is dominated by strike-slip faulting and reveals several earthquake events with refined information of timing. The 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu earthquake, which occurred on the northwestern segment of the Ganzi-Yushu fault zone, provides additional evidence for fault activity. These observations agree with GPS-derived estimates, and show that late Quaternary slip rates on the Ganzi-Yushu fault are comparable to those on other major active strike-slip faults in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, central plateau, southeastern, and southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luiz T M; Moreli, Marcos L; de-Sousa, Ricardo L M; Borges, Alessandra A; de-Figueiredo, Glauciane G; Machado, Alex M; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E; de-Souza, Renato P; de-Souza, Luiza T M; Braconi, Carla T; Harsi, Charlotte M; de-Andrade-Zanotto, Paolo M

    2009-04-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  17. Communicating strategic planning and project integration paramount to achieving cleanup goals at the Central plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) contractor responsible for the safe, environmental cleanup of the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. The 586-square-mile Hanford Site is located along the Columbia River in southeastern Washington State. A plutonium production complex with nine nuclear reactors and associated processing facilities, Hanford played a pivotal role in the nation's defense for more than 40 years, beginning in the 1940's with the Manhattan Project. Today, under the direction of the DOE, Hanford is engaged in the world's largest environmental cleanup project. The Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) is a 10-year project paving the way for closure of the Hanford Site through demolition of the Plutonium Finishing Plant; remediation of six burial grounds and 11 groundwater systems; treatment of 43.8 meters of sludge; and disposition of 8,200 meters of transuranic waste, 800 spent nuclear material containers, 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel, and two reactors. The $4.5 billion project, funded through the U.S. DOE Office of Environmental Management, focuses equally on reducing risks to workers, the public, and the environment and on protecting the Columbia River. (authors)

  18. Neogene Topography And Precipitation Patterns Of The Central Anatolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulch, A.; Mikes, T.; Schemmel, F.; Rojay, B.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term stable isotope records of terrestrial environments represent increasingly important tools for tectonic, paleoaltimetric, and paleoclimatic reconstructions within continental interiors. A rapidly growing number of studies within the Earth’s major mountain ranges demonstrates that the growth of topography and orogenic plateaus profoundly influences local, regional, and hemispheric climate and hence precipitation patterns while regional surface uplift patterns are intimately linked to plate-scale geodynamic processes. In contrast, such records are almost absent for the Near East and the Turkish-Iranian plateau, an important topographic element in the Alpine-Himalayan chain and an area most likely to be strongly affected by future climate change and water scarcity. Our objective is to assess the role of orographic factors that have governed the distribution (and isotopic composition) of precipitation across the central Anatolian plateau (CAP, Turkey) from the Neogene to recent. Such data are fundamental for our understanding of the geodynamic and sedimentary history of orogenic plateaus in general and for the role of surface uplift along the plateau margins in the Pontide and Tauride mountains. We present oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen isotope data from Neogene-to-recent fluvio-lacustrine and pedogenic environments, stream and lake waters of the CAP with the ultimate aim of reconstructing past precipitation changes, plateau aridification and ideally Neogene surface uplift histories. Our approach is to cross-calibrate modern patterns of isotopes (oxygen and hydrogen) in precipitation with pedogenic carbonate oxygen and carbon isotope data across topographic barriers that today strongly control the distribution of rainfall along the plateau margins and within the plateau interior. We then compare these patterns with Miocene-to-Pleistocene lacustrine and pedogenic records to assess a) the role of late Neogene (ca. 8-0 Ma) surface uplift in the Taurus mountains

  19. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Li; Xingqi Liu; Ulrike Herzschuh; Yongbo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centenn...

  20. FINAL FRONTIER AT HANFORD TACKLING THE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER MS

    2008-03-04

    The large land area in the center of the vast Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State is known as 'the plateau'--aptly named because its surface elevations are 250-300 feet above the groundwater table. By contrast, areas on the 585-square mile Site that border the Columbia River sit just 30-80 feet above the water table. The Central Plateau, which covers an ellipse of approximately 70 square miles, contains Hanford's radiochemical reprocessing areas--the 200 East and 200 West Areas--and includes the most highly radioactive waste and contaminated facilities on the Site. Five 'canyons' where chemical processes were used to separate out plutonium (Pu), 884 identified soil waste sites (including approximately 50 miles of solid waste burial trenches), more than 900 structures, and all of Hanford's liquid waste storage tanks reside in the Central Plateau. (Notes: Canyons is a nickname given by Hanford workers to the chemical reprocessing facilities. The 177, underground waste tanks at Hanford comprise a separate work scope and are not under Fluor's management). Fluor Hanford, a DOE prime cleanup contractor at the Site for the past 12 years, has moved aggressively to investigate Central Plateau waste sites in the last few years, digging more than 500 boreholes, test pits, direct soil 'pushes' or drive points; logging geophysical data sets; and performing electrical-resistivity scans (a non-intrusive technique that maps patterns of sub-surface soil conductivity). The goal is to identify areas of contamination areas in soil and solid waste sites, so that cost-effective and appropriate decisions on remediation can be made. In 2007, Fluor developed a new work plan for DOE that added 238 soil waste-site characterization activities in the Central Plateau during fiscal years (FYs) 2007-2010. This number represents a 50 percent increase over similar work previously done in central Hanford. Work Plans are

  1. Facebook Usage by Mayors in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Vučković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing rise of social media network users consequently leaves a mark on political communication. While social media tools are already adopted in political marketing, primarily in election campaigning, governments are still new in using social media. The aim of this study is to examine how Facebook is used by city mayors in countries of Central and Southeastern Europe in two months period, from March 1st to April 30th of 2012. Using content analysis we first analyzed status massages in order to see what kind of status messages they post: personal or political. Secondly, we conducted an analysis of comments on the examined statuses, in order to examine if citizens make constructive, cynical, supportive or neutral comments. We examined ten city mayors’ Facebook pages in five countries, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Macedonia and Slovenia. The results have revealed that city mayors in Central and Southeastern Europe use Facebook almost exclusively for official purposes. Secondly, the analysis of citizens’ comments demonstrates that expressing cynicism on Facebook is not the trend in these countries. The findings further confirm that Facebook is a good platform for gathering supporters, while there were no strong evidence found that it serves as platform for constructive discussion. The paper finally discusses how politician’s status messages can engage a larger number of citizens.

  2. Traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovski Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe and within various historical and socio-economic conditions, Slovaks have formed many enclaves and diasporas. In order to investigate common cultural and ethnic characteristics and/or differences between Slovaks in Slovakia and the various diasporas that they formed in relationship with majorities of their host countries, we suggest the usage of the cartographic method. Namely, during the 1997-1999 the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science used the cartographic method to analyze various complex questions relating to the traditional culture and ethnic history of many Slovakian minorities in the countries of Central Europe: in Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Hungary. The project was named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central Europe - the application of ethno-cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestation. The project yield positive results and in 2000-2002 proceeded with yet another scientific project: Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Southeastern Europe - the application of the cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestations once more, the data were obtained on the traditional folk culture of the Slovakian enclaves in Vojvodina and Croatia. The cartographic method used in both projects enabled researchers to document relevant data in a relatively short period of time. A solid foundation was created for a scientific synthesis of selected topics that deal with the traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe, and its comparisons with the parent country culture. The cartographic method is widely used in Slovakia, in some 250 sites. Further, the scientific project of the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central and Southern Europe as an integral part of their cultural inheritance (In between cultural stability and

  3. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-04-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium.

  4. Spatial debris-cover effect on the maritime glaciers of Mount Gongga, south-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Fujita, K.; Liu, S.; Liu, Q.

    2013-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and surroundings contain a large number of debris-covered glaciers, on which debris cover affects glacier response to climate change by altering ice melting rates and spatial patterns of mass loss. Insufficient spatial distribution of debris thickness data makes it difficult to analyze regional debris-cover effects. Mount Gongga glaciers, maritime glaciers in the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau, are characterized by a substantial reduction in glacier length and ice mass in recent decades. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)-derived thermal property of the debris layer reveals that 68% of the glaciers have extensive mantles of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, in which the proportion of debris cover to total glacier area varies from 1.74% to 53.0%. Using a surface energy-mass balance model accounting for the debris-cover effect applied at a regional scale, we find that although the presence of supraglacial debris has a significant insulating effect on heavily debris-covered glaciers, it accelerates ice melting on ~ 10.2% of the total ablation area and produces rapid wastage of ~ 25% of the debris-covered glaciers, resulting in the similar mass losses between debris-covered and debris-free glaciers. Widespread debris cover also facilitates the development of active terminus regions. Regional differences in the debris-cover effect are apparent, highlighting the importance of debris cover for understanding glacier status and hydrology in both the Tibetan Plateau and other mountain ranges around the world.

  5. Structure of the crust beneath the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Lili; Rondenay, S.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2008-01-01

    Southeastern Tibet marks the site of presumed clockwise rotation of the crust due to the India-Eurasian collision and abutment against the stable Sichuan basin and South China block. Knowing the structure of the crust is a key to better understanding crustal deformation and seismicity in this region

  6. In situ cosmogenic 10Be dating of the Quaternary glaciations in the southern Shaluli Mountain on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jian; Raisbeck; Grand; XU; Xiaobin; Yiou; Francios; BAI; Shibiao

    2006-01-01

    It is generally considered that four-times ice age happened during the Quaternary epoch on the Tibetan Plateau.However,the research on the chronology of the four-times ice age is far from enough.The Shaluli Mountain on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau is an ideal place for plaeo-glacier study,because there are abundant Quaternary glacial remains there.This paper discusses the ages of the Quaternary glaciations,based on the exposure dating of roche moutonnée,moraines and glacial erosion surfaces using in situ cosmogenic isotopes 10Be.It is found that the exposure age of the roche moutonnée at Tuershan is 15 ka,corresponding to Stage 2 of the deep-sea oxygen isotope,suggesting that the roche moutonnée at Tuershan is formed in the last glacial maximum.The exposure age of glacial erosion surface at Laolinkou is 130-160 ka,corresponding to Stage 6 of the deep-sea oxygen isotope.The oldest end moraine at Kuzhaori may form at 421-766 kaBP,corresponding to Stages 12-18 of the deep-sea oxygen isotope.In accordance with the climate characteristic of stages 12,14,16 and 18 reflected by the deep-sea oxygen isotope,polar ice cores and loess sequence,the oldest end moraine at Kuzhaori may form at stage 12 or stage 16,the latter is more possible.

  7. Crustal and upper-mantle structure of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau from joint analysis of surface wave dispersion and receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wang, Fang; Wu, Tengfei; Qin, Weibing

    2016-03-01

    Researches on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau provide important insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we have constructed a high-resolution 3D shear-wave velocity model through joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion data. The crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio models are first determined by H-k stacking of receiver functions. The crustal thickness changes from 30 km in the south to 62 km in the north, presenting strong lateral variations. The fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave dispersion data spanning periods from 8 to 65 s were then jointly used to constraint the absolute shear-wave velocity. The shear-wave velocity structure shows lateral variations. There are low velocity zones distributed in the crust and upper mantle. Two continuously distributed low velocity zones are clearly presented in the middle-to-lower crust, which extend from north toward southeast and southwest, respectively, joining together in southern Yunnan. In this study, we deduced the migration model of soft materials in middle-to-lower crust in southeastern Tibetan Plateau, which explains that the resistance from Sichuan Basin separates the flowing materials from Tibetan Plateau into southeast and northwest branches. They flow along the west margin of Sichuan Basin and then extrude out from northeastern and southeastern Tibetan Plateau respectively. The southeast branch is blocked and cannot flow in the entire crust. It is limited in a certain range of depths and channels. The two low velocity zones in this study possibly present two flow channels of the middle-to-lower crustal materials extruded from the Tibetan Plateau.

  8. Lightning activity on the central Tibetan Plateau and its response to convective available potential energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning flash activities on the central Tibetan Plateau have been studied by using the satellite-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) database from January 1998 to July 2002. The lightning activity shows a clear diurnal variation on the central Plateau. The peak lightning activity appears at about 17︰00 which is 3 h earlier than that in Jingzhou, Hubei in the same latitude belt nearby, indicating that the lightning activity is a sensitive indicator of solar heating on the Plateau. The lightning discharge is weaker on the Plateau than Jingzhou, Hubei and other low-altitude continental regions because of the lower convective available potential energy (CAPE) on the Plateau. The CAPE on the Plateau is 12 times lower than that in Jingzhou, Hubei, and 20 times lower than that in the sea-level region, such as Guangzhou and Florida. However, the sensitivity of lightning activity to CAPE changes on the Plateau is up to 30 times more sensitive than other prominent low-altitude regions.

  9. Topography and age mediate the growth responses of Smith fir to climate warming in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, H.; Liang, E.; Camarero, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds some of the world's highest undisturbed natural treelines and timberlines. Such extreme environments constitute potentially valuable monitoring sites of the effects of climate warming on high-elevation forests. Here, we analyze a network of 21 Smith fir forests situated in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau, using tree-ring width (TRW) and basal area increment (BAI) chronologies. Sampled sites encompassed a wide elevation gradient, from 3600 to 4400 m, including some treeline sites and diverse aspects and tree ages. In comparison with TRW series, BAI series better capture the long-term warming signal. Previous November and current April and summer temperatures are the dominant climatic factors controlling Smith fir radial growth. The mean inter-series correlations of TRW increased upwards, but the forest limit presented the highest potential to reconstruct past temperature variability. Moreover, the growth responses of young trees were less stable than those of trees older than 100 years. Climate warming is accelerating radial growth of Smith fir forest subjected to mesic conditions. Collectively, these findings confirm that the effects of site elevation and tree age should be considered when quantifying climate-growth relationships. The type of tree-ring data (BAI vs. TRW) is also relevant since BAI indices seem to be a better climatic proxy of low-frequency temperature signals than TRW indices. Therefore, site (e.g., elevation) and tree (e.g., age) features should be considered to properly evaluate the effects of climate warming on growth of high-elevation forests.

  10. The diverse crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the Manihiki Plateau, central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hochmuth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP in the central Pacific. It was emplaced as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong Java Nui and experienced fragmentation into three sub-plateaus, possibly during the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. The Manihiki Plateau is presumably the centerpiece of this "Super-LIP" and its investigation can therefore decipher the break-up mechanisms as well as the evolution of the plateau after its initial emplacement. By analyzing two seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles crossing the two largest sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau, the High Plateau and the Western Plateaus, we give new insights into their crustal structure and magmatic evolution. The High Plateau shows a crustal structure of 20 km thickness and a seismic P wave velocity distribution, which is comparable to other LIPs. The High Plateau experienced a strong secondary volcanism, which can be seen in relicts of seamount chain volcanism. The Western Plateaus on the other hand show no extensive secondary volcanism and are mainly structured by fault systems and sedimentary basins. A constant decrease in Moho depth (9–17 km is a further indicator of crustal stretching on the Western Plateaus. Those findings lead to the conclusion, that the two sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau experienced a different magmatic and tectonic history. Whereas the High Plateau experienced a secondary volcanism, the Western Plateaus underwent crustal stretching during and after the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. This indicates, that the sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau play an individual part in the break-up history of Ontong Java Nui.

  11. Ice core precipitation record in central Tibetan plateau since AD 1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yao

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable long-term precipitation record from northern Tibetan Plateau has constrained the understanding of precipitation variation in this region. An ice core drilled from the Puruogangri Ice Field on central Tibetan Plateau in the year 2000 helped reveal the precipitation variations since AD 1600. Analysis of the annual accumulation data presented precipitation changes from AD 1600, indicative of wet and dry periods in the past 400 year in the central Tibetan Plateau. Accordingly, the 18th and 20th centuries experienced high precipitation period, whilst the 19th century experienced low precipitation period. Such a feature was consistent with precipitation recorded in ice cores from Dunde and Guliya Glaciers, northern Tibetan Plateau. Besides, the results also pointed to consistency in precipitation-temperature correlation on the northern Tibetan Plateau, in a way that temperature and precipitation were positively correlated. But this feature was contrary to the relationship revealed from Dasuopu ice cores, southern Tibetan Plateau, where temperature and precipitation were negatively correlated. The north-south contrast in precipitation amount and its relationship with temperature may shed light on the reconstruction of Asian monsoon since AD 1600.

  12. Discriminating Mining Induced Seismicity from Natural Tectonic Earthquakes in the Wasatch Plateau Region of Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. R.; Pankow, K. L.; Koper, K. D.; McCarter, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    On average, several hundred earthquakes are located each year within the Wasatch Plateau region of central Utah. This region includes the boundary between the relatively stable Colorado Plateau and the actively extending Basin and Range physiographic provinces. Earthquakes in this region tend to fall in the intermountain seismic belt (ISB), a continuous band of seismicity that extends from Montana to Arizona. While most of the earthquakes in the ISB are of tectonic origin, events in the Wasatch Plateau also include mining induced seismicity (MIS) from local underground coal mining operations. Using a catalog of 16,182 seismic events (-0.25 finely group seismic events occurring in the Wasatch Plateau. The results of this study provide both an increased understanding of the influence mining induced seismicity has on the number of earthquakes detected within this region, as well as better constraints on the deeper tectonic structure.

  13. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  14. Hydrological controls on Chemical weathering in the Jinsha River draining the southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun; Li, Siliang; Yue, Fujun; Ding, Hu

    2016-04-01

    The geochemistry of the riverine waters could provide an insight in understanding the surface processes, such as chemical weathering and carbon cycle. As the headwater of Chanjiang (Yangtze) River, Jinsha River flows on the southestern Qinhai-Tibet Plateau at high altitute (from 1000m to 4600m) above the major areas of human impact and carries important information on this erosive region. In spite of being impacted by monsoonal climate and with significant variations of discharge, the temporal variations of compositions of main ions and chemical weathering of Jinsha River are rarely documented. In this study, a systematic investigation on the seasonal and episodic water geochemistry (major ions and δ13CDIC) of the outlet of Jinsha River basin were carried out with the purpose of 1) characterizing temporal variations of aqueous geochemistry and its controlling factors, 2) quantifying rock weathering and associated CO2 consumption rates, and 3) exploring the impact of hydrological controls on chemical weathering of the Jinsha River Basin. The results show that the concentrations of Ca, Mg, HCO3 and NO3 are generally decreased during monsoon season, while that of Cl, Na, SO4, K are relative higher in monsoon season than in dry season, which may be mainly caused by hydrological condition, i.e., with increased runoff, more surficial evaporate dissolved water and salt lake water of the Basin flow into the river. Moreover, due to increased contribution of soil CO2and fast decomposition of organic matters, δ13CDIC in the high-flow period has more negative values than in low-flow period, and shows a negative relation with the concentration of DOC. An increasing of Ca concentrations was found with shift of the δ13CDIC values, positively, indicating the precipitation might be occured. Meanwhile, the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite might enhance the calcium precipition. The forward model results show that the weathering rates of silicate and carbonate as well as that of

  15. Stress Coupling Relationship between Mantle Convection and Seismogenic Layer in Southeastern Tibetan Plateau and its Geodynamic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, H.

    2015-12-01

    The lithospheric stress states and interlayer coupling interaction is of great significant in studying plate driven mechanism and seismogenic environment. The coupling relationship between mantle convection generated drag stress in the lithospheric base and seismogenic layer stress in the crust represents the lithospheric mechanical coupling intensity level. We calculate the lithospheric bottom mantle convection stress field of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau using 11~36 spherical harmonic coefficients of gravity model EGM2008. Meanwhile we collect and organize the focal mechanism of 1131 earthquakes that occurred from 2000 to now in Sichuan-Yunnan region. The current seismogenic layer stress and stress field before Lushan earthquake are calculated by the damping regional stress tensor inversion. We further analyze the correlation between the two kinds of stress fields, then discuss the relation between mechanics coupling situation and strong earthquakes in different regions. The results show that: (1) Most of Sichuan-Yunnan region is located in the coupling and decoupling intermediate zone. Coupling zones distribute on the basis of block, the eastern South China block has strong coupling, and the coupling phenomenon also exists in parts of the northern Tibet block, Balyanlkalla block in the northwest and southwest Yunnan block. The decoupling mainly occurs in Songpan-Ganzi block, connecting with the strong coupling South China block and Longmenshan fault zone is their boundary. (2) We have analyzed seismogenic mechanism, then proposed the border zone of strong and weak coupling relation between mantle convection stress and seismogenic layer stress exists high seismic risk. The current coupling situation shows that Longmenshan fault zone is still in the large varying gradient area of coupling intensity level, it has conditions to accumulate energy and develop earthquakes. Other dangerous areas are: Mingjiang, Xianshuihe, Anninghe, Zemuhe, the Red River, Nantinghe

  16. Environmental variation in central Tibetan Plateau in the last 200 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳宏; 王苏民; 夏威岚; 朱育新; 尹宇

    2001-01-01

    Through the analyses on sediment lithology, 210Pb and 137Cs dating, carbonate content, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca of Ostrocod, and carbon and oxygen stable isotope of carbonate of gravity core from Cuoe Lake in the Naqu area, Tibetan Plateau, the paleolimnology was studied to investigate the environmental variation in the central Tibetan Plateau in the last 200 years. It is inferred that the environmental variation has undergone two stages. The climate was arid in the early 100 years, while it became warmer and more humid in the later 100 years, with a period of 20 years for humidity change.

  17. Constraining properties of GRB magnetar central engines using the observed plateau luminosity and duration correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, A.; Gompertz, B. P.; Dainotti, M.; O'Brien, P. T.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2014-09-01

    An intrinsic correlation has been identified between the luminosity and duration of plateaus in the X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; Dainotti et al. 2008), suggesting a central engine origin. The magnetar central engine model predicts an observable plateau phase, with plateau durations and luminosities being determined by the magnetic fields and spin periods of the newly formed magnetar. This paper analytically shows that the magnetar central engine model can explain, within the 1σ uncertainties, the correlation between plateau luminosity and duration. The observed scatter in the correlation most likely originates in the spread of initial spin periods of the newly formed magnetar and provides an estimate of the maximum spin period of ˜35 ms (assuming a constant mass, efficiency and beaming across the GRB sample). Additionally, by combining the observed data and simulations, we show that the magnetar emission is most likely narrowly beamed and has ≲20 per cent efficiency in conversion of rotational energy from the magnetar into the observed plateau luminosity. The beaming angles and efficiencies obtained by this method are fully consistent with both predicted and observed values. We find that short GRBs and short GRBs with extended emission lie on the same correlation but are statistically inconsistent with being drawn from the same distribution as long GRBs, this is consistent with them having a wider beaming angle than long GRBs.

  18. A possible cause of the Miocene uplift and volcanism in the central Anatolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R. M.; Wortel, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    During the middle and late Miocene (13-5Ma) several seemingly unrelated events occurred in central Anatolia, Turkey; (1) a new epoch of widespread volcanic activity with a mantle signature, (2) sudden uplift and disruption of a Oligocene-lower Miocene palaeo drainage system in the Western Taurus (southwest Turkey) and (3) a regional regression across southern Turkey (Antalya, Adana, Mut) coeval with volcanic activity. These observations suggest an uplift (>1000 meters) of the central Anatolian plateau by a mechanism which also triggered widespread volcanic activity. In eastern Anatolia, similar events are attributed to delamination of the lithospheric mantle [e.g. Keskin et al., 2003]. Results from tomography [W.Spakman, pers. com]) suggest that the (deeper) Bitlis slab was laterally continuous below the eastern and central Anatolian plateau. We therefore propose that the scenario developed for eastern Anatolian plateau also applies to the central Anatolian plateau. In this scenario, delamination started along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone and was possibly induced by remnants of a northern Neotethys slab or continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. As the lithospheric mantle separated from the crust it sank into the asthenosphere and was replaced by hot mantle material. If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a three-dimensional thermal-flexural model and taking changes of the effective elastic thickness due to thermal perturbation into account, we aim to quantify the possible imprints in the geological record of the central and eastern Anatolian plateau. Our model results show that delamination of the lithospheric mantle can explain the present day elevation (1500 m) of the central Anatolian plateau. For the eastern Anatolian plateau, however, delamination of the lithospheric mantle alone can only explain half (1000 m) of the present day elevation. Thickening of the eastern Anatolia crust by 1-5 km (β=1

  19. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hieu Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22, Binh Phuoc (25, Dak Lak (30 and Dak Nong (20. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2 (AFB2, G1 (AFG1, G2 (AFG2, fumonisin B1 (FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2 and zearalenone (ZEA were analysed by HPLC in 97 maize kernel samples. Fumonisins were the most common toxins found in all samples (67%, followed by aflatoxins (55.7% and zearalenone (27.8%. The incidence of aflatoxin positive samples (61.7% in the Southeastern provinces was higher than in the Central Highlands (50%, while fumonisins and zearalenone incidences were higher in the Central Highlands. The mean level of fumonisin B1 in samples from the Central Highlands provinces (1757 µg/kg was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the Southeastern provinces (740 µg/kg. Importantly, the percentage of positive samples (about 70% that had over 20 µg/kg (ppb aflatoxin was very high. Moreover, many samples (53% contained more than one mycotoxin and this result highlights the difficulty of diagnosing mycotoxicoses in the field and the need for ongoing research to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in Vietnamese maize.

  20. Petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the Eocene adakite-like rocks in western Yunnan, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huixia; Hou, Qingye; Zhang, Zeming

    2016-02-01

    Eocene magmatic rocks are widespread in western Yunnan, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. However, their petrogenesis and tectonic significance remain controversial. In this paper, we report geochemical and geochronological data of adakite-like rocks from the eastern part of western Yunnan. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that they were emplaced at ca. 35 Ma. A geochemical study shows that these rocks have high SiO2 (68.97-72.44 wt.%), K2O (4.35-5.87 wt.%) and low MgO (0.61-1.16 wt.%), Y (6.65-12.6 ppm) and Yb (0.58-1.02 ppm) contents as well as high Sr/Y (74-228) and La/Yb (59-131) values, belonging to high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic adakite-like rocks. These rocks have high (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.70623-0.70653), low εNd(t) (- 4.5 to - 7.5) and slightly low radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions with (206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.042-18.179. Zircons of these rocks show εHf(t) values ranging from - 6.3 to + 1.2 and model ages (TDM2) of 1513-1035 Ma. The geochemical characteristics indicate that the Eocene adakite-like rocks from the eastern part of western Yunnan were derived from the partial melting of Neoproterozoic mafic rocks underplated in the lower crust of the western margin of the Yangtze Plate with input of mantle-derived potassic-ultrapotassic melt. Integration of published geochemical data clearly shows that zircon εHf(t) and whole-rock εNd(t) values of Eocene adakite-like rocks from the whole western Yunnan exhibit a trend of westward increase. We infer that the adakite-like rocks from the western part of western Yunnan were derived from the partial melting of late Paleozoic-Mesozoic mafic rocks formed as the lower crust of a continental magmatic arc during eastward subduction of the Paleo-Tethyan Ocean, and the Eocene magmatic rocks in western Yunnan were generated during the removal of thickened continental lithosphere triggered by the India and Asia collision.

  1. An analysis of potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring networks in the Central Plateau. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of potential impacts caused by groundwater remediation activities to the four groundwater monitoring programs operating in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. It specifically fulfills Milestone M-15-81A of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Milestone M-15-81A specifies the evaluation of the potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring well systems in the Central Plateau caused by various groundwater remediation activities. Most of the impacts will be caused by local changes to groundwater flow directions that will potentially reduce the ability of the RCRA well network to monitor a limited number of RCRA facilities. It is recommended that a compliance evaluation be made of the regulatory impacts of the technical evaluations contained in this report

  2. Holocene paleo-environmental reconstruction in central Tibetan plateau inferred from a lacustrine sediment record

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Man-ching; 張敏青

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on reconstructing the paleoclimate on the Tibetan Plateauare commonly based on a single proxy, and have thus limited the usage of their results. Therefore this study was designed firstly to evaluate the applicability of organic carbon isotopes from modern plants in the Tibetan Plateau as a paleo-environmental proxy, and secondly to apply palynology, organic geochemistry and biomarkers to the reconstructions ofpaleo-environmental history of central Tibet. The new, comprehensiv...

  3. Surface Albedo Variation and Its Influencing Factors over Dongkemadi Glacier, Central Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Yuhuan Cui; Xiaobo He; Jian Zhang; Shijiang Yan

    2015-01-01

    Glacier albedo plays a critical role in surface-atmosphere energy exchange, the variability of which influences glacier mass balance as well as water resources. Dongkemadi glacier in central Tibetan Plateau was selected as study area; this research used field measurements to verify Landsat TM-derived albedo and MOD10A1 albedo product and then analyzed the spatiotemporal variability of albedo over the glacier according to them, as well as its influence factors and the relationship with glacier...

  4. Primary infertility associated with schitosoma mansoni: a case report from the Jos plateau, north central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa, J; Egbujo, EM; Yahaya, BA; Echejoh, G

    2012-01-01

    Testicular schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is very rare and more so when associated with primary infertility. A 40 years old man from the Jos Plateau, North Central Nigeria presented with primary infertility after ten years of marriage. Sperm count revealed oligospermia and he also complained of inability to sustain erection. Testicular biopsy revealed several ova of Schistosoma mansoni in the connective tissue of the testes. Cases of infertility in endemic areas especially when...

  5. Cenozoic tectonics of the Tuz Gölü Basin (Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ-BLANCO, David; BERTOTTI, Giovanni; ÇİNER, T. Attila

    2013-01-01

    We present a new 3D geologic model for the architecture and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Tuz Gölü Basin, a major sedimentary basin in the Central Anatolian orogenic plateau. This model is grounded on 7 depth-converted seismic reflection profiles in combination with the analysis of backstripped subsidence curves, isochore maps, and a palinspastically restored cross-section. Two stages of basin formation are detected during Cenozoic times. During the Palaeogene, around 2 km of basement su...

  6. Remote sensing analysis for fault-zones detection in the Central Andean Plateau (Catamarca, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Massironi, Matteo; Zampieri, Dario; Carli, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been extensively used to detect the structural framework of investigated areas, which includes lineaments, fault zones and fracture patterns. The identification of these features is fundamental in exploration geology, as it allows the definition of suitable sites for the exploitation of different resources (e.g. ore mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal energy and groundwater). Remote sensing techniques, typically adopted in fault identification, have been applied to assess the geological and structural framework of the Laguna Blanca area (26°35'S-66°49'W). This area represents a sector of the south-central Andes localized in the Argentina region of Catamarca, along the south-eastern margin of the Puna plateau. The study area is characterized by a Precambrian low-grade metamorphic basement intruded by Ordovician granitoids. These rocks are unconformably covered by a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Miocene age, followed by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Upper Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene age. All these units are cut by two systems of major faults, locally characterized by 15-20 m wide damage zones. The detection of main tectonic lineaments in the study area was firstly carried out by classical procedures: image sharpening of Landsat 7 ETM+ images, directional filters applied to ASTER images, medium resolution Digital Elevation Models analysis (SRTM and ASTER GDEM) and hill shades interpretation. In addition, a new approach in fault zone identification, based on multispectral satellite images classification, has been tested in the Laguna Blanca area and in other sectors of south-central Andes. In this perspective, several prominent fault zones affecting basement and granitoid rocks have been sampled. The collected fault gouge samples have been analyzed with a Field-Pro spectrophotometer mounted on a goniometer. We acquired bidirectional reflectance spectra, from 0.35μm to 2.5μm with 1nm spectral sampling, of the sampled fault rocks

  7. Crustal and upper mantle structure of central Qiangtang terrane (Tibet Plateau) imaged with magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Hu, X.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the Tethys Ocean closed, the ongoing collision between India and Aisa continents has created the Tibet Plateau, which is the most spectacular topographic feature on the surface of the earth. In the last decades, a large number of geological and geophysical studies have been undertaken in the Tibet Plateau, but most of these studies were focused on southern Tibet, where the collision of the Indian tectonic plate with Eurasia was occurred, and southeast Tibet, where lateral extrusion of crustal material may be occurred, absent in the central Tibet. As research continues, it has become clear that a complete understanding of the formation and deformation of the Tibet Plateau requires a study of the entire plateau. The Qiangtang terrane is located in the central Tibet Plateau. In 1993-1994, three profiles of broadband MT data (320 Hz to 2000 s) along N-S trending ranges from 86°E to 91°E were collected by China University of Geoscience in central Qiangtang terrane for the purpose of oil and gas exploration, the previous interpretation was focused on the shallow structures. In this study, we reanalyze the three MT profiles to produce more detailed images of the deep electrical structure of the Qiangtang terrane. Dimensionality analysis and geoelectric strike analysis of these data show that they appear to be two dimensional. 2-D inversion model show that there is a pervasive conductivity layer in the mid- to lower crustal and upper mantle, especially in the north Qiangtang terrane, which was considered to be the result of partial melt. The partial melt fraction is sufficient for crustal flow to occur. The similarity of the inversion models of the three profiles show that there is west-east crustal flow along the Jinsha River suture in central Qiangtang terrane, which seems to be western extension of the crustal flow observed in southeast Tibet by Bai et al. (2010). The inversion results also show difference of the electrical structure between the west and east

  8. Pollen-inferred vegetation and environmental changes in the central Tibetan Plateau since 8200 yr BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG LingYu; SHEN CaiMing; LI ChunHai; PENG JinLan; LIU Hui; LIU Kam-Biu; Carrie MORRILL; Jonathan T. OVERPECK; Julia E. COLE; YANG Bao

    2009-01-01

    The ecotone between alpine steppe and meadow in the central Tibetan Plateau is sensitive to climate changes. Here we used the pollen records from three lakes in this region to reconstruct the evolution of local vegetation and climate since 8200 cal. Yr BP. The history of temperature and precipitation was reconstructed quantitatively with multi-bioclimatic indexes and a transfer function from pollen records.Results show that the steppe/meadow dominated during the period of 8200-6500 cal. Yr BP, especially 8200-7200 cal. Yr BP, indicating the central Tibetan Plateau was controlled by strong monsoon. The steppe dominated during the periods of 6000--4900, 4400--3900, and 2800--2400 cal. Yr BP. The steppe decreased gradually and the meadow expended during the period of 4900-4400 cal. Yr BP. Three century-scale drought events occurred during 5800-4900, 4400-3900 and 2800 cal. Yr BP, respectively. The first time when the regional climate shifted to the present level was at 6500 cal. Yr BP in the central Plateau. Since 3000 cal. Yr BP, the temperature and precipitation have decreased gradually to the present level. However, the cold climate between 700--300 cal. Yr BP likely corresponds to the Little ice Age.

  9. Evaluation of Soil Flushing for Application to the Deep Vadose Zone in the Hanford Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Schramke, Janet A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Gordon, Kathryn A.; Last, George V.

    2010-11-01

    Soil flushing was included in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau as a technology with the potential to remove contaminants from the vadose zone. Soil flushing operates through the addition of water, and if necessary an appropriate mobilizing agent, to mobilize contaminants and flush them from the vadose zone and into the groundwater where they are subsequently captured by a pump-and-treat system. There are uncertainties associated with applying soil flushing technology to contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau. The modeling and laboratory efforts reported herein are intended to provide a quantitative assessment of factors that impact water infiltration and contaminant flushing through the vadose zone and into the underlying groundwater. Once in the groundwater, capture of the contaminants would be necessary, but this aspect of implementing soil flushing was not evaluated in this effort. Soil flushing was evaluated primarily with respect to applications for technetium and uranium contaminants in the deep vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau.

  10. Holocene climate change in the Central Tibetan Plateau inferred by lacustrine sediment geochemical records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multi-proxies of lacustrine sediments, such as total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS), hydrogen index (HI), oxygen index (OI) and stable carbon isotopic composition of organic matter (δ13Corg), were analyzed using a 7.3 m core from Zigê Tangco. The source of the organic matter in the sediment was mainly from autochthonous phytoplankton, therefore the significances of proxies can be interpreted as that high TOC, TOC/TS, HI and δ13Corg values, low TC, TIC values corresponded to warm and wet climatic condition, and vice versa. The process of climatic development in the Zigê Tangco region was hence recovered. During the early and Mid-Holocene, the climate was warm and wet and intensive cold events occurred during the periods of 8600 to 8400 cal a BP and 7400 to 7000 cal a BP. In the second half of Holocene, the climate became cold and dry gradually. The palaeoclimatic process during Holocene in Zigê Tangco region matched well with that in Co Ngoin region which is ca 40 km to the south-east. Therefore this palaeoclimatic process represents the Holocene climatic feature in the Central Tibetan Plateau which has the same pattern in the Northern Tibetan Plateau, but the time and duration of some climatic events might be different. We can conclude that in Holocene solar insolation controlled the climatic pattern on the central Tibetan Plateau.

  11. Seasonal incursion of Indian Monsoon humidity and precipitation into the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau inferred from tree ring δ18O values with intra-seasonal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaomin; Liu, Xiaohong; Evans, Michael N.; Wang, Wenzhi; An, Wenling; Xu, Guobao; Wu, Guoju

    2016-06-01

    Incursion of the Indian Monsoon flow onto the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is an important regional moisture-delivery mechanism, but the causes of intra-seasonal and longer-term variations are poorly understood. We observed a clear intra-seasonal cycle in the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of Smith fir (Abies forrestii var. georgei) growing at two different altitudes (high-elevation site: 29°39‧N, 94°42‧E, 4200 m a.s.l.; low-elevation site: 29°39‧N, 94°43‧E, 3800 m a.s.l.) on a SE-facing slope in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Mechanistic modeling suggests that δ18O of precipitation, which in turn depends on relative humidity and precipitation amount, is important in controlling the intra-seasonal tree-ring isotopic cycle, and we speculate that the same controls also operate on interannual and longer time scales. If so, multi-century δ18O records with intra-seasonal resolution may enable us to infer long-term variations in the incursion of the Indian Monsoon onto the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Rain shadow development and paleoenvironmental change in the southern Central Anatolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Mulch, Andreas; Brocard, Gilles Y.; Whitney, Donna L.

    2015-04-01

    Ongoing Arabia-Eurasia convergence in the eastern Mediterranean region has led to the westward escape of the Anatolian microplate and the formation of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP). The US-NSF CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics) project aims at understanding the surface-to-mantle coupling during the transition from collision to escape tectonics and plateau formation in Anatolia. Within the CD-CAT project, this study aims at determining the paleoenvironmental conditions and the age of plateau (margin) uplift by integrating stable isotope geochemistry and absolute dating techniques (40Ar/39Ar geochronology and magnetostratigraphy) on middle Miocene to Pliocene lacustrine sedimentary rocks. The low-relief CAP (~1.5 km average elevation) is characterized by high-relief mountain ranges at its southern and northern margins. The Tauride mountain belt forms the southern plateau margin of the CAP with a relief of up to 3 km. Uplift of Tortonian marine sediments in the central Taurides to modern elevations of up to 2 km constrain the onset of surface uplift of the southern plateau margin to ~8 Ma (Schildgen et al. 2012a,b). Proxy records of oxygen isotopes (δ18O) in precipitation allow to reconstruct the development of the present-day Tauride rain shadow and hence the surface elevation history of the southern plateau margin. Here we evaluate δ18O and δ13C records of seven lacustrine basins situated along a SW-NE swath in the lee of the modern Tauride mountains in order to track the development of a Tauride rain shadow and changes in open to closed lake conditions through the late Miocene to Pliocene. We focus on lacustrine sections with available mammal ages and integrate these with 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of widespread volcanics of the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province and magnetostratigraphy where possible. Our results from seven sections of ~12-4 Ma in lacustrine deposits and pedogenic soil carbonates of ~3-2.5 Ma show a decrease of δ18O

  13. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  14. An analysis of potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring networks in the Central Plateau. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of potential impacts to the four groundwater monitoring projects operating in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. It specifically fulfills Milestone M-15-81A of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Milestone M-15-81A specifies the evaluation of the potential impacts to the groundwater monitoring well systems in the Central Plateau caused by the following activities: reduction of liquids discharged to soil, proposed and operational liquid treatment facilities, and proposed pump-and-treat systems. For this report, an open-quotes impactclose quotes is defined as a restriction of the ability to draw samples from a well and/or a reduction of the ability of a monitoring well to meet its intended purpose (such as the detection of contaminant seepage from a facility). Approximately 20% (74 wells) of the groundwater monitoring wells potentially will experience sampling problems by the year 2005 due to the declining water table in the Central Plateau. Reduction of discharges to the B Pond complex and operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal System will directly cause four additional wells to potentially experience sampling problems. Approximately 90 monitoring wells (35 of which are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [RCRA] wells) will be potentially affected by the operation of pump-and-treat systems in the 200 West Area. Most of the impacts will be caused by local changes to groundwater flow directions that will potentially reduce the ability of the RCRA well network to monitor a limited number of RCRA facilities

  15. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 9°35'16.65" N, longitude 8°52'29.91" E and Latitude 9°38'38.92" N, longitude 8°57'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  16. The End of Zhang Zhung Kingdom in the Northwestern Area of the Qinghai-Tibet High Plateau and Its Continuation in the Southeastern Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Mei

    2015-01-01

    I. A review of the ideas regarding the end of the Zhang Zhung Kingdom in the north-western part of the Qinghai-Tibet high plateau The historical legend of the Zhang Zhung Kingdom dates back to the time of Shenrab Miwo, the founder of Bon religion. The end of the Zhang Zhung Kingdom can clearly be regarded as the pe-riod of Trisong Detsen. In a nutshell, the history of the Zhang Zhung Kingdom merged into the history of the remnants of Tubo btsan-po. Concerning its geographical area, it was re-garded that no matter how long the history of the Zhang Zhung Kingdom lasted,or how big the terri-tory of the Kingdom was, the center of the Zhang Zhung Kingdom historically was always in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, and its influence histori-cally sometimes reached the wider area to the edge of the northwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet plat-eau. Sometimes it extended to the upper-reaches of the Min river at the edge of the southeastern area of the Qinghai-Tibet high plateau. In the present area of Rgyalrong, the upper reaches of the Min River,and even in the area of the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites in the Chengdu plain,we can still find historical traces of the ancient Zhang Zhuang King-dom. Concerning the end of the Zhang Zhung King-dom in the northwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau,I have written a detailed discussion in an-other article titled A Discussion on the Eighteen Kingdoms of Ancient Zhang Zhung and Their De-struction. In order to connect it with the following research,I would like to give a summarized expla-nation. As a place where the people believed in the sacred bird khyung ( Garuda ) , a record of the Zhang Zhung Kingdom in Tibetan sources dates back at least to literature found at Dunhuang. Through a review of representative concepts of the Zhang Zhuang Kingdom, there is a basic idea which regarded the geographical space of Zhang Zhuang as historically in the northwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet high plateau. How can we now confirm the time coordinates

  17. Constrasting styles of erosion along the western slope of the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, G. D.; Isacks, B. L.; Jordan, T. E.

    2002-12-01

    We examine the western slope of the central Andes Mountains between 17S and 30S in an effort to elucidate the effects of along strike climate variability on landscape process and form. This region is most opportune for study because the mountain front is, to a first order, a relatively simple monoclinal structure and several lines of evidence point towards the general stability of today's observed climatic zones since 15 Ma. In the central part of the study region (22-25S), relict landscape preservation is extremely good, much of the relict middle Miocene surface (erosional and depositional) between 18S and 25S remains intact. This surface becomes progressively more dissected moving north and south of the central segment. We present data from satellite imagery and geomorphic analyses of a 90 m digital elevation model, which suggest that three independent erosion styles exist in the study area (excluding the central region where no significant rivers exist). The first order differences in erosional style are accounted for predominantly by where precipitation is falling. In southern Peru and northern Chile, almost all moisture is in the form of high elevation, easterly-sourced precipitation falling on the Altiplano Plateau and Western Cordillera. This results in groundwater controlled drainage networks in northern Chile and the existence of a large active salar, the Salar de Atacama, which apparently has trapped groundwater originating from the plateau. Available geologic evidence shows that these features are of greater antiquity than the Pleistocene glacial period in the Central Andes. South of 27S, westerly derived, orographically enhanced precipitation falls directly on the mountain front producing an erosional regime more typical of actively eroding mountain fronts.

  18. Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM

  19. A Possible Cause for Different Diurnal Variations of Warm Season Rainfall as Shown in Station Observations and TRMM 3B42 Data over the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Haoming; YUAN Weihua; LI Jian; YU Rucong

    2012-01-01

    In this study,records from a 3-yr intensified observational experiment at eight stations along the hillside of Seqilashan over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau were analyzed and combined with records at 28 routine observation stations in the Chinese National Meteorological Station Network to investigate the influences of station location on the different diurnal rainfall variations between station records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products.The results indicate that the diurnal variation of warm season rainfall is closely related to location of stations.The prevailing nocturnal rainfall peak in observations at routine stations can be largely attributed to the relatively lower location of the stations,which are mostly situated in valleys.The records at Seqilashan stations on hillsides revealed an evident diurnal afternoon peak of warm season rainfall,similar to that indicated by TRMM data.The different diurnal phases between valley and hillside stations are closely related to the orographically induced regional circulations caused by the complex topography over the Tibetan Plateau.The results of this study indicate that the prevailing nocturnal rainfall associated with the relatively lower location of routine observation stations can partially explain the diurnal rainfall variations between observation station records and TRMM data.

  20. Chronology of Holocene lacustrine sediments in Co Ngoin, central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yanhong; WANG Sumin; HOU Xinhua

    2006-01-01

    Chronology is the basis for using lacustrine sediments to reconstruct the history of environmental change. Radioactive-nuclides such as 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs dating are mainly used to establish the chronology for recent several ten thousand years. Because of being mixed with "dead carbon", the measured 14C age is always older than the actual age which is recognized as "reservoir effect". Cs is a kind of active metal element, and easy to migrate vertically in the sediment that leads to the error of the time marker. 210Pb dating should make sure to select CIC model or CRS model. On the Tibetan Plateau, most of the lakes are alkaline closed lake where Cs is more moveable in the sediment and the reservoir effect caused by "dead carbon" on 14C dating is stronger. Based on the analysis on results of 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs of the lacustrine sediments from Co Ngoin, central Tibetan Plateau, we use the simple regression method to re-calculate the 14C calendar ages, and establish the time sequence for cores CE-1 and CE-2 with result of 210Pb CRS model for the upper 35 cm and recalculated 14C calendar age for sediments bellow 35 cm. Since 1400 cal. a BP, sedimentation interrupted for more than 1000 years. According to this time sequence, variations of environmental proxies confidently reflect the major climatic events in Holocene.

  1. Structural style of the Appalachian Plateau fold belt, north-central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Van S.

    2014-12-01

    New seismic and well data from hydrocarbon exploration and development activity associated with the Marcellus Formation shale gas play in north-central Pennsylvania provide insight to the structural style of the Appalachian Plateau fold belt in the region north and northwest of the Allegheny structural front in Potter, Tioga, Bradford, Sullivan, Lycoming, Clinton and Centre counties. The Plateau fold belt in this area developed over a detachment in Upper Silurian Salina Group evaporites during the Permian Alleghanian Orogeny in response to north-northwest directed shortening. At the Allegheny structural front, a deep detachment in Cambrian shales that underlies the Valley and Ridge province to the south-southeast, ramps up-section through Cambro-Ordovician carbonates and Lower-Middle Silurian clastics to a shallow detachment in Upper Silurian evaporites. At the northeastern plunge of the Nittany Anticline (south and east of Williamsport, PA), only a small amount of slip is interpreted to have been transmitted into the foreland on the shallow Upper Silurian detachment. Instead most slip was consumed in fault-propagation folds immediately north of the Allegheny structural front. The Plateau fold belt, developed above the Upper Silurian evaporites, can be divided into structural domains based on fold characteristics. Domain 1 folds have short wavelengths and low amplitudes. Domain 2 salt-cored anticlines have long wavelengths and large amplitudes. Domain 3 comprises large synclines, located between Domain 2 anticlines. Halite originally beneath Domain 3 synclines is interpreted to have been mobilized, or evacuated, into the cores of adjacent Domain 2 anticlines during folding. Seismic data indicate that the base of the salt detachment underlying Plateau folds is a non-planar, stepped surface. Possible scenarios for the development of the non-planar detachment include: 1) mobilization of halite from an evaporite sequence that contained an originally non

  2. Dégradation du milieu et aménagement dans le Plateau central, Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Nébié, Ousmane

    2006-01-01

    Depuis plus de deux décennies, l'autosuffisance alimentaire demeure un objectif à atteindre au Burkina Faso, alors que la régression cumulative du développement s'accentue et provoque une détérioration des conditions de vie des populations, détérioration étroitement liée à la dégradation du milieu naturel et aux difficultés économiques. Sur le Plateau central où la situation est très critique, les agriculteurs sont en proie à une crise foncière qui se traduit par des difficultés d'accès à la ...

  3. Gas-Phase Treatment of Technetium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-09-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) is present in the vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau and is a concern with respect to the protection of groundwater. The persistence, limited natural attenuation mechanisms, and geochemical behavior of Tc-99 in oxic vadose zone environments must be considered in developing effective alternatives for remediation. This report describes a new in situ geochemical manipulation technique for decreasing Tc-99 mobility using a combination of geochemical Tc-99 reduction with hydrogen sulfide gas and induced sediment mineral dissolution with ammonia vapor, which create conditions for deposition of stable precipitates that decrease the mobility of Tc-99. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine changes in Tc-99 mobility in vadose zone sediment samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment under a variety of operational and sediment conditions.

  4. Geochemical Characteristics of the Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Central Qiangtang, Tibet: Relation with the Uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fuwen; PAN Guitang; XU Qiang

    2001-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks in central Qiangtang are tectonically outcropped in the transitional area where crust of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau thins northwards and the Passion's ratios of the crust increases abnormally northwards. Of all Cenozoic volcanic rocks of northern Tibet, the volcanic rocks in Qiangtang area is the oldest one with ages from 44.1±1.0 Ma to 32.6±0.8 Ma. Petrological and geochemical studies of the volcanic rocks in central Qiangtang suggest they formed in the extension environment of post collision-orogeny and were the product of mixture of magmas from crust and mantle. The uplift of the northern plateau is closely related to decoupling of mantle lithosphere,crustal extension and thinning as well as volcanism. Therefore, it is inferred that the main uplift of the northern plateau began from about 40 Ma ago.

  5. Petrogenetic significance of rare-earth element behavior in the basement rocks of southern Obudu Plateau, Bamenda Massif, southeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UKAEGBU V.U.; EKWUEME B.N.

    2005-01-01

    Rock samples representing various igneous and metamorphic rocks of southern Obudu Plateau were analyzed for rare-earth element (REE) behavior by ICP-MS. Results of the analyses indicate a range of REE abundances and distinctive patterns from highly fractionated patterns with negative Eu anomalies in granitic rocks to relatively low abundances and less REE fractionated flat patterns with little Eu anomaly in some paragneisses, schists, enderbites and dolerites to unfractionated patterns with positive Eu anomalies in some paragneisses and charnockites. Over all, there are low to high ∑REE contents with negative to positive Eu anomalies. The ratios of different parameters, especially La/Yb and Ce/Yb, show behaviors consistent with crustal to mantle derivation. The heterogeneity of REE abundances and REE patterns reflects mantle to crustal petrogenetic variations of different rock suites on the Plateau. The LREE content is higher than the HREE content in the highly differentiated rocks, as evidenced by their La/Yb, Ce/Yb and La/Sm ratios, which are normally higher in residual products than in primary melts. The dominantly intermediate nature of the source rock of the orthogneisses is suggested by the generally low ∑REE . The granites enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE and some of the charnockites with negative Eu anomalies were probably formed by partial melting and crystallization.

  6. Consuming the savings : Water Conservation in a Vegetation Barrier System at the Central Plateau in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    The vast majority of land users at the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso make a living by farming small plots, where mainly staple crops are produced for subsistence use. Both area interventions and line interventions comprising indigenous techniques as well as introduced techniques can be encountered

  7. Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2011-01-11

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

  8. Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in croplands converted to walnut-based agroforestry systems and orchards in southeastern Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sen; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong; Yin, Changjun; Sun, Shiyou

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of agroforestry system practices on soil properties in the Loess Plateau of China. Over the last decade, a vegetation restoration project has been conducted in this area by converting cropland into tree-based agroforestry systems and orchards to combat soil erosion and degradation. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of land use conversion on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in southeastern Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: walnut intercropping system (AF), walnut orchard (WO), and traditional cropland (CR). After 7 years of continual management, soil samples were collected at 0-10, 10-30, and 30-50-cm depths for three treatments, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured. Results showed that compared with the CR and AF treatments, WO treatment decreased both SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-50-cm soil profile. However, similar patterns of SOC and TN concentrations were observed in the AF and CR treatments across the entire profile. The SOC stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 5.42, 5.52, and 4.67 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. The calculated TN stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 0.63, 0.62, and 0.57 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. This result demonstrated that the stocks of SOC and TN in WO were clearly lower than those of AF and CR and that the walnut-based agroforestry system was more beneficial than walnut monoculture in terms of SOC and TN sequestration. Owing to the short-term intercropping practice, the changes in SOC and TN stocks were slight in AF compared with those in CR. However, a significant decrease in SOC and TN stocks was observed during the conversion of cropland to walnut orchard after 7 years of management. We also found that land use types had no significant effect on soil C/N ratio. These findings demonstrated that intercropping between walnut rows can potentially maintain

  9. Magma storage and evolution of the Central Plateau Member Rhyolites, Yellowstone caldera, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    We use volatile and trace element contents from quartz-hosted melt inclusions to place constraints on the pre-eruptive storage and evolution of 6 lavas and 3 tuffs from the Central Plateau Member Rhyolites, Yellowstone. Overall, inclusions contain 1.0-2.5% H2O and 50-600 ppm CO2. Individual units have more restricted volatile contents, and define regions in H2O and CO2 space with internal variability of ±0.5 wt.% and ±100 ppm, respectively. Water contents in both lavas and pyroclastic units are similar, but CO2 contents vary and can be used to separate the units as CO2-rich and CO2-poor. CO2-rich units contain 300 to 600 ppm CO2 (Tuff of Bluff Point, Pitchstone Plateau, Trischmann Knob, Buffalo Lake, Summit Lake). CO2-poor units contain 50 to 200 ppm CO2 (Solfatara Plateau, West Yellowstone, Tuff of Cold Mountain Creek, unnamed tuff on Douglas Knob). Volatile contents do not correlate with eruption age, volume, or style. Inclusions from individual units contain incompatible trace-element concentrations that range from primitive to evolved. Incompatible elements within each unit increase systematically from primitive inclusions (units differ by <20%), to more evolved inclusions, and finally to highly evolved matrix. The inclusions preserve a systematic evolution produced by crystal fractionation, which we estimate to range from 38±8 wt.% to 54±11 wt.%. Inclusions from the Tuffs of Bluff Point and Cold Mountain Creek display similar evolution, except that matrix glass in those tuffs is less evolved than the inclusions. We infer the magmas were volatile-saturated at depth because H2O and CO2 do not correlate positively with incompatible elements. If true, then the CO2-rich magmas were stored at 90 to 150 MPa and contained a fluid that was 60-75 mol.% CO2, whereas CO2-poor magmas were stored at 50 to 70 MPa and contained a more H2O-rich fluid (XCO2 = 40-60%). The variations in pressure/depth suggest the magmas were at least temporarily stored as separate batches

  10. Rapid hydrological response to central Andean Plateau uplift, NW-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Alexander; Sachse, Dirk; Strecker, Manfred R.; Mulch, Andreas; Pingel, Heiko; Alonso, Ricardo N.

    2015-04-01

    The response of the regional and global hydrological cycle, vegetation and erosion to tectonic surface uplift and topographic growth of the world's largest orogenic plateaus and their flanking ranges is subject to ongoing debate. During the last decade reconstructions of paleo-environmental conditions and the topographic evolution of mountain belts have increasingly relied on stable isotope proxies retaining the oxygen (δ18O) or hydrogen (δD) isotopic composition of ancient meteoric waters or carbon (δ13C) of vegetation. Intermontane basin sediments along the Puna of NW Argentina, the southern extension of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau and the world's second largest plateau, record the eastward-directed lateral growth of the central Andes and the spatiotemporal impact of tectonism on hydrologic, sedimentary, and ecological changes through time. Here we reconstructed paleo-hydrological changes during a phase of major Andean uplift and orographic barrier formation (10-2 Ma) along the eastern flank of the Puna Plateau from a sedimentary sequence within the intermontane Angastaco basin of NW Argentina (25°45 S, 66 W). We use a unique array of stable water-isotope proxies in leafwaxes, pedogenic carbonates and hydrated volcanic glass. In addition we use vegetation-cover proxies based on stable C isotopes obtained from leaf-waxes and pedogenic carbonates. Lipid biomarker leafwax δD values range between -95 and -160 ‰ (VSMOW), and δ13C values from -23 to -36 ‰ (PDB). Pedogenic carbonate δ18O values range from 18 to 31 ‰ (VSMOW) and δ13C values vary between -4 to -17 ‰ (PDB), whereas volcanic glass δD values range from -71 to -95 ‰ (VSMOW). In combination, these proxies provide a precipitation - evapotranspiration record, which reveals the onset of the South American Low Level-Jet in NW Argentina at ~ 9 Ma and the presence of seasonally humid foreland conditions until 7 Ma, followed by orographic barrier formation upwind of the basin and rapid creation of

  11. Hydrologic response of a high altitude glacierized basin in the central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binquan; Yu, Zhongbo; Liang, Zhongmin; Acharya, Kumud

    2014-07-01

    Hydrologic cycles of most high altitude glacierized watersheds in the Tibetan Plateau are not closely monitored due to their inaccessibility. Understanding the hydrologic cycle in such a basin may provide insight into the role climate plays on changes in glacier mass. Thus, hydrologic simulations with a physical perspective in the Tibetan glacierized watershed are of great significance. A high altitude glacierized basin in the central Tibetan Plateau, Qugaqie basin, was investigated with an energy-balance based glacier-melt model and the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model. With these two models, glacier mass balance was estimated and basin runoff from glaciers was simulated at a daily time step. Results from the simulation period (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2011) demonstrated that the glaciers experienced a large negative surface mass balance with the cumulative value of - 300 cm w.e.. In other words, up to 13.93 × 106 m3 water volume was melting out from the glaciers during these five years. In the 2007/08 year, however, the glaciers experienced a surplus mass balance because of the low air temperature and increased precipitation in the summer season. Infiltration, evapotranspiration (ET), and overland flow were also calculated using the GSSHA model. Results showed that precipitation, the main water source, contributed roughly 95% to the total mass gain of the annual water balance in the Qugaqie basin during the study period, while the glacial runoff (snow/ice melting) contributed 5% water balance. In the water loss, 17% of annual water volume was consumed by the ET process. As a result, the remaining water volume (83%) converted to the basin river flow to the Lake Nam Co. In the summertime, the glacial runoff accounted for 15% of the total basin runoff volume, while this contribution increased in the upstream portion to 46% due to a large percentage of glacierized area. The analysis showed that the glacial runoff contributions to the

  12. Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Qinglong; Kang Shichang; Xu Yanwei; Huang Jie [Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100085 (China); Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert [Department of Geoinformatics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Jena 07743 (Germany); Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo [Climate Research Laboratory, Barcelona Science Park, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Yan Yuping, E-mail: shichang.kang@itpcas.ac.c [National Climate Center, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The 'weekend effect' method (defined here as the average for Saturday through Monday minus the average for Wednesday through Friday) has been used to identify fingerprints of anthropogenic emissions. Based on daily maximum and minimum temperature series from the China Meteorological Administration homogenized dataset, the weekend effect in diurnal temperature range (DTR) at 71 stations with elevations above 2000 m asl in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1961-2004 is examined, and principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to cluster series into four subregions with similar weekend effect variability. The DTR demonstrates a much stronger negative weekend effect in autumn and shows larger positive values in winter, which provides a strong evidence of anthropogenic activity in this region, especially in the central TP. Analysis by topographic type and degree of urbanization shows a clear weekly cycle which cannot be explained by a microclimate effect. We hypothesize that the interaction with anthropogenic aerosols from local emissions and transported by atmospheric circulation may account for the weekly cycle in the TP. More caution should be paid to the driving mechanism of the weekend effect in the most remote and clear regions in the world.

  13. Patterns of landscape evolution on the central and northern Tibetan Plateau investigated using in-situ produced 10Be concentrations from river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingkui; Li, Dewen; Liu, Gengnian; Harbor, Jon; Caffee, Marc; Stroeven, Arjen P.

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying long-term erosion rates across the Tibetan Plateau and its bordering mountains is of critical importance to an understanding of the interaction between climate, tectonic movement, and landscape evolution. We present a new dataset of basin-wide erosion rates from the central and northern Tibetan Plateau derived using in-situ produced 10Be concentrations of river sediments. Basin-wide erosion rates from the central plateau range from 10.1±0.9 to 36.8±3.2 mm/kyr, slightly higher than published local erosion rates measured from bedrock surfaces. These values indicate that long-term downwearing of plateau surfaces proceeds at low rates and that the landscape is demonstrably stable in the central plateau. In contrast, basin-wide erosion rates from the Kunlun Shan on the northern Tibetan Plateau range from 19.9±1.7 to 163.2±15.9 mm/kyr. Although the erosion rates of many of these basins are much higher than the rates from the central plateau, they are lower than published basin-wide erosion rates from other mountains fringing the Tibetan Plateau, probably because the basins in the Kunlun Shan include both areas of low-relief plateau surface and high-relief mountain catchments and may also result from retarded fluvial sediment transport in an arid climate. Significantly higher basin-wide erosion rates derived from the Tibetan Plateau margin, compared to the central plateau, reflect a relatively stable plateau surface that is being dissected at its margins by active fluvial erosion.

  14. Bed-Material Entrainment and Associated Transportation Infrastructure Problems in Streams of the Edwards Plateau, Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation commonly builds and maintains low-water crossings (LWCs) over streams in the Edwards Plateau in Central Texas. LWCs are low-height structures, typically constructed of concrete and asphalt, that provide acceptable passage over seasonal rivers or streams with relatively low normal-depth flow. They are designed to accommodate flow by roadway overtopping during high-flow events. The streams of the Edwards Plateau are characterized by cobble- and gravel-sized bed material and highly variable flow regimes. Low base flows that occur most of the time occasionally are interrupted by severe floods. The floods entrain and transport substantial loads of bed material in the stream channels. As a result, LWCs over streams in the Edwards Plateau are bombarded and abraded by bed material during floods and periodically must be maintained or even replaced.

  15. Late Neogene and active orogenic uplift in the Central Pontides associated with the North Anatolian Fault; implications for the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, C.; Schildgen, T.F.; Helmut Echtler; H. Melnick; Strecker, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface uplift at the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) is integrally tied to the evolution of the Central Pontides (CP), between the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the Black Sea. Our regional morphometric and plate kinematic analyses reveal topographic anomalies, steep channel gradients, and local high relief areas as indicators of ongoing differential surface uplift, which is higher in the western CP compared to the eastern CP and fault-normal components of geodetic sl...

  16. Magma-serpentinite interaction as the origin of diatremes: a case study from the Hyblean Plateau (southeastern Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Carbone, Serafina; Ferlito, Carmelo; Hovland, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Some diatremes formed in the Hyblean Plateau in a time span from 6.5 to 9.4 Ma, producing volcaniclastic deposits, which host deep-seated xenoliths. The origin of the explosive activity that has brecciated the magma and the country rocks is controversial, two are the prevalent models: phreatomagmatic and magmatic brecciation. We propose an alternative explanation based on the thermal and mechanical interaction of a rising basaltic magma with serpentinized mantle rocks, representing the main lithologies in the Permo-Triassic Hyblean basement. We suggest that magma-serpentinite interaction could have remobilized fluids from serpentinites that reached the overpressure necessary for the brecciation of country rocks. The possible depth of this interaction has been estimated considering variations of porosity and permeability at different depths in the Hyblean lithosphere. These properties have been taken into account in the dimensionless parameter V e (Jamtveit et al. in Physical geology of high-level magmatic systems, vol 234. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, London, pp 233-241, 2004), which reflects the relative rates of heat and fluid transport, since a high fluid flux is enhanced by a high boiling temperature of pore water raised by magma-rock heat exchange. V e remains less than 1 up to a depth of 7 km, corresponding to the average thickness of the sedimentary-volcanic sequence, characterized by a high permeability ( k = 10-12-10-14 m2) that inhibits fluid overpressure built up, in contrast to both phreatomagmatic and magmatic models. At deeper levels ( k ~ 10-19 m2), from 8 km downward, the value of V e is greater than 1. Therefore, we propose that the dehydration of serpentinites, upon heating by hot basaltic magma, would have liberated huge amounts of fluids whose accumulation at an average depth of 8 km beneath the impermeable serpentinized level induced supercritical fluid overpressure, strong enough to exceed the lithospheric pressure. Fluid

  17. Tectonics of the Central Anatolia Plateau between the Black Sea and the East Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Fernandez-Blanco, David; Willett, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    The Central Anatolia Plateau, focus point of the TopoEurope Vertical Anatolia Movement Project, is an elevated area (ca. 1.5km) with fairly smooth topography bounded to the N and to the S by mountain ranges (Pontides and Taurus) and flanked by marine domains (Black Sea and Cilicia Basin-Eastern Mediterranean). Towards the south the Cilicia Basin passes to the Island of Cyprus and eventually to the Cyprus subduction zone and African plate. To constrain the evolution of the CAP from its birth in the Miocene to present, we present the evolution of an upper crustal section stretching from the Black Sea to Cyprus with particular focus on a 350km long segment from the central part of the Plateau (Tüz Gölü) to the Cilicia Basin. This entire area occupies an upper plate position with respect to the Cyprus subduction zone. Tectonics from Early to Late Miocene times were fairly simple and characterized by a gently southward dipping basement experiencing generalized subsidence. Depositional environments gradually changed from continental in the north to shallow marine in the south. The overall tectonic regime during this stage is poorly constrained. In the Late Miocene the entire area of the future CAP began moving upward. At the same time, subsidence continued in the Cilicia basin. Uplift above sea level in the south is nicely recorded by the termination of marine sedimentation and the onset of erosion. Dominant tectonic structures during this stage are associated with N-S shortening. The largest structures caused the formation of the large S-dipping monocline characteristics of S Turkey. The coexistence of upward and downward movements (in the CAP and in the Cilicia basin respectively) as well as the dominant contractional regime suggest that the development of the CAP is related to dynamic changes in the Cyprus subduction zone. We validate this hypothesis with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled models. We demonstrate that the growth of the upper plate forearc basin system

  18. Biogeochemical evidence for freshwater periods during the Last Glacial Maximum recorded in lake sediments from Nam Co, south-central Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Witt; Franziska Günther; Stefan Lauterbach; Thomas Kasper; Roland Mäusbacher; Tandong Yao; Gerd Gleixner

    2016-01-01

    Improved knowledge of deglaciation processes during the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum on the Tibetan Plateau can provide important information for understanding deglaciations in climate-sensitive high-altitude ecosystems. Little, however, is known about this time interval because most lacustrine sediment records from the Tibetan Plateau are younger than 19,000 years. This study focused on a lake sediment record from Nam Co, south-central Tibetan Plateau, covering the interval from ~...

  19. Rare-earth elements as source indicators of Pan-African granites from Obudu Plateau, Southeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ukaegbu V.U; Beka F.T

    2008-01-01

    The rare-earth element (REE) concentrations of representative granite samples from the southeast of the Obudu Plateau, Nigeria, were analyzed with an attempt to determine the signatures of their source, evolutionary history and tectonic setting. Results indicated that the granites have high absolute REE concentrations (190×10-6-1191×10-6; av.=549×10-6) with the chondrite-normalized REE patterns characterized by steep negative slopes and prominent to slight or no negative Eu anomalies. All the samples are also characterized by high and variable concentrations of the LREE (151×10-6-1169×10-6; av.= 466×10-6), while the HREE show low abundance (4×10-6-107×10-6; av.=28×10-6). These are consistent with the variable levels of REE fractionation, and differentiation of the granites. This is further supported by the range of REE contents, the chondrite-normalized patterns and the ratios of LaN/YbN (2.30-343.37), CeN/YbN (5.94-716.87), LaN/SmN (3.14-11.68) and TbN/YbN (0.58-1.65). The general parallelism of the REE patterns, suggest that all the granites were comagmatic in origin, while the high Eu/Eu* ratios (0.085-2.807; av.=0.9398) indicate high fO2 at the source. Similarly, irregular variations in LaN/YbN, CeN/YbN and Eu/Eu* ratios and REE abundances among the samples suggest behaviors that are related to mantle and crustal sources.

  20. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  1. Tracing the provenance of fine-grained dust deposited on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youbin; Tada, Ryuji; Chen, Jun; Liu, Qingsong; Toyoda, Shin; Tani, Atsushi; Ji, Junfeng; Isozaki, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    Eolian dust deposits in north China provide an excellent means of determining past variations in continental paleoclimate and atmospheric circulation. However, debate still exists on which deserts in east Asia are the dominant sources of Chinese loess and whether the dust provenance has shifted significantly at different time scales. Here we present new constraints on the provenance of fine-grained dust deposited on the central Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) by combining electron spin resonance signal intensity and crystallinity index of fine-grained quartz contained in samples from two loess-paleosol sequences. Our results show that the fine-grained dust deposits on the CLP originate mainly from the Gobi desert in southern Mongolia and the sandy deserts in northern China (primarily the Badain Juran and Tengger deserts), rather than from the Taklimakan desert in western China, at least during the last climatic cycle. The dominant source of fine-grained dust varied significantly, from southern Mongolia during cold periods, to northern China during warm periods. The glacial-interglacial provenance fluctuations are strongly coupled with changes in the intensity of the near-surface northwesterly winter monsoon.

  2. Surface energy budget and mass balance of Zhadang Glacier in the central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Acharya, K.; Yu, Z.; Su, F.; liang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    It is difficult to clearly investigate the surface energy budget and glacier evolution under the changed climate environments, especially on accounts of limited data set. We attempted to calculate the summer mass balance of Zhadang Glacier (5710 m above sea level), located in the central Tibetan Plateau. This small and high-altitude glacier has been retreating during the previous decades. Energy balance was calculated on a 30 m square grid on the glacier for the summer periods in 2007 and 2008. On average, net radiation contributed more than 96% of the energy gain while only less than 4% was supplied by the sensible heat flux. Most energy loss on the glacier was contributed by the turbulent heat fluxes and only roughly 30% of the total energy was available for melting. A large deficit and a surplus summer mass balance were obtained for years 2006/07 and 2007/08, respectively. The switch in mass balance from negative to positive in the summer of 2008 is caused by early precipitation (mostly snow) resulting in low temperature on the glacier. Low temperature produces less energy that contributes to melting, whereas increased snow accumulation produces higher surface albedo reflecting away incoming solar radiation. The high sensitivity of air temperature may imply that the low temperature was more important than the increased precipitation in the mass balance switch in Zhadang Glacier. Despite a continuous negative mass balance for several decades in Zhadang Glacier 2008 may have brought a temporary relief.

  3. Changing land management practices and vegetation on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso (1968-2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reij, C.; Tappan, G.; Belemvire, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the situation on the northern part of the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso was characterized by expanding cultivation on lands marginal to agriculture, declining rainfall, low and declining cereal yields, disappearing and impoverishing vegetation, falling ground-water levels and strong outmigration. This crisis situation provoked two reactions. Farmers, as well as technicians working for non-governmental organizations, started to experiment in improving soil and water conservation (SWC) techniques. When these experiments proved successful, donor agencies rapidly designed SWC projects based on simple, effective techniques acceptable to farmers. A study looked at the impact of SWC investments in nine villages and identified a number of major impacts, including: significant increases in millet and sorghum yields since the mid-1980s, cultivated fields treated with SWC techniques have more trees than 10-15 years ago, but the vegetation on most of the non-cultivated areas continues to degrade, greater availability of forage for livestock, increased investment in livestock by men and women and a beginning change in livestock management from extensive to semi-intensive methods, improved soil fertility management by farmers, locally rising ground-water tables, a decrease in outmigration and a significant reduction in rural poverty. Finally, data are presented on the evolution of land use in three villages between 1968 and 2002. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing and improving Noah-MP land model simulations for the central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Kai; Chen, Fei; Jiang, Yingsha; Lu, Chungu

    2015-09-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) region experiences strong land-atmosphere interactions, and as an elevated heating source, significantly influences the formation of the Asian monsoon. Those interactions are not well represented in current land-surface models (LSMs), partly due to difficulties in representing heterogeneities in soil structures in LSM. Simulations using the Noah with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP) LSM are employed to assess the relative importance of parameterizing vertical soil heterogeneity, organic matter, and soil rhizosphere and their impacts on seasonal evolution of soil temperature, soil moisture, and surface energy and water budgets at the sparsely vegetated Amdo site located in central TP. The LSM spin-up time at the central TP depends on the complexity of the model physics, ranging from 4 years with simplest soil physics to 30 years with the addition of organic matter and spare to dense rhizosphere parameterization in Noah-MP. Representing layered soil texture and organic matter does not improve low biases in topsoil moisture. Reducing the saturated conductivity from the mucilage in the rhizosphere produces better results. Surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are better simulated in the monsoon season as well. Adding layered soil texture and organic matter in Noah-MP retard the thawing in deep soil layers, and the rhizosphere effect delays thawing even more in the transient season. Uncertainties in soil initialization significantly affect deep-soil temperature and moisture, but uncertainties in atmospheric forcing conditions mainly affect topsoil variables and consequently the surface energy fluxes. Differing land-surface physics cause 36% uncertainty in the accumulated evapotranspiration and subsurface runoff.

  5. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  6. Evaluating Contaminant Flux from the Vadose Zone to the Groundwater in the Hanford Central Plateau. SX Tank Farms Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Last, George V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    At the DOE Hanford Site, contaminants were discharged to the subsurface through engineered waste sites in the Hanford Central Plateau. Additional waste was released through waste storage tank leaks. Much of the contaminant inventory is still present within the unsaturated vadose zone sediments. The nature and extent of future groundwater contaminant plumes and the growth or decline of current groundwater plumes beneath the Hanford Central Plateau are a function of the contaminant flux from the vadose zone to the groundwater. In general, contaminant transport is slow through the vadose zone and it is difficult to directly measure contaminant flux in the vadose zone. Predictive analysis, supported by site characterization and monitoring data, was applied using a structured, systems-based approach to estimate the future contaminant flux to groundwater in support of remediation decisions for the vadose zone and groundwater (Truex and Carroll 2013). The SX Tank Farm was used as a case study because of the existing contaminant inventory in the vadose zone, observations of elevated moisture content in portions of the vadose zone, presence of a limited-extent groundwater plume, and the relatively large amount and wide variety of data available for the site. Although the SX Tank Farm case study is most representative of conditions at tank farm sites, the study has elements that are also relevant to other types of disposal sites in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  7. Climate variability on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau since the Lateglacial based on a multiproxy approach from Lake Naleng - comparing pollen and non-pollen signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Stephan; Zhang, Chengjun; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Mischke, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    A multi-proxy Lateglacial environmental record is described from Lake Naleng (31.10°N; 99.75°E, 4200 m above sea level), situated on south-eastern Tibetan Plateau to gain deeper insights into the hydrological and palaeoclimate development since 17.7 cal ka BP. Palynological reconstructions of variations in mean annual precipitation (MAP) and temperature (MAT), sedimentological data and sediment chemistry including weathering indicators provide a multi-faceted picture of local and regional environmental changes since the Lateglacial. Principal component analyses of all parameters provide information on interrelationships between each parameters, which help to evaluate their traceability to temperature and precipitation and to estimate their usability as proxy indicators for local and or regional variations. During the Lateglacial from 17.7 to 14.0 cal ka BP Lake Naleng experienced cold and dry climate conditions with low biological productivity and supply of unaltered fine-grained material due to the high supply of glacier milk. During the second half of the Lateglacial, climate conditions changed abruptly: increases in MAT (from -4 to -2.2 °C) and MAP (from 500 mm to 820 mm) between 14.0 and 13.0 cal ka BP indicate a climate amelioration. This time interval can be correlated to the Bølling/Allerød (B/A) warming period in the North Atlantic region and is followed by the Younger Dryas cold reversal indicated by abrupt decreases of MAT (from -2.2 to -5 °C) and MAP (from 820 to 650 mm). The onset of the Holocene at about 11.5 cal ka BP is indicated by rises in reconstructed MAT (from -5 to about -0.3 °C) and MAP (from 600 mm to 950 mm), which led to an increased supply of weathered material and higher biological productivity. Between 5.0 and 3.0 cal ka BP, MAT increases to about 0.2 °C and MAP rises to maximum values of about 1000 mm, followed by slightly decreasing MAT and MAP between 3.0 and 0 cal ka BP. The biogeochemical parameters (total organic carbon

  8. Holocene climate change in the Central Tibetan Plateau inferred by lacustrine sediment geochemical records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; YanHong

    2007-01-01

    .Acta Micropalaeont Sin,1996,13(4):433-436[14]Wang F B,Han H Y,Yan G.Paleovegetation and paleoclimate evolution sequence since 30 ka in north-eastern Tibetan Plateau.Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci,1996,26(2):111-117[15]Yao T D,Thompson L,Shi Y F.Climate change since last post glacial recorded in Guliya ice core.Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci (in Chinese),1997,27(3):247-252[16]Li S F,Wang F B,Zhang J.Holocene diatom record and environment change in Angren Co,Tibet.Chin Sci Bull (in Chinese),1999,44(3):302-323[17]Wei K,Gasse F.Oxygen isotopes in lacustrine carbonates of west China revisited:implication for post glacial changes in summer monsoon circulation.Quat Sci Rev,1999,18:1315-1334[18]Li B Y,Wang S M,Zhu L P,et al.12 kaBP lake environment on the Tibetan Plateau.Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci,2001,44(Suppl.):324-331[19]Shen J,Liu X Q,Matsumoto R.A high-resolution climatic change since the Late Glacial Age inferred from multi-proxy of sediments in Qinghai Lake.Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci,2005,48(6):730-734[20]Shen J,Liu X,Wang S,et al.Palaeoclimatic changes in the Qinghai Lake area during the last 18000 years,Quat Int,2005,36:131-140[21]Wu Y H,Lücke A,Jin Z D.Holocene climate development on the central Tibetan Plateau:A sedimentary record from Cuoe Lake.Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol,2006,234:328-340[22]Li S J,Li W C,Xia W L,et al.The Scientific Expedition on the Modern Lake Evolution in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau:A preliminary report.J Lake Sci (in Chinese),1998,10(4):95-96[23]Li W C,Li S J,Yin Y,et al.Meromixis in Zige Tangco,central Tibetan Plateau-Discovery and significance.Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci,2000,44(Supp.):338-342[24]Lücke A,Brauer A.Biogeochemical and micro-facial fingerprints of ecosystem response to rapid Late Glacial climatic changes in varved sediments of Meerfelder Maar (Germany).Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol,2004,211:139-155[25]Meyers P A,Lallier-Vergès.Lacustrine sedimentary organic matter records of Late Quaternary paleoclimate.J Paleolimno,1999,21:345-372[26]Meyers P

  9. Planktic foraminifer and coccolith contribution to carbonate export fluxes over the central Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembauville, M.; Meilland, J.; Ziveri, P.; Schiebel, R.; Blain, S.; Salter, I.

    2016-05-01

    We report the contribution of planktic foraminifers and coccoliths to the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) export fluxes collected over an annual cycle (October 2011/September 2012) on the central Kerguelen Plateau in the Antarctic Zone (AAZ) south of the Polar Front (PF). The seasonality of PIC flux was decoupled from surface chlorophyll a concentration and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes and was characterized by a late summer (February) maximum. This peak was concomitant with the highest satellite-derived sea surface PIC and corresponded to a Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths export event that accounted for 85% of the annual PIC export. The foraminifer contribution to the annual PIC flux was much lower (15%) and dominated by Turborotalita quinqueloba and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. Foraminifer export fluxes were closely related to the surface chlorophyll a concentration, suggesting food availability as an important factor regulating the foraminifer's biomass. We compared size-normalized test weight (SNW) of the foraminifers with previously published SNW from the Crozet Islands using the same methodology and found no significant difference in SNW between sites for a given species. However, the SNW was significantly species-specific with a threefold increase from T. quinqueloba to Globigerina bulloides. The annual PIC:POC molar ratio of 0.07 was close to the mean ratio for the global ocean and lead to a low carbonate counter pump effect (~5%) compared to a previous study north of the PF (6-32%). We suggest that lowers counter pump effect south of the PF despite similar productivity levels is due to a dominance of coccoliths in the PIC fluxes and a difference in the foraminifers species assemblage with a predominance of polar species with lower SNW.

  10. Characteristics of the aerial regime of an aridisol at the central high plateau of Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the aerial regime of an aridisol with a loam clay-sandy texture of the central area of the high plateau of Bolivia, was determined as a function of the monthly volumetric moisture (using mean values) and the total porosity of the horizons Ap (0-19 cm), Bt (19-49 cm) and Cca (49-70 cm), Bt (19-49 cm) and Cca (49-70 cm). Values of moisture were determined during three year: 1983-84, 1984-5 and 1985-86 with the neutron probe. Fluctuations of the soil air content during the research period in the Ap and Bt horizons were strictly dependant on the precipitations and their seasonal variations due to porosity which was considered constant. Because this work was made in a soil with natural vegetation cover and without physical changes produced by tillage. The soil air content in the sandy Ap horizon showed higher values and greater difference (4-27%) than inferior horizons rich in clay (2-14%). The results were compared with quotes from the Czechoslovakian literature on the requirement of soil air content for certain crops: 15-35% for potatoes, 10-15% for cereals and 5-10% for pastures. This aridisol showing certain properties as clay horizons from 20 cm depth, unstable structure and insufficient air contents, can only be used for cereals and pastures. The use of these soils could be extended to crops with greater air requirements, if the water and aerial regimes are improved with the help of subsoilers, deepening the top soil and incorporating manure and green manure for improving the soil structure and porosity

  11. Using P-wave Triplications to Constrain the Mantle Transition Zone beneath Central Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, H. C.; Tseng, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Iranian Plateau is a tectonically complex region resulting from the continental collision between the African and Eurasian plates. The convergence of the two continents created the Zagros Mountains, the high topography southwest of Iran, and active seismicity along the Zagros-Bitlis suture. Tomographic studies in Iran reveal low seismic speeds and high attenuation of Sn wave in the uppermost mantle beneath the Iranian Plateau relative to adjacent regions. The deeper structure, however, remains curiously inconclusive. By contrast, a prominent fast seismic anomaly is found under central Tibet near depth of 600 km in the mantle transition zone (TZ), and it is speculated to be the remnant of lithosphere detached during the continental collision. We conduct a comparative study that utilizes triplicate arrivals of high-resolution P waveforms to investigate the velocity structure of mantle beneath the central Iranian Plateau and surroundings. Due to the abrupt increase in seismic wave speeds and density across the 410- and 660-km discontinuities, seismic waves at epicentral distances of 15-30 degrees would form multiple arrivals and the relative times and amplitudes between them are most sensitive to the variations in seismic speeds near the TZ. We combine several broadband arrays to construct 8 seismic profiles, each about 800 km long, that mainly sample the TZ under central Iranian Plateau, Turan shield and part of South Caspian basin. Move-outs between arrivals are clear in the profiles. Relative timings suggest a slightly smaller 660-km contrast under stable Turan shield. In the next stage, it is necessary to model waveforms after the source effect being removed properly. Our preliminary tests show that the F-K method can efficiently calculate the synthetic seismograms. We will determine the 1D velocity model for each sampled sector by minimizing the overall misfits between observed and predicted waveforms. The lateral variations may be further explored by

  12. Inflation persistence in central and southeastern Europe: Evidence from univariate and structural time series approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure inflation persistence in the following countries of Central and Southeastern Europe: Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Serbia. The study sample covers monthly data from January, 1995 to May, 2010 for Poland, Hungary and Slovakia, from January 1994 to May, 2010 for the Czech Republic, and from January, 2002 to June 2010 for Romania. The shortest sample used, from January, 2003 to September, 2010, was for Serbia and is due to the late start in the transition process. The results of this study enriched the existing ones on this topic by extending the sample period to cover even the recent years of relatively higher inflation rates and by including Romania and Serbia, which were not previously considered. The study led to two main findings: first, inflation of moderate to high magnitude persistence in Hungary, Poland, Romania and Serbia, and inflation of smaller order persistence in Slovakia and the Czech Republic was detected within the Markov switching model approach. In addition, the changes in inflation persistence often correspond to changes in variability and mean of inflation. Second, New Keynesian Phillips Curve represents a valid structural approach to describe the inflation dynamics in this region. In all the six cases studied, weights on backward and forward looking behaviors were significant, while the impact of the driving variable was insignificant only once. It is found that significant influence of the economic driving variable can be captured by real gross wage inflation and real broad money growth. The estimates show that the backward-looking term plays an important role in determining the inflation dynamics. Similar conclusions are drawn by using quarterly data in econometric estimations for the selected countries.

  13. Geo-kinematic investigations in Slovakia and the region of Central and Southeastern Europe based on combination of permanent and epoch-wise GPS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipmanová, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The region of Central and Southeastern Europe is covered by numerous GPS networks investigating geo-kinematical behavior of this area. These activities started in early nineties within the several projects as CERGOP and CERGOP-2/Environment. In this paper we describe the process of combination of four networks located in the region of Central and Southeastern Europe using the CATREF (Combination and Analysis of Terrestrial REFerence Frame) software developed in Institute Geographique National in France. We were particularly interested in the CEPER (Central European Permanent Network), CEGRN (Central European Geodynaminc Reference Network), SGRN (Slovak Geodynamic Reference Network) and local network TATRY shortly described in this paper. Homogeneous velocity field obtained from the final combination is for the purpose of better interpretation divided into three parts: Central Europe, Slovakia and Tatra Mountains. Main interest is focused on the territory of Slovakia where the regional velocity field is not so frequently discussed in scientific community as the case of Central and Southeastern Europe.

  14. Pucarilla-Cerro Tipillas volcanic complex: the oldest recognized caldera in the southeastern portion of central volcanic zone of Central Andes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recognize the most eastern and oldest collapse caldera structure in the southern portion of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. A description of Middle-Upper Miocene successions related to explosive- effusive events is presented. The location of this centre close to Cerro Galn Caldera attests a recurrence in the volcanism between 12 and 2 Ma in this portion of the Altiplano - Puna Plateau.

  15. Pucarilla-Cerro Tipillas volcanic complex: the oldest recognized caldera in the southeastern portion of central volcanic zone of Central Andes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, Silvina; Petrinovic, Ivan [CONICET -IBIGEO. Museo de Cs. Naturales, Universidad de Salta, Mendoza 2 (4400), Salta (Argentina)], E-mail: guzmansilvina@gmail.com

    2008-10-01

    We recognize the most eastern and oldest collapse caldera structure in the southern portion of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. A description of Middle-Upper Miocene successions related to explosive- effusive events is presented. The location of this centre close to Cerro Galn Caldera attests a recurrence in the volcanism between 12 and 2 Ma in this portion of the Altiplano - Puna Plateau.

  16. An 8.1Ma calcite record of Asian summer monsoon evolution on the Chinese central Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbonates in loess-red clay sequences consist mainly of calcite and dolomite. The EDTA analysis of carbonates in different size fractions and magnetic susceptibility reveal that calcite is a sensitive index of summer monsoon. The chemical analysis of carbonates and calcite from an 8.1 Ma loess-red clay sequence at Chaona on the Chinese central Loess Plateau shows that the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon experienced four stages, namely 8.1―5.5 Ma, 5.5―2.8 Ma, 2.8―1.5 Ma and 1.5―0 Ma, with increasing intensification and fluctuation, suggesting a possible combining impacts of uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global changes on the Asian summer monsoon.

  17. Quantification of Glacier Depletion in the Central Tibetan Plateau by Using Integrated Satellite Remote Sensing and Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K.-H.; Liu, K. T.; Shum, C. K.; Jia, Y.; Shang, K.; Dai, C.

    2016-06-01

    Glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau have experienced accelerated depletion in the last few decades due primarily to the global warming. The freshwater drained into brackish lakes is also observed by optical remote sensing and altimetry satellites. However, the actual water storage change is difficult to be quantified since the altimetry or remote sensing only provide data in limited dimensions. The altimetry data give an elevation change of surface while the remote sensing images provide an extent variation in horizontal plane. Hence a data set used to describe the volume change is needed to measure the exact mass transition in a time span. In this study, we utilize GRACE gravimetry mission to quantify the total column mass change in the central Tibetan Plateau, especially focused on the lakes near Tanggula Mountains. By removing these factors, the freshwater storage change of glacier system at study area can be potentially isolated.

  18. Geodynamic Drivers of Vertical Crustal Motion: Integrating Paleoaltimetry with Basin Development in the Central Andean Plateau of Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, K. E., II; Saylor, J. E.; Lapen, T. J.; Villarreal, D. P.; Styron, R. H.; Horton, B. K.; Cardenas, J.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the spatial and temporal relationships between surface uplift, tectonic subsidence, and exhumation during periods of oblique crustal shortening is essential to discriminating geodynamic processes controlling formation of high topography in the central Andes. Although subsidence analysis is now a standard tool, paleoelevation estimation remains a challenging task, as estimates based on proxy data can be complicated by uncertainties in the relative controls of tectonics and climate. We therefore adopt an approach of combining established tools of subsidence analysis and detrital geochronology with emerging methods of volcanic glass paleoaltimetry, which enables us to explore a broad range of viable interpretations to understand the development of intermontane basins and their relationship to the development of the central Andean plateau. We investigated a suite of temporally overlapping and spatially separate Cenozoic basins spanning the east-west extent of the central Andean plateau in southern Peru. These basins contain an exceptional record of the vertical movements of this region. We calculate sediment accumulation and subsidence rates through decompaction of measured stratigraphic sections, and reconstruct past environmental conditions based on the stable isotopic composition of ancient waters preserved in hydrated volcanic glass. These data and published records of crustal shortening and exhumation show that although paleoaltimetry data in the study areas may be interpreted in various ways, they are best explained by multiple geodynamic processes driving (i) Eocene-early Miocene development of high topography in the Western Cordillera, then (ii) a pulsed middle Miocene-present building of the central Andean plateau from west to east, consistent with global climate changes as well as regional climate shifts driven by topographic development of the Andean orogen.

  19. Glacial lake evolution in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and the cause of rapid expansion of proglacial lakes linked to glacial-hydrogeomorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Ke, Linghong; Nie, Yong; Wang, Jida

    2016-09-01

    Glacial lakes, as an important component of the cryosphere in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (SETP) in response to climate change, pose significant threats to the downstream lives and properties of people, engineering construction, and ecological environment via outburst floods, yet we currently have limited knowledge of their distribution, evolution, and the driving mechanism of rapid expansions due to the low accessibility and harsh natural conditions. By integrating optical imagery, satellite altimetry and digital elevation model (DEM), this study presents a regional-scale investigation of glacial lake dynamics across two river basins of the SETP during 1988-2013 and further explores the glacial-hydrogeomorphic process of rapidly expanding lakes. In total 1278 and 1396 glacial lakes were inventoried in 1988 and 2013, respectively. Approximately 92.4% of the lakes in 2013 are not in contact with modern glaciers, and the remaining 7.6% includes 27 (1.9%) debris-contact lakes (in contact with debris-covered ice) and 80 (5.7%) cirque lakes. In categorizing lake variations, we found that debris-contact proglacial lakes experienced much more rapid expansions (∼75%) than cirque lakes (∼7%) and non-glacier-contact lakes (∼3%). To explore the cause of rapid expansion for these debris-contact lakes, we further investigated the mass balance of parent glaciers and elevation changes in lake surfaces and debris-covered glacier tongues using time-series Landsat images, ICESat altimetry, and DEM. Results reveal that the upstream expansion of debris-contact proglacial lakes was not directly associated with rising water levels but with a geomorphological alternation of upstream lake basins caused by melting-induced debris subsidence at glacier termini. This suggests that the hydrogeomorphic process of glacier thinning and retreat, in comparison with direct glacial meltwater alone, may have played a dominant role in the recent glacial lake expansion observed across the

  20. Reconstructing 20th Century Summer Precipitation on the South-Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, J. L.; Hudson, A. M.; Overpeck, J. T.; Cole, J. E.; Liu, K.; Wang, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced significant increases in temperature over the 20th century, but trends in precipitation are less clear, as station precipitation records are sparse and satellite observations only extend back to 1979. Here we use the sediment record from Ngamring Co, a closed-basin, freshwater lake in south-central Tibet, to assess summer precipitation over the last century. Ngamring Co is located in a watershed without glaciers, so recent changes in runoff and lake level are independent of the influence of glacial ice volume. The first principal component of the Ngamring Co grain size dataset is highly correlated with median grain size and covaries significantly with local July-August precipitation from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). From 1979 to 2007, median grain size decreases with increasing July-August precipitation and increases with decreasing July-August precipitation. There is prominent multidecadal variability in the 20th century grain size record, including a gradual decline in median grain size from 1900 to 1930, a gradual increase in median grain size from 1930 to 1990, and a rapid decline in median grain size since 1990. Median grain size values from 2000-2007 are the lowest in the 107-year record, suggesting the most abundant monsoon precipitation in the last 107 years has occurred in the last decade. Satellite images of the lake also confirm an increase in lake area since the early 1990s, but also show the greatest lake area occurred in the 1970s. Thus, although summer precipitation and lake area do covary, precipitation does not seem to control grain size by influencing lake area. We presently hypothesize that increased July-August precipitation causes enhanced erosion of the fine-grained sediment (likely paleolake sediments and loess) that blankets the slopes surrounding the lake. The ensuing runoff and deposition of this sediment into the lake then results in a decline in median grain size within the lake

  1. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  2. Sm/Nd data of metasedimentary rocks from the central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatky, Diana; Tupinamba, Miguel; Duarte, Beatriz Paschoal [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Grupo de Pesquisa Geotectonica - Tektos

    2000-03-01

    The central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern brazil, comprises several tectonic domains where, during the Proterozoic, extensive detritic material was deposited over pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks. This paper presents Sm-Nd isotopic data on the high-grade metasedimentary rocks of this belt and discusses some possible implications on their sedimentary provenance. The pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks display different Nd isotopic evolution and thus can be promptly discriminated as sources of different Nd model ages (T{sub DM}) and isotopic characteristics such as: Mantiqueira such as: Mantiqueira Complex, 3.0 and 2.6 Ga T{sub DM} isochrons ages; Juiz de Fora Complex, 2.2 Ga T{sub DM} isochron age and Quirino Complex, 2.0 Ga and 3.2 Ga T{sub DM} ages. At the Juiz de Fora Domain, metapelites from the Andrelandia Depositional Cycle display a very narrow range of Sm/Nd values (0.15 to 0.17) and T{sub DM} ages between 1.8 and 2.0 Ga. The corresponding measured {epsilon}{sub Nd} values [{epsilon}{sub Nd} (0)] vary between -20.8 and -29.1. The metapsammopelites of the Jardim Gloria Unit, in the same geologic domain, display very different isotopic characteristics: higher Sm/Nd ratios (0.22 and 0.24), lower {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) values (-15.3 and -18.3) and Neoarchean T{sub DM} ages (2.5 and 2.6 Ga). At the Paraiba do Sul Klippe, the analyzed metapelites from the middle unit of Paraiba do Sul group show T{sub DM} ages close to 1.7 Ga with e{sub ND} (0) values of -14.10 and -17.34. The metapsammopelites from the basal and uppermost units plot the 2.0 Ga T{sub DM} isochron and display {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) values vary between-21 and -32. An isolated T{sub DM} of an amphibolitic body, probably intrusive in the metasedimentary rocks of Paraiba do Sul Group, yields 1.0 Ga T{sub DM} age, with a {sup 147} Sm/{sup 144} Nd value of 0.1428. (author)

  3. Sm/Nd data of metasedimentary rocks from the central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern brazil, comprises several tectonic domains where, during the Proterozoic, extensive detritic material was deposited over pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks. This paper presents Sm-Nd isotopic data on the high-grade metasedimentary rocks of this belt and discusses some possible implications on their sedimentary provenance. The pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks display different Nd isotopic evolution and thus can be promptly discriminated as sources of different Nd model ages (TDM) and isotopic characteristics such as: Mantiqueira such as: Mantiqueira Complex, 3.0 and 2.6 Ga TDM isochrons ages; Juiz de Fora Complex, 2.2 Ga TDM isochron age and Quirino Complex, 2.0 Ga and 3.2 Ga TDM ages. At the Juiz de Fora Domain, metapelites from the Andrelandia Depositional Cycle display a very narrow range of Sm/Nd values (0.15 to 0.17) and TDM ages between 1.8 and 2.0 Ga. The corresponding measured εNd values [εNd (0)] vary between -20.8 and -29.1. The metapsammopelites of the Jardim Gloria Unit, in the same geologic domain, display very different isotopic characteristics: higher Sm/Nd ratios (0.22 and 0.24), lower εNd (0) values (-15.3 and -18.3) and Neoarchean TDM ages (2.5 and 2.6 Ga). At the Paraiba do Sul Klippe, the analyzed metapelites from the middle unit of Paraiba do Sul group show TDM ages close to 1.7 Ga with eND (0) values of -14.10 and -17.34. The metapsammopelites from the basal and uppermost units plot the 2.0 Ga TDM isochron and display εNd (0) values vary between-21 and -32. An isolated TDM of an amphibolitic body, probably intrusive in the metasedimentary rocks of Paraiba do Sul Group, yields 1.0 Ga TDM age, with a 147 Sm/144 Nd value of 0.1428. (author)

  4. Buildup of a dynamically supported orogenic plateau: Numerical modeling of the Zagros/Central Iran case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, T.; Burov, E.; Agard, P.; Meyer, B.

    2014-06-01

    Iranian plateau is a vast inland region with a smooth average elevation of c. 1.5 km formed at the rear of the Zagros orogen as a result of the Arabia-Eurasia collision (i.e., over the last 30-35 Myr). This collision zone is of particular interest due to its disputed resemblance to the faster Himalayan collision, which gave birth to the Tibetan plateau around 50 Myr ago. Recent studies have suggested that a recent (10-5 Ma) slab break-off event below Central Iran caused the formation of the Iranian plateau. Here, we test several hypotheses through large-scale (3082 × 590 km) numerical models of continental subduction models that incorporate a free upper surface erosion, rheological stratification, brittle-elastic-ductile rheologies, and metamorphic phase changes (density and physical properties) and account for the specific crustal and thermal structure of the Arabian and Iranian continental lithospheres. We test the impact of the transition from oceanic to continental subduction and the topographic consequences of the progressive slowdown of the convergence rate during continental subduction. Our results demonstrate the role of mantle flow beneath the overriding plate, initiated as an indirect consequence of slab break-off. This flow creates a dynamic topography support during continental subduction and results in delamination of the overriding plate lithospheric mantle followed by isostatic readjustment, hence of further uplift and maintenance of a plateau-like topography without significant crustal thickening. The slowdown of the convergence rate during the development of the continental subduction/collision phase largely contributes to this process by controlling the timing and depth of slab break-off.

  5. Seasonal variation of secondary organic aerosol in Nam Co, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-Q. Shen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA affects the earth's radiation balance and global climate. High-elevation areas are sensitive to global climate change. However, at present, SOA origins and seasonal variations are understudied in remote high-elevation areas. In this study, particulate samples were collected from July 2012 to July 2013 at the remote Nam Co (NC site, Central Tibetan Plateau and analyzed for SOA tracers from biogenic (isoprene, monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene and anthropogenic (aromatics precursors. Among these compounds, isoprene SOA (SOAI tracers represented the majority (26.6 ± 44.2 ng m−3, followed by monoterpene SOA (SOAM tracers (0.97 ± 0.57 ng m−3, aromatic SOA (SOAA tracer (2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, DHOPA, 0.25 ± 0.18 ng m−3 and β-caryophyllene SOA tracer (β-caryophyllenic acid, 0.09 ± 0.10 ng m−3. SOAI tracers exhibited high concentrations in the summer and low levels in the winter. The similar temperature dependence of SOAI tracers and isoprene emission suggested that the seasonal variation of SOAI at the NC site was mainly influenced by isoprene emission. The ratio of high-NOx to low-NOx products of isoprene (2-methylglyceric acid to 2-methyltetrols was the highest in the winter and the lowest in the summer, due to the influence of temperature and relative humidity. The seasonal variation of SOAM tracers was impacted by monoterpenes emission and tracers partitioning. The similar temperature dependence of SOAM tracers and monoterpenes emission was only observed during winter to spring. SOAM tracer levels did not elevate with increased temperature in the summer, probably resulting from the counteraction of temperature effects on gas/particle partitioning and monoterpenes emission. The concentrations of DHOPA were 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in the urban regions of the world. Due to the transport of air pollutants from the adjacent Bangladesh and the eastern India, DHOPA

  6. Satellite Monitoring of the Surface Water and Energy Budget in the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kun; Toshio KOIKE

    2008-01-01

    The water and energy cycle in the Tibetan Plateau is an important component of Monsoon Asia and the global energy and water cycle. Using data at a CEOP (Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period)-Tibet site, this study presents a first-order evaluation on the skill of weather forecasting from GCMs and satellites in producing precipitation and radiation estimates. The satellite data, together with the satellite leaf area index, are then integrated into a land data assimilation system (LDAS-UT) to estimate the soil moisture and surface energy budget on the Plateau. The system directly assimilates the satellite microwave brightness temperature, which is strongly affected by soil moisture but not by cloud layers, into a simple biosphere model. A major feature of this system is a dual-pass assimilation technique, which can auto-calibrate model parameters in one pass and estimate the soil moisture and energy budget in the other pass. The system outputs, including soil moisture, surface temperature, surface energy partition, and the Bowen ratio, are compared with observations, land surface models, the Global Land Data Assimilation System, and four general circulation models. The results show that this satellite data-based system has a high potential for a reliable estimation of the regional surface energy budget on the Plateau.

  7. Mongolian plateau: Evidence for a late Cenozoic mantle plume under central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Brian F.; Allen, Mark B.

    1993-04-01

    The 2500 x 700 km Mongolian plateau (average elevation 2000 m) is situated between the Altai orogen and the Siberian craton and occupies much of Mongolia and Transbaikalia in Russia. The plateau is characterized by (1) basin and range topography and two major domes(Hentai, 600 x 300 km, and Hangai, 800 x 550 km), where altitudes reach 3905 m; (2) lithosphere that is thinner than adjacent areas (minimum ˜50 km); (3) elevated heat flow (up to 120 mW/m2); (4) dominantly alkaline basaltic volcanism in the form of cones, lava fields, and volcanic plateaus mostly of Miocene-Quaternary age, and (5) rifts, including Baikal (main evolution in the Pliocene-Quaternary), Tunka (Oligocene-early Miocene), and Hobsogol (Pliocene-Quaternary). Existing models explain these features in terms of diapiric upwelling of a mantle asthenolith below the main rifts and/or as a long-distance effect of the India-Asia collision. We propose that the late Cenozoic uplift of the whole Mongolian plateau and associated rifting, magmatism, high heat flow, and lithospherec thinning are not externally driven by the India-Asia collision, but are the expression of the interaction of a mantle plume with overlying lithosphere. Some rifts link and interact with major strike-slip faults, such as the Bolnai. Such faults may be the major expression of the India-Asia collision in this region.

  8. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  9. Petrology, geochemistry, and metamorphic evolution of meta-sedimentary rocks in the Diancang Shan-Ailao Shan metamorphic complex, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Liu, Fulai; Liu, Pinghua; Shi, Jianrong; Cai, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Meta-sedimentary rocks are widely distributed within the Diancang Shan-Ailao Shan metamorphic complex in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Detailed geochemical analyses show that all of them have similar geochemical features. They are enriched in light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs), with moderately negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.55-0.75). Major and trace element compositions for the meta-sedimentary rocks suggest that the protoliths were probably claystone, siltstone, and greywacke and deposited in an active continental margin. Garnet porphyroblasts in meta-sedimentary rocks have distinct compositional zonation from core to rim. The zonation of garnet in St-Ky-Grt-Bt-Ms schist indicates an increasing P-T trend during garnet growth. In contrast, garnets from (Sil)-Grt-Bt paragneiss show diffusion zoning, implying a decreasing P-T trend. Based on mineral transformations and P-T estimates using conventional geothermobarometers and pseudosection calculations, four metamorphic stages have been determined, including an early prograde metamorphic stage (M1), a peak amphibolite-granulite facies metamorphic stage (M2), a near-isothermal decompression stage (M3), and a late amphibolites-facies retrograde stage (M4). The relic assemblage of Ms + St ± Ky ± Bt ± Kfs + Qz preserved as inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts of the meta-sedimentary rocks belongs to prograde (M1) stage and records P-T conditions of 560-590 °C and 5.5-6.3 kb. Matrix mineral assemblages of Grt + Bt + Ky/Sil + Pl + Qz and Grt + Bt ± Sil + Pl ± Kfs + Qz formed at peak (M2) stage yield P-T conditions of 720-760 °C and 8.0-9.3 kb. M3 is characterized by decompression reactions, dehydration melting of assemblages that include hydrous minerals (e.g., biotite), and partial melting of felsic minerals. The retrograde assemblages is Grt + Bt + Sil + Pl + Qz formed at 650-760 °C and 5.0-7.3 kb. At the amphibolites-facies retrograde (M4) stage, fine

  10. Different altitude effect of leaf wax n-alkane δD values in surface soils along two vapor transport pathways, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Fang, Xiaomin; Jia, Guodong; Sun, Jimin; Wen, Rong; Ye, Yuqing

    2015-12-01

    Here we present 76 hydrogen isotope values for leaf wax-derived n-alkanes (δDwax, being the abundance-weighted average δD values of C29 and C31n-alkanes) in surface soils along two vapor transport pathway transects running across the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP). The first is the South Himalayan (SH) Transect (with an altitude range of 1660-5050 m∗ above sea level, and representing the Southern Himalayan air mass), and the second a combination of the Zayu-Bomi (ZB; altitude 1468-4800 m) and Bayi-Lhasa (BL; altitude 3050-4970 m) transects, together representing the Brahmaputra-Yarlung Zangbo river valley air mass. δDwax values and their relation to altitude did exhibit some variability. Nonetheless, altitude was the predominant factor in determining soil δDwax values, with a lapse rate of -2.2‰/100 m (R2 = 0.78; n = 76) based on overall soil δDwax values, despite changes in precipitation amount, relative humidity (RH) and vegetation type. Furthermore, our εwax/rw values (the isotopic fractionation between the δDwax and δD values of river water (δDrw)) remained approximately constant at -104.5‰ (ranging between -99‰ and -110‰), confirming that the relation between altitude and isotopic hydrology (river water and precipitation) controls the n-alkane δDwax altitudinal gradients for all of the sample localities in the Southern Himalaya (SH) and the southern TP. This endorses the efficacy of using δDwax to reconstruct paleoelevation. Along the SH Transect, soil δDwax values varied from -151‰ to -264‰, with an altitudinal lapse rate of -2.4‰/100 m (R2 = 0.84, n = 32). This was due to the significant change in altitude over short distances. Along the ZB Transect, soil δDwax values varied from -174‰ to -263‰, with a lower lapse rate of -1.9‰/100 m (R2 = 0.68, n = 29). The altitudinal lapse rate was -3.3‰/100 m above 3000 m (R2 = 0.63, n = 19), and -1.35‰/100 m below 3000 m (R2 = 0.64, n = 10); in the lower sub-transect, the

  11. Use of multi-proxy approaches to determine the origin and depositional processes in modern lacustrine sediments: Carajás Plateau, Southeastern Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Distribution of elements in lake sediments depicts the depositional process. • Geochemical proxies reflect the weathering and provenance of sediments. • δ13C and δ15N values have best used to trace organic sediments. • CIA values of sediment are mainly controlled by physical erosion process. - Abstract: Geochemical and isotopic compositions of surficial sediments from a plateau lake in Carajás, Southeastern Amazon region, were investigated to understand the spatial distribution of major and trace elements, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratio, depositional processes, and the origin of inorganic and organic fractions. The δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratio indicate mainly an autochthonous source, with siliceous sponge spicules and algae being the major source of organic matter in the center of the lake (Sector 3), while an allochthonous source, mainly derived from C3 vascular forest plants dominates in the shallowest portion of the lake (Sector 1). Consequently, there was an apparent dilution of C4 plants (montane savanna) in the sediment/water interface. Among major elements, Fe2O3 is highly enriched in Sector 3, which is controlled by the erosion of catchment laterites and underwater topography, while Al2O3 and P2O5 enrichment near the northern border of the lake is controlled by the weathering of mafic rocks. Similar spatial distribution of SiO2 with total organic carbon (TOC) and isotopic evidence indicate that Si distribution is partially controlled by organic components such as siliceous sponge spicules and algae. The occurrence of most of the trace and rare earth elements (REE) is independent of Fe2O3 and TOC, but controlled by detrital aluminum silicates and heavy minerals, indicating a lack of post-depositional diagenetic control on their distribution. The distribution of As and Mo are possibly controlled by organic matter mineralization during early diagenesis and subsequently precipitation of Fe phases. The values of the chemical index of

  12. Late Cenozoic Chemical Weathering and Environmental Changes Recorded in the Co Ngoin Sediments, Central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shiyue; JIN Zhangdong; WANG Sumin; SHEN Ji

    2005-01-01

    A series of faulted inland basins were developed in the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, among which the Co Ngoin Basin containing thick lacustrine sediments is located in the peripheral area of the Indian monsoon. In this paper, we present the weathering history and paleoclimatic changes in the last 2.8 Ma based on studies of high-resolution temporal distributions of Sr, Rb and Zr concentrations, Rb/Sr and Zr/Rb ratios and δ 13C and TOC for the Co Ngoin sediments, in combination with the sediment properties, grain size distribution and clay mineralogy. The sedimentary records indicate three environmental stages in the last 2.8 Ma. At the core depth of 197-170 m (about 2.8-2.5 Ma), low-intensity chemical weathering in the Co Ngoin catchment was experienced under warm-dry to cool-wet climate conditions with relatively low Sr concentration and high Rb/Sr and Zr/Rb ratios. The sudden occurrence of both subalpine coniferous forest and coarse sand and gravel sediments in the Co Ngoin core reflects a strong tectonic uplift. The high Sr concentrations and low Rb/Sr and Zr/Rb ratios reflect a relatively strong chemical weathering between 2.5 Ma and 0.8 Ma (at the core depth of 170-38.5m) under a temperate/cool and wet climate, characterized by mud and silt with fine sand, probably indicating a stable process of denudation and planation of the plateau. Above the depth of 38.5 m (about 0.8-0 Ma), the coarsening of sediments indicates a strong tectonic uplift and a relatively low intensity of chemical weathering as supported by the record of sediments having relatively low Sr concentrations and high Rb/Sr and Zr/Rb ratios. Since then, the plateau has taken the shape of the modern topographic pattern above 4000 m a.s.1.

  13. Seismic imaging of a convergent continental margin and plateau in the central Andes (Andean Continental Research Project 1996 (ANCORP'96))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, O.; Asch, G.; Haberland, C.; Metchie, J.; Sobolev, S.; Stiller, M.; Yuan, X.; Brasse, H.; Buske, S.; Giese, P.; GöRze, H.-J.; Lueth, S.; Scheuber, E.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.; Yoon, M.-K.; Bravo, P.; Vieytes, H.; Chong, G.; Gonzales, G.; Wilke, H.-G.; Lüschen, E.; Martinez, E.; RöSsling, R.; Ricaldi, E.; Rietbrock, A.

    2003-07-01

    A 400-km-long seismic reflection profile (Andean Continental Research Project 1996 (ANCORP'96)) and integrated geophysical experiments (wide-angle seismology, passive seismology, gravity, and magnetotelluric depth sounding) across the central Andes (21°S) observed subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American continent. An east dipping reflector (Nazca Reflector) is linked to the down going oceanic crust and shows increasing downdip intensity before gradual breakdown below 80 km. We interpret parts of the Nazca Reflector as a fluid trap located at the front of recent hydration and shearing of the mantle, the fluids being supplied by dehydration of the oceanic plate. Patches of bright (Quebrada Blanca Bright Spot) to more diffuse reflectivity underlie the plateau domain at 15-30 km depth. This reflectivity is associated with a low-velocity zone, P to S wave conversions, the upper limits of high conductivity and high Vp/Vs ratios, and to the occurrence of Neogene volcanic rocks at surface. We interpret this feature as evidence of widespread partial melting of the plateau crust causing decoupling of the upper and lower crust during Neogene shortening and plateau growth. The imaging properties of the continental Moho beneath the Andes indicate a broad transitional character of the crust-mantle boundary owing to active processes like hydration of mantle rocks (in the cooler parts of the plate margin system), magmatic underplating and intraplating under and into the lowermost crust, mechanical instability at Moho, etc. Hence all first-order features appear to be related to fluid-assisted processes in a subduction setting.

  14. Large-scale circulation classification and its links to observed precipitation in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Deliang; Tu, Kai; Ruan, Chengqing; Hu, Zengyun

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the large-scale circulation dynamics and regional precipitation regime in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has so far not been well understood. In this study, we classify the circulation types using the self-organizing maps based on the daily field of 500 hPa geopotential height and link them to the precipitation climatology in the eastern and central TP. By virtue of an objective determining method, 18 circulation types are quantified. The results show that the large amount of precipitation in summer is closely related to the circulation types in which the enhanced and northward shifted subtropical high (SH) over the northwest Pacific and the obvious cyclconic circulation anomaly over the Bay of Bengal are helpful for the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon to take abundant low-latitude moisture to the eastern and southern TP. On the contrary, the dry winter in the central and eastern Tibet corresponds to the circulation types with divergence over the central and eastern TP and the water vapor transportations of East Asian winter monsoon and mid-latitude westerly are very weak. Some circulation types are associated with some well-known circulation patterns/monsoons influencing the TP (e.g. East Atlantic Pattern, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Indian Summer Monsoon and the mid-latitude westerly), and exhibit an overall good potential for explaining the variability of regional seasonal precipitation. Moreover, the climate shift signals in the late 1970s over the eastern Pacific/North Pacific Oceans could also be reflected by both the variability of some circulation types and their correspondingly composite precipitations. This study extends our understandings for the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and their linkages with regional precipitation and is beneficial for the climate change projection and related adaptation activities in the highest and largest plateau in the world.

  15. A 70-yr record of oxygen-18 variability in accumulation from the Tanggula Mountains, central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Joswiak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A 33 m ice core was retrieved from the Tanggula Mtns, central Tibetan Plateau at 5743 m a.s.l. in August 2005. Annual average δ18O ratios were determined for the upper 17 m depth, representing the time series since the mid-1930's based on multi-parameter dating techniques. Data are compared to previous results (Kang et al., 2007 of an ice core from Mt. Geladaindong, 100 km to the northwest, for the period 1935–2003. During the time 1935–1960, δ18O ratios differed by 2–3‰ between the two ice cores, with generally lower ratios preserved in the Tanggula 2005 core. Differences in interannual variability and overall average ratios between the two study locations highlight the spatially variable climatic signals of ice core isotope ratios within the boundary of monsoon- and westerly-impacted regions of the central Tibetan Plateau. Average annual net accumulation was 261 mm w.eq. yr−1 for the period 1935–2004. Overall average δ18O ratio was −13.2‰ and exhibited a statistically significant increase from the 1935–1969 average (−413.7‰ to the 1970–2004 average (−12.6‰. Despite the observed increase in isotope ratios, temperature dependence was not found based on comparison with long-term data from meteorological stations to the north and southwest of the study location. Lack of temperature dependence is likely due monsoon influence, which results in relatively more depleted moisture arriving during the warm season. Evidence of monsoon impacts on precipitation in the central Tibetan Plateau has been previously documented, and statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.37, p<0.01 between the annual average ice core δ18O ratio and N. India monsoon rainfall was observed for the period 1935–2004.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air–grass–yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p′-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air–butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. - Highlights: • Air, grass and butter POPs in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were at the lower end of the global levels. • The pasture of the TP was found to be a “sink” of DDTs. • Bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the food chain: air–grass–yak. • The TFA:B was tested to be an excellent tool to predict air OCPs and PCBs in the TP. - Transfer and bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the terrestrial food chain: air–grass–yak (butter)

  17. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  18. Tectonique Cénozoïque du Haut Plateau de la Puna, Nord Ouest Argentin, Andes Centrales.

    OpenAIRE

    Coutand, Isabelle

    1999-01-01

    Mémoires de Géosciences Rennes, n° 92, 381 p., ISBN: 2-905532-91-2 Les Andes Centrales sont l'exemple type d'une chaîne se développant le long d'une marge active en contexte non collisionel et résultent de la subduction légèrement oblique (-N75°E) de la plaque océanique Nazca sous le continent sud-américain. Elles sont caractérisées par la présence du haut plateau de l'Altiplano-Puna s'étendant depuis le Pérou au Nord jusqu'en Argentine au Sud et présentant une altitude moyenne avoisinant ...

  19. Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site Task 2 Potential Applications at the Central Plateau Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the second of two studies on potential applications for vadose zone monitoring (VZM) at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to perform the studies in a letter from M. S. Schlender, DOE, to M. L. Goldstein, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and M. A. Wilson, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), subject ''Vadose Zone Monitoring Study,'' 02-ERD-0055, dated March 11, 2002. The first study evaluated the potential for performance monitoring at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) and was published as ''Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site, Task I . Use in New Cells at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility'', dated May 2003 (DOE/RL---2003-31). This report is Task 2 and examines the potential for VZM at waste sites and tank farms in the 200 East and West Areas of the Central Plateau Remediation Project (Central Plateau). The potential benefits of VZM are discussed in the introduction, as well as the objectives of the study. A summary of the hydrogeology of the central plateau is presented. This includes a discussion of the stratigraphy, vadose zone transport, and groundwater characteristics. A chapter on the regulatory framework is presented in the context of the anticipated remediation, Environmental Protection Agency regulations, and the regulations of other western states. While the previous Task I study presented a survey of commercial sites in the western part of the United States, this report surveys vadose zone monitoring at other government sites in the western United States. Most of the significant Department of Energy Sites are discussed and compared. Since the western part of the United States contains many of the DOE research facilities, a discussion is presented on the vadose zone research and development activities at these facilities. The ongoing development and use of VZM by the Air Force, Navy, and Army is presented. A summary is presented of the planned

  20. 青藏高原东南缘高寒区土地沙化现状及驱动因子分析%Analysis of Desertification Status and Driving Factors on the Frigid Southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓东周; 杨执衡; 陈洪; 邹先锋; 李华; 桑尼; 罗建勋

    2011-01-01

    生态环境是人类赖以生存和发展的基础,而近年青藏高原东南缘高寒区土地沙化面积急剧扩张,成为了国内外关注的重大环境问题.通过综合分析该地区的研究文献和监测统计资料,对其土地沙化现状及趋势加以概述,并对其驱动因子进行分析,结果发现:青藏高原东南缘高寒区的生态环境恶化、土地沙化是在自然因素作用的背景下,由近年来的气候变化和人类不合理的生产活动造成的,自然因素为该区域的土地沙化提供了基本条件,而人类活动是其诱导触发因素,起主导作用.%Ecological environment is the foundation for the survival and development of human beings. Desertification in the frigid southeastern area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau had expanded dramatically in recent years, and it has become a major environmental issue which was concerned all over the world. Based on previous studies and monitoring data collected from local area, the desertification status and the development tendency were summarized, and the driving factors were analyzed. The conclusion was that the degradation of ecological environment and desertification in the frigid southeastern area of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau resulted both from human activities and natural factors. The global warming and other natural factors provided the desertification with fundamental elements, and the intense human activities in recent decades were the leading factors to induce the development of desertification.

  1. THE IMPACT OF THE CREDIT EXPANSION PROCESS ON SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE AREA OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PERCIC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at performing an econometric analysis of the credit expansion process and social welfare from a comparative perspective, with a focus on eight developing and advanced economies from Central and South-Eastern Europe (including the case of Romania. The author aims to better understand the real impact of the credit expansion process on social welfare through the financial dimension. In order to achieve this aim, the research seeks to analyze the short-term dynamics (from one quarter to the other of the relationships between the total volume of credits given to the non-banking private sector by the credit institutions (highlighting thus the credit expansion process and the GDP per capita and GDP per person employed (proxies for social welfare. The usefulness of the present study becomes higher given the fact that nowadays the socio-economic development is often assisted by a stronger and more acute crisis.

  2. Adaptation of potato production to climate change by optimizing sowing date in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-ling; SHEN Shuang-he; ZHANG Shu-yu; LI Qiao-zhen; YAO Yu-bi

    2015-01-01

    Potato grows in most part of China, it achieves higher yield and better quality in Gansu Province than in others. With global warming, its growth duration has been prolonged and sowing date become earlier than before. Therefore, to regulate its sowing date and growing period is of great signiifcance for better harvest. In this study, experiments were conducted with six sowing-date treatments of potato in Dingxi, which is in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu Province in Northwest China in 2010. The growth period, morphological index and change in yield and their relationships with temperature, precipitation, and other climatic factors were investigated for each treatment. Results show that the crop with different sowing dates experienced different climate conditions, leading to distinct growth duration, plant height, and leaf area index. The growth duration was shortened due to a delay in sowing date. For each 15-day delay in sowing, the growth duration was reduced by 12 days on average. A signiifcant linear relationship was found between numbers of days either from seeding to emergence or from lfowering to harvest and mean temperature over the corresponding period. Dry matter accumulation, tuber fresh weight, and ifnal yield were al decreased because of insufifcient cumulative temperature over the shorter growing periods. Marked differences in tuber yield were discovered among the six treatments of sowing date, the potato planted on May 27 giving the highest yield. The potato planted either earlier or later would produce invariably lower yield than the treatment of May 27. Late May therefore can be taken as the optimum sowing time of potato in this region because the crop can ful y utilize thermal resource. We conclude that to postpone sowing time is a good practice for potato production to adapt to climate warming in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China.

  3. Petrogenesis and geotectonic setting of the Pan African basement rocks in Bamenda Massif,Obudu Plateau, southeastern Nigeria: Evidence from trace element geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UKAEGBU V. U.; EKWUEME B. N.

    2006-01-01

    The rocks of the Obudu Plateau range from high-grade metagreywacke-pelite sequence to metaigneous granitic to tholeiitic) and polymagmatic (calc-alkaline granitic to olivine tholeiitic) igneous rocks. Several co-variance diagrams and other parameters indicate that the trace elements of rocks in southern Obudu Plateau exhibit systematic variations and suggest highly heterogeneous protoliths. The tectonic setting of the rocks indicates rifting and collisional to non-orogenic emplacements in oceanic to ensialic environments. The calc-alkaline and tholeiitic nature of the magmatism as well as the greywackepelite sequence is suggestive of an Andean-type continental environment.

  4. Changing of dominant atmospheric circulation since LGM recorded by a lake core in the central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Wang, J.; Lu, X.; Daut, G.; Kasper, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Schwalb, A.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanism of climate changes and some abrupt events on the Tibetan Plateau since LGM exists many uncertainties. Further understanding is possibly provided by a continue lake core records in the Nam Co (4718 asl, 2015 km2) on the central Tibetan Plateau. The 11m long core collected in 90m deep water area has a well age-depth distribution according to 32 14C dating data. 24-19 kaBP, higher Pediastrum suggested a shallow water condition. 19-16.5kaBP, decreased Pediastrum and Cyperaceae suggested water depth increasing and wetland reducing. Pinus, Picea and Abies were over than 30% during 24-16.5 kaBP, implying a different climate condition than it at present. 16.5-14.2 kaBP, humidity was enhanced according to Cyperaceae, Gramineae, Artemisia and Chenopodiacen. Pinus, Picea and Abies were less than 10%, suggesting climate shifted in lake area. 14.2-13.2 kaBP, Fe/Mn, Ca and Sr/Ba indicated water depth increase while total pollen concentration (TPC) and TOC (endogenesis source) reflected temperature rising. 13.2-11.5 kaBP, cold-dry climate was reflected by lake volume changing based upon Fe/Mn, Ca, Sr/Ba and Pediastrum, and the decreasing of TOC and TCP. 11.5-8.5 kaBP, a good water and heat condition was indicated by pollen assemblages and geochemistry, and the best period was within 10.2-9.3 kaBP. 8.5-5.8 kaBP, the best water-heat condition gradually weakened according to decreased TCP but stable TOC. After 5.8 kaBP, climate tended to be dry. In general, there were not only existed several climatic change events in the Nam Co lake area, but also occurred climatic type shifting since LGM.

  5. Sub-continental lithospheric mantle structure beneath the Adamawa plateau inferred from the petrology of ultramafic xenoliths from Ngaoundéré (Adamawa plateau, Cameroon, Central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouandou, Oumarou F.; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Fagny, Aminatou M.

    2015-11-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths (lherzolite, harzburgite and olivine websterite) have been discovered in basanites close to Ngaoundéré in Adamawa plateau. Xenoliths exhibit protogranular texture (lherzolite and olivine websterite) or porphyroclastic texture (harzburgite). They are composed of olivine Fo89-90, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel. According to geothermometers, lherzolites have been equilibrated at 880-1060 °C; equilibrium temperatures of harzburgite are rather higher (880-1160 °C), while those of olivine websterite are bracketed between 820 and 1010 °C. The corresponding pressures are 1.8-1.9 GPa, 0.8-1.0 GPa and 1.9-2.5 GPa, respectively, which suggests that xenoliths have been sampled respectively at depths of 59-63 km, 26-33 km and 63-83 km. Texture and chemical compositional variations of xenoliths with temperature, pressure and depth on regional scale may be ascribed to the complex history undergone by the sub-continental mantle beneath the Adamawa plateau during its evolution. This may involve a limited asthenosphere uprise, concomitantly with plastic deformation and partial melting due to adiabatic decompression processes. Chemical compositional heterogeneities are also proposed in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle under the Adamawa plateau, as previously suggested for the whole Cameroon Volcanic Line.

  6. Anatolian Plateau Uplift Along the Southern Central Margin from Structural Analysis, CRN Dating, and Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Yildirim, C.; Strecker, M. R.; Echtler, H. P.; Copeland, P.

    2009-12-01

    Bounding flanks of orogenic plateaus are among the most sensitive features for recording the tectonic drivers for and geomorphic responses to surface uplift. Here, processes from the base of the lithosphere to the surface of the crust are integrated in the geologic record, providing key constraints for deciphering the geodynamic processes that drive orogen growth. The southern margin of the Anatolian Plateau in south central Turkey records a history of Mesozoic to recent crustal deformation. Rivers that cut through the margin record a history of fluvial response to surface uplift and episodic base level fall (e.g., the Messinian Salinity Crisis), as well as providing cross-sections through tectonic structures that accomodated uplift. The region is also replete with geologic constraints on surface uplift, such as marine sediments that cap the plateau at elevations >2 km. Our work is focused on detailed structural mapping and new age constraints in this region where few geochronologic methods have been applied. This will help to distinguish among geodynamic interpretations of uplift that hinge on precise temporal constraints on activity over wide regions. Cross-sections through sedimentary basins along the plateau flank show changing deformation styles from west to east. Regions near the Isparta Angle show pervasive faulting and folding of Miocene sediments, likely related to Miocene and post-Miocene activity on the Kirkkavak fault. Farther east, deformation of Miocene sediments is more subtle, and generally characterized by dips of sedimentary beds that gradually steepen northwards from sub-horizontal near the coast to almost 30° SW, despite broad similarities in facies and depositional environments. The few faults that cut sediments are predominantly normal and strike-slip faults with vertical offsets commonly less than a few meters. Our geochronologic approach consists of low-T thermochronology, cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) dating, and 87Sr/86Sr stratigraphy

  7. Drawing Lessons from the Past – Mapping Change in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline

    2016-01-01

    This introductory article to the special section on “Europe’s Changing Lessons from the Past” argues for a close analysis of acts of public remembrance in Central and Eastern European countries in order to uncover the link between the issue of public memory and long-term processes of democratisation

  8. Uplift of the southern Central Anatolian Plateau from 87Sr/86Sr stratigraphy on margin-capping marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildgen, Taylor; Dudas, Frank; Frijia, Gianluca; Cosentino, Domenico; Yildirim, Cengiz; Strecker, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The Central Anatolian Plateau is at the crux of one of the most complicated tectonic regions on Earth, bounded by the Aegean extensional province to the west, enigmatic subduction to the south, the Bitlis-Zagros collisional zone to the east, and the continental-scale North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) to the north. Possible mechanisms for generating the 1.5-km average elevations include lithospheric delamination, crustal scale thickening, climate-driven surface processes, or any combination of these. Critical for understanding the mechanism of surface uplift and how it fits within the regional tectonic setting is deriving better constraints on the temporal framework and pattern of surface uplift. The southern margin of the plateau, which is extensively overlain by Miocene marine sediments, offers some of the best potential to identify both the timing and magnitude of surface uplift. We present 87Sr/86Sr data on some of the highest and youngest marine sediments that presently cap the southern plateau margin. Analyzed samples, including oysters and foraminifera, cover a region of >150 km along the southern margin, from the Antalya Basin to the Ermenek Basin. Measured ratios average 0.708888 in the west (1450 m elevation), 0.708832 at the middle site (1885 m elevation, ~200 m below the highest marine sediments), and 0.708813 at our eastern-most site (1845 m elevation). Comparing these values to the global sea water 87Sr/86Sr curve (LOWESS IV) suggests ages of ~10 Ma in the west, ~12.5 Ma at the middle site, and ~13 Ma in the east. However, a potential complication concerns the late Miocene Mediterranean sea water 87Sr/86Sr curve, which shows a major departure from the global 87Sr/86Sr curve when the Mediterranean became isolated from global ocean circulation (e.g., McCulloch and De Deckker, 1989). Whether or not our samples are young enough to have been affected by this event (and thus ratios should be interpreted as late Tortonian to early Messinian in age) will be

  9. Noise and Performance: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Belojevic

    2013-01-01

    Researches on noise and performance in central and Eastern Europe and South-East Europe countries and Newly Independent States have been performed in last 40 years in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics, Russia, Serbia and Yugoslavia, mainly at universities in the capitals. In laboratory studies the effects of noise have been studied on vigilance, visual performance, attention, information ...

  10. Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Appalachian Plateau region - article no. W04407

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, J.R.; Lookingbill, T.R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P.A.; Eshleman, K.N. [University of Maryland, Frostburg, MD (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km{sup 2} watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of the central Tibetan Plateau, China: Distribution, sources, transport and contribution in global cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four soil samples were collected across the central Tibetan Plateau (CTP) at altitudes between 3711 m and 5352 m, and their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were measured to be from 0.43 to 26.66 ng/g. The main sources of PAHs were identified for each of four sub-areas, and their concentrations in soils were determined to be mainly influenced by local sources. Along a 600 km sampling trajectory from Lhasa, which served as the biggest local source, the concentrations of PAHs decreased logarithmically with increasing distances from the source. Meanwhile, the fractional proportions of PAHs were observed to change logarithmically according to the transport distances. Conclusively, PAHs from local sources were transported within the CTP and dominated PAHs concentrations in the soils, but few of them were transported outside the CTP. In global cycling, the soils in the CTP mainly serve as background and a “sink” for PAHs. - Highlights: • Main sources of PAHs were identified for each of four sub-areas in CTP. • Local sources dominated PAHs in soils but rarely transported outside CTP. • The PAHs in soils changed logarithmically according to the distances from source. • It is first revealed how the local PAH sources influenced PAHs in the soils of CTP. - Local sources dominated PAHs concentrations in the soils of CTP but rarely transported outside, and PAHs in soils changed logarithmically according to the transported distances

  12. Quantifying Freshwater Mass Balance in the Central Tibetan Plateau by Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Altimetry, and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Tseng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP has been observed by satellite optical remote sensing, altimetry, and gravimetry for a variety of geophysical parameters, including water storage change. However, each of these sensors has its respective limitation in the parameters observed, accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution. Here, we utilized an integrated approach to combine remote sensing imagery, digital elevation model, and satellite radar and laser altimetry data, to quantify freshwater storage change in a twin lake system named Chibuzhang Co and Dorsoidong Co in the central TP, and compared that with independent observations including mass changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data. Our results show that this twin lake, located within the Tanggula glacier system, remained almost steady during 1973–2000. However, Dorsoidong Co has experienced a significant lake level rise since 2000, especially during 2000–2005, that resulted in the plausible connection between the two lakes. The contemporary increasing lake level signal at a rate of 0.89 ± 0.05 cm·yr−1, in a 2° by 2° grid equivalent water height since 2002, is higher than the GRACE observed trend at 0.41 ± 0.17 cm·yr−1 during the same time span. Finally, a down-turning trend or inter-annual variability shown in the GRACE signal is observed after 2012, while the lake level is still rising at a consistent rate.

  13. Sero-epizootiological investigation of infectious laryngotracheitis infection in commercial poultry of Plateau State, north central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Gado, Dorcas A; Egbuji, Anthony N; Ndahi, Mwapu D; Pam, Ezekiel; Joannis, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2.5% (n = 9) and 7.1% (n = 2) of the tested sera from Jos South and Langtang North LGAs, respectively. No detectable ILT virus antibody was found from the other seven LGAs. This is the first report of ILT infection in poultry from the North central part of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the economic implication of ILT infection in Nigerian poultry population be conducted in order to know if vaccination should be adopted for control. PMID:26918306

  14. Development of a local meteoric water line for southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and south-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lyn; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Hall, L. Flint; Cecil, L. DeWayne; Green, Jaromy R.

    2005-01-01

    Linear-regression analysis was applied to stable hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) isotope data in 72 snow-core and precipitation samples collected during 1999-2001 to determine the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) for southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and south-central Montana. On the basis of (1) residuals from the regression model, (2) comparison of study-area deuterium-excess (d-excess) values with the global range of d-excess values, and (3) outlier analysis by means of Chauvenet's Criterion, values of four samples were excluded from final regression analysis of the dataset. Regression results for the 68 remaining samples yielded a LMWL defined by the equation ?H = 7.95 18O + 8.09 (r? = 0.98). This equation will be useful as a reference point for future studies in this area that use stable isotopes of H and O to determine sources of ground-water recharge, to determine water-mineral exchange, to evaluate surface-water and groundwater interaction, and to analyze many other geochemical and hydrologic problems.

  15. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  16. TESTING CAPM MODEL ON THE EMERGING MARKETS OF THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Džaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines if the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is adequate for capital asset valuation on the Central and South-East European emerging securities markets using monthly stock returns for nine countries for the period of January 2006 to December 2010. Precisely, it is tested if beta, as the systematic risk measure, is valid on observed markets by analysing are high expected returns associated with high levels of risk, i.e. beta. Also, the efficiency of market indices of observed countries is examined.

  17. Sources and the flux pattern of dissolved carbon in rivers of the Yenisey basin draining the Central Siberian Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequent measurements of dissolved organic (DOC) and inorganic (DIC) carbon concentrations in rivers during snowmelt, the entire ice-free season, and winter were made in five large watersheds (15 000–174 000 km2) of the Central Siberian Plateau (Yenisey River basin). These differ in the degree of continuous permafrost coverage, mean annual air temperature, and the proportion of tundra and forest vegetation. With an annual DOC export from the catchment areas of 2.8–4.7 gC m−2 as compared to an annual DIC export of 1.0–2.8 gC m−2, DOC was the dominant component of terrigenous C released to rivers. There was strong temporal variation in the discharge of DOC and DIC. Like for other rivers of the pan-arctic and boreal zones, snowmelt dominated annual fluxes, being 55–71% for water runoff, 64–82% for DOC and 37–41% for DIC. Likewise, DOC and DIC exhibited also a strong spatial variation in C fluxes, with both dissolved C species decreasing from south to north. The rivers of the southern part of the plateau had the largest flow-weighted DOC concentrations among those previously reported for Siberian rivers, but the smallest flow-weighted DIC concentrations. In the study area, DOC and DIC fluxes were negatively correlated with the distribution of continuous permafrost and positively correlated with mean annual air temperature. A synthesis of literature data shows similar trends from west to east, with an eastward decrease of dissolved C concentrations and an increased proportion of DOC in the total dissolved C flux. It appears that there are two contemporary limitations for river export of terrigenous C across Siberia: (1) low productivity of ecosystems with respect to potentially mobilizable organic C, slow weathering rates with concomitant small formation of bicarbonate, and/or wildfire disturbance limit the pools of organic and inorganic C that can be mobilized for transport in rivers (source-limited), and (2) mobilization of available pools of C is

  18. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black mov...

  19. A Photographic Catalog of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca, frOIll the Central Gulf of Alaska to the Southeastern Bering Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlheim, Marilyn E

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 and 1993, researchers from the National Marine Mammal Laboratory initiated photo-identification studies on Alaskan killer whales, Orcinus orca. Waters from Kodiak Island west to the central and eastern Aleutian Islands and southeastern Bering Sea were surveyed. A total of 289 individual whales were identified. A photographic record of the whales encountered during these surveys is presented. When photographs of the 289 individual whales were compared among various regions in Alaska...

  20. Noise and Performance: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Belojevic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on noise and performance in central and Eastern Europe and South-East Europe countries and Newly Independent States have been performed in last 40 years in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics, Russia, Serbia and Yugoslavia, mainly at universities in the capitals. In laboratory studies the effects of noise have been studied on vigilance, visual performance, attention, information perception and processing, reaction time, short term memory and spatial reasoning. The field studies focused on the relation between chronic exposure to community noise and children′s behavior and executive functioning (EF and between industrial noise and occupational injuries. These studies were mainly complementary to the studies in Western Europe.

  1. Spatial prediction of soil qualitative variables using logistic regression and fuzzy techniques. Study region: Dobrovăţ basin (Central Moldavian Plateau)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian-Valeriu PATRICHE; Roşca, Bogdan; Radu Gabriel PÂRNĂU; Stoica, Dan Laurenţiu

    2012-01-01

    The present study attempts to test the performance of two statistical approaches, namely the binary logistic regression and fuzzy techniques for spatial prediction of soil types. The study area is Dobrovăţ basin, located in NE Romania, within the Central Moldavian Plateau. The input parameters are the digital elevation model, slope, topographic wetness index, mean annual temperatures and precipitations. The logistic regression approach proved successful in estimating the spatial probabilities...

  2. New geological and single-zircon Pb evaporation data from the Central Guyana Domain, southeastern Roraima, Brazil: Tectonic implications for the central region of the Guyana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Marcelo E.; Macambira, Moacir J. B.; Valente, Sérgio de C.

    2008-11-01

    Metagranitoid rocks, mylonites, leucogneisses and granulites occur in the Central Guyana Domain (CGD) near the UatumÖAnauá Domain (UAD) boundary, southeastern Roraima (Brazil). These rocks are oriented along NE-SW and E-W trends and dip to NW and N, respectively. Single-zircon Pb evaporation results yielded 1724 ± 14 Ma and 1889 ± 3 Ma for a syn-kinematic foliated hornblende-biotite monzogranite and a granodioritic mylonite, respectively. These results point to a new tectonic event (Itã Event) in the area in addition to the 1.94-1.93 Ga (late- to post-Transamazonian) and the 1.35-0.98 Ga (K'Mudku) thermal tectonic events. This new event may be related, at least locally, with the evolution of the Columbia Supercontinent. In addition, the Itã Fault System is younger than 1.89 Ga (granodioritic mylonite age), contrasting with the Barauana high-grade lineament and 1.94 Ga polydeformed rocks, pointing to the needs of a major revision of lithostratigraphic column currently proposed for the CGD as well as the CGD and UAD boundary.

  3. Comparison Of Vented And Absolute Pressure Transducers For Water-Level Monitoring In Hanford Site Central Plateau Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  4. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  5. Variation and control of soil organic carbon and other nutrients in permafrost regions on central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation and control of soil organic carbon (SOC) and other nutrients in permafrost regions are critical for studying the carbon cycle and its potential feedbacks to climate change; however, they are poorly understood. Soil nutrients samples at depths of 0–10, 10–20, 20–30, and 30–40 cm, were sampled eight times in 2009 in alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow and alpine steppe in permafrost regions of the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in the alpine swamp meadow and meadow decreased with soil depth, whereas the highest SOC content in the alpine steppe was found at depths of 20–30 cm. The vertical profiles of total and available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were relatively uniform for all the three grassland types. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that soil moisture (SM) was the most important parameter for the vertical variation of SOC and other soil nutrients, and that belowground biomass (BGB) was the main source of SOC and TN. The spatial variations (including seasonal variation) of SOC and TN at plot scale were large. The relative deviation of SOC ranged from 7.18 to 41.50 in the alpine swamp meadow, from 2.88 to 35.91 in the alpine meadow, and from 9.33 to 68.38 in the alpine steppe. The spatial variations in the other soil nutrients varied among different grassland types. The most important factors for spatial variations (including seasonal variation) of SOC, TN, total P, available P, and both total and available K were: SM, SM and temperature, SM, air temperature, and SM and BGB, respectively. The large variation in the three grassland types implies that spatial variation at plot scale should be considered when estimating SOC storage and its dynamics. (letter)

  6. Landcover Change, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo and Topography in the Plateau Region of North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakirudeen Odunuga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the change in some environmental parameters in the Plateau region of North-Central Nigeria (Barakinladi, Jos, and Kafachan environs using the nexus of landcover change, land surface temperature, surface albedo, and topography. The study employed both remote sensing and statistical techniques for the period between 1986 and 2014 to analyze the dynamics between and within these environmental variables. In Barakinladi, the built up landcover change is highest (increasing from 39.53% to 47.59% between 1986 and 2014; LST ranges from 19.09 °C to 38.59 °C in 1986 and from 22.68 °C and 41.68 °C in 2014; and the albedo ranges between 0.014 and 0.154 in 1986 and 0.017 and 0.248 in 2014. In Jos, the built-up landcover occupied 34.26% in 1986 and 36.67% in 2014; LST values range between 20.83 °C and 41.33 °C in 1986 and between 21.61 °C and 42.64 °C in 2014; and the albedo ranges between 0.003 and 0.211 in 1986 and 0.15 and 0.237 in 2014. In Kafachan area, the built up landcover occupied 32.95% in 1986 and 39.01% in 2014. Urbanization and agricultural activities, including animal grazing, were responsible for the gradual loss in vegetation and increasing average LST and albedo. The results also revealed that changing landcover and topography have a relationship with surface albedo and land surface temperature, thereby impacting significantly on ecosystem services delivered by the natural system.

  7. Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°–45°N and 50°–120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback. (letter)

  8. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2014-09-01

    Over decades of operation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have released nearly 2 trillion L (450 billion gal.) of liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Much of this discharge of liquid waste into the vadose zone occurred in the Central Plateau, a 200 km2 (75 mi2) area that includes approximately 800 waste sites. Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths below the limit of direct exposure pathways, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Tri-Party Agencies (DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology) established Milestone M 015 50, which directed DOE to submit a treatability test plan for remediation of technetium-99 (Tc-99) and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment and have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. Testing technologies for remediating Tc-99 and uranium will also provide information relevant for remediating other contaminants in the vadose zone. A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the DOE test plan published in March 2008 to meet Milestone M 015 50. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 3 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  9. Decomposition, nitrogen and carbon mineralization from food and cover crop residues in the central plateau of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M J; Mulvaney, M J; Hodges, S C; Thompson, T L; Thomason, W E

    2016-01-01

    Cover crops are a major focus of conservation agriculture efforts because they can provide soil cover and increase nutrient availability after their mineralization in cropping systems. To evaluate the effect of residue type and placement on rate of decomposition and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization, residues from two food crops, maize (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and two promising cover crops, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench x S. bicolor var. Sudanese [Piper] Stapf) were used in a litterbag study in the Central Plateau region of Haiti from May to September, 2013. Residues were placed in litterbags at a rate equivalent to 3.25 Mg residue ha(-1) either on the soil surface or buried at 15 cm to represent a tilled and no-tillage system, respectively. Initial C:N ratios were: maize > common bean > sorghum sudangrass > sunn hemp. Highest residue mass loss rates and C and N mineralization generally occurred in the reverse order. Overall, surface-placed residues decomposed more slowly with 40 and 17 % of initial residue mass of surface and buried residues, respectively, remaining at 112 days. Carbon and N mineralization was higher when residues were buried. Net N mineralization of buried residues was 0.12, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.03 g N g residue(-1) for sunn hemp, sorghum sudangrass, maize, and common bean, respectively over 112 days. To achieve the goal of increasing nutrient supply while maintaining year-round cover, a combination of grass and legume cover crops may be required with benefits increasing over multiple seasons. PMID:27429883

  10. Scale-Up Information for Gas-Phase Ammonia Treatment of Uranium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Johnson, Timothy C.

    2014-09-01

    Uranium is present in the vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau and is of concern for protection of groundwater. The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau identified gas-phase treatment and geochemical manipulation as potentially effective treatment approaches for uranium and technetium in the Hanford Central Plateau vadose zone. Based on laboratory evaluation, use of ammonia vapor was selected as the most promising uranium treatment candidate for further development and field testing. While laboratory tests have shown that ammonia treatment effectively reduces the mobility of uranium, additional information is needed to enable deployment of this technology for remediation. Of importance for field applications are aspects of the technology associated with effective distribution of ammonia to a targeted treatment zone, understanding the fate of injected ammonia and its impact on subsurface conditions, and identifying effective monitoring approaches. In addition, information is needed to select equipment and operational parameters for a field design. As part of development efforts for the ammonia technology for remediation of vadose zone uranium contamination, field scale-up issues were identified and have been addressed through a series of laboratory and modeling efforts. This report presents a conceptual description for field application of the ammonia treatment process, engineering calculations to support treatment design, ammonia transport information, field application monitoring approaches, and a discussion of processes affecting the fate of ammonia in the subsurface. The report compiles this information from previous publications and from recent research and development activities. The intent of this report is to provide technical information about these scale-up elements to support the design and operation of a field test for the ammonia treatment technology.

  11. [Traditional medicine in the Central Plateau of Haiti. 1. Study of the traditional therapeutic system in a rural socio-cultural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B; Rouzier, M; Daguilh, R; Foucaud, J; Robineau, L; Anton, R

    1986-07-01

    An ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological research on the traditional use of plants to cure human diseases was carried out in the Thomonde area located in the Central Plateau of Haiti. The use of medicinal plants is widespread among the rural population and is often the first treatment utilized. An ethnomedical approach to the Haitian traditional therapeutic system and popular beliefs is made. The percentage home remedies used as first treatment against 38 diseases was determined by means of an investigation performed on a quantitative scale. PMID:3762192

  12. Investigation of the sources and processing of organic aerosol over the Central Mexican Plateau from aircraft measurements during MILAGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents approximately half of the submicron aerosol in Mexico City and the Central Mexican Plateau. This study uses the high time resolution measurements performed onboard the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign in March 2006 to investigate the sources and chemical processing of the OA in this region. An examination of the OA/ΔCO ratio evolution as a function of photochemical age shows distinct behavior in the presence or absence of substantial open biomass burning (BB influence, with the latter being consistent with other studies in polluted areas. In addition, we present results from Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of 12-s High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS OA spectra. Four components were resolved. Three of the components contain substantial organic oxygen and are termed semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA, and biomass burning OA (BBOA. A reduced "hydrocarbon-like OA" (HOA component is also resolved. LV-OOA is highly oxygenated (atomic O/C~1 and is aged organic aerosol linked to regional airmasses, with likely contributions from pollution, biomass burning, and other sources. SV-OOA is strongly correlated with ammonium nitrate, Ox, and the Mexico City Basin. We interpret SV-OOA as secondary OA which is nearly all (>90% anthropogenic in origin. In the absence of biomass burning it represents the largest fraction of OA over the Mexico City basin, consistent with other studies in this region. BBOA is identified as arising from biomass burning sources due to a strong correlation with HCN, and the elevated contribution of the ion C2H4O2+ (m/z 60, a marker for levoglucosan and other primary BB species. WRF-FLEXPART calculated fire impact factors (FIF show good correlation with BBOA mass concentrations within the basin, but show location offsets in the far field

  13. Investigation of the sources and processing of organic aerosol over the Central Mexican Plateau from aircraft measurements during MILAGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents approximately half of the submicron aerosol in Mexico City and the Central Mexican Plateau. This study uses the high time resolution measurements performed onboard the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign in March 2006 to investigate the sources and chemical processing of the OA in this region. An examination of the OA/ΔCO ratio evolution as a function of photochemical age shows distinct behavior in the presence or absence of substantial open biomass burning (BB influence, with the latter being consistent with other studies in polluted areas. In addition, we present results from Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of 12-s High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS OA spectra. Four components were resolved. Three of the components contain substantial organic oxygen and are termed semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA, and biomass burning OA (BBOA. A reduced "hydrocarbon-like OA" (HOA component is also resolved. LV-OOA is highly oxygenated (atomic O/C~1 and is aged organic aerosol linked to regional airmasses, with likely contributions from pollution, biomass burning, and other sources. SV-OOA is strongly correlated with ammonium nitrate, Ox, and the Mexico City Basin. We interpret SV-OOA as secondary OA which is nearly all (>90% anthropogenic in origin. In the absence of biomass burning it represents the largest fraction of OA over the Mexico City basin, consistent with other studies in this region. BBOA is identified as arising from biomass burning sources due to a strong correlation with HCN, and the elevated contribution of the ion C2H4O2+ (m/z 60, a marker for levoglucosan and other primary BB species. WRF-FLEXPART calculated fire impact factors (FIF show good correlation with BBOA mass concentrations within the basin, but show location offsets in the far field

  14. Sustainable Pastoralism in Ethiopia: Preliminary Results from Participatory Community Assessments on the North-central Borana Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne; Tezera, Seyoum; Eba, Bedasa; Doyo, Jaldessa; Tadele, Demisachew; Teshome, Derege; Husein, Nizam; Guru, Meiso

    2014-01-01

    The Borana Plateau is an important rangeland for Ethiopia. Livestock production has supported pastoralists here for many generations, and animals are now supplied to a variety of domestic and export markets. The aim of this Livestock Innovation Lab project is to find ways to improve the sustainable productivity of the pastoral system. This is a big challenge, as the rangelands have been badly degraded by decades of heavy pressure from growing human and livestock populations. As a result, ther...

  15. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of Permo-Carboniferous sandstones in central Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for provenance and tectonic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Li, Ke; Yu, Haifei; Wu, Tairan

    2016-03-01

    The tectonic setting of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) during the Late Paleozoic has been debated for many years. Provenance analysis of Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks can effectively address this issue. In this study, eight sandstone samples were collected for zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses combined with petrographic analysis. Framework petrography and zircon morphology suggest that the samples were from recycled orogen of an igneous origin. Carboniferous rocks, with a significant age peak at 432 Ma and εHf (t) values of - 9.0 to 13.6, were mainly derived from Early to Mid-Paleozoic magmatic rocks and deposited in a piedmont zone, namely, the margin of an inland sea. Permian rocks, mostly with age peaks at 445 Ma and/or 280 Ma and εHf (t) values of - 25.2 to 11.4, dominantly originated from a pre-existing Early to Mid-Paleozoic magmatic arc and Late Paleozoic igneous rocks. These rocks formed in restricted basins of the piedmont and intermountain zones. Based on zircon spectral discrimination, sedimentary environmental analysis, and previous studies, this study supports the interpretation that the southeastern CAOB entered stages of extension and rifting during the Late Paleozoic. In the end, this study proposes a tectonic-paleogeographic reconstruction to explain the tectonic evolution of the southeastern CAOB and the exhumation-transportation-deposition processes between the basins and ranges developed in this orogen.

  16. Biodiversity and conservation in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (Qinghai-Xizang Plateau) is a unique biogeographic region in the world, where various landscapes, altitudinal belts, alpine ecosystems, and endangered and endemic species have been developed. A total of 26 altitudinal belts, 28 spectra of altitudinal belts, 12,000 species of vascular plant, 5,000 species of epiphytes, 210 species of mammals, and 532 species of birds have been recorded. The plateau is also one of the centers of species formation and differentiation in the world. To protect the biodiversity of the plateau, about 80 nature reserves have been designated, of which 45 are national or provincial, covering about 22% of the plateau area. Most of the nature reserves are distributed in the southeastern plateau. Recently, the Chinese government has initiated the "Natural Forests Protection Project of China,' mainly in the upper reaches of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. "No logging" policies have been made and implemented for these areas.

  17. Carbon of Woody Debris in Plateau-type Karst Evergreen and Deciduous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest of Central Guizhou Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ni, J.; Liu, L.; Guo, C.

    2014-12-01

    Woody debris (WD) is an essential structural and functional component of forest ecosystems, and plays very significant roles for the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. Coarse woody debris (CWD) is considered to be the major part in forest WD and it is primarily composed of logs, snags, stumps and large branches, while fine woody debris (FWD) mainly consists of small twigs. Composition, spatial distribution and carbon storage of WD have been studied in plateau-type karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Tianlong Mountain of central Guizhou Province. Results showed that the carbon storage of WD in karst forests was less than non-karst forests. The major components of WD were fallen trees and snags with 10-20 cm in diameter. Fallen trees and snags with diameter greater than 20 cm were the smallest part of WD. The situation of WD in this region reflects the structural characteristics of WD in mid-late stage of plateau-type karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest succession. The potential contribution of WD to the regional carbon cycle, and its relationship with climate change were finally discussed. The WD (especially CWD) plays an important role in the carbon cycle of karst forest. Forest WD production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of CWD and FWD carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. Key words: woody debris, karst forests, carbon storage, spatial distribution, CWD, FWD.

  18. Spatial prediction of soil qualitative variables using logistic regression and fuzzy techniques. Study region: Dobrovăţ basin (Central Moldavian Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Valeriu PATRICHE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to test the performance of two statistical approaches, namely the binary logistic regression and fuzzy techniques for spatial prediction of soil types. The study area is Dobrovăţ basin, located in NE Romania, within the Central Moldavian Plateau. The input parameters are the digital elevation model, slope, topographic wetness index, mean annual temperatures and precipitations. The logistic regression approach proved successful in estimating the spatial probabilities of Aluviosols, Chernozems, Preluvosols and Luvosols and generally failed in predicting the locations of Phaeozems. The fuzzy approach, implemented through SoLIM software, proved successful in predicting the occurrences of Aluviosols and Luvisols. On the whole, both methods managed to assign the same soil type as in the soil survey map for 55-56% of the basin. Though it is clear that the approaches need to be further improved, they do present, in the authors opinion, potential for the purpose of predicting soil qualitative variables

  19. Hanford Cleanup... Restore the Columbia River Corridor Transition the Central Plateau Prepare and Plan for the End State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State was established during World War II to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. In 1989, Hanford's mission changed to cleanup and closure; today the site is engaged in one of the world's largest and most aggressive programs to clean up radioactive and hazardous wastes. The size and complexity of Hanford's environmental problems are made even more challenging by the overlapping technical, political, regulatory, financial and cultural issues associated with the cleanup. The physical challenges at the Hanford Site are daunting. More than 50 million gallons of liquid radioactive waste in 177 underground storage tanks; 2,300 tons of spent nuclear fuel;12 tons of plutonium in various forms; 25 million cubic feet of buried or stored solid waste; 270 billion gallons of groundwater contaminated above drinking-water standards spread out over about 80 square miles; more than 1,700 waste sites; and approximately 500 contaminated facilities. With a workforce of approximately 7,000 and a budget of about $1.8 billion dollars this fiscal year, Hanford cleanup operations are expected to be complete by 2035, at a cost of $60 billion dollars. (authors)

  20. 内蒙古高原东南缘森林草原交错带土壤动物群落特征%Characteristics of soil fauna community structure in forest-steppe ecotone on Southeastern Inner Mongolia Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立杰; 侯建华; 安哲; 高宝嘉

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of soil fauna community structure in forest-steppe ecotone on Southeastern Inner Mongolia Plateau,the soil fauna communities from 4 different vegetation zones were investigated.A total of 53 722 soil fauna were collected and classified into 6 phyla,11 classes,and 27 orders,respectively.The dominant groups were Coleoptera,Stylommatophora,Microdrile oligochaetes,Collembola and Hymenoptera among macro-soil-fauna; whereas the dominant groups were Collembola and Acarina among soil meso-and micro-fauna; and the dominant group was Rhabditidia among soil animals of wet type.The individual numbers and the group numbers were declining with the transition from the forest zone to the steppe zone,among which forest zone and forest-meadow area had the highest number of groups as well as the meadowsteppe area in the ecotone and forest zone had the highest number of individuals.Besides,there are differences in numbers and compositions of the dominant groups of soil animal in different vegetation zones and significant difference especially in density-group index (DG),Pielou evenness index (J) and Simpson dominance index (C).The individual numbers and group numbers of soil animals in different vegetation zones showed clear surface assembly.The maximum of the group numbers appeared in summer in all the vegetation zones,but the maximum of the individual numbers in forest-meadow zone and forest zone appeared in autumn.There were not only significant seasonal differences in density-group index in different vegetation zones (except in forest zone) but also differences in the composition and abundance of the dominant groups of soil animals in different seasons.%为了解内蒙古高原东南缘森林草原交错带土壤动物群落特征,对这一地区不同植被地带中的土壤动物进行了调查.共捕获土壤动物53 722只,隶属于6门11纲27目(类).大型土壤动物优势类群为鞘翅目、柄眼目、小蚓类、弹尾目和膜翅目,

  1. Hotwater Geochemistry for Interpreting The Condition of Geothermal Reservoir, Dieng Plateau Case, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo Regency, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuris Ramadhan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.158The researched area, located in the Dieng Plateau, is included into the Holocene Dieng Volcanic Rock Unit. The regional structure in this area is originated from the major caldera with local fault having orientation of SE - NW. Surface manifestations found in the researched area are hot springs located in Bitingan, Sileri, Siglagah, Pulosari, Kaliputih, and Sikidang. Fumaroles occur in Candradimuka and Pagerkandang and mud pools are located in Sileri and Sikidang craters. Temperatures of the hot springs ranges from 43 C to 61 C, pH of 6 - 7, and their conductivity are of 38-78 MeV. The type of hotwater is a mixture of bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride sulfate deriving from condensation of steam. Based on a relative composition of Cl-Li-B, the hot water is originated from four different reservoirs with different rock associations, while their reservoir temperatures vary from 225 C to 300 C.

  2. Recent mass balance of the Purogangri Ice Cap, central Tibetan Plateau, by means of differential X-band SAR interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Neckel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to their remoteness, altitude and harsh climatic conditions, little is known about the glaciological parameters of ice caps on the Tibetan Plateau. This study presents a geodetic mass balance estimate of the Purogangri Ice Cap, Tibet's largest ice field between 2000 and 2012. We utilized data from the actual TerraSAR-X mission and its add-on for digital elevation measurements and compared it with elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The employed data sets are ideal for this approach as both data sets were acquired at X-band at nearly the same time of the year and are available at a fine grid spacing. In order to derive surface elevation changes we employed two different methods. The first method is based on differential synthetic radar interferometry while the second method uses common DEM differencing. Both approaches revealed a slightly negative mass budget of −44 ± 15 and −38 ± 23 mm w.eq. a−1 (millimeter water equivalent respectively. A slightly negative trend of −0.15 ± 0.01 km2 a−1 in glacier extent was found for the same time period employing a time series of Landsat data. Overall, our results show an almost balanced mass budget for the studied time period. Additionally, we detected one continuously advancing glacier tongue in the eastern part of the ice cap.

  3. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehler, Kurt [Decommissioning and Demolition, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  4. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  5. Biogeographical affinities and species richness of copronecrophagous beetles (Scarabaeoidea in the southeastern Mexican High Plateau Afinidades biogeográficas y riqueza de especies de escarabajos copronecrófagos (Scarabaeoidea en el sureste del altiplano mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Arriaga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we establish the biogeographical affinities of the Scarabaeoidea dung beetle fauna in the dry southeast of the Mexican Plateau and analyze species diversity and how it changes with site, soil and vegetation type. Beetles were systematically captured in 6 windows in the region between Perote, Veracruz and El Seco, Puebla. A total of 9 species and 960 beetles belonging to Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae and Trogidae were captured. Canthon humectus humectus and Phanaeus quadridens were found in greater abundance in cattle pastures. Trox plicatus is the only species captured in the badlands. The beetle fauna of this landscape is poor owing to a combination of circumstances, mainly the soil, recent volcanic activity and limited food availability. The results obtained are compared with those of 2 other dry landscapes in central Mexico (Metztitlán and Tehuacán. Our landscape shares 50% of its species with Metztitlán and 37.5% with Tehuacán. The species shared between all 3 landscapes are Canthon (B. puncticollis, Onthophagus lecontei and Labarrus pseudolividus. The fauna was characteristic of the southern Mexican Plateau, but poorer in both the number of species and individuals; some species-expected from a biogeographic perspective-were missing.Establecemos las afinidades biogeográficas de los Scarabaeoidea copronecrófagos del sureste seco del altiplano mexicano, así como la diversidad de especies y sus cambios en diferentes sitios, tipos de vegetación y suelos. Se recolectó en 6 diferentes ventanas entre Perote, Veracruz y El Seco, Puebla, obteniéndose un total de 9 especies y 960 individuos de Scarabaeinae, Aphodiinae y Trogidae. Canthon humectus humectus y Phanaeus quadridens fueron más abundantes en las áreas de pastoreo de ganado. Trox plicatus fue la única especie capturada en la zona de malpaís. En conjunto, la fauna de este paisaje es pobre debido a una combinación de circunstancias, principalmente la naturaleza del suelo

  6. Seismic imaging of a convergent continental margin and plateau in the central Andes (Andean Continental Research Project 1996 (ANCORP'96))

    OpenAIRE

    Onno Oncken; Stephan V. Sobolev; Manfred Stiller; Günter Asch; Christian Haberland; James Mechie; Xiaohui Yuan; E. Lüchen; P. Giese; P. Wigger; Stefan Lüth; E. Scheuber; H.-J. Götze; H. Brasse; S. Buske

    2003-01-01

    A 400-km-long seismic reflection profile (Andean Continental Research Project 1996 (ANCORP'96)) and integrated geophysical experiments (wide-angle seismology, passive seismology, gravity, and magnetotelluric depth sounding) across the central Andes (21°S) observed subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American continent. An east dipping reflector (Nazca Reflector) is linked to the down going oceanic crust and shows increasing downdip intensity before gradual breakdown below 80 km. We ...

  7. Surface uplift due to thermo-rheological changes in the crust: The case of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (S Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni; Cassola, Teodoro; Willett, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Late Miocene uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian orogenic plateau (SCAP) can be explained with our proposed surface uplift mechanism. This new model is based on the dynamic interactions between the growth of the Anatolian accretionary subduction margin and thermo-rheological changes at the base of its crust. Our thermo-rheological uplift mechanism fits newly obtained structural data, as well as compiled geological and geophysical data along a 550km-long arc-perpendicular transect. This transect runs between the Cyprian Arc trench and central Turkey through the area of the Anatolian upper-plate with larger uplift, i.e. central south Turkey. Observed deformation patterns and associated vertical motions along this transect indicate distributed shortening in relation to the subduction of the Cyprus slab, which still underlies this area. In the middle sectors of the transect a pre-Miocene basement gently dipping southward underwent regional subsidence since Early Miocene times. After ~8 Ma, surface uplift took place in the area of the future SCAP, as recorded by disruption of marine deposition and the onset of erosion, whereas subsidence persisted to the south of it, in the Cilicia Basin. Overall N-S shortening during this period developed regional contractional structures along the margin: the S-verging Kyrenia thrust system in N Cyprus, the S-dipping thrusts in the center of the Cilicia Basin, and the large-wavelength S-dipping monocline in S Turkey. We tested our proposed mechanism with 2D thermo-mechanically coupled finite elements models. The models demonstrate that sediment accretion and deposition in the central Cyprus accretionary forearc basin system led to crustal thickening of the Anatolian upper-plate, which in turn forced a sedimentary "blanketing" effect. This sedimentary "blanketing" effect controlled the temperature gradient in the crust, with decreased temperatures within the blanket and increased underneath it. Higher temperatures

  8. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgita Lekaviciute; Lubica Argalasova-Sobotova

    2013-01-01

    Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in a...

  9. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Ristovska; Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and N...

  10. Noise and childrens health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology a...

  11. Community response to noise: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jeram; Jurgita Lekaviciute; Zanda Krukle; Lubica Argalasova-Sobotova; Gordana Ristovska; Katarina Paunovic; Malgorzata Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska

    2013-01-01

    The systems of public complaints on environmental noise were reviewed in seven countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). Public complaints remain an important issue due to differences in public sensitivity to noise and due to several cases where a measurement of noise intensity does not give a satisfying solution to the problem. The unresolved problem remaining in the residential neighborhoods is the noise from pubs and restaur...

  12. Concentration and chiral signature of chlordane in soils and sediments of the Central Tibetan Plateau, China: Transformation in the surficial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Ming-Zhe; Sun, Yong; Li, Jun; Han, Peng; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2015-11-01

    The fraction of trans-chlordane (TC) in chlordane was used to indicate racemic degradation while the enantiomer fractions (EFs) indicated enantioselective depletion. In 44 soils of the Central Tibetan Plateau, the fractions of TC ranged from 0.368 to 0.411. The EFs ranged from 0.174 to 0.696 for TC and from 0.483 to 0.672 for cis-chlordane (CC). (-) enantiomer excess (ee) was found to be 80.0% in the soils for TC and (+) ee was 86.5% for CC. The fraction of TC changed with the clay content while the EFs changed with the soil organic carbon. Meanwhile, the fractions of TC and the EFs were determined for the surficial sediments in Yamzhog Yumco Lake, which were compared with those in the soils at its catchment area. The composition and chiral signature of chlordane did not vary between soils and sediments. Our results will help to elucidate the transformation of chlordane in soils and in surficial transport. PMID:26204573

  13. The fractional patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the soil of the central Tibetan Plateau, China: The influence of soil components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen soil samples were collected from the central Tibetan Plateau (CTP). The soil concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in CTP were analyzed. The detected 42 congeners were divided into light, intermediate and heavy fractions. In addition to the various minerals, other soil properties were also characterized, including the content of soil organic carbon (SOC) and the particle size distribution. The clay content is positively related to the intermediate fraction of the PBDEs and negatively related to the light and heavy fractions. Similar correlations were observed for SOC and the fine-particle fraction (size 2) associated with a linear regression indicated that the clays were more highly correlated with the fractional pattern of the PBDEs than with the other properties, such as SOC and the fine-particle fraction. The values of r2 between clays and three fractions of PBDEs are 0.70, 0.69 and 0.58. Highlights: ► All data about soil and PBDEs were based on field data rather than experiments. ► The intermediate fraction of PBDEs increased with increases in the clay content. ► The clays were more strongly correlated with PBDEs fractional patterns than SOC. - Certain minerals, such as clays, have a greater impact on the adsorption of POPs than SOC in certain areas.

  14. Ecomorphology and diet reflect the spatial segregation between two Siluriformes species inhabiting a stream of the Bodoquena Plateau, in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Severo-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pimelodella taenioptera Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 and Imparfinis schubarti (Gomes, 1956 are two of the most common fish species in Bodoquena Plateau streams, Paraguay basin. These species have benthic habits and subaquatical observations suggested that they present differentiation in their preference for mesohabitat types. Pimelodella taenioptera shows preference for slow waters, such as pools, while I. schubarti is associated to riffles. In this study we investigated if the known patterns of mesohabitat use of P. taenioptera and I. schubarti can be predict by their ecomorphological and trophic traits. We described the dietary habits and ecomorphological attributes of P. taenioptera and I. schubarti individuals, captured in the Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena (PNSB, Mato Grosso do Sul state, central Brazil. Pimelodella taenioptera presented a more generalist diet, consuming a total of 23 different food items. Imparfinis schubarti have a diet based exclusively on aquatic insects. The ecomorphological analysis revealed that the species differed in relation to five morphological traits associated to habitat use (p <0.01. The results of this study reveal a clear functional dissimilarity between P. taenioptera and I. shubarti. The observed trophic and ecomorphological patterns are congruent with the known habitat use for these species and probably reflect the spatial and temporal variability on conditions and resources present in riffles and pools. Therefore, as expected, the morphological and feeding attributes represent predictive information related to mesohabitat use.

  15. Trace element fluxes and natural potential risks from 210Pb-dated sediment cores in lacustrine environments at the Central Mexican Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros-Cuadras, J F; Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Pérez-Bernal, L H; Sericano, J L; Preda, M; Wee Kwong, L Liong; Páez-Osuna, F

    2014-01-15

    The accumulation, enrichment and provenance of selected trace metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were studied in sediment cores collected from three lakes located in the Central Mexican Plateau, selected on the basis of their contrasting degree of urbanization: Santa Elena Lake, in a rural and remote area; El Tule Lake, in a rural and slightly urbanized area; and Chapala Lake, in a highly urbanized area. Grain size, magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary constituents such as organic carbon, calcium carbonate, as well as major (Al, Fe, Mn) and minor (Ca, Li, Rb, Sr, Th) elements were analyzed to explain the concentration trends of trace metals. Factor analysis (FA) was used to assess the provenance of the trace elements. The highest metal enrichment factor (EF) above natural concentration levels was found at Chapala Lake for Ag (EF = 3.9), although other trace element EF in all lakes was lakes, Hg and Zn in Chapala Lake, Cu in El Tule Lake and As in Santa Elena Lake were above international benchmarks for which adverse effects are expected to occur frequently, even for those metals only slightly enriched (e.g. As, Cr). Through FA, the terrigenous contribution was identified as the most important source of trace metals to the three lakes, most likely related to deforestation and erosion of the surrounding areas, followed by atmospheric transport of volcanic ashes, rather than to direct sources. PMID:24061059

  16. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  17. "The Higher the Satellite, the Lower the Culture"? African American Studies in East-Central and Southeastern Europe: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Antoszek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the current position of African American studies in Poland, with Poland serving as an exemplar of similar changes taking place in other countries of East-Central and Southeastern Europe. In doing so, the paper highlights the nature of cultural representations or appropriations of blackness outside the United States, which, removed from their roots, start living their own independent lives. The omnipresence of hip-hop, basketball, and, to a lesser extent, black movies and literature has a direct influence on many cultures in which blackness is assigned a superior status. The foundations of this elevated position are often sustained by popular culture's hunger for the new and flashy, which grants the new forms a very peculiar and simulacral character. However, the paper recognizes that the far-reaching appeal of many black voices would likely be impossible without the aid of global channels of communication. The paper also examines a number of examples of black culture translated into and appropriated by various indigenous productions. It does so not only to show the somewhat naïve and even humorous aspects of many such "trans-nations" but also to demonstrate black culture's inspiring role for various local voices.

  18. Perception and research of soil erosion by water until the mid-20th century - examples from central Europe and south-eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterweich, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, many phases of agricultural expansion and regression occurred with associated land clearance and reforestation. As a result, soil has been washed downslope by soil erosion and gullies have incised, leading to the development of colluvial and alluvial deposits in many areas worldwide. While an increasing number of studies on past soil erosion shows significant loss of soil as an effect of human activity and extreme rainfall events, only little is known about the knock-on effects on soil fertility, possibly triggering crop failures and land abandonment until the beginning of the coordinated research programmes on soil conservation. Based on historical documents and literature reviews this paper gives examples on how soil erosion had been perceived previously by farmers, land owners, researches, and policy makers in central Europe and south-eastern USA. It presents different types of problem solving strategies and their long term efficiency - a helpful tool to evaluate the long term effects of current soil conservation practices under changing climatic conditions and increasing land use pressure.

  19. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    OpenAIRE

    L′ubica Argalášová-Sobotová; Jurgita Lekaviciute; Sonja Jeram; L′udmila Ševcíková; Jana Jurkovicová

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 ...

  20. High-Pressure Eclogite-Blueschist Metamorphic Belt and Closure of Paleo-Tethys Ocean in Central Qiangtang, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Cai; Zhai Qingguo; Dong Yongsheng; Liu Shen; Xie Chaoming; Wu Yanwang

    2009-01-01

    The high-pressure metamorphic belt (HPMB) of eciogite-blueschist in Central Qiangtang (羌塘) lies in the Longmu Co (龙木错)-Shuanghu (双湖) suture zone. To the west, the HPMB extends 500 km from Hongjishan (红脊山) to Caiduochaka (才多茶卡), east of Shuanghu; to the east it extends to Baqing (巴青) and Jitang (吉塘) in Qamdo (昌都), and then bends southward to Yunnan (云南)Province. Including the Lancangjiang (澜沧江) blueschist belt, the entire HPMB is about 2 000 km long. In Central Qiangtang, the belt is mainly composed of blueschist and eclogite, whereas in West Yunnan it contains only blueschist. The Baqing-Jitang segment is dominated by garnet phengite schist. 40Ar-39Ar dating of giaucophane and phengite from the blueschists yielded plateau ages ranging from 223 to 215 Ma, whereas SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from the eclogites gives metamorphic ages of 243-217 Ma. The calculated metamorphic conditions for the blueschists are 410-460℃ and 0.67-0.75 GPa, and for the eclogites, <500 ℃ and 1.56-2.35 GPa. The metamorphic ages suggest that the Longmu Co-Shuanghu suture closed in the Late Triassic. The region south of the Longmu Co-Shuanghu-Laneang suture consists of the pan-African basement overlain by Gondwana sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks, whereas the region north of the suture is dominated by the Jinning (晋宁) basement and Yangtze sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. The Qiangtang HPMB marks the closure of the paleo-Tethys Ocean.

  1. The Tonalá fault in southeastern Mexico: Evidence that the Central America forearc sliver is not being detached?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.; Molina-Garza, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Tonalá fault is a NW-SE oriented feature that flanks the Chiapas Massif on its southwestern side. Several authors coincide that the fault originally developed as a right-lateral structure in the Jurassic, but was reactivated as a left-lateral fault in the Miocene. Seismicity along the fault is low: Only one earthquake with magnitude 5.0 or larger is reported along the Tonalá fault in the years 1964 to present. Fault-plane solutions determined by the Mexican Seismological Survey for earthquakes along the fault show left-lateral, strike-slip faulting. The Tonalá fault lies on the northwestern continuation of the Central America volcanic arc. The volcanic arc is the site of medium-sized (magnitudes up to 6.5) shallow, right-lateral, strike-slip earthquakes. This has led several workers to propose that the forearc sliver is being detached from the Caribbean plate along the arc, moving northward. GPS studies have confirmed relative motion between the Chortis block and the forearc sliver. Recent and current motion along the Tonalá fault is in contradiction with motion and detachment of the forearc sliver along the Central America volcanic arc. Left-lateral motion along it cannot accomodate northwest displacement of the forearc sliver. Motion of the Central America forearc would require NW directed compression between the continental shelf of Chiapas and the forearc itself, which is not observed. Therefore, either another fault (or faults) accomodates right-lateral motion and detachment of the forearc sliver, or the sliver is not being detached and relative motion between the forearc sliver and the Chortis block corresponds to displacement of the latter. We suggest that, as proposed by previous authors, the Tonalá fault is instead part of a fault system that runs from the state of Oaxaca (the Valle Nacional fault), forming an arc concave to the northeast, and running perpendicular to the maximum slope of subduction in the area.

  2. Interannual variation of mid-summer heavy rainfall in the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingwen; Li, Yueqing; Yang, Song; Shu, Jianchuan; He, Guangbi

    2015-12-01

    Heavy rainfall (HR) often hits the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau (EETP) and causes severe flood and landslide in summer, especially in July. In this study, the authors investigate the interannual variation of July HR events and its possible causes. The maximum number of days with HR in July is located at the EETP in China. It is significantly and negatively correlated with the rainfall in southeastern China. More HR events are accompanied by an anomalous lower-tropospheric anticyclone over southeastern China, a westward movement of the western North Pacific subtropical high, and enhanced rainfall in the Maritime Continent (MC). The MC convection exerts a significant impact on the variation of HR events over EETP. Results from analyses of observations and numerical simulations indicate that the convective heating over the MC induces an anomalous anticyclone over southeastern China and the Ekman pumping effect and circulation-convection feedback play vital roles in the process. The high correlation between the HR events over EETP and the equatorial central Pacific SST depends on the relationship between the MC convection and the equatorial central Pacific SST. The relationship is asymmetric, and only the warm SST anomaly in the equatorial central Pacific is accompanied by fewer HR events over the EETP.

  3. Hidden sinkholes and karst cavities in the travertine plateau of a highly-populated geothermal seismic territory (Tivoli, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billi, Andrea; De Filippis, Luigi; Poncia, Pier Paolo; Sella, Pio; Faccenna, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Sinkholes and other karst structures in settled carbonate lands can be a significant source of hazard for humans and human works. Acque Albule, the study area of this work, is a Plio-Pleistocene basin near Rome, central Italy, superficially filled by a large and thick deposit of late Pleistocene thermogene travertine. Human activities blanket large portions of the flat territory covering most evidence from geological surface processes and potentially inducing scientists and public officials to underestimate some natural hazards including those connected with sinkholes. To contribute to the proper assessment of these hazards, a geomorphologic study of the basin was performed using digital elevation models (DEMs), recent aerial photographs, and field surveys. Historical material such as old aerial photographs and past geomorphologic studies both pre-dating the most part of quarrying and village building was also used together with memories of the elderly population. This preliminary study pointed out the presence of numerous potentially active sinkholes that are at present largely masked by either quarrying or overbuilding. Where this first study pointed out the apparent absence of sinkholes in areas characterized by high density of buildings, a detailed subsurface study was performed using properly-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and dynamic penetration measurements (DPSH), together with some borehole logs made available from the local municipality. This second study highlighted the presence of sinkholes and caves that are, this time, substantially hidden to the resolution of standard methods and materials such as aerial photographs, DEMs, and field surveys. Active sinkhole subsidence in the Acque Albule Basin may explain, at least in part, the frequent damages that affect numerous buildings in the area. The main conclusion from this study is that the mitigation of sinkhole hazard in highly populated areas has to pass through a thorough search of

  4. Trace elements and radioactivity measurements in some terrestrial food crops in Jos-plateau, north central, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some crops of important nutritive requirements have been collected from farmlands located in Bitsichi an old tin mining town in north central region of Nigeria. The food crops were analyzed in order to determine trace element concentrations level using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The activity concentrations due to natural radionuclides in the food samples and soil samples collected within the root zone of the crops were also determined using gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). The NAA results obtained showed higher concentration of Potassium among the essential elements in all the crops. Calcium concentration in both maize and Guinea corn was below detection limit and also Zn in Green beans, sweet potato and cassava. The trace elements; Sc, Hf, Sm, and Th, were below detection limit in all the crops except in Green beans. Rubidium (Rb) and lanthanum (La) were below detection limits only in Cabbage. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the food samples were found to vary between 83 and 129 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 19 and 30 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 27 to 41 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. In the soil samples the activity concentrations varied between 177 and 271 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 53 and 96 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 73 to 176 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. Results of activity concentration levels of the radionuclides obtained in similar crops collected for control measurements were found to be very low compared to those from the study area. The effective dose due to intake of the food crops considered in the study area was estimated based on the measured activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th in the food crops. It was found to vary between 0.01 mSv y-1 (Acha) and 1.35 mSv y-1 (Cassava) with a cumulative total dose estimated as 2.5 mSv y-1. The mining activities in the area are seen to have 1 influenced the concentration of these trace elements and radionuclides in the food I crops. However, they are seen not to pose any serious internal health burden due to ingestion given the

  5. Comunidades da nova era no Planalto Central: utopia, ideologia e reafirmação da ordem New Age communities in the Central Plateau: utopia, ideology and reafirmation of order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aico Sipriano Nogueira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a constituição de uma comunidade alternativa no planalto central do Brasil, a partir do que se convencionou chamar de "novas formas contemporâneas de sociabilidade". Através de uma discussão teórico-conceitual sobre comunidade, comunidade utópica, mito, ideologia, utopia e imaginário, o texto sugere a possibilidade de se pensar a idéia de alternativa ao sistema social vigente enquanto expressão, ao mesmo tempo, do pensamento conservador e da possibilidade de construção do novo.This article analyses the constitution of an alternative community in the central plateau of Brazil, based on what has been called 'new contemporary forms of sociability'.Using a theoretical-conceptual discussion on community, utopian community, myth, ideology, utopia and imaginary, the text suggests the possibility of taking the idea of alternative to the present social system as an expression, along with conservative thought and the possibility of the construction of the new.

  6. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  7. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in accessible databases, scientific journals, conference proceedings, international and national reports in English and other languages, the authors identified 29 papers to be included to this review: 24 papers related to annoyance due to road traffic noise and 5 papers related to annoyance from other noise sources. In most of the identified studies, a cross-sectional design prevailed and the evaluations were mainly performed subjectively. The lack of recent annoyance studies related to railway and aircraft traffic noise was identified. Only two studies from NIS countries used noise exposure data for the evaluation of population annoyance according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END. Capacity building in CEE, SEE, and NIS countries is necessary to acquire the "know-how" on how to implement and use the different scenarios for evaluating population annoyance by environmental noise, depending on the availability and suitability of noise exposure data. Particular attention should be given to the possible use of END noise exposure data, where applicable.

  8. Community response to noise: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeram, Sonja; Lekaviciute, Jurgita; Krukle, Zanda; Argalasova-Sobotova, Lubica; Ristovska, Gordana; Paunovic, Katarina; Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The systems of public complaints on environmental noise were reviewed in seven countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). Public complaints remain an important issue due to differences in public sensitivity to noise and due to several cases where a measurement of noise intensity does not give a satisfying solution to the problem. The unresolved problem remaining in the residential neighborhoods is the noise from pubs and restaurants that are open until late in the night. In our review, we compiled information on the institutions responsible for the implementation of environmental noise legislation and organizations that are responsible for dealing with public complaints. Information on activities for increasing public awareness on hazards rising from environmental noise and the role of civil initiative was explored. In seven countries, and among them, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, and Poland, the responsibilities and duties are shared among different institutions at national and regional levels, depending on the noise source. The problem of gathering information on complaints and using it for improving the wellbeing and health of citizens remains often difficult and unsolved. PMID:23412576

  9. Community response to noise: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jeram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The systems of public complaints on environmental noise were reviewed in seven countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. Public complaints remain an important issue due to differences in public sensitivity to noise and due to several cases where a measurement of noise intensity does not give a satisfying solution to the problem. The unresolved problem remaining in the residential neighborhoods is the noise from pubs and restaurants that are open until late in the night. In our review, we compiled information on the institutions responsible for the implementation of environmental noise legislation and organizations that are responsible for dealing with public complaints. Information on activities for increasing public awareness on hazards rising from environmental noise and the role of civil initiative was explored. In seven countries, and among them, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, and Poland, the responsibilities and duties are shared among different institutions at national and regional levels, depending on the noise source. The problem of gathering information on complaints and using it for improving the wellbeing and health of citizens remains often difficult and unsolved.

  10. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  11. The Early Miocene-Early Pliocene Vegetation and Climate Changes at the north to northwest Çankırı -Çorum Basin (Central Anatolian Plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalar, Müge; Kováčová, Marianna; Sezgül Kayseri Ozer, Mine; Utescher, Torsten; Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cosentino, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    The ALErT project targets on climate and tectonic hazards in the densely populated regions in the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP), within the framework of the Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN program, The CAP extends in a wide area in between zone the Aegean extensional zone and Bitlis /Zagros compressional zone. Çankırı Basin (in the middle CAP) is a key to understand aridification plateau interior and it was a deep pelagic Basin from Late Cretaceous -Early Tertiary as a result of the closure of Neo- Tethyan till the Middle Eocene. North to south of the Çankırı Basin; the Plio - Quaternary Deǧim formation (fluvial deposits) consist of massive mudstones and sandstones and it unconformable overlies the Bozkır formation (lacustrine deposits). That is a Messinian succession mainly by a 200 m-thick cyclic sequence of continental gypsum layers, clays and sandy clays in gypsum with different thicknesses crops. Bozkır formation, the lower being the contact with the Süleymanlı formation. It is overlay the Tuǧlu formation with uncomformably, which is an Upper Miocene succession mainly composed of dark grey silty and organic rich clays. Following formation, which outcrops in the northwest of Çankırı basin, is Hançili formation. The unit is covered by grey sediments of the Hançili Formation, showing alternations of channel sandstones and clay stones over 100 m thick in Early - Middle Miocene in the Çankırı basin. In this study, samples were analyzed for biotic proxy data (palynology) to figure the paleo-environmental and paleoclimate changes. Additionally only for Bozkir formation (longest section in the study area) were sampled for geochemical (δ18O - δ13C isotopes analyses and CaCO3) analysis and the rest of the formations were interpreted using the previous study. In the most pollen spectra the herbs and shrubs prevail: in Deǧim formation (50%), in Bozkır formation (75%), in Süleymanlı formation (47%), in Tuǧlu formation (60%) and in Han

  12. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We analyzeds streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for or ganochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB). Our objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. We detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was ΣDDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and Σchlordane (sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor oxychlordane, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide). Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, ΣDDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although ΣDDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, our study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  13. Description of Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil of the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Javier; González, Ignacio; Estévez, Mar; Benito, Patricia; Trujillo, Martha E; Genilloud, Olga

    2016-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain F-240,109(T) from the MEDINA collection was isolated from a soil sample collected in the forest of Pama, on the plateau of Bangui, Central African Republic. The strain was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Kibdelosporangium, being closely related to Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. aridum (98.6 % sequence similarity), Kibledosporangium phytohabitans (98.3 %), Kibdelosporangium aridum subsp. largum (97.7 %), Kibdelosporangium philippinense (97.6 %) and Kibledosporangium lantanae (96.9 %). In order to resolve its precise taxonomic status, the strain was characterised through a polyphasic approach. The strain is a Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile and catalase-positive actinomycete characterised by formation of extensively branched substrate mycelia and sparse brownish grey aerial mycelia with sporangium-like globular structures. The chemotaxonomic characterisation of strain F-240,109(T) corroborated its affiliation into the genus Kibdelosporangium. The peptidoglycan contains meso-diaminopimelic acid; the major menaquinone is MK-9(H4); the phospholipid profile contains high amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid; and the predominant cellular fatty acid methyl esters are iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0 and 2OH iso-C16:0. However, some key phenotypic differences regarding to its close relatives and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicate that strain F-240,109(T) represents a novel Kibdelosporangium species, for which the name Kibdelosporangium banguiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain F-240,109(T) (=DSM 46670(T), =LMG 28181(T)). PMID:26936255

  14. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  15. Trace and rare-earth element geochemistry: A tool for petrogenetic and geotectonic modeling of ensi-matic ortho-amphibolites from Pan-African belt of Obudu Plateau, Southeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ukaegbu V.U.; Beka F.T.

    2009-01-01

    A model for the petrogenetic affinity and original geotectonic setting of ortho-amphibolites from the Obudu Plateau was tested using the distribution patterns of trace and rare-earth elements from the geochemical analyses of twelve representative amphibolite samples. Discrimination plots, normalized patterns of the incompatible trace elements against average MORB, low ratios of Ba/Nb (9-23) and Ba/Ta (130-327) and other geochemical characteristics suggest that the protoliths were dominantly of tholeiitic MORB composition. The values of the ratios of La/Ta (8.13-10.8), Rb/Sr (0.044).07), Th/U (mainly 4.43-5.43) and Hf/Ta (2.35-2.88) further indicate that the ortho-amphibolites demonstrate E-type MORB characteristics. These features are related to substantial ocean floor divergent tectonic boundary setting rather than marginal basin tectonic setting. This evolutionary pattern appears to be controlled by limited progressive partial melting and fractional crystallization of a single mantle source region, irrespective, however, of variations due to local source heterogeneities. The tholeiitic magmas were most probably generated by hotspot activities on the constructive plate margins and subsequently modified by subduction-related low-K tholeiitic chemistry due to narrowing of a proto oceanic basin between the West African craton and eastern Sahara plate. A likely model, therefore, is that the amphibolites of the Obudu Plateau represent ophiolitic suites with characteristics of enriched mid-ocean floor tholeiites, which were deformed and metamorphosed during a reversed plate motion involving subduction and collision within the Obudu Plateau in the Pan-African orogenic episode.

  16. Decadal-scale Climate Variability on the Central Iranian Plateau Spanning the So-called 4.2 ka BP Drought Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolin, S.; Walker, R. T.; Henderson, G. M.; Maxfield, L.; Ersek, V.; Sloan, A.; Talebian, M.; Fattahi, M.; Nezamdoust, J.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of climate on the growth and development of ancient civilizations throughout the Holocene remains a topic of heated debate. The 4.2 ka BP global-scale mid-to-low latitude aridification event (Walker et al., 2012) in particular has incited various correlation proposals. Some authors suggest that this event may have led to the collapse of the Akkadian empire in Mesopotamia, one of the first empires in human history, as well as to changes among other Early Bronze Age societies dependent on cereal agriculture (eg. Staubwasser and Weiss, 2006). Other authors remain doubtful of the impact of environmental factors on the collapse of past societies (eg. Middleton, 2012). While coincident timing of an environmental event with archeological evidence does not necessitate a causation, a comprehensive understanding of climate variability in the ancient Near East is nonetheless an essential component to resolving the full history of early human settlements. Paleoclimate data on the Central Iranian Plateau, a region rich with ancient history, is exceptionally sparse compared to other areas. Many karst locations are found throughout the region, however, setting the stage for the development of several high-resolution, accurate and precisely-dated climate proxy records if a correlation between the chemistry of semi-arid speleothem samples and climate is resolved. Here we present a 5.1-3.7 ka BP record of decadal-scale stalagmite stable isotope and trace metal variability. The stalagmite was collected in Gol-e zard cave (35.8oN, 52.0oE), ~100 km NE of Tehran on the southern flank of the Alborz mountain range (2530masl). The area currently receives ~270mm mean annual precipitation, with more than 90% of precipitation falling within the wet season (November-May). We use GNIP data from Tehran and local and regional meteorological data to resolve the large-scale mechanisms forcing isotopic variations in rainwater over Gol-e zard cave. We discuss possible transformation of

  17. A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.

    2003-01-01

    This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this

  18. Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

    1987-05-01

    The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

  19. Crustal and Upper Mantle Investigations Using Receiver Functions and Tomographic Inversion in the Southern Puna Plateau Region of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, B.; Yuan, X.; Bianchi, M.; Jakovlev, A.; Kumar, P.; Kay, S. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Alonso, R.; Coira, B.; Comte, D.; Brown, L. D.; Kind, R.

    2011-12-01

    We present here the results obtained using the data form our passive seismic array in the southern Puna plateau between 25°S to 28°S latitude in Argentina and Chile. In first instance we have been able to calculate P and S receiver functions in order to investigate the Moho thickness and other seismic discontinuities in the study area. The RF data shows that the northern Puna plateau has a thicker crust and that the Moho topography is more irregular along strike. The seismic structure and thickness of the continental crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Puna plateau reveals that the LAB is deeper to the north of the array suggesting lithospheric removal towards the south. Later we performed a joint inversion of teleseismic and regional tomographic data in order to study the distribution of velocity anomalies that could help us to better understand the evolution of the Andean elevated plateau and the role of lithosphere-asthenosphere interactions in this region. Low velocities are observed in correlation with young volcanic centers (e.g. Ojos del Salado, Cerro Blanco, Galan) and agree very well with the position of crustal lineaments in the region. This is suggesting a close relationship between magmatism and lithospheric structures at crustal scale coniciding with the presence of hot asthenospheric material at the base of the crust probably induced by lithospheric foundering.

  20. Regionalization of Tibetan Plateau precipitation and its relation to the Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, J. L.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    Many paleoclimate records from the Tibetan Plateau link past changes in local precipitation to Southwest (SW, or Indian) and East (E) Asian Monsoon variability. However, few of these records are correlated with instrumental records of local or regional monsoon variability. And, although the majority of Tibetan precipitation occurs in the summer months, a dearth of station data limits the connection of instrumental precipitation variability across Tibet to the Asian Monsoon regimes. To properly interpret proxy climate records, a quantitative understanding of Asian Monsoon influences on the Tibetan Plateau is required. With this goal in mind, we investigated precipitation variability across the Tibetan Plateau using monthly gridded merged precipitation (CMAP) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) datasets to quantify the relationship between summer precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau and the SW and E Asian Monsoons. Average summer OLR and precipitation are significantly correlated at the 95% confidence level between southwest, northwest, southeast Tibet and the central Himalayas, but average summer OLR and precipitation in northeast Tibet is only significantly correlated with OLR and precipitation in southeastern Tibet. OLR over the central Himalayas, southwest Tibet, and northwest Tibet correlates at the 95% confidence level with the Indian Monsoon Index, and precipitation in the central Himalayas correlates at the 95% confidence level with the Webster-Yang Index of SW Monsoon variability. OLR and precipitation over the central Himalayas, southwest Tibet, and northwest Tibet also significantly correlate with OLR and precipitation over India, as well as surface wind speed, 850 mb zonal, and 850 mb meridional wind speeds over the southwest Arabian Sea. These significant correlations indicate precipitation variability over western Tibet and the central Himalayas is related to SW Asian Monsoon variability. Correlations between southeastern and northeastern Tibet OLR

  1. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoirs to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas consists of a thick (>450 m) and deeply buried (>1 km) succession of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group strata (dolomite) overlain by Lower Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous-age carbonate, chert, and shale. The Arbuckle Group is a thick widespread saline aquifer in southern Kansas. A 500 meter core of the OPAS interval and immediate overlying Pennsylvanian shale caprock were cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, a nearly depleted oil field in Sumner County, in south-central Kansas. An exhaustive set of modern logs were run in the KGS #1-32 well including chemical, microresistivity imaging, dipole sonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and standard porosity and resistivity wireline logs. In addition, routine and special core analyses provide vital means to calibrate these logs. Core also provide vital chemical analyses and rock samples to run flow experiments, including in situ conditions, to establish reaction kinetics of rock and connate brines with CO2. Core and logs also provide the means to calibrate a 26 km2 multicomponent 3D seismic survey that was acquired in Wellington Field in 2010. Studies of four oil fields, also part of this project, are underway in southwestern Kansas to provide additional calibration points for the western part of the regional study that covers 65,000 km2 where CO2 sequestration capacity will be measured. Several hundred deep wells have been identified to serve as type wells in the regional study area. Well logs and sample descriptions are being digitized, correlated, and mapped to define distribution of aquifers, oil reservoirs, and caprocks. Drill stem test data have been analyzed for deep wells to establish that the Arbuckle is an open aquifer connected to surface exposures 100s of km to east in central Missouri. Over 500 km2 of 3D seismic have been donated by industrial partners to aid in understanding fault and fracture

  2. Recent regional shortening in the interior of the orogenic Puna Plateau of the southern central Andes: New InSAR observations from the Salar de Pocitos, Salta, NW Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelmann, Felix; Motagh, Mahdi; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred; Freymark, Jessica; Bekeschus, Benjamin; Alonso, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    The Altiplano-Puna Plateau of the southern central Andes, with an average elevation of about 3.5 km and an area of 500,000 km2, is the world's second highest plateau after the Tibetan plateau. The southern sector of the plateau, the Argentine Puna, is characterized by a pattern of basement-cored ranges with the highest peaks above 6000 m asl and intervening Cenozoic sedimentary basins. Most of the ranges have a nearly N-S trend and enclose the sedimentary basins which exhibit internal drainage and several km-thick continental evaporate and clastic deposits. Like its Cenozoic counterparts this plateau is thought to be characterized by active extension, which superseded contractile deformation in the late Miocene. Often, extensional structures are associated with mafic volcanism. In contrast, the plateau flanks are subjected to sustained contraction and a migration of deformation toward the foreland. Here, we present new Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements based on ENVISAT and ERS data to document that the southern central part of the Puna is still dominated by contraction, despite widespread evidence for extensional tectonism. We report a time series of InSAR from the Salar de Pocitos basin spanning about seven years (ENVISAT from 2005 to 2009; ERS from 2002 to 2009). The basin is located at approximately 24.5° S, 67° W, with a minimum elevation of 3650 m asl. In this region, the transition from regional shortening to horizontal extension associated with mafic volcanism is generally assumed to have taken place quite rapidly between 7 and 5 Ma. The Pocitos basin forms a N-S orientated, salt-bearing, hydrologically-isolated basin with a surface area of 435 Km2. To the west, it is bounded by an anticline involving Tertiary and Quaternary sediments; to the east it is bounded by a reverse-faulted range. Late Miocene volcanic edifices delimit the basin to the north, whereas structural blocks close it to the south. The Tertiary and Quaternary

  3. Soil water storage and groundwater behaviour in a catenary sequence beneath forest in central Amazonia: I. Comparisons between plateau, slope and valley floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hodnett

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water storage was monitored in three landscape elements in the forest (plateau, slope and valley floor over a 3 year period to identify differences in sub-surface hydrological response. Under the plateau and slope, the changes of storage were very similar and there was no indication of surface runoff on the slope. The mean maximum seasonal storage change was 156 mm in the 2 m profile but it was clear that, in the dry season, the forest was able to take up water from below 3.6 m. Soil water availability was low. Soil water storage changes in the valley were dominated by the behaviour of a shallow water table which, in normal years, varied between 0.1 m below the surface at the end of the wet season and 0.8 m at the end of the dry season. Soil water storage changes were small because root uptake was largely replenished by groundwater flow towards the stream. The groundwater behaviour is controlled mainly by the deep drainage from beneath the plateau and slope areas. The groundwater gradient beneath the slope indicated that recharge beneath the plateau and slope commences only after the soil water deficits from the previous dry season have been replenished. Following a wet season with little recharge, the water table fell, ceasing to influence the valley soil water storage, and the stream dried up. The plateau and slope, a zone of very high porosity between 0.4 and 1.1 m, underlain by a less conductive layer, is a probable route for interflow during, and for a few hours after, heavy and prolonged rainfall.

  4. Ecomorphology and diet reflect the spatial segregation between two Siluriformes species inhabiting a stream of the Bodoquena Plateau, in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Severo-Neto; Fabrício B. Teresa; Otávio Froehlich

    2015-01-01

    Pimelodella taenioptera Miranda Ribeiro, 1914 and Imparfinis schubarti (Gomes, 1956) are two of the most common fish species in Bodoquena Plateau streams, Paraguay basin. These species have benthic habits and subaquatical observations suggested that they present differentiation in their preference for mesohabitat types. Pimelodella taenioptera shows preference for slow waters, such as pools, while I. schubarti is associated to riffles. In this study we investigated if the known patterns of me...

  5. A model of karst systems of the Usturt plateau (Middle Asia); Un modelo de sistemas karsticos de la meseta Usturt (Asia central)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorov, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The issues relating to the structure and development of desert karst is currently one of the least studied problems. The goal of the research efforts presented in this paper was to create a model of karst systems in the Usturt Plateau and, primarily, of the systems formed by the prevailing numerous surface karst landforms. The model is based on the following main assumptions: the process of emergence of the karst phenomena is probabilistic and occurs independently at non-intersecting sites; the probability of emergence of one depression at a reference site depends only on its area. The increase of the dimensions of a karst landform is a random process that occurs independently of other karst landforms, its speed is governed by random factors, and it is directly proportionate to the existing dimensions of the landform. The model does not assume constancy of climatic characteristics. The testing was conducted at several reference sites of the Usturt Plateau. The research allowed us to reach the following conclusions: the karst depressions of the Usturt Plateau, which are the typical forms of desert karst, are governed by the Poisson distribution of their centres and by the lognormal distribution of their dimensions, similar to the karst depressions in a humid climate. The results may be used in assessments of karst hazard for linear and areal structures, as well as for small-dimensional structures. (Author)

  6. Changes in extreme temperature and precipitation events in the Loess Plateau (China) during 1960-2013 under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyi; Mu, Xingmin; Song, Xiaoyan; Wu, Dan; Cheng, Aifang; Qiu, Bing

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, extreme climatic events have been a major issue worldwide. Regional assessments on various climates and geographic regions are needed for understanding uncertainties in extreme events' responses to global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the annual and decadal trends in 12 extreme temperature and 10 extreme precipitation indices in terms of intensity, frequency, and duration over the Loess Plateau during 1960-2013. The results indicated that the regionally averaged trends in temperature extremes were consistent with global warming. The occurrence of warm extremes, including summer days (SU), tropical nights (TR), warm days (TX90), and nights (TN90) and a warm spell duration indicator (WSDI), increased by 2.76 (P changes in SDII and CDD occurred in central and southeastern Loess Plateau. However, the changes in days of erosive rainfall, heavy rain, rainstorm, maximum 5-day precipitation, and very-wet-day and extremely wet-day precipitation were not significant. Large-scale atmospheric circulation indices, such as the Western Pacific Subtropical High Intensity Index (WPSHII) and Arctic Oscillation (AO), strongly influences warm/cold extremes and contributes significantly to climate changes in the Loess Plateau. The enhanced geopotential height over the Eurasian continent and increase in water vapor divergence in the rainy season have contributed to the changes of the rapid warming and consecutive drying in the Loess Plateau.

  7. New Sm/Nd and U/Pb geochronological constraints of the Archean to neoproterozoic evolution of the Amparo basement complex of the Central Ribeira Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amparo Basement Complex is a distinctive collage of migmatitic tronjhemitetonalite- granodiorite (TTG) orthogneisses that represents the older basement exposures within the Central Ribeira Belt, a Late Neoproterozoic (ca. 600 Ma) collisional belt in southeastern Brazil. These basement gneisses are overlain by Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences, and intruded by Neoproterozoic collisional granitoids. Pioneering Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb and K/Ar geochronological studies of the Amparo Complex, e.g. (Wernick et al., 1981; Wernick and Oliveira, 1986; Arthur, 1988; Tassinari, 1988; Campos Neto, 1991) provided some initial insights into the antiquity and geologic evolution of the complex, but little about the crustal evolution of the constituent gneisses. Furthermore, the susceptibility of these systems to partial isotopic resetting, left some doubt about the timing and true number of geologic events recorded by these polydeformed rocks. Recent Sm/Nd whole rock (Dantas et al., 2000) and new U/Pb single crystal zircon and monazite data obtained from the Amparo Complex, however, now furnish information on the crustal growth history of the basement and provide precise age constraints on the timing of events related to the geologic evolution of the complex. Based on these new data, it appears that the oldest rocks within the complex are polymigmatized tronjhemitic gneisses located near the town of Amparo. The oldest phase of this migmatite yields a U/Pb zircon age of 3,024 +/- 9 Ma. Sm/Nd data from this locale yields a Nd T(DM) model age of 3.28 Ga suggesting that the genesis of this crustal unit involved some input from yet older crust. Data from banded tonalitic gneisses collected ca. 50 km south of Amparo indicate that subsequent Archean crustal growth around the older core occurred around 2.77 Ga (U/Pb zircon age of 2,772 +/- 26 Ma. A Nd T(DM) model age of 3.02 Ga obtained from these tonalites also indicate enrichment from older crustal sources during their

  8. Demography and speciation history of the homoploid hybrid pine Pinus densata on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Baosheng; Mao, Jian-Feng; Ingvarsson, Pär; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2012-10-01

    Pinus densata is an ecologically successful homoploid hybrid that inhabits vast areas of heterogeneous terrain on the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau as a result of multiple waves of colonization. Its region of origin, route of colonization onto the plateau and the directions of introgression with its parental species have previously been defined, but little is known about the isolation and divergence history of its populations. In this study, we surveyed nucleotide polymorphism over eight nuclear loci in 19 representative populations of P. densata and its parental species. Using this information and coalescence simulations, we assessed the historical changes in its population size, gene flow and divergence in time and space. The results indicate a late Miocene origin for P. densata associated with the recent uplift of south-eastern Tibet. The subsequent differentiation between geographical regions of this species began in the late Pliocene and was induced by regional topographical changes and Pleistocene glaciations. The ancestral P. densata population had a large effective population size but the central and western populations were established by limited founders, suggesting that there were severe bottlenecks during the westward migration out of the ancestral hybrid zone. After separating from their ancestral populations, population expansion occurred in all geographical regions especially in the western range. Gene flow in P. densata was restricted to geographically neighbouring populations, resulting in significant differentiation between regional groups. The new information on the divergence and demographic history of P. densata reported herein enhances our understanding of its speciation process on the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:22849551

  9. Abundance of host fish and frequency of glochidial parasitism in fish assessed in field and laboratory settings and frequency of juvenile mussels or glochidia recovered from hatchery-held fish, central and southeastern Texas, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Stevens, Charrish L.; Echo-Hawk, Patricia D.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Moring, James B.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012–13, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), completed the first phase of a two-phase study of mussel host-fish relations for five endemic mussel species in central and southeastern Texas that were State-listed as threatened on January 17, 2010: (1) Texas fatmucket (Lampsilis bracteata), (2) golden orb (Quadrula aurea), (3) smooth pimpleback (Quadrula houstonensis), (4) Texas pimpleback (Quadrula petrina), and (5) Texas fawnsfoot (Truncilla macrodon). On October 6, 2011, the USFWS announced the completion of a status review and determined that the five mussel species warranted listing under the Endangered Species Act; however, listing of these species at that time was precluded by higher priority listing actions, and currently (December 2014), they remained unlisted.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Hydrogen Production Zone and Organic Carbon; Case Study from Jurassic Ocean Plateau, the Mikabu Greenstone Belt, Central Shikoku, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Terabayashi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity in the Archean-Ridge system has been considered to play a major role to maintain the oldest biosphere in early Earth. In the present ridge-system, hydrogen production in the serpentinized peridotite layer, is considered as major energy source. However, low temperature hydrothermal zone in the lower crust layer in the ridge has been recognized as hydrogen producing zone. Then what is the hydrogen source in the oceanic lower crust? Accreted oceanic plateau is one of the best sample to describe hydration process due to deep-sea-hydrothermal alteration because it is easy to observe huge outcrops and collect samples systematically in whole section. We have collected rock samples from Mikabu high P/T rocks in Toba area and from Ootoyo area, Japan because there are large scale trench cliffs in the mine. Here, we report mineral composition surrounding organic carbon that was found in metabasaltic rocks from Otoyo area. The metabasalt underlies metachert, and exhibit extensive plagioclase veins. Carbonaceous material and FeS are concentrated near the veins. Serpentinization of olivine gabbro was recognized there. In the Toba area, wehrlite and hornblende gabbro are dominant as the oceanic lower crustal material, subsequently suffered high P/T metamorphism. Abundant serpentine with magnetite are along olivine grain boundaries. Cr-spinel and epidote are occasionally recognized. That is, hydrogen was produced due to hydration reaction in the intruded wherlite from the lower crust of the large plateau. In summary, the lower crust might be significant zone producing hydrogen, and provide bacteria cluster above.

  11. Lithium- and boron-bearing brines in the Central Andes: exploring hydrofacies on the eastern Puna plateau between 23° and 23°30'S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, R. L. López

    2016-04-01

    Internally drained basins of the Andean Plateau are lithium- and boron-bearing systems. The exploration of ionic facies and parental links in a playa lake located in the eastern Puna (23°-23°30'S) was assessed by hydrochemical determinations of residual brines, feed waters and solutions from weathered rocks. Residual brines have been characterized by the Cl- (SO4 =)/Na+ (K+) ratio. Residual brines from the playa lake contain up to 450 mg/l of boron and up to 125 mg/l of lithium, and the Las Burras River supplies the most concentrated boron (20 mg/l) and lithium (3.75 mg/l) inflows of the basin. The hydro-geochemical assessment allowed for the identification of three simultaneous sources of boron: (1) inflow originating from granitic areas of the Aguilar and Tusaquillas ranges; (2) weathering of the Ordovician basement; and (3) boron-rich water from the Las Burras River. Most of the lithium input of the basin is likely generated by present geothermal sources rather than by weathering and leaching of ignimbrites and plutonic rocks. However, XRD analyses of playa lake sediments revealed the presence of lithian micas of clastic origin, including taeniolite and eucriptite. This study is the first to document these rare Li-micas from the Puna basin. Thus, both residual brines and lithian micas contribute to the total Li content in the studied hydrologic system.

  12. Evidence of Neoproterozoic back arc basin development in the Central Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil: new geochronological and geochemical constraints from the Sao Roque - Acungui Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ribeira Belt (RB) of southeastern Brazil represents an important manifestation of the Brasiliano Orogeny formed during the assembly of West Gondwana. Contemporaneous sedimentation and volcanism within the RB provide a basis for helping understand its tectonic evolution and paleogeography. U-Pb monazite data from the basal metavolcanic rocks of the Sao Roque Group indicate a crystallization age of 628 Ma and the upper sequence is cut by a 605 Ma (U-Pb zircon) rhyolite intrusion. Zircon and monazite analyses of metavolcanic (mafic) rocks and from metagabbros of the lower Acungui supergroup yield crystallization ages of 614 and 617 ma, respectively. This supergroup is intruded by a 607 ma granite. Geochemical signatures of basal mafic units in both sequences are characteristic of E-MORB subalkaline tholeitic basaltic rocks. Nd isotopic signatures of the metamafic rocks indicate that they were derived in part from the asthenospheric mantle (consistent with emplacement in an extensional setting), whereas the felsic bodies appear to have come from the melting of paleoproterozoic lithosphere. The paleogeographic reconstruction of part of the RB suggests that the Sao Roque/Acungui groups represent extensional sequences, with features of backarc basins, which evolved during the syn-collisional phase of the Brasiliano Orogeny. These data support the hypothesis that we have a rapid evolution (10-20 ma) between extensional and compressional tectonics during the geological history of the Sao Roque/Acungui Backarc. (author)

  13. Investigation of plateau basin crustal structures and thickening mechanisms in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shixu; Xu, Zhaofan; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshi; Liu, Baofeng; Lin, Jiyan; Guo, Wenbin

    2012-12-01

    This paper uses deep seismic sounding (DSS) data to contrast and analyze the crustal structures of three plateau basins (Songpan-Garze, Qaidam, Longzhong) in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) plateau, as well as two stable cratonic basins (Ordos, Sichuan) in its peripheral areas. Plateau basin crustal structures, lithological variations and crustal thickening mechanisms were investigated. The results show that, compared to the peripheral stable cratonic basins, the crystalline crusts of plateau basins in the northeastern margin are up to 10-15 km thicker, and the relative medium velocity difference is about 5% less. The medium velocity change in crustal layers of plateau basin indicates that the upper crust undergoes brittle deformation, whereas the lower crust deforms plastically with low velocity. The middle crust shows a brittle-to-plastic transition zone in this region. Thickening in the lower crust (about 5-10 km), and rheological characteristics that show low-medium velocity (relatively reduced by 7%), suggest that crustal thickening mainly takes place in lower crust in the northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The crust along the northeastern margin shows evidence of wholesale block movement, and crustal shortening and thickening seem to be the main deformation features of this region. The GPS data show that the block motion modes and crustal thickening in the Tibetan plateau is closely related to the peripheral tectonic stress field and motion direction of the Indian plate. The Mani-Yushu-Xianshuihe fold belt along the boundary between the Qiangtang block and the Bayan Har block divides the different plateau thickening tectonic environments into the middle-western plateau, the northeastern margin and the southeastern plateau.

  14. Genesis and Eruptive Dynamics of the Garnet-Bearing Rhyolites from the Ramadas Volcanic Centre (Altiplano-Puna Plateau, Central Andes, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Astis, G.; Baez, W.; Bardelli, L.; Becchio, R.; Giordano, G.; Lucci, F.; Rossetti, F.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Ramadas volcanic centre (6.6 Ma) is a monogenetic calderic depression, now largely obliterated, almost coeval with the Late Miocene outbreak of highly explosive silicic activity in the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Ramadas erupted a rather complex suite of garnet-bearing, rhyolitic pyroclastic rocks, dominated by a >35 km3 fall deposit and preceded by the emplacement of a lag breccia containing abundant metasedimentary lithics and garnet-tourmaline leucogranites. During the waning stage of the eruption, small volume phreatomagmatic deposits formed a small tuff-ring, followed by a lava coulée emplacement. Volcanological data together with textural features of typical tube pumice evidence a volatiles-rich, plinian eruption. Petrographic and textural studies on juveniles confirm the presence of euhedral garnet as dominant phase and identify micrometric metaigneous fragments (Qtz+Bt+Kfs+Mt+Tur). BSE imaging and microprobe analyses on glasses, garnets and accessory mineral phases (zircon and monazite) provide further data to understand the genesis and eruptive conditions of these atypical rhyolites, geochemically different from those outcropping in the same region. Garnets display a homogeneous, unzoned almandine-spessartine composition (Alm72-71Sps24-23Pyr0-1Grs4-3) and are contained in a glassy rhyolitic magma with peraluminous character, HREE depleted and relative LREE enriched. It's known that primary igneous garnets are rare and can only develop under restricted conditions. Additionally, the presence of Zr and Mnz is associated with both magmatic and high-T metamorphic processes. Although more data need to be collected, our study and preliminary modelling point to the occurrence of thermal metamorphism shifting to partial melting of Fe-MnO-rich metapelitic rocks (or even re-melting of older acid volcanics), with final extraction of volatiles-rich rhyolitic melts, able to produce a plinian eruption. Here, Alm-Sps garnet could represent the peritectic product of the

  15. Chemical compositions of snow from Mt. Yulong, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hewen Niu; Yuanqing He; Shichang Kang; Xixi Lu; Xiaoyi Shi; Shijin Wang

    2016-03-01

    The snow and ice in Mt. Yulong offer a unique opportunity to investigate changes in climate and large scale atmospheric circulations over Asia. During February and April 2012, surface snow samples were collected from the Baishui Glacier No. 1 at different altitudes along the eastern slope of Mt. Yulong.Two snowpits were also excavated from Mt. Yulong at altitudes of 4780 and 4730 m a.s.l. in February 2012. The concentrations of inorganic ions were higher at an elevation of 4506 m a.s.l. in the glacier with significant contribution of anthropogenic (mainly NH$^{+}_{4}$ , SO$^{2−}_4$ , NO$^{−}_3$) and crustal (mainly Ca$^{2+}$)constituents. Concentration of HCOO$^{−}$ in surface snow exhibited large variability, ranging from 0.04 to 6.8 eq L$^{−1}$, attributed to dominant contribution from biomass burning emissions. Ion balance (C) and Na$^{+}$/Cl$^{−}$ calculations indicated an excess of cations (particularly higher Ca$^{2+}$ concentrations) and Cl$^{−}$ in snow, considering the sea-salt ratio, respectively. Monsoon season (June–September) ion concentrations in snowpit samples were generally two-fold lower than in other seasons. Principal component analysis was used to identify different sources of ions. Three main factors, accounting for more than 80% of the total variance, were related to different sources, including agricultural activities, biomass burning, and crustal aerosols.

  16. Pratiques et stratégies paysannes en matière de complémentation des ruminants au sein des systèmes d'exploitation mixte agriculture-élevage du plateau central et du nord du Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Nianogo, AJ.; Sawadago, L.; Zoundi, JS.

    2003-01-01

    Farmers' Practices and Strategies for Ruminants' Supplementation in Mixed Crop-livestock Farming Systems in the Central Plateau and North of Burkina Faso. With the purpose to understand the farmers' practices and strategies for ruminants supplementation, mixed crop-livestock farms have been surveyed in three agro-ecological zones of Burkina Faso. The results obtained indicated that lactating females' supplementation is almost permanent whatever be the period of the year, but the objectives va...

  17. Analysis of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau Monsoon Evolution and Its Linkages with Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of plateau monsoons is essential to synoptic climatology processes over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Based on ERA-Interim Reanalysis data covering 1979–2014 from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, we propose a new plateau monsoon index (ZPMI that can effectively reflect the evolution of monsoons and compare this new index with the existing Plateau Monsoon Indices (PMI, i.e., the Traditional Plateau Monsoon Index (TPMI, the Dynamic Plateau Monsoon Index (DPMI, and the PMI proposed by Qi et al. (QPMI. The results show that the onset and retreat of plateau monsoons determined by the TPMI are approximately 1–2 months earlier than those of the ZPMI and DPMI and that the ZPMI can better reflect seasonal and inter-annual variations in precipitation over the plateau. The plateau summer and winter monsoons have similar inter-annual and inter-decadal variation characteristics and show a rising trend, but the increasing trend of the summer monsoon is more significant. The ZPMI is also capable of effectively reflecting meteorological elements. In stronger plateau summer monsoon years, more (less precipitation and a higher (lower air temperature appear over the eastern and central (western plateau. The ZPMI and soil moisture in April and May are used to explore the influence of soil moisture on plateau monsoons, and a significant correlation is found between the plateau soil moisture in the spring (April–May and plateau summer monsoons. It is found that when the soil moisture over the central and eastern plateau is higher (lower than normal (while the soil moisture over the western plateau is lower (higher, the plateau summer monsoon may be stronger (weaker.

  18. The beginnings of the "Cracow School of Art History" from Jerzy Malinowski (ed., History of Art History in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Muthesius

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Because Polish art history, that is, art history written by Polish scholars, has tended to be rather inward-looking as a whole, its first and most important school, that of Cracow, has not received the attention it deserves. The term ‘school’ is here used in a way akin to that of ‘Vienna School’. Cracow modern art history originated in the 1860s to 1880s in the small but culturally extremely vigorous capital of Austrian Poland, as a co-operation between the newly-founded art history section at the Academy of Sciences and the Department at the Jagiellonian University. It pursued two principal, interlinked aims: the investigation of Polish art and architecture and the use of new methods that were being developed in Western and Central Europe. What comes across most strongly is the constantly foregrounded ethos of scientific, empirical exactitude and the intense institutional togetherness. All are united in an absolute devotedness to their academic task. One of the results was the way in which recruitment has remained within the school until this day. It has to be remembered though that other Polish centres only started teaching the history of art after WW I. This article is a- preliminary attempt to characterise, firstly, some of the chief factors of institutionality and, secondly, some methodological aspects of the work of the two chief protagonists, Władysław Łuszczkiewicz and Marian Sokołowski.

  19. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level of...... radiological outcomes and a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) below but not significantly different from the Danish reference population at a mean of 5.2 years follow-up. Furthermore, a knee injury-specific questionnaire (KOOS) reported a level of disability close to a reference population with...... only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...

  20. Radiative plateau inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Tamarit, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflaton with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  1. Radiative plateau inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflation with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  2. The Lithium Plateau Enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonnel, C.; Vauclair, S.

    1998-01-01

    Why is the lithium abundance constant in the so-called lithium plateau while all predictions suggest that it should vary from star to star? Can we find a "lithium attractor" which would remain stable in halo stars while fundamental parameters (M_*, Teff, [Fe/H]) vary?

  3. Analyses on Micrometeorology Characteristic and Energy Exchange in Surface Layer in Dali Region of the Southeastern Margin of Tibetan Plateau%青藏高原东南缘大理地区近地层微气象特征及能量交换分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐安伦; 李建; 孙绩华; 刘劲松; 赵晓红

    2013-01-01

    利用2008年1月-2010年2月青藏高原东南缘大理站的长期观测资料,初步分析了该地区近地层基本气象要素、辐射通量和湍流通量的日变化和季节变化.结果表明,各参数均表现出显著的日循环结构和干、湿季变化特征.近地层的风速、气温和动量通量等均在早晨最小、午后最大;相对湿度、地表温度等均是湿季高于干季.近地层2 m高度处的盛行风向,白天以东东南风和东风为主,夜间以静风和偏西风为主,并且盛行风向转变与日出、日落时间有较好的对应关系.地表辐射四分量最高值出现在正午,最低值出现在日出前.除向上短波辐射通量干季大于湿季外,其他辐射分量都是湿季大于干季.地表反照率表现出非对称的“U”形分布,早晨最大、傍晚次之及中午最小.早晚地表反照率差异可能是由于露水、东西两面山体不同程度遮挡以及云的影响造成的.感热、潜热通量全年有相似的日变化过程,变化幅度随季节变化,但潜热通量明显大于感热通量,表明地气热量交换中,感热作用小,潜热输送占主导地位.感热通量一天之中约在20:00出现最小值,这主要是由于风速减弱和地气温差回升影响热量交换系数造成的.地面对大气的加热作用明显,主要是以潜热方式加热大气;地面全年均为大气热源,白天表现为强热源,夜间则表现为较弱的冷源.%Based on the observational data in Dali region of the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau from January 2008 to February 2010, the diurnal and seasonal variations of the basic meteorological elements, surface radiation and turbulent fluxes are analyzed. The results show that the diurnal cycles, the parameter variations in dry and wet season such as wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity and so on are evident. The wind speed, air temperature, momentum flux and so on in the surface layer reach the maximum in the

  4. Holocene cold events on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Steffen; Zhang, Chengjun

    2010-06-01

    A lake sediment core from the eastern Tibetan Plateau was investigated by multi-proxy geochemical, sedimentological and magnetic analyses and its age determined using 14C AMS dating in an approach to use short-lived climate periods for a spatial assessment of the Holocene climate history on the Tibetan Plateau. Six cold events were identified from the Lake Ximencuo record which occurred between 10.3-10.0, 7.9-7.4, 5.9-5.5, 4.2-2.8, 1.7-1.3 and 0.6-0.1 cal ka BP. A comparison with previously published Holocene records from lake and peat sections, ice cores and glacial remains of the Tibetan Plateau revealed that the cold event starting around 4.2 cal ka BP had the most significant and widespread impact on almost all of the examined sites. This cold event lasted about a millennium in the western and central part of the Tibetan Plateau and possibly several hundred years longer at some sites in its eastern realm. The cold event inferred between 7.9 and 7.4 cal ka BP from Lake Ximencuo was recorded at a number of sites on the eastern Tibetan Plateau too and probably corresponds to a cold event identified around 8.2 cal ka BP at the sites on the western and central Tibetan Plateau. The coincidence with the 8.2 ka event of the North Atlantic region implies that the latter exerted a significant environmental impact on the Tibetan Plateau too. The cold spell between 10.3 and 10.0 cal ka BP was recorded at some marginal sites of the Tibetan Plateau but had apparently a less significant environmental impact. The more irregular pattern of cold events between about 7 cal ka BP and the onset of the cold event after 4.2 cal ka BP might be related to the catchment-specific response of the lake sediment and peat accumulation to the termination of the Holocene 'climatic optimum' on the Tibetan Plateau. The final two cold events between 1.7 and 1.3 cal ka BP and in the last several hundred years representing the Little Ice Age are more widely seen on the Tibetan Plateau although they

  5. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  6. Geochemistry, geochronology and zircon Hf isotopic study of peralkaline-alkaline intrusions along the northern margin of the North China Craton and its tectonic implication for the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei; Liao, Wen; Wang, Yanyang

    2016-09-01

    the amalgamation of NCC and its northern blocks in the southeastern part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  7. Endohelminth parasites of seven goodein species (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae from Lake Zacapu , Michoacán, Central Mexico Plateau Endohelmintos parásitos de siete especies de godeinos (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae del lago de Zacapu, Michoacán, en la Mesa Central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martínez-Aquino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 11 parasitic endohelminth taxa were found in 7 freshwater fish species of the subfamily Goodeinae in Zacapu Lake, Michoacan, Mexico. Six were adults (Margotrema cf. bravoae, Phyllodistomum sp., Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Caryophillidae gen. sp., while the remaining 5 taxa (Clinostomum complanatum, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Tylodelphis sp., Eustrongylides sp. and Polymorphus brevis were larvae. The taxa S. sogandaresi, Tylodelphis sp., and R. lichtenfelsi reached the highest levels of prevalence and mean abundance among all hosts, while the cestodes B. acheilognathi and Caryophillidae gen. sp. showed the lowest values. This study contributes with the inventory of the freshwater fish helminth fauna in Central Mexico Plateau, and particularly with the previous work that has been done with Goodeinae, a subfamily of freshwater fishes endemic to that part of the country.En este trabajo se registran 11 taxa de helmintos endoparásitos de 7 especies de peces de la subfamilia Goodeinae del lago de Zacapu, Michoacán, en la mesa central de México. Seis taxa se registraron en estado adulto (Margotrema cf. bravoae, Phyllodistomum sp., Saccocoelioides sogandaresi, Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi y Caryophillidae gen. sp., en tanto que los 5 restantes correspondieron a larvas (Clinostomum complanatum, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Tylodelphys sp. y Eustrongylides sp. y Polymorphus brevis. Los taxa S. sogandaresi, Tylodelphis sp. y R. lichtenfelsi presentaron los valores más altos de prevalencia y abundancia en los peces estudiados, mientras que los céstodos B. acheilognathi y Caryophillidae gen. sp. presentaron los valores más bajos. Este estudio contribuye al inventario de la fauna helmintológica de peces de agua dulce de la mesa central de México y en particular al que ha sido realizado con Goodeinae, una subfamilia de peces dulceacuícolas endémica de esa

  8. Spatial Distribution of Soil Erosion Sensitivity on the Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Dan; ZHONG Xiang-Hao; FAN Jian-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The Tibet Plateau, occupying the main part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and having an average altitude of 4 500 m, has geomorphological features that are unique in the world, with soil erosion being one of the main ecological problems. Thus the main objectives of the present research were to set up an efficient and simple way of evaluating spatial distribution of soil erosion sensitivity in the Tibet Plateau as well as the responses of soil erosion to changes of natural environmental conditions, and to indicate key regions where soil erosion should be preferentially controlled. Based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), the study applied geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a methodological reference framework, from which soil erosion sensitivity could be evaluated. The impact of precipitation, soil, topography and vegetation on soil erosion was divided into classes of extreme sensitivity, high sensitivity, medium sensitivity, low sensitivity and no sensitivity. With the aid of GIS, the resultant map from overlaying various factors showed that soil erosion sensitivity had great discrepancy in different parts of the region. In the southeastern part of the Tibet Plateau there were mainly three classes of sensitivity, namely, extreme, high and medium sensitivity. However, the other two classes, low and no sensitivity, were dominant in the northwestern part.

  9. Embedded Plateau Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkunuzer, Barış

    2010-01-01

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY Volume 364, Number 3, March 2012, Pages 1211–1224 S 0002-9947(2011)05486-3 Article electronically published on October 19, 2011 EMBEDDED PLATEAU PROBLEM BARIS COSKUNUZER Abstract. We show that if Γ is a simple closed curve bounding an embedded disk in a closed 3-manifold M, then there exists a disk Σ in M with boundary Γ such that Σ minimizes the area among the embedded disks with boundary Γ. Moreover, Σ is smooth...

  10. Preferencias alimentarias de Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduvíidae procedente de la meseta central de Costa Rica a finales del siglo XX BLOOD SOURCES OF Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduvidae IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU OF COSIA RICA AT THE END OF THE XX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGER CALDERÓN-ARGUEDAS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se colectaron 267 ejemplares de Triatoma dimidiata procedentes de comunidades costarricenses ubicadas en tres regiones epidemiológicamente importantes por la Enfermedad de Chagas. A partir de cada insecto, se prepararon extractos de contenido intestinal los cuales fueron utilizados para determinar la presencia de sangres de diferentes vertebrados en un sistema de doble inmunodifusión (Outcherlony. También los insectos fueron sometidos a un análisis de contenido fecal para determinar la posible infección con T. cruzi. El 67% de las muestras fue positiva por sangre de humano, lo que constituyó la fuente de alimentación más importante (p 267 kissing hugs Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduvidae were collected in peridomestic habitats located in tthree Chagas' disease epidemiological regions of the Central plateau of Costa Rica. Gut extract were prepared from each triatomine. They were assayed in an immuno double-diffusion system (Outcherlony for detecting the presence of different kind of vertebrate bloods. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was also tested by microscopical observation of fecal smear. 67.0% of the samples were positive for human blood, that was the most important food source for the insect (p < 0.05. Dog was another important host and the blood was found in 49.8% of the samples. Rat, mouse, didelphid and chicken bloods were positive in porcentajes under 15.0%. The data can not demostrate that T. dimidata has special preferences for the avian blood. However, when the data are evaluated as exhausted and excluyent categories, chicken blood represents the second in frequency (9.0%. It could means that T. dimidata can choose the chickens as host, when humans or dogs are not available. The T. cruzi infection rate was higher in insects that were positive by opposum and rodent bloods. It suggest the role that these kind of animals can play as selvatic and domestic T. cruzi reservoirs.

  11. Diabatically driven mesoscale vortex in the lee of the tibetan plateau. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.

    1992-01-01

    Mesoscale cyclonic vortices at the eastern and southeastern flanks of the Tibetan Plateau, known as southwest vortices, are one of the most important types of rain-producing systems in China during the warm season. The thesis investigates the southwest vortex problem through a case-study approach, and focuses on the efect of the diabatic heating of possible formation and development of the vortex.

  12. Evolution of the Ordos Plateau and environmental effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of temporary-spatial distribution, geomorphic position, contact relationship with underlying strata and grain size of red clay, we studied the formation and environmental background of red clay. During late Miocene-Pliocene, the Ordos Block finished the transformation from the basin to the plateau, which had an obvious environmental effect on the topography, indicated by the formation of highland undergoing wind erosion and lowland receiving red clay deposits. The red clay materials were sourced from dusts carried by wind energy and covered on the initial topography. Unlike Quaternary loess dust covering the overall the Loess Plateau, red clay deposited on the highland would be transported to the lowlands by wind and fluvial process. As a result, there was no continuous "Red Clay Plateau" in the Ordos region and red clay was only preserved in former lowlands. However, red clay was discontinuously distributed through the Loess Plateau and to some extent modified the initial topography. The differential uplift in interior plateau is indicated by the uplift of northern Baiyushan, central Ziwuling and southern Weibeibeishan. The Weibeibeishan Depression formed earlier and became the sedimentary center of red clay resulting in the thicker red clay deposits in Chaona, Lingtai and Xunyi. Since Quaternary the aridity in the northern plateau enhanced and accelerated loess accumulation caused the formation of the Loess Plateau. During the late Pleistocene the rapid uplift led to the enhancement of erosion. Especially after the cut-through of Sanme Lake by the Yellow River, the decline of base level caused the falling of ground water level and at the same time the increase of drainage density resulting in the enhancement of evaporation capacity, which enhanced the aridity tendency of aridity in the Loess Plateau region.

  13. Plateau Rayleigh instability simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead-Hunter, Ryan; King, Andrew J C; Mullins, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The well-known phenomena of Plateau-Rayleigh instability has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The breakup of a liquid film into an array of droplets on a cylindrical element was simulated using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) solver and compared to experimental observations and existing theory. It is demonstrated that the VOF method can correctly predict the breakup of thins films into an array of either axisymmetric droplets or clam-shell droplets, depending on the surface energy. The existence of unrealistically large films is precluded. Droplet spacing was found to show reasonable agreement with theory. Droplet motion and displacement under fluid flow was also examined and compared to that in previous studies. It was found that the presence of air flow around the droplet does not influence the stable film thickness; however, it reduces the time required for droplet formation. Novel relationships for droplet displacement were derived from the results. PMID:22512475

  14. Numerical simulation of GPS observed clockwise rotation around the eastern Himalayan syntax in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO dianLing; SHI YaoLin; ZHANG Huai; WANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    From Global Position System (GPS) measurements,there is a clockwise rotation around the eastern Himalayan syntax in the Tibetan Plateau.This phenomenon is difficult to be interpreted by simple two-dimensional modeling from a geodynamic point of view.Because of the extremely thick crust and the lower crust with relatively high temperature in the Tibetan Plateau,the lithospheric rheology in Tibet and surrounding areas present a complex structure,in general,the tectonic structure of the Tibetan Plateau consists of brittle upper crust,ductile lower crust,high viscosity lithospheric upper mantle,and low viscosity asthenosphere,the same as the case in many other continental regions.However,the lower crust in the Tibetan Plateau is much more ductile with a lower viscosity than those of its sur-roundings at the same depth,and the effective viscosity is low along the collision fault zone.In this study,we construct a three-dimensional Maxwell visco-elastic model in spherical coordinate system,and simulate the deformation process of the Tibetan Plateau driven by a continuous push from the Indian plate.The results show that the existence of the soft lower crust under the plateau makes the entire plateau uplift as a whole,and the Himalayas and the eastern Himalayan syntax uplift faster.Since the lower crust of surrounding blocks is harder except in the southeastern corner where the high-temperature material is much softer and forms an exit channel for material transfer,after the whole plateau reaches a certain height,the lower crustal and upper mantle material begins to move eastward or southeastward and drag the upper crust to behave same way.Thus,from the macroscopic point of view,a relative rigid motion of the plateau with a clockwise rotation around the eastern Himalayan syntax is developed.

  15. Assessment of contamination in caves located at the Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ozark Plateau National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is located in east central Oklahoma; a sizeable portion of the Refuge is also located along Spavinaw Creek, near...

  16. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  17. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  18. Climatology of monsoon precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau from 13-year TRMM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijuan, Bai; Guoping, Li

    2015-07-01

    Based on the 13-year data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite during 2001-2013, the influencing geographical location of the Tibetan Plateau (Plateau) monsoon is determined. It is found that the domain of the Plateau monsoon is bounded by the latitude between 27° N and 37° N and the longitude between 60° E and 103° E. According to the annual relative precipitation, the Plateau monsoon can be divided into three sections: the Plateau winter monsoon (PWM) over Iran and Afghanistan, the Plateau summer monsoon (PSM) over the central Plateau, and the transiting zone of the Plateau monsoon (TPM) over the south, west, and east edges of the Plateau. In PWM and PSM, the monsoon climatology has a shorter rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of less than 800 mm. In TPM, it has a longer rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of more than 1800 mm. PWM experiences a single-peak monthly rainfall with the peak during January to March; PSM usually undergoes a multi-peak pattern with peaks in the warm season; TPM presents a double-peak pattern, with a strong peak in late spring to early summer and a secondary peak in autumn. The Plateau monsoon also characterizes an asymmetrical seasonal advance of the rain belt. In the east of the Plateau, the rain belt migrates in a south-north orientation under the impact of the tropical and subtropical systems' oscillation. In the west of the Plateau, the rain belt advances in an east-west direction, which is mainly controlled by the regional Plateau monsoon.

  19. Mechanism of the Spring Persistent Rains over southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN RiJin; WU GuoXiong

    2007-01-01

    The Spring Persistent Rains (SPR) in the areas to the south of middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River or over southeastern China (SEC) is a unique synoptic and climatic phenomenon in East Asia. This study reveals a possible mechanism responsible for the climatic cause of SPR formation through climatic mean data analysis and sensitive numerical model experiments. SEC is located at the downstream of the southwesterly velocity center (SWVC) which lies on the southeastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). As a result, there are strong southwesterly wind velocity convergence and moisture convergence over SEC. This is the immediate climatic cause of SPR formation. In spring, the seasonal evolution of the southwesterly velocity consists with the surface sensible heating over southeastern TP, indicating that the formation of SPR is related to not only the southwesterly wind of mechanical deflected flow of TP, but also the southwesterly wind of thermal-forced cyclonic low circulation. Sensitive numerical experiments demonstrate that, without TP, both SWVC and the SPR rain belt will disappear. The southwesterly wind velocity increases almost linearly with the amount of the total diabatic heating with TP rising. Therefore, SWVC is the result of the mechanical forcing and thermal forcing of TP. All these strongly suggest that the presence of TP plays a primary role in the climatic formation of SPR.

  20. Quantum percolation and plateau transitions in the quantum Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.; Wang, Z.; Kivelson, S. (IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States) Center for Materials Science and Theoretical Division T-11, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) Department of Physics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024-1547 (United States))

    1993-06-28

    We introduce a simple model of quantum percolation and analyze it numerically using transfer matrix methods. A central point of this paper is that 3 both integer and fractional plateau transitions in the quantum Hall effect are due to quantum percolation. Within this model, we obtained the localization length exponent [nu]=2.4[plus minus]0.2, the dynamical exponent [ital z]=1, and the scaling functions for the conductivity tensor for both the integer and the fractional transitions. We show that our results agree extremely well with the experimental results for the integer plateau transition obtained by McEuen [ital et] [ital al].

  1. Quantum percolation and plateau transitions in the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a simple model of quantum percolation and analyze it numerically using transfer matrix methods. A central point of this paper is that 3 both integer and fractional plateau transitions in the quantum Hall effect are due to quantum percolation. Within this model, we obtained the localization length exponent ν=2.4±0.2, the dynamical exponent z=1, and the scaling functions for the conductivity tensor for both the integer and the fractional transitions. We show that our results agree extremely well with the experimental results for the integer plateau transition obtained by McEuen et al

  2. Hydrologically induced slope deformations detected by GPS and clinometric surveys in the Cansiglio Plateau, southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoti, R.; Zuliani, D.; Braitenberg, C.; Fabris, P.; Grillo, B.

    2015-06-01

    Changes in groundwater or surface water level may cause observable deformation of the drainage basins in different ways. We describe an active slope deformation monitored with GPS and tiltmeter stations in a karstic limestone plateau in southeastern Alps (Cansiglio Plateau). The observed transient GPS deformation clearly correlates with the rainfall. Both GPS and tiltmeter equipments react instantly to heavy rains displaying abrupt offsets, but with different time constants, demonstrating the response to different catchment volumes. The GPS movement is mostly confined in the horizontal plane (SSW direction) showing a systematic tendency to rebound in the weeks following the rain. Four GPS stations concur to define a coherent deformation pattern of a wide area (12 × 5km2), concerning the whole southeastern slope of the plateau. The plateau expands and rebounds radially after rain by an amount up to a few centimeters and causing only small vertical deformation. The effect is largest where karstic features are mostly developed, at the margin of the plateau where a thick succession of Cretaceous peritidal carbonates faces the Venetian lowland. A couple of tiltmeters installed in a cave at the top of the plateau, detect a much faster deformation, that has the tendency to rebound in less than 6 h. The correlation to rainfall is less straightforward, and shows a more complex behavior during rainy weather. The different responses demonstrate a fast hydrologic flow in the more permeable epikarst for the tiltmeters, drained by open fractures and fissures in the neighborhood of the cave, and a rapid tensile dislocation of the bedrock measured at the GPS stations that affect the whole slope of the mountain. In the days following the rain, both tiltmeter and GPS data show a tendency to retrieve the displacement which is consistent with the phreatic discharge curve. We propose that hydrologically active fractures recharged by rainfall are the most likely features capable to

  3. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  4. Organizational restructuring and career plateauing

    OpenAIRE

    Paffen, P.; Timmermans, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a flexibility program for plateaued professionals in a technical Dutch firm operating in the consultancy sector we will refer to with the pseudonym Greentree Corp. First, we will discuss the impact reorganization had on job-requirements and career opportunities for technical employees. Secondly, we will discuss the program the company developed in close cooperation with external consultants to make the plateaued workforce more flexible and the outcomes of the flexibilit...

  5. Early Cenozoic Multiple Thrust in the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently completed regional geological mapping at a scale of 1 : 250,000 or larger across all of the Tibetan Plateau coupled with deep seismic surveys reveals for the first time a comprehensive depiction of the major early Cenozoic thrust systems resulting from the northward subduction of the Indian Continental Plate. These systems define a series of overlapping north-dipping thrust sheets that thickened the Tibetan crust and lead to the rise of the plateau. The few south-dipping thrusts present apparently developed within a sheet when the back moved faster than the toe. Many of the thrusts are shown to extend to the middle-lower crustal depths by seismic data. The regional thrust systems are the Main Central, Renbu-Zedong, Gangdese, Central Gangdese, North Gangdese, Bangoin-Nujiang, Qiangtang, Hohxil, and South Kunlun Thrusts. The minimal southward displacements of the South Kunlun, Hohxil, South Qiangtang, and Central Gangdese Thrusts are estimated to be 30 km, 25 km, 150 km and 50 km, respectively. Deep thrusting began in the Himalaya-Tibetan region soon after India-Eurasia continental collision and led to crustal thickening and subsequent uplift of the Tibetan Plateau during Late Eocene-Early Miocene when the systems were mainly active. The major thrust systems ceased moving in Early Miocene and many were soon covered by lacustrine strata. This activity succeeded in the late Cenozoic to crustal extension and strike-slip movement in the central Tibetan Plateau. The revelation of the full array of the early Cenozoic thrust systems provides a much more complete understanding of the tectonic framework of the Tibetan Plateau.

  6. A study of Pleistocene Lacustrine Sediments at the Southern Front of the Tibetan Plateau : Dating and Palaeoclimate record

    OpenAIRE

    Goddu, Srinivasa Rao

    2004-01-01

    The rise of the Himalaya and the Tibetan plateau strongly controlled the monsoon system. Lacustrine sediments of long living lakes at the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau are useful archives to study long-term palaeoenvironmental changes with high time resolution. Three sites at the southern hinge of the Tibetan plateau, i.e. Kashmir basin in the west, Kathmandu basin in the central part, and Heqing Basin in the far eastern part were sampled. Detailed studies on Heqing and Kathmandu bas...

  7. Planktonic crustacean assemblages of three reservoirs from the Mexican Central Plateau: relationships with biotic and abiotic factors Crustáceos planctónicos de tres embalses de la Mesa Central Mexicana: relaciones con factores bióticos y abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Ana María Arroyo Bustos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The reservoirs Trinidad Fabela (TF, Ignacio Ramírez (IR and Tepuxtepec (T are located along an altitude gradient in the upper Lerma Basin of the Mexican Central Plateau. Between July 1993 and June 1994, the planktonic crustacean assemblages of these systems were dominated by seven cladoceran species and five copepod species. Specific richness ranged from 13 species in TF to 16 species in T, out of a total 20 species. Nine species were common to all three systems, while the rest were absent from at least one reservoir. Canonic correspondence analysis showed that the structure and seasonal variation of these assemblages are regulated by factors directly related (transparency and dissolved oxygen or inversely related (turbidity, temperature, mineralization and eutrophication to the altitude at which the reservoirs are located. TF had the lowest levels of mineralization and the lowest specific richness, as well as the highest plankton diversity and mean density, while T had the highest mineralization and highest specific richness, but showed the lowest density. Crustacean mean size was smaller in T than in TF, possibly due to predation by fish in the former system and the presence of fish predators (waterfowl in the latter, as well as the impact of the different hydrological regime and release schedules of the reservoirs.Se estudiaron los embalses Trinidad Fabela (TF, Ignacio Ramírez (IR y Tepuxtepec (T que se localizan en un gradiente de altitud en la subcuenca del Alto Lerma en la Mesa Central de México. La asociación de crustáceos planctónicos estuvo dominada por siete especies de cladóceros y cinco copépodos y la riqueza específica varió entre 13 y 16 especies con un total de 20 especies; nueve de éstas resultaron comunes a todos los embalses y las otras no se encontraron en al menos uno de ellos. El análisis de correspondencias canónicas mostró que la estructura y la variación estacional de las asociaciones de crustáceos planct

  8. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  9. Crustal structure of the Columbia Plateau region, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refraction data from blasts recorded in eastern Washington between 1980 and 1983 are used to determine the upper crustal structure of the Columbia Plateau. Fourteen blast sites with over 25 individual shots were recorded on the University of Washington regional seismic network made up of 36 short-period seismograph stations recorded digitally at 100 samples/s. Additional data were obtained from a 12-station dense digital network in the central plateau operated by the Rockwell Hanford Operations Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Major crustal refractors of 5.1 and 6.05 km/s are observed at distances of 15 to 50 km and 50 to 120 km, respectively. A time-term method is used to model layer thicknesses below the stations for each major refractor. A statistical source-receiver separation operation is used to handle the inherent nonindependence of the data. Constraints are used to fix the mean values of the time terms. Ray tracing through two-dimensional velocity structures is used to augment the interpretation of the time-term solutions for areas where the lateral velocity changes are large. Station delays for the 5.1-km/s layer show a good correlation with elevation and surficial geology. The areal extent of the 5.1-km/s layer roughly coincides with the Columbia River basalts. Time terms from the 6.05-km/s layer indicate a nearly uniform depth of 1 to 2 km in the northern plateau. Time terms in the central plateau indicate a depth to the 6.05-km/s layer of over 8 km, and a systematic thinning away from its center. Magnetotelluric studies indicate that the basalts are probably no thicker than 5 km in the central Columbia Plateau region

  10. Geodynamics of oceanic plateau and plume head accretion and their role in Phanerozoic orogenic systems of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter G. Betts; Louis Moresi; Meghan S. Miller; David Willis

    2015-01-01

    We present three 3D numerical models of deep subduction where buoyant material from an oceanic plateau and a plume interact with the overriding plate to assess the influence on subduction dynamics, trench geometry, and mechanisms for plateau accretion and continental growth. Transient instabilities of the convergent margin are produced, resulting in:contorted trench geometry;trench migration parallel with the plate margin; folding of the subducting slab and orocline development at the convergent margin;and transfer of the plateau to the overriding plate. The presence of plume material beneath the oceanic plateau causes flat subduction above the plume, resulting in a“bowed”shaped subducting slab. In plateau-only models, plateau accretion at the edge of the overriding plate results in trench migration around the edge of the plateau before subduction is re-established directly behind the trailing edge of the plateau. The plateau shortens and some plateau material subducts. The presence of buoyant plume material beneath the oceanic plateau has a profound influence on the behaviour of the convergent margin. In the plateau þ plume model, plateau accretion causes rapid trench advance. Plate convergence is accommodated by shearing at the base of the plateau and shortening in the overriding plate. The trench migrates around the edge of the plateau and subduction is re-established well behind the trailing edge of the plateau, effectively embedding the plateau into the overriding plate. A slab window forms beneath the accreted plateau and plume material is transferred from the subducting plate to the over-riding plate through the window. In all of the models, the subduction zone maintains a relatively stable configuration away from the buoyancy anomalies within the downgoing plate. The models provide a dynamic context for plateau and plume accretion in Phanerozoic accretionary orogenic systems such as the East China Orogen and the Central Asian Orogen (Altiads), which

  11. Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 1: The Southern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Maize is the New World's preeminent grain crop and it provided the economic basis for human culture in many regions within the Americas. To flourish, maize needs water, sunlight (heat), and nutrients (e. g., nitrogen). In this paper, climate and soil chemistry data are used to evaluate the potential for dryland (rainon-field) agriculture in the semiarid southeastern Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande regions. Processes that impact maize agriculture such as nitrogen mineralization, infiltration of precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and transpiration are discussed and evaluated. Most of the study area, excepting high-elevation regions, receives sufficient solar radiation to grow maize. The salinities of subsurface soils in the central San Juan Basin are very high and their nitrogen concentrations are very low. In addition, soils of the central San Juan Basin are characterized by pH values that exceed 8.0, which limit the availability of both nitrogen and phosphorous. In general, the San Juan Basin, including Chaco Canyon, is the least promising part of the study area in terms of dryland farming. Calculations of field life, using values of organic nitrogen for the upper 50 cm of soil in the study area, indicate that most of the study area could not support a 10-bushel/acre crop of maize. The concepts, methods, and calculations used to quantify maize productivity in this study are applicable to maize cultivation in other environmental settings across the Americas. ?? 2010 US Government.

  12. Rainfall interception in the semiarid plateau of center of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    E. Gonzalez-Sosa; Mastachi Loza, C.; I. Braud; Guevara Escobar, A.

    2009-01-01

    The strong pressure over natural ressources and the accelerated population growth modify natural ecosystems and decrease the canopy cover. The ecosystems of central Mexico plateau are not an exception. Although it is a natural semi-arid region induced by the continental screen effect of the Sierra mountains that regulates the humidity entrance from the Gulf and the Pacific, the semi-arid ecosystems are degraded day after day, showing a clear tendency to desertification. The aim of the stud...

  13. Organizational restructuring and career plateauing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paffen, P.; Timmermans, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a flexibility program for plateaued professionals in a technical Dutch firm operating in the consultancy sector we will refer to with the pseudonym Greentree Corp. First, we will discuss the impact reorganization had on job-requirements and career opportunities for technical e

  14. Ethnomédecine vétérinaire et pharmacopée traditionnelle dans le plateau central du Burkina Faso : cas de la province du Passoré

    OpenAIRE

    Yaméogo SM.; Kaboré H.; Tamboura H.

    1998-01-01

    Ethnoveterinary medicine and indigenous pharmacopeia in central region of Burkina Faso: case of Passoré province.In Passoré province of Burkina Faso, a study on traditional animal health care practices has been carried out with 62traditional practitioners. 114 questionnaires were completed and the results analysed and synthesized. Analysis of collecteddata led to the characterization of 24 diseases, together with their local names, causes of their appearance, and theepizootiological evolution...

  15. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  16. Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae) from southeastern Indochina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, Dak Dam village environs, a tall grass forest swamp, 12°25' N 107°19' E, ~780 m a.s.l., 16 June 2014, RMNH), the second species in its genus, is described from Central Plateau of the Annamese Mountains. The new species is most probably separated from R. dohrni by a 1000-km gap of the range of the genus in Thailand and most of Cambodia. PMID:26249427

  17. Prevalencia de nefropatía diabética y sus factores de riesgo en un área urbano marginal de la meseta Central de Costa Rica Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetic Nephropathy in a Peripheral Urban Area of the Central Plateau of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Laclé-Murray

    2009-03-01

    para estimar en un área de salud la prevalencia y los factores asociados de esta patología. Los métodos diagnósticos para valorar la microalbuminuria deberían estar a la disposición a nivel de atención primaria, para poder afinar este indicador en el contexto de la vigilancia de la DM a nivel nacional.Background and aim: Diabetic nephropathy affects approximately 40% of type 2 diabetic patients and is the leading cause of kidney disease in patients starting renal replacement therapy in developed countries. The same seems to be true in Costa Rica. Knowing its prevalence and associated factors is fundamental to plan and to evaluate health services for the diabetic population. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients from a poor marginal urban community of the central plateau of Costa Rica. Methodology: Five hundred and seventy two type 2 diabetics from the Health Area 3 of Desamparados, were identified in 2000, sociodemographic data, metabolic control, comorbidities and microvascular diabetic complications variables were studied. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its associated factors were determined using a multivariate logistic regression analysis for the latter. Results: The cohort had an average age of 58.5 years low education and low income and consisted predominantly of women (63.8%. The group had a high prevalence of hypertension (53.2%, obesity (78.5%, and dyslipidemia (41.5%. Sixty-one percent had the diagnosis of diabetes before age 60 and an average of 8 years with the disease. The prevalence of microvascular complications was high: retinopathy (19.6%, neuropathy (30.6%, nephropathy (33.6%, microproteinuria (24.8%, macroproteinuria (7%, nephrotic syndrome (1.4% and chronic renal insufficiency (7.1% without sex differences. Associated risk factors and odds ratio found for diabetic nephropathy were: diabetic retinopathy (4,6 IC:2.5-8, years of

  18. Pratiques et stratégies paysannes en matière de complémentation des ruminants au sein des systèmes d'exploitation mixte agriculture-élevage du plateau central et du nord du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianogo, AJ.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers' Practices and Strategies for Ruminants' Supplementation in Mixed Crop-livestock Farming Systems in the Central Plateau and North of Burkina Faso. With the purpose to understand the farmers' practices and strategies for ruminants supplementation, mixed crop-livestock farms have been surveyed in three agro-ecological zones of Burkina Faso. The results obtained indicated that lactating females' supplementation is almost permanent whatever be the period of the year, but the objectives vary according to the seasons. In general, animal supplementation during the dry season deals with four major objectives: (i incomes generation, (ii care of draught animal, (iii productivity, and (iv risks management for animal losses (thefts and mortalities. When the nutritional stress becomes important, incomes generation gives up progressively the ground to the risk management. The supplementation strategy relies on a maximum valorization (70-80% of the cases of feeds produced in the farm or collected in the bush. Farmers also purchase feeds (salt, cereals bran, agro-industrial by-products in cash and, livestock remains the frequent source of funds. The results of the study suggest that the development of feeding systems for these mixed crop-livestock farms would focus on alternatives considering the variability of farmers' objectives by the time, and being built on feed that can be easily mobilized by farmers, and offering a low cash cost price, for example green forage and fruit of shrubs rich in energy and nitrogen.

  19. Ethnomédecine vétérinaire et pharmacopée traditionnelle dans le plateau central du Burkina Faso : cas de la province du Passoré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaméogo SM.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnoveterinary medicine and indigenous pharmacopeia in central region of Burkina Faso: case of Passoré province.In Passoré province of Burkina Faso, a study on traditional animal health care practices has been carried out with 62traditional practitioners. 114 questionnaires were completed and the results analysed and synthesized. Analysis of collecteddata led to the characterization of 24 diseases, together with their local names, causes of their appearance, and theepizootiological evolution. The medicinal recipes were documented; about 95% were on a vegetable basis. Analysis of therecipes centered on their therapeutic itinerary for treating diseases, i.e. composition, preparation and different mixtures,process of administration, dosage. Finally, a socio-economic perspective of traditional animal health care structure led to abetter understanding of this system.

  20. Deep Mechanical Background for the Cenozoic Volcanism in the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Xiong; Wang Jiye; Teng Jiwen

    2005-01-01

    The principle prerequisite for the formation of a volcano is the generation of a channel for magma transportation. There is little research on the deep mechanical mechanism for the formation of a magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau.Based on the subcrustal mantle convection-generated stress field inversed by gravity anomalies, together with its relationship to the Cenozoic volcanism in the plateau, and the mechanism of crustal fracture formation, as well as the numerical results of the evolution of mantle convection beneath the plateau, this paper investigates the deep mechanical mechanism for the formation of a magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau. There are two significant extensional convection-generated stress zones beneath the plateau, in which the volcanic rocks in the central and northern parts of the plateau are distributed. The Linzizong volcanism in southern Tibet correlates the upwelling mantle flow prior to the India-Asia collision or during the early stage of the collision. The magnitude of the stress is ~100 MPa, which is the same order of force that causes crustal fractures. The evidence implies that the mantle convection-generated stress is one of the principle causes of crustal fractures, and furthermore, the formation of the magma transportation channel in the Tibetan plateau.

  1. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  2. The property, age and formation environment of the palaeokarst in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The karst landforms distributed on the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau can be genetically classed with the Tertiary underground karst, which were gradually exhumed to the surface with the uplift of the plateau during Quaternary period. The relative deposits of the Tertiary palaeokarst processes, such as the residuum and speleothem, were discovered recently in the southern and southeastern fringe areas of the plateau, where has geological-currently been disintegrated by the headward erosion processes of the modern river systems. The major chemical components of the clay portion of the residuum consist mainly of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. The clay minerals composition of the clay portion belongs to illite-kaolinite pattern for most of the residuum samples, and kaoliniteillite pattern for a few of the samples. It can be judged from the silicic acid index and the clay minerals composition that the formation of the residuum of the Plateau was in its initial phase.However, such a lower chemical weathering index only reflected the weathering degree in the bottom or lower parts of the lateritic weathering crust. The relatively intensive chemical weathering processes of the surface layers of the lateritic weathering crust could be logically speculated. The surface feature textures of quartz grains in the residuum were formed mainly by the chemical erosion, which revealed a long-term humid-tropical environment when the residuum and the palaeokarst formed.

  3. Arthroscopy assisted management of tibia plateau fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Cetik, Ozgur; Asik, Mehmet; Sozen, Yunus V.; Taser, Omer F.; Cetinkaya, Sarper M.

    2004-01-01

    We report our experience with the arthroscopy management of tibial plateau fractures. Twenty eight closed tibial plateau fractures in twenty seven patients were treated with arthroscopy assisted reduction between January 1993 and December 1997. The mean follow-up period was 25 months (range 6 months to 55 months). Schatzker classification system was used for evaluation and classification of the fractures patterns. The plateau depression has been reconstructed with elevation through a window...

  4. Geology and geochronology of the metamorphic suite Colorado and his rock assemblages, southeastern Rondonia, Brazil: implications for the mesoproterozoic evolution of the southwestern Amazon Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined geochronological (U-Pb, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, and RB-Sr) geological data help define an important tectonomagmatic event in the Colorado do Oeste and Cabixi regions, southeastern Rondonia, Brazil, and characterize the Colorado Metamorphic Suite (CMS), well represented by rock assemblages which experienced deformation and metamorphic recrystallization (upper-amphibolite facies). The suite is composed of: porphyritic monzogranite associated with amphibolite (bimodal magmatism); interlayered clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks (sillimanite schists and iron formation); muscovite-garnet leucogranite; and mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks. The CMS mafic rocks occur as underformed isolated bodies of layered coarse-grained metagabbro, still preserving typical cumulate igneous texture. U-Pb zircon isotopic data for three fractions of sample RO-10 define a discordia with an upper intercept (crystallization) age of 1352 + 4/-3 Ma (MSWD = 0,18). The porphyritic orthogneisses (RO-15; monzogranite and amphibolite) yielded a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 1360 ± 45 Ma, and 87 Sr/86 Sr, = 0.7040 ± 0.0012 (MSWD = 9.2). One sample of aplite that is subparallel to the main regional foliation has furnished an age 1360 ±13 Ma. The 40 Ar/39 Ar data for muscovite from a anatectic leucogranite (RO-14) yielded plateau ages of 1312 ± 3 Ma (grain 1), and 1303 ± 2 Ma/1305 ± 2 Ma (grain 2). Grain 3 presented an heterogeneous isotopic spectrum, the integrated age being 1289 ± 2 Ma. Hornblende from two amphibolite samples yielded 40 Ar/39 Ar plateau ages of 1313 ± 4 Ma; 1313 ± 6 Ma and 1312 ± 3 Ma (RO-18), and 1325 ± 3 Ma; 1326 ± 2 Ma; 1330 ± 3 Ma (RO-19). The weighted-mean age 1319 ± 10 Ma, and is interpreted as the best estimated age for regional metamorphic cooling. These data suggest that southeastern Rondonia was affected by a tectonomagmatic event at ca. 1.36 - 1.32 Ga, predating the evolution of the Nova Brasilandia Terrane (1215 - 1110 Ma). However, the unequivocal

  5. Spatial distribution of the persistent organic pollutants across the Tibetan Plateau and its linkage with the climate systems: a 5-year air monitoring study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping; Wang, Chuanfei; Xue, Yonggang; Yao, Tandong; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through atmospheric transport. The exact source regions, transport pathways and time trends of POPs to the TP are not well understood. Here polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer resin (XAD)-based passive air samplers (PASs) were deployed at 16 Tibetan background sites from 2007 to 2012 to gain further insight into spatial patterns and temporal trends of OCPs and PCBs. The southeastern TP was characterized by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related chemicals delivered by Indian monsoon air masses. The northern and northwestern TP displayed the greatest absolute concentration and relative abundance of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the atmosphere, caused by the westerly-driven European air masses. The interactions between the DDT polluted Indian monsoon air and the clean westerly winds formed a transition zone in central Tibet, where both DDT and HCB were the dominant chemicals. Based on 5 years of continuous sampling, our data indicated declining concentrations of HCB and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) across the Tibetan region. Inter-annual trends of DDT class chemicals, however, showed less variation during this 5-year sampling period, which may be due to the ongoing usage of DDT in India. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using POP fingerprints to investigate the climate interactions and the validity of using PAS to derive inter-annual atmospheric POP time trends.

  6. Evolution and erosional dynamics of intermontane basins on the Puna Plateau, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Puna Plateau in NW Argentina is the southern part of the second-largest orogenic plateau on Earth with a mean elevation of 4.0 ± 0.5 km (±2s). The Puna is an integral part of the south-central Andes that exhibit a steep E-W topographic and climatic gradient: The first windward topographic rise east of the Puna constitutes a significant orographic barrier resulting in high orographic rainfall. Westward, the higher-elevation areas of the windward flanks become progressively drier, until arid conditions are attained in the orogen interior. The Puna repeatedly experienced significant paleoclimatic changes reflected by fluvial and lacustrine terraces associated with lake highstands related to deeper penetration of moisture into the orogen and thus an orogenward shift of the climate gradient. The southern Puna is compartmentalized into more than 500 separate, internally-drained sedimentary basins with varying catchment size. Here, we quantify the erosion-rate gradients and their impact on basin evolution and their importance on the formation of the plateau morphology. We rely on sedimentary archives, digital topography, and a new set of cosmogenic inventories of river sands (10Be) and bedrock-erosion rates (10Be and 26Al) from the eastern and central plateau. Erosion rates from internally drained catchments in the eastern plateau are similar to the externally drained, semi-arid intermontane basins in the E Cordillera, which bounds the plateau, but are ten-fold (or more) lower than erosion rates in the humid and steep sections along the eastern windward flanks. Within the plateau realm, erosion rates are ten-fold lower in the central than in the eastern parts. We analyze high-resolution topography from ASTER- and interferometry-derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that we have validated with more 10'000 differential GPS ground control points. We demonstrate distinct topometric gradients across the Puna that can be linked to spatial variations in rainfall and

  7. Seasonal Variation of Climatological Bypassing Flows around the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; ZHANG Renhe

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated diagnostically the seasonal variation of the bypassing flows caused by the splitting effect of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).The relationships among the splitting bypassing flows around the TP to precipitation in China,the westerly jet stream,and the thermal status over the TP are revealed.The bypassing flows occur from the 1st to the 22nd pentad and from the 59th to the 73rd pentad,respectively,and they disappear from the 29th to the 58th pentad.They are strongest in winter from the 1st to the 22nd pentad and from the 59th to the 73rd pentad,respectively.During the rebuilding of the bypassing flows from mid-October to mid-February,they are the main cause of precipitation over southeastern China.The enhancement of the bypassing flow intensity in March cau cause the precipitation to increase in the early stage of the persistent spring rain over southeastern China.From winter to summer,the seasonal transition of the bypassing flows in the lower troposphere precedes that of the westerly jet stream axis in the upper troposphere to the west of the TP by ~4 pentads,while from summer to winter lags by ~4 pentads.The seasonal variation of the thermal status over the TP plays an important role in the bypassing flows around the TP.The strengthening of the heating over the TP weakens the bypassing flows,and the increase in cooling over the TP is related to the rebuilding and strengthening of the bypassing flows.

  8. The ‘Mycenaeans’ in the south-eastern Aegean revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Eerbeek

    2014-01-01

    The main subject of this dissertation is the Mycenaean archaeological evidence from the south-eastern Aegean. The term "Mycenaean" is typically used to refer to the dominant archaeological culture of the central and southern Greek mainland during the Late Bronze Age, which is dated between about 170

  9. Crustal deformation along the Northern Hyblean Plateau margin (Sicily, Italy) from GPS measurements and comparison with stress data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, M.; Bruno, V.; Cannavò, F.; Palano, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we analyze data from permanent and non-permanent GPS stations collected between 1998 and 2006 on a dense geodetic network covering a large area of the Hyblean Plateau (southern Italy). This is a seismogenetic area, where strong earthquakes destroyed many cities and killed thousands of people in the past. The analysis of geodetic velocities referring to an Eurasian and an African reference frames, reveals the occurrence of active shortening in the northern sector of the plateau along the boundary defined by the Gela-Catania Foredeep, coupled with an active lengthening in the central sector of the plateau itself. Starting from the estimated velocity at each station, the horizontal strain-rate field of the Hyblean Plateau was calculated. The strain rate pattern clearly defines an area of a prevailing N-S compression along the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau. Furthermore the central sector of the plateau is affected by a NNW-SSE and NE-SW extensional strain rate pattern. A comparison with seismological and structural data, available for the studied area, allows improving the knowledge of the tectonic processes in the Hyblean Plateau and their implications for seismic hazard.

  10. Glacier mass changes on the Tibetan Plateau 2003–2009 derived from ICESat laser altimetry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glacier mass changes are a valuable indicator of climate variability and monsoon oscillation on the underexplored Tibetan Plateau. In this study data from the Ice Cloud and Elevation Satellite (ICESat) is employed to estimate elevation and mass changes of glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau between 2003 and 2009. In order to get a representative sample size of ICESat measurements, glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau were grouped into eight climatically homogeneous sub-regions. Most negative mass budgets of − 0.77 ± 0.35 m w.e. a−1 were found for the Qilian Mountains and eastern Kunlun Mountains while a mass gain of + 0.37 ± 0.25 m w.e. a−1 was found in the westerly-dominated north-central part of the Tibetan Plateau. A total annual mass budget of − 15.6 ± 10.1 Gt a−1 was estimated for the eight sub-regions sufficiently covered by ICESat data which represents ∼80% of the glacier area on the Tibetan Plateau. 13.9 ± 8.9 Gt a−1 (or 0.04 ± 0.02 mm a−1 sea-level equivalent) of the total mass budget contributed ‘directly’ to the global sea-level rise while 1.7 ± 1.9 Gt a−1 drained into endorheic basins on the plateau. (paper)

  11. The Salar de Atacama Basin: a Subsiding Block within the Western Edge of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus-J. Reutter; Reynaldo Charrier; Hans-J. Götze; B. Schurr; Peter Wigger; Ekkehard Scheuber; Peter Giese; Claus-Dieter Reuther; Sabine Schmidt; Andreas Rietbrock; Guillermo Chong; Arturo Belmonte-Pool

    2006-01-01

    The internally drained Salar de Atacama (SdA) Basin, located in the proximal fore-arc between the present magmatic arc (Western Cordillera) to the east and the North Chilean Precordillera (Cordillera de Domeyko) to the west, represents a prominent morphological anomaly in the Central Andean Plateau. The basin is a post-Incaic feature that developed contemporaneously with the initial plateau uplift. Before 38 Ma, the magmatic arc was positioned in the present-day Precordillera; as a result, th...

  12. Plateau iris Íris em platô

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Diniz Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The term plateau iris was first coined in 1958 to describe the iris configuration of a patient. Two years later the concept of plateau iris was published. In 1977, the plateau iris configuration was classically defined as presurgical changes of an eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth, flat iris by conventional biomicroscopy, but displaying an extremely narrow or closed angle on gonioscopic examination. On the other hand, the plateau iris syndrome was defined as an acute glaucoma crisis in one eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth and patent iridotomy on direct examination, presenting angle closure confirmed by gonioscopic examination after mydriasis. In 1992, the anatomic aspects of plateau iris were studied using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Finally, plateau iris has been considered an anatomic variant of iris structure in which the iris periphery angulates sharply forward from its insertion point and then again angulates sharply and centrally backward, along with an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. The clinical treatment of plateau iris syndrome is carried out with topical use of pilocarpine. However, the definitive treatment should be fulfilled by performing an argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.O termo íris em platô foi primeiramente inventado em 1958 para descrever a configuração da íris de um paciente. Dois anos depois o conceito de íris em platô foi publicado. Em 1977, a configuração de íris em platô foi classicamente definida como alterações pré-cirúrgicas de um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal, íris plana pela biomicroscopia convencional, mas mostrando um ângulo extremamente estreito ou fechado pela gonioscopia. Por outro lado, a síndrome de íris em platô foi definida como uma crise de glaucoma agudo em um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal e uma iridectomia patente ao

  13. Things hold together : foundation for a systemic treatment of verbal and nominal tone in Plateau Shimakonde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, Michael Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the way in which different verbal and nominal structures 'fit together' within a coherent system in Plateau Shimakonde, a sub-dialect of the Makonde language spoken in northern Mozambique. A central proposition of our study is that word formation in the verbal and nominal systems

  14. 40Ar/39Ar-Dating of deformation of transform-shear stage in evolution of the Early Caledonides in Western Sangilen (South-Eastern Tuva)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detail structural-metamorphic and isotopic investigations into borders of the Muguro-Chinchilig tectonic block are conducted. 40Ar/39Ar-isotope dating was conducted by the graduated warming-up with biotite for different zones. Carried studies demonstrate that in the boundary of 465 million years intensive shift disturbances entailing fragmentation of the Muguro-Chinchilig tectonic block and disturbances in entirety of its separate parts in borders of the Sangilen plateau (South-Eastern Tuva) were stated

  15. THE EUROPEAN UNION, THE ENLARGEMENT AND THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Malkidis Theofanis

    2005-01-01

    Ιn 1989, the countries of South-eastern Europe and central Europe promoted their integration of military, political and economic collaboration and developed narrow relations with the European Union (Ε.U). Thus resulted the new enlargement of EU, in order to transfer in south-eastern Europe the places of EU, for peace, stability, growth. The new enlargement constitutes a big challenge, after the integrations of states in the EU in 1973, in 1981, in 1986, in 1995 they did not have the extent ...

  16. Mesozoic denudation and cooling events of the Yinshan Mountains, southern Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li-Xia; Han, Bao-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Liu, Bo; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    ABASTRACT The Yinshan Mountains are south boundary of the Mongolian Plateau, occupying the north part of North China Craton. 18 granitoid samples were conducted by apatite fission track method in order to unravel its Mesozoic denudation and cooling history and relationship with the Mongolian Plateau. They obtain Jurassic to Cretaceous AFT ages. 3 main phases of rapid cooling events during Mesozoic are recognized and could probably be caused by denudation. Combined with local geological conditions, denudations are more likely controlled by the local thrust faulting. The Early Jurassic denudation event occurred in the transition area to the Mongolian Plateau. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous denudation events occurred in the interior mountains and are more likely provoked by the distant effect of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny based on their propagation directions. The Late Cretaceous denudation event occurred in the southeastern flank of the mountain. Finally, the activity time of thrust faults are constrained by 130-90 Ma according to the uplift and denudation relationship in the thrust system and their modeling T-t paths. Key words Apatite Fission track; Uplift and denudation; Mesozoic reactivation; Mountain Langshan

  17. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  18. Some practical notes on the land surface modeling in the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau is a key region of land-atmosphere interactions, as it provides an elevated heat source to the middle-troposphere. The Plateau surfaces are typically characterized by alpine meadows and grasslands in the central and eastern part while by alpine deserts in the western part. This study evaluates performance of three state-of-the-art land surface models (LSMs for the Plateau typical land surfaces. The LSMs of interest are SiB2 (the Simple Biosphere, CoLM (Common Land Model, and Noah. They are run at typical alpine meadow sites in the central Plateau and typical alpine desert sites in the western Plateau.

    The identified key processes and modeling issues are as follows. First, soil stratification is a typical phenomenon beneath the alpine meadows, with dense roots and soil organic matters within the topsoil, and it controls the profile of soil moisture in the central and eastern Plateau; all models, when using default parameters, significantly under-estimate the soil moisture within the topsoil. Second, a soil surface resistance controls the surface evaporation from the alpine deserts but it has not been reasonably modeled in LSMs; an advanced scheme for soil water flow is implemented in a LSM, based on which the soil resistance is determined from soil water content and meteorological conditions. Third, an excess resistance controls sensible heat fluxes from dry bare-soil or sparsely vegetated surfaces, and all LSMs significantly under-predict the ground-air temperature gradient, which would result in higher net radiation, lower soil heat fluxes and thus higher sensible heat fluxes in the models. A parameterization scheme for this resistance has been shown to be effective to remove these biases.

  19. Three decades of elevation change of the Geikie Plateau ice cap, East Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlstrom, A. P.; Forsberg, René; Skourup, Henriette; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; M. Citterio; Kjaer, K. H.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Andersen, S. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Geikie Plateau is a major marine-terminating local ice cap located in central East Greenland just south of Scoresby Sund, covering approx. 7,500 sqkm. South of this region, the Greenland ice sheet has experienced dramatic ice loss over the recent decade, whereas the response has been less prominent north of the region. For the Geikie Plateau itself, ICESat elevation measurements show a thinning of the ice margin and a slight thickening of the interior over the period 2002-2009 (Bolch et a...

  20. Influence of South America orography on summertime precipitation in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junquas, C.; Li, L.; Vera, C. S.; Le Treut, H.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-06-01

    Impacts of the main South American orographic structures (the Andes, the Brazilian Plateau and the Guiana shield) on the regional climate and associated global teleconnection are investigated through numerical experiments in which some of these features are suppressed. Simulations are performed with a ``two-way nesting'' system coupling interactively the regional and global versions of the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model. At regional scale, the simulations confirm previous studies, showing that both the Andes and the Brazilian Plateau exert a control on the position and strength of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ), mainly through their impact on the low-level jet and the coastal branch of the subtropical anticyclones. The northern topography of South America appears to be crucial to determine the leading mode of rainfall variability in eastern South America, which manifests itself as a dipole-like pattern between Southeastern South America and the SACZ region. The suppression of South America orography also shows global-scale effects, corresponding to an adjustment of the global circulation system. Changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation are found in remote areas on the globe, being the consequences of various teleconnection mechanisms. When the Brazilian Plateau and the Andes are suppressed, there is a decrease of precipitation in the SACZ region, associated with a weakening of the large-scale ascendance. Changes are described in terms of anomalies in the Walker circulation, meridional displacements of the mid-latitude jet stream, Southern annular mode anomalies and modifications of Rossby wave train teleconnection processes.

  1. Constructions of new plateaued functions from known ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weiguo; Ding Yong; Zhang Ning; Xiao Guozhen

    2008-01-01

    A number of methods for constructing new plateaued functions from known ones are presented. By properly combining the known plateaued functions it is possible to get highly nonlinear resilient plateaued functions. The order, resiliency and propagation characteristics of the constructed plateaued functions are discussed. We show the new functions could possess the desirable cryptographic property.

  2. 甘肃中部高原露地菜田土壤重金属污染及潜在生态风险分析%Analysis on Current Situation and Potential Ecological Risk and the Characteristic of Heavy Metals Pollution of Soil in the Central Plateau of Gansu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞琴; 于安芬; 白滨; 王婧

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations and pollution characteristics of six heavy metals, such as Hg, Cr, Cd, As, Pb and Cu, in the open vegetable fileds soil from solanaceous fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables, bulbs vegetables, roots and stems vegetables in the central plateau of Gansu Province were analyzed by using the method of field investigation and laboratory analyses. Geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate the ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollution. Our results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in soil of open vegetable fields soil were higher than the evaluation of reference value.Those soils showed a light potential ecological risk, and the potential ecological risk was in the order of Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu>Cr>As. Hg was the potential impact element for the ecological environment in the research area.%采用野外采样和室内分析相结合的方法,以甘肃中部高原露地蔬菜代表类型的茄果类、叶菜类、鳞茎类、根茎类等蔬菜土壤为研究对象,以甘肃省环境监测中心站发布的土壤环境重金属背景值为主要评价参比值,分析土壤中重金属Cd、Hg、As、Cu、Pb和Cr的质量分数及污染特征,并采用地累积指数法和潜在生态危害指数法对研究区露地蔬菜土壤重金属污染现状进行生态风险评价.结果表明:研究区露地菜田土壤重金属的质量分数均高于评价参比值,重金属元素的潜在生态危害均属轻微,潜在生态危害程度顺序是Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu>Cr>As,对研究区域生态环境具有潜在影响的重金属元素主要是Hg.

  3. Local potato-plateau transport fluxes and a unified plateau theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A local potato-plateau transport theory is presented. It is a nonradial averaged version of the original theory [Phys. Plasmas 4, 4331 (1997); 5, 953 (1998)]. The theory unifies conventional plateau theory and the potato-plateau theory. It is applicable at any radius. It is found that the ion heat conductivity is the same as that in the conventional theory in the region close to the magnetic axis

  4. THE EUROPEAN UNION, THE ENLARGEMENT AND THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkidis Theofanis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Ιn 1989, the countries of South-eastern Europe and central Europe promoted their integration of military, political and economic collaboration and developed narrow relations with the European Union (Ε.U. Thus resulted the new enlargement of EU, in order to transfer in south-eastern Europe the places of EU, for peace, stability, growth. The new enlargement constitutes a big challenge, after the integrations of states in the EU in 1973, in 1981, in 1986, in 1995 they did not have the extent and the expectations 2004 and particularly the South-eastern Europe afterwards 2007. The article analyzes the course of integration of South-eastern Europe in the EU and analyzes the essential changes that are required, the transition in the free market economy, the creation of political system that will be based on the state of right and the respect the human and minorities’ rights, the political plurality and the multi-party system with democratic elections. The article supports that the enlargement in the South-eastern Europe is very important for the EU, enlargement that closes the Cold War, a hope for the common European region of peace, cooperation, democracy and development.

  5. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  6. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  7. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  8. Argalis on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The argali are listed by the State as animals subject tosecond-class protection,and no killing is allowed. The international communitylists argali on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as animals that must not be hunted.

  9. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  10. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes (M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of uc(Gardner) and uc(Knopoff) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the uc(Wells) and uc(Coppersmith) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the uc(Burkhard) and uc(Grünthal) (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of uc(Gardner) and uc(Knopoff) (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  11. Sensitivity of East Asian Climate to the Progressive Uplift and Expansion of the Tibetan Plateau Under the Mid-Pliocene Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Dabang; DING Zhongli; Helge DRANGE; GAO Yongqi

    2008-01-01

    A global atmospheric general circulation model has been used to perform eleven idealized numerical experimenta,i.e.,TP00,TPl0,…,TPl00,corresponding to different percentages of the Tibetan Plateau altitude.The aim is to explore the sensitivity of East Asian climate to the uplift and expansion of the Tibetan Plateau under the reconstructed boundary conditions for the mid-Pliocene about 3 Ma ago.When the plateau is progressively uplifted,global annual surface temperature is gradually declined and statistically significant cooling signals emerge only in the Northern Hemisphere,especially over and around the Tibetan Plateau.with larger magnitudes over land than over the oceans.0n the contrary,annual surface temperature rises notably over Central Asia and most parts of Africa,as well as over northeasternmost Eurasia in the experiments TP60 to TP100.Meanwhile.the plateau uplift also leads to annual precipitation augmentation over the Tibetan Plateau but a reduction in northern Asia,the Indian Peninsula,much of Central Asia,parts of western Asia and the southern portions of northeastern Europe.Additionally,it is found that an East Asian summer monsoon system similar to that of the present initially exists in the TP60 and is gradually intensified with the continued plateau uplift.At 850 hPa the plateau uplift induces an anomalous cyclonic circulation around the Tibetan Plateau in summertime and two anomalous westerly currents respectively located to the south and north of the Tibetan Plateau in wintertime.In the mid-troposphere,similar-to-modern spatial pattern of summertime western North Pacific subtropical high is only exhibited in the experiments TP60 to TP100,and the East Asian trough is steadily deepened in response to the progressive uplift and expansion of the Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Quantum phase transitions and the 1/3 magnetization plateau in the spin-1/2 Ferromagnetic–Ferromagnetic–Antiferromagnetic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ground-state properties of the spin-1/2 Ferromagnetic–Ferromagnetic–Antiferromagnetic (F–F–AF) trimerized chain are investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. A ground-state phase diagram including three different phases, i.e., a fully polarized phase, a 1/3 plateau phase, and a non-plateau phase, is obtained. All the quantum phase transitions (QPTs) can be described well by the model independent bipartite entanglement. QPTs between the non-plateau phase and the other two phases belong to the second-order category. Doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum and nontrivial string order are observed in the 1/3 plateau phase, which can be used to distinguish it from the other phases. By the scaling behavior of the bipartite entanglement, the central charge of the critical non-plateau phase is determined to be c≃ 1. - Highlights: • A rich ground-state phase diagram is obtained. • QPTs can be well described by singular behavior of entanglement. • The 1/3 magnetization plateau is characterized by entanglement plateau. • Doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum is observed in the 1/3 plateau phase. • Nontrivial string order is observed in the 1/3 plateau phase

  13. Quantum phase transitions and the 1/3 magnetization plateau in the spin-1/2 Ferromagnetic–Ferromagnetic–Antiferromagnetic chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: liuguanghua@tjpu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Li, Wei [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); You, Wen-Long [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Su, Gang [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, College of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Guang-Shan [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-03-01

    The ground-state properties of the spin-1/2 Ferromagnetic–Ferromagnetic–Antiferromagnetic (F–F–AF) trimerized chain are investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. A ground-state phase diagram including three different phases, i.e., a fully polarized phase, a 1/3 plateau phase, and a non-plateau phase, is obtained. All the quantum phase transitions (QPTs) can be described well by the model independent bipartite entanglement. QPTs between the non-plateau phase and the other two phases belong to the second-order category. Doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum and nontrivial string order are observed in the 1/3 plateau phase, which can be used to distinguish it from the other phases. By the scaling behavior of the bipartite entanglement, the central charge of the critical non-plateau phase is determined to be c≃ 1. - Highlights: • A rich ground-state phase diagram is obtained. • QPTs can be well described by singular behavior of entanglement. • The 1/3 magnetization plateau is characterized by entanglement plateau. • Doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum is observed in the 1/3 plateau phase. • Nontrivial string order is observed in the 1/3 plateau phase.

  14. Continuing Colorado plateau uplift by delamination-style convective lithospheric downwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A; Schmandt, B; Miller, M S; Liu, K; Karlstrom, K E; Crow, R S; Lee, C-T A; Humphreys, E D

    2011-04-28

    The Colorado plateau is a large, tectonically intact, physiographic province in the southwestern North American Cordillera that stands at ∼1,800-2,000 m elevation and has long been thought to be in isostatic equilibrium. The origin of these high elevations is unclear because unlike the surrounding provinces, which have undergone significant Cretaceous-Palaeogene compressional deformation followed by Neogene extensional deformation, the Colorado plateau is largely internally undeformed. Here we combine new seismic tomography and receiver function images to resolve a vertical high-seismic-velocity anomaly beneath the west-central plateau that extends more than 200 km in depth. The upper surface of this anomaly is seismically defined by a dipping interface extending from the lower crust to depths of 70-90 km. The base of the continental crust above the anomaly has a similar shape, with an elevated Moho. We interpret these seismic structures as a continuing regional, delamination-style foundering of lower crust and continental lithosphere. This implies that Pliocene (2.6-5.3 Myr ago) uplift of the plateau and the magmatism on its margins are intimately tied to continuing deep lithospheric processes. Petrologic and geochemical observations indicate that late Cretaceous-Palaeogene (∼90-40 Myr ago) low-angle subduction hydrated and probably weakened much of the Proterozoic tectospheric mantle beneath the Colorado plateau. We suggest that mid-Cenozoic (∼35-25 Myr ago) to Recent magmatic infiltration subsequently imparted negative compositional buoyancy to the base and sides of the Colorado plateau upper mantle, triggering downwelling. The patterns of magmatic activity suggest that previous such events have progressively removed the Colorado plateau lithosphere inward from its margins, and have driven uplift. Using Grand Canyon incision rates and Pliocene basaltic volcanism patterns, we suggest that this particular event has been active over the past ∼6

  15. Interannual Variability of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index on the Tibetan Plateau and Its Relationship with Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dingwen; FAN Guangzhou; HUANG Ronghui; FANG Zhifang; LIU Yaqin; LI Hongquan

    2007-01-01

    The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, or Tibetan Plateau, is a sensitive region for climate change, where the manifestation of global warming is particularly noticeable. The wide climate variability in this region significantly affects the local land ecosystem and could consequently lead to notable vegetation changes. In this paper, the interannual variations of the plateau vegetation are investigated using a 21-year normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset to quantify the consequences of climate warming for the regional ecosystem and its interactions. The results show that vegetation coverage is best in the eastern and southern plateau regions and deteriorates toward the west and north. On the whole, vegetation activity demonstrates a gradual enhancement in an oscillatory manner during 1982-2002. The temporal variation also exhibits striking regional differences: an increasing trend is most apparent in the west, south, north and southeast, whereas a decreasing trend is present along the southern plateau boundary and in the central-east region. Covariance analysis between the NDVI and surface temperature/precipitation suggests that vegetation change is closely related to climate change. However, the controlling physical processes vary geographically. In the west and east, vegetation variability is found to be driven predominantly by temperature, with the impact of precipitation being of secondary importance. In the central plateau, however, temperature and precipitation factors are equally important in modulating the interannual vegetation variability.

  16. Colonization of the Tibetan Plateau by the homoploid hybrid pine Pinus densata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baosheng; Mao, Jian-Feng; Gao, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2011-09-01

    Pinus densata is an intriguingly successful homoploid hybrid species that occupies vast areas of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in which neither of its parental species are present, but the colonization processes involved are poorly understood. To shed light on how this species colonized and became established on the plateau, we surveyed paternally inherited chloroplast (cp) and maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation within and among 54 populations of P. densata and its putative parental species throughout their respective ranges. Strong spatial genetic structure of both cp and mtDNA were detected in P. densata populations. Mitotypes specific to P. densata were likely generated by complex recombination events. A putative ancestral hybrid zone in the northeastern periphery of P. densata was identified, and we propose that the species then colonized the plateau by migrating westwards. Along the colonization route, consecutive bottlenecks and surfing of rare alleles caused a significant reduction in genetic diversity and strong population differentiation. The direction and intensity of introgression from parental species varied among geographic regions. In western parts of its range, the species seems to have been isolated from seed and pollen flow from its parent species for a long time. The observed spatial distribution of genetic diversity in P. densata also appears to reflect the persistence of this species on the plateau during the last glaciation. Our results indicate that both ancient and contemporary population dynamics have contributed to the spatial distribution of genetic diversity in P. densata, which accordingly reflects its evolutionary history. PMID:21689188

  17. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern Tibetan Plateau and related crust-mantle coupling pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChunYong; CHANG LiJun; L(U) ZhiYong; QIN JiaZheng; SU Wei; Paul SILVER; Lucy FLESCH

    2007-01-01

    By using the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 116 seismic stations which respectively involved in China National Digital Seismograph Network, and Yunnan, Sichuan,Gansu and Qinghai regional digital networks, and portable broadband seismic networks deployed in Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet, we obtained the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between fast and slow waves of each station by use of the stacking analysis method, and finally acquired the fine image of upper mantle anisotropy in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions. We analyzed the crust-mantle coupling deformation on the basis of combining the GPS observation results and the upper mantle anisotropy distribution in the study area. The Yunnan region out of the plateau has different features of crust-mantle deformation from the inside plateau. There exists a lateral transitional zone of crust-mantle coupling in the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, which is located in the region between 26° and 27°N in the west of Sichuan and Yunnan. To the south of transitional zone, the fast-wave direction is gradually turned from S60°-70°E in southwestern Yunnan to near EW in southeastern Yunnan. To the north of transitional zone in northwestern Yunnan and the south of western Sichuan, the fast-wave direction is nearly NS. From crust to upper mantle, the geophysical parameters(e.g. the crustal thickness, the Bouguer gravity anomaly, and tectonic stress direction) show the feature of lateral variation in the transitional zone, although the fault trend on the ground surface is inconsistent with the fast-wave direction. This transitional zone is close by the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, and it may play an important role in the plate boundary dynamics.

  18. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern Tibetan Plateau and related crust-mantle coupling pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul; SILVER; Lucy; FLESCH

    2007-01-01

    By using the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 116 seismic stations which respectively involved in China National Digital Seismograph Network, and Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu and Qinghai regional digital networks, and portable broadband seismic networks deployed in Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet, we obtained the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between fast and slow waves of each station by use of the stacking analysis method, and finally acquired the fine image of upper mantle anisotropy in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions. We analyzed the crust-mantle coupling deformation on the basis of combining the GPS observation results and the upper mantle anisotropy distribution in the study area. The Yunnan region out of the plateau has dif-ferent features of crust-mantle deformation from the inside plateau. There exists a lateral transitional zone of crust-mantle coupling in the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, which is located in the region between 26° and 27°N in the west of Sichuan and Yunnan. To the south of transitional zone, the fast-wave direction is gradually turned from S60°―70°E in southwestern Yunnan to near EW in south-eastern Yunnan. To the north of transitional zone in northwestern Yunnan and the south of western Sichuan, the fast-wave direction is nearly NS. From crust to upper mantle, the geophysical parameters (e.g. the crustal thickness, the Bouguer gravity anomaly, and tectonic stress direction) show the feature of lateral variation in the transitional zone, although the fault trend on the ground surface is inconsis-tent with the fast-wave direction. This transitional zone is close by the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, and it may play an important role in the plate boundary dynamics.

  19. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  20. S-wave velocity structure in the SE Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Weilai; Fang, Lihua; Fan, Liping

    2016-05-01

    We use observations recorded by 23 permanent and 99 temporary stations in the SE Tibetan plateau to obtain the S-wave velocity structure along two profiles by applying joint inversion with receiver functions and surface waves. The two profiles cross West Yunnan block (WYB), the Central Yunnan sub-block (CYB), South China block (SCB), and Nanpanjiang basin (NPB). The profile at ~25°N shows that the Moho interface in the CYB is deeper than those in the WYB and the NPB, and the topography and Moho depth have clear correspondence. Beneath the Xiaojiang fault zone (XJF), there exists a crustal low-velocity zone (LVZ), crossing the XJF and expanding eastward into the SCB. The NPB is shown to be of relatively high velocity. We speculate that the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau may pass through the XJF and affect its eastern region, and is resisted by the rigid NPB, which has high velocity. This may be the main cause of the crustal thickening and uplift of the topography. In the Tengchong volcanic area, the crust is shown to have alternate high- and low-velocity layers, and the upper mantle is shown to be of low velocity. We consider that the magma which exists in the crust is from the upper mantle and that the complex crustal velocity structure is related to magmatic differentiation. Between the Tengchong volcanic area and the XJF, the crustal velocity is relatively high. Combining these observations with other geophysical evidence, it is indicated that rock strength is high and deformation is weak in this area, which is why the level of seismicity is quite low. The profile at ~23°N shows that the variation of the Moho depth is small from the eastern rigid block to the western active block with a wide range of LVZs. We consider that deformation to the south of the SE Tibetan Plateau is weak.

  1. S-wave velocity structure in the SE Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Weilai; Fang, Lihua; Fan, Liping

    2016-06-01

    We use observations recorded by 23 permanent and 99 temporary stations in the SE Tibetan plateau to obtain the S-wave velocity structure along two profiles by applying joint inversion with receiver functions and surface waves. The two profiles cross West Yunnan block (WYB), the Central Yunnan sub-block (CYB), South China block (SCB), and Nanpanjiang basin (NPB). The profile at ~25°N shows that the Moho interface in the CYB is deeper than those in the WYB and the NPB, and the topography and Moho depth have clear correspondence. Beneath the Xiaojiang fault zone (XJF), there exists a crustal low-velocity zone (LVZ), crossing the XJF and expanding eastward into the SCB. The NPB is shown to be of relatively high velocity. We speculate that the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan plateau may pass through the XJF and affect its eastern region, and is resisted by the rigid NPB, which has high velocity. This may be the main cause of the crustal thickening and uplift of the topography. In the Tengchong volcanic area, the crust is shown to have alternate high- and low-velocity layers, and the upper mantle is shown to be of low velocity. We consider that the magma which exists in the crust is from the upper mantle and that the complex crustal velocity structure is related to magmatic differentiation. Between the Tengchong volcanic area and the XJF, the crustal velocity is relatively high. Combining these observations with other geophysical evidence, it is indicated that rock strength is high and deformation is weak in this area, which is why the level of seismicity is quite low. The profile at ~23°N shows that the variation of the Moho depth is small from the eastern rigid block to the western active block with a wide range of LVZs. We consider that deformation to the south of the SE Tibetan Plateau is weak.

  2. Shallow subsurface temperatures and some estimates of heat flow from the Colorado Plateau of northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Stone, C.; Bills, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Temperature data to depths of a few hundred meters were obtained from 29 wells in northeastern Arizona; 12 in the region surrounding the San Francisco Volcanic Field, 8 in the Black Mesa area, and 9 in the south-central Colorado Plateau which includes the White Mountains. Although there was evidence for local hydrologic disturbances in many temperature profiles, most wells provided an estimate of the conductive thermal gradient at the site. A few thermal conductivities were measured and were combined with published regional averages for the north-central part of the Colorado Plateau to produce crude estimates of regional heat flux. None of the wells was accessible below the regional aquifers. To these depths, heat flow in the area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field appears to be controlled primarily by regional lateral water movement having a significant downward vertical component of velocity. The mean heat flow of 27 +- 5 mWm/sup -2/ is only a third to a quarter of what we would expect in this tectonic setting. The heat that is being carried laterally and downward probably is being discharged at low enthalpy and low elevation in springs and streams of the Colorado Plateau and Mogollon Rim. In the vicinity of Black Mesa, heat-flow averages about 60 mWm/sup -2/, characteristics of the coal interior of the Colorado Plateau. North of the White Mountain Volcanic Field, the average heat flow is about 95 mWm/sup -2/.

  3. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  4. Cluster growth modeling of plateau erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Colin P.

    1994-01-01

    The pattern of erosion of a plateau along an escarpment may be modeled usng cluster growth techniques, recently popularized in models of drainage network evolution. If erosion on the scarp takes place in discrete events at rates subject to local substrate strength, the whole range of behavior is described by a combination of three cluster growth mechanisms: invasion percolation, Eden growth and diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). These model the relative importance of preexisting substrate strength, background weathering, and seepage weathering and erosion respectively. The rate of seepage processes is determined by the efflux of groundwater at the plateau margin, which in turn is determined by the pressure field in the plateau aquifer. If this process acted alone, it would produce erosion patterns in the form of Laplacian fractals, with groundwater recharge from a distant source, or Poissionian fractals, with groundwater recharge uniform over the plateau. DLA is used to mimic the Laplacian or Poissonian potential field and the corresponding seepage growth process. The scaling structure of clusters grown by pure DLA, invasion percolation, or Eden growth is well known; this study presents a model which combines all three growth mechanisms for the first time. Mixed growth processes create clusters with different scaling properties and morphologies over distinct length scale ranges, and this is demonstrable in natural examples of plateau erosion.

  5. Climate modulation of the Tibetan Plateau on haze in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Zhao, T.; Liu, F.; Gong, S. L.; Kristovich, D.; Lu, C.; Guo, Y.; Cheng, X.; Wang, Y.; Ding, G.

    2016-02-01

    Rapid increases in pollutant emissions in conjunction with stagnant meteorological conditions result in haze pollution in China. Recent frequent haze in China has attracted worldwide attention. Here we show a relationship between the haze events and Tibetan Plateau (TP)'s environment and climate changes. Based on observational data taken over recent decades, we identify central-eastern China (CEC) as a climatological large-scale "susceptible region" of frequent haze, which is harbored by the TP with its impact on midlatitude westerly winds. The observational and modeling studies demonstrate that the interannual variations in the thermal forcing of TP are positively correlated with the incidences of wintertime haze over CEC. Further analysis indicates that the climate warming of the TP induced changes in atmospheric circulation, driving frequent haze events in CEC. The frequent haze occurrences in CEC are consistent with decreasing winter monsoon winds, intensifying downward air flows and increasing atmospheric stability in the lower troposphere over the CEC in association with upstream plateau's thermal anomalies. Therefore, variations of haze in China are related to mechanical and thermal forcing by the TP. Our results also suggest that implications of the large TP topography for environment and climate changes should be taken into account for air pollution mitigation policies in China.

  6. Computed tomography of tibial plateau fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients with tibial plateau fractures were studied by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the role and feasibility of CT in management of such patients. CT resulted in less discomfort to the patient and provided optimal visualization of the plateau defect and the split fragments. It proved more accurate than conventional tomography in assessing depressed and split fractures when they involved the anterior or posterior border of the plateau and in demonstrating the extent of fracture comminution. Split fragments with an oblique plane of fracture also were seen better by CT. The degree of fracture depression and separation as measured by the computerized technique was often more accurate than measurements obtained from conventional tomograms

  7. Influence of Andean Plateau Rise on South American Climate Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, N.; Poulsen, C. J.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    Large mountain ranges exhibit a first-order control on climate. In South America, the modern Andes act as a barrier to atmospheric flow and control regional wind and precipitation patterns. However, it is unclear how climate may have changed over time as Andean topography developed. We present results from a regional general circulation model (RegCM3) to evaluate dynamical and physical atmospheric changes associated with variations in Andean plateau height during the Cenozoic. A series of five experiments were conducted with plateau topography systematically varying between 0 and 100% of the modern. Experiments were performed over a continental-scale domain with 60km horizontal resolution using the MIT-Emanuel convection scheme. Land surface characteristics, sea-surface temperatures and atmospheric boundary conditions were specified from modern NCEP reanalysis data. Model results show that large-scale upper-level (200 mbar) circulation characteristics are only weakly affected by the removal of the Andes with a slight weakening and eastward shift of the high pressure system over Bolivia. However, low-level (800 mbar) wind patterns change significantly and have a direct effect on precipitation in South America. The following features can be observed as the Andean topography decreases: (1) The dominant wind direction in the central Andes reverses with prevailing winds sourced from the Pacific Ocean. The Westerlies are characterized by low moisture content due to the presence of the cold Humboldt current along the west coast of South America. (2) A reduction in the surface pressure gradient between the Andes and the Amazon Basin reduces convergence over the plateau and suppresses the South American low level jet, reducing the southward moisture flux along the eastern flanks of the Andes that is the primary source for precipitation in the Chaco region. These changes lead to declines in precipitation over the Andes and decreased latent heat release. This results in a

  8. Origin and Evolution of the Iceland Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsdottir, B.; Hooft, E. E.; Breivik, A.; Mjelde, R.; Shimamura, H.; Murai, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor spreading within the Iceland region has been complex since the opening of the North Atlantic in late Paleocene-early Eocene. Whereas symmetric magnetic anomalies can be traced parallel to the Reykjanes Ridge and Mohns Ridge back to chrons 23-24, anomalies within the Iceland Plateau, west of the Aegir Ridge and along the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroe Ridge are irregular, indicating plate boundary complexities, most likely associated with branched accretion zones. Our 700 km long refraction/reflection and gravity profile, straddling 66.5°N across the Iceland Insular Shelf, Iceland Plateau and western Norway Basin revealed large variations in crustal structure between the presently active Kolbeinsey Ridge and extinct plate boundaries. The westernmost 300 km of the profile lies across the Iceland shelf, considered to have formed by rifting at the Kolbeinsey Ridge whereas the easternmost 400 km lie across the Iceland Plateau and Norway Basin, a region formed by rifting at the Aegir Ridge and possibly containing slivers of older crust rifted off the east Greenland margin along with the Jan Mayen Ridge. Crustal thickness varies from 4-5 km across the Aegir Ridge to 12-15 km beneath the Iceland Plateau and from 24-28 km beneath the outer Iceland shelf, to 12-13 km near the southern tip of the Kolbeinsey Ridge. Pronounced undulations in lower crustal structure and corresponding gravity highs across the Iceland Plateau are most likely associated with extinct spreading centers indicating that branched crustal accretion zones existed west of the Aegir Ridge prior to the westward ridge jump forming the KR at 26 Ma. Slivers of older crust, rifted off the east Greenland margin may exist between individual rift segments. However, more extensive surveying is required in order to reveal details of crustal evolution within the Iceland Plateau.

  9. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  10. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  11. Insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs

  12. Climatic significance of stable carbon isotope in tree rings of Abies spectabibis in southeastern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaohong; Qin Dahe; SHAO Xuemei; CHEN Tuo; REN Jiawen

    2003-01-01

    The annually cross-dated stable carbon isotope of tree-ring α-cellulose of Abies spectabibis collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is used to examine its relationship with climatic parameters. The residual △13C series in treerings is constructed after removing the effects of age trend and rising CO2. We found a close relationship between △13C in tree rings and the relative humidity of September-November of the previous year measured at the nearby Nyingchi Meteorological Station, albeit a strong "lagged effect". Thus we developed a transfer function to reconstruct the autumn relative humidity for the Nyingchi region, which explained 37.9% of the total variance (p < 0.001). Our results suggest a high frequency and moderate amplitude variance of the relative humidity before 1800, and the variance reversed afterwards.

  13. Rapid regional surface uplift of the northern Altiplano plateau revealed by multiproxy paleoclimate reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nandini; Garzione, Carmala N.; Jaramillo, Carlos; Shanahan, Timothy; Carlotto, Victor; Pullen, Alex; Moreno, Federico; Anderson, Veronica; Moreno, Enrique; Eiler, John

    2016-08-01

    The central Altiplano is inferred to have experienced ∼ 2.5 ± 1km surface uplift between ∼10 and 6 Ma, while the southern Altiplano experienced a similar magnitude of surface uplift that began earlier, between ∼16 and 9 Ma. To properly constrain the along strike timing of the Altiplano plateau surface uplift, it is necessary to know how and when the northernmost part of the Altiplano plateau evolved. We reconstruct the paleoclimate and infer the corresponding paleoelevation from the Miocene-Pliocene deposits of the Descanso-Yauri basin (14-15°S) in the northernmost part of the Altiplano plateau using 4 different proxies, including carbonate clumped isotope composition (i.e., Δ47 values), carbonate δ18Oc, leaf wax δDwax and pollen assemblages from paleosol, lacustrine and palustrine carbonates and organic-rich sediments. The isotopic signatures reflect past climate conditions of mean annual air temperature (Δ47) and meteoric water isotope values (δ18Oc, δDwax). Our results show that the northernmost plateau remained at low elevation (0.9 ± 0.8 to 2.1 ± 0.9km) until late Miocene time (∼9 Ma) characterized by ∼15 °C warmer than modern temperature (mean annual air temperature of 23 ± 4 °C, 2σ), low elevation vegetation and precipitation signature with reconstructed □ δ18Omw (VSMOW) of - 8.3 ± 2.0 ‰ (2 σ) from carbonate (δ18Oc) and - 8.6 ± 1.8 ‰ (2 σ) from leaf wax (δDwax). Modern elevations of 4 km were not reached until 5.4 ± 1.0Ma, as indicated by a negative shift in δDwax (VSMOW) from - 143.4 ± 12.8 ‰ (2 σ) to - 209.2 ± 21.1 ‰ (2 σ) between 9.1 ± 0.7 and 5.4 ± 1.0Ma. The timing of surface uplift of the northernmost Altiplano is consistent with the evidence for late Miocene surface uplift of the central Altiplano (16-19°S) between 10 and 6 Ma, and indicates that regional scale uplift in the northern-central plateau significantly postdates the onset of surface uplift in the southern Altiplano (19-22°S) between ∼16

  14. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2009-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lavrova O. Yu.; Mityagina M.I.; Kostianoy A.G.; Semenov A.V.

    2014-01-01

    From January 2009 to April 2012 a satellite survey of the central and southeastern parts of the Baltic Sea was carried out by the Space Radar Laboratory at the Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). The main attention was focused on the detection of oil pollution as well as biogenic and anthropogenic surfactant films. The basic data are high resolution radar images obtained by advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) on board of the Envisat satellite of the European Sp...

  15. 75 FR 65624 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 19, 2010. Take... Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) Rate Order No. SEPA- 53, for the sale of power...

  16. 27 CFR 9.72 - Southeastern New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Southeastern New England... Southeastern New England. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southeastern New England.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of...

  17. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  18. EVALUATION OF THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LANDSLIDES IN THE CODRI PLATEAU USING THE METHOD OF FREQUENCY AND RATE AND SIG TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE BOBOC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the susceptibility to landslides in the Codri Plateau using the method of frequency and rate and SIG techniques. Landslides in the Republic of Moldova are spread practically everywhere. But the main regions in which these processes are more frequently, are hills and plateaus areas, firstly the Plateau of the Central Region of the Republic of Moldova, known as the Codri Plateau or the Bâc Plateau. Landslides cause annual losses of multiple materials, destroying houses, transport routes, industrial targets, farmlands etc.. Between 1970-2010 in the Republic of Moldova the rate of the increase of the active landslide surface was 1.000 ha/year in that period the Bâc Plateau was characterized- with a maximum landslides frequency of 40-50 land./100 km2. The aim of this work is to draw the map of the susceptibility to landslides of the Bâc Plateau, using the frequency rate method and SIG techniques.

  19. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a Southeastern Tibetan glacier: variations, sources and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of OC / BC ratio with higher values in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source-receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia is a primary contributor during the non-monsoon season (October to May (81% and on an annual basis (74%, followed by East Asia (14% and 21%, respectively. The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia as the primary contributor. Moreover, the increasing trend of OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice core record.

  20. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a Southeastern Tibetan glacier: variations, sources and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Zhao, S.; Wu, G.; Zhao, H.; Joswiak, D. R.; Li, J.; Xie, Y.

    2014-07-01

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956-2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of OC / BC ratio with higher values in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source-receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia is a primary contributor during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and on an annual basis (74%), followed by East Asia (14% and 21%, respectively). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia as the primary contributor. Moreover, the increasing trend of OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice core record.

  1. Not so deserted…paleoecology and human subsistence in Central Iberia (Guadalajara, Spain) around the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, José; Julien, Marie-Anne; Alcaraz-Castaño, Manuel; Estaca-Gómez, Verónica; Alcolea-González, Javier; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Lécuyer, Christophe; Marcel, Claude Hillaire; Burke, Ariane

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to the coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula, the Upper Palaeolithic settlement of central Iberia, dominated by the Spanish plateau, is poorly known. Traditional models assume a total or virtual depopulation of the interior of the Iberian Peninsula during the Last Glacial. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of human-environment interactions through the first zooarchaeological, taphonomic and isotopic study of the key site of Peña Capón, a rock shelter located in the south-eastern foothills of the Central System range that contains a multi-layered deposit dated to marine isotope stage 2 (MIS 2). Analyses of the faunal assemblages of the Proto-Solutrean (3) and Middle Solutrean (2) layers show that human preferentially hunted horse, deer and iberian ibex living in the vicinity of the rock shelter. Isotope geochemistry of the animal remains of Peña Capón provides us with the first detailed intra-tooth multi-proxy analysis for this time period in south-western Europe, providing estimates of climatic conditions, seasonal flucturation of diet, as well as patterns of seasonal mobility. Our results indicate that human presence at Peña Capón was apparently restricted to relatively warm intervals around the LGM or reflects the presence of an ecological refuge, and provide us with evidence of recurrent human presence in the Iberian interior during the Upper Paleolithic prior to the Magdalenian.

  2. People not Print: Exploring Engineering Future Possible Self Development in Rural Areas of Tennessee's Cumberland Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, Matthew Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how students in rural areas of Tennessee's Cumberland Plateau area perceive engineering as a future career. This area is a portion of the greater Appalachian region, which has historically, faced disproportionate economic struggles when compared to other areas of the United States. However, little research on career choice exists outside of the coal producing areas of Central Appalachia. This research, in contrast, focuses on rural counties without interstate access, situa...

  3. Patterns of species diversity and phylogenetic structure of vascular plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yujing; Yang, Xian; Tang, Zhiyao

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness and the underlying mechanisms regulating these patterns have long been the central issues in biogeography and macroecology. Phylogenetic community structure is a result of combined effects of contemporary ecological interactions, environmental filtering, and evolutionary history, and it links community ecology with biogeography and trait evolution. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau provides a good opportunity to test the influence of contemporary climate on ...

  4. Prevalence of mastitis among dairy cattle in Kanam Local Government Area of Plateau state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Charles O. Ebojei; Gyang C. Davou; Blessing A. Salman; Victoria O. Mosimabale

    2010-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease that infects the mammary gland of dairy cattle and adverselyaffects the quantity and quality of milk produced by cows. This study described the socio-economiccharacteristics of herdsmen and examined the prevalence rate of mastitis in White Fulani cows in KanamLocal Government Area (LGA) of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Four districts were randomlyselected from the LGA (among 10 districts) and twenty herdsmen were randomly selected from each ofthese four dis...

  5. Estimating Air Temperature over the Tibetan Plateau Using MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangfang; Ma, Weiqiang; Ma, Yaoming; Li, Maoshan; Hu, Zeyong

    2016-04-01

    Time series of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, combined with digital elevation model (DEM) and meterological data for 2001-2012, were used to estimate and map the spatial distribution of monthly mean air temperature over the Tibatan Plateau (TP). Time series and regression analysis of monthly mean land surface temperature (Ts) and air temperature (Ta) were both conducted by ordinary liner regression (OLR) and geographical weighted regression (GWR) methods. Analysis showed that GWR method had much better result (Adjusted R2 > 0.79, root mean square error (RMSE) is between 0.51° C and 1.12° C) for estimating Ta than OLR method. The GWR model, with MODIS LST, NDVI and altitude as independent variables, was used to estimate Ta over the Tibetan Plateau. All GWR models in each month were tested by F-test with significant level of α=0.01 and the regression coefficients were all tested by T-test with significant level of α=0.01. This illustrated that Ts, NDVI and altitude play an important role on estimating Ta over the Tibetan Plateau. Finally, the major conclusions are as follows: (1) GWR method has higher accuracy for estimating Ta than OLR (Adjusted R2=0.40˜0.78, RMSE=1.60˜4.38° C), and the Ta control precision can be up to 1.12° C. (2) Over the Northern TP, the range of Ta variation in January is -29.28 ˜ -5.0° C, and that in July is -0.53 ˜ 14.0° C. Ta in summer half year (from May to October) is between -15.92 ˜ 14.0° C. From October on, 0° C isothermal level is gradually declining from the altitude of 4˜5 kilometers, and hits the bottom with altitude of 3200 meters in December, and Ta is all under 0° C in January. 10° C isothermal level gradually starts rising from the altitude of 3200 meters from May, and reaches the highest level with altitude of 4˜5 kilometers in July. In addition, Ta in south slope of the Tanggula Mountains is obviously higher than that in the north slope. Ta

  6. Paleomagnetism and Tectonic Interpretations of the Taos Plateau Volcanic Field, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurie L.; Caffall, Nancy M.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    The tectonic response of the Taos Plateau volcanic field in the southern San Luis basin to the late stage extensional environment of the Rio Grande rift was investigated using paleomagnetic techniques. Sixty-two sites (533 samples) of Pliocene volcanic units were collected covering four major rock types with ages of 4.7 to 1.8 Ma. Twenty-two of these sites were from stratigraphic sections of the lower, middle and upper Servilleta Basalt collected in the Rio Grande gorge at two locations 19 km apart. Flows from the lower and middle members in the southern gorge record reversed polarities, while those in Garapata Canyon are normal with an excursion event in the middle of the sequence. The uppermost flows of the upper member at both sites display normal directions. Although these sections correlate chemically, they seem to represent different magnetic time periods during the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity Chiron. Alternating field demagnetization, aided by principal component analysis, yields 55 sites with stable directions representing both normal and reversed polarities, and five sites indicating transitional fields. Mean direction of the normal and inverted reversed sites is I=49.3 deg. and D=356.7 deg. (alpha(sub 95)=3.6 deg). Angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic poles is 16.3 deg, which is consistent with paleosecular variation model G, fit to data from the past 5 m.y. Comparison with the expected direction indicates no azimuthal rotation of the Taos Plateau volcanic field; inclination flattening for the southern part of the plateau is 8.3 deg +/- 5.3 deg. Previous paleomagnelic data indicate 10 deg- 15 deg counterclockwise rotation of die Espanola block to the south over the past 5 m.y. The data suggest the Taos Plateau volcanic field, showing no rotation and some flattening in the south and east, has acted as a stable buttress and has been downwarped by overriding of the southeastern end of the plateau by the Picuris Mountains, which make up the northern

  7. Distinct niche divergence characterizes the homoploid hybrid speciation of Pinus densata on the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2011-04-01

    Ecological divergence and selection for novel adaptations to new habitats have been theoretically proposed to play important roles in promoting homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS). The successful establishment of Pinus densata on the Tibetan Plateau is one of the few known examples of HHS. In this study, we carried out extensive field expeditions to obtain representative coverage of occurrence sites of P. densata and its two putative parents. We then applied a series of geographic information system-based analyses to define the patterns of environmental variation within and among the three pine species, to remove potentially confounding effects of spatial autocorrelation in the environmental data due to allopatric ranges, and to build species distribution models. All results consistently indicated that the ecological preferences of P. densata and its parental species have diverged, and they identified candidate ecological factors associated with habitat-specific adaptation. Projections from niche modeling indicated that P. densata could extend across a vast range along the parallel valley systems of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our findings provide evidence of a distinct niche shift in P. densata and support the hypothesis that local adaptation and geographic isolation help maintain and reinforce between-species differences and reproductive isolation in the species complex. PMID:21460565

  8. Sino-Japanese Teamwork Probes Environment Changes on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the support of a CAS project on Holocene environmental changes and their influences on the ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau, a research group headed by Prof. Zhu Liping from the CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and their Japanese collaborators carried out a field survey in Puma Yumco area on the Tibetan Plateau from September 8 to 20.

  9. Ozone Minihole Found over Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Through a comprehensive analysis, researchers from the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) discovered an ozone minihole, a large area with the lowest total ozone column (TOC, see figure), over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from Dec. 14 to 17, 2003.

  10. Perfluorinated carboxylic and sulphonic acids in surface water media from the regions of Tibetan Plateau: Indirect evidence on photochemical degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Eriko; Falandysz, Jerzy; Taniyasu, Sachi; Hui, Ge; Jurkiewicz, Gabriela; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Yang, Yong-Liang; Lam, Paul K S

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated surfactants and repellents are synthetic substances that have found numerous industrial and customer applications. Due to their persistence, at least two groups of these substances-perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs)-are diffused widely in the environment. It is hypothesized that the Tibetan Plateau, is one of few unique places on the Earth, due to its topography, specifically the vast space and high elevation above sea level, geographic location, climate, high solar radiation, lack of industry, little urbanization and general lack of significant direct sources of pollution. There it is believed possible to gain an insight into atmospheric fate (possible photochemical degradation of higher molecular mass and formation of lower molecular mass PFCAs and PFSAs) of PFASs under un-disturbed environmental conditions. Ultratrace analytical method for PFCAs and PFSAs and use of transportation and field blanks, laboratory blanks and isotopically labelled surrogates for recovery control has allowed the determination of nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids and six perfluorinated sulfonic acids at ultra-trace levels in water based samples from the alpine dimension regions of the Tibetan Plateau, the eastern slope of Minya Konka peak at the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and also from the city of Chengdu from the lowland of the Sichuan Province in China. The specific compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs and low levels of pollution with those compounds were observed in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The fingerprint of the compositional pattern of PFCAs and PFSAs in water samples in the central region of the Tibetan Plateau and in the alpine region adjacent to the peaks of Minya Konka in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau may be explained by the result of photochemical degradation with dealkylation of longer chain

  11. Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) General Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Library Network, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    The computer and telecommunications services of the Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) are specified in this introduction to the Network. Since members of SOLINET may participate in the services of the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), a description of these services is included. Membership requirements, fees and dues, and charges to SOLINET…

  12. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  13. 自我职涯管理与职涯高原的关系%The Relationship between Individual Career Management and Career Plateau of Employees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾垂凯

    2012-01-01

    组织结构扁平化导致职涯高原员工逐渐增多,给个体和组织造成了消极影响。本文通过对338名企业员工的问卷调查探讨自我职涯管理与职涯高原的关系。研究结果显示:自我职涯管理中的职业探索与层级高原、内容高原及中心化高原正相关;目标确定与层级高原、关注学习与内容高原、注重关系与中心化高原及内容高原负相关;自我展示虽在简单相关分析中与内容高原及中心化高原负相关,但在回归分析中则相关不显著。%With the flatting development of the organization structure and gradually reduced management levels,promotion becomes more difficult than ever.More and more employees,especially management personnel,are getting into trouble with stagnation of career development.Then,career plateau phenomenon appears.According to the idea of Zeng Chuikai,career plateau is such a phenomena that in a certain phase of individuals career development,the long stay in a position makes the career flow(including vertical flow,horizontal flow,and central flow) difficult to realize,and causes his or her career development stagnation.Career plateau includes three aspects-hierarchal plateau(few possibility to promote in present organization),content plateau(few opportunity to learn new skills), and inclusive plateau(few possibility towards responsibility center).Since career plateau brings lots of adverse influences to both individuals and organizations,its relationship with individual career management now receives more and more attention in the world. To explore the relationship between individual career management and career plateau,in this research we made a questionnaire survey on employees of firms on the Chinese mainland.Out of a samples of 396 employees,338 questionnaires were valid.The questionnaires comprised three parts.Part one included items about the demographic characteristics of the subjects.Part two adopted the Individual Career

  14. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  15. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in

  16. Analysis of the 2008 heavy snowfall over South China using GPS PWV measurements from the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Four successive storms with freezing rain and snow blanketed South China from 10 January–2 February 2008, when the precipitation increased more than 200%–300% above the average for the corresponding period. The unusual atmospheric circulation associated with these disasters was caused by many complex physical processes, one of which was the active southern branch of currents over low latitude ocean areas which provided plenty of water vapor for South China. The ground-based GPS Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV measurements on the Tibetan Plateau, supported by the China and Japan Intergovernmental Cooperation Program (JICA, has compensated for the lack of conventional observations of atmospheric water vapor in this area and provided a good opportunity to analyze the character of the water vapor transport in the four heavy precipitation processes. It was found that the GPS stations located on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau were on the route of the water vapor transport during 25 January–29 January and 31 January–2 February when two heavy precipitation events occurred over South China. The increasing trend from the one to two days pre-observation by the GPS stations was then associated with the heavy precipitation. Precipitation during 10 January–16 January and 18 January–22 January was significantly related to the abnormal variation of the one day pre-observation by the GPS stations located on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. This research indicates that ground-based GPS measurements are applicable to data assimilation in operational numerical models.

  17. Environmental fate and behavior of persistent organic pollutants in Shergyla Mountain, southeast of the Tibetan Plateau of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pristine mountains are ideal settings to study transport and behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along gradients of climate and land cover. The present work investigated the concentrations and patterns of 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 25 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) isomers in the air of the Shergyla Mountain, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Endosulfan I, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes and dichlorodibenzotrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs) were the predominant compounds while PBDEs and HBCDs showed the lowest background concentrations. Most of the target POPs had significantly higher concentrations in summer than those in winter. Increasing trends of the concentrations of DDTs and endosulfan were found with increasing altitude on the western slope in the Shergyla Mountain. Potential forest filter effect was observed based on the lower air concentrations of the target POPs in the forest than the ones out of the forest. - Highlights: • Concentrations of DDT and endosulfan increased with elevation in Shergyla Mountain. • Potential forest filter effect for some POPs was observed in summer in the Plateau. • Seasonal variations of POPs levels existed in atmosphere of the Plateau. • Different behavior of POPs was observed on the two slopes of the Shergyla Mountain. - Different behaviors of POPs were observed on the two slopes of the Shergyla Mountain, and potential forest filter effects for some POPs were observed in the summer

  18. MANAGING ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES FOR THE PLATEAU REMEDIATION CONTRACT - HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the primary Hanford clean-up contract transitioned to the CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Prior to transition, Engineering resources assigned to remediation/Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities were a part of a centralized engineering organization and matrixed to the performing projects. Following transition, these resources were reassigned directly to the performing project, with a loose matrix through a smaller Central Engineering (CE) organization. The smaller (10 FTE) central organization has retained responsibility for the overall technical quality of engineering for the CHPRC, but no longer performs staffing and personnel functions. As the organization has matured, there are lessons learned that can be shared with other organizations going through or contemplating performing a similar change. Benefits that have been seen from the CHPRC CE organization structure include the following: (1) Staff are closely aligned with the 'Project/facility' that they are assigned to support; (2) Engineering priorities are managed to be consistent with the 'Project/facility' priorities; (3) Individual Engineering managers are accountable for identifying staffing needs and the filling of staffing positions; (4) Budget priorities are managed within the local organization structure; (5) Rather than being considered a 'functional' organization, engineering is considered a part of a line, direct funded organization; (6) The central engineering organization is able to provide 'overview' activities and maintain independence from the engineering organizations in the field; and (7) The central engineering organization is able to maintain a stable of specialized experts that are able to provide independent reviews of field projects and day-to-day activities.

  19. Soil erosion and management on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Loess Plateau is well known to the world for its intense soil erosion. The root cause for river sedimentation of Yellow River (Huanghe) and its resultant "hanging river" in certain section is soil and water loss on the Loess Plateau. The Loess Plateau has a long cultivation history, hence population growth, vegetation degeneration and plugging constitute the chief reason for serious soil and water loss on Loess Plateau. This paper analyses several successful cases and failures in soil conservation, presents practical soil conservation technique and related benefit analysis, and discusses some effective methods adopted in China in soil erosion control, research directions and future perspectives on Loess Plateau.

  20. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  1. A chronology of the PY608E-PC sediment core (Lake Pumoyum Co, southern Tibetan Plateau) based on radiocarbon dating of total organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Takahiro, E-mail: twatanabe@geo.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-20 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Matsunaka, Tetsuya [School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, 3-20-1 Orido, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424-0902 (Japan); Nara, Fumiko Watanabe [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Zhu Liping; Wang Junbo [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Science, No. 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Kakegawa, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nishimura, Mitsugu [School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, 3-20-1 Orido, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424-0902 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Paleoclimatic records from the Tibetan Plateau provide important clues for understanding the Asian monsoon and Asian climate systems. To reconstruct climatic and environmental changes in the southern Tibetan Plateau, a 3.77-m-long sediment core (PY608E-PC) was taken from the southeastern part of Lake Pumoyum Co in August 2006. Because terrestrial plant residues are extremely rare in this core, we performed radiocarbon dating on the total organic carbon fraction. We also estimated the old carbon effect and radiocarbon reservoir age of the total organic carbon fraction. Using these estimates, we propose a new radiocarbon chronology for past climatic changes from ca. 12,500 to 700 cal BP. The linear sedimentation rate of the core was founded to be constant at 32.0 cm/kyr, indicating stable sedimentation conditions in Lake Pumoyum Co from the period of the Younger Dryas to the Holocene.

  2. The Hubble Flow of Plateau Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard "horizon flow" procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau inflation, which suggests the use of Pad\\'e approximants instead. We propose a novel method that provides analytic solutions of the flow equations for a given parametrization of the Hubble function. ...

  3. Air quality forecasting system for Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita Y.; Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Todesco, Enzo; Vara Vela, Angel; Ibarra, Sergio; Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; Martins, Jorge Alberto; Carvalho, Vanessa Silveira Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Southeastern Brazil, the most populous and developed region of the country, faces various environmental problems associated with the growth of its population in urban areas. It is the most industrialized area in the country, comprising the metropolitan areas of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and other major cities. Air quality is a major concern, because the reported concentrations of certain regulated pollutants, typically ozone and fine particulate, have exceeded national standa...

  4. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  5. An evaluation of earthquake hazard parameters in the Iranian Plateau based on the Gumbel III distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hiwa; Bayrak, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    The Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (GIII) of the extreme value method is employed to evaluate the earthquake hazard parameters in the Iranian Plateau. This research quantifies spatial mapping of earthquake hazard parameters like annual and 100-year mode beside their 90 % probability of not being exceeded (NBE) in the Iranian Plateau. Therefore, we used a homogeneous and complete earthquake catalogue during the period 1900-2013 with magnitude M w ≥ 4.0, and the Iranian Plateau is separated into equal area mesh of 1° late × 1° long. The estimated result of annual mode with 90 % probability of NBE is expected to exceed the values of M w 6.0 in the Eastern part of Makran, most parts of Central and East Iran, Kopeh Dagh, Alborz, Azerbaijan, and SE Zagros. The 100-year mode with 90 % probability of NBE is expected to overpass the value of M w 7.0 in the Eastern part of Makran, Central and East Iran, Alborz, Kopeh Dagh, and Azerbaijan. The spatial distribution of 100-year mode with 90 % probability of NBE uncovers the high values of earthquake hazard parameters which are frequently connected with the main tectonic regimes of the studied area. It appears that there is a close communication among the seismicity and the tectonics of the region.

  6. Global pollution shown by lead and cadmium contents in precipitation of polar regions and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the major ions, lead and cadmium has been performed for snow-pit samples collected from the Arctic, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Antarctic Ice Sheet. These snow pits were excavated respectively from the snowpack in Canadian Northwest Territory (NWT) and the central Arctic, three glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surface snow along the route of the International Trans-Antarctic Expedition (ITAE). The source regions for the lead pollution of central Arctic have been identified by analyzing of stable lead isotopic ratios, meteorological and atmospheric chemistry studies. It shows that the central Arctic is still under intensive lead input, despite the fact that lead content in Greenland Ice Sheet displays a rapid decreasing since the 1970s due to US and some European countries' campaigns to reduce lead-containing gasoline-additives. This is because there are multiple lead sources for the central Arctic, including the countries that have not performed gasoline-additives reducing. The backgrounds of atmospheric aerosol compositions, as well as the concentrations of lead and cadmium in precipitation of the early 1990s, are contrasted among the Arctic, Antarctica and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The measured lead content in the snowfall at the typical sites of the three regions is divided into natural (background) and anthropogenic components. It is found that natural lead concentration (mainly crustal and/or sea-salt lead) is roughly equal among the three regions (50% in Antarctic precipitation, >97% in the Arctic and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau ) is mainly responsible for the lead input to both polar regions and to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Lead pollution may have spread into the whole troposphere and the most remote regions on earth.

  7. The crustal composition of the Falkland Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemt, Claudia; Jokat, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    The Falkland Islands are situated in the South Atlantic Ocean 500 km east of Patagonia, South America. The islands are part of the Falkland Plateau, which stretches eastward for more than 1500 km. A bathymetric high, the Maurice Ewing Bank, terminates the plateau in the east. Until Late Jurassic the Falkland Islands were part of Gondwana and were located adjacent to the east coast of South Africa. While the Falkland Islands and Maurice Ewing Bank are proved to be of continental composition, the nature and structure of the Falkland Plateau's basement in between is debatable. The first crustal model derived from sonobuoy data contradicts an only recently published 3D-gravity model. To enhance the understanding of Gondwana break-up considering timing, geometry and amount of volcanism, further knowledge about the structure and thickness of the crust is inevitable. During the ANT-XXIX/5 Polarstern cruise seismic refraction measurements were conducted using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and Reftek land stations onshore of East Falkland. The OBS were deployed at 78 locations along an approximately 1500 km east-west stretching profile. For the western transect a P-wave velocity model is calculated using 2D-raytracing techniques. The results are presented in combination with potential field data showing the extension of the Falkland Islands basement, the continent-ocean transition zone and the crustal structure of the plateau. On the Falkland Plateau Basin sediment thickness is about 6 km with velocities ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 km/s in the upper part and about 4.7 km/s above basement. The crust is of oceanic composition with an igneous section that is considerably thicker than average oceanic crust (up to 17 km). The velocity structure in the upper crustal part is typical for layer 2 with a velocity gradient ranging from 5.4 km/s to 6.5 km/s and thicknesses between 1.5 km and 4 km. Layer 3 is about 14 km thick with a velocity gradient from 6.6 km/s to 7.6 km/s, which is

  8. Crustal structure of the Tuamotu Plateau, 15°S, and implications for its origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Garrett; McNutt, Marcia; Gibson, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the sedimentary and volcanic structure of the Tuamotu Plateau with multichannel seismic, seismic refraction, and gravity data along a ship track crossing the plateau near 15°S. The volcanic basement of the central portion of the plateau is capped with a 1 to 2-km-thick sediment layer composed of two compositional sequences. The uppermost sequence, with semblance-derived P wave velocities of 1.6-1.9 km/s and thicknesses of 0.2-0.9 km, is composed of pelagic sediments. The underlying sequence, with velocities 2.5-3.5 km/s and thicknesses of 0.5-1.5 km, is composed of limestone and volcaniclastic sediments. Sonobuoy refraction data show the upper 1 km of the volcanic basement to have velocities 4.5-5.5 km/s. The gravity data indicate that the platform is compensated by an elastic lithosphere with effective thickness 5±5 km and that the volcanic thickness is 9-10 km thicker than normal oceanic crust with a volume of 2.0-2.6×l06 km3. The inferred eruption rates of 0.1-0.13 km3/yr are comparable to those of the Hawaiian and Marquesas island chains but substantially less than those of many oceanic plateaus. Radiometric and paleontological ages for the plateau and geomagnetic dates of the surrounding seafloor indicate that the northwestern portion of the plateau formed -600 km off the axis of the paleo-Pacific-Farallon spreading center, on lithosphere of age ˜10-20 Ma. Linear volcanic ridges and scarps bounding deep sediment-filled basins, however, are similar to features of oceanic plateaus which formed at or near accretionary plate boundaries. We suggest that these volcanic ridges and the gross plateau like morphology were formed by magma that was channelled along the lithospheric discontinuities left behind by a southward propagating rift segment of the nearby spreading center. We attribute the formation of the northwestern portion of the Tuamotu Plateau to the passage of two hotspots during times 50-30 Ma as they migrated beneath the Pacific plate

  9. Observational facts regarding the joint activities of the southwest vortex and plateau vortex after its departure from the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuhua; Gao, Wenliang; Xiao, Dixiang; Peng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Using atmospheric observational data from 1998 to 2013, station rainfall data, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data, as well as annual statistics for the plateau vortex and shear line, the joint activity features of sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) and southwest vortexes (SWVs) are analyzed. Some new and useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the joint activities of the two types of vortex. The results show that: (1) The joint active period of the two vortexes is from May to August, and mostly in June and July. (2) The SDPVs of the partnership mainly originate near Zaduo, while the SWVs come from Jiulong. (3) Most of the two vortexes move in almost the same direction, moving eastward together with the low trough. The SDPVs mainly act in the area to the north of the Yangtze River, while the SWVs are situated across the Yangtze River valley. (4) The joint activity of the two vortexes often produces sustained regional heavy rainfall to the south of the Yellow River, influencing wide areas of China, and even as far as the Korean Peninsula, Japan and Vietnam. (5) Most of the two vortexes are baroclinic or cold vortexes, and they both become strengthened in terms of their joint activity. (6) When the two vortexes move over the sea, their central pressure descends and their rainfall increases, especially for SWVs. (7) The two vortexes might spin over the same area simultaneously when there are tropical cyclones in the eastern and southern seas of China, or move southward together if a tropical cyclone appears near Hainan Island.

  10. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements recorded in snow from the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region, southern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Guoshuai; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2013-08-01

    In May 2009, snowpit samples were collected from a high-elevation glacier in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region on the southern Tibetan Plateau. A set of elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was analyzed to investigate the concentrations, deposition fluxes of trace elements, and the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources deposited on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Concentrations of most of the trace elements in snowpit samples from the Zhadang glacier are significantly lower than those examined from central Asia (e.g., eastern Tien Shan), with higher concentrations during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season. The elements of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni display low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), while Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb show high EF values in the snow samples, suggesting anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote, high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Together with the fact that the concentration levels of such elements in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region are significantly higher than those observed on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau, our results suggest that the high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau may be more sensitive to variations in the anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric trace elements than that in the central Himalayas. Moreover, the major difference between deposition fluxes estimated in our snow samples and those recently measured at Nam Co Station for elements such as Cr and Cu may suggest that atmospheric deposition of some of trace elements reconstructed from snowpits and ice cores could be grossly underestimated on the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:23535470

  11. Did the Indo-Asian collision alone create the Tibetan plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Yin, An; Harrison, T. M.; Dürr, S. B.; Z, Chen; Ryerson, F. J.; Kidd, W. S. F.; X, Wang; X, Zhou

    1997-08-01

    It is widely believed that the Tibetan plateau is a late Cenozoic feature produced by the Indo-Asian collision. However, because Tibet was the locus of continental accretion and subduction throughout the Mesozoic, crustal thickening during that time may also have contributed to growth of the plateau. This portion of the geologic history was investigated in a traverse through the central Lhasa block, southern Tibet. Together with earlier studies, our mapping and geochronological results show that the Lhasa block underwent little north-south shortening during the Cenozoic. Rather, our mapping shows that ˜60% crustal shortening, perhaps due to the collision between the Lhasa and Qiangtang blocks, occurred during the Early Cretaceous. This observation implies that a significant portion of southern Tibet was raised to perhaps 3 4 km elevation prior to the Indo-Asian collision.

  12. Chemical erosion and hydrologic budget for the Susure karst plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karst plateau of Susure, about 4.5 km2 in surface area, is situated on the Jadovnik eastern offset, western Serbia. The plateau is a morphologic unit higher 15 m to 30 m than the surrounding terrain. The unit consists of crushed and karstified Middle Triassic limestones. Numerous hydrogeological and geomorphologic features of the plateau are attractive for visitors in this economically underdeveloped country. Rocks building up the surrounding terrain are largely peridotites. Surface streams flow neither into nor off the plateau. Atmospheric precipitations discharge to evapotanspiration and filtration underground. More than eighteen constant springs at the limestone/peridotite tectonic contact drain fracture aquifers on the karst plateau border. Measured precipitations and springflows were the input and output data for accounting water budget of an aquifer of Middle Triassic limestones in the Susure plateau.

  13. The plateau phase of gamma-ray burst afterglows in the thick-shell scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, K.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic calculations of synchrotron radiation from the forward and the reverse shock of gamma-ray burst blast waves, in the thick-shell scenario (i.e. when the reverse shock is relativistic). We show that this scenario can naturally account for the plateau phase, observed early in the afterglows of about half the bursts detected by Swift. We generalize our approach to include power-law luminosity of the central engine and show that when radiation from both regions (forward and reverse shock) is taken into account, a wide range of possibilities emerge, including chromatic and achromatic breaks, frequency-dependent spectral evolution during the injection break and widely varying decay indices in different bands. For both the forward and the reverse shock, we derive formulas for the spectral parameters and the observed flux in different power-law segments of the spectrum, as a function of observer time. We explore the Fb-tb relation (between the observed time of the end of the plateau phase and the flux at that point) in the framework of the presented model and show that model predictions favour the reverse shock as the dominant source of emission in both optical and X-rays. As case studies, we present simultaneous fits to X-ray and optical/IR afterglow data of GRB 080928 and GRB 090423. We identify the end of the plateau phase with the cessation of energy injection and infer the corresponding upper limits to central-engine activity, which are about 1 h for the former and 1.5 h for the latter. We conclude that smooth energy injection through the reverse shock is a plausible explanation for the plateau phase of gamma-ray burst afterglows. During that phase, radiation from the reverse shock is likely to be important, or even dominant, and should be taken into account when fitting model parameters to observations.

  14. Geology and geochronology of the metamorphic suite Colorado and his rock assemblages, southeastern Rondonia, Brazil: implications for the mesoproterozoic evolution of the southwestern Amazon Craton; Geologia e geocronologia da suite metamorfica Colorado e suas encaixantes, SE de Rondonia: implicacoes para evolucao mesoproterozoica do SW do Craton Amazonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzotto, Gilmar Jose [Centro de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico Geologico do Brasil; Bettencourt, Jorge Silva; Teixeira, Wilson; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica; Pacca, Igor Ivory Gil; D' Agrella Filho, Manoel Sousa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Vasconcelos, Paulo [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, (Australia); Onoe, Artur Takashi [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas; Passarelli, Claudia Regina [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica

    2002-12-15

    Combined geochronological (U-Pb, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, and RB-Sr) geological data help define an important tectonomagmatic event in the Colorado do Oeste and Cabixi regions, southeastern Rondonia, Brazil, and characterize the Colorado Metamorphic Suite (CMS), well represented by rock assemblages which experienced deformation and metamorphic recrystallization (upper-amphibolite facies). The suite is composed of: porphyritic monzogranite associated with amphibolite (bimodal magmatism); interlayered clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks (sillimanite schists and iron formation); muscovite-garnet leucogranite; and mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks. The CMS mafic rocks occur as underformed isolated bodies of layered coarse-grained metagabbro, still preserving typical cumulate igneous texture. U-Pb zircon isotopic data for three fractions of sample RO-10 define a discordia with an upper intercept (crystallization) age of 1352 + 4/-3 Ma (MSWD = 0,18). The porphyritic orthogneisses (RO-15; monzogranite and amphibolite) yielded a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of 1360 {+-} 45 Ma, and 87 Sr/86 Sr, = 0.7040 {+-} 0.0012 (MSWD = 9.2). One sample of aplite that is subparallel to the main regional foliation has furnished an age 1360 {+-}13 Ma. The 40 Ar/39 Ar data for muscovite from a anatectic leucogranite (RO-14) yielded plateau ages of 1312 {+-} 3 Ma (grain 1), and 1303 {+-} 2 Ma/1305 {+-} 2 Ma (grain 2). Grain 3 presented an heterogeneous isotopic spectrum, the integrated age being 1289 {+-} 2 Ma. Hornblende from two amphibolite samples yielded 40 Ar/39 Ar plateau ages of 1313 {+-} 4 Ma; 1313 {+-} 6 Ma and 1312 {+-} 3 Ma (RO-18), and 1325 {+-} 3 Ma; 1326 {+-} 2 Ma; 1330 {+-} 3 Ma (RO-19). The weighted-mean age 1319 {+-} 10 Ma, and is interpreted as the best estimated age for regional metamorphic cooling. These data suggest that southeastern Rondonia was affected by a tectonomagmatic event at ca. 1.36 - 1.32 Ga, predating the evolution of the Nova Brasilandia Terrane (1215 - 1110 Ma

  15. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings. PMID:19536263

  16. Operative results of closed tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Hitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of tibial plateau fractures remains challenging because of their number, variety and associated soft tissue injuries that further augment their complexity. Comparison of operative results in recent reports has been difficult due to a lack of standard fracture classification scheme and uniform standardized objective criteria for evaluating results. Methods: Between August 1998 to December 2002, 27 closed tibial plateau fractures were treated operatively using methods and principles advocated by AO/ASIF and followed up for an average of 35.74 months (range 24-68 months. Fractures were classified according to Schatzker′s staging system and results evaluated using Rasmussen′s 30-point clinical grading system and Rasmussen′s radiological evaluation of the knee at a minimum follow up of 2 years. Results: Type II was the most common fracture type (9 cases followed by type I (6 cases. There were 37% excellent and 51.85% good functional results with only 3 patients having unacceptable results. The mean Rasmussen′s functional score was 25.062 (range 15-30. Minimal fixation in comminuted or depressed fractures as compared to rigid fixation was the cause of unacceptable results. Loss of knee range of motion in a few cases was attributed to delayed knee mobilization in these cases. Using Rasmussen′s radiological grading, 2 patients had excellent results and 81.48 % patients had good results. Only 3 patients had poor radiological results. The mean Rasmussen′s radiological score was 15.33 (range 10-18. Moreover, clinical evaluation did not correlate with the follow up radiograph. Conclusion: Anatomic reduction and rigid internal fixation followed by early knee motion and partial weight bearing during bone healing are the cornerstones in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures. Standard fracture classification, uniform reporting and evaluating criteria, along with detailed analysis of uniform treatment methods, has helped us

  17. Reworked loess and Yellow River sediment as the main sources of the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Alexis; Pullen, Alex; Kapp, Paul; Abell, jordan; Giesler, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    The Quaternary aeolian dust deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau have been attributed to spring and winter monsoonal storms sweeping clastic material from the deserts of the Asian interior into central China. Recent U-Pb geochronological studies of aeolian zircons have emphasized the existence of two major wind pathways: from the north, throughout the Tengger, and Mu Us deserts during interglacials, and from the west, through the Qaidam Basin during glacials. Others have emphasized the importance of Yellow River supply in the Loess Plateau sediment budget. However, tracking dust source regions through U-Pb dating is particularly complex, given the paucity of data in many potential sources regions and the similar ages peak in the age probability distributions of western and Northern deserts in central China. Here, we present an extended dataset of U-Pb ages covering all the potential provenance areas for the aeolian dust in central Asia and including 2400 new ages from loess, paleosols, modern sand dunes and fluvial deposits. We then propose a new mixture modeling technique to statistically address the contribution of these different sources to the Loess Plateau sedimentary budget. Our contribution estimates indicate that aeolian supply is dominated (60-70 %) by reworking of Yellow River sediment. Moreover, evidence of Qaidam Basin sourced zircons (15-20 %) in both loess (glacial) and paleosols (interglacial) layers corroborates the existence of an erosive wind pathway from the west during glacials and implies that a substantial portion of the interglacial dust is recycled from older glacial loess. We propose that sediment reworking of Yellow River sediment and older loesses by wind homogenizes aeolian zircon populations on the Chinese Loess Plateau toward a glacial provenance due to higher dust accumulation rates during glacials. These findings indicate that the Loess Plateau has evolved as a more dynamic landform than previous thought where wind deflation

  18. Oceanic Plateau Overview and Look Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanic plateaus result from fundamental processes in the Earth's interior, and have been implicated as instigators of major worldwide environmental changes. Although the plate tectonics paradigm successfully explains volcanic activity on the Earth's surface associated with seafloor spreading and plate subduction, it does not elucidate the massive flood volcanism that produces oceanic plateaus. Temporal correlations between flood basalts and environmental phenomena such as mass extinctions and oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) are well documented, yet the underlying mechanisms causing these global catastrophes are only beginning to be grasped. Focused investigations of oceanic plateaus have targeted the two largest features globally, the ~120 Ma Ontong Java Plateau (Pacific Ocean) and ~120-95 Ma Kerguelen Plateau/Broken Ridge (Indian Ocean), and the ~145-130 Ma Shatsky Rise (Pacific Ocean). These three features constitute the only oceanic plateaus where igneous basement has been drilled at more than one site. Multiple models - plume, bolide impact, and upwelling eclogite - have been proposed for Ontong Java's origin. The feature correlates temporally with OAE-1a, and interpretation of Sr, Os, and Pb isotopic systems during the time of OAE-1a points to a close linkage between the two, with CO2, Fe, and trace metal emissions from the massive magmatism potentially triggering the event. The Kerguelen Plateau/Broken Ridge is a composite feature that includes flood basalts, depleted mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-related asthenosphere, and continental lithosphere. Models for the Shatsky Rise include mantle plume and fast seafloor spreading. Future studies of oceanic plateaus have the potential to transform our understanding of the Earth system through investigating: 1) magma (and hence mantle source) variability through times; 2) the nature of melting anomalies, i.e., compositional vs. thermal, that produce oceanic plateaus; 3) the precise durations of oceanic plateau events

  19. Going beyond Career Plateau: Using Professional Plateau To Account for Work Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick Chang Boon

    2003-01-01

    Survey responses from 170 of 300 engineers working in Singapore revealed that significant variance in career satisfaction, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions was accounted for by professional plateau, the point at which individuals find their jobs unchallenging with few opportunities for professional development. (Contains 33 references.)…

  20. Last glacial aeolian dynamics at the Titel loess plateau (Vojvodina, Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, S. B.; Bokhorst, M. P.; Machalett, B.; Štrbac, D.; Hambach, U.; Basarin, B.; Svirčev, Z.; Stevens, T.; Frechen, M.; Vandenberghe, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Titel loess plateau (Vojvodina, Serbia) is situated at the confluence of the rivers Danube and Tisa, in the southeastern part of the Bačka subregion. Various phases of fluvial erosion have shaped the ellipsoid form of the plateau, which is characterized by steep slopes on the margins. The Titel loess plateau is a unique geomorphologic feature, further emphasising the wide diversity of the loess landforms. The plateau is an island of loess with a maximum length of about 16 km and a maximum width of 7.2 km. Thick loess deposits of between 35 and 55 m are intercalated by 5 main pedocomplexes likely deposited thought the last 5 glacial/interglacial cycles. Steep loess cliffs expose several important sections for understanding climatic and environmental change during the middle and late Pleistocene in the region. The succession of palaeosols through the sequence strongly suggests a transition from humid interglacial climates in the middle Pleistocene, to drier interglacial climates in the late Pleistocene. Past aeolian dynamics have been reconstructed using magnetic susceptibility, grain size, geochemical and malacological investigations by depth in the thick last glacial unit. Luminescence dating and magnetic susceptibility inter-profile correlation provide the chronological framework. Lower last glacial loess unit V-L1L2 is loosely cemented porous sandy loess, with occasional fine laminations and thin, fine sand beds. Identified malacofauna indicates very dry climatic conditions and poor steppic vegetation. It is hypothesized that while the last glacial vegetation cover is extremely sparse, significant sedimentation rates during the lower last glacial can be explained by the presence of a cyanobacterial crust. Protection of loess sediments from deflation by the presence of a cyanobacterial crust is observed at present in loess quarries (Ruma, Crvenka, Petrovaradin). The middle glacial was warmer and relatively moist, as indicated by an increase in clay content

  1. Tetraether biomarker records from a loess-paleosol sequence in the western Chinese Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuodongJia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous occurrence of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs in soils and their ability to record temperature and environmental changes offer the prospect of independently reconstructing continental paleotemperature and paleoenvironment from the loess-paleosol sequences (LPS from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP. In this study we present records of GDGT-derived proxies for the last 70 kyr from the Yuanbao LPS, western CLP. Temperature record reconstructed from the cyclization and methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT-CBT displays that the onset of deglacial warming at ~20 kyr before present (BP precedes the strengthening of summer monsoon at ~15 kyr BP, which is in agreement in timing with previous MBT-CBT temperature records from the southeastern CLP. The maximal deglacial warming of ~10 °C is slightly higher than those in the southeastern CLP, perhaps due to the higher latitude and farther inland of the study site. The Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether (BIT index shows higher values (0.87–0.96 range, 0.93 average in the glacial loess and lower values (0.76–0.91 range, 0.83 average in the Holocene paleosols, with a steady decreasing trend since the early Holocene. The decreasing trend could suggest enhanced Thaumarchaeota relative to GDGT producing bacteria activity since the early Holocene, but other possibilities, such as preferential degradation of isoprenoid GDGTs or upward increase in living archaea relative to bacteria in the paleosol profile, cannot be fully excluded. Our results thus demonstrate the need of future study on microbial community structure in soil column and differential degradation of GDGT molecules.

  2. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Rickettsiales in Goats and Sheep from Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Yin, Hongmei; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Pan, Weiqing; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Members from Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and some spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsiae are important tick-borne pathogens. One hundred goats and sheep from southeastern China were examined for the presence of Anaplasma, E. chaffeensis, and SFG Rickettsiae by PCR. A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, and Anaplasma centrale were detected in 15, 49, and 16 samples, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and A. centrale were highly homologous to strains from Japanese sika deer and Japanese cattle, respectively, whereas a diversity of A. bovis sequences were detected. New genetic variants of Anaplasma close to A. centrale have been revealed. No Ehrlichia was detected in this study. The presence of SFG Rickettsiae was determined in 26 samples. The coinfection with more than two pathogens tested in this study was as high as 29%. This study has molecularly characterized the circulation of Anaplasma and Rickettsiae in goats and sheep in southeastern China, which highlights the risk of contracting the pathogens upon tick exposure. PMID:26872274

  3. The permafrost carbon inventory on the Tibetan Plateau: a new evaluation using deep sediment cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinzhi; Li, Fei; Yang, Guibiao; Chen, Leiyi; Zhang, Beibei; Liu, Li; Fang, Kai; Qin, Shuqi; Chen, Yongliang; Peng, Yunfeng; Ji, Chengjun; He, Honglin; Smith, Pete; Yang, Yuanhe

    2016-08-01

    The permafrost organic carbon (OC) stock is of global significance because of its large pool size and the potential positive feedback to climate warming. However, due to the lack of systematic field observations and appropriate upscaling methodologies, substantial uncertainties exist in the permafrost OC budget, which limits our understanding of the fate of frozen carbon in a warming world. In particular, the lack of comprehensive estimates of OC stocks across alpine permafrost means that current knowledge on this issue remains incomplete. Here, we evaluated the pool size and spatial variations of permafrost OC stock to 3 m depth on the Tibetan Plateau by combining systematic measurements from a substantial number of pedons (i.e. 342 three-metre-deep cores and 177 50-cm-deep pits) with a machine learning technique (i.e. support vector machine, SVM). We also quantified uncertainties in permafrost carbon budget by conducting Monte Carlo simulations. Our results revealed that the combination of systematic measurements with the SVM model allowed spatially explicit estimates to be made. The OC density (OC amount per unit area, OCD) exhibited a decreasing trend from the south-eastern to the north-western plateau, with the exception that OCD in the swamp meadow was substantially higher than that in surrounding regions. Our results also demonstrated that Tibetan permafrost stored a large amount of OC in the top 3 m, with the median OC pool size being 15.31 Pg C (interquartile range: 13.03-17.77 Pg C). 44% of OC occurred in deep layers (i.e. 100-300 cm), close to the proportion observed across the northern circumpolar permafrost region. The large carbon pool size together with significant permafrost thawing suggests a risk of carbon emissions and positive climate feedback across the Tibetan alpine permafrost region. PMID:26913840

  4. Evapotranspiration and water balance of high-elevation grassland on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coners, Heinz; Babel, Wolfgang; Willinghöfer, Sandra; Biermann, Tobias; Köhler, Lars; Seeber, Elke; Foken, Thomas; Ma, Yaoming; Yang, Yongping; Miehe, Georg; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    High-elevation grasslands of the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea cover nearly half a million km2 on the Tibetan Plateau. As a consequence of climate change, precipitation patterns in this monsoon-influenced region may change with possible consequences for grassland productivity. Yet, not much is known about the water cycle in this second largest alpine ecosystem of the world. We measured the evapotranspiration of a high-elevation Kobresia pasture system at 4400 m a.s.l. in the south-eastern part of the plateau in two summers using three different approaches, weighable micro-lysimeters, eddy covariance measurements, and water balance modeling with the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model SEWAB. In good agreement among the three approaches, we found ET rates of 4-6 mm d-1 in moist summer periods (June-August) and ∼2 mm d-1 in dry periods, despite the high elevation and a leaf area index of only ∼1. Measured ET rates were comparable to rates reported from alpine grasslands at 1500-2500 m a.s.l. in temperate mountains, and also matched ET rates of managed lowland grasslands in the temperate zone. At the study site with 430 mm annual precipitation, low summer rainfall reduced ET significantly and infiltration into the subsoil occurred only in moist periods. Our results show that the evapotranspiration of high-elevation grasslands at 4400 m can be as high as in lowland grasslands despite large elevational changes in abiotic and biotic drivers of ET, and periodic water shortage is likely to influence large parts of the Tibetan Kobresia pastures.

  5. An observational and numerical study of a flash-flood event over south-eastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Miglietta; A. Regano

    2008-01-01

    A flash-flood episode affecting a small area in Apulia (south-eastern Italy) on 22 October 2005 is documented. A rainfall amount of 160 mm was recorded in a 6 h interval in the central part of the region, producing severe damage and causing six fatalities. Synoptic maps, observations from surface stations and remote-sensing data are used here to describe the evolution of the rainfall system. The vertical profiles show features similar to those observed in other orographic heavy-rain events, s...

  6. Augmentation of tibial plateau fractures with Trabecular Metal™: a biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme G Yves

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restoration and maintenance of the plateau surface are the key points in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures. Any deformity of the articular surface jeopardizes the future of the knee by causing osteoarthritis and axis deviation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of Trabecular Metal (porous tantalum metal on stability and strength of fracture repair in the central depression tibial plateau fracture. Method Six matched pairs of fresh frozen human cadaveric tibias were fractured and randomly assigned to be treated with either the standard of treatment (impacted cancellous bone graft stabilized by two 4.5 mm screws under the comminuted articular surface or the experimental method (the same screws supporting a 2 cm diameter Trabecular Metal (TM disc placed under the comminuted articular surface. Each tibia was tested on a MTS machine simulating immediate postoperative load transmission with 500 Newton for 10,000 cycles and then loaded to failure to determine the ultimate strength of the construct. Results The trabecular metal construct showed 40% less caudad displacement of the articular surface (1, 32 ± 0.1 mm vs. 0, 80 ± 0.1 mm in cyclic loading (p Conclusion The current study shows the biomechanical superiority of the trabecular metal construct compared to the current standard of treatment with regards to both its resistance to caudad displacement of the articular surface in cyclic loading and its strength at load to failure.

  7. Interpretation of Plateau in High-Harmonic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程太旺; 李晓峰; 敖淑艳; 傅盘铭

    2003-01-01

    The plateau in high-harmonic generation is investigated in the frequency domain. Probability density of an electron in an electromagnetic field is obtained through analysing the quantized-field Volkov state. The plateau of high-harmonic generation reflects the spectral density of the electron at the location of nucleus after abovethreshold ionization.

  8. "Mucientes Chert" in the Northern Iberian Plateau (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Natividad Fuertes-Prieto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The so-called “Mucientes chert" is a variety that appears in the central area of the Iberian North Plateau, in theDueroBasin. It is widely known in the geological and archaeological literature and its use for knapping was especially important in Prehistory. From a macroscopic point of view it is a nodular chert, with white and very porous cortex, and brown to blackish or beige colour in the inner part.In this work we carried out a more accurate petrographic, mineralogical and chemical characterization of this lithology using SEM, XRD and XRF techniques in samples coming from “Las Canteras” (Mucientes village, a chert outcrop of the “Cuestas” Unit (Vallesian-Aragonian, Miocene Age. Also, we have made a review of its geological occurrence and archaeological distribution areas.  It is intended to sketch the delimitation of the geographical area of occurrence taking into account the geological and archaeological references. 

  9. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies

  10. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wild-life lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  11. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the States within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposd Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  12. Diurnal variations of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in relation to orographically-induced regional circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diurnal patterns of variation of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau were first investigated using the TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis product for five summer seasons (i.e. June to August for 2002-2006). Both hourly precipitation amount and precipitation frequency exhibit pronounced daily variability with an overall late-afternoon-evening maximum and a dominant morning minimum. A notable exception is the prevalent nocturnal maximum around the periphery of the Plateau. In terms of the normalized harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the central Plateau and the weakest near the periphery. This remarkable spatial dependence in daily rainfall cycles is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Using six-hourly NCEP FNL data, we then examined the diurnal variability in the atmospheric circulation and thermodynamics in this region. The results show that the Plateau heats (cools) the overlying atmosphere during the day (night) more than the surrounding areas, and as a consequence a relatively stronger confluent circulation in this region occurs during the day than during the night, consistent with the diurnal rainfall cycles. Moreover, the regions with large low-level convergence and upper-level divergence correspond to the strong diurnal rainfall variations. The reversed daily alterations of convergence-divergence patterns in the vicinity of the Plateau edges are in agreement with the observed nighttime rainfall peak therein. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Tibetan Plateau in regulating regional circulation and precipitation.

  13. Carbonaceous aerosols recorded in a southeastern Tibetan glacier: analysis of temporal variations and model estimates of sources and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Xu, B.; Cao, J.; Tie, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Zhao, S.; Wu, G.; Zhao, H.; Joswiak, D. R.; Li, J.; Xie, Y.

    2015-02-01

    High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956-2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source-receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia has the largest contribution to the present-day (1996-2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.

  14. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  15. Earliest tea as evidence for one branch of the Silk Road across the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Yang, Yimin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Baiqing; Yang, Wuzhan; Tong, Tao; Jin, Shubo; Shen, Caiming; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xingguo; Lu, Hongliang; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Wang, Luo; Wang, Can; Xu, Deke; Wu, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Phytoliths and biomolecular components extracted from ancient plant remains from Chang’an (Xi’an, the city where the Silk Road begins) and Ngari (Ali) in western Tibet, China, show that the tea was grown 2100 years ago to cater for the drinking habits of the Western Han Dynasty (207BCE-9CE), and then carried toward central Asia by ca.200CE, several hundred years earlier than previously recorded. The earliest physical evidence of tea from both the Chang’an and Ngari regions suggests that a branch of the Silk Road across the Tibetan Plateau, was established by the second to third century CE.

  16. Inferences for the Miocene to present evolution of the Anatolia Plateau south margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, David; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Miocene to recent Central Anatolia Plateau (CAP) is a first-order morphotectonic feature with high average elevations, low-relief dry interior and steep humid flacks. The ESF-sponsored Vertical Anatolia Movement Project (VAMP) aims at increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of plateau-building processes, using the CAP as a case study. Unravelling the tectonic history of its margins is essential. Our component of the VAMP strives to determine the subsidence-uplift mechanisms in the south margin of the Anatolia Plateau, structures responsible for, and age of growth of this margin, as well as achieve a quantitative understanding of the regional tectonics. A common division of the study area, from north to south, is: (i) south part of the continental basins of Central Turkey, with Tuz Gölü Basin as the main representative, in the high flat area of the Anatolian Plateau, (ii) the arcuate Tauride fold-thrust belt and the Miocene Basins on top of it, forming part of the south flank of the plateau, (iii) offshore Cilicia Basin between Turkey and Cyprus, as the downward continuation of the south flank of the plateau, and (iv) the southward-thrusted Kyrenia Mountain Range and Circum-Troodos sedimentary succession. Miocene marine sediments in southern Turkey are presently found in Manavgat, Mut and Adana Basins. These sediments, possibly originally belonging to one single basin, are fundamental archives to constrain the tectonic stages immediately preceding and contemporaneous with plateau development. Miocene Mut Basin lies between Manavgat and Adana Basins, and is considered to have developed on a relatively stable area of Mesozoic Tauride basement, thus is a strategic area to solve the tectonic history that existed in southern Turkey since Miocene. Three N-S regional geological sections from Mut Basin to Mesoaria Basin (north Cyprus) that reproduce the present relationships among the units of the area have been constructed. These sections show a pre

  17. Age and extent of a giant glacial-dammed lake at Yarlung Tsangpo gorge in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiming; Lai, Zhongping; Hu, Kaiheng; Ge, Yonggang; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Many glacier dams on major rivers at the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau had been previously determined through remote sensing and glacier terminal position calculation. It was hypothesized that such damming substantially impeded river incision into the plateau interior. Investigation on the large glacial-dammed lake at the entrance of Tsangpo gorge is critical for understanding this hypothesis. So far, the issues, such as age, lake surface elevation, and stages of this dammed lake, are still in debate. Our field survey of lacustrine deposits and loess distribution along the middle Yarlung Tsangpo River and its tributary, Nyang River, suggested that the lake surface elevation was at about 3180 m asl. The 23 quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 4 organic AMS 14C ages all fall into the Last Glacial period (~ 41-13 ka). The OSL and 14C ages are in general agreement with each other where applicable. There might be only one long damming event because the ages of lacustrine deposits from 2970 to 3100 m asl are similar, and every lacustrine section is sustained for a long time. The estimated lake surface area was 1089 km2, and the volume was ~ 170 km3, which differ from previous estimations which suggested two-stage (about early Holocene and 1.5 ka) lakes, and the largest lake surface elevation reached 3500 m.

  18. Loess Plateau storage of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau-derived Yellow River sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Junsheng; Stevens, Thomas; Rittner, Martin; Stockli, Daniel; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Bird, Anna; Andò, Sergio; Vermeesch, Pieter; Saylor, Joel; Lu, Huayu; Breecker, Daniel; Hu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shanpin; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Peng, Wenbin; Carter, Andrew; Ji, Shunchuan; Pan, Baotian

    2015-01-01

    Marine accumulations of terrigenous sediment are widely assumed to accurately record climatic- and tectonic-controlled mountain denudation and play an important role in understanding late Cenozoic mountain uplift and global cooling. Underpinning this is the assumption that the majority of sediment eroded from hinterland orogenic belts is transported to and ultimately stored in marine basins with little lag between erosion and deposition. Here we use a detailed and multi-technique sedimentary provenance dataset from the Yellow River to show that substantial amounts of sediment eroded from Northeast Tibet and carried by the river's upper reach are stored in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the western Mu Us desert. This finding revises our understanding of the origin of the Chinese Loess Plateau and provides a potential solution for mismatches between late Cenozoic terrestrial sedimentation and marine geochemistry records, as well as between global CO2 and erosion records. PMID:26449321

  19. Plateau Inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-01-01

    We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the $SU(2)$ Higgs doublet. We include the higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate K\\"ahler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the $D-$flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  20. Effect of reducing the topographical altitude of the Tibetan Plateau on a severe winter drought in eastern China as determined using RAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunchun; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Gou, Peng

    2016-05-01

    Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was applied to the study of the effect of the topographical altitude of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on a severe drought event which took place in eastern China from November 2008 to January 2009. Two simulations of this drought event were conducted: a control simulation (CNTRL run) using original model settings and a sensitive simulation (TOPO run), where no change other than to reduce the TP topography by 50 %. The results show that the CNTRL simulation validates RAMS by reproducing this drought event fairly accurately. However, as part of the TOPO simulation, the total heat flux showed a decrease over most parts of the TP, latent heat flux underwent a significant increase over the southeastern TP, contrary to sensible heat, and a universal decrease over eastern China; this led to an increase in precipitation over the southeastern TP and a decrease in precipitation over eastern China. The decrease of total heat flux over the TP is collocated with an anomalous anticyclonic circulation from the TP to the coasts of southeastern China. Changes in atmospheric circulation and low-level water vapor transport pathways were consistent with changes in precipitation. In general, reducing the topographical altitude of the TP worsens drought in eastern China and moreover causes a significant decrease in precipitation over southern China.

  1. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137Cs. The concentrations of 137Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m2 of 137Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137Cs concentrations

  2. Recent climate changes over the Tibetan Plateau and their impacts on energy and water cycle: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Wu, Hui; Qin, Jun; Lin, Changgui; Tang, Wenjun; Chen, Yingying

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts strong thermal forcing on the atmosphere over Asian monsoon region and supplies water resources to adjacent river basins. Recently, the Plateau experienced evident climate changes, which have changed atmospheric and hydrological cycles and thus reshaped the local environment. This study reviewed recent research progress in the climate changes and explored their impacts on the Plateau energy and water cycle, based on which a conceptual model to synthesize these changes was proposed and urgent issues to be explored were summarized. The TP has experienced an overall surface air warming and moistening, solar dimming, and wind stilling since the beginning of the 1980s. The surface warming depends on elevation and its horizontal pattern is consistent with the one of the glacier change. Accompanying the warming was air moistening, and both facilitated the trigger of more deep-clouds, which resulted in solar dimming. Surface wind speed declined from the 1970s, as a result of atmospheric circulation adjustment caused by the differential surface warming between the Asian high-latitude and low-latitude. The climate changes had weakened the thermal forcing over the TP. The warming and wind stilling lowered the Bowen ratio and led to less surface sensible heating. Atmospheric radiative cooling was enhanced, mainly by outgoing longwave emission from the warming planetary system and slightly by solar radiation reflection. Both processes contributed to the thermal forcing weakening over the Plateau. The water cycle was also altered by the climate changes. The wind stilling may have weakened water vapor exchange between the Asia monsoon region and the Plateau and thus led to less precipitation in the monsoon-impacted southern and eastern Plateau, but the warming enhanced land evaporation. Their overlap resulted in runoff reduction in the southern and eastern Plateau regions. By contrast, more convective precipitation over the central TP was triggered

  3. Eocene Tibetan plateau remnants preserved in the northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Peter; van Melle, Jérémie; Guillot, Stéphane; Pêcher, Arnaud; Reiners, Peter W.; Nicolescu, Stefan; Latif, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    The northwest Himalaya shows strongly contrasting relief. Deeply incised mountain ranges that are characterized by extremely rapid exhumation and some of the highest peaks in the world are in contrast with high-elevation, low-relief areas such as the Deosai plateau in northern Pakistan, which lies at an altitude of 4,000m. The origin and evolution of such plateau regions at the convergence of the most active continental collision in the world remain elusive. Here we report low-temperature thermochronology data from the Deosai plateau and use thermal history modelling to show that the plateau has undergone continuous slow denudation at rates below 250mMyr-1 for the past 35Myr at least. This finding suggests tectonic and morphologic stability of the plateau since at least Eocene times, only 15-20Myr after the onset of the India-Asia collision. Our work contradicts the hypothesis that widespread low-relief surfaces in the northwest Himalaya result from efficient kilometre-scale glacial erosion during Quaternary times. We show that similarly stable surfaces exist throughout the entire northwest Himalaya and share common morphologic characteristics and denudation histories, which are comparable to those of the western Tibetan plateau. Our results suggest that these surfaces are preserved remnants of an Eocene southwestern Tibetan plateau that was more extensive than today.

  4. The Rio Doce Orogeny, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, M. C. Campos; Figueiredo, M. C. H.

    1995-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Eopaleozoic superposed orogenic system of Southeastern Brazil, which was active during the Brasiliano-Pan-African Cycle during the assembly of this sector of the Gondwana Supercontinent, includes distinct terranes such as the Guanhães, Curitiba, Apiaí-Guaxupé and Serra do Mar microplates and the Juiz de Fora Thrust Belt. These orogenic systems also affected the reworked border of the São Francisco Craton. The collisional or ocean plate subduction-controlled "Brasiliano I" Orogeny was responsible for the generation of fold belts along the southeastern border of the São Francisco Craton, the accretion of different microplates and the formation of a magmatic arc associated with the roots of a northwestward trending thrust belt. The "Brasiliano I" evolution occurred during the Neoproterozoic and by 600 Ma was already in a post-orogenic stage in the Apiaí-Guaxupé Microplate, with the intrusion of rapakivi-like granitoids. The Rio Doce Orogeny is best characterized in the Serra do Mar Microplate by a magmatic arc, active between 590 and 570 Ma, with batholithic calc-alkaline plutonism exhibiting subduction zone components and a chemical zonation indicative of northwestward subduction. The collisional stage (560-530 Ma) accounted for the accretion of the Serra do Mar Microplate to the former orogenic domains. Anatexis of mostly metasediments producing peraluminous migmatites and granites, began at the calc-alkaline magmatic arc stage and culminated during crustal thickening associated with the northwesterly piling-up of large thrust slices. The post-collisional plutonism (520-480 Ma) is characterized by plutons and dikes of mainly alkali-calcic granitoids enriched in incompatible elements.

  5. Potential impacts on regional climate due to land degradation in the Guizhou Karst Plateau of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible regional climatic effects of land condition change in the Guizhou Karst Plateau (GKP), which has experienced serious Karst Rocky Desertification (KRD) in the past decades, were investigated in this study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model. It was shown that when compared with validation datasets, the WRF showed a high ability to downscale NCEP-DOE Reanalysis-2, which provided the initial and lateral boundary conditions for WRF, especially for the precipitation simulation. After land degradation over the GKP, the net radiation and evaporation were reduced mainly within the desertification area, consistent with the reduction in rainfall and the increase in surface temperature there. The southwest monsoon flow from the Bay of Bengal was weakened over the adjacent area to the northeast, influencing the East Asian summer monsoon. Meanwhile, the weaker low-layer anti-cyclone and the stronger horizontal convergence enhanced vertical motion in the southeastern coastal areas. Furthermore, owing to the decreased surface heating in the degradation experiment, the lifting over the GKP and neighboring regions to the east was limited, which resulted in a reduced rainfall within the GKP and strengthened the ascending motion downstream over 114°–122° E. Such circulation differences favored an increase in moisture flux and clouds, thereby causing more precipitation in coastal areas of southeast China. (letter)

  6. ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT FIELDS AND SATELLITE IMAGERY CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECT OF BAY OF BENGAL STORMS ON LOW-LATITUDE PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mei-ling; ZHANG Xiu-nian; YANG Su-yu

    2007-01-01

    Based on the composite analysis method, 12 rainstorms triggered by Bay of Bengal storms(shortened as B-storms hereafter) across the whole province of Yunnan were studied, and some interesting results of rain and circulation characteristics influenced by the storms were obtained for low-latitude plateau.Usually, when a rainstorm weather occurs in low-latitude plateau, the B-storm center locates in the central,east or north parts of the Bay of Bengal. At the same time, the subtropical high ridge moves to 15°N - 20°Nand the west ridge point moves to the Indo-china Peninsula from the South China Sea and the low-latitude plateau is controlled by southwest air streams coming from the front of the trough and the periphery of the subtropical high. The southwest low-level jet stream from the east side of the bay storm has great effect on heavy rains. On the one hand, the southwest low-level jet stream is playing the role of transporting water vapor and energy. On the other hand, the southwest low-level jet stream is helpful to keep essential dynamical condition. From the analysis of the satellite cloud imagery, it is found that mesoscale convection cloud clusters will keep growing and moving into the low-latitude plateau to cause heavy rains when a storm forms in the Bay of Bengal.

  7. North Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA

  8. Analysis of the seismicity of Southeastern Sicily: a proposed tectonic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Barbano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Sicily is one of the Italian regions with high seismic risk and is characterised by the occurrence in the past of large destructive events (MS = 6.4-7.3 over a territory which is densely urbanised today. The main earthquakes were analysed and some minor damaging shocks reviewed to investigate the main seismogenic features of the region. The comparison between the pattern of seismicity and evidence of Quaternary tectonics allowed us to propose a first tentative, tectonic interpretation of the earthquakes. On the whole, the seismicity of SE Sicily seems distributed along regional fault systems which have had a role in the recent geodynamic evolution of the area. The Malta escarpment, the only structure whose late Quaternary-recent activity is currently known, appears the most probable source for earthquakes with about 7 magnitude. Although no evidence of tectonics subsequent to the middle Pleistocene is available for them, the Scicli line and the NE-SW fault system delimiting the northern sector of the Hyblean plateau seem seismically active with events with maximum magnitude of 5.2 and 6.4, respectively.

  9. Spatial and temporal pattern of erosion in the Three Rivers Region, southeastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Herman, Frédéric; Willett, Sean D.; Wang, Wei; Maden, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Convergence and collision between India and Eurasia have produced the Tibetan Plateau, which stands 5 km high over a region of 3 million km2. Its southeastern margin lies in the restraining bend between the Sichuan basin and the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. In this region three parallel rivers, the Salween, the Mekong and the Yangtze, carve gorges up to 3 km deep. Along the longitudinal profiles, large-scale knickzones, defined by very high steepness, correspond to the gorges of the Salween and Mekong. The Yangtze, instead, has a nearly linear profile upstream from its first big bend. New low-temperature thermochronometric data reveal a complex pattern of erosion in the Three Rivers Region. From the Salween in the west to the Yangtze in the east the magnitude and rate of erosion decrease. From south-to-north erosion rates exhibit variable gradients in space and time. Along the Salween and the Mekong a northward increase of erosion rate is followed by a decrease with additional distance to the north. Variations of erosion rate in time are characterized by a deceleration along the Salween and a general deceleration with local acceleration along the Mekong. This pattern, together with river profile analysis, is best explained by active coupling between tectonics and river incision related to the indentation and northward migration of the corner of the Indian continent.

  10. Characterization of submarine groundwater discharge long the southeastern coast of Sicily (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In research and management of groundwaters, an important role is played by coastal aquifers. Pollution due to salinization and human activities poses serious concerns to the economy of the related territories. Under the project, established through collaboration between the Italian Universities of Palermo, Bari, Venice and the IAEA and the UNESCO, study of coastal aquifers from Syracuse to Donnalucata on the southeastern coast of Sicily was carried out. The study area, known as Hyblean Plateau, is characterized by carbonate and vulcanite outcrops, connected to the tectonic activity during the Cretaceous and the Pliocene period. The aquifers are subjected to overexploitation due to the high water demand for intensive agricultural practices. Thus, the equilibrium between fresh groundwaters and seawater is getting disturbed with consequent salinization. The research project involved the geochemical and isotopic study of well waters, springs and submarine discharges in order to understand the relationships existing among these waters, to identify the best tracers of the natural and human-related phenomena occurring in the area as well as to estimate the presence of possible environmental effects of them on the coastal ecosystem. Hydrogeochemical surveys were carried out, every three months, from 2002 to 2004 on a net of wells, sub-aerial and submarine springs. The present report synthesizes the main results of the research. (author)

  11. Nonuniform surface uplift of the Andean plateau revealed by deuterium isotopes in Miocene volcanic glass from southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Joel E.; Horton, Brian K.

    2014-02-01

    Proposals for rapid late Miocene surface uplift driven by large-scale lithospheric removal beneath the central Andean plateau have been based largely on temperature-sensitive paleoaltimeters. Both the magnitude and mechanism of this proposed pulse of uplift have been challenged. First, climatic general circulation models support protracted uplift with predicted temperature and isotopic shifts enhanced by attainment of threshold elevations. Second, tectonic models in which surface elevations are compensated by regional contraction and crustal thickening question the need for lithospheric removal and predict broadly coeval uplift of the entire plateau. We present hydrogen isotope data using a novel temperature-insensitive volcanic glass proxy from continuous, well-dated lower to middle Miocene basin fill in the Western Cordillera of the northern plateau that show a rapid decrease in δD values (-62.8‰) at 19-16 Ma, with extremely negative values continuing into the Pliocene. We propose that the basin reached its current elevation by 16 Ma, >6 Myr earlier than proposed for the central plateau. The rapid decrease in δD values is consistent with punctuated surface uplift of 2.2-3.7 km between 19 and 16 Ma. Whereas the 3.7 km upper estimate assumes a static climate similar to modern, the 2.2 km lower estimate conservatively incorporates modeled changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation associated with elevation change. Comparison of these results to existing paleoelevation estimates from the Andean plateau facilitates a tentative reconstruction of earliest middle Miocene paleotopography showing a central depression with flanking hinterland and thrust-belt highlands. This apparent pattern of nonuniform plateau uplift contradicts shortening-proportional topographic growth over tens of Myr. We propose that temporally and spatially irregular surface uplift may be linked to pronounced local variability in crustal shortening and/or piecemeal removal of dense

  12. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, 1998 and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study for white-tailed deer, performed in 1998 and 2004 by the College of Veterinary Medicine of The University of Georgia.

  13. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Santee National Wildlife Refuge, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study of the Parasitology College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia....

  14. The effects of forest structure on occurrence and abundance of three owl species (Aves: Strigidae in the Central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed G. Barros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of three owl species: the crested owl Lophostrix cristata Daudin, 1800, the Amazon pygmy owl Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990, and the tawny-bellied screech owl Megascops watsonii Cassin, 1849. We surveyed the owls mostly between 07:00 and 11:00 pm from July 2001 to April 2002, in eighteen 8 km transects along trails at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Central Amazon, Brazil. We staked out 50 x 50 m plots where the presence and absence of the owls were recorded. We compared some components of the forest structure between plots where owls were present and plots where they were absent. The spatial variation in these components were related to the occurrence and abundance of the owls using models of multiple logistic and multiple linear regressions analysis, respectively. Lophostrix cristata is rare in many other areas of the Amazon forest, but it was the most abundant in our study area. Lophostrix cristata and G. hardyi were more concentrated along the uplands (central plateau, which divide the reserve into two drainage water-basins. Megascops watsonii was distributed mainly in the southeastern part of the reserve. Glaucidium hardyi was more often found in areas with larger canopy openness. In areas with higher abundance of snags, there was significantly higher occurrence of L. cristata and M. watsonii. Megascops watsonii was also more abundant in areas with higher abundance of forest trees and in areas bearing shallower leaf litter on the forest floor. This study is the first to analyze at large spatial scale the effects of forest structure on neotropical forest top predator nocturnal birds. The results indicate that forest structure can affect the occurrence and abundance of owls in the Amazon forest.

  15. Interannual Variability of South-Eastern African Summer Rainfall. Part 1: Relationships with Air-Sea Interaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Alfredo; Simmonds, Ian

    1997-03-01

    This paper investigates the role that air-sea interaction processes may play in interannual variability of south-eastern African summer rainfall. The principal spatial modes of south-eastern African summer rainfall are first identified using principal component analysis. Four modes are retained. The most important mode of variability is found to represent rainfall variability over most of the domain, particularly in the regions to the south.The influence of ENSO (as measured by the SOI) on summer rainfall is investigated in detail for different SOI leads. The relationship is such that during the summer following the onset of an ENSO event, south-eastern Africa tends to experience dry conditions. Strongest relationships are found with the SOI leading rainfall by about 3 to 6 months.A second index, the Brandon-Marion Index (BMI) which is indicative of changes in the pressure field over the Indian Ocean correlates with rainfall better than the SOI. Strongest correlations are found when this index leads rainfall by about 1 to 3 months. More importantly, a partial correlation analysis reveals that the BMI influences rainfall independently of ENSO. Both the SOI and the BMI are potential predictors of summer rainfall.An investigation of rainfall associations with global SST anomalies reveals areas in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans that are linked with rainfall changes over the subcontinent. The relationship is such that warm anomalies tend to be followed by dry conditions over much of south-eastern Africa. Strongest relationships are found when SSTs lead the rainfall season by about 1 to 3 months. Well-defined atmospheric anomalies are identified during dry south-eastern African summers. These include, amongst others, anomalously warm tropospheric temperatures and marked low-level cyclonic circulation anomalies over the central Indian Ocean, which generate abnormally weak easterly winds along much of the south-eastern coast of Africa. These perturbations to the

  16. Flora investigation kicks off on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coordinated by the CAS Kunming Institute of Botany,a project to investigate the floral germplasm resources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was initiated recently in Kunming,capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  17. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  18. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming

  19. Canal network effects on the water balance in southeastern Srem

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research and analyses of the effects of a drainage canal network on the water balance of southeastern Srem. The paper was derived from a doctoral thesis which contains a detailed study of key components of the water balance of southeastern Srem, including actual amounts of water removed via the drainage canal network. A linear multiple regression model was used to establish an analytical relationship between the amounts of evacuated water (a dependent variab...

  20. Crustal velocity structure of Central and Eastern Turkey from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Linda M.; Beck, Susan L.; Biryol, C. Berk; Zandt, George; Özacar, A. Arda; Yang, Yingjie

    2013-09-01

    In eastern Turkey, the ongoing convergence of the Arabian and African plates with Eurasia has resulted in the westward extrusion of the Anatolian Plate. To better understand the current state and the tectonic history of this region, we image crust and uppermost mantle structure with ambient noise tomography. Our study area extends from longitudes of 32° to 44°E. We use continuous data from two temporary seismic deployments, our 2006-2008 North Anatolian Fault Passive Seismic Experiment and the 1999-2001 Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment, as well as from additional seismographs in the region. We compute daily cross-correlations of noise records between all station pairs and stack them over the entire time period for which they are available, as well as in seasonal subsets, to obtain interstation empirical Green's functions. After selecting interstation cross-correlations with high signal-to-noise ratios and measuring interstation phase velocities, we compute phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 8 to 40 s. At all periods, the phase velocity maps are similar for winter and summer subsets of the data, indicating that seasonal variations in noise sources do not bias our results. Across the study area, we invert the phase velocity estimates for shear velocity as a function of depth. The shear velocity model, which extends to 50 km depth, highlights tectonic features apparent at the surface: the Eastern Anatolian Plateau is a prominent low-velocity anomaly whereas the Kirşehir Massif has relatively fast velocities. There is a large velocity jump across the Inner Tauride Suture/Central Anataolian Fault Zone throughout the crust whereas the North Anatolian Fault does not have a consistent signature. In addition, in the southeastern part of our study area, we image a high velocity region below 20 km depth which may be the northern tip of the underthrusting Arabian Plate.

  1. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ying-Ming

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction, this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area. The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense, and social management at meso-level. The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity. However, there are still many weak aspects. Firstly, social structure is not coordinated with econ...

  2. Surgical approach for high-energy posterior tibial plateau fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Qing Wang; You-Shui Gao; Jia-Qi Wang; Chang-Qing Zhang; Jiong Mei; Zhi-Tao Rao

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-energy fractures of posterior tibial plateau always need surgical treatment. Generally, posterior fragments of these fractures could not be exposed and reduced well in conventional anterior approaches. Although a posterolateral/posteromedial approach to manage posterior tibial plateau fractures can achieve satisfactory results, there are few presentations concerning the treatment of these high-energy injuries based on posterior approaches combined with anterior approach if ne...

  3. Connecting polymers to the quantum Hall plateau transition

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Joel E.

    2001-01-01

    A mapping is developed between the quantum Hall plateau transition and two-dimensional self-interacting lattice polymers. This mapping is exact in the classical percolation limit of the plateau transition, and diffusive behavior at the critical energy is shown to be related to the critical exponents of a class of chiral polymers at the $\\theta$-point. The exact critical exponents of the chiral polymer model on the honeycomb lattice are found, verifying that this model is in the same universal...

  4. Hydrological impacts of deforestation on the southeast Tibetian plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, X.; Graf, H; Langmann, B.; Chen, W.; Huang, R.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrological impact of forest removal on the southeast Tibetan Plateau during the second half of the last century is investigated in this study using an atmospheric general circulation model. The effects of deforestation are investigated by examing the differences between the forest replacement and control experiments. Model results demonstrate that deforestation of the southeast Tibetan Plateau would influence the local and the remote climate as well. It would lead to decreased transpira...

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE UPLIFT OF THE TIBETAN PLATEAU

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Daigoro; 林, 大五郎

    1987-01-01

    In order to simulate the formation of the Tibetan Plateau, several models are constructed assuming the crust as Newtonian fluid and the upper mantle lithosphere as rigid body. Calculations are performed for the period of 0.1 Ma after the collision because of the limitation of boundary conditions and the assumption of rigid lithosphere. Remarkable results are (1) emergence of Tibetan Plateau with 4000 m in height and (2) occurrence of great foredeep at the collided zone. With regard to the Him...

  6. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Riper, Charles Van; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  7. Verçenik Plateau Alternative Tourism and Recreational Activities

    OpenAIRE

    İSLAMOĞLU, İzzet; İMAMOĞLU, Ali; Gül ÇAVUŞOĞLU

    2014-01-01

    In the last century working life become easier and result of this increased people free time, after that interest of tourism activities wide spread all over. Plateau tourism or highland places are not first choices of the tourism activities but plateau rec reation will give an application for potential activity place. Turkey have unmatched nature and rich environmental resources will able to give any kind of tourism activities. In that context city of ...

  8. Is the Ordos Basin floored by a trapped oceanic plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusky, Tim; Mooney, Walter

    2015-11-01

    The Ordos Basin in China has about 10 km of Neoarchean to Quaternary sediments covering an enigmatic basement of uncertain origin. The basement is tectonically stable, has a thick mantle root, low heat flow, few earthquakes, and has been slowly subsiding for billions of years. The basement has geophysical signatures that indicate it is dominantly intermediate to mafic in composition, and is similar to some other cratons world-wide, and also to several major oceanic plateaus. It was accreted to the amalgamated Eastern Block and Central Orogenic belt of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Paleoproterozoic, then involved in several Proterozoic tectonic events including being over-thrust by an accretionary orogen, and intruded by Andean arc-related magmas, and then involved in a continent-continent collision during amalgamation with the Columbia Supercontinent. Thus, the basement rocks are deformed, metamorphosed to granulite facies, and determining their initial origin is difficult. We suggest that the data is consistent with an origin as an oceanic plateau that accreted to the NCC and, later experienced different episodes of differentiation associated with later subduction and collisions. Formation of cratonic lithosphere by accretion of oceanic plateaus may be one mechanism to create stable cratons. Other cratons that apparently formed by partial melting of underplated and imbricated oceanic slabs are stable in some cases, but also re-activated and "de-cratonized" in some cases in Asia, where they have been affected by younger subduction, hydration, slab roll-back, and melt-peridotite reactions. This suggests that the initial mode of craton formation may be a factor in the preservation of stable cratons, and de-cratonization is not only influenced by younger tectonic activity.

  9. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  10. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  11. Chemical climatology of the southeastern United States, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Hidy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments (the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study-SOAS took place in central Alabama in June–July 2013 as part of the broader Southern Atmosphere Study (SAS. These projects were aimed at studying oxidant photochemistry and formation and impacts of aerosols at a detailed process level in a location where high biogenic organic vapor emissions interact with anthropogenic emissions, and the atmospheric chemistry occurs in a subtropical climate in North America. The majority of the ground-based experiments were located at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH Centreville (CTR site near Brent, Alabama, where extensive, unique aerometric measurements of meteorology, trace gases and particles have been made from the early 1990s through 2013. The SEARCH network data permits a characterization of temporal and spatial context of the SOAS findings. The long-term measurements show that the SOAS experiments took place during the second wettest and coolest year in the 2000–2013 period, with lower than average solar radiation. The pollution levels at CTR and other SEARCH sites were the lowest since full measurements began in 1999. This dataset provides a perspective for the SOAS program in terms of long-term average chemistry (chemical climatology and short-term comparisons of summer average spatial variability across the Southeast at high temporal (hourly resolution. Changes in anthropogenic gas and particle emissions between 1999 and 2013, account for the decline in pollutant concentrations at the monitoring sites in the region. The long-term and short-term data provide an opportunity to contrast SOAS results with temporally and spatially variable conditions in support for the development of tests for the robustness of SOAS findings.

  12. Mercury in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, C.H.; Arnold-Hill, B.; Yanochko, G.M.; Winger, P.V.; Brisbin, I.L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Mercury methylation may be enhanced in wetlands and humic-rich, blackwater systems that crocodiles and alligators typically inhabit. Given their high trophic level and long life-spans, crocodilians could accumulate significant burdens of Hg. Our objectives were to survey Hg concentrations in alligators from several areas in the southeastern United States to test their utility as sentinels of Hg contamination, to examine relationships among Hg concentrations in various tissues and to look for any differences in tissue Hg concentrations among locations. We measured total Hg concentrations in alligators collected in the Florida Everglades (n = 18), the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia (n = 9), the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina (n = 49) and various locations in central Florida ( n = 21), sampling tissues including blood, brain, liver, kidney, muscle, bone, fat, spleen, claws and dermal scutes. Alligators from the Everglades were mostly juvenile, but Hg concentrations in tissues were high (means: liver 41.0, kidney 36.4, muscle 5.6 mg Hg/kg dry wt.). Concentrations in alligators from other locations in Florida were lower (means: liver 14.6, kidney 12.6, muscle 1.8 mg Hg/kg dry wt.), although they tended to be larger adults. Alligators from the Okefenokee were smallest and had the lowest Hg concentrations (means: liver 4.3, kidney 4.8, muscle 0.8 mg Hg/kg dry wt.). At some locations, alligator length was correlated with Hg concentrations in some internal organs. However, at three of the four locations, muscle Hg was not related to length. Tissue Hg concentrations were correlated at most locations; however, claw or dermal scute Hg explained less than 74% of the variation of Hg in muscle or organs, suggesting readily-obtained tissues, such as scutes or claws, have limited value for nondestructive screening of Hg in alligator populations.

  13. Morphostructural characterization of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola), based on remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernando Carlos; Pereira, Alcides José; Mantas, Vasco Manuel; Mpengo, Horácio Kativa

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of the main morphostructural features of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola) can be done by using remote sensing techniques associated with field work. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was built for this purpose. This model is based on altimeter data acquired from the Aster sensor, on which image processing techniques such as enhancement techniques, contrast change and filtering were applied. Other techniques, such as RGB colour composition, were also tested. The processed satellite images were interpreted by visual process and the results were then compared with available geological maps (scale 1: 1 000 000). To facilitate both analysis and interpretation, the edge of the plateau was divided into three sectors: northern (or Chongoroi Edge), central (or Humpata Edge) and southern (or Oncocua Edge). For each sector, the main morphological aspects and main lineament systems were identified and characterized. In the specific case of the central sector, these parameters were also confirmed by field work. This study shows that the morphology of the western edge of the plateau is dominated by N50°W-N60°W, N60°E and N-S trending main tectonic systems. These results have important implications in terms of geological mapping and regional tectonics as well as in land-use planning and other areas, such as hydrogeology or geotechnics.

  14. Morphostructural characterization of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola), based on remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernando Carlos; Pereira, Alcides José; Mantas, Vasco Manuel; Mpengo, Horácio Kativa

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of the main morphostructural features of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola) can be done by using remote sensing techniques associated with field work. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was built for this purpose. This model is based on altimeter data acquired from the Aster sensor, on which image processing techniques such as enhancement techniques, contrast change and filtering were applied. Other techniques, such as RGB colour composition, were also tested. The processed satellite images were interpreted by visual process and the results were then compared with available geological maps (scale 1: 1 000 000). To facilitate both analysis and interpretation, the edge of the plateau was divided into three sectors: northern (or Chongoroi Edge), central (or Humpata Edge) and southern (or Oncocua Edge). For each sector, the main morphological aspects and main lineament systems were identified and characterized. In the specific case of the central sector, these parameters were also confirmed by field work. This study shows that the morphology of the western edge of the plateau is dominated by N50°W-N60°W, N60°E and N-S trending main tectonic systems. These results have important implications in terms of geological mapping and regional tectonics as well as in land-use planning and other areas, such as hydrogeology or geotechnics.

  15. X-ray plateaus followed by sharp drops in GRBs 060413, 060522,060607A and 080330: Further evidences for central engine afterglow from gamma-ray bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray afterglows of GRBs 060413, 060522, 060607A and 080330 are characterized by a plateau followed by a very sharp drop. The plateau could be explained within the framework of the external forward shock model but the sharp drop can not.We interpret the plateau as the afterglows of magnetized central engines, plausibly magnetars. In this model, the X-ray afterglows are powered by the internal magnetic energy dissipation and the sudden drop is caused by the collapse of the magnetar. Accordingly,the X-ray plateau photons should have a high linear polarization, which can be tested by future X-ray polarimetry.

  16. Ferromagnetic–ferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic correlation and magnetization plateau in spin-1/2 J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiao-Yan [Graduate School, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Dou, Jun-Ya [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: liuguanghua@tjpu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The magnetization process of a spin-1/2 J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric Heisenberg chain is investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. A magnetization phase diagram including three different phases, i.e., a fully polarized (FP) phase, a 1/2 plateau phase, and a spin-fluid (SF) phase, is obtained. All the quantum phase transitions (QPTs) are determined to belong to the second-order category, and the central charge in the critical SF phase equals 1. In addition, a 1/2 plateau phase also exists in the classical J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric Ising chain. The F–F–AF–AF (or AF–AF–F–F) type longitudinal correlation is found to be important and necessary for the appearance of the 1/2 plateau state in both quantum and classical cases. - Highlights: • 1/2 magnetization plateau can be realized in both quantum and classical cases. • 1/2 plateau is characterized by constant magnetization, entanglement and correlation. • Central charge of the spin-fluid phase is determined to be 1. • F–F–AF–AF correlation is important for the appearance of the 1/2 plateau.

  17. Hydrogeological mapping of north-central Madagascar using limited data

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    North-central Madagascar is well endowed with surface-water. Due to soil erosion and pollution, rivers can no longer provide year round clean water supplies. Shallow aquifers are being developed to provide sustainable rural and urban water supplies. A survey of water sources located 2760 boreholes, wells, ponds and springs in the area, but understanding of groundwater occurrence remains poor. The area comprises four hydrogeological zones: the dry Central High Plateau with erosi...

  18. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Minal Desai; A.B Shanbhag

    2012-01-01

    The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifau...

  19. Karst in evaporites in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permian evaporites in southeastern New Mexico include gypsum, anhydrite, and salt, which are subject to both blanket and local, selective dissolution. Dissolution has produced many hundreds of individual karst features including collapse sinks, karst valleys, blind valleys, karst plains, caves, and breccia pipes. Dissolution began within some formations during Permian time and has been intermittent but continual ever since. Karst features other than blanket deposits of breccia are not preserved from the early episodes of dissolution, but some karst features preserved today - such as breccia pipes - are remnants of karst activity that was active at least as early as mid-Pleistocene time. Rainfall was much more abundant during Late Pleistocene time, and many features visible today may have been formed then. The drainage history of the Pecos River is related to extensive karstification of the Pecos Valley during mid-Pleistocene time. Large-scale stream piracy and dissolution of salt in the subsurface resulted in major shifts and excavations in the channel. In spite of intensive groundwater studies that have been carried out in the region, major problems in near-surface evaporite karst remain to be solved. Among these are determination of recharge areas and time of recharge. 109 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab

  20. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.)

  1. A Pleistocene lacustrine episode in southeastern Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an investigation of the Th/U dating and isotopic (stable carbon and oxygen) palaeohydrology of the fossiliferous lacustrine deposits of middle Pleistocene age found in Central Fezzan (Libya) are reported. (U.K.)

  2. Holocene Vegetation and Climate History on the Zoige Plateau in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Yu, Z.; Chen, F.; Zhao, W.

    2009-12-01

    We present a well-dated and high-resolution fossil pollen record and discuss its climatic interpretations from a peatland in Zoige on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The objectives of this study were to provide a detailed reconstruction of regional vegetation history during the Holocene and to understand the vegetation response to Asian summer monsoon. The 10,300-year chronology of the 650-cm-long peat core (ZB08-c1) was controlled by eight AMS C-14 dates on hand-picked charcoals. Loss-on-ignition (LOI) analysis was conducted at 1-cm intervals, and pollen analysis at mostly 8-cm intervals. LOI results indicate that organic matter content is high at 60-80% between ~10,000 and 4000 cal BP, but decreases to Cyperaceae (60-80%), Picea (up to 15%), Ranunculaceae (up to 10%) and Betula, indicating Cyperaceae-dominated vegetation on peatlands and Picea-dominated upland vegetation. Total tree pollen has high values (up to 35%) during the early and mid-Holocene, but decreases after 4000 cal yr BP. The tree pollen decline from ~4000 to 2500 cal BP likely reflects the deforestation caused by weakened summer monsoon, as similar forest decline has been documented at other sites on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. However, vegetation and lithology changes since 2500 cal BP, especially after 1300 cal BP, were likely caused by human-induced deforestation, pasture grazing and resultant erosion, which has been documented in other peat-based studies from the region.

  3. Amplitude of climatic changes in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of ice core and meteorological data from the Qinghai-Tibetan (Q-T) Plateau, this article focuses on the discussion of the problems related to the sensitivity of temporal and spatial changes of the climate in high-altitude regions, particularly in the Q-T Plateau. The features of abrupt climatic changes of the past 100 ka, 2 000 a and recent years indicate that the amplitude of these changes in the Q-T Plateau was obviously larger than that in low-altitude regions. The scope of temperature change above 6 000 m in the Q-T Plateau between glacial and interglacial stages could reach over 10℃, but only about 4℃ in low-elevation regions close to sea level. During the last 2 000 a, the amplitude of temperature changes at Guliya (over 6 000 m a.s.l.) in the Q-T Plateau reached 7℃, in comparison with 2℃ in eastern China at low altitude. In the present age, apparent differences of climatic warming have been observed in the Q-T Plateau, indicating that the warming in high-elevation regions is much higher than that in low-elevation regions. The temperature in over 3 500 m regions of the Q-T Plateau have been increasing at a rate of 0.25×10-1/a in recent 30 years, but almost no change has taken place in the regions below 500 m. Thus, we concluded that high-altitude regions are more sensitive to climatic changes than the low-altitude regions.

  4. Variations in Upper Mantle Seismic Structure Across the Ethiopian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraratne, D. S.; Solomon, S. C.; Nyblade, A. A.

    2006-05-01

    The Ethiopian plateau, disrupted by the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and adjacent to the nearby Red Sea spreading center, resides within a complex tectonic environment. We use Rayleigh wave phase velocity data from the Ethiopian Broadband Seismic Experiment to study the upper mantle seismic structure of the plateau. Dispersion curves indicate phase velocities that are significantly lower than other continental lithosphere by as much as 8% for periods between 18 and 91 s. Lateral velocity variations show a narrow low-velocity anomaly elongated in the NE-SW direction located within the rift boundaries. Phase velocities within the western and eastern plateau are ~6% higher than within the MER. Shear wave velocity inversions indicate a high-velocity lid that extends to 100 km ± 20 km depth and marks the base of the lithosphere. Azimuthal anisotropy within the western plateau is resolvable for periods up to 60 s; a 1.6% peak-to-peak amplitude gradually rotates in azimuth from NNE at short periods to NE at 60 s. This azimuthal rotation is consistent with lateral variations in the fast direction of SKS splitting studies between the rift and western plateau. The change in Rayleigh wave anisotropy at long periods indicates that the NE splitting direction observed within the western plateau may be due to a component of deep sublithospheric flow. We suggest that a transition in anisotropic fabric is controlled by the combined effects of aligned melt pockets within the MER and pre-existing Mozambique sutures at shallow lithospheric depths and asthenospheric flow parallel to plate spreading at greater depths. Our results may also be consistent with sublithospheric flow of mantle plume material that rises beneath the Ethiopian plateau and flows northeastward to the Red Sea spreading center.

  5. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  6. A Younger Dryas plateau icefield in the Monadhliath, Scotland, and implications for regional palaeoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Clare M.; Lukas, Sven; Carr, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    A record of Younger Dryas glaciation in Scotland is well established. However, the role of the Monadhliath, a significant plateau area extending over 840 km2 in central Scotland, has never been investigated systematically. We present the first systematic glacial geomorphological mapping across the whole region, which has led to the identification of hitherto-unrecorded glacial and associated landforms. The spatial distribution of these landforms indicates that the last phase of glaciation in the area was that of a local plateau icefield. In addition, a clear morphostratigraphical signature provides a strong indication that the icefield dates to the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka), which is supported by numerical ages in the southeast of the study area. Based on the geomorphological evidence and 2D glacier surface profile modelling, a 280 km2 icefield is reconstructed. A novel approach is introduced to quantify plateau icefield thickness for equilibrium line altitude (ELA) and palaeoprecipitation calculations, resulting in greater overall data confidence compared to traditional reconstruction methods. The ELA for the whole icefield is calculated to be 714 ± 25 m, whilst the ELAs of individual outlet glaciers range from 560 m in the west to 816 m in the east, demonstrating a significant W-E precipitation gradient across the region during the Younger Dryas. These ELAs compare well with those calculated for Younger Dryas ice masses reconstructed in neighbouring regions and are in good agreement with overall precipitation patterns suggested for Scotland during this time. Whilst the total amount of precipitation calculated from these ELAs is highly dependent on the method used, irrespective of this, the study suggests a more arid Younger Dryas climate in the region compared to the present day.

  7. The effect of the Asian Monsoon to the atmospheric boundary layer over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoshan; Su, Zhongbo; Chen, Xuelong; Zheng, Donghai; Sun, Fanglin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong

    2016-04-01

    Modulation of the diurnal variations in the convective activities associated with day-by-day changes of surface flux and soil moisture was observed in the beginning of the monsoon season on the central Tibetan plateau (Sugimoto et al., 2008) which indicates the importance of land-atmosphere interactions in determining convective activities over the Tibetan plateau. Detailed interaction processes need to be studied by experiments designed to evaluate a set of hypotheses on mechanisms and linkages of these interactions. A possible function of vegetation to increase precipitation in cases of Tibetan High type was suggested by Yamada and Uyeda (2006). Use of satellite derived plateau scale soil moisture (Wen et al., 2003) enables the verification of these hypotheses (e.g. Trier et al. 2004). To evaluate these feedbacks, the mesoscale WRF model will be used because several numerical experiments are being conducted to improve the soil physical parameterization in the Noah land surface scheme in WRF so that the extreme conditions on the Tibetan plateau could be adequately represented (Van der Velde et al., 2009) such that the impacts on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer can be assessed and improved. The Tibetan Observational Research Platform (TORP) operated by the Institute of Tibetan Plateau (Ma et al., 2008) will be fully utilized to study the characteristics of the plateau climate and different aspects of the WRF model will be evaluated using this extensive observation platform (e.g. Su et al., 2012). Recently, advanced studies on energy budget have been done by combining field and satellite measurements over the Tibetan Plateau (e.g. Ma et al., 2005). Such studies, however, were based on a single satellite observation and for a few days over an annual cycle, which are insufficient to reveal the relation between the land surface energy budget and the Asian monsoon over the Tibetan plateau. Time series analysis of satellite observations will provide the

  8. The origin of the plateau and late rebrightening in the afterglow of GRB 120326A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRB 120326A is an unusual gamma-ray burst (GRB) that has a long plateau and a very late rebrightening in both X-ray and optical bands. The similar behavior of the optical and X-ray light curves suggests that they may share a common origin. The long plateau starts at several hundred seconds and ends at tens of thousands of seconds, and the peak time of the late rebrightening is about 30,000 s. We analyze the energy injection model by means of numerical and analytical solutions, considering both the wind environment and the interstellar medium environment for GRB afterglows. We particularly study the influence of the injection starting time, ending time, stellar wind density (or density of the circumburst environment), and injection luminosity on the shape of the afterglow light curves, respectively. In the wind model, we find that the light curve is largely affected by the parameters and that there is a 'bump' in the late stage. In the wind environment, we found that the longer the energy is injected, the more obvious the rebrightening will be. We also find that the peak time of the bump is determined by the stellar wind density. We use the late continuous injection model to interpret the unusual afterglow of GRB 120326A. The model fits the observational data well; however, we find that the timescale of the injection must be higher than 10,000 s, which implies that the timescale of the central engine activity must also be more than 10,000 s. This information can give useful constraints on the central engines of GRBs—we consider a newborn millisecond pulsar with a strong magnetic field to be the central engine. On the other hand, our results suggest that the circumburst environment of GRB 120326A is very likely a stellar wind.

  9. The origin of the plateau and late rebrightening in the afterglow of GRB 120326A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, S. J.; Lu, J. F. [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Geng, J. J.; Wang, K.; Huang, Y. F.; Dai, Z. G. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F., E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-04-20

    GRB 120326A is an unusual gamma-ray burst (GRB) that has a long plateau and a very late rebrightening in both X-ray and optical bands. The similar behavior of the optical and X-ray light curves suggests that they may share a common origin. The long plateau starts at several hundred seconds and ends at tens of thousands of seconds, and the peak time of the late rebrightening is about 30,000 s. We analyze the energy injection model by means of numerical and analytical solutions, considering both the wind environment and the interstellar medium environment for GRB afterglows. We particularly study the influence of the injection starting time, ending time, stellar wind density (or density of the circumburst environment), and injection luminosity on the shape of the afterglow light curves, respectively. In the wind model, we find that the light curve is largely affected by the parameters and that there is a 'bump' in the late stage. In the wind environment, we found that the longer the energy is injected, the more obvious the rebrightening will be. We also find that the peak time of the bump is determined by the stellar wind density. We use the late continuous injection model to interpret the unusual afterglow of GRB 120326A. The model fits the observational data well; however, we find that the timescale of the injection must be higher than 10,000 s, which implies that the timescale of the central engine activity must also be more than 10,000 s. This information can give useful constraints on the central engines of GRBs—we consider a newborn millisecond pulsar with a strong magnetic field to be the central engine. On the other hand, our results suggest that the circumburst environment of GRB 120326A is very likely a stellar wind.

  10. The Positive Impacts Of American Reinvestment And Recovery Act (ARRA) Funding To The Waste Management Program On Hanford's Plateau Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2009, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) was allocated $1.6 billion (B) in ARRA funding to be applied to cleanup projects at the Hanford Site. DOE-RL selected projects to receive ARRA funding based on 3-criteria: creating/saving jobs, reducing the footprint of the Hanford Site, and reducing life-cycle costs for cleanup. They further selected projects that were currently covered under regulatory documents and existing prime contracts, which allowed work to proceed quickly. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is a prime contractor to the DOE focused on the environmental cleanup of the DOE Hanford Site Central Plateau. CHPRC was slated to receive $1.36B in ARRA funding. As of January, 2010, CHPRC has awarded over $200 million (M) in subcontracts (64% to small businesses), created more that 1,100 jobs, and touched more than 2,300 lives - all in support of long-term objectives for remediation of the Central Plateau, on or ahead of schedule. ARRA funding is being used to accelerate and augment cleanup activities already underway under the baseline Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC). This paper details challenges and accomplishments using ARRA funding to meet DOE-RL objectives of creating/saving jobs, expediting cleanup, and reducing lifecycle costs for cleanup during the first months of implementation.

  11. THE POSITIVE IMPACTS OF AMERICAN REINVESTMENT AND RECOVERY ACT (ARRA) FUNDING TO THE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM ON HANFORD'S PLATEAU REMEDIATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKFORD LT

    2010-01-19

    In April 2009, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) was allocated $1.6 billion (B) in ARRA funding to be applied to cleanup projects at the Hanford Site. DOE-RL selected projects to receive ARRA funding based on 3-criteria: creating/saving jobs, reducing the footprint of the Hanford Site, and reducing life-cycle costs for cleanup. They further selected projects that were currently covered under regulatory documents and existing prime contracts, which allowed work to proceed quickly. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is a prime contractor to the DOE focused on the environmental cleanup of the DOE Hanford Site Central Plateau. CHPRC was slated to receive $1.36B in ARRA funding. As of January, 2010, CHPRC has awarded over $200 million (M) in subcontracts (64% to small businesses), created more that 1,100 jobs, and touched more than 2,300 lives - all in support of long-term objectives for remediation of the Central Plateau, on or ahead of schedule. ARRA funding is being used to accelerate and augment cleanup activities already underway under the baseline Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC). This paper details challenges and accomplishments using ARRA funding to meet DOE-RL objectives of creating/saving jobs, expediting cleanup, and reducing lifecycle costs for cleanup during the first months of implementation.

  12. Cenozoic exhumation of the internal Zagros: first constraints from low-temperature thermochronology and implications for the build-up of the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, T.; Agard, P.; Bernet, M.; Meyer, B.; Chung, S.-L.; Zarrinkoub, M. H.; Burov, E.; Monié, P.

    2014-10-01

    The Iranian plateau is a flat ~ 1.5-2 km high plateau thought to result from the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates since ~ 30 ± 5 Ma, and may represent a young analogue to the so far better studied Tibetan plateau. In order to constrain the exhumation history of the internal Zagros and of the Iranian plateau, we herein present apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and apatite (AFT) and zircon fission-track (ZFT) data on plutonic rocks from the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ), Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), Central Iran and Kopet Dagh. Thermochronologic data show that the SSZ was exhumed early in the collision process (essentially before 25-20 Ma), with a likely acceleration of cooling during the late Eocene, from 0.04 to 0.3 mm/year. Results suggest that cooling of the internal Zagros migrated from the SSZ to the UDMA during a more mature stage of the continental collision, after ~ 17 Ma (i.e., coeval with the outward propagation of deformation and topography fronts in the external Zagros). Constant exhumation rates in the UDMA (~ 0.3 mm/year) suggest that no significant variation of erosion rates occurred since the onset of continental collision. In Central Iran, the overlap of ZFT, AFT and AHe ages from gneissic samples points to rapid cooling during the late Eocene (~ 42 °C/Myr), which is consistent with previous reports on the formation of Eocene metamorphic core-complexes.

  13. Spontaneous collapse of the tibial plateau: radiological staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Leon, F.; Zafra, M. [University Hospital ' ' Reina Sofia' ' , Orthopaedic Department, Cordoba (Spain); Montero, R.; Carreto, A. [University Hospital ' ' Reina Sofia' ' , Radiology Department, Cordoba (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a radiological staging system for necrosis of the tibial plateau, similar to those already developed for the hip and the medial femoral condyle. We retrospectively studied the clinical case histories and radiographic findings of 14 patients (15 affected knees) with histologically proven osteonecrosis of the tibial plateau. Stage I was marked by normal radiograph, but increased uptake in bone scan and subchondral areas of abnormal marrow signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as reported in other osteonecrosis sites. Stage II was characterised by cystic and sclerotic changes, and stage III fracture of the medial rim of the medial tibial plateau and tibial plateau collapse were present. Stage IV was marked by joint narrowing. These changes appeared earlier and were more pronounced when there was genu varum/valgum or involvement of the lateral tibial plateau. The radiological evolution of the disease appears to follow a four-stage course over a period of roughly one year from the onset of symptoms. (orig.)

  14. Hexabromocyclododecane in alpine fish from the Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) has just been listed into Stockholm Convention as a persistent organic pollutant recently. This paper studied the HBCDs in 79 wild fish from high mountain lakes and rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. The ∑HBCDs in fish muscles ranged from non detectable levels to 13.7 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (mean value of 2.12 ng/g lw) with a high detection frequency of 65.8%. α-HBCD dominated among the isomers and accounted for 78.2% of the total burden. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs in the fish were significantly correlated with the lipid content. A decreasing trend was observed between α-HBCD and trophic level. Positive correlation was also noted between the HBCD levels in fish from lakes and the annual precipitation, and this implied the long-range atmospheric transport of HBCDs to the Tibet Plateau. This was the first work to widely explore HBCDs contamination in the aquatic ecosystems of the Tibetan Plateau. -- Highlights: •HBCDs were ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau. •α-HBCD showed a negative correlation with TL in the Lhasa River aquatic food web. •Concentrations of ∑HBCD were significantly correlated with lipid contents of fish. -- HBCD was ubiquitous in fish of the Tibetan Plateau, and its concentration was significantly correlated with lipid content

  15. Rapid Loss of Lakes on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S.; Fang, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, S.; Shen, H.; Hu, H.; Tang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and as critical water sources have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multi-temporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combining with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, while in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration.

  16. Verçenik Plateau Alternative Tourism and Recreational Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet İSLAMOĞLU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last century working life become easier and result of this increased people free time, after that interest of tourism activities wide spread all over. Plateau tourism or highland places are not first choices of the tourism activities but plateau rec reation will give an application for potential activity place. Turkey have unmatched nature and rich environmental resources will able to give any kind of tourism activities. In that context city of Rize took place in Black Sea region with different capabi lities, one of the source areas that make up tourism and recreational activities. This research intended for Vercenik Plateau take place 60 km away from Camlihemsin district center and will determine potential tourism and recreational application. Research is based on field observation and studies. This information obtained as a result ofthis evaluationbeing associated toliterature data and that information determined which exercise can be done in the field. Vercenik Plateau; with pristine environment and ru ral locations, the fresh water supplies, unique flora for city of Rize has high recreational capacities.As a result of study; Vercenik Plateau has natural features with the great potential of the alternative tourism as it is suitable for areas but not asse ss enough potential tourism and recreational activities without prior review has been observed.

  17. Characterizing two types of transient intraseasonal oscillations in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau summer rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Bao, Qing; Wang, Bin; He, Haozhe; Gao, Miaoni; Gong, Daoyi

    2016-05-01

    During summer, the intraseasonal disturbances over the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) can initiate development of severe weather system downstream. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on the intraseasonal variability (ISV) of summer rainfall in terms of periodicity, genesis process and propagation pathway over the EPT based on small samples. In this study, we detected two dominant peaks of transient ISV, centered on quasi-biweekly (12-24) days (QBW) and quasi-9 (8-11) days using daily rainfall data over the ETP during the period of 1992-2012. Composite analysis revealed that the two ISVs were predominantly associated with the non-stationary wave trains, which traveled along different pathways. For the QBW, its mid-latitude wave train featured a upper-level southeastward migration, originating in Northern Europe and traveling via the East European Plain, the Ural Mountains, Lake Balkhash-Lake Baikal, the Mongolian Plateau, and then continued southward to the ETP and South Asia; and its tropical wave train was characterized with a northwestward/northward migration in low-level, starting from the Philippine Sea (PS)-South China Sea (SCS) region, moving over northern Bay of Bengal-SCS region, and arriving over the southern fridge of TP and southern China. In contrast, for quasi-9-day, the most significant mid-latitudes variability featured an eastward propagating upper-level wave train, originating from Western Europe, passing across the Mediterranean, the Black and Caspian seas, arriving over the TP, and moving towards East Asia; and the most evident tropical variability exhibited a clear northwestward/westward migration of a low-level wave train, originating from PS, passing over Taiwan, and subsequently moving towards southeastern China. Their different spatiotemporal features of associated wave trains caused their distinct linkages with eastern China rainfall anomalies. A "meridional pattern" with a giant Ural Mountain Ridge was the most remarkable

  18. Assessment of bank gully development and vegetation coverage on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Qingke; He, Yuanmei; Yao, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Gully erosion is a serious environmental problem and the primary source of sediment loss on the Loess Plateau of China, yet previous research focusing on bank gullies is limited. An assessment of bank gully development is needed as a basis for predicting erosion rates under the effects of vegetation cover and land use change. To estimate bank gully retreat rates under different land uses, assess the factors leading to bank gully development and model gully area growth rate at the catchment scale, 30 catchments with an average area of 39.0 ha were selected in the southeastern part of the Loess Plateau. QuickBird images (0.61 m resolution) obtained in 2003 and 2010 were interpreted to delineate bank gully features, and a 5 m resolution digital elevation model was used to extract topographic factors. The results showed that from 2003 to 2010, the maximum retreat rates of bank gully heads in the 30 investigated catchments ranged between 0.23 and 1.08 m yr- 1, with an average of 0.51 m yr- 1. The ratio of bank gully growth area to valley area changed from 0.49 to 9.45%, depending on land use, with average increases of 3.94, 4.00 and 2.09% for the three land use types identified, i.e. mixed use, grassland and forestland, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that the effects of topographic factors on bank gullies decreased as vegetation coverage increased in upslope drainage areas and that vegetation coverage exceeding 60% in upslope drainage areas can significantly control bank gully development. A model was built to predict the bank gully area growth rate (Ra, m2 yr- 1) with upslope drainage area (Ai, m2), local slope gradient (S, m m- 1) and the proportion of the area with vegetation coverage below 60% in upslope drainage areas (Φ0.6) at the catchment scale. The regression equation is in the form Ra = 0.1540[(Φ0.6Ai)0.24S]3.2588. Compared with previous studies, vegetation is a factor in this model, which would be helpful for assessing the influence of

  19. Central washout sign in computer-aided evaluation of breast MRI: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Although computer-aided evaluation (CAE) programs were introduced to help differentiate benign tumors from malignant ones, the set of CAE-measured parameters that best predict malignancy have not yet been established. Purpose: To assess the value of the central washout sign on CAE color overlay images of breast MRI. Material and Methods: We evaluated the frequency of the central washout sign using CAE. The central washout sign was determined so that thin, rim-like, persistent kinetics were seen in the periphery of the tumor. Then, sequentially, plateau and washout kinetics appeared. Two additional CAE-delayed kinetic variables were compared with the central washout sign for assessment of diagnostic utility: the predominant enhancement type (washout, plateau, or persistent) and the most suspicious enhancement type (any washout > any plateau > any persistent kinetics). Results: One hundred and forty-nine pathologically proven breast lesions (130 malignant, 19 benign) were evaluated. A central washout sign was associated with 87% of malignant lesions but only 11% of benign lesions. Significant differences were found when delayed-phase kinetics were categorized by the most suspicious enhancement type (P< 0.001) and the presence of the central washout sign (P< 0.001). Under the criteria of the most suspicious kinetics, 68% of benign lesions were assigned as plateau or washout pattern. Conclusion: The central washout sign is a reliable indicator of malignancy on CAE color overlay images of breast MRI

  20. Fraturas do planalto tibial Tibial plateau fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Kfuri Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas do planalto tibial são lesões articulares cujos princípios de tratamento envolvem a redução anatômica da superfície articular e a restauração funcional do eixo mecânico do membro inferior. Contribuem para a tomada de decisões no tratamento dessas fraturas o perfil do paciente, as condições do envelope de tecidos moles, a existência de outros traumatismos associados e a infraestrutura disponível para abordagens cirúrgicas. Para as fraturas de alta energia, o tratamento estagiado, seguindo o princípio do controle de danos, tem como prioridade a manutenção do alinhamento do membro enquanto se aguarda a resolução das más condições de tecidos moles. Já nos traumas de baixa energia, desde que os tecidos moles não sejam um fator adverso, o tratamento deve ser realizado em tempo único, com osteossíntese definitiva. Fixação estável e movimento precoce são variáveis diretamente relacionadas com os melhores prognósticos. Desenvolvimentos recentes, como os implantes com estabilidade angular, substitutos ósseos e imagens tridimensionais para controle intraoperatório, deverão contribuir para cirurgias menos invasivas e melhores resultados.Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a single-stage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal f-ixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint

  1. Photochemical modelling of photo-oxidant levels over the Swiss plateau and emission reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During summertime high pressure conditions, high photo-oxidant (O3, H2O2, PAN and others) levels are frequently observed in the planetary boundary layer in central Europe. It is well known that close to the earth's surface ozone is formed by complex reactions involving VOC, NOx, and sunlight. Substantial reductions of both precursors are needed to reduce photo-oxidant levels. In this context the reductions of the abundance of the precursors and the variation of their ratios is of great importance. Here we report model calculations from the Harwell Photochemical Trajectory Model of the levels of O3, H2O2 and PAN along a trajectory over the Swiss Plateau from Lake Constance to Lake Geneva. These calculations are in satisfactory agreement with measurements made during the intensive observation period of the research program POLLUMET (Pollution and Meteorology in Switzerland). Sensitivity calculations of emission reduction scenarios indicate that on the Swiss Plateau the ozone production may be mainly NOx-limited; under conditions where the CO levels are closer to the upper limit within the range (120-600 ppbv). The calculated peak ozone level reduction caused by an exclusive NOx-emission reduction is about three times larger than that caused by an exclusive VOC reduction. The combined reduction of all precursor compounds is the most efficient strategy, although it is only marginally more efficient than the NOx-reduction scenario alone. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs

  2. Radiometric dating of Precambrian rock in Smaaland southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dating of zircons with the U-Pb method in southeastern Sweden gives ages of 1837 Ma on volcanics, considered as postorogenic to the Svecokarelian, and 1825 Ma on an arkose (possibly a sheared synorogenic granite). These figures coincide with previous U-Pb ages in southeastern Sweden. Zircons from an older preorogenic gneis and a metasediment do not fit a U-Pb discordia line but imply a previous history back to 2500 Ma ago. Zircons from a dike porphyry intruding the younger volcanics do not yield a meaningful age, probably due to contamination. When compiling the presented U-Pb data with previous Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages the orogenic activity from synorogenic through postorogenic times seems to be continuous in southeastern Sweden. (authors)

  3. Freshwater biogeography and limnological evolution of the Tibetan Plateau--insights from a plateau-wide distributed gastropod taxon (Radix spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parm Viktor von Oheimb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Tibetan Plateau is not only the highest and largest plateau on earth; it is also home to numerous freshwater lakes potentially harbouring endemic faunal elements. As it remains largely unknown whether these lakes have continuously existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, questions arise as to whether taxa have been able to exist on the plateau since before the latest Pleistocene, from where and how often the plateau was colonized, and by which mechanisms organisms conquered remote high altitude lentic freshwater systems. In this study, species of the plateau-wide distributed freshwater gastropod genus Radix are used to answer these biogeographical questions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on a broad spatial sampling of Radix spp. on the Tibetan Plateau, and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data, three probably endemic and one widespread major Radix clade could be identified on the plateau. Two of the endemic clades show a remarkably high genetic diversity, indicating a relatively great phylogenetic age. Phylogeographical analyses of individuals belonging to the most widely distributed clade indicate that intra-plateau distribution cannot be explained by drainage-related dispersal alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study reveals that Radix spp. persisted throughout the LGM on the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, we assume the continuous existence of suitable water bodies during that time. The extant Radix diversity on the plateau might have been caused by multiple colonization events combined with a relatively long intra-plateau evolution. At least one colonization event has a Palaearctic origin. In contrast to freshwater fishes, passive dispersal, probably by water birds, might be an important mechanism for conquering remote areas on the plateau. Patterns found in Radix spp. are shared with some terrestrial plateau taxa, indicating that Radix may be a suitable model taxon for inferring general patterns of biotic

  4. Teaching Rayleigh-Plateau instabilities in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkopoulos, A. A.; Ellis, P. W.; Fernandez-Nieves, A.

    2015-09-01

    The breakup of a liquid jet into spherical droplets via the Rayleigh-Plateau instability is a common and fundamental part of fluid mechanics. However, teaching this instability in a laboratory setting is challenging, requiring sophisticated methods to generate and study the jet dynamics. Recently, toroidal droplets were shown to break into one or more spherical droplets in the thin-drop limit via the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. We propose a simple experimental setup to generate toroidal droplets that break up on the order of tens of seconds, allowing for easy video capture using a basic CCD camera. With this setup, it is possible to quantify the Rayleigh-Plateau instability in a pedagogical laboratory setting. In addition, the role of curvature on jet breakup can be explored using thick toroidal droplets. We envision this setup as a powerful teaching tool for one of the most fundamental fluid dynamics processes.

  5. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  6. Teaching Rayleigh–Plateau instabilities in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakup of a liquid jet into spherical droplets via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability is a common and fundamental part of fluid mechanics. However, teaching this instability in a laboratory setting is challenging, requiring sophisticated methods to generate and study the jet dynamics. Recently, toroidal droplets were shown to break into one or more spherical droplets in the thin-drop limit via the Rayleigh–Plateau instability. We propose a simple experimental setup to generate toroidal droplets that break up on the order of tens of seconds, allowing for easy video capture using a basic CCD camera. With this setup, it is possible to quantify the Rayleigh–Plateau instability in a pedagogical laboratory setting. In addition, the role of curvature on jet breakup can be explored using thick toroidal droplets. We envision this setup as a powerful teaching tool for one of the most fundamental fluid dynamics processes. (paper)

  7. ANALYSIS OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS OVER TIBETAN PLATEAU IN SUMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-yang; DAI Xiao-yan; WU Jian-ping; LIN Hui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) infrared black-body temperature (Tbb) data from June to August 1998 are used to automatically track the activity of Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) over the Tibetan Plateau in China. Consequently, the features of MCS, such as area, intensity, life cycle, activity region and shape, are obtained. High Resolution Limited Area Analysis and Forecasting System (HLAFS) values provided by China National Meteorological Center are used to study the relationships between the MCS trajectories and their environmental physical field values, based on the distribution and trajectories of MCSs over the Tibetan Plateau. Favorable environmental physical field charts of influencing MCS movement out of the Tibetan Plateau in different UTC (Universal Time Coordinate) are developed by using spatial data mining techniques at levels of 400hPa and 500hPa, respectively.

  8. An avifaunal case study of a plateau from Goa, India: an eye opener for conservation of plateau ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Desai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lateritic plateaux typical of the midlands between the Western Ghats and the coastal plains of the Arabian Sea are known to be a unique ecosystem with a sizeable endemic flora. However, there is a total lack of studies on the faunal diversity of these plateaux, which are currently experiencing enormous anthropogenic pressures. We conducted a year-long study on the avifauna of the Taleigao Plateau, Goa. The Taleigao Plateau harbours 114 species of birds, accounting for 37% of the avifaunal diversity of the state. The resident bird population did not vary significantly through the seasons. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was particularly partial to the plateau. Besides, five species of larks, grassland specialists were also recorded on the plateau. However, the absence of forest birds like the Malabar Pied Hornbill and the Indian Grey Hornbill (recorded earlier and the predominance of habitat generalists like the House Crow and the Jungle Myna seemed to be the offshoot of heavy anthropogenic pressures on the plateau. It is recommended that at least some plateaux in the belt deserve to be protected from the impact of unsustainable developmental process

  9. Multiple nuclide cosmogenic dating of very old desert pavements on the Puna Plateau, Northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, J.; Schoenbohm, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Wind erosion of bedrock has been suggested to be responsible for the removal of more than 800 m of strata in the Qaidam Basin while wind deposition creates large-scale landforms such as the loess plateau. Wind eroded landforms, such as desert pavements in the Namibian Desert, Africa, form relic landscapes that are stable for more than 5 Ma. Desert pavements are of particular importance because of their widespread occurrence on terraces and fans, in mountains and coastal areas, and in hot and cold deserts including: Southwestern Africa, Antartic Dry valleys, Southwest USA, Denmark, Ireland, Israel, Sweden, and Central Tibet. Moreover, greater than 95 % of ventifacts on desert pavements are suspected to be late Quaternary to Holocene in age and are located on surfaces suitable for cosmogenic radionuclide dating. In spite of this, glacial, fluvial, and mass wasting systems have received far more attention than wind as an important geomorphic agent of erosion, deposition, and rock mass redistribution. Our goal is to: 1) quantify bedrock wind erosion rates; 2) quantify the ages of old, stable desert pavements; 3) and to identify which lithology-isotope pair provides the most accurate exposure ages for desert pavements in arid landscapes. The Puna Plateau, Argentina, is an ideal area to undertake this study because numerous wind eroded/deposited landforms are present, rates of fluvial erosion are low, and glaciation is limited. Mapping using remote sensed images shows that a significant portion of the Puna Plateau surface is covered by wind eroded or wind deposited landforms. These landforms align with the dominant wind direction (southeast) determined from ~450 ventifact measurements from 9 locations on the plateau. Twelve amalgamated samples sets that span six lithologies (granite, gneiss, quartzite, rhyolite, diabase, and basalt) using four cosmogenic isotopes (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 3He) on ventifacted clasts were collected from two surfaces to identify the most

  10. Spatial-temporal changes in Andean plateau climate and elevation from stable isotopes of mammal teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershaw, John; Garzione, Carmala N.; Higgins, Pennilyn; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Anaya, Frederico; Alvarenga, Herculano

    2010-01-01

    Paleoelevation constraints from fossil leaf physiognomy and stable isotopes of sedimentary carbonate suggest that significant surface uplift of the northern Andean plateau, on the order of 2.5 ± 1 km, occurred between ˜ 10.3 and 6.4 Ma. Independent spatial and temporal constraints on paleoelevation and paleoclimate of both the northern and southern plateau are important for understanding the distribution of rapid surface uplift and its relation to climate evolution across the plateau. This study focuses on teeth from modern and extinct mammal taxa (including notoungulates, pyrotheres, and litopterns) spanning ˜ 29 Ma to present, collected from the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera of Bolivia (16.2°S to 21.4°S), and lowland Brazil. Tooth enamel of large, water-dependent mammals preserves a record of surface water isotopes and the type of plants that animals ingested while their teeth were mineralizing. Previous studies have shown that the δ18O of modern precipitation and surface waters decrease systematically with increasing elevations across the central Andes. Our results from high elevation sites between 3600 and 4100 m show substantially more positive δ18O values for late Oligocene tooth samples compared to < 10 Ma tooth δ18O values. Late Oligocene teeth collected from low elevation sites in southeast Brazil show δ18O values similar (within 2‰) to contemporaneous teeth collected at high elevation in the Eastern Cordillera. This affirms that the Andean plateau was at a very low elevation during the late Oligocene. Late Oligocene teeth from the northern Eastern Cordillera also yield consistent δ13C values of about - 9‰, indicating that the environment was semi-arid at that time. Latitudinal gradients in δ18O values of late Miocene to Pliocene fossil teeth are similar to modern values for large mammals, suggesting that by ˜ 8 Ma in the northern Altiplano and by ˜ 3.6 Ma in the southern Altiplano, both regions had reached high elevation and

  11. Non-linear 3D Born Shear Wave Tomography in Southeastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, A.; Panning, M.; Kim, A.; Romanowicz, B.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a 3D radially anisotropic shear velocity model of the upper mantle in southeastern Asia from the inversion of long period seismic multimode waveforms. Our approach is based on normal mode perturbation theory, specifically, on a recent modification of the Born approximation, which we call "N-Born", and which includes a non-linear term that allows the accurate inclusion of accumulated phase shifts which arise when the wavepath traverses a spatially extended region with a smooth velocity anomaly of constant sign. We apply the N-Born approximation in the forward modeling part and calculate linear 3D Born kernels in the inverse part. Our starting model is a 3D radially anisotropic model which we derived from a large dataset of teleseismic multimode long period waveforms in the period range 60 to 400 s, using a finite-frequency 2D approximation (NACT, Li and Romanowicz, 1995). This model covered a larger region of East Asia (longitude 30 to 150 degrees and latitude -10 to 60 degrees), while our N-Born model is restricted to a smaller subregion (longitude 75 to 150 degrees and latitude 0 to 45 degrees) for computational efficiency. In this subregion, our N-Born isotropic and anisotropic models are both parameterized at relatively short wavelengths corresponding to a spherical spline level 6 (~200km). Our N-Born model can fit waveforms as well as the NACT model, with up to ~ 83% variance reduction. While the models agree in general, the N-Born isotropic model shows a stronger fast velocity anomaly beneath the Tibetan plateau in the depth range of 150 km to 250 km, which disappears at greater depth, consistent with other studies. More importantly, the N-Born anisotropic model can recover well the downwelling structure associated with subducted slabs. Beneath the Tibet plateau, radial anisotropy shows VSH>VSV, which is indicative of horizontal rather than vertical flow and may help distinguish between end member models of the tectonics of Tibet.

  12. yermak plateau: new geophysical data from its northern part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medow, A.; Jokat, W.

    2003-04-01

    The Yermak Plateau is a relatively young geological feature (about 36 Ma) whose origin is not known in detail. It is situated North of Svalbard between 80 and 82N and betweeen 0 and 10E. It is suggested that excessive magmatism, associated with mantle plume built up the northern part of the Yermak Plateau. In contrast recent observations showed the evidence for non-volcanic breakup of the Yermak Plateau. The southern part of the Yermak Plateau is generally covered by sedimentary deposits more than 1000 m thick. In 2002 the northern part of Yermak Plateau was geophysically explored with the research icebreaker Polarstern. Gravity and seismic data were acquired. The source for the seismic experiments was a 24l-airgun-array. Parallel to the steep angle data acquisition (10 profiles, 600 km) wide-angle data in total five sonobuoys were deployed to determine the sediment and the upper crustal velocities. The aim was to extend the seismic network as far north and east as the ice conditions allow. In the west we found sediment thickness of almost 1300 m and upper crustal velocities of 5.0 km/s, which are in good agreement with results from the southern part. Along two E-W profiles pronounced changes in the steep and wide angle data are observed. After a number of mounds were crossed by the vessel, the seismic reflection data show clear evidence for E-W extension. The basement in this zone is strongly faulted. The seismic velocities also change significantly. For upper crustal layers at depth of 4 km velocities of 6.7 km/s are observed on one sonobouy. This is also the area, where the magnetic anomalies increase in amplitude towards the west. We interprete the presence of the high velocities in the upper crust as indication for a heavily intruded continental crust rather than oceanic crust. Preliminary results from gravity modelling of the northern Yermak Plateau will also be presented.

  13. Characterizing rainfall parameters which influence erosivity in southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was carried out to characterize some selected parameters which influence rainfall erosivity in southeastern Nigeria. Rainfall amount, distribution, duration, intensity, storm types, energy loads and frequency of rain events in the region were studied using data from stations located in three major agroecological zones. Raindrop size and detaching capacity were evaluated in one of the stations for two months. The mean annual rainfall erosivity values for southeastern Nigeria point to the fact that rainfall tend to be highly erosive. 25 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  14. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  15. Plateau onset for correlation dimension: When does it occur?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaotic experimental systems are often investigated using delay coordinates. Estimated values of the correlation dimension in delay coordinate space typically increase with the number of delays and eventually reach a plateau (on which the dimension estimate is relatively constant) whose value is commonly taken as an estimate of the correlation dimension D2 of the underlying chaotic attractor. We report a rigorous result which implies that, for long enough data sets, the plateau begins when the number of delay coordinates first exceeds D2. Numerical experiments are presented. We also discuss how lack of sufficient data can produce results that seem to be inconsistent with the theoretical prediction

  16. Does the climate warming hiatus exist over the Tibetan Plateau?

    OpenAIRE

    Anmin Duan; Zhixiang Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau is determined based on historical observations from 1980 to 2013. In contrast to the cooling trend in the rest of China, and the global warming hiatus post-1990s, an accelerated warming trend has appeared over the Tibetan Plateau during 1998–2013 (0.25 °C decade−1), compared with that during 1980–1997 (0.21 °C decade−1). Further results indicate that, to some degree, such an accelerated warming trend might be attributable to cloud–ra...

  17. The career plateau--the differential diagnosis: Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, L E

    1991-02-01

    This is the last article of a three-part series on the issue of the career plateau. The first article defined the problem of career plateauing and the heightened awareness by hospital and nursing administrators of hospital nurses' career needs. The second article dealt with strategies for change in the hospital organization, the manager, and the employee. This article discusses eight basic career needs of hospital nurses that resulted from a research study the author conducted on the development of an inventory designed to measure the career specialty needs of hospital nurses. The article focuses on the career needs of PACU and surgical nurses compared with three other speciality areas. PMID:1710668

  18. The career plateau--the differential diagnosis: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, L E

    1990-08-01

    This is the second article in a three-part series. The first article defined the problem of career plateauing and the heightened awareness of hospital administrators of a long-term concern for nurses and other health care professional. Career plateauing is the point in an organizational career where an individual is unlikely to experience additional hierarchical mobility. This article presents strategies for change for the organization, the manager, and the employee. The third article will summarize a research study the author is currently completing on the development of an inventory to measure the career needs of hospital nurses. PMID:2388173

  19. Orogenic plateau magmatism of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Kheirkhah, M.; van Hunen, J.; Davidson, J. P.; Meliksetian, Kh.; Emami, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    Magmatism is a common feature of high plateaux created during continental collision, but the causes remain enigmatic. Here we study Pliocene-Quaternary volcanics from the active Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, to determine the chemistry of these rocks and their relations to faulting and deeper lithospheric structure. The great majority of the centres lie within the overriding Eurasian plate in Iran, eastern Turkey and Armenia , implying that mantle fertilised by pre-collision subduction processes plays a significant role in magma generation. The composition of the Pliocene-Quaternary centres is extremely variable, ranging from OIB-like alkali basalts, to intermediate types resembling mature continental arc lavas, to potassic and even ultrapotassic lavas. These centres are erupted across a mosaic of pre-Cenozoic suture zones and heterogeneous lithospheric blocks. The chemical diversity implies a range of partial melting conditions operating on lithospheric and perhaps sub-lithospheric sources. Published data show a thick (>200 km) lithospheric keel beneath the Arabia-Eurasia suture, thinning to near normal thicknesses (~120 km) across much of central and northern Iran. Thin mantle lithosphere under eastern Turkey (max. ~30 km) may relate to the region's juvenile, accretionary lithosphere. These variable thicknesses are constraints on the cause of the melting in each area, and the degree of variation suggests that no one mechanism applies across the plateau. Various melting models have been suggested. Break-off of the subducted Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab is supported by tomographic data, which may have permitted melting related to adiabatic ascent of hot asthenosphere under areas where the lithosphere is thin. This seems a less plausible mechanism where the lithosphere is at normal or greater than normal thickness. The same problem applies to postulated lower lithosphere delamination. Isolated pull-aparts may account for the location of some centres, but are not

  20. The Characteristics of Climate Change over the Tibetan Plateau in the Last 40 Years and the Detection of Climatic Jumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛涛; 陈隆勋; 周自江

    2004-01-01

    Through analyzing the yearly average data obtained from 123 regular meteorological observatories located in the Tibetan Plateau (T-P), this article studies the characteristics of climate change in T-P in the last 40 years. From the distribution of the linear trend, it can be concluded that the southeastern part of T-P becomes warmer and wetter, with an obvious increase of rainfall. The same characteristics arc found in the southwestern part of T-P, but the shift is smaller. In the middle of T-P, temperature and humidity obviously increase with the center of the increase in Bangoin-Amdo. The south of the Tarim Basin also exhibits the same tendency. The reason for this area being humid is that it gets less sunshine and milder wind. The northeastern part of T-P turns warmer and drier. Qaidam Basin and its western and southern areas are the center of this shift, in which the living environment is deteriorating. Analyzing the characteristics of the regional average time series, it can be found that in the mid-1970s, a significant sudden change occurred to annual rainfall, yearly average snow-accumulation days and surface pressure in the eastern part of T-P. In the mid-1980s, another evident climatic jump happened to yearly average temperature, total cloud amount, surface pressure, relative humidity, and sunshine duration in the same area. That is, in the mid 1980s, the plateau experienced a climatic jump that is featured by the increase of temperature, snow-accumulation days, relative humidity, surface pressure, and by the decrease of sunshine duration and total cloud amount. The sudden climatic change of temperature in T-P is later than that of the global-mean temperature. From this paper it can be seen that in the middle of the 1980s, a climatic jump from warm-dry to warm-wet occurred in T-P.

  1. Petroleum geology and resources of southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces: the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the reforma and offshore Campeche area. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt movement. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs.

  2. Two new species of Ulmeritoides Traver (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Paula Malaquias; Da-Sil, Elidiomar Ribeirova; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz; Gonçalves, Inês Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Ulmeritoides Traver, 1959 are described from Southeastern Brazil based on male and female imagos. Ulmeritoides angelus sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZRJ: Minas Gerais State) differs from all other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: forewings hyaline, base dark brown and purplish; veins R1 light brown; dark brown spots on bullae of veins Sc and R2; apex of penis lobes somewhat rounded, each with one central spine. Ulmeritoides tamoio sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZRJ: São Paulo State) differs from all other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: wings hyaline; veins C, Sc and R1 brownish; brownish spots on bullae of veins Sc and R2; apex of penis lobes straight, ending in rather acute apical and mesal projections. An updated key to the genera Ulmeritoides Traver, 1956 and Ulmeritus Traver, 1956 is also given. PMID:27395967

  3. Notes on the lesser white-lined bat, Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae, from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. Nogueira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.

  4. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  5. Deep dynamical processes in the central-southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau—Receiver functions and travel-time residuals analysis of north Hi-Climb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic receiver functions and travel-time residuals along the north Hi-Climb broadband seismic array in the central-southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau show that the lithosphere structures in the central and western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different. In the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Indian Plate is northward subducted beneath the Qiangtang block and arrives at the greatest depth beneath the central-southern Qiangtang block. The delaminated Indian lithospheric slab remains beneath the central Lhasa block to a depth possibly greater than that of the upper interface of the mantle transform zone. In the western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the Indian lithospheric plate is gently northward subducted and may have arrived to the south of Tarim plate. Due to the resistance from the gently northward subduction of the Indian mantle lithosphere in the western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the upwelling mantle material be-neath the Qiangtang block moves mostly toward the east to bring about the lateral eastward flow of the deep mantle hot material in the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

  6. Annual temperatures during the last 2485 years in the mid-eastern Tibetan Plateau inferred from tree rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans; W.; LINDERHOLM

    2009-01-01

    By combining living trees and archaeological wood, the annual mean temperatures were reconstructed based on ring-width indices of the mid-eastern Tibetan Plateau for the past 2485 years. The climate variations revealed by the reconstruction indicate that there were four periods to have average tem- peratures similar to or even higher than that mean of 1970 to 2000 AD. A particularly notable rapid shift from cold to warm, we call it the "Eastern Jin Event", occurred from 348 AD to 413 AD. Calculation re- sults show that the temperature variations over the mid-eastern Tibetan Plateau are not only repre- sentative for large parts of north-central China, but also closely correspond to those of the entire Northern Hemisphere over long time scales. During the last 2485 years, the downfall of most major dynasties in China coincides with intervals of low temperature. Compared with the temperature records in other regions of China during the last 1000 years, this reconstruction from the Tibetan Plateau shows a significant warming trend after the 1950s.

  7. Annual temperatures during the last 2485 years in the mid-eastern Tibetan Plateau inferred from tree rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; AN ZhiSheng; Hans W.LINDERHOLM; CHEN DeLiang; SONG HuiMing; CAI QiuFang; SUN JunYan; TIAN Hua

    2009-01-01

    By combining living trees and archaeological wood,the annual mean temperatures were reconstructed based on ring-width indices of the mid-eastern Tibetan Plateau for the past 2485 years.The climate variations revealed by the reconstruction indicate that there were four periods to have average temperatures similar to or even higher than that mean of 1970 to 2000 AD.A particularly notable rapid shift from cold to warm,we call it the "Eastern Jin Event",occurred from 348 AD to 413 AD.Calculation results show that the temperature variations over the mid-eastern Tibetan Plateau are not only representative for large parts of north-central China,but also closely correspond to those of the entire Northern Hemisphere over long time scales.During the last 2485 years,the downfall of most major dynasties in China coincides with intervals of low temperature.Compared with the temperature records in other regions of China during the last 1000 years,this reconstruction from the Tibetan Plateau shows a significant warming trend after the 1950s.

  8. Morphologic characteristics and migration rate assessment of barchan dunes in the Southeastern Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, M. A.; Refaat, A. A.; Abdel Wahed, M.

    2016-03-01

    This work explores the morphologic characteristics of aeolian dune sand in the southeastern part of Western Desert of Egypt. It aims to assess the movement of barchan dunes and evaluate their environmental influence on the Toshka Project. Morphometric investigation of barchan dunes in the Toshka area revealed that most barchans have high length/width (a/c) ratios (fat to pudgy), while one-fifth of the studied barchans have lower a/c ratios and so appear normal in their morphologic forms. Statistical analysis of the main parameters of barchan dunes in Toshka and other desert regions in the Kharga (Egypt), Kuwait, Southern Morocco, California and Southern Peru demonstrates that barchans of the Toshka area are distinctive in their appearance. They are characterized by distinct aspect with higher values of length and width and greater growth in height. The high-energy wind environment in addition to the large amount of drifting sand are principal factors responsible for the unique shape of Toshka barchans. The migration rate of barchan dunes in four chosen test locations, within the central and western Toshka area, ranges from about 3 to 10.82 m/year. The calculated average migration rate of these dunes is about 6 m/year in a SSW direction. Sand encroachment is more extensive in the central and western parts of the investigated Toshka area. Risk evaluation of sand dune movements in the southeastern part of the Western Desert points to medium to high sand encroachment risk values. These may represent serious hazards to the newly-established Toshka Project, threatening roads, as well as cultivated lands in the area.

  9. Is the Asian lithosphere underthrusting beneath northeastern Tibetan Plateau? Insights from seismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuzhang; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Mian

    2015-10-01

    Whether or not the Asian lithosphere has underthrusted beneath the Tibetan Plateau is important for understanding the mechanisms of the plateau's growth. Using data from the permanent seismic stations in northeastern Tibetan Plateau, we studied seismic structures of the lithosphere and upper mantle across the plateau's northeastern margin using P and S receiver functions. The migrated P- and S-receiver function images reveal a thick crust and a diffuse lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Tibetan Plateau, contrasting sharply with the relatively thin crust and clear, sharp LAB under the bounding Asian blocks. The well-defined LAB under the Asian blocks tilts toward but does not extend significantly under the Tibetan Plateau; this is inconsistent with the model of Asian mantle lithosphere underthrusting beneath the Tibet Plateau. Instead, our results indicate limited, passive deformation of the bounding Asian lithosphere as it encounters the growing Tibetan Plateau.

  10. Plateaued Careers, Productivity, and Career Satisfaction of College of Education Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lewis E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Establishes that college of education faculty experience a career plateau when senior rank and tenure are achieved. Explores how this plateauing relates to self-perceptions of productivity and satisfaction. (ABB)

  11. RURAL HYDROLOGY STUDY REGARDING THE PHREATIC WATER QUALITY IN DRAGOMIRNA PLATEAU, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil Briciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Six villages are analysed in order to observe their chemical impact on the phreatic waters. Ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate from the water sampling points are analysed and their results are used to make extrapolation maps for the built area of the villages. For a holistic perception, the maps have the absolute values converted into qualitative values upon a proprietary system of the authors. This study allows the statistical identification of the main Characteristics of the phreatic water quality in Dragomirna Plateau. We found that some rural areas have a heavily polluted water and we identified the main causes as being the chaotic water supply and the lack of centralized sewerage

  12. Structure, formation and geochronology of the late Pleistocene and Holocene cover deposits in South-Eastern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrūnas, Valentinas; Karmaza, Bronislavas; Molodkov, Anatoly; Šinkūnas, Petras; Švedas, Kęstutis; Zinkutė, Rimantė

    2010-11-01

    The available data of earlier investigations ( Basalykas, 1965; Basalykas et al., 1976a,b; Kudaba, 1983) show that deposits of various origin and age are widespread in Ašmena Upland and Lyda Plateau (South-Eastern Lithuania). They overlie a polygenetic dislodged marginal formations of the penultimate Medininkai (Warthe) glaciation. Pleistocene deposits in this area are often deformed by solifluction and fluvial erosion and penetrated by cryogenic ice-wedge pseudomorphs. Granulometric, geochemical and petrographic investigations of the deposits have demonstrated that they are characterized by different sources of sedimentary material supply as well as different degrees of physical and chemical weathering. The alternate deposits preserved in the study area imply palaeoenvironmental changes associated with the different palaeoclimatic events. The Ca/Zr ratios in cover deposits testify that the upper beds usually experienced stronger chemical weathering that is associated with warmer climate. The cases of weaker weathering can be explained by different sources of material, i.e. deposit origin, which can be indicated by Zr/Ti ratio. According to the scarce geochronological data available at least 4 clusters of IR-OSL dates can be distinguished in the late Pleistocene environmental history of Ašmena Upland and Lyda Plateau: about 100 ka (marine isotope stage (MIS) 5c, Merkinė interglacial), 89-71 ka (MIS 5a, Merkinė interglacial), about 40 ka (MIS 3, Rokai interstadial) and 21-12 ka (late Nemunas). One cluster of IR-OSL dates (9.7-5.3 ka) is obtained in the first half of Holocene.

  13. The Geometry of the Tibial Plateau and Its Influence on the Biomechanics of the Tibiofemoral Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Javad; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Gill, Brian; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Schutt, Robert C.; Mansouri, Hossein; Dabezies, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Background: The geometry of the tibial plateau is complex and asymmetric. Previous research has characterized subject-to-subject differences in the tibial plateau geometry in the sagittal plane on the basis of a single parameter, the posterior slope. We hypothesized that (1) there are large subject-to-subject variations in terms of slopes, the depth of concavity of the medial plateau, and the extent of convexity of the lateral plateau; (2) medial tibial slope and lateral tibial slope are diff...

  14. The Moderating Effect of Job Characteristics on Managers' Reactions to Career Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Roger; Michel Tremblay

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of career plateau and job characteristics on people's attitudes or behaviors, but it also extends the traditional field of research on career plateau by taking into account the influence of factors linked to job characteristics on the relationship between career plateau and work-related attitudes. Our results show that subjective career plateau, job enrichment potential, role ambiguity and participation in decision making are related to various individual attitu...

  15. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon. Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  16. Wetting and greening Tibetan Plateau in early summer since the late 1970s due to advanced Asian summer monsoon onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-04-01

    Known as the "the world water tower", the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is the origin of the ten largest rivers in Asia, breeding more than 1.4 billion people, and exerts substantial influences on water resources, agriculture, and ecosystems in downstream countries. This region is one of the most susceptible areas around the world to changing climate due to the high elevation. Observed evidence have shown significant climate changes over the TP, including surface air warming and moistening, glaciers shrinking, winds stilling, solar dimming, and atmospheric heat source weakening. However, as an essential part of the hydrological cycle, precipitation changes on the TP remain an ambiguous picture. Changes in precipitation vary largely with different seasons, time periods and climate zones considered. This study shows a robust increase in precipitation amount over the TP in May, when the rainy season starts, over the period 1979-2014 (31% relative to the climatology). The wetting trend is spatially consistent over the south-eastern TP, to which both precipitation frequency and intensity contribute. Circulation trends show that the wetting TP in May is resulted from the advanced onset of Asian summer monsoon, which onsets 1~2 pentads earlier since 1979. It intensified water vapor transport from the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to south of the TP in May and local anomalous convection. This relationship is further validated by the significant correlation coefficient (0.47) between the onset dates of Asian summer monsoon (particularly the BOB summer monsoon, 0.68) and precipitation over the south-eastern TP in May. The wetting TP in May has further exerted profound impacts on the hydrological cycle and ecosystem, such as moistening the soil and animating vegetation activities throughout early summer. Both decadal variations of soil moisture (from May to June) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (from May to July) coincide well with that of precipitation over the south-eastern

  17. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  18. Features and implications of the plateau inflationary potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dalianis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    After the last PLANCK CMB data the plateau inflationary potentials are favored. I give some examples of such inflationary models emphasizing particularly on the Starobinsky model and its supergravity embedding. I discuss the crucial implications, regarding the initial conditions problem, of this new sort of potentials for the standard picture of the inflationary theory.

  19. Structural model of the Balkassar area, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Akhter, Gulraiz; Bibi, Sehrish

    2015-11-01

    Balkassar is an important hydrocarbon producing area of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. Two-dimensional seismic reflection data of the area revealed tectonically controlled, distinct episodes of (1) normal faulting in the basement followed by (2) reverse faulting in the cover sequence. Himalayan orogeny and associated diapirism of the Precambrian Salt Range Formation have produced many salt-cored anticlines in the Potwar Plateau, and one such salt-cored anticline is present in the Balkassar. This anticline has NE-SW-oriented axis, and both the SE and NW limbs are bounded by reverse faults. The basement normal faults indicate Jurassic rifting and splitting of Pangaea. We interpret reverse faults with dip angles of about 60°-75° in the cover sequence, having both hinterland and foreland vergence. Both NW- and SE-dipping faults are present in contrast to the only southward-directed thrusts of previous models. Duplexes and triangle zones, which are common in the northern part of the Potwar Plateau, are not developed in the Balkassar area due to comparatively less crustal shortening in the area. The present interpretation can help in understanding the complex structures in other parts of the Potwar Plateau for hydrocarbons exploration and also in deformed foreland basins worldwide that display similar characteristics but are considered to be dominated by low-angle thrust tectonics.

  20. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  1. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  2. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  3. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  4. Whole-Genome Analysis of Cryptococcus gattii, Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Chandler C.; Engelthaler, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is a recognized pathogenic fungus along the Pacific coast of the United States from California to Washington. Here we report that C. gattii may also be endemic to the southeastern United States and has probably been present there longer than in the Pacific Northwest. PMID:27191335

  5. Effects of organophosphorus insecticides on sage grouse in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Staley, C.S.; Henny, C.J.; Pendleton, G.W.; Craig, T.H.; Craig, E.H.; Halford, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Unverified reports indicated die-offs of sage grouse have occurred since the 1970s in southeastern Idaho. Some verification that organophosphorus insecticides were involved was obtained in 1981 and 1983. A radio telemetry study indicated that dimethoate was responsible for most mortality. Methamidophos also acounted for mortality. Sage grouse populations may be adversely affected by organophosphorus insecticides.

  6. Social Compact in Electricity Privatization in Southeastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Darendeliler, Zeynep; Aydin, Cansu

    2015-01-01

    About 70 percent of electricity users in Southeastern Turkey are not used to paying for electricity, partially due to the protracted situation of conflict and lack of trust between citizens and the government in the region. Historic tension throughout the 1990s caused an inability for the government to invest in electricity infrastructure and has resulted in low service quality. A large po...